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BY
RAINFLOW CYCLE COUNTING METHOD
A THESIS SUBMITTED TO
THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES
OF
MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
BY
SEÇIL ARIDURU
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR
THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
DECEMBER 2004
Approval of the Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences
I certify that this thesis satisfies all the requirements as a thesis for the degree of
Master of Science.
Prof. Dr. Canan ÖZGEN
Director
Prof. Dr. S.Kemal IDER
Head of Department
This is to certify that we have read this thesis and that in our opinion it is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science.
Prof. Dr. Mehmet ÇALISKAN
Supervisor
Prof. Dr. Levent PARNAS (METU,ME) _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
Prof. Dr. Mehmet ÇALISKAN (METU,ME) _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
Assoc.Prof. Dr. Suat KADIOGLU (METU,ME) _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
Assis.Prof. Dr. Serkan DAG (METU,ME) _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
M.S. Gürol IPEK (BIAS) _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
Examining Committee Members
iii
I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained and
presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct. I also declare
that, as required by these rules and conduct, I have fully cited and referenced all
material and results that are not original to this work.
SEÇIL ARIDURU
iv
ABSTRACT
FATIGUE LIFE CALCULATION
BY
RAINFLOW CYCLE COUNTING METHOD
ARIDURU, Seçil
M.S., Department of Mechanical Engineering
Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Mehmet ÇALISKAN
December 2004, 119 pages
In this thesis, fatigue life of a cantilever aluminum plate with a side notch under
certain loading conditions is analyzed. Results of experimental stress analysis of
the cantilever aluminum plate by using a uniaxial strain gage are presented. The
strain gage is glued on a critical point at the specimen where stress concentration
exists. Strain measurement is performed on the baseexcited cantilever beam
under random vibration test in order to examine the life profile simulation.
The fatigue analysis of the test specimen is carried out in both time and frequency
domains. Rainflow cycle counting in time domain is examined by taking the time
history of load as an input. Number of cycles is determined from the time history.
In frequency domain analysis, power spectral density function estimates of normal
stress are obtained from the acquired strain data sampled at 1000 Hz. The
moments of the power spectral density estimates are used to find the probability
density function estimate from Dirlik’s empirical expression. After the total
v
number of cycles in both time and frequency domain approaches are found,
PalmgrenMiner rule, cumulative damage theory, is used to estimate the fatigue
life. Results of fatigue life estimation study in both domains are comparatively
evaluated. Frequency domain approach is found to provide a marginally safer
prediction tool in this study.
Keywords: fatigue, dynamic strain measurement, rainflow cycle counting,
PalmgrenMiner rule
vi
ÖZ
YAMURAKII DÖNGÜ SAYMA YÖNTEM
LE
YORULMA ÖMRÜNÜN HESAPLANMASI
ARIDURU, Seçil
Y. Lisans, Makina Mühendisligi Bölümü
Tez Yöneticisi : Prof. Dr. Mehmet ÇALISKAN
Aralık 2004, 119 sayfa
Bu çalısmada, bir kenarından sabitlenmis, belirli bir yük altında, yan çentigi
bulunan alüminyum profilin yorulma ömrü incelenmistir. Serbest kiris alüminyum
profilin deneysel gerilme analizi sonuçları, tek eksen uzama teli kullanılarak
sunulmustur. Gerilme yogunlugunun oldugu test biriminin kritik noktasına uzama
teli yapıstırılmıstır. Rassal titresim testi altında olan serbest kiris alüminyum
profilinin, ömür profil benzesimini incelemek için gerilme ölçümü yapılmıstır.
Test edilen birimin yorulma analizi, zaman ve frekans alanlarında incelenmistir.
Zaman alanında yagmuakısı döngü sayımı, girdi olarak zaman aralıgı alınarak
yapılmıstır. Zaman aralıgından döngü sayısı bulunmustur. Frekans alanında,
gerilme verisinden güç spektrum yogunlugu fonksiyon kestirimleri, 1000 Hz’de
örneklenen kazanılmıs gerilme verisinden elde edilmisitir. Dirlik’in deneysel
anlatımından olasılık yogunluk fonksiyon kestirimini bulmak için, güç spektrum
yogunlugu hesaplarından elde edilen alanlar kullanılmıstır. Zaman ve frekans
alanlarından toplam döngü sayıları bulunduktan sonra, birikimsel hasar
vii
kuramlardan biri olan PalmgrenMiner kuralı, yorulma ömrünü tahmin etmek için
kullanılmıstır. Yorulma ömrü tahmini üzerine yapılan çalısmaların sonuçları, her
iki alanda karsılastırmalı olarak degerlendirilmistir. Bu çalısmada, frekans alanı
yaklasımı, biraz daha güvenli bulunmustur.
Anahtar kelimeler: yorulma, dinamik birim uzama ölçümü, yagmurakısı döngü
sayımı, PalmgrenMiner kuralı
viii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would like to express my deepest gratitude and appreciation to
Prof. Dr. Mehmet Çalıskan for his guidance, advices, encouragements and insight
throughout the research.
I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my parents for their
encouragements and understanding throughout this study.
I would like to thank to M.S. Gürol Ipek for his support.
ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
PLAGIARISM……………………………………………………………….. iii
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………….. iv
ÖZ …………………………………………………………………………… vi
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS…............................................................................ viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………….……. ix
LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………….. xii
LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………..….. xv
NOMENCLATURE…………………………………………………………. xvi
CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………….. 1
1.1. General………………………………………………………… 1
1.2. Applications of Fatigue Life Calculations…………………….. 3
1.3. Scope and Objective of the Thesis……..……………………… 4
2. FATIGUE FAILURE…………………………………………………. 6
2.1. Fatigue………………………………………………………… 6
2.2. StressLife Based Approach……………………………………9
3. RAINFLOW CYCLE COUNTING ………………………………….. 13
3.1. Original Definition…………………………………………….. 13
3.2. Practical Definition……………………………………………..19
4. RAINFLOW CYCLE COUNTING IN TIME DOMAIN AND
FREQUENCY DOMAINS..……………………………………………... 23
4.1. Introduction……………………………………………………. 23
4.2. Rainflow Cycle Counting in Time Domain…………………… 24
x
4.3. Rainflow Cycle Counting in Frequency Domain……………… 25
4.3.1. Probability Density Function………………………….. 26
4.3.2. Expected Zeros, Peaks and Irregularity Factor………... 27
4.3.3. Moments from the Power Spectral Density…………… 29
4.3.4. Expected Zeros, Peaks and Irregularity Factor from a
Power Spectral Density………………………………………. 30
4.3.5. Estimation of Probability Density Function from
Power Spectral Density Moments……………………………. 31
5. PALMGRENMINER RULE…………………………………………. 33
6. DESIGN OF THE EXPERIMENTS………………………………….. 37
6.1. Vibration Test System………………………………………… 37
6.2. Test Material…………………………………………………... 39
6.3. Strain Gages…………………………………………………… 41
6.3.1. Strain Gage Characteristics……………………………. 44
6.3.2. The Measuring Circuit………………………………… 47
6.3.2.1. Quarter Bridge Circuit……………………….. 48
6.3.3. Shunt Calibration of Strain Gage……………………… 50
6.4. Test Procedure………………………………………………… 51
7. RESULTS OF MODAL ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTAL
STUDIES ……………………………………………………………….. 60
7.1. Modal Analysis…….………………………………………….. 60
7.2. Experimental Results…...……………………………………... 63
7.2.1. Experimental Results in Time Domain………………... 63
7.2.2. Experimental Results in Frequency Domain………….. 68
7.3. PalmgrenMiner Rule Application…………………………….. 73
7.3.1. Total Damage Calculation in Time Domain by
PalmgrenMiner Rule…………………………………………74
7.3.2. Total Damage Calculation in Frequency Domain by
xi
PalmgrenMiner Rule…………………………………………75
7.4. Statistical Errors Associated with the Spectral Measurements... 75
7.4.1. Random Error…………………………………………..77
7.4.2. Bias Error……………………………………………… 78
8. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION………………………………....... 81
8.1. Summary………………………………………………………. 81
8.2. Conclusion…………………………………………………….. 85
REFERENCES………………………………………………………………. 90
APPENDICES
A. EXPERIMENTAL WORK FOR THE TEST SPECIMEN
DETERMINATION……………………………………………………... 94
B. TABLES……...……………………………………………………….. 101
C. FIRST NATURAL FREQUENCY CALCULATION OF THE
CANTILEVER ALUMINUM PLATE…………………………………...105
D. COMMUNICATION…………………………………………………. 107
E. SUBROUTINE FOR RAINFLOW COUNTING……………………. 108
F. SOLUTION METHODS…………………………………………….... 112
G. COUNTING METHODS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE
RANDOM TIME HISTORY…………………………………………….. 114
xii
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE PAGE
1.1. Description of fatigue process…………………………………………... 2
2.1. The basic elements of the fatigue design process……………………….. 7
2.2. The cumulative damage analysis process……………………………….. 9
2.3. Functional diagram of engineering design and analysis………………… 10
2.4. A typical SN material data………………………………………………11
3.1. Stressstrain cycles………………………………………………………. 14
3.2. Random stress fluctuation……………………………………………….. 14
3.3. The drop released from the largest peak………………………………… 15
3.4. Flow rule of the drop from a peak………………………………………. 16
3.5. Drop departure from a valley……………………………………………. 17
3.6. Flow rule of the drop from a valley……………………………………... 17
3.7. Rainflow cycle counting………………………………………………… 18
3.8. Practical definition of the rainflow cycle counting……………………… 21
4.1. Time history……………………………………………………………... 23
4.2. Random processes………………………………………………………. 24
4.3. General procedure for time domain fatigue life calculation...................... 25
4.4. General procedure for frequency domain fatigue life calculation............. 26
4.5. Probability density function...................................................................... 27
4.6. Zero and peak crossing rates...................................................................... 28
4.7. Equivalent time histories and power spectral densities............................. 29
4.8. Onesided power spectral density function................................................ 30
5.1. Spectrum of amplitudes of stress cycles…………………….................... 34
5.2. Constant amplitude SN curve................................................................. 35
6.1. Vibration test system................................................................................. 37
6.2. Components of the vibration test system................................................... 38
6.3. Left hand rule............................................................................................. 38
6.4. Minimum Integrity Test applied to the specimen between 5500Hz......... 40
xiii
6.5. Detail description of the uniaxial strain gage........................................... 44
6.6. Basic Wheatstone Bridge circuit ............................................................... 48
6.7. The external circuit with active gage illustrated with instrument ............. 49
6.8. Quarter bridge circuit with active gage...................................................... 49
6.9. Shunt calibration of single active gage...................................................... 50
6.10. Aluminum test specimen..........................................................................52
6.11. Side notch in the aluminum test specimen............................................... 52
6.12. Cantilever aluminum plate....................................................................... 53
6.13. Test specimen with fixture....................................................................... 54
6.14. Strain gage glued on the aluminum test specimen................................... 54
6.15. Side notch placed under the strain gage.................................................. 55
6.16. Uniaxial strain gage................................................................................. 55
6.17. Aluminum test specimen, cable and the connector.................................. 57
6.18. Quarter bridge circuit diagram of the strain gage connector................... 58
6.19. Measuring equipment.............................................................................. 59
7.1. 1st mode shape of the test specimen obtained by ANSYS........................ 62
7.2. 2nd mode shape of the test specimen obtained by ANSYS....................... 62
7.3. 3rd mode shape of the test specimen obtained by ANSYS....................... 63
7.4. Random data acquired from the test specimen.......................................... 64
7.5. Cycle counting in full range by rainflow method on the test specimen.....65
7.6. Percentage of cycle counting in full range by rainflow method on the
test specimen..................................................................................................... 66
7.7. Cycle counting and mean classes in full range by rainflow method on
the test specimen............................................................................................... 67
7.8. Percentage of cycle counting and mean classes in full range by
rainflow method on the test specimen.............................................................. 67
7.9. Number of cycles versus stress obtained from the test in time domain..... 68
7.10. Power spectral density function estimates of the test specimen for
signal in Figure 7.4........................................................................................... 69
7.11. Probability density function estimates versus stress amplitude obtained
xiv
from PSD graph of the test specimen in Figure 7.10....................................... 72
7.12. Number of cycles versus stress obtained from the test in frequency
domain...............................................................................................................73
7.13. Average result of power spectral density estimates versus frequency
for 1.024 seconds of each 64 sample time history............................................ 76
7.14. Average power spectral density estimates versus frequency................... 77
8.1. Number of cycles vs stress diagram (time domain approach)................... 87
8.2. Number of cycles vs stress diagram (frequency domain approach).......... 87
A.1. Aluminum test specimens......................................................................... 94
A.2. Perpendicular Sshaped test specimen under vibration test...................... 95
A.3. Crack initiation occurred in the welded points in the vibration test......... 95
A.4. Bending started from the end of the support part in the test specimen..... 96
A.5. Aluminum cantilever plate under a certain loading condition.................. 96
A.6. Cantilever aluminum test specimen.......................................................... 97
A.7. Crack occurred in the fixed side of the aluminum plate in the
vibration test......................................................................................................97
A.8. The notch placed on the aluminum plate.................................................. 98
A.9. The notch placed on top surface of the cantilever aluminum plate.......... 98
A.10. Polyurethane foam glued on the aluminum plate................................... 99
A.11. Notch position on the aluminum plate.................................................... 99
A.12. The notch placed on the bottom surface of the aluminum plate............. 100
A.13. Crack propagation occurred in the vibration test.................................... 100
G.1. Level crossing counting example……………………………………….. 115
G.2. Peak counting example…………………………………………………. 117
G.3. Simple range counting example................................................................ 118
xv
LIST OF TABLES
TABLES PAGE
3.1. Cycle counts……………………………………………………………... 22
6.2. Dimensions of the strain gage used in the experiment.............................. 56
7.1. Material properties of the elements used in the modal analysis................ 60
7.2. Data obtained for the test specimen by MATLAB software..................... 71
B.1. Stress versus number of cycles in time domain........................................ 101
B.2. Stress versus probability density function estimates and number of
cycles in frequency domain.............................................................................. 102
B.3. Standard gage series…………………………………………………….. 104
xvi
NOMENCLATURE
SYMBOL
A Area
b Width
b( ) Biased estimate
B Magnetic flux density (Tesla)
B
e
Effective bandwidth
B
r
Halfpower bandwidth
D Total damage
c Strain
c
b
Bias error
c
r
Random error
E Modulus of elasticity
E[0] Number of upward zero crossings per second
E[D] Expected fatigue damage
E[P] Number of peaks per second
f Frequency
f
n
Natural frequency
f
r
Resonance frequency
F Force (Newton)
F
C
Compression force
F
T
Tension force
g Acceleration
G(f) Power spectral density for 0 < f < ·
G
ave
(f) Average power spectral density
h Thickness
H(f) Frequency response function
xvii
I Current (Amper)
k Strain sensitivity , stiffness
K Constant
L Length (meter), Level
AL Change in length
m Mass
n Total number of applied cycles
n
d
Subrecords
N Number of cycles to failure
R Resistance
S Stress
STC SelfTemperature Compensation
S
t
Total number of cycles
T Time
Var( ) Variance
. Damping ratio
v Irregularity factor
1
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1. GENERAL
For centuries, man has been aware that by repeatedly bending the wood or metal
back and forth with large amplitude, it could be broken. It came as something
surprise, however, when he found that repeated stressing would produce fracture
even with the stress amplitude held well within the elastic range of the material.
Fatigue analysis procedures for the design of modern structures rely on
techniques, which have been developed over the last 100 years or so. The first
fatigue investigations seem to have been reported by a German mining engineer,
W.A.S.Albert who in 1829 performed some repeated loading tests on iron chain.
[22] When the railway systems began to develop rapidly about the midst of the
nineteenth century, fatigue failures in railway axles became a widespread problem
that began to draw the first serious attention to cyclic loading effects. This was the
first time that many similar parts of machines had been subjected to millions of
cycles at stress levels well below the yield point, with documented service failures
appearing with disturbing regularity. This theory was disparaged by W.J.Rankine
in 1843. As is often done in the case of unexplained service failures, attempts
were made to reproduce the failures in the laboratory. Between 1852 and 1870 the
German railway engineer, August Wöhler set up and conducted the first
systematic fatigue investigation. [14]
Fatigue is the most important failure mode to be considered in a mechanical
design. The physical process of fatigue is described in Figure1.1. Under the action
of oscillatory tensile stresses of sufficient magnitude, a small crack will initiate at
a point of the stress concentration. Once the crack is initiated, it will tend to grow
in a direction orthogonal to the direction of the oscillatory tensile loads.
2
There are several reasons for the dominance of this failure mode and the problems
of designing to avoid it: (1) the fatigue process is inherently unpredictable, as
evidenced by the statistical scatter in laboratory data; (2) it is often difficult to
translate laboratory data of material behavior into field predictions; (3) it is
extremely difficult to accurately model the mechanical environments to which the
system is exposed over its entire design lifetime; and (4) environmental effects
produce complex stress states at fatiguesensitive hot spots in the system. It can be
thought that fatigue can involve a very complicated interaction of several
processes and/or influences.
Figure 1.1. Description of fatigue process [13]
Fatigue failures are often catastrophic; they come without warning and may cause
significant property damage as well as loss of life. The goal of such new elements
in the design process is to perform fatigue and durability calculations much
earlier, thereby reducing or removing the need for expensive redesign later on.
Actually, fatigue damage is related to cycle amplitudes or ranges and not to peak
values. Therefore, in any kind of loading, fatigue damage is caused by statistical
properties such as amplitudes and mean values.
3
Fatigue life is the number of loading cycles of a specified character that a given
specimen sustains before failure of a specified nature occurs. When analyzing the
fatigue life for the structures, the level crossings have been used for a long time.
However, better life predictions are obtained when using a cycle counting method,
which is a rule for pairing local minima and maxima to equivalent load cycles. An
appropriate cycle identification technique, which is rainflow cycle counting
method, is examined in time and frequency domains. Fatigue damage is computed
by damage accumulation hypothesis which is illustrated as PalmgrenMiner rule.
This rule is used to obtain an estimate of the structural fatigue life.
The fatigue life time depends on several factors, where the most important ones
are the manufacturing, the material properties, and the loading conditions, which
are all more or less random. Both material properties and dynamical load process
are important for fatigue evaluation, and should in more realistic cases be
modeled as random phenomena. In order to relate a load sequence to the damage
it inflicts to the material, the so called rainflow cycle counting method is often
used, together with a damage accumulation model. The damage can then be
related to the fatigue life.
The rainflow cycle counting method has been successful, and has now become a
standard method for the railway, aircraft and automotive industries in fatigue life
estimations.
1.2. APPLICATION OF FATIGUE LIFE CALCULATIONS
In this thesis, the fatigue life of a cantilever aluminum plate with a side notch,
under a certain loading condition is investigated. Experiments are performed on
cantilever aluminum plate on the vibration test system at room temperature. The
results, obtained as time and strain values, are analyzed in time domain and in
frequency domain separately. ESAM software is used for the analysis and
4
MATLAB software is also exploited for the implementation algorithm of the
Dirlik’s approach. The modal analysis of the specimen is carried to obtain mode
shapes and undamped natural frequencies by ANSYS software. Through SN
curve, the fatigue life of the specimen is calculated by PalmgrenMiner rule.
1.3. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVE OF THE THESIS
This thesis contains eight chapters. In Chapter 1, the field of fatigue life and the
fatigue process are introduced. The application of the fatigue life calculations is
also discussed briefly.
In Chapter 2, the concept of fatigue failure is given in detail. The fundamentals of
the fatigue considerations, basic elements of the fatigue design process, stresslife
based approach for the fatigue design are presented in this chapter.
In Chapter 3, the original definition of the rainflow cycle counting and the stress
strain behavior of the material which is the basis of the counting are explained.
Rainflow cycle counting is illustrated with an example where the cycles are
identified in a random variable amplitude loading sequence. The practical
definition of the rainflow cycle counting, which is according to the ASTM
E–1049 Standard Practices for Cycle Counting in Fatigue Analysis, is also defined
and cycles counted are tabulated.
In Chapter 4, the rainflow cycle counting in the time domain and in the frequency
domain is studied. The processes that should be followed are given step by step in
these domains separately. How to store the stress range histogram in the form of a
probability density function of stress ranges, and the calculation of the parameters
which are expected zeros, peaks and irregularity factor are given. Spectral
moments of the power spectral density function and the parameters in terms of
