Certificate Course on


December 8 ,_ 21, 2004


T. N. 'Gopinath Consultant

Otgllllked by

Piping Engin,eering Cen Computer Aided Design Centre IDdian Institute of Technology, Bombay Powai, Mumbai - 400 076

Theexpansion joints can tile slip type 'or the bellows type"

2,,1 Slip TYlPe ,of Exp:ms.:ioD Joiliilt

In slip type of expansion joint one pipe slides into another and the assembly is sealed by means of packing between the sliding pipes. This device has the limitation that it permits only axial movement in the: direction of pipe axis. Small amolunt of I~ md!l' or angular movement will cause binding' and l&ventual[y leakage. n is_ extremely difficult to seal it off completely. The limitations on packing makes: it suitable only for ve'ry low temperature and low plIessure serv~s. Fig 2.1 indicates the general arrangement ofa slip type expansion joint.



When piping Lacks inherent

flexibility due to r:outing andlor develops, large reactions or detrimental DVI~rstr,ain on the strain sensitive equiprnents, the Piping Engineer considers provision o( expansion joints to overecme jhe same. Expansion }oints W',e also 'provided 'to isol:it'e the vibrating equipmenm from piping and alse to facilitate free movement of the equipment mounted on Load cells,


Fig 1.1


12 Bellow 'Type Ex,ansion ,Jolinf

The bellew type expansion joint is exreasively used as the most efficient and functionaliy reliable elongation compensator andJ' or vilin'ation isolator. The-se are capable of compensating for large amounts of axial and! 01:' lateral and! O{' angular movements asa single unit, it. leads itself to piping ccnfigurations that ate much more compact than those using bends or loops to provide flexibUity.


Based Olll the above, the point of' usage Icou~d be identified as below.

111 A~ the suction and! discharge nozzles or vibrating equipments such as pumps. blowers; etc.,

.' On large diameter pipes and ducts operating ,at high temperatures but at lower

pressures. _.

• In piping where tbe:space' IS inadequate for conventional mang~ent for pIC viding flexi'bm ties,

It is Dot advisabl:e to use t&e expansioD, [elnt in :aU piping: systems.

The major areas of applications where its use is not advisable are - fo,uowmg piping, systems,

• wbere hazardous chemicals are

handled .

• , where the service is high pressure ..

• in which s:lUlT)' or suspended solids

are handled.



Basedca the service for which the expansion joint is: selected/used, the material of constructiea of the same is selected. Expansion joints are available in the following materiels cfconstruetion,

Ru'bber ~ ~ PTFE ,q (aJ? 1 "~

Canvas ~ NIet~d

Except for the metallic expansions joints; all others are used to isolate the vibrating equipment from the ducting/piping, The selection is limited, by pressure, temperature ,and the compatibility

with the serviee :tluid. .

The rubber ex:pansion jeints are available with single eecve lution or muJtiple convolutions. Metalfic spIlt flanges are provided as retaining Iugs tOI ensure preSSIJTe tight seal, These are provided with tie rods which restrict the lateral movements. To ensure that no damage is done to the expansion joint pipes shculd be anchored at change in pipe direction, branching CI,f pipe, clmn,g,e in pipe s:ize ,and end 'Ofp.lpC mn ..

The PTFE expansicn joints are' mainly used in glass pipmg to easuee that no strain is transmittro to the pipeline. Such joints are provided at all equipment c?fl?eeti,ons and change in direction on piping,

Expansion joints made from canvas are not suitable for liquid! service, These are used in very low pressure systems and can be used in. services where operating temperatures are moderate. These are mainly used iIll dl1ctingto isolate the

vibrating equipment .

Rubber, PTFE. Canvas expansion Joints are designed and manufactured as: per manufactarers' stand ard.

The metallic expansicn joint is mmufaetw'ed from austenitic stainless: steel

of required grade depending upon the service conditione. These are designed and manufactured as per E J M A (Exp,lUlsion JoID!. - Manafacturers Association) standard,


It has been indic~ted that the expansion joint is used ~o absorb the movement in the pipeline. Let us consider the various, possible mOVlementsto be absorbed, by an expansion joint.

The dimensional. lengthening o,r sho:rtenin,g, of a bellow parallel to its lengitudinal axis is 'termed as the axial Inovememl (R;e-ferFig 5.1)

I I •

•••••••••• ~.- _._ •• r_ _.~._ _.a • .._ __ •• _ •• , ••• _,.--. ••• · L. L.........;. ,..

I :

• 'i

I '



~+-+-------:,..-, ~

Fig. 5.1

5.2, Lateral DeOectiQQ

The dispiacemen.t of one end of the bellow expansion joint relative to the other end. perpendicular to the IOlogitudinaJ. axis Is termed as latera] deflection. (Refer Fig. ;5,.2)


""'---'--1 ilI (1 In .

; [ ...... _. ]1·' "--~"-"'_--.-.-:.:::~'-.':: ._- ---jj--- -- .. J ._--

. --"'1--' __ , __ _':::.:::: - .. - .


The deflection CQuid be

multidirectional as well. (Refer Fig. 5.3)

~~-,.., ..

" , . ,

'--+-----~I - Y2':

'... /



The displacement of the Iongiimdinaf a..X]S of the expansion joint from its; initial straight line positioe to a, circular arc is termed as angular rotation. (Refer Fig 5.4)



, , l



I, I



'I I

I I I ,


1+ i n

I, I


Fig" 5.4

5.4 Torsional M'olvemeot

Tbetwisting of OD.e end of the expansion joint with respect to the o'ther end is called the tlorsio:nalm.Clvement (ReferF'ig. 5.5). Torsional movement imposes severe stresses in the: expansion joint and! special care has. to be taken for the use of expansion joint for such application,

Fig. S.!


Expansion joints are used in the industry for rnultipl,e applications. To perftnm such functions mid to meet complex requirements of industrial applications" the1'ie are vanous addi tions te the, basic; compoaeots and accessories of an expansion bellow. (Refer Fig. 6.1 and 6.2)

Fig. 6.1

Fig. 6.2

6.1 Bellow

Bellow is the' corrugated portion of the expansion. join,t responsible for a1J.sorbing ,mDveme.nt. Bellow consists of a numb€! of eeeveludeos, which is directly proportional to the total movement tD be absorbed 'by the bellows. The to,p most pos,ilion 'of the conveludon is called the crest and the bottom most portion is, called the root. The deptl1 of the' convolution is the total height 'Of the same and is the distance

between the' crest and the root, The average of the diameters 0'1' the' crest and the: root -is termed as me mean diameter of the bellow. ·W'he.1I the internal pressure demands a higher thickness of bellow, the: fl,exibllity gets reduced, To overcome trus. bellows aee made with multi ply thin wall sections .. This win permit larger movements withstanding Iligh pressure and will provide same service life.

6.6 lnterD31 Sleeves

This is a thin pipe section placed inside the bellows tol prevent contact between the inner surface or the bellows <and the fluid flowing through it This device [s ]lIOvided ~iQ protect the bellows convolutions from damage due to resonant vibration when the fluid veloci~ is high, This will also prevent erosion whe(l the service involves abrasive media. V'lhile installing a bellow with internal sleeve, care should be taken to mount the same: in: proper direction with respeict to the direction, of flow, The internal sleeve is: .som~Uim,es referred ~,o as liner as, wen.

6.2: Tange'lIIt

The s:ttaight portion. at the two ends of the bellows on wbi!Ch the end eenneetioes are made is termed as tangent, The end eonneetions could be provided with beveled joint I~O eonneet (be expansion joint to the piping by we]ding. It could be provided with either welded or loose flanged connections depending OD the piping spec i:fi:e3ItiOI;ll.

6.7 Limit Rods

To restrict the movement of the bellow in axial, angular or lateral direction du.ri:mg th.e norma] eperadcn, solid rods are provided to space the bellow ass1embiy. These are designed to, prevent the bellows tom aver extension or over compression by dynami,e l,oading ,generated due' to the pressure loading. These are used in pressure balanced type of'jeints.

6.31 Collar

This is a rin,g ofsuitable thickness by which the beIlo,w is secured to the tangent, This prevents the bellow from bulging Que to pressure,

16..4 ReillilfortCing rungs

When bellows are meant to be used for high pressure service, reinforcing rings made: out of either tubill,g or solid bar will be fitted! strongly to' the: roof of the convolutioos. This is considered as a safety measure to ensure that the conv1oiutions do not open oW: doe to extra pressW'e' that gets applled occasionally,

Ii.8 T.i.eRods

These are solid rods: or bars: spacing the bellow assemhly provided. to restrict the axial movementazd - permitting the 'lateral deflection during the normal op erari on. These are suitably designed to absorb the pressure thrust due to int'ernai pressure,

fi..'9 ShilJping Devie,es

This device is provided. as :31 protection ,against damages which can occur to, the assembly du.rimg transportation, This will rntalntmn the instaUatio'Q tight. by keeping configuration of the eonvoluticn, Care should be taken tOI k,eep this device till the lines are hydro tested and removed prior to start up of the sy.s,tem.

,6.5. Lagging Shro!ud

nus is an external cover provided over the bellows, In addition mo providing protection to the bellows from mechanical damage, this also pre ents the insulation material from entering the mot 'of the . convolutions which may prevent the belkrw from fimetioning, This is also termed. as cover or external shroud. '

6.110 Palltog,rapbic Lii~ages . . .

This arrangement 15 done tn hinged or gimbal type: expansion joints, This is a


scissor like device, which will. allow rotational movement While restricting the axial and lateral movement of the bellow.


