You are on page 1of 8













DISTORTION "................................. 6




WELD METAL PROPERTIES o................................................................. 7


Avesta Sheffield SAF 2507™*) is a ferritic-austenitic "Super Duplex" stainless steel containing approximately 40 % ferrite and a balance of austenite after quench annealing. The steel has a high mechanical strength and a very high resistance to general corrosion, intergranular corrosion, pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The steel possesses good weldability. The typical composition is: (%)

C Cr Ni Mo N

SAF 2507


4 0.30

0.02 25

Avesta Sheffield SAF 2507 complies with the following standards:

SS 2328, UNS S32750.

The following product standards exist:

ASTM A240, ASTM A 789, ASTM A790.

*) Avesta Sheffield SAF 2507™ is a trademark owned by Sandvik AB, which has granted Avesta Sheffield AB license to produce this material.


Hot forming is carried out at 1125-1 0250C and should be followed by solution annealing and quenching. To obtain maximum corrosion resistance the hot formed products should be pickled and rinsed.

Cold working

The initial force needed for cold forming of SAF 2507 is about twice as high as that for conventional austenitic stainless steels. SAF 2507 can be cold worked up to 25% without requiring subsequent heat treatment.

Solution annealing followed by quenching is recommended after heavy cold deformation.

Heat treatment

SAF 2507 is solution annealed at a minimum temperature of 10500c. The annealing should be followed by rapid cooling in air or water.

Machining of joints

The strength and toughness of SAF 2507 make it more difficult to machine than common austenitic stainless steels. The difficulty may be overcome using powerful, rigid equipment and sharp tooling.

By using a planer machine or turning in a lathe the high hardness/toughness of the steel can be overcome. Milling requires TiN coated cobalt high speed tools. It is recommended to use lower feed rates and a lower cutting speed than used for conventional austenitic stainless steels.

I SAF 2507 I


Figures 1-8 (page 3) show different joint designs that can be recommended for Avesta Sheffield SAF 2507. The joint is designed to obtain full penetration without the risk of burn-through. Only a small selection of possible joint types is shown here. If the material thickness is greater than 12 mm and it is possible to weld from both directions, joints 3-5, for example, can be made symmetrical.

The root bead can be deposited using either GTAW (TIG) or SMA W (covered electrodes). If GTA W is used, backing gas should be applied when tacking. The root side of a root bead deposited with SMAW should, as a rule, be cleaned after welding, see page 6.

A suitable electrode diameter is 2.5-3.25 mm, depending on base metal thickness, welding position and accessibility for root-side grinding.

Excessive weaving, which creates wide molten pools, should be avoided. This causes high heat input and high stresses. The following points should be kept in mind when choosing a joint type:

- it should be easy to achieve full penetration with a good margin of safety.

- it should be possible for the welder to keep slag

formation and the weld pool under observation.

The joint design should also make it possible to arrange an adequate backing gas shield. Root defects can serve as starting points for corrosion or reduce the mechanical strength of the welded joint.

Joint type 1 is intended for single GTAW. Always use backing gas.

Joint type 2 is intended for SMA W from both sides. Joint type 3 is intended for welding of heavier metal gauges with SMA W. If the joint is welded in a vertical-up position with SMA W, the joint opening can be increased to 3 mm. It is a good idea to grind the bottom after tacking to facilitate the weaving motion.

Joint type 4 is used in very thick base metals. The reason for the U shape is that the quantity of filler metal and distortion can be minimized. Welding method: SMA W.

Joint type 5 is intended for SAW. Grinding after the first pass facilitates full penetration.

Joint type 6 shows a normal fillet joint with full penetration. Inorder to achieve penetration, the plates must be tacked.

Joint type 7 is used for SMAW of pipes. In order to facilitate work in the overhead position, the single-V butt joint can be ground to a U shape after tacking.

Joint type 8 deviates slightly from what is usually recommended for pipe welding with GT A W. The reason is that it is otherwise difficult to achieve full penetration in this steel grade.