spectral moments are defined. Dirlik’s solution is illustrated.
5
In Chapter 5, most popular cumulative damage theory which is referred as
PalmgrenMiner rule is defined for the fatigue life prediction. The assumptions
done in the rule are summarized. Constant amplitude SN curve, total damage and
the event of failure are described. Existing limitations in the rule are explained.
In Chapter 6, design of the experiments is described. The theory and the
components of the vibration test system and the random vibration profile used in
the experiment is explained. The reason for the choice of aluminum as the test
material, the strain gages, and its characteristics are described. Also, the
measuring circuit and the quarter bridge circuit is used in the experiment and
shunt calibration of the strain gage are illustrated. The test procedure followed in
the experiment is analyzed.
In Chapter 7, the modal analysis of the test specimen to obtain the vibration
characteristics is given. Experimental results in time and in frequency domains for
rainflow cycle counting are described. The algorithms written in MATLAB
software to obtain the moments of the power spectral density estimates and the
probability density function estimates of stress ranges are given. The graphs
acquired from the test results are shown and the values found are tabulated.
PalmgrenMiner rule application is performed and total damage calculation both
in time and frequency domains are calculated. The average power spectral density
estimates and the spectral errors, namely, the random and bias errors are
determined.
In Chapter 8, summary of the thesis and conclusions are given, the results of the
modal analysis, the analysis of the rainflow cycles counting in time and frequency
domains, total number of cycles found from the analysis and the graphs obtained,
PalmgrenMiner rule solution and the statistical errors in the experimental results
are discussed.
6
CHAPTER 2
FATIGUE FAILURE
2.1. FATIGUE
Fatigue is the process of progressive localized permanent structural change
occurring in a material subjected to conditions that produce fluctuating stresses
and strains at some point or points and that may culminate in cracks or complete
fracture after a sufficient number of fluctuations. If the maximum stress in the
specimen does not exceed the elastic limit of the material, the specimen returns to
its initial condition when the load is removed. A given loading may be repeated
many times, provided that the stresses remain in the elastic range. Such a
conclusion is correct for loadings repeated even a few hundred times. However, it
is not correct when loadings are repeated thousands or millions of times. In such
cases, rupture will occur at a stress much lower than static breaking strength. This
phenomenon is known as fatigue.
To be effective in averting failure, the designer should have a good working
knowledge of analytical and empirical techniques of predicting failure so that
during the predescribed design, failure may be prevented. That is why; the failure
analysis, prediction, and prevention are of critical importance to the designer to
achieve a success.
Fatigue design is one of the observed modes of mechanical failure in practice. For
this reason, fatigue becomes an obvious design consideration for many structures,
such as aircraft, bridges, railroad cars, automotive suspensions and vehicle frames.
For these structures, cyclic loads are identified that could cause fatigue failure if
the design is not adequate. The basic elements of the fatigue design process are
illustrated in Figure 2.1.
7
Figure 2.1. The basic elements of the fatigue design process [1]
Service loads, noise and vibration: Firstly, a description of the service
environment is obtained. The goal is to develop an accurate representation of the
loads, deflections, strains, noise, vibration etc. that would likely be experienced
during the total operating life of the component. Loading sequences are developed
from load histories measured and recorded during specific operations. The most
useful service load data is recording of the outputs of strain gages which are
strategically positioned to directly reflect the input loads experienced by the
component or structure. Noise and vibration has also effect on insight in the
modes and mechanics of component and structural behavior. An objective
description of the vibration systems can be done in terms of frequency and
amplitude information.
Stress analysis: The shape of a component or structure and boundary conditions
dictates how it will respond to service loads in terms of stresses, strains and
deflections. Analytical and experimental methods are available to quantify this
behavior. Finite element techniques can be employed to identify areas of both
Service
Loads
Component
Test
Noise and
Vibration
Stress
Analysis
Cumulative
Damage
Analysis
LIFE
Material
Properties
8
high stress, where there may be potential fatigue problems, and low stress where
there may be potential for reducing weight. Experimental methods can be used in
situations where components or structures actually exist. Strain gages strategically
located can be used to quantify strains at such critical areas.
Material properties: A fundamental requirement for any durability assessment is
knowledge of the relationship between stress and strain and fatigue life for a
material under consideration. Fatigue is a highly localized phenomenon that
depends very heavily on the stresses and strains experienced in critical regions of
a component or structure. The relationship between uniaxial stress and strain for a
given material is unique, consistent and, in most cases, largely independent of
location. Therefore, a small specimen tested under simple axial conditions in the
laboratory can often be used to adequately reflect the behavior of an element of
the same material at a critical area in a component or a structure. However, the
most critical locations are at notches even when loading is uniaxial.
Cumulative damage analysis: The fatigue life prediction process or cumulative
damage analysis for a critical region in a component or structure consists of
several closely interrelated steps as can be seen in Figure 2.1, separately. A
combination of the load history (Service Loads), stress concentration factors
(Stress Analysis) and cyclic stressstrain properties of the materials (Material
Properties) can be used to simulate the local uniaxial stressstrain response in
critical areas. Through this process it is possible to develop good estimates of
local stress amplitudes, mean stresses and elastic and plastic strain components for
each excursion in the load history. Rainflow counting can be used to identify local
cyclic events in a manner consistent with the basic material behavior. The damage
contribution of these events is calculated by comparison with material fatigue data
generated in laboratory tests on small specimens. The damage fractions are
summed linearly to give an estimate of the total damage for a particular load
history.
9
Figure 2.2. The cumulative damage analysis process
Component test: It must be carried out at some stage in a development of a
product to gain confidence in its ultimate service performance. Component testing
is particularly in today’s highly competitive industries where the desire to reduce
weight and production costs must be balanced with the necessity to avoid
expensive service failures.
Fatigue life estimates are often needed in engineering design, specifically in
analyzing trial designs to ensure resistance to cracking. A similar need exists in
the troubleshooting of cracking problems that appear in prototypes or service
models of machines, vehicles, and structures. That is the reason that the predictive
techniques are employed for applications ranging from initial sizing through
prototype development and product verification. The functional diagram in Figure
2.3 shows the role of life prediction in both preliminary design and in subsequent
evaluationredesign cycles, then in component laboratory tests, and finally in field
proving the tests of assemblies or composite vehicles.
2.2. STRESSLIFE BASED APPROACH (SN METHOD)
For the fatigue design and components, several methods are available. All require
similar types of information. These are the identification of candidate locations for
Service Loads
Stress Analysis
Material Properties
Cumulative Damage
Analysis
Component Life
10
Figure 2.3. Functional diagram of engineering design and analysis [1]
fatigue failure, the load spectrum for the structure or component, the stresses or
strains at the candidate locations resulting from the loads, the temperature, the
corrosive environment, the material behavior, and a methodology that combines
all these effects to give a life prediction. Prediction procedures are provided for
estimating life using stress life (Stress vs Number of cycles curves), hotspot
stresses, strain life, and fracture mechanics. With the exception of hotspot stress
method, all these procedures have been used for the design of aluminum
structures.
Since the wellknown work of Wöhler in Germany starting in the 1850’s,
engineers have employed curves of stress versus cycles to fatigue failure, which
are often called SN curves (stressnumber of cycles) or Wöhler’s curve.[14]
11
The basis of the stresslife method is the Wöhler SN curve, that is a plot of
alternating stress, S, versus cycles to failure, N. The data which results from these
tests can be plotted on a curve of stress versus number of cycles to failure. This
curve shows the scatter of the data taken for this simplest of fatigue tests. A
typical SN material data can be seen in Figure 2.4. The arrows imply that the
specimen had not failed in 10
7
cycles.
Figure 2.4. A typical SN material data
The approach known as stressbased approach continues to serve as a widespread
used tool for the design of the aluminum structures. Comparing the stresstime
history at the chosen critical point with the SN curve allows a life estimate for the
component to be made.
Stresslife approach assumes that all stresses in the component, even local ones,
stay below the elastic limit at all times. It is suitable when the applied stress is
nominally within the elastic range of the material and the number of cycles to
12
failure is large. The nominal stress approach is therefore best suited to problems
that fall into the category known as highcycle fatigue. High cycle fatigue is one
of the two regimes of fatigue phenomenon that is generally considered for metals
and alloys. It involves nominally linear elastic behavior and causes failure after
more than about 10
4
to 10
5
cycles. This regime associated with lower loads and
long lives, or high number of cycles to produce fatigue failure. As the loading
amplitude is decreased, the cyclestofailure increase.
13
CHAPTER 3
RAINFLOW CYCLE COUNTING
3.1. ORIGINAL DEFINITION
Counting methods have initially been developed for the study of fatigue damage
generated in aeronautical structures. Since different results have been obtained
from different methods, errors could be taken in the calculations for some of
them. Level crossing counting, peak counting, simple range counting and rainflow
counting are the methods which are using stress or deformation ranges. One of the
preferred methods is the rainflow counting method. Other methods are briefly
explained in Appendix G.
Rainflow cycle counting method has initially been proposed by M.Matsuiski and
T.Endo to count the cycles or the half cycles of straintime signals. [14] Counting
is carried out on the basis of the stressstrain behavior of the material. This is
illustrated in Figure 3.1. As the material deforms from point a to b, it follows a
path described by the cyclic stressstrain curve. At point b, the load is reversed
and the material elastically unloads to point c. When the load is reapplied from c
to d, the material elastically deforms to point b, where the material remembers its
prior history, i.e. from a to b, and deformation continues along path a to d as if
event bc never occurred.
14
Figure 3.1. Stressstrain cycles
The signal measured, in general, a random stress S(t) is not only made up of a
peak alone between two passages by zero, but also several peaks appear, which
makes difficult the determination of the number of cycles absorbed by the
structure. An example for the random stress data is shown in Figure 3.2.
Figure 3.2. Random stress fluctuation
15
The counting of peaks makes it possible to constitute a histogram of the peaks of
the random stress which can then be transformed into a stress spectrum giving the
number of events for lower than a given stress value. The stress spectrum is thus a
representation of the statistical distribution of the characteristic amplitudes of the
random stress as a function of time.
The origin of the name of rainflow counting method which is called ‘Pagoda Roof
Method’ can be explained as that the time axis is vertical and the random stress
S(t) represents a series of roofs on which water falls. The rules of the flow can be
shown as in Figure 3.3.
Figure 3.3. The drop released from the largest peak
The origin of the random stress is placed on the axis at the abscissa of the largest
peak of the random stress. Water drops are sequentially released at each extreme.
It can be agreed that the tops of the roofs are on the right of the axis, bottoms of
the roofs are on the left.
If the fall starts from a peak:
a) the drop will stop if it meets an opposing peak larger than that of
departure,
16
b) it will also stop if it meets the path traversed by another drop, previously
determined as shown in Figure 3.4,
c) the drop can fall on another roof and to continue to slip according to rules
a and b.
Figure 3.4. Flow rule of the drop from a peak
If the fall begins from a valley:
d) the fall will stop if the drop meets a valley deeper than that of departure as
shown in Figure 3.5,
e) the fall will stop if it crosses the path of a drop coming from a preceding
valley as given in Figure 3.6,
f) the drop can fall on another roof and continue according to rules d and e.
The horizontal length of each rainflow defines a range which can be regarded as
equivalent to a halfcycle of a constant amplitude load.
17
Figure 3.5. Drop departure from a valley
Figure 3.6. Flow rule of the drop from a valley
As the fundamentals of the original definition of the rainflow cycle counting given
above, the cycles are identified in a random variable amplitude loading sequence
in Figure 3.7 as an example. First, the stress S(t) is transformed to a process of
peaks and valleys. Then the time axis is rotated so that it points downward. At
both peaks and valleys, water sources are considered. Water flows downward
according to the following rules:
18
1. A rainflow path starting at a valley will continue down the “pagoda roofs”,
until it encounters a valley that is more negative than the origin. From the
figure, the path that starts at A will end at E.
2. A rainflow path is terminated when it encounters flow from a previous
path. For example, the path that starts at C is terminated as shown.
3. A new path is not started until the path under consideration is stopped.
4. Valleygenerated halfcycles are defined for the entire record. For each
cycle, the stress range S
i
is the vertical excursion of a path. The mean µ
Si
is
the midpoint.
5. The process is repeated in reverse with peakgenerated rainflow paths. For
a sufficiently long record, each valleygenerated halfcycle will match a
peakgenerated halfcycle to form a whole cycle.
Figure 3.7. Rainflow cycle counting [13]
19
Figure 3.7. Rainflow cycle counting [13] (continued)
3.2. PRACTICAL DEFINITION
Practical definition of the rainflow cycle counting can be explained according to
the ASTM E–1049 Standard Practices for Cycle Counting in Fatigue Analysis.
Rules for the rainflow counting method are given as follows:
Let X denotes range under consideration; Y, previous range adjacent to X; and S,
starting point in the history.
(1) Read next peak or valley. If out of data, go to Step 6.
(2) If there are less than three points, go to Step 1. Form ranges X and Y using
the three most recent peaks and valleys that have not been discarded.
20
(3) Compare the absolute values of ranges X and Y.
(a) If X<Y, go to Step 1.
(b) If X>Y, go to Step 4.
(4) If range Y contains the starting point S, go to step 5; otherwise, count
range Y as one cycle; discard the peak and valley of Y; and go to Step 2.
(5) Count range Y as onehalf cycle; discard the first point (peak or valley) in
range Y; move the starting point to the second point in range Y; go to Step 2.
(6) Count each range that has not been previously counted as onehalf cycle.
Figure 3.8 is used to illustrate the process. Details of the cycle counting are as
follows:
(1) S=A; Y=AB ; X=BC; X>Y. Y contains S, that is, point A. Count AB
as onehalf cycle and discard point A; S=B. (Figure b)
(2) Y=BC; X=CD; X>Y. Y contains S, that is, point B. Count BC as one
halfcycle and discard point B; S=C. (Figure c)
(3) Y=CD; X=DE; X<Y.
(4) Y=DE; X=EF; X<Y.
(5) Y=EF; X=FG; X>Y. Count EF as one cycle and discard points E and
F. (Figure d. A cycle is formed by pairing range EF and a portion of
range FG)
(6) Y=CD; X=DG; X>Y. Y contains S, that is, point C. Count CD as
onehalf cycle and discard point C. S=D. (Figure e)
(7) Y=DG; X=GH; X<Y.
(8) Y=GH; X=HI; X<Y. End of data.
(9) Count DG as onehalf cycle, GH as onehalf cycle, and HI as one
half cycle. (Figure f)
(10)End of counting.
21
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
(e) (f)
Figure 3.8. Practical definition of rainflow cycle counting
22
The results obtained from Figure 3.8 are tabulated in Table 3.1. It gives the
number of cycle counts in the specific events.
Table 3.1. Cycle counts
Range
(units)
Cycle
Counts
Events
10 0
9 0.5 DG
8 1 CD, GH
7 0
6 0.5 HI
5 0
4 1.5 BC, EF
3 0.5 AB
2 0
1 0
23
CHAPTER 4
RAINFLOW CYCLE COUNTING
IN TIME AND FREQUENCY DOMAINS
4.1. INTRODUCTION
The sample time history is actually not equivalent to the original time history.
However, it is not problem: When considering the original time history was for
instance 300 second segment of time signal before, or after as can be seen in
Figure 4.1, the one measured is not equivalent. It does not matter, as long as the
sample was long enough so that the statistics of it were the same. For instance, the
mean, stress range values, and peak rate.
Figure 4.1. Time history [23]
If random loading input is asked to specify, then random time history should be
specified as can be seen in Figure 4.1. This process can be described as random
and as in the time domain. As an extension of Fourier analysis, Fourier transforms
allow any process to be represented using a spectral formulation such as a power
spectral density (PSD) function. This process is described as a function of
24
frequency and is therefore said to be in the frequency domain as can be seen in
Figure 4.2. It is still a random specification of the function.
Figure 4.2. Random processes [9]
4.2. RAINFLOW CYCLE COUNTING IN TIME DOMAIN
For any fatigue analysis, the starting point is the response of the structure or
component, which is usually expressed as a stress or strain time history. If the
response time history is made up of constant amplitude stress or strain cycles then
the fatigue design can be accomplished by referring to a typical to a typical SN
diagram. However, because real signals rarely confirm to this ideal constant
amplitude situation, an empirical approach is used for calculating the damage
caused by stress signals of variable amplitude. Despite its limitations, Palmgren
Miner rule is used for this purpose. This linear relationship assumes that the
damage caused by parts of a stress signal with a particular range can be calculated
and accumulated to the total damage separately from that caused by other ranges.
25
When the response time history is irregular with time as shown in Figure 4.3,
rainflow cycle counting is used to decompose the irregular time history into
equivalent stress of block loading. The number of cycles in each block is usually
recorded in a stress range histogram. This can be used in PalmgrenMiner
calculation to obtain the fatigue life.
Figure 4.3. General procedure for time domain fatigue life calculation [23]
4.3. RAINFLOW CYCLE COUNTING IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN
In frequency domain, firstly, time signal data is transferred into power spectral
density values. Power spectral density versus frequency data is used to find the
first four moments of the power spectral density function and these four moments
are used in finding the probability density function. Then, fatigue life is obtained
as the steps of the process are also given in Figure 4.4.
26
Figure 4.4. General procedure for frequency domain fatigue life calculation [23]
4.3.1. Probability Density Function (PDF)
When the stress range histogram is converted into a stress range probability
density function, there is an equation to describe the expected fatigue damage
caused by the loading history. [23]
[ ] [ ] ( ) dS S p S
k
T
P E D E
b
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
í
∞
0
(4.1)
In order to compute fatigue damage over the life time of the structure in seconds
(T), the form of the material (SN) data must also be defined using the parameters
k and b as:
k S N
b
= ⋅ (4.2)
where b and k are the material properties. There is a linear relationship exists
between cycles to failure N and applied stress range S under constant amplitude
cyclic loading when plotted on logarithmic paper. In addition, the total number of
cycles in time T must be determined from the number of peaks per second E[P]. If
the damage D caused in time T is greater than 1, then the structure is assumed to
have failed. Or alternatively, the fatigue life can be obtained by setting E[D] =1.0
and then finding the fatigue life T in seconds from the fatigue damage equation
given above.
27
The stress range histogram information can be stored in the form of a probability
density function (pdf) of stress ranges. A typical representation of this function is
shown in Figure 4.5.
Figure 4.5. Probability density function
To get probability density function from rainflow histogram, each bin in the
rainflow count has to be divided by
dS N
t
⋅ (4.3)
where N
t
is the total number of cycles in histogram and dS is the bin width.
The probability of the stress range occurring between
2
dS
S
i
− and
2
dS
S
i
+ is given by ( ) dS S p
i
⋅ .
4.3.2. Expected Zeros, Peaks and Irregularity Factor
The number of zero crossings and the number peaks in the signal are the most
important statistical parameters. Figure 4.6 shows a one second piece cut out from
the time signal.
28
E [0] is the number of upward zero crossings, i.e. zero crossings with positive
slope and E [P] is the number of peaks in the same sample. The irregularity factor
is defined as the number of upward zero crossings divided by the number of
peaks. These points can be seen in Figure 4.5.
= upward zero crossing
= peak
Figure 4.6. Zero and peak crossing rates
Number of upward zero crossings,
[ ] 3 0 = E (4.4)
Number of peaks,
[ ] 6 = P E (4.5)
irregularity factor,
[ ]
[ ] 6
3 0
= =
P E
E
γ (4.6)
Irregularity factor is found in the range of 0 to 1. This process is known as narrow
band as shown in the Figure 4.7(a). Narrow band process is built up of sine waves
covering only a narrow range of frequencies. As the divergence from narrow band
increases then the value for the irregularity factor tends towards 0 and the process
29
is illustrated as broad band as given in Figure 4.7(b). Broad band process is made
up of sine waves over a broad range of frequencies. In sine wave, shown in Figure
4.7(c), a sinusoidal time history appears as a single spike on the PSD plot. Figure
4.7(d), a white noise is shown which is a special time history. It is built up of sine
waves over the whole frequency range.
Figure 4.7. Equivalent time histories and power spectral densities
4.3.3. Moments from the Power Spectral Density
The probability density function of rainflow ranges can be extracted directly from
the power spectral density (PSD) function of stress.
From the characteristics of the power spectral density, n
th
moments of the power
spectral density function are obtained. After the calculations of the moments,