There are different types of expansion joints manufactured to take care of varicus requirements of the indus,try. The various: types available are as fellows>

I .Mial- Sing]el Double

• Ilnive rsal

I Swing

I Hinged

• Gimbal

• Pressure Balanced

• Tied

A brief description of'mese is given below.


r» ..... n r r\
'-' v 'I'-' '-'

Ir v- ir' l..- I
'- Il. ;r-'"
,_ .,_ ..... ..... Fig. 7,. ta

This is the simplest form of expansion joint of single bellows construction. It absorbs all of the movement 'of the pipe sect jon into, which it is installed. These bellows are capable of absorbing only small amounts of lateral or angular movement,



"'" ,-. r
.----- J
iI"" '-
- I
~ Fig. ·,tlb

A double expansien joint consists of two bellows jointed bya common conneetor which is anchored to some rigid part of the iDs'tallation by means of an anchor base. The anchor base may be attached to' the common connector either ,at installation or at the time of manufacturing. Each bellow of a double expansio:1l joint functlons ind,epe:ndently as Si sing]e: unit. Double bellow expansion, joints should not be

-~,. d ithuni 1 .. "

c'OwllIse'WI_i _ uruv,ersa expanstonjcuits,

7,,2 Universal E:x:paos,ioD Joint

"... ,.., ..... I'"' ,.-., ,..,
I-' i'-' fw r--- n
r ~ ,.. U
...... u u ... Fi;g.1.2

A universal expansion jo:int is one co'ctaining two bellows joined by a common eoaaector Cor the purpose of absorbing any combination of three (3) basic movements. A universal expansion joint is used in, cases where it is necessary to accommodate greater amounts of lateral movement than can be absorbed by a single expansion joint


Swi:ng Expa:o's,ioo Joint

The selection of a proper expaasicn jomt involves a number ,of variables, ,in.cluding piping c'onfigurartion. tne opera.ting conditions, derived cycle: life. load Hmitadons on 'the equipment etc. The major factor is the unique character available with the type of design, which makes it suitable for a particuhlf applicadon, The selection chart will facilitate a. selection,


,-" . ...., -~ ~
l ..... I -
::::: Crt~
T"" ~-
~ h .. ~

..... v
_ u ------,
I ,~I
l II
r _ I
l l
'-------' .Fig.7..3

F:ig;1 .. 5

A swing expansion joint IS designed to absorb lateral deflection and/or angllllar rotation in one plane: onJyby the use of swing bars" cadi 0 f which is pinned at or near the lends, of'the unit

A gimbal expansion joint is designed to permit angular rotation ill. any plane by the use of two pairs of hinges affixed to a. common floating gimbal ring.

7.4 Hiog;ed EXP,30siollil ,Joint

7.6 Pressure Balanced Joint

A pressure balanced expansion Joint is de-signed to absorb axial movement and/or lateral deflection. while restraining '[h,e bellows pressure thrust force by means, 0,(' the devices, interconnecting the flow bellow with an opposed bellow also subjected to line pressure. This type of joint is installed

A :hingedl expansion jomt contains one belkrw and is designed to permit angular rotation in one plane only' by the use of a pair of pins running through plates attached to the expansion joint's ends. Hinged expansion joints should be used in sets of 2 err:3 to function properly.

where ,a change of direction occurs in a run of pipe, where it is not possible to provide sui t ab i e ane h.00[5,.

~ ~H-~ 11
- <,
\ -~ ~
" 7.1 Tied ExpaosioD Joint

These are bellows provided with tie rods to restrict axial movement while the bellow is subjected to high pr1essure services. Tie rods: can. be provided on sin.gh~1' umversali Of pressure balanced type

of e.xpansion joints. .

Scree'tion Cbart
Sr. Type of A~daJ Lateral Angular Elimina.tion
,No. Expansion Join't MO'vement Mo Y'em,e Dl RotatiOD ,of Fr. TIlMlst
1 Axial Yes No No NQ
:2 Uasversal Yes Yes Yes No,
:3 Swing No, Yes Yes Yes
4 I Hinged No, No Yes Yes
S Gimbal No, No Yes Yes
16 Pressure Balanced Yes Yes N~ Yes
'1 Tied No 'Yes No Yes Fig. 1.4

Befcre discUii!,[Dg the ,applications of the various types of expansion. joints, l,t is required to derive formulast whIch contain terms which are: of 'COIDm.on use and which are required for the proper selection and application aftbe varieus types of expansien joints,



8,.1 Pi,pre Ancbor

The purpose of anchor is to divide a pipeline' into individual ex:p:mdillg/ contracting sections, The function 0 f pipe anchor is to limit and conrrc I the mo ement with expansion joints located between the anchors absorbing the saene,

8.2, l\l(aiD, Anchor

Main anchor is located at any of the follewing points in a pipe' seerloe,

Between, two bellow units installed on the same pipeline.

• -Change in direction as at elbows when the advantage of elbow is not considered In flexibilities,

)! At the entrance of a side stream into

main pipeline i.e, in liT" section.

_, AI bend eads of pipe containing


Main anchor should be so de'signeci that ,it is capable of withstanding forcesand moments imposed by the pipe section between which bellows are loccded.When m.a:in anchor is, installed at the, pipe bend! the centrifugal tbrust as a result of' change: in direction of flow should also be considered.

8.,3, Iot'erm,£diate' Menor

These are anchors provided in between the main anchor dividing 'the pipeline into individual expanding: pipe sections ..

8.4 ,Pipe Guides

Pipe guides are those. which permh axialmovement wbi1e pre-venning angular or larteraJ movement These are ofsignificaet Importance for proper functioning 'of the expansionjcint,

8.5 nire~doD31 St»plAncihor

Directional stop/anchor is a device, which is designed to absorb loading in one direction while: allowing the movement ill another ..

S, --,Ong R' ate

prr _

This is a measure of bellows :t1e:dbi,[ity. It is the' force required ~o extend or compress th.e bellow per unit iengtb in the axial direction parallel to its longitudinal axis, It is expressed in kg/mm or Jbslin .a


S.7 Spriag Ferce

While absorbin,g the movements, the bellow imparts for:ces and moments to the pipmg sysoem'l wlJlleh snou'ld be absorbed by preper provision of support and structures. This force . s 'the product at the deflection absorbed and [he spring rate oftbe bellow"

8.8 P ressure 'Thru,st

This is, the fo'ree due to internal pressure acting 10 open out the bellows, The magnirude of the pressure thrust is file product of the: system pressure' and the area at mean. diameter ofthe bellow. In case ,of positive pressure, the convo(,utions are pushed apart causing the bellows to elongate while fhe case' is: reverse in the case of an extemal pressure.

Fig 8.1


8:.' Cyde' Life

This is defined as the number of movements an expansion joint is able to perfonn from the initial position. to the

operating position and then return too initial position before it fails.




All othlll' ~I.IPP()rt:\1



F'ig. 9 .. 1 Pipe Guide Location


the knowledge of the application of the various types of expansion joints is important, as it Is required for the selection, The' location of anchors as well as guides are also very important fer llie proper functioniag of the same.

The general guideline: 'used in lhe location, of guides :is: that the first pipe guide must be located withi.1l a distance of four pipe diameters from the end or the bellow and the second guide must be Located within a. distance of fourteen pipe diameter 'tram the ,tirsm guide. The subsequent ,support could be placed at: the maximum span allowed! as per the pipe size and me service for which it is meant for,

Ada,[ Ib.:psosiom



Fig. 9 .. 2

The axial expansion joint could be: single or double \Vithan in termedl ate anchor. Because it offers the lowest expansion joint cost, the single expansion joint is usually considered first for any appllcatica.

FEg 9.2 ,slilows 11, typical appUeation of a single expansion joint absorbing combined axial movement. and lateral deflection. The expansion j oint is loca:t~d at one end of the Iong pipmg leg: with mmn anchms .at each end and guides properly placed. for 'both movement 'control aad protection of the: piping against buckling. In Uris 'case', hcwever, 'the anchor at th'e: left end of the line is, a ~jrectiollal main anchor, wIDch while absorbing the main anchor loading in the direction of the expansion joint axis, permits the thermal expansion of the sbOl'lt, piping leg 'to act. upon the expansion' joint as lateral deflection,

Because the main anchor loading exists

I ,., ,~L - - , - • . .. ent contai . .. the

00 y m 1U.I.e pipmg segm, __ . .. mmg __

expansio n jo in'~, the anc hor at the end o f the shorter piping leg is an intermediateanchor.


Fig 9.3

Fig 9.3 shews an alternate

arrangement in wbi'ch the expansion join'[ is installed in the short piping leg and the principal expansion is, absorbed as lateral deflection.

Note that in this case" the longer pi'pin,~ leg is free of compressive pressure loading and requires only an intermediate anchor and directional guiding, The ftmct1.ons of the directional anchor and the pipe guide may be combined in a siagle device.


Fig. 9.4 and '9.Srepres,ellt. modifications aver Fig. 9.3 in whicn the main anchors 91 either end oHhe 'expansion joint are replaced by 'tie rods, Where the piping configuration

which, in turn, is restricted by considerations of stability and manu.f<!.cturing limitations. Thes, whi1e eminently suitable for applj,eatlolls such as Fig '9.2 where the principle movement is a.·'da]~ the rel,atively small availa.ble lateralmovemen~ severely limits the 'type: of appUcati,on illustrated in Fig 9.3, 9.4 and 9.5. Where operating pressures and temperatures are high. Or where availability of suitable structures precludes: the use of main anchors: and multiple guid'es~ lIhe application shown in Fig 9.2 may not be feasible and ,mcdher type of expansion jo~nt may result in a far mor-e economical installation.