JOINT DESIGN 1. Square Butt. Joint.



Welding with GTAW, one side 1:5 t < 3

A ~ 2.0-2.5 mm

Grinding before pass 2 Welding with SAW 9<t<12mm

B = 3-4 mm

JOINT DESIGN 2. Square Butt Joint.

JOINT DESIGN 6. Full Penetration Fillet.


Welding with GTAW or SMAW, both sides 3<t:54 mm

A= 2-3 mm

Welding with SMAW 4<t< 12 mm

A = 2.5 mm

B = 2 mm


JOINT DESIGN 7. Single V joint. Tube welding.

Welding with SMAW 4 :5t:5 12 mm

A - 2-3 mm

B= 2 mm

Welding with SMAW 4:5t < 12 mm

A = 25 mm

B- 2 mm


JOINT DESIGN 8. Single U joint. Tube welding.



Welding with SMAW 12 <t<60mm A=1.5mm

B= 2 mm

Welding with GTAW 3:5t<12mm

A - 1.5-2.5 mm

B = 1.5-2.0 mm

Figures 1-8


I SAF 2507

WELDING-JOINT PREPARATION, CLEANING Cleaning of joints and adjacent surfaces is normal practice before all welding of stainless steels. Dirt, oils and paint can cause weld defects. Grinding burr must be removed, since it can easily cause incomplete fusion. Common solvents such as acetone and thinner can be used as cleaning agents. Moisture in the joint can cause porosity.

The best way to prepare the joint is by means of a metal cutting operation, see also page 2. Manual grinding, carefully carried out, can also give good results. The joint should be designed in accordance with the guidelines in Figs 1-8. Large variations in joint preparation, leading to different thicknesses of the land, can easily cause welding problems. For the same reason, it is important that the gap distance after tacking of the plates is constant and as shown in Figs 1-8.


Preheating of Avesta SAF 2507 is normally not may, however, sometimes be useful when welding outdoors in cold weather, since there is a risk of condensation and resultant moisture problems in the joint groove and in the weld metal. In such cases, the joint and adjacent areas can be heated very carefully to not more than 100"C after thorough cleaning. It is very important that the heat is uniformly distributed.

Postweld heat treatment is not normally necessary. If it should be necessary for some reason, it should be carried out at 1050-1070"C, followed by rapid cooling. Annealing at 750-10000C can be very harmful due to risk of heavy sigma phase formation. PWHT will decrease the ferrite content in the weld metal by about 5-10%.

HEAT INPUT AND INTERPASS TEMPERATURE Welding practices should lead to a favourable austenitic-ferritic balance in both the weld and the heat affected zone (HAZ).lfthe HAZ remains at red heat for too long time, sigma phase will form, reducing toughness and corrosion resistance. A less common problem is that extremely rapid cooling from over 9500C can lead to high ferrite in the HAZ, e.g., a very small, low-heat input weld on a very heavy plate can create a highly ferritic weld. Higher nitrogen content in the base metal retards both of these problems, giving the welder wider freedom in welding.

Regarding formation of intermetallic phases, often grouped together as "sigma phase", the important issue is total time in the red-heat range. The effect of exposures in the 750-1 OOOOC range is cumulative. Therefore, it may be possible to get a better result with one pass of a relatively high heat input process, such as SAW, than with several passes of a lower heat input process, such as GTAW.

General guide-lines for heat inputs are 0.2-1.5 kJ/mm for GTAW and SMAW, and 1.0-2.0 kJ/mm for SAW. When GTAW thin plates ($4 mm) try to avoid a heat input above 1.0 kJ/mm. Interpass temperatures should not exceed 100-1500C.

SAF 2507


Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) , commonly called TIG, may be performed manually or by machine. A constant-current power supply should be used, preferably equipped with a high frequency circuit for starting the arc and a stepless control current decay unit incorporated in the power supply unit. GTAW should be carried out using direct current straight polarity (DCSP). electrode negative. Use of direct current reverse polarity (DCRP) will result in rapid electrode deterioration.