fatigue damage can be calculated. The relevant spectral moments are easily
30
computed from a one sided power spectral density, G(f), using the following
expression:
( ) ( )
¯
í
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ =
∞
f f G f df f G f m
k
n
k
n
n
δ
0
(4.7)
The curve is divided into small strips as shown in Figure 4.8. The n
th
moment of
area of the strip is given by the area of the strip multiplied by the frequency raised
to the power n. The n
th
moment of area of the PSD (m
n
) can be calculated by
summing the moments of all the strips.
In theory, all the possible moments should be calculated, however, in practice, m
0
,
m
1
, m
2
, m
4
are sufficient to calculate all of the information for the fatigue
analysis.
Figure 4.8. Onesided power spectral density function
4.3.4. Expected Zeros, Peaks and Irregularity Factor from a Power Spectral
Density
The number of upward zero crossings per second E[0] and peaks per second E[P]
in a random signal expressed solely in terms of their spectral moments m
n
.
31
The number of upward zero crossings per second is [36]:
[ ]
0
2
0
m
m
E = (4.8)
The number of peaks per second is:
[ ]
2
4
m
m
P E = (4.9)
Therefore, irregularity factor is found as:
[ ]
[ ]
4 0
2
2
0
m m
m
P E
E
⋅
= = γ (4.10)
Then, total number of peaks and zeros are found by multiplying E[0] and E[P]
with the total record length.
Cycles at level i : [ ]
t i i
N dS S p n ⋅ ⋅ = (4.11)
Total cycles : [ ] T P E N
t
⋅ = (4.12)
where T refers to the total time.
4.3.5. Estimation of Probability Density Function from Power Spectral
Density Moments (Dirlik’s Solution)
Many expressions have been produced by generating sample time histories from
power spectral densities (PSD) using Inverse Fourier Transform techniques. From
these a conventional rainflow cycle count was then obtained.
This approach was used by Wirsching et al, Chaudhury and Dover, Tuna and
Hancock [23]. It is important to note that the solutions are expressed in terms of
spectral moments up to m
4
.
32
Dirlik [23] has produced an empirical solution for the probability density function
of rainflow ranges. Dirlik’s equation is given below.
( )
2 1
0
2
3
2
2
2 1
2
2 2
m
e Z D e
R
D
e
Q
D
S p
Z Z
Q
Z
⋅
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
=
− −
−
(4.13)
where,
2 1
0
2 m
S
Z
⋅
= (4.14)
( )
2
2
1
1
2
γ
γ
+
− ⋅
=
m
X
D (4.15)
R
D D
D
−
+ − −
=
1
1
2
1 1
2
γ
(4.16)
2 1 3
1 D D D − − = (4.17)
2
1 1
2
1
1 D D
D X
R
m
+ − −
− −
=
γ
γ
(4.18)
( )
1
2 1
4
5
D
R D D
Q
⋅
⋅ − − ⋅
=
γ
(4.19)
where
4 0
2
m m
m
⋅
= γ (4.20)
4
2
0
1
m
m
m
m
X
m
⋅ = (4.21)
As can be seen from the equations above X
m
, D
1
, D
2
, D
3
, Q and R are all functions
of m
0
, m
1
, m
2
and m
4
.
33
CHAPTER 5
PALMGRENMINER RULE
Almost all available fatigue data for design purposes is based on constant
amplitude tests. However, in practice, the alternating stress amplitude may be
expected to vary or change in some way during the service life when the fatigue
failure is considered. The variations and changes in load amplitude, often referred
to as spectrum loading, make the direct use of SN curves inapplicable because
these curves are developed and presented for constant stress amplitude operation.
The key issue is how to use the mountains of available constant amplitude data to
predict fatigue in a component. In this case, to have an available theory or
hypothesis becomes important which is verified by experimental observations. It
also permits design estimates to be made for operation under conditions of
variable load amplitude using the standard constant amplitude SN curves that are
more readily available.
Many different cumulative damage theories have been proposed for the purposes
of assessing fatigue damage caused by operation at any given stress level and the
addition of damage increments to properly predict failure under conditions of
spectrum loading. Collins, in 1981, provides a comprehensive review of the
models that have been proposed to predict fatigue life in components subject to
variable amplitude stress using constant amplitude data to define fatigue strength.
The original model, a linear damage rule, originally suggested by Palmgren
(1924) and later developed by Miner (1945) [13]. This linear theory, which is still
widely used, is referred to as the PalmgrenMiner rule or the linear damage rule.
Life estimates may be made by employing PalmgrenMiner rule along with a
cycle counting procedure. Target is to estimate how many of the blocks can be
applied before failure occurs. This theory may be described using the SN plot.
34
In this rule, the assumptions can be summarized as follows:
i) The stress process can be described by stress cycles and that a spectrum of
amplitudes of stress cycles can be defined. Such a spectrum will lose any
information on the applied sequence of stress cycles that may be important in
some cases.
ii) A constant amplitude SN curve is available, and this curve is compatible with
the definition of stress; that is, at this point there is no explicit consideration of the
possibility of mean stress.
Figure 5.1. Spectrum of amplitudes of stress cycles [13]
In Figure 5.1, a spectrum of amplitudes of stress cycles is described as a sequence
of constant amplitude blocks, each block having stress amplitude S
i
and the total
number of applied cycles n
i
. The constant amplitude SN curve is also shown in
Figure 5.2.
By using the SN data, number of cycles of S
1
is found as N
1
which would cause
failure if no other stresses were present. Operation at stress amplitude S
1
for a
number of cycles n
1
smaller than N
1
produces a smaller fraction of damage which
can be termed as D
1
and called as the damage fraction.
35
Figure 5.2. Constant amplitude SN curve [22]
Operation over a spectrum of different stress levels results in a damage fraction D
i
for each of the different stress levels S
i
in the spectrum. It is clear that, failure
occurs if the fraction exceeds unity:
0 . 1 ...
1 2 1
≥ + + + +
− i i
D D D D (5.1)
According to the PalmgrenMiner rule, the damage fraction at any stress level S
i
is
linearly proportional to the ratio of number of cycles of operation to the total
number of cycles that produces failure at that stress level, that is
i
i
i
N
n
D = (5.2)
Then, a total damage can be defined as the sum of all the fractional damages over
a total of k blocks,
¯
=
=
k
i i
i
N
n
D
1
(5.3)
and the event of failure can be defined as
0 . 1 ≥ D (5.4)
The limitations of the PalmgrenMiner rule can be summarized as the following:
36
i) Linear: It assumes that all cycles of a given magnitude do the same amount of
damage, whether they occur early or late in the life.
ii) Noninteractive (sequence effects): It assumes that the presence of S
2
etc. does
not affect the damage caused by S
1
.
iii) Stress independent: It assumes that the rule governing the damage caused by
S
1
is the same as that governing the damage caused by S
2
.
The assumptions are known to be faulty, however, PalmgrenMiner rule is still
used widely in the applications of the fatigue life estimates.
37
CHAPTER 6
DESIGN OF THE EXPERIMENTS
6.1. VIBRATION TEST SYSTEM
Tests were carried on the mechanical vibration test system which is V864640
SPA 20K, produced by Ling Dynamic Systems (LDS). The model of the system
has armature in 640mm diameter and the power amplifier has 4 modules each
being rated at 5kVA power. The system is shown in Figure 6.1.
Figure 6.1. Vibration test system
The essential components of a vibration test system as can be seen in Figure 6.2
are:
• Vibrator (shaker)
• Amplifier
• Controller
• Vibration transducer (typically accelerometer)
38
Figure 6.2. Components of the vibration test system
In principal the vibrator, which is an electrodynamic instrument, operates like a
loudspeaker, where the movement of the armature is produced by an electrical
current in the coil which produces a magnetic field opposing a static magnetic
field. The static magnetic field is produced by an electromagnet in the vibrator.
The electromagnet is a coil of wire which is commonly referred to as the field
coil. The force that the armature can produce is proportional to the current flowing
in the coil. To calculate the force produced, the following formula can be applied:
L I B F ⋅ ⋅ = (6.1)
where F is the force (Newton,N), B is the magnetic flux density (Tesla,T), I is
the current (Amper,A) and L is the thickness of the magnet (meter,m).
The direction of the force is well illustrated by Flemming’s left hand rule.
Figure 6.3. Left hand rule
39
The purpose of the amplifier is to provide electrical power to the vibrator’s
armature. The power is in the form of voltage and current. Its function is also to
provide the necessary field power supply, cooling fan supply and auxiliary
supplies, to monitor the system interlock signals and initiate amplifier shutdown
when any system abnormality sensed. Vibration controller is used to ensure that
what is seen by the control accelerometer is what has been programmed into the
controller. The controller will monitor the result on the table from the output from
the control accelerometer and then correct its output to match the defined test. The
system behaves as a closed loop system.
In the experiment, the random vibration profile in the form of band limited noise
shown in Figure 6.4 is applied to the specimen. The Minimum Integrity Test
according to MILSTD810F is used for general purposes where the place of the
specimen is not known. It is intended to provide reasonable assurance that
material can withstand anywhere such as in transportation and handling including
field installation, removal or repair.
The random vibration test is performed in frequencies between 5Hz and 500Hz.
with 0.04g
2
/Hz power spectral density value. The root mean square (rms) value of
the acceleration (g) is obtained as 4.45 for the specified range.
6.2. TEST MATERIAL
The reality of shortened lead times, performance improvements in products and
materials as well as business complexity and globalization, and regulatory
compliance are factors driving the materials decisions daily. In the experimental
design, the aliminum material is chosen because it is widespreadly used in the
areas such as aircraft, road transport, rail transport, sea, and also in the building.
Aluminum is ideal material for any transport application. Since aluminum is very
strong, rugged vehicles, like the Land Rover and the Hammer military vehicle, all
40
Figure 6.4. Minimum Integrity Test applied to the specimen between 5500Hz[26]
use aluminum extensively. Aluminum is also used for railroad cars, truck and
automobile engine blocks and cylinder heads, heat exchangers, transmission
housings, engine parts and automobile wheels. The structures in the sea, such as
craft, are weightcritical, and aluminum is the preferred material. Aluminum plate
girders, which are frequently used in ships and modules in aluminum, may
experience a dramatic reduction in strength due to the vulnerability of aluminum
material to heating. In addition, aluminum’s strength, weight and versatility make
it an ideal building and cladding material since these properties encourage its use
in earthquake prone zones and its resistance to corrosion means it is virtually
maintenancefree. Highly resistant and rigid, they have low rates of expansion and
contraction and also of condensation. They are extremely stable, durable and
thermally efficient.
In conclusion, because of its properties, aluminum material is preferred in every
area. Since the products are mostly seen as aluminummade, the aluminum test
specimen is chosen to analyze in the experiment. The main properties of the
aluminum can be summarized as follows:
41
High strengthtoweight ratio: At 2700 kg/m
3
, aluminum is only one third the
density of iron. Aluminum is typically used as construction material in weight
critical structures. Highstrength aluminum alloys attain the tensile strength of
regular construction steel.
Durability: Its natural airtight oxide skin protects aluminum against corrosion.
Electrically conductivity: An equivalent conductive cross section of aluminum is
equal to 1.6 times that of copper, however brings with it a significant weight
advantage or approximately 50%.
Heat conductivity: With a value of 2.03W/cmK, aluminum exhibits excellent heat
conductivity. This is why it is ideal for solar panels, cooling elements, brake discs,
etc.
Ductility: Aluminum can be shaped and moulded in all the usual cutting and non
cutting ways.
Recyclability: Aluminum is almost predestined for reuse. With an energy
requirement equivalent to 5% of the raw material gain, aluminum is efficiently
brought back into circulation with minimal emissions.
In addition, this lightweight metal is nontoxic and completely harmless in all
applicaitons.
6.3. STRAIN GAGES
In the experimental analysis, a strain gage is used to measure the strains on the
surface of the aluminum plate where is the most critical point. Because the
resistance change in a strain gage is very small, it can not be measured accurately
with an ordinary ohmmeter. The Wheatstone Bridge is used which of its one arm
is strain gage. The basic principles of the stress, strain, strain gage, measuring
circuit and shunt calibration are described in this part.
The maximum benefit from strain gage measurements can only be obtained when
a correctly assembled measuring system is allied with a through knowledge of the
42
factors governing the strength and elasticity of materials. This knowledge allows
the strain gages to be in the most effective manner, so that reliable measurements
can be obtained.
During the design and construction of machines and structures, the strength of the
material to be used plays a very important part in the calculations. The strength of
the material is used to find whether the parts can carry the loads demanded of
them without excessive deformation or failure. These load carrying abilities are
normally characterized in terms of stress. Stress can be calculated by dividing the
force applied by the unit area for a uniform distribution of internal resisting
forces:
A
F
= σ (6.2)
where σ is stress, F is the force and A is the unit area.
In the same way that loads are characterized in terms of stress, extension is
characterized in terms of strain. Strain is defined as the amount of deformation per
unit length of an object when a load is applied. Strain is measured as the ratio of
dimensional change to the total value of the dimension in which the change
occurs:
L
L ∆
= ε (6.3)
where ε is the strain and L is the original length.
Poisson’s ratio is the ratio of transverse to longitudinal unit strain. The modulus of
elasticity is the ratio of stress to the corresponding strain (below the proportional
limits). It is defined by Hooke’s Law as
ε
σ
= E (6.4)
where E is the modulus of elasticity which is constant.
43
The tensile and compressive modulus of elasticity are defined separately as
ε
σ
T
T
E = (6.5)
and
ε
σ
C
C
E = (6.6)
Then the tensile modulus of elasticity becomes,
L
L
A
F
E
T
T
∆
= (6.7)
where
T
F is the tension force, L ∆ is the elongation along the direction of
application force.
And, the compressive modulus of elasticity becomes,
L
L
A
F
E
C
C
∆
= (6.8)
where
C
F is the compression force, L ∆ is the contraction along the direction of
application force.
Strain gages are one of the most universal measuring devices for the electrical
measurement of mechanical quantities. As their name indicates, they are used for
the measurement of strain. As a technical term ‘strain’ consists of tensile and
compressive strain, distinguished by a positive or negative sign. Thus, strain gages
can be used to pick up expansion as well as contraction. The strain of a body is
always caused by an external influence or an internal effect.
44
6.3.1. STRAIN GAGE CHARACTERISTICS
The characteristics of the strain gage are gage dimensions, gage resistance, gage
sensitivity (gage factor), the range, gage pattern, gage series, temperature and self
temperature compensation.
Gage Dimensions: The uniaxial strain gage dimensions are shown in Figure 6.5.
The length of the straight portion of the grid determines the gage length of the
strain gage and the width is determined by the width of the grid as can be seen in
the figure. Dimensions listed for gage length, as measured inside the grid
endloops and grid width refer to active or strainsensitive grid dimensions. The
endloops and solder taps are considered insensitive to strain because of their
relatively large crosssectional area and low electrical resistance. The figure also
shows the overall length, overall width, matrix length, matrix width and the
gridline direction.
Figure 6.5. Detail description of the uniaxial strain gage [16]
45
A larger gage has greater grid area which is better for heat dissipation, improved
strain averaging on inhomogeneous materials such as fiber reinforced composites
and easier handling and installation. However, a shorter gage has advantages
when measuring localized peak strains in the vicinity of a stress concentration, for
example, a hole or shoulder and when very limited space available for gage
mounting.
Gage Resistance: The resistance of a strain gage is defined as the electrical
resistance measured between the two metal ribbons or contact areas intended for
the connection of measurement cables. The range comprises strain gages with a
nominal resistance of 120, 350, 600, and 700 ohms.
Strain gages with resistances of 120 and 350 ohms are commonly used in
experimental stress analysis testing. For the majority of applications, 120ohm
gages are usually suitable; however, there are often advantages from selecting the
350ohm resistance if this resistance is compatible with the instrumentation to be
used. This may be because of cost considerations and particularly in the case of
very small gages. In addition, 350ohm gages are preferred to reduce heat
generation, to reduce leadwire effects, or to improve signalto noise ratios in the
gage circuit. For the high resistance small gages, fatigue life reduction can also be
expected.
Gage Sensitivity (Gage Factor): The strain sensitivity k of a strain gage is the
proportionality factor between the relative changes of the resistance. It is a figure
without dimension and is generally called gage factor which is referred as the
measure of sensitivity, or output, produced by a resistance strain gage.
The strain sensitivity of a single uniform length of a conductor is given by:
ε
R
dR
k = (6.9)
46
where ε is a uniform strain along the conductor and in the direction of the
conductor. Whenever a conductor, for instance a wire, is wound into a strain gage
grid, however, certain effects take place, which alter the resistance of the strain
gage to a certain degree. This value of sensitivity is assigned to the gage.
The Range: Range represents the maximum strain which can be recorded without
resetting or replacing the strain gage. The range and sensitivity are interrelated
since very sensitive gages respond to small strain with appreciable response and
the range is usually limited to the fullscale deflection or count of the indicator.
Gage Pattern: Gage pattern commonly refers to the number of the grid whether it
is uniaxial or multiaxial. Uniaxial strain gage is selected if only one direction of
strain needs to be investigated. They are available with different aspect ratios, i.e.
lengthtowidth, and various solder tab arrangements for adaptability to different
installation requirements. A biaxial strain rosette (0º90º tee rosette) is selected if
the principal stresses need to be investigated and the principal axes are known. A
trielement strain rosette (0º45º90º rectangular rosette or 0º60º120º delta
rosette) is selected if the principal stresses need to be investigated; however, the
principal axes are unknown.
Gage Series: Gage series should be selected after the selection of gage size and
the gage pattern. The standard gage series table is given in Appendix B,
Table B.3.
Temperature: Temperature can alter not only the properties of a strain gage
element, but also can alter the properties of the base material to which the strain
gage is attached. Differences in expansion coefficients between the gage and base
materials may cause dimensional changes in the sensor element. Expansion or
contraction of the strain gage element and/or the base material introduces errors
that are difficult to correct.
47
SelfTemperature Compensation (STC): It is the approximate thermal expansion
coefficient in ppm/°F of the structural material on which the gage is to be used.
All gages with XX as the second code group in the gage designation are self
temperaturecompensated for use on structural materials. The STC numbers
which are available can be given as; A alloy: 00,03,05,06,09,13,15,18; P alloy:
08; K alloy: 00,03,05,06,09,13,15. The D alloy is not available, DY is used
instead of D in selftemperaturecompensated form.
6.3.2. THE MEASURING CIRCUIT
The extremely small changes of the order of thousandths of an ohm, that occur in
the gage resistance due to variations in the applied strain can be measured by
Wheatstone Bridge. The Wheatstone Bridge was actually first described by
Samuel Hunter Christie (17841865) in 1833. However, Sir Charles Wheatstone
invented many uses for this circuit once he found the complete description in
1843 [24]. Today, the Wheatstone Bridge remains the most sensitive and accurate
method for precisely measuring resistance values. Since the Wheatstone Bridge is
well suited for the measurement of small changes of a resistance, it is also suitable
to measure the resistance change in a strain gage. The Wheatstone Bridge is two
voltage dividers, both fed by the same input. The circuit output is taken from both
voltage divider outputs. It is simply shown in Figure 6.6.
1
R ,
2
R ,
3
R , and
4
R
are
the resistances in terms of ohm (O),
A
E
is voltage difference on
3
R
,
B
E
is
voltage difference on
4
R , E is voltage difference between C and D, e
o
is voltage
difference between A and B. Voltage differences are given in terms of volt (V).
48
Figure 6.6. Basic Wheatstone Bridge circuit
6.3.2.1. Quarter Bridge Circuit
Quarter bridge circuit is one of the cases of Wheatstone Bridge. This arrangement
is employed for many dynamic and static strain measurements where temperature
compensation in the circuit is not critical.
The external circuit with active gage is illustrated with instrument in Figure 6.7.
Quarter bridge circuit with active gage is shown in Figure 6.8 in which an active
gage, in a threewire circuit, is remote from the instrument and connected to gage
resistance
G
R by leadwires of resistance
L
R . If all leadwire resistances are
nominally equal, then
1
R
and
2
R shown in Figure 6.6 are calculated as
G L
R R R + =
1
(6.10)
and
G L
R R R + =
2
(6.11)
This means that the same amount of leadwire resistance in series with both the
active gage and the dummy. There is also leadwire resistance in the bridge output
connection to the S instrument terminal. Since the input impedance of the
instrument applied across the output terminals of the bridge circuit is taken to be
49
infinite, the latter resistance has no effect. Thus, no current flows through the
instrument leads.
Figure 6.7. The external circuit with active gage illustrated with instrument [16]
Figure 6.8. Quarter bridge circuit with active gage [16]
50
6.3.3. SHUNT CALIBRATION OF STRAIN GAGE
In strain measuring system, it is necessary to convert the deflection of the
recording instrument into the strain quantity being measured. The process of
determining the conversion factor or calibration constant is called calibration. A
single calibration for the complete system is obtained so that readings from the
recording instrument can be directly related to the strains which produced them.
Shunt calibration is to simulate a predetermined strain in the gage, and then
adjusting the gage factor or gain of the instrument until it registers the same strain.
The basic shunt calibration of single active arm is shown in Figure 6.9.
Figure 6.9. Shunt calibration of single active gage [25]
The strain measuring system is calibrated by connecting a resistor
C
R
of known
resistance across an active arm of the bridge to produce a known change
G
R ∆ in
resistance of this arm. For simplicity and without loss generality, it is assumed
that
4 3 2 1
R R R R = = = ,