: j ~CIl!.D~IWJ1~~

»: ':1/

..f .. £ *

HOT ··.I.!...' ~~~~---------'f I~

~ i rl


, P'G


Fig. 9.5

Permits the US,I: of tie rods uequendY simplifies: and reduess the cost of the ins taHati ee, Because of these tie rods, the expansion joint is not capable of absQrbing any axial movement: other than :its own thermal expansion. 'The thermal expansion of the ,p,iping in the shorter leg ts, as a result, imposed as deflection on the longer piping leg. In some eases, where the lnnger pipiag leg is not sufficiently 'f1lexible' and where the, dimension of the shorter leg IS suitable, the' rods may be, inst.alled ip'amrin,g- the entire short leg, so that no deflection is imposed on the longer run from this SOUl'CC.,

Where appreciable amounts 'Of lateral deflections are imposed upon the exp,ansion jo,int" some shonenm,g: of the expsnsicnjoint resalts from the displacel1l.ent 'of the tie rods: as shown in Fig. 9.4

Care should be taken. to, insure that sufficient piping fl.eribility exists to absorb this deflection and! that adequate clearances are' pro¥id,ed in the guide to permit deflection of the piping. The amount OIf this deflection can be minimized by 'cold sprin,ging tbe expansicn joint in the lateral direction as shown in Fig.9.S

The principal restriction upo.nth.e Lise of smgle expansian joint, for lateral deflection or combined axial movement and. lateral deflection is tbe limi~ed amount of lateral! deflection, which such an expansion joint can absorb. The allowable lateral deflection is, directly proportional to the ratio of corrugated length to diameter"

Fig. 9.1

9.2 Universal Exp.an,sio'D Jomts

The universal expansion joint is partieulsrly well adapted 10 the absorpti,oll of lateral defl.ectio'n.. In addition, this design. may be used to abso:li1:J ul.·a:l movement, aagular rotation or ,myc'ombinaliol'l of the three. The most common application of the universal e:x:p'ansion joint is its use as a tied expansion joint, in a 90 degree' pijJing offset, with. the tie rods adjusted to-prevent external axial movement. Two such applications are shown in Fig. 9.6 and 9.7

,... .6Iit4 I

..,. ... _ - ..........

. ~

Fig 9.6 shows a tied universal expansion joint used 'to absorb lateral defleetion in a single plane "Z" bend, Wbe,r,e dim,snsioIlaUy feas,~ble" the expansion jo:int should be designed to fill the entire: offset leg so that its: expansion is absorbed within the tie r:ods as axial: movement. Thethermal mov,ement: 0'£ the horizental lines is absorbed as lateral deflection by the expansionjoint.

Both anchors are 'intermediete anchors since the pressure loading is absorbed by the: tie rods. Only directiona] guiding is required siace the compressive l,eaC!. on the pipe consists only of the foree necessary [00 deflect the

expansion jo,mt Any theDmlll,expansiQn, 'of the' offset leg external 1.0 the tie rods, such as that of the elbows at elther end. must be :absorbed by bending 0'£ tbe hcrizontal p,ipe

- legs.

Provision should be made in the diesign, of the guideS! to allow fur both this deflection. and the reduced leJ1igth of '~h.e expansion joint in its de'flected position. 10 addition, particularly in the CalSC of long universal ex.pansion joints under high pressure, additional allowances may be necessary to compensate for stte~ching of the tie rods under load. The expansion loin~ menufaeturer should 'be consulted for


ll(, I

Fig. 9',6



·t '"'



Fig 9'.7 :;11:0'W;5, a typical. appl.icati.Gn of a de.d universal exp.ansionjoint in 3" threeplane "'Z" bend. Since tbe universal expansion joint can absorb lateral defle.ction in any directiol1l, the tliVO hmizontal :prping 'legs :may liellll any angle in the horiaontal plane.

Ii Process Vessel j

:Fig 9.8

:nn cases where a universalexpansion jOhlt mustabs:Qrb axial mevemen; 'other than its (lYmm,e-rmal growth, it canno,t function as. a tied expans:ion joint and must' be used in combination with. main, anebors to absorb pressure loading. One such. case is shown in F~g9.8

The relative expaI:l$ion between the tw'o vessels results Inboth axial movement and lateral defi,l!:ctlonontheexpansiol'l joint, Both vessels must be designed. to absorb main anchor loading. Limit rods. may be !JseCl. to distribu:t;e the movement between the bellows and to control theirmo'vements'.

As a. direct 'result of increasingly high opera:lic.g:, pressures and temp,e.rartures, and. ligbter building, eonstmcticn methods, llI11iv·ersalexpansion jotnts are finding inoreasi.ng use in steam am:l hoi water

distribution systl:!.ms where, due to their abi.lity to absorb large amounts of movement with 'minimum guiding and aJl:chorIng.. Elley offer impressive savings in. overall cost,

Numerous yaria~:ion:s are pessible in the design ofuniversa[expansionjoiDts. In a horizontal installatIon.forex.anll'le. where; it is desirable to support the eenter pipe section 0 f the expansion joint ind.eJJendenUy of the 'beUowsj tie reds or external structural members: may be used. In asingle plane 'system.; the tie rods, may be placed by two bars with pinned ~QnnectiQns at, eitber end of the expansion jo:int. TIris construction is" so commonly used that it: has been ,gj.veu the standard nomenclatm'e of "swing expansion joint', In some IC3.iSe$, 'M'O' sets of short e,ontrol rods, 'one' spmng ea.ch of the [\\10, bellows in the universal expansion joint_.are l!]S'ed. instead of the everalltie rods shown in most of the illustrations. 1hls mang,ement is .frequently used wh.e:re the: expansion Joint must absorb axial movement. .an,a where 'the C(lntro-irods are used primari.ty for control and .stability· rather than for ;absclIption of pressure .Io:adin.g,

WIl.ers ,tbellru,versa[ le:xpansIon joint j.s very long in relation to hs di.ametel,whe'c:e ,a large 'D.UD1ber of cQnuganonsare used ;at eachend af the expansion joint or where the lexpansio.n jO'Jn.t j,s s:uIbJ Bet to ex~emaJ,ftH\OeS such ·as· wind loading,. vibrntionst etc, i~ may be des·irable to :inc'IJrparate:control devices in the expansion. joint to prevent excessive displacement. of tIl,e bellows' and the: relatively free pipe section between 'them.

'C·1"(I' n I' 0 "b"'w- --,,, "I si milar .:1 ... ,,,; .....

["1', ~ 7 .. ,,_ WI U ,_~, Q, ~_~·u·_ lOYl Q~~'II"...'!iii'

adapwed to 1m exp,ansioll joint with overall tierods, In this; ease, the rods' tops are' engaged by .3! plate or 1 tllg 2l'tu:o.dled re tile, center pipe portion ,androovement (l f this part: beyond its, design deflection is prevented In order to obtain maximum conh'Ol from these devices, the stops are IaSWlUy oriented to lie in 'the plane 'of resultant :movement of the expansion joint. aifo:rding m·a,ximum leveragie as '!.-vell as grea~er sensitivity tD small movement Devices: of this natme are usually stipulated by tliil.e manufacmrer when the design eharacteristice offhe expansion joint warrant

Despite toe versatility of Ute universal expansion Joun, ][8 use is scenetimes precluded by the configutations ,(jrtbu~ piping. the 'operating conditions or even by m.anumctunngand trmsportation limitations. Where.! for example. the length of the: offset leg in a '''Z'' bend is extremely long, It may be un des lnb le or im.possible to fabricate, ship to the job she and install a, universalexpansion joint which would span the full length. of the offsets. FIJrthlilf, where the lexpansionjoiml is very long in relation to its diameter" the flexibility of overall rods

pertieas of the expansions joi.nt and no further di.sp,la.i:;,emel1't will be possible.


Fig .. 9.10

Fig. 9.9 and 9.10 shew two fannsof ecntrcls wili,ch may b~ used for this purpose, En Fig 91.9~ shoet rods are used spanning each o,fthe: ue]lows iM fbee.xpanslon Joint S~ops are provided on the rods so that, once the exp.a.l1sion joint has reached i~s: ratted. lateral deflection,. the stops. wm be engaged. by members rigidly fastened to lne: pipe

may reduce the effectiveness cf the Ciontrio~ so that tile center pipe s.ectionbecomes unstable. Where sueh limits are eaceuntered, other type.s of expansion jQmts may offer a more desirable so lulian.


The pressure balanced exp'aIl.sio,n joint is used most frequeatly in appLicatiorls simHartt) those :SltOWIl for the single expansiOIl joint. but where, pressure loading upon 'piping or equipment is considered excessive or .0 bjec'riouable. The major advantage of the pressure balanced design is

- -

its ability to absorb externally imposed axial

movement without imposing pressure loading on the system, Itshould be n<~ted, however, that Ute fo·r,ce required to move the expansion JOi.D't is, not balanced. m. fact~ it is mcreased over that of a single Ei'xp.ans:io'o Joint Since botn the flcl'w bellows and the bal.ancing bellows mustoe compressed or eloogated, the combin.eciaxial·fo[lc,e acts upon the piping or equi,pment Since the forces to move the bellows ategener.ally of a tow order of ma,g:nirud.e~ these ale usually not o~jecti,o·.Dablel!ex.c,ept in eases; in"lolvin,g: ,extremely light eqwpment with close clearance moving parts wmll::h might 'be ;a!$ected by small ferees,


Fig 9J l shows a typical applicat:licon of a pressure-balenced expaJnS10rl joint for combined axialmove:me:nt and lateral de flee t:i·on. 80th 'the anchor at the' end or-the


ptpmg run and t.h:u on the turbine are intermediate anchors and only directional guiding is requirled. By proper design the guide directly above the turbine coo be made to absorb the axial movement forces of the expansion joint without imposing these on the turbine; The only force imposed on the turbm,e is that which. is required to deflect the' expansion jointlaterally,

,..._. t.