Choice of filler metal and welding technique

The non-consumable electrode shall meet the requirements of AWS specification A 5.12. Classification EW Th-2 (2 % thoriated tungsten electrode). Avesta 25071 Pl00 filler metal is overalloyed with respect to the parent metal. The filler metal has 10% nickel as compared to 7 % in the steel. The reason for overalloying is that 30-60% ferrite can be achieved in the weld metal in this manner. Ferrite contents above 65% result in reduced mechanical and corrosion properties. Welding without filler is not recommended unless PWHT is used.

Good arc control is obtained in GTAW by grinding the tungsten electrode to a point. Vertex angles of 30-60 degrees with a small flat at the point are generally used. For automatic GTAW, the vertex angle has an influence on penetration characteristics. A few simple tests to determine correct electrode configuration should be made before actual fabrication.

The chemical composition of 2.507/Pl00 welding wire is: (%)















Avesta 2507/P100 filler material can be used for joining SAF 2507 to austenitic stainless steels. A cheaper technical solution is to use a low-carbon austenitic filler metal with an intermediate molybdenum content, for example, for joining SAF 2507 to 304, 316, or 317, Avesta P5 (AWS E 309 MoL) is an excellent choice. For joining SAF 2507 to carbon or alloy steels, the filler metal should be a low-carbon austenitic filler such as Avesta P5. Use of the duplex filler with carbon or alloy steel may lead to excessively ferritic welds.

Weld pool protection

The weld pool in GTAwelding should be protected from atmospheric oxidation by inert gas flowing through the welding torch. The turbulence of the inert gas, and the resulting entrainment of atmosphere, can be minimized by using a gas diffuser screen (gas lens) on the torch.

Operating procedures should be adjusted to ensure adequate inert gas shielding. Gas flow should precede arc initiation by several seconds and should be held over the weld pool for at least five seconds after the arc is extinguished. If the flow is too low, the weld pool will not be adequately protected. If the flow is too high, gas turbulence may aspirate air into the weld region.

The shielding gas can be pure argon or argon mixed with 1-3 % nitrogen. Excess of nitrogen detoriates the tungsten electrode and gives arc instability.


The purging gas can be pure argon, argon-nitrogen or a gas mix containing 90% N2and 10% H2. The latter gives the cleanest root side .. The argon should be welding grade 100 % argon, with a purity of at least 99.95 % argon.

Approximate flow rates are 12-18 Ilmin (5-8 Ilmin if normal gas nozzle) for the electrode and 2-20 Ilmin, dependent on root volume, for the backing purge. The enclosed volume should be purged a minimum of seven times before welding begins. Argon should be fed in at the bottom and out at the top because of its weight relative to air.

Additions of oxygen and carbon dioxide should be avoided for metallurgic reasons .. An addition of helium may be useful under some circumstances.

There should be regular inspections of O-rings for water-cooled torches and of gas hoses to ensure that only the pure dry shielding gas is delivered to the weld area.

GTAW welding techniques

The Joint should be.prepared in one of the geometries shown in Figs 1-8 with attention given to surface preparation, edge preparation, alignment, root spacing and installation of a backing bar to ensure full purging gas coverage while making tack welds and the root pass.

Ignition of the arc should always take place within the joint itself. Any strike scars alongside the joint should be removed by fine grinding.

Tack welds of appropriate length and spacing should be made with full argon shie.lding. The root pass should be made using Avesta 2507/P100 filler metal and the appropriate shielding gas flow. There should be no tack weld at the starting point of the actual root pass weld. To avoid cracking in the root pass related to tack welds, the welder should interrupt the root pass before a tack weld. He should either grind away the tack completely with a slitting wheel grinder or make the tack shorter by grinding the start. and finish of the tack prior to recomrnencinq the root pass. The width of the root gap should be maintained against shrinkage.

