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Critical Thinking Assumption

Critical Thinking Assumption

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Published by: Sunita Kumar on Nov 20, 2010
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Critical Thinking: Strategies in Decision Making

MGT/350 Felicitator: Ron Sears MA

Introductions 
   

Who are you? What do you do? What do you want out of this course? Fun fact Answer one of these questions:  What movie or TV character would you most like to be?  What two people dead or alive would you like to have lunch with?  If you could go back into time what period of time would you go back to?

Course Objectives 

This course develops the analytical abilities of students and equips them with concrete skills in critical thinking and decision making.

Syllabus Review 
     

Attendance Participation Late Assignments Academic Integrity Learning Teams and Roles Wikipedia Laptops

First Paper 

Share your paper on Critical Thinking Application 

Provide an example from your personal experience.

 Henry Ford  At a certain age some people s minds close up.  William Lyon Phelps .Notable Quotes  Thinking is the hardest work there is. They live on their intellectual fat. which is probably why so few engage in it.

 Select a spoke person.  Come to a consensus.Learn Team Discussion Define critical thinking.  .

. metaphors. Avoid automatic responses.Thinking Critically Means      Examining different viewpoints Learn to think from different perspectives. Examine the assumptions. View those opinions which differ from yours. & analogies of your own viewpoints & of others.

General Working Definition of Critical Thinking  A process that evaluates ideas through the testing of statements (accuracy) and the soundness of reasoning behind them. .

Is this a good recommendation or not and if not why? .

Discussion Question     Why is critical thinking important? Is there a difference between thinking and critically thinking? Can we train ourselves to think differently? How do we prepare ourselves to new patterns of thought? .

Detect inconsistencies and common mistakes in reasoning. Solve problems systematically. . Reflect on the justification of one s own beliefs and values.Critical Thinking      Someone with Critical Thinking skills is able to: Understand the logical connections between ideas.

Thoughts to Ponder  Education means development of the mind from within so it will help one to take problems apart and put them to work based upon sound judgment. What if you choose to read no new books for the next ten years?   Would your mind be different? .

and thinking what nobody else has thought. Oliver Wendell Homes . Albert Einstein  Discovery is seeing what everybody else has seen.Critical Thinking Quotes  We can t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them. Unknown  The human mind once stretched by a new idea never goes back to its original dimensions.

Characteristics of Critical Thinkers:       Strive for understanding Are honest with themselves Base judgment on evidence Are interested in other people s ideas Control their feelings/emotions Recognize that extreme views are seldom correct. .

Characteristics of Critical Thinkers      Keep an open mind They are very observant Identify key issues and raise questions Obtain relevant facts Evaluate the findings and form judgments .

We blindly continue to hold on to old beliefs.What does the absence of critical thinking look like?  We blindly accept at face value all justifications given by organizations and political leaders. We blindly believe TV commercials.   .

Discussion Question  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement and why? Not only do we tend to think about the world according to what we want to see and what we need to see. we tend to think of it in terms of what we expect to see.  .

FollowFollow-up Discussion  Are we reluctant to change our perceptions and ideas to accommodate the facts. or is it easier to maintain the status quo based upon our prior experiences?  Do stereotypes effect our thinking? .

Should You Believe Everything You See?   Perception is learned from both our own experience and through interaction with others. Is perception reality? .

expectations.Perception  We often see and hear what we want to see and hear. to stay within our comfort zone. . motives. interests. based upon our past experiences.

Young girl? Or old women? .

Man playing horn? Or a women s silhouette? .

A face of a native American? Or an Eskimo s back? .

Terms of Critical Thinking         Ambiguity Assumptions Values Emotions Language Argument Fallacy Thinking Barriers .

 Words and language is everything.  Arguments can have different meanings antianti-war vs.  Abstract less and less specific of a definition.  Words often have multiple meaning. . support our troops  Words can also be emotionally based.Ambiguity Ambiguity the existence of multiple possible meanings for a word or phrase.

Try to understand the context.Hints for Dealing with Ambiguity       Try to understand the meaning of the ambiguous terms. Rephrase your understanding of what they said in your response. Ask what the author means. Be aware of the emotional impact of certain words. Ask the speaker to rephrase. Do you mean I understood your comment to mean .

Webster s Dictionary  .Assumptions  Unstated beliefs that support specific reasoning. Something taken to be true without proof or demonstration.

. Potentially deceptive. Taken for granted. if the reasoning is to make sense. .      Can be hidden or unstated. Influential in determining the conclusion Sometimes necessary.Assumptions Can Be . .