F'ig '9.12 shows another turbine app~ilcatmCln, but, in this case, the ancbor point, of the turbine is Located some distance from the exp,ans:ion joint and the expansion of the rurbine between its ancher and the expansion joint Is absorbed as: lateral deflection. An intermediate anchor is used at the center fitti~g of the expansicn joint Since the expansion, joint is located close to the turbine, guiding between the 'turbine and expansion joint is Dot required ..

F.ig 9'.13

Figure 9 .. [,3 shows that a pressare balanced expansion joint co be used at changes, in direction other' that 90 degrees, In this case,

the growth of the longer pIpmg. run is abs,orbed asa.xial: movem.ent on :lhe expansion jciar wb:ile tbe iherma! expansion of me loffset pipilllg run introduces both a.xial and lateral ccmponents of deflection on the: expansion joint Agam, only intermediate anchors are required, at the ends of the lines and directional guiding is used. The gulde on the offset run 'may be used 'to ,absorb Gte: axial movement forces of the expans~on joint. if the pipingis not sufficiently stiff to transmit this directly to the intermediate anchor,

The piping may tben be secured by an inrermediare enebor am th.e bottom ami furnished with ,3, directional guide' adjacent to the expansion joint as shown. In many cases 110' external, structure IS available at the upper elevation of the process vessel and the guide-must be: conaected to the vessel itself. Using [his Il!rIill1gement may ,especi.aUy help, where 'the vessel is: 'raU and is. subject to wind] llQading deflection or similar effects whel;'e the ,guide is attached to a rigid external, stmeture, The expansienjeinr must be designed to absorb wind leadiag defJ:,ectioLl" erc., as lateral defl.ection are involved, Pressure balanced universal e.Kp'aJlsion joints are used In the flow end of me expansion [oint and a sing~e bellow in 'the balancing end. Normally asshowa in fig. 9'. [5Ehe balancin~ oellows will be subjected to axial movement only if the tie rods, are properly designed to rotate or pivot at their attachment po:i:nts.

Process Vessel

G 11-----1



a 1----11 ~ ~


Fig, 9.14

In order for a pressurebalanced expansion joint to fuaction properly, the pressure thrust restrained by the tie rods must exceed the axial movement forces of the expansion joint In a large diameter, low pressure appficatien, it may be' Impossibje te utillze the: pressure balanced expansion joint to eliminate, the pressure loading or at best, tile effect may be uncertain. In such eases, some otherexpanstOD joint: design musm be coasidered.

Pressure balanced expansion joints are not recommended for use in services where the

Fig; 9.14 shows a common application for which a pressure balanced expansion joint is wen suited. Under various process conditions, the vessel and the vertical pipe: lIlay,expand at different rates, By IDstalling a pressure balancedleXpansioD joint, as shown" the differential vertlcal movement is absorbed as axial movement m the expansion join', and the thermal expatllsion from the center line of tbe precess vessel 00 the pi,ping is absorbed as, la,teral deflectica,


pressure equalizing connections between the flow bellows and the balancing bellows: m:a)' become ,plugged or blocked by the flowing medium orconramirumts,. 'M1.ere flow considerations permit, this problem may be overcome 'by 'the use of a tee as a ceeter fitting of the expansion j,oint rather that an elbew. In some cases, the pressure for the' balancing: end, ofthe 'expansion joint has been. introduced fi"om a separate pressure source. A control fanure or even. a slow control response might result in pantal, or full pressure loading being imposed upon the :piping or equipment, thus defea.ting the initial reason for using the pressure balaeeed expansion jo,int

Front the view point or cost, it must be considered :that the pressure balanced eXp<UJ'SioFl joint requires the. lise of an extra beUo,w which does not add to its, ability to abs,orb movement. In addition, the expansion jo,inmis usually furnished with a center fitting, eItbef elbow arlee. wltic:h would otherwise constitute a portion of tb;e piping cost, Further, the necessary srracture i.e blind fianges tie rods and, attachment structures add arppr:ec.iably to 'the cost of the expansion jo,imt The use of a pressure balanced. expansion joint can be justified economically only where the problems created by the pressure lo'ading represent an even greater C'05t

The pressure balanced expansion joint is finding mcre.asing use for the sole function of relieving loads upon. equipment sucb as pumps, compressors and turbines. En many cases, the cost of 'the pressure balanced expansion joint will be negligible when compared [0 the cost of additional equipment; piping and building space which !,,\I,Quld be necessary for safe functioning of theequipment without the expansianjoint

9.4 Hinged 'Expausi:OD Joints

Hinged expansion joints are usually used in sets oftwo or three, to absorb lateral


deflection in one or more directions in a sin£le plane piping system, Eaeh individual expansion joint in such at system is restricted to 'pure angular rotation by 'its hinges. However, each pair of hinged expansion joints, separated by a segmenc 'of piping will act in unison to absorb latera] deflection in much the same manner as ,3 s,wing or universal ex.pansion joint in a single plane application. For a gi ven angular rotation 'of the individual expansion joint. 'the amount ,of lateral. d,dllectioll which a pair of hinged expansion joints can absorb is directly propo-rtional t,o tbe: distance between hiO,g:e pins, Therefore, in orderto utlliae the expansion joints most efficiently, Uris distance sheuld be' made as 'large as possible, Expansion joint hinges are normally designed to abserb the full pressure thrust of the expansien jo,mt and. in addition may be designed to slJppert the weight of piping and equipment, wind leads or similar 'externally appli,=tl forces. Where such. external forces are anticipated, their direction and magnitude must be indicated to the expansion joint manufacturer 50 that the hins'es can be adequately designed to' withstand these forces.

........ ~ .. JJ,.~ ~


.... , - .. J] ...

,I PIij,

F,ig 9.16

Fig 9.16 Illusreates the use ,of a two hinge system to absorb the major thermal expansion in a single-plane "Z' bend. Since 'the pressure thrusl is absorbed by the hinges

00 the expansion joints. only intermediate anchors are required at each end of the piping system, The thermal expansion if the offset section containing the expansion joints must be absorbed by bending .of the piping ~egs perpendicular to that segment since theexpansicn joints are restricted. to IlIH"El' angular rotation by their bin~es and cannot extend oe compress. The amount of bending deflection imposed on each of the two long piping legs, may be controlled by proper d,esign of guides and supports.

',"There one long; leg. is su:ffieienUy fl,exible IfQ absorb the full thermal growthof 'the ,offset leg. 'the other IOIl,g leg may be controlled to permit longirudinal movement enly, The planar guides shown ,at the ends of the long piping runsnear 'the elbow are intended to maintain the planari I:)' of the piping system o:nly and 'must of course allow for the ben,ding d,eflectfons of the l,ong pipmg legs. hI calclI.I.:iatmg guide clearances, consideration should. be given to the fact that the thermal expaasion of the: offset piping leg ccntaining the expaasion joints will be partially' offset 'by the reduction, in length resulting from the displacement of the' center pipe seedon, The latter efFect may be neglected only where the distance hetwe;,en hiD,ge pins is very large and the lateral displacement: small This, effect can. be minimized by cold springing the expansion joints 50% o,fthe fun rated! deflection.

Became of the ability of the hinges to traasmit loads, support: of a hinged piping system can frequently be simplified. Assuming that Fig. 9.16 is an elevation view, for example and thar the upper :piping lsg is sufficiently flexible to absorb 'We total exp,ansion of the vertical leg, It would 'be possible to use' sliding supports on the lower heriznntal run to support its; weight and restrict it to longitudinal movement only. By utilizing me :rigidity ofthe hinges, ,3- substantial portion of the weigh£ of the

upper horizontal leg may also be carried 0.0 these lower supports. I[ should be noted, however, tluu the sliding supporr nearest to the vertical leg must be designed to resist the force required to deflect the piping. Spring supports must be used throughou; the length of the upper horizontal, leg where bending occurs. Beyond that point. sliding supports m.a.y be used,

In locating hinged expansion joints. for more efficient US,I: it should be nored that the binges need nat be collinear in order t'o fuectien properly.

by the bending of the vertical pipe ~eg. A planar guide may be installed near [he top of the vessel to pro'teet tbe hinged expansion joints from wind loads, at righr ~gle~ to the plane of the piping,

The anchor shown at the' bottom of Ell€; riser is ,an in~ermediat'e anchor only. The pressure load 'is absorbed by theexpansion joint hinges .. However, this anchor must be capable of withstanding tbe forces created by bending of the riser. Depending 'upon the dimensions and weigbt of the piping system, complete sup pod may be obtained from the process vessel and from the intermediate anchor, If additicnal supports are required . spring type supports should be used. If desired the: vertical piping may be cold .sprnng to reduce bending stresses, utilizing the hinges to withstand the 'cold spring For-ce.

'Where the piping in a ,single plane system is not sufficiently flexible to absorb the bending' deflections, involved in a two hinge system, or where the loads resulting from su:chbcnding: exceed the allowable limits for connected equipment, a system of three hinged expansion joints may be used.


~"''!!!''-''''---''-..",-- .....