The start and finish of the root pass weld should be ground off prior to the start of any filler passes. Straight stringer beads should be used. The metal should be allowed to cool: to below 1500C between passes. For position welding a 1.6 mm wire in the root run is recommended. The joint may be filled using additional passes with 1.6, 2.0 or 2.4 mm diameter filler metal. GTA welding generally gives the best results when carried out in the flat position, but vertical welds can also be made successfully. The torch should be as near to perpendicular to the workpiece as possible.

When one-side the operator should use a heat input less than 1.0 kJ/mm in the hot pass to avoid intermetallic precipitation in the root run. Normal welding parameters when welding in 4-8 mm horizontal buttwelds are as follows:

U = 8-13V 1= 60-150A v = 8-15 em/min

Avoid excessively thick beads. These can in some situations give rise to porosity in the weld metal.

Excessive deviation from the perpendicular may cause air to be drawn into the sh.ielding gas. The filler wire should be kept clean at all times. Filler wire should be stored in a covered container when not in use.

After welding, heat tint, spatter and slag should be removed, see page 6.


Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)., commonly called stick or covered electrode welding, is performed using a constant-current power supply. SMA welding is done using direct current reverse polarity (DCRP)-electrode positive.

Electrode selection and use

SMA welding uses a consumable electrode in the form ofa core wire with a flux covering. The covering provides arc stability, shields the molten metal during arc transfer and protects the weld during solidification.

Avesta 2507/P1 00 is a general purpose electrode. With a nickel content of about 10%, the ferrite-austenite balance in the weld metal. can be optimized.

The chemical composition of 2507/P100 electrodes is: (%)















Electrodes are furnished in air-tight containers because moisture in the electrode covering can produce weld porosity. Once the container is opened, the electrodes should be stored in a commercial electrode oven heated to at least 1000C in order to keep the covering dry.

The operating current required to achieve good welding characteristics increases with increasinq electrode diameter. Typical SMA welding parameters are:

Electrode diam. (mm)

Current (A)

2.5 3.25 4.0

50- 75 80-110 100-150

Weld pool protection

In SMAW, the weld pool is protected by gases and slag from the electrode covering. To maximize this protection, the welder should maintain as short an arc as possible. "Long arc", an increased gap between electrode and workpiece, can produce weld porosity, excessive oxides, excessive heat input and reduced mechanical properties.

SMAW welding technique

The root pass should be made with 2.5 mm diameter electrodes. Larger electrodes may be used for subsequent filler passes. Ignition of the arc should always occur within the joint itself. Any strike scars and spatter alongside the joint should be removed by fine grinding.


I SAF .2507 I

SMAW should not be used to weld parent metal SAF 2507 less than 2 mm in thickness. For optimal speed and economy, the workpiece should be in the flat position. The electrode should be held at 20 degrees (drag angle) from the perpendicular with the electrode grip inclined toward the direction of travel. The metal should be deposited in a straight stringer bead with the width of weave not exceeding twice the electrode diameter. The current should be set only high enough to obtain a smooth arc and good fusion of weld to parent metal.

The rule for maximum used heat input in the hot pass given in page 5, is of course also valid for SMAW.

The start and finish of each filler pass should be ground off prior to the start of the next pass. The metal should be allowed to cool to below 1500C prior to the start of the next filler pass. All slag material must be removed from each filler pass. After welding, heat tint should be removed by fine grinding, using as fine an abrasive as possible while still removing heat tint in a reasonable time, see below.

When SMA welding is used for the root pass, the root side should subsequently be ground smooth. All weld spatter, slag and heat tint should be removed.


Avesta SAF 2507 can be welded by means of SAW with minimal risk of hot cracking. Joint preparation differs somewhat from that of austenitic steels. Since the weld metal does not penetrate as deeply as in austenitic steels, the land or the welding parameters must be adjusted in order to obtain the necessary penetration.

Avesta Flux 805 is recommended if high impact strength is desired in the weld metal.