  .Tips for Locating Assumptions:   Look for ideas that support the reason. walk in their shoes. Identify with the author or speaker. understand their role Play devil s advocate or role-reversal roleCreatively think about other possibilities.

. Does our values influences behavior? Ideas that people see as worthwhile.Values     Importance of certain ideas or beliefs. Provide standards of conduct by which we measure quality of human behavior.

Question   Do we make sound decision in a highly charged emotional state? . Part of everything we do and think Critical thinkers don t ignore or deny emotions. accept and manage them.Emotion    Leave emotion out of it! is impossible.

EMOTIONS  Recognize feelings Respect those that are the result of careful thought and reflection  .

The limits of my language are the limits of my life to this point. .Language The landscape of the mind. The software of the brain.

Language How is language used in decision making? .

Language How is language used in decision making?    To inform To explain To persuade .

Language Words can have two kinds of meaning:  Denotative  Connotative What does each mean? .

Language Denotative:  Dictionary meaning .

edible.Language Denotative:  Dictionary meaning: What is an apple?  The firm. usually rounded fruit of this tree. .

Language Connotative:  Overtones or suggestions beyond the dictionary meanings. What do you think of when you hear the word apple?  .

Macintosh.Language Food. an orchard. keeps the doctor away. applesauce. . Adam & Eve. etc. Pie. a computer.

 Consists of: Issue  One or more reasons  Conclusion  .Argument  A claim used to persuade others as to whether something is true or false or if something should or should not be done.

 A statement or argument based upon a false or invalid conclusion.Fallacy  An incorrect pattern of reasoning   Many fallacy s exist Example:  Common belief fallacy: We assume a statement is true based on the evidence that others believe it. Webster s Dictionary .

Thinking Barriers Emotions  Anger  Passion  Depression  Stress  Bias (values and beliefs)  .

 Projection   Rationalization  . Lying to ourselves about the real reasons for our behaviors and feelings.Personal Barriers to thinking (Ego Defenses)  Denial  Refuse to accept reality. We see in others what is really happening to us.

Thinking Errors  Personalization  Thinking in which the world revolves around an individual There is only black or white no gray  Polarized Thinking   Catastrophizing  Always consider the worst possible outcome (all the time) .

 Overgeneralization  .Thinking Errors  (Continued) Selective abstraction  Focusing on one detail of a situation and ignoring the larger picture Drawing broad conclusions on the basis of a single incident.

A period of reflection and the need to find another approach to deal with the issue.  Phase 2: Appraisal   Phase 3: Exploration  .Five Phases of Critical Thinking  Phase 1: Trigger Event  Usually an unexpected event that causes some kind of inner discomfort or confusion. People start asking questions and gathering more information.

Five Phases of Critical Thinking  Phase 4: Finding Alternatives  Also called the transition stage when old ideas are either left behind and a new way of thinking begins. .  Phase 5: Integration  Involves fitting new ideas and information into everyday usage.

Key Questions to Critical Thinking      What are the issues and the expected conclusions? What are the reasons? What words or phrases are ambiguous? What are the value conflicts and assumptions? What are the assumptions? .

Key Questions to Critical Thinking       Are there any fallacies in the reasoning? How good is the evidence? Are there rival causes? Are the statistics deceptive? What significant information is omitted? What reasonable conclusions are possible? .

Critical thinking involves evaluating information or arguments in terms of their accuracy and worth  Verbal Reasoning  Understanding and evaluating the persuasive techniques found in oral and written language Discriminating between reasons that do and do not support a particular conclusion  Argument Analysis  .

 Critical Analysis of Prior Research  .Critical thinking involves evaluating information or arguments in terms of their accuracy and worth  Decision Making  identifying and judging several alternatives and selecting the best alternative evaluating the value of data and research results in terms of the methods used to obtain them and their potential relevance to particular conclusions.

creative thinking) Select a solution (pro s and con s) and have a back up plan Implement and evaluate .Problem Solving Procedure       Define the problem (not the symptom) Remove thinking barriers (bias and logical) Gather all relevant facts Generate solutions (brainstorming.

Characteristics of Critical Thinking & Decision Making  University of Phoenix Model Framing the question  Making the decision  Evaluating the decision  .

University of Phoenix Model .

Apply Critical Thinking to a workplace example. .Learning Team Assignment    Prepare a 1050 to 1400 word paper in which you analyze at least three different types of thinking styles. Compare and contrast and comment on how each affects the critical-thinking criticalprocess.

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