, ,

I ,

.'-, --L-

, .



PrQcess I





........... - -=rJ77i=/ --.............f ____,

II I"' .,.,

Fig '.18'

Fi,g 9.18 illustrates a system of three hinged expansion joints in II single plane "Z' bend. The thermal expansion of the offset piping section is absorbed by the action of


-- ----


, ...

, flu

" ~

F~g 9.17


F'ig 9.17 illustrates a two-hinge expansion joinm sysiemshnilar EO the pressure balance expansion joint applIcation of Fig 9.14. In this case the expansion joints will absorb only the differential verticalgrowth between the vessel and the pipe riser. Any horizontal movement due to piping lexpans i on" vibration, wind loads etc., will he absorbed

expansion joints B and C. It is therefore evident that espansion joint B must be capable of abs'orbing the' totel of the rotations of' expansion joints A and. C. Hence, it is, ftequeolitIy necessary IIUll[ lhe' r expansiJilll joint at 'the center contain a. greater number of corrugations than those a.t either end.

As. in the previous cases. the anchors at the ends of the piping sys em are intermediate anchors only. In this case. aID deflection is absorbed by the expaneiou joim and no p,ipe bending.ioads Wm be imposed UPO'(] these anehers, Where the distance between, Ute anchor at. the left and the first hinged: expansion joint C is large, a pipe guide should 'be installed ,adjacent to the expansionjoint, as shown in Fig.'9.18. This pipe guide will minimize bending of the pipe section between expansion joint C and the left hand anchor, which might otherwise result from the moment required to t'otat,e th.e ,ex;panS](HJ. joint. One 'O[! more additio~al suides maybe used to maintain the planarity of the: piping system and relieve tbe hinges of bending forces. which may be created by external leads, Support of the piping system may be effected in various ways, utilizing available supporting: structures, with great:est efficiency. Here: again, however, it is essential that spring supports be used tn permit free m.ovement of 'the piping between the expansion j'omts.


Fig 9.19 illustrates the principle that systems of hinged expansion joints may be used in

ether than 9 0 bends, In such applieations, a three hinge system. is usually most sui table, s ince the

compo,nents of movement may be quite large and excessive bendin,g stresses, would result from tbe use of a two hinge system, Except for this point. 'th.e system is similar in every respect to the previous 'ones

containing 900 bends, Only intermediate

anchors, and planar guides are required.

'9.S Gimbal Expa.lIIIsion J0in,ts;

Just as' hinged expanslon jcints may offer grJea:t advantages in sin,gle plane applic-ati.ODS, gimbal expansion joints are designed to offer similar advantages in multiplane systems. The' ability of the gimbedexpansion joint to' absorb angular rotation in my plane is most frequently applJed by utilizing two such units to' absorb lateral deflection, An application of this: type is s:ho\iWll in figure' 9.22. Since tm.e pressure :loading is abs:orbed! by the gimbal structure, intermediate anchors only are lIequired. Pl.anar guides are provided to restrict the movement of each. piping. leg. As in the case of hinged expansion joints" 'the location of pipe supperts is, simplified by the load cm)'ing abUity of the gimbal structure. Since, in a two gimbal s),stem. the grOlwtht of the 'vertical pipe leg will be absorbed 'by bending of the 1.0fl,G legs, spring supports may be required 'on either or beth of these, Guides must be designed to allow for the thermal expansion of the leg c,ontaming the

expanslen joints and [or the shortening of this leg due to deflection,

Where it is impos-sible or undesirable for the piping to absorb tbe gro'Wtn of the offser leg" a, system cOIlS,isting: of I.WO gimbal and! ODe hmoged expansion joints may be used as shown in Fig. 9.21.



·"'.11, .... '·· ..

Fig. 9.22

The gimbal expansion joints function in unison to absorb the' combined movements of the upper and. lower legs, while the hinged expansion joints and the upper gimbal expansion join~ act incomblmlltion to absorb deflection oftbe offset leg, Since the expansion orithe offset leg takes place in one plane only, the use of the simpler hinged expansion joint is justified. 'The advantages



- -

in tbe plane' of thepiping must be adequate to allow tor the equipment movement as well as for the piping rotations.

Among the major advantages: 0 f hinged expansion joints are their compact size'. which fac::Hitates installation, arnd the gre3!'t rigicif:Y and slrength which can be incerporered into the hinge structures, By the use of these individual units, it is frequentLY possible to compensate for the thermal expansion of irregular and complex piping c,onliguranons, whlch migh~ preclude the use of other types of expansion joints, Because: of the ability of the binge stro,cmn~ to transMit leads, pIping system. coeraining hinged ex..pansion joints: impose minimum force on the pipe anchors" Furthermore, such systems may be supported at virtually any pObII which. does not interfere witb the iiee movement,

r I

............ ~;----,~

em 01111

J.c:~+···········n·-·· .. ·,

Po j_

~ 'lr #'

Fig. 9,.201

Ahillied cxpOUlsion joint system may be used effectively in applications involving movement other that lliepure 'thermal growth of piping .. Fig. 9.20 illustrates an application combining the: thermal expansion of piping syst,em with. the single plane movements of a piece of connected equipment. SOl long-as all movements are restricted EO a single plane, the behavior of the expansion joint system is quite similar to that of the system shown in Fig. 9.1 8. In this case, an intermediate anchor is, required at one: end of the piping. The IcqlIipment serves as: an iotermledii,ah;l anchor at the opposite: end. The displacements of me equipment are totaled with those 'of the piping in order to evaluate tbe movements of the expansion [oints, Planar guide elearaaees


of using gimbid expansion joint system are simpler to those previously mentioned for systems containing hinged expansion joints.

'Greater flexibility of usage is however possible since gimbal expansion joints are not restricted to, single plane systems.

Certificate Course on


December 8 - 21, 2004


T. N. Gopinath Consultant

Orgllnized by

Piping Engineering Cell Computer Aided Desi,gII Centre Indian Institute of Technology, Bo~bay Powai, Mumbai - 400 076

- ~ .. - - - -- - :: - - -~--- ~ - - -


Code ASME BJ LJ under clause 304.1.3 specifies that to determine the wall thickness tor straight pipe under external pressure, the procedure otnlined in [he BPV Code Section vru Di islon i.uo- 1:8!hrough UG-30 shall be followed ..

~_. ~.f~t'l..

~~-cj~ :Q, -

4',& ( ~ =._7 ...

~(8"(1- ~.;::;t. r--~

... .: ~ J't.WJ' tf7L r




[0 a Chemical Process Industry rransponetion of material. especially in fluid fonn. poses a variety of problems. The problems are morewhen the tluid is

iscous and has to be maintained at hlgher temperatures than the ambient tbroughDUE transpon, Variadons in ambient temperature from winter [a summer also affect the flow characterisdcs of the Liquid. The fluid inside me' pipe 'can also undergo phase chances and the viscosity can ,chanl!e to

- .. ~

ad ersely affect the fluid tlowpettern. U'

it is ooly the atmospheric changes [hal create problems. then tbe temperature variation in. the pipe is kept "liv]thin the acc:eptable range by beat tracing. I r the fluid has 'to be kept ar II certain temperature all threughout the process of transportation. then [he pipeline.s need jack.e:'ting:. When a pi.pe' of hiaher diameter is put ove'; the' service pipe., and when heattngkooling m.edium :l?_a5ses. as reguired" lbIQugh the annu,lnr space


Tbieknes5 of core pilP~:

There are tWO numbers of pipes involved in jacketed piping with different design considerations. The' core pipe is s!!1lbjected 1'0 internal pressure when there is flu:id flow through [he same', The pipe is subjected [0 external pressUJe when there is fluid tlow tbrough [be' jacket h could be !.hal thes~ pre s sures get balanced and the pipe' gets, relaxed, B1.I[ for mech__ani,eal design. the worst



.~ -'2

lHr".. -?

,~~ .. '

o (7~,... ~ .. N;r. tlt> ""r"" P, (l)f~11«.

(j S~-ql ~ 1 ~ P/J"T "'" A ze=,

1lJ~ ~



created betvo·een the [\\'0 pip'l!s. lhen I[ is iermed as a Jacketed pi'pe. iJi! IfiDli:'r p~pe is, called the core pr:pli! and [hf! OUler pipe is called the jacket ..

The combination of core and jacket pipes shall be selected based on ;

i) The prcpenles Df the hearins eootina medium.