For SAW, Avesta 2507/P100 wire should be used. If welding is to be carried out against carbon steel or lowalloy steels, however, Avesta P5 wire should be used. The final choice of filler metal is naturally dependent on whether the higher nickel content and lower nitrogen and molybdenum contents of the P5 wire can be accepted.

The following example of welding parameters can be used for welding with 2.4 and 3.2 mm diameter wire. Welding with high heat input, up to 2 kJ/mm, has no negative effects.

Diam. (rnrn)

Voltage (V)

Speed (cm/min)

Welding current (A)

02.4 03.2

32-34 32-35

40-50 40-50

320-450 400-500


Plasma arc welding is a type of gas shielded-arc welding, but it works with higher arc temperature. It is mostly used for longitudinal welding of tubes. The high temperature is obtained by dissociation of the plasmagas. The gas shielding outside the plasma jet is arranged by a shielding gas of an inert gas.

I SAF 2507 I

For SAF 2507, the plasmagas should be pure argon or argon with up to 3 % nitrogen. As shielding gas, pure argon or argon mixed with nitrogen can be used. Nitrogen addition in the plasmagas can deteriorate the tungsten electrode somewhat but improves the weldmetal properties.

To obtain maximum weld metal properties filler should be used. If PWHT is used, matching wire with 7 % nickel can be used. Otherwise overalloyed 2507/P100 wire diameter 1.0-1.2 mm should be added.

The following welding parameters are typical for plasma welding:

Current (A)

Welding speed (cm/min)

Wire feed (em/min)

Voltage (V)





Gas flow Plasmagas (11m in)

Shielding gas (llmin)




Controlling distortion of SAF 2507 is not significantly different from that of conventional austenitic grades. Good practice includes proper fixturing, cross supports, bracing, staggered bead placement and weld sequence, etc. The higher strength might however require stronger supports. The edges of the plate or sheet should be squared, aligned and tacked prior to welding.


Oxide, tarnish, heat tint and other surface contamination can be removed by mechanical or chemical methods, ideally a combination of the two. Mechanical methods include fine grinding and polishing and abrasive blasting with 75-100 micron soda-lime glass beads. Subsequent chemical cleaning is not essential after either of these methods, but is considered good practice, because it guards against potential contamination from the mechanical cleaning medium.

Chemical cleaning is readily accomplished using a pickling solution of 20% nitric acid and 5% hydrofluoric acid in water, or commercially available solutions or pastes with similar ingredients.

Proper precautions must be taken when handling pickling solutions and pastes. Positive ventilaton is required to remove fumes. Protective clothing,face shields and rubber gloves must be worn. Proper environmental procedures are required for the disposal of wash liquors from pickling operations.

The use of carbon steel brushes is prohibited. Abrasive blasting particles should not have previously been used for carbon steel parts. These precautions are designed to prevent iron contamination of the surface that might initiate pitting in aggressive chloride environments.


SKILL, INSPECTION AND QUALITY ASSURANCE Fabricating components in Avesta Sheffield SAF 2507 differs to some extent from fabricating in 316L or other austenitic grades. The steel has high strength, possibly requiring a different technique in cold forming. Welding can be carried out without the risk of hot cracking,. but the welder should be aware of the fact that a high cooling rate, spatter, strike scars and unfavourable heat treatment can lead to poorer corrosion and mechanical properties.

In order to achieve optimal properties in the welded joints, the welder and other concerned personnel should therefore be informed of the special aspects of fabricating and welding duplex steels of this type. It is prudent to prepare a written welding procedure and have the welders carry out a trial welding procedure before they begin with the actual welding work.

Since Avesta Sheffield SAF 2507;s often used in components where severe corrosion conditions are encountered, the welded joints must be inspected carefully. Incomplete fusion, incomplete penetration, a poorly cleaned root side, spatter and strike scars must be remedied.

Suitable nondestructive testing methods are X-ray inspection, liquid penetrant inspection, hydrostatic testing, 'leak detection and ferrite measurement. Destructive testing can be carried out in the form of bending,impact, corrosion tests and metallographic examination.