G
R R =
1
and
G
R R ∆ = ∆
1
(quarter bridge). Thus, the
bridge is initially balanced. The calibration resistor
C
R is shunted across
1
R
by
51
closing the switch. The equivalent resistance of the bridge arm with the
calibration resistor shunted across this arm is
C
C
e
R R
R R
R
+
⋅
=
1
1
(6.12)
and the change in the arm resistance
1 1
R R R
e
− = ∆ , by using Equation (6.12), the
following is obtained:
C
R R
R
R
R
+
−
=
∆
1
1
1
1
(6.1)
where
C
R is the calibration resistor.
The unit resistance change in the gage is related to strain through the definition of
the gage factor,
G
F :
ε ⋅ =
∆
G
G
F
R
R
(6.14)
Since,
G
R R =
1
, then
( )
C G G
G
S
R R F
R
+ ⋅
−
= ε (6.15)
where
S
ε is the calibration strain which produces the same voltage output from
the bridge as the calibration resistor
C
R . The minus sign indicates that the
deflection of the recording system produced by the connection of
C
R is along the
same direction as that produced by a compressive strain in the gage resistance
G
R .
6.4. TEST PROCEDURE
In the experiment, a cantilever aluminum plate with a side notch under certain
loading conditions is used as a test specimen. The fatigue behavior of the test
specimen subjected to random loading is investigated experimentally. The
acquired experimental data are then analyzed statistically. The steps of preparing
the test specimen are given as follows.
52
Aluminum plate, which is 79 gram mass, has 4mm thickness, 50mm width and
150mm length. An 8mm diameter hole is placed to apply an end mass on one side
of the plate. The end mass which is made up of steel has mass of 486.3 gram. This
configuration can be seen in Figure 6.10. Side notch is placed 50mm from the
other side of the aluminum plate as shown in Figure 6.11.
Aluminum plate End mass
Figure 6.10. Aluminum test specimen
side notch
Figure 6.11. Side notch in the aluminum test specimen
53
The test specimen is carefully inserted between the materials from 40mm inside of
the left notch side of the aluminum plate as seen in Figure 6.12. Before inserting,
polyurethane foam is glued on the aluminum plate to increase the dry friction
coefficient. Since notched end of the aluminum plate is fixed, a cantilever beam
with base excitation is obtained.
Figure 6.12. Cantilever aluminum plate
The cantilever aluminum plate is screwed to the fixture which is used to attach the
test specimen to the vibration test system, i.e. test adaptor. It is used since an
intermediate element is needed to match the whole pattern of the test specimen to
the pattern of the vibrator. The combined system is shown in Figure 6.13.
54
Figure 6.13. Test specimen with fixture
Strain gage is used to specify the fatigue life of the specimen. A commercial strain
gage, selfcompensated for aluminum, is strongly glued with the chemical
consolidation behind the notch where the strain measurement is done. The process
steps are the surface preparation, placing the strain gage, gluing, soldering the
cable, surface protection cover and eye inspection. Figure 6.14 shows the
aluminum test specimen with strain gage which is glued on. Also, in Figure 6.15,
the side notch which is placed under the strain gage is seen.
strain gage
Figure 6.14. Strain gage glued on the aluminum test specimen
55
side notch
Figure 6.15. Side notch placed under the strain gage
The ideal strain gage would change resistance only due to the deformations of the
surface to which the sensor is attached. It should be small in size and mass, low in
cost, easily attached, and highly sensitive to strain but insensitive to ambient or
process temperature variations. The uniaxial strain gage is shown separately in
Figure 6.16.
Figure 6.16. Uniaxial strain gage [16]
In the experiment, EDDY060CP350 type general purpose strain gage is used.
The description of the strain gage is given below:
56
E D – DY  060 CP  350
Resistance in Ohms
Grid and Tab Geometry
Active Gage Length in Milseconds
SelfTemperatureCompensation
Foil Alloy
Carrier Matrix (Backing)
E refers openfaced general purpose gage with tough, flexible cast polyimide
backing. D refers as isoelastic alloy, high gage factor and high fatigue life
excellent for dynamic measurements. The temperature range is between 195°C
and +205°C and the strain range is ±2%. Resistance is 350 ±0.4% O. The
dimensions of the strain gage used in the experiment are given in Table 6.2.
Table 6.2. Dimensions of the strain gage used in the experiment
Dimensions in mm
Gage length 0.06 1.52
Overall length 0.2 5.08
Grid width 0.18 4.57
Overall width 0.18 4.57
Matrix length 0.31 7.9
Matrix width 0.26 6.6
One side of the cable is soldered to the uniaxial strain gage and the other side is
going through the connector by the quarter bridge as shown in Figure 6.17. 4wire
cable is used. One of the wires of the cable is soldered to one leg of the strain
gage and two of the wires are soldered to the other leg of the strain gage. The
screen is shielded to the aluminum plate to prevent the electrical noise.
57
Figure 6.17. Aluminum test specimen, cable and the connector
Quarter Bridge is installed as a circuit. The electrical connection of the circuit is
shown in Figure 6.18. As can be seen from the figure, 65, 31, 915 and 810 are
made short circuited. The other end of the cable wire, coming from one leg of the
strain gage which is single soldered, is soldered to 2. The other ends of the two
wires, coming from the second leg of the strain gage which is soldered at the same
leg, are soldered from 10 and 11 separately to the connector. The screen is
soldered to 12.
58
Figure 6.18. Quarter bridge circuit diagram of the strain gage connector
The connector provides the connection with the channel where the data is
collected from. Traveller Plus is used as a data acquisition system. Data
acquisition system, as the name implies, is a product and/or process used to
collect information to document or analyze some phenomenon. The data
acquisition system, Traveller Plus, can be seen in Figure 6.19, is connected to the
laptop computer with USB port. ESAM (Electronic Signal Analysis
Measurement) software is run from the computer to collect the data while the
specimen is in the vibration test. The strain gage resistance and the gage factor;
modulus of elasticity, poisson’s ratio of the specimen and the environment
temperature are entered to the software as input parameters. After then, ESAM
software is ready to analyze the data.
59
Laptop
Traveller Plus Data Acquisition System
Figure 6.19. Measuring equipment
60
CHAPTER 7
RESULTS OF MODAL ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES
7.1. MODAL ANALYSIS
Modal analysis has been used to determine the vibration characteristics of the
specimen which are undamped natural frequencies and mode shapes. By
examining the undamped natural frequencies obtained from the analysis, the
sampling rate has been determined and the graphs are drawn half of the sampling
frequency which is called Nyquist frequency. Nyquist frequency is the maximum
frequency that can be detected from data sampled at time spacing referred as
sample period. From the analysis, the behavior of the aluminum test specimen has
also been examined. The material properties used in the design of a structure for
dynamic loading conditions are given for the aluminum plate, steel end mass and
screw are listed in Table 7.1.
Table 7.1. Material properties of the elements used in the modal analysis
Second order element has been used in the modal analysis in ANSYS software.
SOLID92 element with 10 node has been selected for the aluminum and steel
elements, and BEAM4 has been selected for the screw. Screw has been modeled
in 8mm diameter. In the modal analysis, Block Lanczos solver is used.
Material Property Aluminum Plate Steel End Mass Screw
Young’s Modulus
(Modulus of Elasticity)
70x10
9
Pa. 210x10
9
Pa. 210x10
9
Pa.
Density 2,700kg/m
3
7,800kg/m
3
10
6
kg/m
3
Poisson’s Ratio 0.33 0.27 0.27
61
The analysis has been performed with different mesh sizes and first four
undamped natural frequencies have been obtained. In the first analysis, mesh size
has been taken as 0.01m. The results have been obtained as f
1
=42.96Hz,
f
2
=136.41Hz, f
3
=254.67Hz and f
4
=997.85Hz. By decreasing the mesh size to
0.005m, the second analysis results have been obtained as f
1
=46.20Hz,
f
2
=148.13Hz, f
3
=266.38Hz and f
4
=1019.24Hz. In the third analysis, mesh size has
been reduced to 0.003m and the results have been found as f
1
=46.89Hz,
f
2
=148.79Hz, f
3
=267.29Hz, f
4
=1020.30Hz which have been obtained very close
to the second analysis results. It has been examined that after a certain value for
the mesh size, the undamped natural frequencies have been obtained very close to
each other. Therefore, third analysis has been considered in the following
experimental studies.
The maximum frequency of interest has been considered to define the sampling
frequency. According to the third analysis results, to examine the first three
natural frequencies, sampling frequency has been decided to be 1,000Hz. Mode
shapes of the test specimen for the first three undamped natural frequencies are
given in Figure 7.1, 7.2 and 7.3.
62
Figure 7.1. 1st mode shape of the test specimen obtained by ANSYS
Figure 7.2. 2nd mode shape of the test specimen obtained by ANSYS
63
Figure 7.3. 3rd mode shape of the test specimen obtained by ANSYS
7.2. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
The aluminum cantilever plate has a side notch and this notch was the most
critical point against the stress concentration. The straintime data has been taken
by the data acquisition system, Traveller Plus, during the vibration testing of the
test specimen. The results have been obtained both in time and frequency
domains. Total damage has been calculated by PalmgrenMiner rule and statistical
errors associated with the spectral measurements have been performed for the
analysis in frequency domain.
7.2.1. Experimental Results in Time Domain
Electronic Signal Acquisition Module (ESAM) software has been used for
processing the random stresses. Each random signal has been divided into the
single cycles. One of the methods of cycling implemented in the software was
rainflow. The straintime data has been collected during the experiment. The
64
obtained straintime data has been used to get the stresstime data by using the
equation:
ε σ ⋅ = E (7.1)
The random signal, where the abscissa shows the time values and the
ordinate shows the stress ranges, has been obtained for 1,800 seconds which can
be seen in Figure 7.4.
Figure 7.4. Random data acquired from the test specimen
Cycle counting by using rainflow has been executed to find the rainflow cycles in
time domain for the strain gage signal. From the experiment, stress range for the
test has been obtained between 132.7MPa and 132.6MPa. Each classified cycle
has been described by the stress amplitude and the mean stress value by
considering the stress range for the test. Full range of possible amplitudes has
been divided into certain number classes to calculate classes count. Each
amplitude class has been determined by class range, also amplitude tolerance has
been defined as the minimal value of classified amplitude. Amplitude tolerance
65
has been set to the half of the amplitude class range. In the experiment, the full
range for the amplitude classes has been considered such that the extreme values
of the stress range for the test should be included. By taking into consideration the
full range, amplitude class and the class range have been determined. When the
amplitude class range has been taken as 2.5MPa and the classes count as 64, the
full range has been obtained as [0..160]. Since the maximum value for the full
range is 160MPa, the full range has included the maximum stress range obtained
from the test. According to the amplitude class, amplitude tolerance has been
taken as 1.25MPa. In Figure 7.5, cycles count versus stress amplitude is shown
and cycles count as a percentage versus stress amplitude can also be seen in
Figure 7.6 in the full ranges.
Figure 7.5. Cycle counting in full range by rainflow method on the test specimen
66
Figure 7.6. Percentage of cycle counting in full range by rainflow method on the
test specimen
Mean classes have been defined similarly. The full range of the mean classes
should also include the stress range obtained for the test. The full range of
possible mean stress values has been divided into certain number classes which
have been given as classes count. Each successive mean classes have also been
determined by class range and additionally by minimal class which is the minimal
value of the first mean class. By considering the stress range for test, the minimal
class has been taken as 135MPa. When the class range has been taken as 5MPa
and the classes count as 64, the full range has been obtained as [135..185]. The
full range for the mean classes has comprised of the stress range for test. Cycles
count versus stress amplitude and mean stress value is obtained in Figure 7.7 and
cycles count as a percentage versus stress amplitude and mean stress value is also
shown in Figure 7.8 in the full ranges.
67
Figure 7.7. Cycle counting and mean classes in full range by rainflow method on
the test specimen
Figure 7.8. Percentage of cycle counting and mean classes in full range by
rainflow method on the test specimen
68
The data has been analyzed for 1,800 seconds and the result for the number of
cycles has been obtained as 127,413 cycles and 16 halfcycles for this time period.
Since the total time has been obtained as 22,142 seconds, the total number of
cycles for the whole test has been found as 1,567,420 cycles in time domain.
The number of cycles versus stress graph in Figure 7.9 can be drawn for the data
collected for 1,800 seconds. The data is tabulated in Appendix A.
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Stress Amplitude(MPa)
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
c
y
c
l
e
s
Figure 7.9. Number of cycles versus stress obtained from the test in time domain
7.2.2. Experimental Results in Frequency Domain
Frequency analysis of the test specimen has been performed to find the number of
cycles for the test specimen. Since the sampling frequency has been taken as
1,000Hz, Nyquist frequency which is half of the sampling frequency has been
obtained as 500Hz. Therefore, the power spectral density estimates versus
frequency graph has been drawn up to 500Hz. From the graph, which has been
obtained in ESAM software for the signal given in Figure 7.4, the first damped
69
natural frequency of the specimen is expected to find. According to Figure 7.10, a
peak is obtained at frequency of 45.43Hz.
The obtained data from the graph has been exported from ESAM software to the
text file. The two columns, which have been formed by power spectral density
estimates and frequency, have been used to calculate the first four moments and
the expected zeros, peaks and the irregularity factor in MATLAB software. The
results obtained are given in Table 7.2. The total number of cycles has then been
calculated. The algorithm for calculating the probability density function (pdf)
estimates of stresses in Dirlik’s formulation has also been written in MATLAB
software. The probability density function estimates have been used to obtain the
number of cycles in the stress amplitudes.
Figure 7.10. Power spectral density function estimates of the test specimen for
signal in Figure 7.4
70
To calculate the PSD moments, expected zeros, peaks and irregularity factor, the
following algorithm has been used in MATLAB software:
clc;
load psd_data_mat1;
psdx=psd_data;
m0=0;
for i=1:size(psdx,1)
m0=m0+psdx(i,2);
end;
m1=0;
for i=1:size(psdx,1)
m1=m1+psdx(i,1)*psdx(i,2);
end;
m2=0;
for i=1:size(psdx,1)
m2=m2+psdx(i,1)^2*psdx(i,2);
end;
m4=0;
for i=1:size(psdx,1)
m4=m4+psdx(i,1)^4*psdx(i,2);
end;
zc=sqrt(m2/m0);
nop=sqrt(m4/m2);
irf=zc/nop;
vars=[m0 m1 m2 m4 zc nop irf]';
fid = fopen('data.txt','w');
fprintf(fid,'m0= %6.4f \nm1= %6.4f \nm2= %6.4f\n m4=%6.4f\n zc=%6.4f\n
nop=%6.4f \nirf=%6.4f',vars);
fclose(fid);
71
The results taken from the algorithm are given in the tabular form:
Table 7.2. Data obtained for the test specimen by MATLAB software
Definition Termed Data obtained
1st psd moment value m0 2,565
2nd psd moment value m1 305,991
3rd psd moment value m2 15,209,860
4th psd moment value m4 69,677,223,407
Number of zero crossings per second zc 77
Number of peaks per second nop 67.7
Irregularity factor irf 1.14
Total number of cycles can be found as by using Equation (4.12):
[ ] T P E N
t
⋅ =
where T is the total time of the test,
013 , 499 , 1 142 , 22 7 . 67 = ⋅ =
t
N
As done above, by multiplying the number of peaks per second with the total test
time, the number of cycles (
t
N ) has been calculated as 1,499,013 in the frequency
domain.
To calculate the probability density function estimates of stress ranges using
Dirlik’s approach, following algorithm has been used in MATLAB software:
stress=2.5:2.5:135;
stress=stress';
m=0;
z=stress./(2*sqrt(m0));
xm=(m1/m0)*sqrt(m2/m4);
d1=(2*(xmirf^2))/(1+irf^2);
r=(irfxmd1^2)/(1irfd1+d1^2);
d2=(1irfd1+d1^2)/(1r);
q=(5*(irfd1d2*r))/(4*d1);
d3=1d1d2;
72
pdf_dirlik=((d1/q)*exp(z./q)+(d2/r^2)*exp((z.^2)./r^2)+d3*z.*exp(
z.^2/2))./(2*sqrt(m0));
fid = fopen('data1.txt','w');
fprintf(fid,'%18.9f\n ',pdf_dirlik');
fclose(fid);
According to the algorithm written to find the probability density function
estimates, the first stress value was 2.5MPa and by the increment of 2.5MPa, the
values have been calculated up to 135MPa. The probability density function
estimates has been found by Dirlik’s formulation from the power spectral density
(PSD) estimates graph in Figure 7.10. The tabulated form of the stresspdf_dirlik
has been listed in Appendix A. The graph is given in Figure 7.11.
0.0000
0.0005
0.0010
0.0015
0.0020
0.0025
0.0030
0.0035
0.0040
0.0045
0.0050
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Stress Amplitude(MPa)
p
d
f
_
d
i
r
l
i
k
Figure 7.11. Probability density function estimates versus stress amplitude
obtained from PSD graph of the test specimen in Figure 7.10 by Dirlik’s
formulation
From Equation 4.10, cycles at level i has been given as:
[ ]
t i i
N dS S p n ⋅ ⋅ =
where N
t
value is 1,800 seconds for the total analyzed period of time and dS is 2.5
MPa.
73
[ ] 800 , 1 7 . 67 5 . 2 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
i i
S p n
The number of cycles obtained for the stress amplitudes have also been listed in
Appendix A. The number of cycles versus stress amplitude graph which has been
obtained from Dirlik’s solution is given in Figure 7.12.
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Stress Amplitude(MPa)
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
C
y
c
l
e
s
Figure 7.12. Number of cycles versus stress obtained from the test in frequency
domain
7.3. PALMGRENMINER RULE APPLICATION
PalmgrenMiner rule, linear damage rule, has been applied to find the fatigue
damage of the test specimen which is accepted for the StressLife method. This
has been confirmed by Mr. Neil Bishop referring to the mail given in Appendix D.
Fatigue life calculation has been done by using PalmgrenMiner rule along with a
cycle counting procedure. In the test specimen, Al 2024 T351 has been used as an
aluminum plate. According to the SN graph, the equation of the aluminum
material has been obtained [34]:
( ) ( ) N S log 48 . 0 23 . 4 log ⋅ − = (7.2)
Then, number of cycles, N, can be found from the Equation (7.2):
( )
48 . 0
log 23 . 4
10
S
N
−
= (7.3)
74
By putting the stress data into Equation 7.3, the number of cycles can be obtained.
The data has been tabulated in Appendix A, named ‘N theoretical’.
The total damage has been defined as the sum of all the fractional damages over a
total number of blocks as given in Equation (5.3):
¯
=
=
k
i i
i
N
n
D
1
where, since the stress values were between 2.5MPa and 135MPa by an increment
of 2.5MPa, the number of blocks, k, has been calculated as 54.
Then, the total damage can be written as:
¯
=
=
54
1 i i
i
N
n
D (7.4)
According to Equation (7.4), total damage in time and frequency domains can be
found.
7.3.1. Total Damage Calculation in Time Domain by PalmgrenMiner Rule
Total damage has been calculated by dividing the number of cycles found in the
time domain for each stresses to the number of cycles found from the Equation
7.13 for Al 2024 T351:
61 . 0
54
1
=
¯
= i i
i
N
n
That is, total damage obtained from the time domain analysis:
61 . 0 = D
75
7.3.2. Total Damage Calculation in Frequency Domain by PalmgrenMiner
Rule
Total damage has been calculated by dividing the number of cycles found in the
frequency domain for each stresses to the number of cycles found from the
Equation 7.13 for Al 2024 T351:
54 . 0
54
1
=
¯
= i i
i
N
n
That is, total damage obtained from the frequency domain analysis:
54 . 0 = D
7.4. STATISTICAL ERRORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SPECTRAL
MEASUREMENTS
The accuracy of the measurement of the power spectral density estimates may
have been affected, since a limited length has been analyzed. Therefore, errors
should be introduced into the measured spectrum. Even assuming that random
process is ergodic, in which any one sample function completely represents the
infinity of functions which make up the ensemble, errors should still be defined
when only dealing with a limited length of a sample function.
Spectral linear analysis parameters have been taken as the sampling frequency,
Nyquist frequency (cutoff frequency), bandwidth and the number of blocks of
frequency versus power spectral density estimates.
By considering the modal analysis results, sampling frequency has been taken as
1,000Hz. Since Nyquist frequency is half of the sampling frequency, the analysis
has been performed up to 500Hz. Sample time history has been taken as 1.024
seconds and statistically independent subrecords have been taken as 64. Average
76
power spectral density estimates have been found for the total record length of
1.024 x 64 seconds which can be given as
( ) ( )
k
i
i k ave
f G f G
¯
=
⋅ =
64
1
64
1
(7.5)
where the frequency is in the range of 500 0 ≤ ≤ f Hz. and 64 .. 1 = k . The result
is obtained as in Figure 7.13.
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
0 100 200 300 400 500
Frequency(Hz)
P
S
D
(
M
P
a
2
/
H
z
)
Figure 7.13. Average result of power spectral density estimates versus frequency
for 1.024 seconds of each 64 sample time history
Power spectral density estimates in dB form have been examined to see the
second and third damped natural frequencies of the specimen along with the first
natural frequency. By taking the reference value as 1 MPa
2
/Hz, average power
spectral density estimates can be written as:
( ) ( ) ( ) f G f L
ave G
ave
log 10⋅ = (7.6)
From Equation 7.6, the graph of average power spectral density estimates versus
frequency is obtained as in Figure 7.14. The first three damped natural frequencies
can be seen clearly in the graph.
77
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
30
0 100 200 300 400 500
Frequency(Hz)
L
(
f
)
(
d
B
)
Figure 7.14. Average power spectral density estimates versus frequency
The statistical errors which are random and bias errors have been examined in the
computation of desired quantities from random process. Frequency domain
quantities occurring in the analysis have been discussed.
7.4.1. Random Error
The estimate ( ) f G
ave
has a variance error [33]
( ) ( )
( )
total e
ave
T B
f G
f G Var
⋅
≈
2
(7.7)
where
total
T is the total record length and knowing that statistically independent
subrecords
d
n
, the record length T, the equation can be given as:
T n T
d total
⋅ = (7.8)
and
e
B is the effective bandwidth and given as:
T
f B
e
1
= ∆ = (7.9)
78
Then, equation becomes
( ) ( )
( )
d
ave
ave
n
f G
f G Var
2
= (7.10)
Equation 7.10 yields the normalized random error formula
( ) ( )
d
ave r
n
f G
1
= ε (7.11)
The random error formula for the measurements of the average power spectral
density estimates is only determined by
d
n . In the frequency analysis of the
experiment, 64 =
d
n , then random error is found as:
( ) ( ) 125 . 0
64
1
= = f G
ave r
ε
The random error is obtained as 12.5%.
7.4.2. Bias Error
The estimate of ( ) f G
ave
is a biased estimate where
( ) ( ) ( ) f G
df
d B
f G b
ave
e
ave
2
2 2
24
⋅ ≈ (7.12)
The normalized bias error is given by
( ) ( )
( )
( )