.. ~

ii) The flow required (0 maintain the


iii) The criticality of tne service.

i l The differential expansion ef [be core and jacket when [he material of cOnS1IUC[ion of core and jacket are eli fferent,

The jacketed pipe poses problems, in design, fabrication unci erecucn, different from that of the non-jacketed. piping. this article IS intended [0 h.i.eIhHelu the

- ,.;; ---

problems of mechanical design of

jacketed piping.

condiuoa is mo be CO IiI5 ide red. F,oII' any cylindrical surface subjected [0' external pressure .. design is more complicated [han for [hose subiected co il1llemal pressure,


SPV Code Section. VIn Division I ,UG~ 28 [hrough: UG-30 shall be followed. Yihen S too dard piping details are prepared the design l'ength L 'emmat be exactly predicted, Hence tbe length to diameter (UD) ratio of so 'is, considered as a standard practice,

Since the p,ipes are manafacrured 'with standard! thicknesses" the selection has to be done from the available thickness ranges, The thickness, considered for calculation should 'be after allowing for the miU tolerance and tbe corrosion allowance,


Sue CombiDatioD of Core and Jacket Pipe::


Straighl Pipe;

The' size combination of ~be CO['lelUld jacket pipes are de'term.ined by the annular space necessary to obtaln the required flow to maintain the heat transfer. In the absence of any specific process, data, the following combinations are most widely-used:

,Size of 15 20 n ,40 ,SO 6:5' SO [00 1,50





,Size of 40 40 SO 6,$ 80 toe Loa LSO :200





ii) Elbows:

The: hending radius of elbow,s/be'nds ue so selected. that the core pipe and the jacket pipe maintain tbe same ceatreliaes even at the change of direction. 'The ideal combinations '0 f the core aad j a.c~et bends shall be as follows: ,_


COn! Bends Jacket Bead Rcm::u'ks
pipe RtdlllUi F'ipe RadIus
NB :rm
l(mlD) (mm) (mm) (nun)
15 60 40 57 /,JD
20 601 40 57 UD
25 15 50 76,I.JD
40 51 65 62 J.()D
SO 76 SO 76,
65 95 liQI) 102.10
1 . .1D NOTE
810' I U4 1100 I02,/D
I 1
1,00 I L52 lSO 15110\
I :2
[50 I 229 200 2.o31D.
2. (Ii) On stta.i,gh.t pipes and elbows but keeping the flange size same as that 0 f the core pipe



2, • .3

Thickness u:r Jacket 'ip'e::

Jacket pipes have to be designed for internal pressure, which the jacket fluid exerts, The formula given in clause 3,19.4.] of the cede shall be: followed with the standardprocedure,

2,.4 Types o,[,J3I1:ketiog:

Depending 'upon the criticality of the requiNment, 'the: jacketing of the piping system can be done:

0) Only on .straight pipe keeping aU

bends and. flange' welds exposed.

NOTE,: i) Us!e l.SD(LR) std. elbow for

• 't..


ii)Use 1.5D(LR) std. elbow for core and ID(SR) std elbow for j acket, [ReferF ig, 2.1)

-:=Jackel pipe

Fig:. 2 .. 2 a

J acketedPiping

F,ig .. 2.,2 b

(Iii) On straigbtpipes and elbows with flange size that of the jacket pipe. (Redu.cing; flanges)

Fig. 2.2 c

This typ'e' WS WIsed where ,j:acketing' requirements are critical. The slip on type: Ilanges are modified to, get a seating 10£ the jacket pipe 'to' achieve a proper welding joint (Refer Fig. 2.7)

To madntain the ,continuation of fluid' Bow in the jacket, jumper pipes are provided. The location of Jumper pipes on. the horizontal jacketed pipe is decided. based on. the type of fluid in the jacket pipe .. There can be a single jumper or two jumpersand these can be placed in one of the followmg: patterns;

. .L :L

,",gil ... " i

Fi:g.l.3 a



F,ig.l .. 3 b

~~!."." 111

Fig:. 1.] e

Fig .. 2.3 e

When the beating fluid is in vapor form and no condensatior, is expected, arrangement as per Pattern I can be used The arrangement in Pattern II makes the vapor phase as well as the liquid phase continuous and is ideal when steam is used as a heating medium in the Jacket. When the jacketing fluid is a liquid under sufficient pressUlie arrangement as

J acke'tedPiping

CORE PlfO£ Jf<T PIP~ 00 OIl.!
IS .w ':lit5 III 0 HI.5 I
20 40 28.0 ISO 105 I
Z5 ~o j4.5 7'5- H5
~o &5 "9,~ 11.5 HIll
50 80 52,0 1,01 '125
6S lOa N.S 1'26 uo
80 ille 91.0 tZI5 140
ICO 150 Ili.O 130 165
150 ZOQ Pl0 23i 190
2110 250 t2'I.S zss no Plpm~G 'ENGINEERING CELL

r so s - !i)()O
40 65 _ 7 I 2500
50 801 r - 8 JOOD
fjj 1,00 . 1-l ]000
SO WO _ Ii 3500
1'00 ISO ~ 19 1.1000
150 200. - I 16 5000 per Pattern ill or Pattern rv can be used. The mangemell[ for connection as per Pattern. IV is difficult to fabricate, as the I"!cl.e on itl1e jacte't: pi.pe has to be cut to profile, Pattern Y shows the arraagement in a vertical pipeline .. In all types 'of ammgements it should be 'ensured that lhe jwnper joins the jacket pipe at minimum, distance from the breakout flans'!! In order to avoid cold / hot spots due to stagnancy, The jumper should also be provlded with dismantling: arraagement, either 1:1mle joints or unions, flange joint being preferred.

Fig. 2.4


i) Material 0 f spacers shall as that of the core pipe.

ii) Spacers near to pipe bend should! be located at least 1000 mm away from (he centerline of bend.

Spalcer Details

2.7 Jacl(l(~t Barriers:

I'L ls absolutely essentia] that the proper flow of the fluid inthe jacket is maintained fo,r proper heat transfer . When,ever there is a sUlgnec:y or inadequate tlowin 'the j aeker, the hot spot or the cold spot gets fOfinled, which affectsthe pIIOIl)eSS fluId flow in the core pipe. To avoid this, the fluid in the jacket may have to be directed property. This is established by the provision of jacket barriers inside the Jacket. These are mainly used where there are branch - offs. (Refer Fig. l..S)

2.6 Spacers:

Process J~cke[ Dia Width MLnimum
pipe Pipe or of .spOrn
NB NB cod lJ~t (rrun)
(rnrn) (mm) "dO "W'
(rum) (mm)
15 I 40 8 _ 1500
20 4Q S - 2000 In order to keep' the core pipe

neentric 'wi.tb the jacl(,et pipe, supperts are provided ,at definite intervals, These are done by welding flat or bar to the 'core pipe called spacers, These: spacers win be stitch welded Ito the 'core' pipe. Flats are preferred as the restrictions: in thej acket flow are minimum in tbi:s case. The arrangement shall be as shown in the sketch below:

JACKET' /,,"E'Il'E

!!~,CtiET IURRliE






_ S'l~m/~ - .)I,:,I,'IYI

~~,oul~ "'ilt~ll'fll~

_- - H~~ ~"/'" " - - C,gnd,/OIII

Fig, 2.5


Fig. 2.5c

3.0 Fabrication:

Fabrication of the jacketed pipe: shall be: done with utmost care. The: core pipe fabrication is more critical as the pipes, when covered with, jacket are DQt avai lable .for any 'visual inspection. The core pipe' sball beasselllbled. welded and rnchograpbedflrst Th,e jacket pipes and, fittings: shall be slipped over the core pipe in stages during assembly of COI1S pipe" Sufficient. gap,s shall be left in the jacket pip,c to inspect the core pipe during testiog. After testing" inspection and acceptance oIme core pipe, 'the gaps




in jacket: pipe shall be: covered, There :are

two ways of covering these gaps,

One way is to fabricate a sleeve. which can, slipl on the ja,C:ket pipe, and these sleeves can be fillet welded over the jacket pipe. The otber way [5 to split the jacket pipe m'to 't;\YO longitudinal aalves :md insert it in. to the gap left .in the jacket pipe, This will need butt-welding: the same with. the jac~et pIpe (Fig. 2.6) and also the joints, in - situ ..

The hub ot the ilan,ges are modified! to provide seating fer the jacket pipe. (Refer Fig 2".7)


aed_liIdn~ FlaJljg:e with modified Hllb



J acketedPipi:rn.g




4.0 Design of the Jacketed Pi ill!u Svstem for Differential Ex sansion


5.0 Desizn Calculation For A Tv ical Jacket I Core Combination


When. the materiala of ccnstrucdon IJf the core and the jacket are different. it poses problem of dHrerel1l.tial expansion whlle in, operation. The material. which has [he higher coefficient of linear expansion. will try [0 pull [he other one as both are rigidly fixed togeih~r il( (~ flallge joint. Consequently compressive stress will be developed in the material having higher ccefficiear of I . inear expansion and! tensile stress gets developed in [he material having lower coefficient of linear

. expansion, These stresses are to be calculated and compared liv:ith [he allowable srresseSill me operating ternperatnre toensure mechanical safety of

A sample calculation of the jacketed. piping system nDrmally bardled by design engineersis illastrated below, _)

5:.1 DalQ

5.1. I The pipe sizes Uflder consideration are

a) Core ~ 6" (] SO) NB.

b) Jacket - g'" (200) NB.