In order to ensure a good level of quality, welding should be carried out in accordance with predetermined fabrication and inspection plans and by trained and skilled operators.


The ferrite level in duplex steel is of great importance in determining the mechanical properties and corrosion res istance of the wei ded jo i nt. An excessively low ferrit e content «25%) can result in low strength and the risk of stress corrosion cracking. An excessively high ferrite content (>65%) can, on the other hand lead to reduced pitting resistance and impact strength.

Since metallographic ferrite measurement is very time consuming and requires a well-equipped laboratory, the ferrite content can instead be calculated by using the FN measurement with Magnegage with counterweight (EFN). The magnetic capacity of the weld metal can be determined with the Magnegage equipment. The force required to lift the little permanent magnet from the test surface can be converted to a Ferrite Number (FN). Since the original instrument only measured up to 28 FN, a counterweight is required to extend the measurement to higher ferrite contents. This method is described in AWS standard A 4.2-90.

In order to facilitate ferrite determination expressed in per cent, a large number of unannealed weld metals have been measured metallographically and with Magnegage. The results exhibit a certain spread as shown by Fig 2. The relationship between per cent ferrite and FN is shown below.

% Ferrite


• Welded joint

+ Pure weld metal

60 % Ferrite = 0.62 EFN + 10


p •

40 .6




70 EFN




Fig 2. Relationship between per cent ferrite and EFN in unannealed 2507/P100 duplex weld metals.


The properties are very different dependent on the weld procedure used. Typical mechanical properties from actual welds are given below:

Rm N/mm2

Impact strength Hardness

ISO V (J) Vickers


75 290

110 270

130 275

80 max 310

SMAW GTAW SAW Parent metal (min)

.. Fracture in parent metal.

>800* >800* >800*


The microstructure consists of primary ferrite grains with austenite mainly precipitated in a Widmanstiitten manner. In the HAZ the austenite is both precipitated inside the ferrite grains and in the grain boundaries. The weld metal normally has a lower ferrite-content in the root, due to transformation of ferrite to austenite during subsequent passes. On the other hand an extensive fusion of the parent metal, combined with too little addition of filler in the root pass, will strongly reduce the over alloying with nickel and consequently increase the ferrite content.

The ferrite content in the weld metal is normally between 30-60% dependent on the welding procedure. Ferrite contents as low as 25% are also acceptable in terms of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance.


I SAF 2507 I

One way to express the weld metal pitting corrosion resistance is the PRE-value.

PRE = % Cr + 3.3 x % Mo + 16 x % N.

Avesta filler 2507/P100 will give weld metals with PRE ~40.

Pitting corrosion tests with ASTM G48-A have given figures above 40"C. The lowest critical pitting temperature is obtained with GTAW and a shielding gas of pure argon. The reason is probably nitrogen loss from the weld metal. Increased CPT-values can be reached if a shielding gas of Ar+ 1-3 % N2 and a nitrogen-containing purging gas is used or if the weld is PWHT.

WELD METAL I HAZ I PARENT METAL Filler: Avesta 2507/P100

200 X

Author: Bjorn Holmberg, M.Sc.

Information given in this brochure may be subject to alterations without notice.

Care has been taken to ensure that the contents of this publication are accurate but Avesta Sheffield AS and its subsidiary companies do not accept responsibility for errors or for information which is found to be misleading. Suggestions for or descriptions of the end use or application of products or methods of working are for information only and the company and its subsidiaries accept no liability in respect thereof. Before using products supplied or manufactured by the company the customer should satisfy himself of their suitability. If further assistance is required, the company, which has extensive research facilities, will often be able to help.

Avesta Welding AB

Box 501, S-77427 Avesta, Sweden Telephone: +46 (0)226 81500 Telex: 40903 welding s

Telefax: +46 (0)226 81575

Information 9422 Supersedes int. 92100