.

\

⋅ ≈
f G
f G
df
d
B
f G
ave
ave
e
ave b
2
2
2
24
ε (7.13)
The frequency response function for the single degree of freedom system can be
represented by
( )


.

\

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ +


.

\

−
=
n n
f
f
j
f
f
k
f H
ς 2 1
1
2
(7.14)
79
where ς is the damping ratio and
n
f is the undamped natural frequency.
If a theoretical white noise input with power spectral density function
( ) K f G
w
= , a constant, then the output average power spectral density function
takes the form
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) f G f H f G
w ave
⋅ =
2
(7.15)
Then,
( )
2
2
2
2
2 1


.

\

⋅ ⋅ +


.

\

−
=
n n
ave
f
f
f
f
k
K
f G
ς
(7.16)
This result describes realistic bandwidthlimited white noise data. The peak value
of ( ) f G
ave
occurs at the resonance frequency
r
f and is given by
( )
( )
2 2 2
1 4 ς ς − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
k
K
f G
r ave
(7.17)
where
2
2 1 ς ⋅ − ⋅ =
n r
f f for 50 . 0
2
≤ ς
It is seen that if
2
ς << 1, then,
n r
f f ≈
and
( )
2 2
4 ς ⋅ ⋅
=
k
K
f G
n ave
(7.18)
Second derivative of ( ) f G
ave
with respect to f is:
( )
4 4 2 2
2
2
r
ave
f k
K
f G
df
d
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
−
≈
ς
(7.19)
( )
( )
2 2
2
2
2
r r ave
r ave
f
f G
f G
df
d
⋅
−
≈
ς
(7.20)
80
When the damping ratio is relatively small, i.e.
2
ς << 1, the halfpower
point bandwidth
r
B
around
r
f is given approximately by
r r
f B ⋅ ⋅ ≈ ς 2 (7.21)
Hence,
( )
( )
2
2
2
8
r r ave
r ave
B
f G
f G
df
d
−
≈ (7.22)
Then, substituting (7.12) into (7.10) yields
( ) ( )
2
3
1


.