5.1.2 Materials or ecnstruerion

- a) Core - Aust;i!niri.c stainless steel 1.0 ASTM A312 TP304L seamless qllJa]i:cy (for core' pipes, always: seamless quality is eensidered due to' inac,cessibili.ty ofrhe weld joint for inspection.)

b) Jacket >- Carbon sleel [0 ASTM AlO6 Gr ... 8

5. L.3 Design Temperarure

a) Core --700° F (~375" C)

b) Jacket -- 750,0>, F (== 400'1 C)

J ac.ket£dPiping

b) Jack,el Pi pe ~

P := 400 ps~g

D "'" 8.625'·:(fIu 8'; _ B} S = 0,0001 ps.i (for

A 106 Gr. B pipe a'r 750" F)

lE == 1.0 [seamless quality) Y==OA


[ = Pressure design rhickness

c = Sum of mechanical, corrosion and

fflosion allowances

p= lnremal design gi!lUl.lge: pressure o = Outside diameter of pipe

E::::: Quality factor from Table A ~ I S ;:: Stress value fro'm Table A. - I Y = Coefficient from Teble 304.1.1

thesystern. These stresses develop forces in the core and rnt! jacket pipes ::md tile m,agniLude of'these fcrces remain the same since [he system is in .:quHibrium. Tbese forces aee I~Qualed to calculate the!' disrributlon of the diffen!n[iaI expansion. Based an (he expansion. the strain and hence rhe stresses are calculated and. compared '.Vi'lh the allcwable values, It is required 'tbi:ii~ [he jacket be trimmed at definite ineervals so that the forces de v 'eloped and hence' [he stresses are within the allowable limits, 'Based. on rhe forces calculeaed 85, abo 'e. [he jack1!' trimming distance ts calcl!!IJated..

al Core' Pipe:

P == 300 psig

D '= 6 .. 625'" (for 6'" B

S == 13500 psi (for 5S 304L pipe at 100"F)

E :; 1..0 (seamless quantity Y=O.4


300 x 6.6:25


5.1.4 Desi~n Pressure

3.1 Core - 300 psig (21 Kg/em1) b) Jacket - 400 pS'ig (2:8 Kg/em])

2(13500)( l+300x0.4) =: 01.073"

tm :J 0.1073 .' '0

;;;;; 0 .. 073"

Consider SCH 55 pipe as per ANSJ I ASrvIE B36~ [9

t = 0.1109 .,.

t ( considering mm tolerance) == 0.109 x 0.:87S

= 0.095 If

Hence sea 55 is adequate,

5.15 Corrosion Allowance

a) (ore = Nil.

b) Jacket - 111.6" (1.6 mm)

3J.6 Design Basis - .A.SME BJ L.3

5.2 1'lliclilli!SS .$elect:ion. to' wit/wul the Internal Pl'eSS,''Irl!l

[Refer ASME B31.3 clauses "304.1.1 and 30'4.1.2.: tm;;;;;;[+c

and It =


l( SE + Ill' )


400 x 8.625

tm:= Minimum required rhiekness

- .

inc:iudinl! ~haman. c~~n

er'osion allowances.

t ;;:

2(.3000x 1+4.oOxO.4) ~ 0,13:11"

'nm == O. D11 + 0.06,25

.J a.c:ke·c.~dPip:ing

. -~

= 0.1936"

Consider SCH _.0 pipe' as per A Sl?

ASME 1336.10. -

[ = 0.15 ..

[,( considering mill tolerance) = 0._5 x 0.875

::; 0..21.87'"

Hence SeD 20 is adeqa il te ..

The abo e pipe selectlons were based en the internal design pressure of the core &. jacket pipes.

S.J Tl,iei,1'u!s-s Seie'f:li.otl('or Flu!' cv're p'ipe to wWutand ,the t!.:rtel'nal pressut',f! [Refer ASME Section vm Division 1. UG-.::!81

Thickness'( of SCH SS pipe after milt tolerance ; 0 .. ()9S" [Refer section 5.2 a) :

·t 0.095

Factor A = 0.000223

{Refer ASME Section 11 Part Q1J factor B - 2730

: Refer ASME Section n Pan D Fig HAJJ Allowable Wo.rlcinlZ. Pressure.

- - - _. 'Iiiii

4 B 4 2750


= -)( ,;;:::: =:

:3 D'1.)J/ t

= 51.6 psig





Hence SCH 5 . is. not suitable.

9 .

. ..




.5.3.1 To check 6 "'NB'SCH ._J·OSplm!' lin' the fLy.l,ernlll pr,l!ssrrre o{~(}() ,,:rig:.


= 50

Thickness of of seA 40S pipe iller mill tolerance ~ 0.18 x O. 875

;= 10.245"

QI) 6.625

= :::; 21.0


FactorA. -O.OOt5 Factor B == 4800

Allowable 'Working Pressure.

4 48010

Pa ,= -X ---

3 27

= 237 psig

Renee SeA 405 pipe is no't sujtable,

j.3.3 To check 6HNB SCH 80S oip~ , tor l:he e;~rem(Jl press'bre,.ol-IOO ,psig.


= 50

Thickness or of SCH 30S pipe after mill. tolerance = 0.87':5 x O. 43,2

== 0.378"


= 11.53


Factor A := 0.003,8 Factor B - 5.500



AI.lowableWorking Pressure,

~ 5500

p::Ji =: ~ X -_.

3 1733

;; .... 18psjg

Hence use SCH 8:0 pi:pe.

The D,ifferential. Expansion gets divided between carbon steel and! stalnless steel

i.e, ,6.1; ~~ + a.i-; .•. " ... 9'

Substituting for 6.1.: fmm above equation

AI=: E~s· nIs + &Is ....... to EcAo:



... ,.. ;;. ..

Fo[c~' p

Sere.ss. f'= ~ =-

Area A

The' selected combination shan be Core of6" NB: SCH 80S (6.62500 x 0.432 It nominal thl:. Jaeket of 8," . B SCH 20

{:B .. ,623 00 x 0.25 ., Ilominallhk.)


Hence. E::: =

E .6,]l~


or P=E .. ~ .. A I.

......... .4

j.4 To cl',eclt. life Selected CDlJI'hi.uuiol1 0.[

flpe tlJitklle.ss ror stress/!$. d'll! to -

D'i/!:er,entiJll Ex"a,nsJorr.

Since. Force' exerted by CS Oil SS and/or SS aD CS is, the same.

Ale 61i.

Er.t Ac = Es -As; ...... 5


The :coeffi.cien[ of linear expansion or carbon steel IS less [han th~u of the' stainless steel, Hence the jacket pipe will restrict the expansion of the cere pipe ,and [he coee pipe win try to pull the' JaCktu on pipe. The' diffe_renEial expansi011 accordingly gets divided between the [\\'0. The propcrtion in which [he differential expansion gets distdbated can be' calculated as bela "'v. The prindple employed isthat the differential expansion wi U develcp stress and acc.ordmgly 'the force .. Ther=' will be compressive ~{)rce in the care p,i£e' and tens~le For,e!! In me Jacket 1P!.:es-... Since i1ie S)''S1em. remauiSF in equilibrium both the forces wi];1 have the same magnitude.

Snffi.x. 'e' stands for carbon steel and .suffix 's" stands for stainless, steel,


E.:o< l!;.1~ .• Ao: = Es, &15, As 6



............ 1

He not.


fi]" - -- lil1s. • ••••••.•••.• 8


Strain. due ~,o differential expansion .. 6.J

......................... I


Strain =

Modulus o!etasticity


J acketedPi.p.illg

. ..... 11


. - ..... I_,


1 +

And D.l~ = al ~ .6,I~ .. _. derived from1eqn.9 Applying, the abnve rormlldac inthe example

Fodulus of Elasticitv ofSS 31'i 7'000 F E. = :24.8 x 106 ps.i"

(Refer AS ME 83 [.3 Tabl!! CO,) Modulus of Elasticity or CS !It 750" F E, = 14.6 x 106 psi

{Refer ASME :B3 [J, Table C6,}

Metal area (A~) of 6" NiB SCH 80S SS 'pipe

. P'/4'6 6-"-' '66-r . ··0 .... ') 1" = l·~ .. _,)~~I\,._)-_X • ..,,,_ I

= 8.405 in~

Metal area (AI:) of 8" NB S(H 20 CS pipe

;;:: Pi/'H8,,623:!_ (8.625 - 2 x Q.25)J,) = 6.578 iin:!

Expansion of CS pipe [rom 70111 F to 1500 F ; 6.:2::6"1100'

(&efer Appendix C of ASME BJ 1.3 Expansion of SS pipe from 70° F to 7000 F = 7..50'1/100'

(Refer A.ppendix: C of ASME B3 1.3)

Differential Expansion.

] - 7 (00 6· 16 - '1 ?4"/100'

t1 ~ . .J . -, ._.. - .1 .• - .. .



Ccrnpsession in. 55 pipe.

AI , ... ~refer

A Is = ~qn. 12


2-1.8:<10';'(8.405 I + 24.6:<106:<6.318 ,_ 0.54211/100'

Tension in CS pi.pe,

_ ~ 0 P'4? :: 0- 6-9-,g-"/IOcO'

_ 1.24 __ .) ,- . ~.

Strain in SS pipe, 0.542

= 0.000452

100 N, 12

Stram in CS pipe.


== 0.000:;,82

too x 12

Tensife str-ess in CS eiee,

(- - - - _ r 1"-

= E~ x E~

= 24.6 x ~ 06 X 0.0005:82 = 1431.7 psi

> Stress Allowable (5)

Compressive stEess in SS pipe, = Es,x E:s

- - 0004 -:I ,''')4 8 106, ,= o~ _ ~, .) ... !( _ < ,x ~ ,

.,. U2UJ psi

-c Str-ess Allowable (S)

Hence SCH :20 Carbon steel pipe is, not suitable for title service.

Increase' the' tbkknesfl of carbon steelpipe to SCH 40.


aminal tltiekness of 8" _ B SCH 40 pipe

;;;:; O.3':'~·· 1

Metalarea of 8" NB SeH 40 prpl!

== p14: 8.625~ - (8,.625 -,2 x .0.322)2:


= 8.399 irr'

Compr,essioli'l in 5S pipe refer eq.l2)

1.141 WO


= 0.617"/100·

Tension in CS 'pipe

:~ 1.24 .. 0.617 = 0.623"11.00"

Strain in SS pipe'. 0.617

Es. = := o.ooa5'1~

LaO x 12

Strain in CS pipe.