\

⋅ − ≈
r
e
ave b
B
B
f G ε (7.23)
977 . 0
024 . 1
1 1
= = =
T
B
e
The halfpower bandwidth, 481 . 3 =
r
B is obtained from the power spectral
density estimates versus frequency graph for the test specimen.
In the frequency analysis of the experiment, the bias error is found as:
( ) ( ) 026 . 0 ≈ f G
ave b
ε
The bias error is approximately obtained as 2.6%.
81
CHAPTER 8
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
8.1. SUMMARY
In this study, the fatigue behavior of cantilever aluminum plate with a side notch
under certain loading conditions, i.e. base excitation, has been investigated. An
experimental approach has been presented for the stress state of the cantilever
aluminum plate by using strain gage. The strain gage has been glued on the
critical stress location at the specimen where the strain measurement has been
done. The test specimen has been exposed to random vibration test. The Traveller
Plus, which is the data acquisition system, has been used in the experiment.
During the random vibration test, the strain data has been collected by Traveller
Plus and the results have been followed by laptop computer. The experimental
data has then been analyzed statistically. The structural fatigue analysis has been
carried out in time and frequency domains. The experimental results have also
been used to check the accuracy of fatigue damage estimation based on Palmgren
Miner rule.
The aim of the fatigue analysis was to predict the crack initiation after a certain
number of cycles by the strain gage approaches. To achieve this target, firstly the
stresstime graph has been derived from the straintime data by converting the
strain data into stress data. The strain data for the graph has been taken from the
uniaxial strain gage measurement while the test specimen was excited by random
vibration simultaneously.
Modal analysis of the test specimen has been carried on ANSYS software to
determine the undamped natural frequencies and mode shapes of a structure. The
finite element model was developed employing second order BEAM4 and
82
SOLID92 elements. The first modal analysis has been performed by taking the
mesh size as 0.01m. The undamped natural frequencies have been obtained as
f
1
=42.96Hz, f
2
=136.41Hz, f
3
=254.67Hz and f
4
= 997.85Hz. In the second modal
analysis, the mesh size has been taken as 0.005m, and the results have been found
as f
1
=46.20Hz, f
2
=148.13Hz, f
3
=266.38Hz and f
4
=1019.24Hz. Taking the mesh
size equal to 0.003m in the third modal analysis, the results have been found as
f
1
=46.89Hz., f
2
=148.79Hz., f
3
=267.29Hz and f
4
=1020.30Hz. Since the undamped
natural frequencies obtained were very close in the second and the third analysis,
the third analysis results have been considered in the experimental analysis.
According to the range of undamped natural frequencies, the sampling frequency
is determined and the analysis has been performed up to the Nyquist frequency
(cutoff frequency) which is the half of the sampling frequency of 1000Hz.
In time domain approach, the fatigue state has been determined by the cycle
counting used. The experimental random stress data converted from strain
measurements has been obtained as shown in Figure 7.4. The analysis has been
done by processing the random signal in rainflow cycle counting to obtain the
stress intervals and the number of cycles at these stress intervals by using the
stresstime graph. Consequently, the number of cycles has been calculated in the
stress amplitude which has been started from 2.5MPa and by the increment of
2.5MPa, ended at 135MPa. The graph for the cycles count has been found with
respect to the stress amplitudes as given in Figure 7.5. This graph has also been
given in terms of percentage of the cycles count in Figure 7.6. For the specific
stress amplitudes, their mean values have also been obtained. This result has been
shown in Figure 7.7 in terms of cycles count and in Figure 7.8 in terms of
percentages of cycles count. By rainflow cycle counting, 127,413 cycles and 16
halfcycles have been found for a sample length of 1,800 seconds. The total
number of cycles for the whole test has been found as 1,567,420 in time domain
according to the total time of 22,142 seconds. The number of cycles obtained for
83
each stress ranges has been used in the cumulative damage theory to achieve an
estimate of the structural fatigue life.
In frequency domain approach, by using the frequency analysis in ESAM
software, power spectral density estimates versus frequency data has been
obtained from the stresstime data. The graph of the power spectral density
estimates versus frequency, which has been obtained from the time history, has
been presented in Figure 7.10. In the graph, a peak has been observed at
frequency of 45.43Hz. When the modal analysis result has been compared with
the experimental result, 3.2% higher first undamped natural frequency has been
obtained from the modal analysis which has been found as 46.89Hz. The second
damped natural frequency has been obtained at frequency of 142.79Hz in the
experiment. Therefore, the second undamped natural frequency of 148.79Hz,
found from the modal analysis, has been investigated 4.2% higher than the
experimental result. The third damped natural frequency has also been obtained at
frequency of 263.70Hz in the experiment. The modal analysis result has been
found 1.36% higher, since it has been obtained as 267.29Hz.
From the characteristics of the power spectral density estimates, the first four
spectral moments have been obtained as 2,565.3, 305,991, 15,209,860 and
69,677,223,407 , respectively. These moments have been used to find the number
of zero crossings per second, number of peaks per second and the irregularity
factor which have been calculated as 77, 67.7 and 1.14 respectively. And finally,
Dirlik’s empirical solution has been employed to find the probability density
function estimates of rainflow ranges and the graph of the probability density
function estimates versus stress amplitude has been given as in Figure 7.11. The
algorithm for the Dirlik’s solution has been implemented in MATLAB software.
The number of cycles has been determined for each stress value and the graph of
the number of cycles versus stress amplitude has been illustrated in Figure 7.12.
The total number cycles in frequency domain approach has been obtained by
84
multiplying the total time by the number of peaks per second. As a result,
1,499,013 cycles have been found as total number of cycles to failure in frequency
domain.
PalmgrenMiner rule application has been performed both in frequency and time
domains to estimate the structural fatigue life. Fraction of damage has been
obtained for each of the stress levels and then total damage has been calculated as
the sum of all the fraction of damages over the total number of blocks. In the time
domain approach, total damage has been calculated as 0.61 whereas in the
frequency domain approach, total damage has been calculated as 0.54.
The statistical errors associated with the spectral measurements have also been
investigated. The reliability has been achieved by calculating the average of the
power spectral density estimates when sample time history has been taken as
1.024 seconds and independent subrecords have been taken as 64. The graph for
the average result of power spectral density estimates versus frequency has been
given in Figure 7.13. It is also clearly seen from Figure 7.14 that taking the power
spectral density estimates, the first three natural frequencies have been obtained
sufficiently close to those found from the modal analysis. Random and bias errors
have also been calculated for the desired quantities. By referencing the statistical
errors for the measurement; random error, which is only a function of the
statistical independent subrecords, has been found as 12.5%. In the same way,
bias error, which has been determined by the effective and halfpower point
bandwidths, has been obtained as 2.6%.
85
8.2. CONCLUSION
If the cracks through the material are not detected in time to perform the necessary
repairs, then fatigue failures can be catastrophic. Fatigue cracks contribute to
serious structural failures. Unfortunately, most loadings that occur in nature do so
in a random manner. Therefore, a phenomenon of random vibrations has been
used to study responses of structural components.
Since the calculation of fatigue damage under certain loading histories requires an
appropriate cycle counting method, the rainflow cycle counting method, which
emerges as one of more popular techniques, has been used in the thesis. The
rainflow cycle counting is a procedure for determining damaging events in
variable amplitude loadings. Generally damage of the cycles has been quantified
by considering Wöhler curves (SN curves) from constant amplitude tests.
Modal analysis of the test specimen has been carried to examine the vibration
characteristics of the test specimen. Numerical experiments have been conducted
to improve the accuracy in the calculation of undamped natural frequencies by
varying the mesh size. Through continuously decreasing the mesh size, after a
certain value, almost the same results have been calculated. As a result, the first
four undamped natural frequencies have been examined by taking the mesh size
as 0.003m which is small enough for the test specimen. Results of modal analysis
have been utilized to determine the sampling frequency to be employed in data
acquisition. Therefore, the experimental analysis in frequency domain has been
examined up to the Nyquist frequency of 500Hz corresponding to a sample
frequency of 1,000Hz.
In the experimental stress analysis, minimum possible values have been taken for
the amplitude class range and classes count to obtain the accurate results in time
domain. It has been understood from the graph of cycles count versus stress
86
amplitude given in Figure 7.5 that higher number of cycles has been obtained in
small stress amplitudes. Sharp decrease in the number of cycles has been observed
when the stress amplitude has been increased. Small increases have occurred up to
50MPa stress amplitude and then, stress amplitude has again decreased. That is,
after a certain stress amplitude, when the stress range increases, the number of
cycles counted decreases. In maximum stress amplitudes, less number of cycle
counting have been observed. The same conclusion can be made for the graph of
percentages of the cycles count versus stress amplitude presented in Figure 7.6.
For the specific stress amplitudes, their mean values have also been given in
Figure 7.7 in terms of cycles count and in Figure 7.8 in terms of percentages of
cycles count. From the graphs, it has been concluded that for certain stress
amplitude, when the mean value is zero, higher number of cycles have been
obtained. As the mean value has increased in magnitude, the number of cycles has
decreased. In addition, larger mean values have been observed for small stress
ranges and few cycles counted at these points.
In the frequency analysis, the graph of the power spectral density estimates versus
frequency has been obtained as given in Figure 7.10. Since the excitation is of
band limited white noise type, it is expected peaky response around natural
frequencies due to low damping characteristics of the cantilever plate.
Experimentally observed frequencies at which such peak behavior is observed are
lower than the corresponding calculated theoretical undamped natural frequencies
due to presence of damping. Since the small percentage errors have been obtained
when comparing the modal analysis and frequency analysis results for the first
three of the natural frequencies, the differences are found reasonable.
It has been seen that the results of rainflow cycle counting method obtained from
time and frequency domain approaches were close to each other. This can also be
shown by Figures 8.1 and 8.2 given below. Frequency domain approach is found
87
to provide a marginally safer prediction tool when compared with time domain
approach.
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Stress Amplitude(MPa)
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
c
y
c
l
e
s
Figure 8.1. Number of cycles vs stress diagram (time domain approach)
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Stress Amplitude(MPa)
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
C
y
c
l
e
s
Figure 8.2. Number of cycles vs stress diagram (frequency domain approach)
The PalmgrenMiner rule predicts, in theory, that the specimen should fail when
the total damage is equal to 1. Practically, additional complexity has been
88
introduced for different areas of application. For instance, for aerospace electronic
structures, a more conservative limit is used, which is accepted as 0.7 [11]. This
conservative limit has also been suggested for the mechanical structures and the
electronic equipment by Steinberg [14]. In addition, a conservative limit of 0.6
has been proposed by W. Schutz [14]. Since PalmgrenMiner rule is an approach
and this approach has some assumptions, it has become very difficult to obtain the
same result as given by the approach. It is assumed that the same amount of
damage has been incurred by all cycles of a given magnitude whether they occur
early or late in the life. It is also assumed that the damage accumulates without
being influence of one level on the other and rate of damage is a function of n / N
independent of the amplitude of the cyclic stress. Therefore, by considering the
assumptions, PalmgrenMiner rule is a linear law independent of stress level and
without interaction. On the other hand, the SN equation for the aluminum plate
which has been given in Equation 7.2 should be regarded as an approximation and
SN curves are empirical. Because of these reasons, the estimated fatigue damage
based on PalmgrenMiner rule is known as nonconservative, but, it is still widely
used since, no rule more applicable than PalmgrenMiner’s rule, is developed.
However, in the result of the PalmgrenMiner rule application for the experiment,
reasonable values have been found since close damage fraction have been
obtained for both time and frequency domains. The error is inherent within the
rule itself and but also depends on the precision of the SN curve used.
The same power spectral density estimates versus frequency graph has been
obtained with the graph found in frequency analysis by calculating the average
power spectral density estimates when sample time history has been taken as
1.024 seconds and independent subrecords have been taken as 64 with the graph
found for 1,800 seconds. In addition, the expected three natural frequencies have
been obtained from the power spectral density estimates. Therefore, it is
concluded that reliable test results have been found from the analysis. From the
calculations of the statistical errors which have been found for the measurement, it
89
has been resulted that acceptable random error and negligible bias error have been
observed from the analysis. A bias error value has been accepted to be ignored
when effective bandwidth has been obtained 0.28 times of the halfpower point
bandwidth.
In this study, some important and critical points have been considered to obtain
sensitive results for the experimental test. For instance, care has been exercised in
the selection of the strain gage. Ideally the conductor should have a high gage
factor, so that small strains give as large changes as possible to the resistance.
Therefore, the possible smaller strain gage has been preferred. Before the
vibration test has been started, the voltage value for the quarter bridge has also
been selected as high as possible to get better signal; the screen of the cable, the
cable which has provided the connection between the strain gage and the
connector have all been shielded to reduce the electrical noise in the measured
data. Shunt calibration has been done in ESAM software for the sensitivity.
Fatigue may cause significant property damage as well as loss of life. Therefore,
the goal in the design process is to perform fatigue calculations at earlier stages.
This would reduce and/or eliminate the need for expensive redesign. The
calculated fatigue life has represented the predicted number of cycles that can be
applied to the component before failure.
90
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[10] Richard C.Rice, Brian N.Leis, Drew V.Nelson, Henry D.Berns, Dan
Lingenfelser, M.R.Mitchell, 1988. Fatigue Design Handbook, Society of
Automotive Engineers Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale.
[11] Tom Irvine, 2003. Random Vibration Fatigue, Revision B.
[12] Steven R.Lampman, Grace M.Davidson, Faith Reidenbach, Randall
L.Boring, Amy Hammel, Scott D.Henry, William W.Scott, 1996. Fatigue and
Fracture Volume 19, ASM International.
[13] Paul H.Wirsching, Thomas L.Paez, Keith Ortiz, 1995. Random Vibrations,
Theory and Practice, A WileyInterscience Publication, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
[14] Christian Lalanne, 1999. Mechanical Vibration & Shock, Fatigue Damage,
Volume IV, Taylor and Francis Books, Inc.
[15] Maurice L.Sharp, Glenn E.Nordmark, Craig C.Menzemer, 1996. Fatigue
Design of Aluminum Components and Structures, McGraw Hill Companies, Inc.
[16] Traveller Plus and ESAM Software Manual, 2000. Measurements Group Inc.
92
[17] John Vaughan, October 1975. Application of B&K Equipment to Strain
Measurements, Brüel & Kjaer.
[18] Akhtar S.Khan, Xinwei Wang, 2001. Strain Measurements and Stress
Analysis, Prentice Hall, Inc.
[19] Shunt Calibration, Tech. Note TN514, Measurements Group, Inc., Rayleigh
(North Carolina), 1988.
[20] Harry N.Norton, 1989. Handbook of Transducers, Prentice Hall, Inc. A
Division of Simon&Schuster.
[21] Hermann K.P.Neubert, 1975. Instrument Transducers, An Introduction to
Their Performance and Design, Oxford Clarendon Press, Second Edition.
[22] Jack A.Collins, 1993. Failure of Materials in Mechanical Design, Analysis,
Prediction, Prevention, Second Edition, A WileyInterscience Publication.
[23] NWM Bishop and F.Sherratt, 2000. Finite Element Based Fatigue
Calculations, Nafems Publication.
[24] Wheatstone Bridge,
http://www.playhookey.com/dc_theory/wheatstone_bridge.html , April 2004
[25] James W.Dally and William F.Riley, Experimental Stress Analysis.
[26] MILSTD810F, 2000. Department of Defense Test Method Standard for
Environmental Engineering Considerations and Laboratory Tests.
[27] ASTM E1049, Standard Practices for Cycle Counting in Fatigue Analysis.
93
[28] Jorgen Amdahl, Nina Kristin Langhelle, Steinar Lundberg, 2001. Aluminum
Plated Structures at Elevated Temperatures, Proceedings of OMAE 2001: 20th
Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering Conference.
[29] Dr.Alex Morris, 1998. Material World, Aluminum Alloys for Aerospace,
Azom.com Pty. Ltd.
[30] T. Warner, Pechiney CRV, Voreppe, France; R. Macé, 2004. The Future for
Aluminum Alloys in Aerospace: Solutions Tailored for Specific Applications.
[31] L.S.Srinath, M.R.Raghavan, K.Lingaiah, G.Gargesha, 1984. Experimental
Stress Analysis, Tata McGrawHill Publishing Company Limited.
[32] James W. Dally, I.Riley, William Franklin, 1991. Experimental Stress
Analysis International Edition, McGrawHill Book Co.
[33] Julius S.Bendat and Allan G.Piersol, 1980. Engineering Applications of
Correlation and Spectral Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
[34] A.K.Lynn, D.L.DuQuesnay, 2002. International Journal of Fatigue 24,
pp. 977986.
[35] W.F.Wu, H.Y.Liou&H.C.Tse, 1997. Estimation of Fatigue Damage and
Fatigue Life of Components under Random Loading, Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping
72, pp. 243249.
[36] F.Socie Darrell,
www.mie.uiuc.edu/content/files/FCP/Socie%20presentation.pdf , May 2004
94
APPENDIX A
EXPERIMENTAL WORK
FOR THE TEST SPECIMEN DETERMINATION
In the experimental design part of the thesis, many tests have been performed to
decide the test specimen. The specimens made of aluminum alloy have been
studied and the analysis has been done in the thesis according to the selected
specimen. The form of the aluminum specimens used in the test is given in Figure
A.1.
Figure A.1. Aluminum test specimens
In the first experiments, perpendicular Sshaped specimen which is standby with
the welded part and under certain loading condition has been tested in the
vibration test system. The specimen which is on the vibrator has been shown in
Figure A.2. The crack initiation has been observed from the welded points in the
vibration test as in Figure A.3 and it has been observed that the specimen has been
started to bend from end of the support part. Since the crack initiation under
95
control has been aimed, it would not be a suitable solution for the test specimen.
In Figure A.4, bending of the specimen can be seen clearly.
Figure A.2. Perpendicular Sshaped test specimen under vibration test
Figure A.3. Crack initiation occurred in the welded points in the vibration test
96
Figure A.4. Bending started from the end of the support part in the test specimen
A cantilever beam form has then been used for the test specimen. A cantilever
aluminum plate has been decided to use which is under a certain loading
condition. For the first experiment, the end mass has been selected less in weight
according to the first end mass. The test specimen has been shown in Figure A.5.
The vibration test is done to the specimen. It has been seen that, the crack has
been started to occur around the screw, however for this specimen it would be
difficult to examine the crack initiation position.
Figure A.5. Aluminum cantilever plate under a certain loading condition
97
In the next experiment, the aluminum plate has been compressed from the top side
as well as the under side as can be seen in Figure A.6. The heavier end mass has
been used in the test. An accelerometer has been put on the aluminum plate to
watch over the vibration level on it. During the vibration test, the crack has been
started from the fixed side as shown in Figure A.7.
Figure A.6. Cantilever aluminum test specimen
Figure A.7. Crack occurred in the fixed side of the aluminum plate in the vibration
test
98
To make the crack under control, the notch has been placed 1cm away from the
fixed side of the aluminum plate as shown in Figure A.8. The weight of the end
mass has also been decreased to increase the vibration test time period. The test
has been done to a specimen given in Figure A.9. The notch has been made by the
fret saw. The polyurethane foam is glued on the compressed part of aluminum
plate surface, as given in Figure A.10, to increase the friction. In this way, notch is
obtained as the critical position.
Figure A.8. The notch placed on the aluminum plate
Figure A.9. The notch placed on top surface of the cantilever aluminum plate
99
Figure A.10. Polyurethane foam glued on the aluminum plate
In the same configuration, only by changing the position of the crack, vibration
test has been performed. The crack has been made on the aluminum plate such
that it has been positioned under the plate which can be seen clearly in Figure
A.11 and strain gage has been decided to stick on aluminum plate that has been
placed above the notch. Test specimen with side notch which is placed under the
aluminum plate has been given in Figure A.12.
Figure A.11. Notch position on the aluminum plate
100
Figure A.12. The notch placed on the bottom surface of the aluminum plate
During the vibration test, the test specimen has been watched for the crack
initiation and it has been examined under the microscope. In one of the
experiment, the vibration test has been continued to watch over the crack
propagation also. In Figure A.13, the crack has been zoomed to see the
propagation of the crack clearly.
Figure A.13. Crack propagation occurred in the vibration test
101
APPENDIX B
TABLES
Stress amplitudes (MPa) versus number of cycles (n) and halfcycles found from
the rainflow cycle counting in time domain are tabulated as follows:
Table B.1. Stress versus number of cycles in time domain
Stress
(MPa)
Number of
Cycles
Number of
Halfcycles N theoretical
2.5 26,437 0 96,262,761.3
5.0 18,079 1 22,714,986.9
7.5 3,192 0 9,760,132.2
10.0 1,034 1 5,360,023.2
12.5 973 0 3,367,214.7
15.0 1,354 0 2,303,084.5
17.5 1,603 0 1,670,465.1
20.0 1,927 0 1,264,797.0
22.5 2,082 0 989,585.0
25.0 2,299 0 794,556.9
27.5 2,642 0 651,463.7
30.0 2,748 0 543,455.6
32.5 2,903 0 459,984.3
35.0 2,955 0 394,177.3
37.5 3,020 0 341,403.7
40.0 3,129 0 298,452.4
42.5 3,213 0 263,040.8
45.0 3,177 0 233,511.0
47.5 2,989 0 208,635.6
50.0 3,094 0 187,490.5
52.5 2,929 0 169,369.3
55.0 2,831 1 153,725.0
57.5 2,759 0 140,128.1
60.0 2,626 0 128,238.4
62.5 2,548 0 117,783.2
65.0 2,246 0 108,541.8
67.5 2,258 1 100,334.5
70.0 2,029 0 93,013.4
72.5 1,925 0 86,456.1
75.0 1,749 1 80,560.5
102
Table B.1. Stress versus number of cycles in time domain (continued)
Stress
(MPa)
Number of
Cycles
Number of
Halfcycles N theoretical
77.5 1,630 0 75,241.0
80.0 1,523 1 70,425.4
82.5 1,348 0 66,052.2
85.0 1,205 1 62,069.4
87.5 1,137 0 58,431.9
90.0 1,026 0 55,101.2
92.5 853 1 52,044.1
95.0 797 0 49,231.4
97.5 719 0 46,638.1
100.0 660 0 44,241.9
102.5 564 0 42,023.5
105.0 480 1 39,965.8
107.5 440 0 38,053.9
110.0 379 0 36,274.3
112.5 308 0 34,615.1
115.0 289 1 33,065.8
117.5 224 1 31,617.0
120.0 175 0 30,260.2
122.5 173 2 28,987.9
125.0 162 0 27,793.1
127.5 133 0 26,669.8
130.0 152 1 25,612.5
132.5 104 0 24,616.0
135.0 182 2 23,675.8
Stress versus probability density function (pdf) estimates obtained from Dirlik’s
algorithm in frequency domain and number of cycles is found as follows:
Table B.2. Stress versus probability density function estimates and number of
cycles in frequency domain
Stress(MPa) pdf_dirlik
Number of
Cycles N theoretical
2.5 0.004383 1,577.7 96,262,761.3
103
Table B.2. Stress versus probability density function estimates and number of
cycles in frequency domain (continued)
Stress(MPa) pdf_dirlik
Number of
Cycles N theoretical
5.0 0.000922 331.9 22,714,986.9
7.5 0.000967 347.9 9,760,132.2
10.0 0.001024 368.7 5,360,023.2
12.5 0.001081 389.2 3,367,214.7
15.0 0.001138 409.5 2,303,084.5
17.5 0.001193 429.5 1,670,465.1
20.0 0.001248 449.1 1,264,797.0
22.5 0.001301 468.4 989,585.0
25.0 0.001354 487.3 794,556.9
27.5 0.001405 505.7 651,463.7
30.0 0.001455 523.6 543,455.6
32.5 0.001503 541 459,984.3
35.0 0.00155 557.9 394,177.3
37.5 0.001595 574.2 341,403.7
40.0 0.001639 589.9 298,452.4
42.5 0.001681 605 263,040.8
45.0 0.001721 619.4 233,511.0
47.5 0.001759 633.2 208,635.6
50.0 0.001796 646.4 187,490.5
52.5 0.00183 658.8 169,369.3
55.0 0.001863 670.5 153,725.0
57.5 0.001893 681.4 140,128.1
60.0 0.001922 691.6 128,238.4
62.5 0.001948 701.1 117,783.2
65.0 0.001972 709.8 108,541.8
67.5 0.001994 717.8 100,334.5
70.0 0.002014 724.9 93,013.4
72.5 0.002032 731.3 86,456.1
75.0 0.002047 736.9 80,560.5
77.5 0.002061 741.7 75,241.0
80.0 0.002072 745.8 70,425.4
82.5 0.002081 749.1 66,052.2
85.0 0.002088 751.6 62,069.4
87.5 0.002093 753.3 58,431.9
90.0 0.002096 754.3 55,101.2
92.5 0.002097 754.6 52,044.1
95.0 0.002095 754.2 49,231.4
104
Table B.2. Stress versus probability density function estimates and number of
cycles in frequency domain (continued)
Stress(MPa) pdf_dirlik
Number of
Cycles N theoretical
97.5 0.002092 753 46,638.1
100.0 0.002087 751.1 44,241.9
102.5 0.00208 748.6 42,023.5
105.0 0.002071 745.4 39,965.8
107.5 0.00206 741.5 38,053.9
110.0 0.002048 737 36,274.3
112.5 0.002034 731.9 34,615.1
115.0 0.002018 726.3 33,065.8
117.5 0.002 720 31,617.0
120.0 0.001982 713.3 30,260.2
122.5 0.001961 706 28,987.9
125.0 0.00194 698.2 27,793.1
127.5 0.001917 690 26,669.8
130.0 0.001893 681.3 25,612.5
132.5 0.001868 672.2 24,616.0
135.0 0.001841 662.7 23,675.8
Table B.3. Standard gage series
Code Definition
EA Constantan grid, polyimide backing
CEA Encapsulated constantan grid, copper solder tabs
N2A Constantan grid, thin polyimide backing
WA Encapsulated constantan grid, high endurance lead wires
SA Encapsulated constantan grid, high endurance lead wires
EP High elongation constantan grid
ED Isoelastic foil, polyimide backing
WD Encapsulated isoelastic grid, high endurance lead wires
SD Encapsulated isoelastic grid, solder dots
EK Kalloy grid, polyimide backing
105
Table B.3. Standard gage series (continued)
CEA Encapsulated constantan grid, copper solder tabs
WK Encapsulated Kalloy grid, high endurance lead wires
SK Encapsulated Kalloy grid, solder dots
106
APPENDIX C
FIRST NATURAL FREQUENCY CALCULATION OF THE
ALUMINUM CANTILEVER PLATE
The first natural frequency of the aluminum cantilever plate has been calculated.
It is known as the most damaging frequency. The cantilever aluminum plate is
assumed in such a structure that a simple mass m supported by a pure spring
stiffness k, which when deflected, resonates at a frequency:
m
k w
f
n
n
⋅
⋅
=
⋅
=
π π 2
1
2
Hz (C.1)
For the single degree of freedom model of a cantilever plate, first natural
frequency is given as:
eq
eq
n
m
k
w = (C.2)
The equivalent stiffness can be calculated from the equation:
3
3
L
I E
k
eq
⋅ ⋅
= (C.3)
where E is the Young’s modulus(N/m
2
), I is the crosssectional moment of
inertia(m
4
) and the mass can be calculated from the equation:
Al eq
m m m ⋅ + = 24 . 0 (C.4)
where m is the end mass(kg) and m
Al
is the mass of aluminum plate.
For a rectangular section, crosssectional moment of inertia is
(C.5)
where b is width(m), h is thickness of the plate(m).
107
By giving the inputs for the cantilever aluminum plate, the equations can be
solved as in the following:
3
10 79
−
⋅ =
Al
m kg
3
10 3 . 486
−
⋅ = m kg
Al eq
m m m ⋅ + = 24 . 0
505 . 0 =
eq
m kg
2
10 5
−
⋅ = b m
3
10 4
−
⋅ = h m
3
12
1
h b I ⋅ ⋅ =
10
10 667 . 2
−
⋅ = I m
4
9
10 70⋅ = E N/m
2
2
10 11
−
⋅ = L m
3
3
L
I E
k
eq
⋅ ⋅
=
4
10 207 . 4 ⋅ =
eq
k N/m
eq
eq
eq
m
k
w =
568 . 288 =
eq
w rad/s
eq n
w w ⋅
⋅
=
π 2
1
927 . 45 =
n
w Hz
The first natural frequency of the cantilever aluminum plate is calculated as
45.927Hz. It is obtained almost the same with the experimental result of first
natural frequency which has been obtained as 45.43Hz.
108
APPENDIX D
COMMUNICATION
Experimental stress analysis has been defined to Mr. Neil Bishop and asked
whether PalmgrenMiner rule can be used for the crack initiation method. The
answer has been mailed by Mr. Neil Bishop as following:
‘ Actually the term crack initiation is a very misleading term since most
conventional metals have cracks in from the beginning and so all you are actually
doing when applying loads is to grow these cracks to detectable lengths. So the
crack initiation method (StrainLife) is conceptually the same as the SN or
StressLife method. For both methods the PalmgrenMiner rule is generally
accepted as the only method to accumulate damage. ’
It is also approved by Mr. Neil Bishop that PalmgrenMiner rule can be used for
the StressLife method to find the cumulative damage.
109
APPENDIX E
SUBROUTINE FOR RAINFLOW COUNTING
The routine below makes it possible to determine the ranges of a signal to use for
the calculation of the fatigue damage according to this method. The signal must be
first modified in order to start and to finish by the largest peak. The total number
of peaks and valleys must be even and an array of the peaks and valleys
(Extrama( )) must be made up from the signal thus prepared.
The boundaries of the ranges from the peaks are provided in arrays Peak_Max( )
and Peak_Min( ) and those of the ranges resulting from the valleys in
Valley_Max( ) and Valley_Min( ) . These values make it possible to calculate the
two types of ranges Range_Peak( ) and Range_Valley( ), as well as their mean
value
Peak_Min i ( ) Peak_Max i ( ) +
2
and
Valley_Min i ( ) Valley_Max i ( ) +
2
.
Procedure Rainflow of Peaks Counting
According to D.V. NELSON
The procedure uses as input/output data:
Extremum(Nbr_Extrema+2) = array giving the list of Nbr_Extrema extrema
successive and starting from the largest peak
At output, obtained:
Peak_Max(Nbr_Peaks) and Peak_Min(Nbr_Peaks) = limits of the ranges of the
peaks
Valley_Max(Nbr_Peaks) and Valley_Min(Nbr_Peaks) = limits of the valley
ranges
These values make it possible to calculate the ranges and their mean value.
Range_Peak(Nbr_Peaks) = array giving the listed ranges relating to the peaks
110
Range_Valley(Nbr_Peaks) = array of the ranges relating to the valleys
Procedure rainflow (Nbr_Extrema,VAR Extremum())
LOCAL i,n,Q,Output,m,j,k
Separation of peaks and valleys
Nbr_Peaks=(Nbr_Extrema+1)/2
FOR i=1 TO Nbr_Peaks
Peak(i)=extremum(i*21)
NEXT i
FOR i=2 TO Nbr_Peaks
Valley(i)=Extremum(i*22)
NEXT i
Research of the deepest valley
Valley_Min=Valley(2)
FOR i=2 TO Nbr_Peaks
IF Valley(i)<Valley_Min
Valley_Min=Valley(i)
ENDIF
NEXT i
Valley(Nbr_Peaks+1)=1.01*Valley_Min
Treatment of valleys
FOR i=2 TO Nbr_Peaks (Initialization of the tables with Peak(1))
L(i)=Peak(1)
LL(i)=Peak(1)
NEXT i
FOR i=2 TO Nbr_Peaks
n=0
Q=i
Output=0
DO (Calculation of the Ranges relating to the Valleys)
IF LL(i+n)<Peak(i+n)
Range_Valley(i)=ABS(LL(i+n)Valley( i)) (Array of the Valleys Ranges)
Valley_Max(i)=LL(i+n) (Array of the Maximum of the Ranges of the Valleys)
Valley_Min(i)=Valley(i) (Array of the Minimum of the Ranges of the Valleys)
Output=1
ELSE
IF Valley(i+n+1)<Valley(i)
Range_Valley(i)=ABS(Peak(Q)Valley(i))
Valley_Max(i)=Peak(Q)
Valley_Min(i)=Valley(i)
Output=1
ELSE
IF Peak(i+n+1)<Peak(Q)
111
L(i+n+1)=Peak(Q)
n=n+1
ELSE
L(i+n+1)=Peak(Q)
Q=i+n+1
n=n+1
ENDIF
ENDIF
ENDIF
LOOP UNTIL Output =1
m=i+1
IF m<=Q
FOR j=m TO Q
LL(j)=L(j)
NEXT j
ENDIF
NEXT i
Treatment of peaks
FOR i=2 TO NBR_Peaks+1 (Initialization of the arrays with Valley_Min)
L(i)=Valley_Min
LL(i)=Valley_Min
NEXT i
For i=1 TO Nbr_Peaks
n=0
k=i+1
Q=k
Output=0
DO
IF LL(k+n)>Valley(k+n)
Range_Peak(i)=ABS(Peak(i)LL(k+n)) (Array of the Ranges of the Peaks)
Peak_Max(i)=Peak(i) (Array of the Maximum of the Ranges of the Peaks)
Peak_Min(i)=LL(k+n) (Array of the Minimum of the Ranges of the Peaks)
Output=1
ELSE
IF Peak(k+n)>Peak(i)
Range_Peak(i)=ABS(Peak(i)Valley(Q)
Peak_Max(i)=Peak(i)
Peak_Min(i)=Valley(Q)
Output=1
ELSE
IF Valley(k+n+1)>Valley(Q)
L(k+n+1)=Valley(Q)
n=n+1
ELSE
L(k+n+1)=Valley(Q)
112
Q=k+n+1
N=n+1
ENDIF
ENDIF
ENDIF
LOOP UNTIL Output=1
m=k+1
IF m<=Q
FOR j=m TO Q
LL(j)=L(j)
NEXT j
ENDIF
NEXT i
RETURN
113
APPENDIX F
SOLUTION METHODS
There are various approaches for estimating the probability density
functions from power spectral density moments. There were expressions
developed with reference to offshore platform design where interest in the
techniques has existed for many years. In general, they were produced by
generating sample time histories from power spectral density using Inverse
Fourier Transform techniques. From these a conventional Rainflow cycle
count was then obtained. The solutions of Wirsching, Chaudry and Dover,
Tuna and Hancock were all derived using this approach [23]. They are all
expressed in terms of the spectral moments up to m
4
.
The best method in all cases
Developed for offshore use
Electronic components (USA)
Railway engineering (UK)
DRLK
CHAUDRY
& DOVER
WIRSCHING
HANCOCK
STEINBERG
TUNNA
114
HAUDRY AND DOVER SOLUTION
( ) ( )
m
m
eqCandD
m
erf
m m
m S
1
2
0
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
1
2
2 2

.

\
 +
Γ ⋅ ⋅ + 
.

\
 +
Γ ⋅ + 
.

\
 +
Γ ⋅


.

\

⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
+
γ
γ
γ
π
ε
WIRSCHING SOLUTION
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
[ ]
m c
NB Wirsch
m a m a D E D E ε − ⋅ − + ⋅ = 1 1
where m is the slope of the SN curve and
( ) m m a 033 . 0 926 . 0 − = , ( ) 323 . 2 587 . 1 − = m m c ,
2
1 γ ε − =
HANCOCK SOLUTION
( )
m
eqHanc
m
m S
1
0
1
2
2 2


.

\


.

\

+ Γ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = γ
STEINBERG SOLUTION
‘THREE BANDED TECHNIQUE’
Three banded technique is used for testing electronic equipment in the USA.
( )
0
m f S
eqStein
=
( ) ( ) ( )
m
m m m
eqStein
m m m S
1
0 0 0
6 043 . 0 4 271 . 0 2 683 . 0
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =
This solution is based on the assumption that stress levels occur for 68.3% time at
1rms, 27.1% time at 2rms, 4.3% time at 3rms.
TUNNA SOLUTION
( )



.

\

⋅
⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅
−
0
2
2
8
0
2
4
m
S
T
e
m
S
S p
γ
γ
115
APPENDIX G
COUNTING METHODS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE RANDOM TIME
HISTORY
Various methods of counting were proposed, leading to different results and, thus,
for some, to errors in the calculation of the fatigue lives. Although various
methods may still be in use, Rainflow Counting is the preferred method. This
method includes a family of various computer algorithms. Older methods which
often utilized analog logic circuits are Level Crossing, Peak Counting, Simple
Range.
LEVEL CROSSING COUNTING
The results of the level crossing count are shown in Figure G.1. There are
practically restrictions on the level crossing counts which are often specified to
eliminate small amplitude variations. By this way, small amplitude variations can
give rise to a large number of counts. This can be accomplished by making no
counts at the reference load and to specify that only one count be made between
successive crossings of a secondary level associated with each level above the
reference load, or a secondary higher level associated with each level below the
reference load. Figure G.1(b) illustrates this method.
The most damaging cycle count for fatigue analysis is derived from the level
crossing count by first constructing the largest possible cycle, followed by the
second largest, etc., until all level crossings are used. Reversal points are assumed
to occur halfway between levels. This process is shown in Figure G.1(c). Once
this most damaging cycle count is obtained, the cycles could be applied in any
desired order, and this order could have a secondary effect on the amount of
damage.
116
(a) Level crossing counting
(b) Restricted level crossing counting
(c) Cycles derived from level crossing counting of (a)
Figure G.1. Level crossing counting example
117
PEAK COUNTING
Peak counting identifies the occurrence of a relative maximum or minimum load
value. Peaks above the reference load level are counted, and valleys below the
reference load level are counted. This illustrates in Figure G.2(a). Results for
peaks and valleys are reported separately. A variation of this method is to count
all peaks and valleys without regard to the reference load. To eliminate small
amplitude loadings, mean crossing peak counting is often used. Instead of
counting all peaks and valleys, only the largest peak or valley between two
successive mean crossings is counted as can be seen in Figure G.2(b).
The most damaging cycle count for fatigue analysis is derived from the peak
count by first constructing the largest possible cycle, using the highest peak and
lowest valley, followed by the second largest cycle, etc., until all peak counts are
used. This process can be seen in Figure G.2(c). Once this most damaging cycle
count is obtained, the cycles could be applied in any desired order, and this order
could have a secondary effect on the amount of damage.
(a) Peak crossing
118
(b) Mean crossing peak counting
(d) Cycles derived from peak count of (a)
Figure G.2. Peak counting example
SIMPLE RANGE COUNTING
For this method, a range is defined as the difference between two successive
reversals, the range being positive when a valley is followed by a peak and
negative when a peak is followed by a valley. Positive ranges, negative ranges, or
both may be counted with this method. If only positive or only negative ranges are
counted, then each is counted as one cycle. If both positive and negative ranges
119
are counted, then each is counted as onehalf cycle. Ranges smaller than a chosen
value is usually eliminated before counting. An example is given in Figure G.3
which shows that both positive and negative ranges are counted.
(a) Simple range counting
(b) Counting from simple range counting (a)
Figure G.3. Simple range counting example
Approval of the Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences
Prof. Dr. Canan ÖZGEN Director I certify that this thesis satisfies all the requirements as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science.
Prof. Dr. S.Kemal DER Head of Department
This is to certify that we have read this thesis and that in our opinion it is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science.
Prof. Dr. Mehmet ÇALI KAN Supervisor
Examining Committee Members Prof. Dr. Levent PARNAS (METU,ME) Prof. Dr. Mehmet ÇALI KAN (METU,ME) Assis.Prof. Dr. Serkan DA (METU,ME) M.S. Gürol PEK (B AS) ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________
Assoc.Prof. Dr. Suat KADIO LU (METU,ME) ______________________________
I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained and presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct. I also declare that, as required by these rules and conduct, I have fully cited and referenced all material and results that are not original to this work.
SEÇ L ARIDURU
iii
fatigue life of a cantilever aluminum plate with a side notch under certain loading conditions is analyzed. The fatigue analysis of the test specimen is carried out in both time and frequency domains. The strain gage is glued on a critical point at the specimen where stress concentration exists.S. Mehmet ÇALI KAN December 2004. After the total iv . In frequency domain analysis. Department of Mechanical Engineering Supervisor: Prof. power spectral density function estimates of normal stress are obtained from the acquired strain data sampled at 1000 Hz. The moments of the power spectral density estimates are used to find the probability density function estimate from Dirlik’s empirical expression. Number of cycles is determined from the time history. Dr. 119 pages In this thesis. Seçil M. Strain measurement is performed on the baseexcited cantilever beam under random vibration test in order to examine the life profile simulation. Results of experimental stress analysis of the cantilever aluminum plate by using a uniaxial strain gage are presented. Rainflow cycle counting in time domain is examined by taking the time history of load as an input.ABSTRACT FATIGUE LIFE CALCULATION BY RAINFLOW CYCLE COUNTING METHOD ARIDURU..
Results of fatigue life estimation study in both domains are comparatively evaluated. dynamic strain measurement. Frequency domain approach is found to provide a marginally safer prediction tool in this study. is used to estimate the fatigue life. PalmgrenMiner rule v . cumulative damage theory. PalmgrenMiner rule.number of cycles in both time and frequency domain approaches are found. Keywords: fatigue. rainflow cycle counting.
yan çenti i bulunan alüminyum profilin yorulma ömrü incelenmi tir. 119 sayfa Bu çalı mada. Test edilen birimin yorulma analizi. belirli bir yük altında. Seçil Y. zaman ve frekans alanlarında incelenmi tir. Mehmet ÇALI KAN Aralık 2004. Frekans alanında.ÖZ YA MURAKI I DÖNGÜ SAYMA YÖNTEM LE YORULMA ÖMRÜNÜN HESAPLANMASI ARIDURU. 1000 Hz’de örneklenen kazanılmı gerilme verisinden elde edilmi itir. Zaman alanında ya muakı ı döngü sayımı. Serbest kiri alüminyum profilin deneysel gerilme analizi sonuçları. Zaman ve frekans alanlarından toplam döngü sayıları bulunduktan sonra. tek eksen uzama teli kullanılarak sunulmu tur. Zaman aralı ından döngü sayısı bulunmu tur. bir kenarından sabitlenmi . ömür profil benze imini incelemek için gerilme ölçümü yapılmı tır. Rassal titre im testi altında olan serbest kiri alüminyum profilinin. Dirlik’in deneysel anlatımından olasılık yo unluk fonksiyon kestirimini bulmak için. girdi olarak zaman aralı ı alınarak yapılmı tır. Makina Mühendisli i Bölümü Tez Yöneticisi : Prof. güç spektrum yo unlu u hesaplarından elde edilen alanlar kullanılmı tır. Lisans. gerilme verisinden güç spektrum yo unlu u fonksiyon kestirimleri. Gerilme yo unlu unun oldu u test biriminin kritik noktasına uzama teli yapı tırılmı tır. Dr. birikimsel hasar vi .
PalmgrenMiner kuralı vii . dinamik birim uzama ölçümü. biraz daha güvenli bulunmu tur. ya murakı ı döngü sayımı. Anahtar kelimeler: yorulma. frekans alanı yakla ımı. her iki alanda kar ıla tırmalı olarak de erlendirilmi tir.kuramlardan biri olan PalmgrenMiner kuralı. yorulma ömrünü tahmin etmek için kullanılmı tır. Bu çalı mada. Yorulma ömrü tahmini üzerine yapılan çalı maların sonuçları.
Dr. Gürol pek for his support.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express throughout the research. viii . encouragements and insight I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my parents for their encouragements and understanding throughout this study. advices. I would like to thank to M.S. my deepest gratitude and appreciation to Prof. Mehmet Çalı kan for his guidance.
. 3 1....1..... RAINFLOW CYCLE COUNTING IN TIME DOMAIN AND FREQUENCY DOMAINS.. General………………………………………………………… 1 1... iii ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………......... ix LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………... Fatigue………………………………………………………… 6 2..3........……. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………. FATIGUE FAILURE…………………………………………………... xv NOMENCLATURE…………………………………………………………... 6 2... Rainflow Cycle Counting in Time Domain…………………… 24 ix ......... Practical Definition……………………………………………. xvi CHAPTER 1.... xii LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………....TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE PLAGIARISM………………………………………………………………..1. Applications of Fatigue Life Calculations……………………. Introduction…………………………………………………….... StressLife Based Approach……………………………………9 3.1. Scope and Objective of the Thesis……........2....…..……………………… 4 2. Original Definition…………………………………………….2.2. iv ÖZ …………………………………………………………………………… vi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS…....... RAINFLOW CYCLE COUNTING …………………………………. 23 4.........2.. viii TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………. 23 4..... 13 3. 13 3..……………………………………………..19 4..1.. 1 1...
2.3. 60 7.5.2.3.1. 33 6.2.. Total Damage Calculation in Time Domain by PalmgrenMiner Rule…………………………………………74 7. 63 7..3.4.2..4..3.2.……………………………………. Estimation of Probability Density Function from Power Spectral Density Moments…………………………….3. Shunt Calibration of Strain Gage……………………… 50 6.. Rainflow Cycle Counting in Frequency Domain………………25 4. 27 4... Test Procedure………………………………………………… 51 7. Experimental Results…. 48 6.2.1.3. 26 4. Moments from the Power Spectral Density…………… 29 4....3.2. Peaks and Irregularity Factor from a Power Spectral Density……………………………………….3.3.1.………………………………………….. PALMGRENMINER RULE…………………………………………. 73 7. 63 7. 30 4.3. 60 7.. The Measuring Circuit………………………………… 47 6.. Experimental Results in Frequency Domain………….3.1. RESULTS OF MODAL ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ……………………………………………………………….. PalmgrenMiner Rule Application…………………………….1. Expected Zeros. 39 6. Test Material………………………………………………….3.3. Probability Density Function………………………….. 68 7.4..1.. Expected Zeros.2.3.2. Strain Gage Characteristics……………………………. Experimental Results in Time Domain………………. Modal Analysis…….3. Peaks and Irregularity Factor………. 44 6.3. Strain Gages…………………………………………………… 41 6. Vibration Test System………………………………………… 37 6. 31 5. Total Damage Calculation in Frequency Domain by x . DESIGN OF THE EXPERIMENTS…………………………………. Quarter Bridge Circuit………………………. 37 6.1.
94 B. 112 G. EXPERIMENTAL WORK FOR THE TEST SPECIMEN DETERMINATION……………………………………………………. 90 APPENDICES A. COUNTING METHODS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE RANDOM TIME HISTORY……………………………………………... 81 8..1.. SOLUTION METHODS…………………………………………….4.. 107 E.. Bias Error……………………………………………… 78 8..1. 85 REFERENCES……………………………………………………………….. Statistical Errors Associated with the Spectral Measurements.... 81 8. FIRST NATURAL FREQUENCY CALCULATION OF THE CANTILEVER ALUMINUM PLATE…………………………………. Random Error…………………………………………..4... 108 F.4.. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION………………………………. COMMUNICATION…………………………………………………. 75 7.105 D..2.. 114 xi . 101 C. TABLES……. SUBROUTINE FOR RAINFLOW COUNTING…………………….PalmgrenMiner Rule…………………………………………75 7.. Summary………………………………………………………... Conclusion…………………………………………………….2.77 7..……………………………………………………….
.... The basic elements of the fatigue design process………………………....5..........4.................1.....3...... Equivalent time histories and power spectral densities.. Vibration test system........8...2.........1...........7...... 30 5........................4.............. Flow rule of the drop from a valley…………………………………….... Rainflow cycle counting………………………………………………… 18 3.....3... Zero and peak crossing rates.............. Probability density function... 37 6...............8...... 35 6............... Stressstrain cycles………………………………………………………......7.............6.......1..................................... General procedure for time domain fatigue life calculation........ Constant amplitude SN curve..............................2...................... 38 6......5.. 7 2. 14 3................4. 27 4................2.. 40 xii ...... Random processes………………………………………………………...... Flow rule of the drop from a peak………………………………………... 9 2.........1.......... The drop released from the largest peak………………………………… 15 3.. 17 3........... 28 4. 17 3.. 38 6...... 2 2.......... Spectrum of amplitudes of stress cycles……………………................ Onesided power spectral density function..1........1......................... Left hand rule.3.2......... Description of fatigue process………………………………………….................. 14 3.......4... Practical definition of the rainflow cycle counting……………………… 21 4..LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1.......3................. Functional diagram of engineering design and analysis………………… 10 2. 29 4... 23 4...... A typical SN material data………………………………………………11 3............ Components of the vibration test system.. 26 4..... 34 5.......................2.. The cumulative damage analysis process………………………………. Minimum Integrity Test applied to the specimen between 5500Hz........ 25 4....... Time history……………………………………………………………................. General procedure for frequency domain fatigue life calculation......... 24 4....6.. Random stress fluctuation………………………………………………... Drop departure from a valley…………………………………………….. 16 3.
........ cable and the connector.................5...2........ 55 6.............. 52 6............................................................52 6.......16...4............... Random data acquired from the test specimen........6....... Aluminum test specimen. Basic Wheatstone Bridge circuit ....... Strain gage glued on the aluminum test specimen................................................................ Test specimen with fixture.. 49 6.............. Uniaxial strain gage............................................. 68 7............ Percentage of cycle counting and mean classes in full range by rainflow method on the test specimen........................13...........9.......... 1st mode shape of the test specimen obtained by ANSYS.............................. The external circuit with active gage illustrated with instrument ......... Aluminum test specimen...................... Side notch in the aluminum test specimen.......19....................... 59 7......... Cycle counting in full range by rainflow method on the test specimen......65 7............ Percentage of cycle counting in full range by rainflow method on the test specimen.....8....... Quarter bridge circuit diagram of the strain gage connector....................................... 67 7.......... Number of cycles versus stress obtained from the test in time domain.... Detail description of the uniaxial strain gage............ 63 7.... 69 7............. 67 7.........8....6..........4.............14....... 3rd mode shape of the test specimen obtained by ANSYS.......... 57 6.10............ 53 6.................................................................................. 62 7...........................11...... 50 6.... Shunt calibration of single active gage. 48 6...17..... 2nd mode shape of the test specimen obtained by ANSYS. 55 6...12..................... 54 6............... 58 6................................................. Probability density function estimates versus stress amplitude obtained xiii ..................... 62 7.............. 49 6..........................................................................18.......... Side notch placed under the strain gage....................................................6.... Power spectral density function estimates of the test specimen for signal in Figure 7........................ Cantilever aluminum plate............................ 44 6...............7....................................11............................9..............15...... 64 7......5............................. Quarter bridge circuit with active gage... Measuring equipment........... 66 7.........3............................................1................7...... 54 6................ Cycle counting and mean classes in full range by rainflow method on the test specimen...10.........
.... 77 8..... 94 A.....................5............... 76 7................... Perpendicular Sshaped test specimen under vibration test... 118 xiv ....... Bending started from the end of the support part in the test specimen........... Cantilever aluminum test specimen........ 115 G...... 100 A.1.. Crack propagation occurred in the vibration test.1...........4............ Peak counting example………………………………………………….......14.... 98 A.... 98 A. Number of cycles vs stress diagram (frequency domain approach).... Average power spectral density estimates versus frequency........... Average result of power spectral density estimates versus frequency for 1.............. Level crossing counting example………………………………………... 99 A....... The notch placed on top surface of the cantilever aluminum plate................................... 87 8.................................13..........................8..........................6...... The notch placed on the aluminum plate.....9...... Number of cycles versus stress obtained from the test in frequency domain..10...........97 A.......3.........................from PSD graph of the test specimen in Figure 7.. 87 A..... Crack occurred in the fixed side of the aluminum plate in the vibration test........7..............2.................. 95 A.................... 117 G....... 96 A...................................... 97 A......... 99 A........ Aluminum cantilever plate under a certain loading condition....... Number of cycles vs stress diagram (time domain approach)................... Notch position on the aluminum plate........................................... 95 A.. Crack initiation occurred in the welded points in the vibration test.......73 7......................................12....................................13...........10..024 seconds of each 64 sample time history.............................12....11....3.........2. Simple range counting example.................. Aluminum test specimens...2................ Polyurethane foam glued on the aluminum plate.......... The notch placed on the bottom surface of the aluminum plate........... 100 G..............................................1... 72 7........ 96 A..................
. Standard gage series……………………………………………………........ 104 xv ........................3.. Material properties of the elements used in the modal analysis..... Dimensions of the strain gage used in the experiment...1. Stress versus number of cycles in time domain.............................2.....2...LIST OF TABLES TABLES PAGE 3................................. Data obtained for the test specimen by MATLAB software.......................2. 71 B.....1............... 102 B. 101 B....1.. Cycle counts……………………………………………………………......... 56 7. 22 6.... Stress versus probability density function estimates and number of cycles in frequency domain...................... 60 7....
NOMENCLATURE SYMBOL A b b( ) B Be Br D Area Width Biased estimate Magnetic flux density (Tesla) Effective bandwidth Halfpower bandwidth Total damage Strain b r Bias error Random error Modulus of elasticity Number of upward zero crossings per second Expected fatigue damage Number of peaks per second Frequency Natural frequency Resonance frequency Force (Newton) Compression force Tension force Acceleration Power spectral density for 0 f E E[0] E[D] E[P] f fn fr F FC FT g G(f) G ave(f) h H(f) Average power spectral density Thickness Frequency response function xvi .
I k K L L m n nd N R S STC St T Var( ) Current (Amper) Strain sensitivity . Level Change in length Mass Total number of applied cycles Subrecords Number of cycles to failure Resistance Stress SelfTemperature Compensation Total number of cycles Time Variance Damping ratio Irregularity factor xvii . stiffness Constant Length (meter).
with documented service failures appearing with disturbing regularity.1. It came as something surprise. man has been aware that by repeatedly bending the wood or metal back and forth with large amplitude. [22] When the railway systems began to develop rapidly about the midst of the nineteenth century.Rankine in 1843. it will tend to grow in a direction orthogonal to the direction of the oscillatory tensile loads. Between 1852 and 1870 the German railway engineer. Once the crack is initiated. when he found that repeated stressing would produce fracture even with the stress amplitude held well within the elastic range of the material.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. The physical process of fatigue is described in Figure1. Under the action of oscillatory tensile stresses of sufficient magnitude. August Wöhler set up and conducted the first systematic fatigue investigation. As is often done in the case of unexplained service failures.J. which have been developed over the last 100 years or so.A.1. attempts were made to reproduce the failures in the laboratory. it could be broken. [14] Fatigue is the most important failure mode to be considered in a mechanical design. The first fatigue investigations seem to have been reported by a German mining engineer. 1 . a small crack will initiate at a point of the stress concentration. fatigue failures in railway axles became a widespread problem that began to draw the first serious attention to cyclic loading effects. Fatigue analysis procedures for the design of modern structures rely on techniques. W. This theory was disparaged by W.S. however. This was the first time that many similar parts of machines had been subjected to millions of cycles at stress levels well below the yield point.Albert who in 1829 performed some repeated loading tests on iron chain. GENERAL For centuries.
and (4) environmental effects produce complex stress states at fatiguesensitive hot spots in the system. they come without warning and may cause significant property damage as well as loss of life. (3) it is extremely difficult to accurately model the mechanical environments to which the system is exposed over its entire design lifetime. It can be thought that fatigue can involve a very complicated interaction of several processes and/or influences. as evidenced by the statistical scatter in laboratory data. Therefore. (2) it is often difficult to translate laboratory data of material behavior into field predictions. fatigue damage is caused by statistical properties such as amplitudes and mean values. in any kind of loading. 2 . Actually.There are several reasons for the dominance of this failure mode and the problems of designing to avoid it: (1) the fatigue process is inherently unpredictable. The goal of such new elements in the design process is to perform fatigue and durability calculations much earlier. thereby reducing or removing the need for expensive redesign later on. Figure 1.1. fatigue damage is related to cycle amplitudes or ranges and not to peak values. Description of fatigue process [13] Fatigue failures are often catastrophic.