E' =: ~~- =,O.0005l9


1.00:t 12

Tensile stress in CS pipe ". 0.000519 x 24.6 :.t. 1.06 = 12767 psig

< Stress Allowable (3)

Compressive stress, tn SS pipe' ;: 0.00051.4 x 24.8 x 106

= U747 psig

-c Stress Allowable (S)



5.5 To e,:"U101i's"," Hilt! ma;:rinrUftt iac.kl:!i' lrinlJl'fim: diSi'l1.,tr,ce:'

his: n,r:cessary tha[ [lie ·,llcke'f is trimmed ilt ,e ~nlxe il:l;ervals to ~nsure [h~ ~s due' ~o ditle!tt1iEial expans,ioll do not exceed these value~.

The stai nless steel core pi pe can be equated [0 a strut coLumn wiili bmh ends fixed [0 establish [he ma.ximum distance aJj,owed ibeEwe'en [Woflang;ed, joints.

Stress in 55 pipe, r ;= 111.t.1 ,Psi

Metal area of ss pipe.

S .In- . " A = .'TV) 18-

Compressjve force in the 5S pipe.

P,e ;;;;;;:fxA

= 12747 x 8,.405 = 1.07.138 lhs

Applying Eul,er :5, formula fer column with both ends fix'ed

(Ref. Brownell ,& Young)

p~ ._

(eqn, _.22 Tabk _.1 )


1 = Momenl of Inenia ;: 40.491n"'

I = Distance between two supports in inches,


1.01. D s- ~ 411:- X. 24,,8 ill lOb, :-.. 40 . .:1·9


: J4ffh< ,~4.8_xWo x 401.49 L07J38

=, 608 .. 29 inches

=: 50,7 tt 0( 15.45 m)


-- I


Unlike the stress analysis of normal piping systems where most of the cheeks are done by the software, the jacketed piping system. especielly the discentiaueus jacketing, Deeds some addaional checks to ensure that £he str-esses developed are within the allowable limns,

6.1 While checking the stresses due to sustained loading and displacement

strains as p'er clause 302.3." of 6.::!:

ASME B3 13 or 102,3.2 of ASME B3 1. ~ ~ additional stresses de'veloped due' 10 tile' load at tbe junction of core and ja,ck,e~ Le. PIA.:


for core and PI Ai, For jacket. should be added. The same philo.s.ophy is applicable while checking the limits of calculated stresses, due co occasional loads as per clause 3023.6 of ASME B3 LJ. oe 102.3.3 oaf ASME :B31.1 where P' is the force at the j unction of the core and the jacket and Ac' and Aj are me area of rile core and theja,cket

The weld strength between core and jacket also to be checked by cons.idering an allowable' load

Pltll= Area of weld x 60.% allowable stress.




Area 0 f wetd is. obtained by 6J

mllitiplyi,ng the circumference of

core' pipe by the root of me' weld

i.e. :it x d x (0.107 x weld size ).

The force developed, available from tbe: computer outpUE, . shall be less [ban the allowable vallue thus calculared.


The [rimming length of the jacket shall be established ensuring th"l( the buckling load calculated based. on the Euler's formula, is less than she load developed ;Ilt [he j unction point. of the jacket and the core as available from Ihe computer output.


Certi'ficate Course on


December 8 - 21, 2004


Prof. K. G. Narayankbedkar ITT Bombay


Piping Engineering Cell Computer Aided Design Centre Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Powai, Mumbai - 400 076

_- .

. -

, ,


• Production of low temperatures

• Liquefaction and Storage of gases


Production of Icy cold,

The term used 'fOf low temperatures.

How low ~?O"'_' .. 01 ~,


,As per NBS (NIST), Co,}omdo,tempemture-s below 123 K .... Cryogenics

it The NBP of so called permanent gases - such as Helium, Hydrogen, Neon, Nitrogen, .xygen and Air lie below 123 K,

• The common Remgemnts boil ;!t temperatures abov;e ]23 K.

A.~~e.."e-!I'I:>...{ II iwk'L;:,r

'tlJ1 ~~

CRY.GENIeS l 3J d"

I. Low t~mperature physics

.' Cryogenic Enginee:ring

Cryogenic Engineer should be familiar with physical phenomena in order to know bow to utilize them effecDvemy.

it' til o.~ cc#''O >ho ~ ~ -1...1((. . ')0-


V,alpor bubbles rising thrQugh the liquid


Pilfl tecont alnln g - holes rOt bubol!!!


-=-_ -~ Lower boiling" :point component (top ptoducU

1 S'92~ S if JamesDewar Developed, VacumnInsulatied Double WaDed Vessel,


Essential ComponeD,1l$ of Cryoge,Dic: De.a:r'Vessel!

Inner Vessel

-Produet Contamer


Liquid IloMlng -~ .......... overweir

Weir - ......... ~-

r;::~====,~ I Fe:ed ~,

,~_..,._:;.._ (mixbil,r,eto be

!,epara,ted) I

.. ' Vacuum Jaeket

Insulation '

Fill & Drain me

Vapor vent along with a vapor diflfuser

Suspension system


~- ..... --'8oIler IDr :ke:ttltli! .


-_ - - - - - ---- - I

- I '," " " _ '", ,


eo( r{ boUom product)

Outeli-she,~m stiffening dn, and main--support Iring'

Access manway

. __ -'~'- -,-"'-!!"._.

• ., !>. ~ ••

~ .. , /iii.' .,

- .' i .' ~ II: ;'

.. ' •• , ;;; ,., _. IIiJ

-:. CD


I ~__",..-, _, _,. ......---

1-- ~~r=~~::::::~~~~~~~~~

. ~.



- .,

I' ~ _ ... !!!" ill

. ...



~.:..~ ---~~ ,_ ~

. ~


... .. ...

.• 1_., "";jI1 • ,., _ ..

i _ ifIi ~ ... ~I." ..' • ill I

,. ~ .. -!!! ~. III" !!!! !! iii

• !I' ~ io .. ill iii •

;if., ,~Ii(.> • ~ •• i!!

·',.,':1'· ..... _,I!-

.. .. I!'

II .... ~ .,!!! • .. ...

iil ill I. ~,.".... !I!

f2 • "I. • ,t' L .n, ~ , I" • iii ~ .... ~l..\~"" +&-

" '[/ ~Q0M.C j{1l~ u--- ~ . 1 "'~, ' r

frQ;~. ~~ trtJJ ~ ~"~L~.

C'\_ _". ('1\, ,.- "Yl: ~ ChL ~~,

~ '~(.\I..t.\"""'_ u U




Commonly used for mwti layer insulated vessels

A Wong length of pipe is obtained between the: 'warm outer vessel and tile cold inner vessel by extending the vacuum space around the pipe back to the inner vessel



Condensation of vapour' willtake place along the top '0'( horizontal position of the line which. is exposed to fluid within the inner vessel,

No provision for thermal,contraction.

Vertica1line in vacuum space

Expansion bellow

If It leak into the vacuum space should occur" mostly at bellows _, difficult: and costly repairs.


Expansion Bellow in stand-off


-" ? I.! _" 0 t I
Mean ·tem~r'lur,. -'5 - F .
. .
.-. j .
, 1
, ,

1 / ;
__ 4 J 1 .
\ v I
. I
0 I
- 10.02 - - , 8 9 10

o 12 :3 4 5 6 .. _ .1 •

~. Dens'ity, Ib-!tt3

F!,. '1,·J2 Vi.riaUoD, of therm&1J colldlJotbitl" 'nth Jaui~y for.

.!. rpicaJ, ;xI,I;YIL]1'eme.loaal" IDaulatloD. . ...


. 0.022

~ J: 0.02.1


1 0.020





I ~OI9

J 0.018


, '~n$II"-2.~ Ib",,-ft3 V
I . /
'"' V
, , V
r-' V
. I
/ I
~, .
, I
/ I t I


-,20 Q 20 ,40 601 80 100 1'20 140

Temperatuf'I', o'F - - -

Fl,. '1'-1' Vari8tioo'D. ot tbermal cand,ucthity 'with mean iBMJJaUolltemper,ltval fa.r II t,J'P,icaJ poI18lpeD,~

loam iDwlatiVD. . --


-- "



- 111"-'11


i 1



I .
, ---
I _",...._..
I , I I I
I -
I I 1 1
I ,
I ,J
I I , I
\ IJ
\ I I "' ,
1 I
I , I ~ I j' I
,. f
\, I I
- I _ / I
\ 'y ,
r Copper' ... Sanlixel 1 I
,I ., I V, If- I
t-. .
r\. ,
't <, "- ~ ~ /
, "Aluri,i'num-Sal'ntocel I I
I < I
I 1 I I
1 "' I I
~ - - - 7

L 1.4XIO·';'





0.8 0.7


'ill 0,2



e 01

:J 0 2,0 30 4050 60 '. 70 ,SO 90 ieo

. _ P«cent ~ by welaht .

Fi,. i'·16 _Varia,U'DD 0," ,thenaai p eoadaeIiIit,. With per .. ' IOPaci6er ,far opaciBed"powd,er jDlUlatioM .1.14].

, I ,
. 1
, . I
.' ~
\. I /'
-, , . I . I • ./ V
, " . I . V ' I
l <, I I
./11 ,
"", ,_ _,.- ,
I ,
" I ~ II ,'I I l_ 20

,40 '60 80 100

N/A":r,, layer ,densily; ... per in.,

120 .


F'l. 7 -lB VarlaUoll of t.hermal co:n,du,etivi'ty with :IaYef ~,litJ' fa.-' .. typ;C"""1 mulms.yer' bluJati,o,u '[3711.-. The 'w,Ilrm- ,aad coId-e:irle Rmy-Ta'~ '[or Ute iosulatiiOD ,are 530 DR, (loaF) and ,I4~.)QR (-33J·F).~