However. which is a rule for pairing local minima and maxima to equivalent load cycles. The rainflow cycle counting method has been successful.2. Experiments are performed on cantilever aluminum plate on the vibration test system at room temperature. the level crossings have been used for a long time. aircraft and automotive industries in fatigue life estimations. the fatigue life of a cantilever aluminum plate with a side notch. better life predictions are obtained when using a cycle counting method. The damage can then be related to the fatigue life. APPLICATION OF FATIGUE LIFE CALCULATIONS In this thesis. and has now become a standard method for the railway. 1. where the most important ones are the manufacturing. ESAM software is used for the analysis and 3 . and the loading conditions. Fatigue damage is computed by damage accumulation hypothesis which is illustrated as PalmgrenMiner rule. This rule is used to obtain an estimate of the structural fatigue life. are analyzed in time domain and in frequency domain separately. together with a damage accumulation model. the so called rainflow cycle counting method is often used. An appropriate cycle identification technique. The fatigue life time depends on several factors. The results. and should in more realistic cases be modeled as random phenomena. the material properties. In order to relate a load sequence to the damage it inflicts to the material. When analyzing the fatigue life for the structures. is examined in time and frequency domains. which is rainflow cycle counting method. which are all more or less random. under a certain loading condition is investigated. obtained as time and strain values. Both material properties and dynamical load process are important for fatigue evaluation.Fatigue life is the number of loading cycles of a specified character that a given specimen sustains before failure of a specified nature occurs.
SCOPE AND OBJECTIVE OF THE THESIS This thesis contains eight chapters. In Chapter 2. Spectral moments of the power spectral density function and the parameters in terms of spectral moments are defined. basic elements of the fatigue design process. the fatigue life of the specimen is calculated by PalmgrenMiner rule. the field of fatigue life and the fatigue process are introduced. and the calculation of the parameters which are expected zeros. The processes that should be followed are given step by step in these domains separately. The application of the fatigue life calculations is also discussed briefly. Through SN curve. the concept of fatigue failure is given in detail. Dirlik’s solution is illustrated.MATLAB software is also exploited for the implementation algorithm of the Dirlik’s approach. is also defined and cycles counted are tabulated. which is according to the ASTM E–1049 Standard Practices for Cycle Counting in Fatigue Analysis. How to store the stress range histogram in the form of a probability density function of stress ranges.3. 1. peaks and irregularity factor are given. The practical definition of the rainflow cycle counting. The fundamentals of the fatigue considerations. In Chapter 1. The modal analysis of the specimen is carried to obtain mode shapes and undamped natural frequencies by ANSYS software. In Chapter 4. In Chapter 3. the original definition of the rainflow cycle counting and the stressstrain behavior of the material which is the basis of the counting are explained. 4 . stresslife based approach for the fatigue design are presented in this chapter. Rainflow cycle counting is illustrated with an example where the cycles are identified in a random variable amplitude loading sequence. the rainflow cycle counting in the time domain and in the frequency domain is studied.
The algorithms written in MATLAB software to obtain the moments of the power spectral density estimates and the probability density function estimates of stress ranges are given. total number of cycles found from the analysis and the graphs obtained. The test procedure followed in the experiment is analyzed. The assumptions done in the rule are summarized. In Chapter 6. Also. summary of the thesis and conclusions are given. The theory and the components of the vibration test system and the random vibration profile used in the experiment is explained. The average power spectral density estimates and the spectral errors. the modal analysis of the test specimen to obtain the vibration characteristics is given. most popular cumulative damage theory which is referred as PalmgrenMiner rule is defined for the fatigue life prediction.In Chapter 5. In Chapter 7. the results of the modal analysis. namely. the strain gages. Experimental results in time and in frequency domains for rainflow cycle counting are described. 5 . the random and bias errors are determined. the measuring circuit and the quarter bridge circuit is used in the experiment and shunt calibration of the strain gage are illustrated. the analysis of the rainflow cycles counting in time and frequency domains. and its characteristics are described. total damage and the event of failure are described. design of the experiments is described. In Chapter 8. Constant amplitude SN curve. Existing limitations in the rule are explained. PalmgrenMiner rule application is performed and total damage calculation both in time and frequency domains are calculated. The graphs acquired from the test results are shown and the values found are tabulated. The reason for the choice of aluminum as the test material. PalmgrenMiner rule solution and the statistical errors in the experimental results are discussed.
FATIGUE Fatigue is the process of progressive localized permanent structural change occurring in a material subjected to conditions that produce fluctuating stresses and strains at some point or points and that may culminate in cracks or complete fracture after a sufficient number of fluctuations. cyclic loads are identified that could cause fatigue failure if the design is not adequate. the specimen returns to its initial condition when the load is removed. Fatigue design is one of the observed modes of mechanical failure in practice. A given loading may be repeated many times.CHAPTER 2 FATIGUE FAILURE 2. In such cases. bridges. the failure analysis. failure may be prevented. If the maximum stress in the specimen does not exceed the elastic limit of the material. The basic elements of the fatigue design process are illustrated in Figure 2.1. railroad cars. fatigue becomes an obvious design consideration for many structures. Such a conclusion is correct for loadings repeated even a few hundred times. it is not correct when loadings are repeated thousands or millions of times. To be effective in averting failure. For this reason. the designer should have a good working knowledge of analytical and empirical techniques of predicting failure so that during the predescribed design.1. This phenomenon is known as fatigue. 6 . rupture will occur at a stress much lower than static breaking strength. and prevention are of critical importance to the designer to achieve a success. However. prediction. That is why. provided that the stresses remain in the elastic range. For these structures. automotive suspensions and vehicle frames. such as aircraft.
Noise and vibration has also effect on insight in the modes and mechanics of component and structural behavior. strains and deflections. An objective description of the vibration systems can be done in terms of frequency and amplitude information.1. Loading sequences are developed from load histories measured and recorded during specific operations. The goal is to develop an accurate representation of the loads. deflections. that would likely be experienced during the total operating life of the component. Stress analysis: The shape of a component or structure and boundary conditions dictates how it will respond to service loads in terms of stresses. a description of the service environment is obtained. Finite element techniques can be employed to identify areas of both 7 . vibration etc. noise and vibration: Firstly. The basic elements of the fatigue design process [1] Service loads. Analytical and experimental methods are available to quantify this behavior.Service Loads Component Test Noise and Vibration Cumulative Damage Analysis Stress Analysis LIFE Material Properties Figure 2. The most useful service load data is recording of the outputs of strain gages which are strategically positioned to directly reflect the input loads experienced by the component or structure. noise. strains.
Through this process it is possible to develop good estimates of local stress amplitudes. Fatigue is a highly localized phenomenon that depends very heavily on the stresses and strains experienced in critical regions of a component or structure. Strain gages strategically located can be used to quantify strains at such critical areas. and low stress where there may be potential for reducing weight. where there may be potential fatigue problems. However. consistent and. A combination of the load history (Service Loads). largely independent of location. Experimental methods can be used in situations where components or structures actually exist. in most cases.high stress. The damage fractions are summed linearly to give an estimate of the total damage for a particular load history.1. Cumulative damage analysis: The fatigue life prediction process or cumulative damage analysis for a critical region in a component or structure consists of several closely interrelated steps as can be seen in Figure 2. a small specimen tested under simple axial conditions in the laboratory can often be used to adequately reflect the behavior of an element of the same material at a critical area in a component or a structure. the most critical locations are at notches even when loading is uniaxial. The damage contribution of these events is calculated by comparison with material fatigue data generated in laboratory tests on small specimens. stress concentration factors (Stress Analysis) and cyclic stressstrain properties of the materials (Material Properties) can be used to simulate the local uniaxial stressstrain response in critical areas. separately. Material properties: A fundamental requirement for any durability assessment is knowledge of the relationship between stress and strain and fatigue life for a material under consideration. mean stresses and elastic and plastic strain components for each excursion in the load history. 8 . Therefore. Rainflow counting can be used to identify local cyclic events in a manner consistent with the basic material behavior. The relationship between uniaxial stress and strain for a given material is unique.
and finally in field proving the tests of assemblies or composite vehicles. and structures. then in component laboratory tests. specifically in analyzing trial designs to ensure resistance to cracking. All require similar types of information. 2.2. vehicles. The cumulative damage analysis process Component test: It must be carried out at some stage in a development of a product to gain confidence in its ultimate service performance. A similar need exists in the troubleshooting of cracking problems that appear in prototypes or service models of machines.3 shows the role of life prediction in both preliminary design and in subsequent evaluationredesign cycles. Component testing is particularly in today’s highly competitive industries where the desire to reduce weight and production costs must be balanced with the necessity to avoid expensive service failures. That is the reason that the predictive techniques are employed for applications ranging from initial sizing through prototype development and product verification.2. Fatigue life estimates are often needed in engineering design. STRESSLIFE BASED APPROACH (SN METHOD) For the fatigue design and components. The functional diagram in Figure 2. several methods are available.Service Loads Cumulative Damage Analysis Stress Analysis Material Properties Component Life Figure 2. These are the identification of candidate locations for 9 .
engineers have employed curves of stress versus cycles to fatigue failure. the stresses or strains at the candidate locations resulting from the loads. Since the wellknown work of Wöhler in Germany starting in the 1850’s. strain life. the load spectrum for the structure or component. With the exception of hotspot stress method. the temperature. all these procedures have been used for the design of aluminum structures. and a methodology that combines all these effects to give a life prediction. and fracture mechanics. Functional diagram of engineering design and analysis [1] fatigue failure. the material behavior.[14] 10 . which are often called SN curves (stressnumber of cycles) or Wöhler’s curve.Figure 2. Prediction procedures are provided for estimating life using stress life (Stress vs Number of cycles curves). the corrosive environment.3. hotspot stresses.
Stresslife approach assumes that all stresses in the component. A typical SN material data can be seen in Figure 2. even local ones. N.The basis of the stresslife method is the Wöhler SN curve.4. versus cycles to failure. It is suitable when the applied stress is nominally within the elastic range of the material and the number of cycles to 11 . The arrows imply that the specimen had not failed in 107 cycles. S. This curve shows the scatter of the data taken for this simplest of fatigue tests. A typical SN material data The approach known as stressbased approach continues to serve as a widespreadused tool for the design of the aluminum structures. Comparing the stresstime history at the chosen critical point with the SN curve allows a life estimate for the component to be made.4. stay below the elastic limit at all times. Figure 2. that is a plot of alternating stress. The data which results from these tests can be plotted on a curve of stress versus number of cycles to failure.
or high number of cycles to produce fatigue failure. It involves nominally linear elastic behavior and causes failure after more than about 104 to 105 cycles. The nominal stress approach is therefore best suited to problems that fall into the category known as highcycle fatigue. 12 . the cyclestofailure increase.failure is large. High cycle fatigue is one of the two regimes of fatigue phenomenon that is generally considered for metals and alloys. This regime associated with lower loads and long lives. As the loading amplitude is decreased.
This is illustrated in Figure 3. it follows a path described by the cyclic stressstrain curve. ORIGINAL DEFINITION Counting methods have initially been developed for the study of fatigue damage generated in aeronautical structures.CHAPTER 3 RAINFLOW CYCLE COUNTING 3. 13 . At point b. Other methods are briefly explained in Appendix G. errors could be taken in the calculations for some of them. peak counting. Level crossing counting.Endo to count the cycles or the half cycles of straintime signals.1. simple range counting and rainflow counting are the methods which are using stress or deformation ranges. the material elastically deforms to point b. from a to b. and deformation continues along path a to d as if event bc never occurred. When the load is reapplied from c to d.Matsuiski and T. Rainflow cycle counting method has initially been proposed by M. i. One of the preferred methods is the rainflow counting method. [14] Counting is carried out on the basis of the stressstrain behavior of the material.1. Since different results have been obtained from different methods.e. As the material deforms from point a to b. where the material remembers its prior history. the load is reversed and the material elastically unloads to point c.
in general. Stressstrain cycles The signal measured.Figure 3.2. Figure 3. which makes difficult the determination of the number of cycles absorbed by the structure.2. but also several peaks appear. a random stress S(t) is not only made up of a peak alone between two passages by zero. Random stress fluctuation 14 . An example for the random stress data is shown in Figure 3.1.
The origin of the name of rainflow counting method which is called ‘Pagoda Roof Method’ can be explained as that the time axis is vertical and the random stress S(t) represents a series of roofs on which water falls. bottoms of the roofs are on the left. It can be agreed that the tops of the roofs are on the right of the axis.3. Figure 3. The drop released from the largest peak The origin of the random stress is placed on the axis at the abscissa of the largest peak of the random stress. The stress spectrum is thus a representation of the statistical distribution of the characteristic amplitudes of the random stress as a function of time. The rules of the flow can be shown as in Figure 3.The counting of peaks makes it possible to constitute a histogram of the peaks of the random stress which can then be transformed into a stress spectrum giving the number of events for lower than a given stress value. 15 . Water drops are sequentially released at each extreme. If the fall starts from a peak: a) the drop will stop if it meets an opposing peak larger than that of departure.3.
4. e) the fall will stop if it crosses the path of a drop coming from a preceding valley as given in Figure 3.4. previously determined as shown in Figure 3. Flow rule of the drop from a peak If the fall begins from a valley: d) the fall will stop if the drop meets a valley deeper than that of departure as shown in Figure 3. 16 .5. c) the drop can fall on another roof and to continue to slip according to rules a and b.b) it will also stop if it meets the path traversed by another drop. f) the drop can fall on another roof and continue according to rules d and e.6. Figure 3. The horizontal length of each rainflow defines a range which can be regarded as equivalent to a halfcycle of a constant amplitude load.
water sources are considered. Then the time axis is rotated so that it points downward. At both peaks and valleys. the stress S(t) is transformed to a process of peaks and valleys. Water flows downward according to the following rules: 17 .6.Figure 3. Flow rule of the drop from a valley As the fundamentals of the original definition of the rainflow cycle counting given above. Drop departure from a valley Figure 3. the cycles are identified in a random variable amplitude loading sequence in Figure 3.7 as an example. First.5.
3. until it encounters a valley that is more negative than the origin. A new path is not started until the path under consideration is stopped. Si is Figure 3. A rainflow path starting at a valley will continue down the “pagoda roofs”. the stress range Si is the vertical excursion of a path.1. Rainflow cycle counting [13] 18 . From the figure. A rainflow path is terminated when it encounters flow from a previous path. The mean the midpoint. each valleygenerated halfcycle will match a peakgenerated halfcycle to form a whole cycle. the path that starts at A will end at E. the path that starts at C is terminated as shown. Valleygenerated halfcycles are defined for the entire record. The process is repeated in reverse with peakgenerated rainflow paths. 4.7. 2. 5. For a sufficiently long record. For example. For each cycle.
Rules for the rainflow counting method are given as follows: Let X denotes range under consideration. Y.Figure 3. Rainflow cycle counting [13] (continued) 3. (2) If there are less than three points. PRACTICAL DEFINITION Practical definition of the rainflow cycle counting can be explained according to the ASTM E–1049 Standard Practices for Cycle Counting in Fatigue Analysis. starting point in the history.7. If out of data. Form ranges X and Y using the three most recent peaks and valleys that have not been discarded. go to Step 1. 19 . previous range adjacent to X. go to Step 6. and S.2. (1) Read next peak or valley.
X=GH. Y=AB . X=DE. Count AB as onehalf cycle and discard point A. and HI as onehalf cycle. X=EF. otherwise. End of data. point B. (4) If range Y contains the starting point S. (6) Count each range that has not been previously counted as onehalf cycle. go to Step 4. Y contains S. S=B. X>Y. Y contains S. (5) Count range Y as onehalf cycle. point C. S=D. S=C. X=DG. that is. move the starting point to the second point in range Y. Count BC as one halfcycle and discard point B. Figure 3. 20 . X>Y. (Figure b) (2) Y=BC.8 is used to illustrate the process. X<Y. Count EF as one cycle and discard points E and F. Details of the cycle counting are as follows: (1) S=A. that is. X<Y. (a) If X<Y. go to step 5. (b) If X Y. X=BC. (8) Y=GH. go to Step 2. point A. A cycle is formed by pairing range EF and a portion of range FG) (6) Y=CD. Count CD as onehalf cycle and discard point C. (Figure d. X=FG. (Figure e) (7) Y=DG. (Figure f) (10)End of counting. count range Y as one cycle. X=HI.(3) Compare the absolute values of ranges X and Y. and go to Step 2. that is. X>Y. X<Y. (5) Y=EF. go to Step 1. (4) Y=DE. discard the first point (peak or valley) in range Y. X=CD. GH as onehalf cycle. (9) Count DG as onehalf cycle. X<Y. discard the peak and valley of Y. (Figure c) (3) Y=CD. X>Y. Y contains S.
Practical definition of rainflow cycle counting 21 .8.(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Figure 3.
5 1 0 0.The results obtained from Figure 3. Table 3. Cycle counts Range (units) 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Cycle Counts 0 0.1.5 0 1.5 0 0 Events DG CD. EF AB 22 . GH HI BC. It gives the number of cycle counts in the specific events.8 are tabulated in Table 3.1.5 0.
the mean.1. as long as the sample was long enough so that the statistics of it were the same. or after as can be seen in Figure 4. This process can be described as random and as in the time domain.1.1. For instance. it is not problem: When considering the original time history was for instance 300 second segment of time signal before. stress range values. However.CHAPTER 4 RAINFLOW CYCLE COUNTING IN TIME AND FREQUENCY DOMAINS 4. the one measured is not equivalent. Time history [23] If random loading input is asked to specify. This process is described as a function of 23 . INTRODUCTION The sample time history is actually not equivalent to the original time history. Figure 4.1. As an extension of Fourier analysis. then random time history should be specified as can be seen in Figure 4. Fourier transforms allow any process to be represented using a spectral formulation such as a power spectral density (PSD) function. It does not matter. and peak rate.
RAINFLOW CYCLE COUNTING IN TIME DOMAIN For any fatigue analysis. which is usually expressed as a stress or strain time history. the starting point is the response of the structure or component. If the response time history is made up of constant amplitude stress or strain cycles then the fatigue design can be accomplished by referring to a typical to a typical SN diagram.2. This linear relationship assumes that the damage caused by parts of a stress signal with a particular range can be calculated and accumulated to the total damage separately from that caused by other ranges.2.2. It is still a random specification of the function. PalmgrenMiner rule is used for this purpose. 24 . because real signals rarely confirm to this ideal constant amplitude situation. Figure 4. an empirical approach is used for calculating the damage caused by stress signals of variable amplitude. However. Despite its limitations. Random processes [9] 4.frequency and is therefore said to be in the frequency domain as can be seen in Figure 4.
4. fatigue life is obtained as the steps of the process are also given in Figure 4. Figure 4. 25 . This can be used in PalmgrenMiner calculation to obtain the fatigue life. Then. Power spectral density versus frequency data is used to find the first four moments of the power spectral density function and these four moments are used in finding the probability density function. The number of cycles in each block is usually recorded in a stress range histogram. General procedure for time domain fatigue life calculation [23] 4. RAINFLOW CYCLE COUNTING IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN In frequency domain.3. rainflow cycle counting is used to decompose the irregular time history into equivalent stress of block loading. firstly.3.When the response time history is irregular with time as shown in Figure 4. time signal data is transferred into power spectral density values.3.
26 .3.1. If the damage D caused in time T is greater than 1.0 and then finding the fatigue life T in seconds from the fatigue damage equation given above. there is an equation to describe the expected fatigue damage caused by the loading history. General procedure for frequency domain fatigue life calculation [23] 4. In addition. Or alternatively. the fatigue life can be obtained by setting E[D] =1. Probability Density Function (PDF) When the stress range histogram is converted into a stress range probability density function.2) where b and k are the material properties.1) In order to compute fatigue damage over the life time of the structure in seconds (T). then the structure is assumed to have failed.4.Figure 4. [23] T E [D ] = E[P ] ⋅ ⋅ S b ⋅ p(S ) ⋅ dS k 0 ∞ (4. the form of the material (SN) data must also be defined using the parameters k and b as: N ⋅Sb = k (4. the total number of cycles in time T must be determined from the number of peaks per second E[P]. There is a linear relationship exists between cycles to failure N and applied stress range S under constant amplitude cyclic loading when plotted on logarithmic paper.
5. 2 2 4. each bin in the rainflow count has to be divided by N t ⋅ dS (4. Probability density function To get probability density function from rainflow histogram.3. 27 . Expected Zeros. Peaks and Irregularity Factor The number of zero crossings and the number peaks in the signal are the most important statistical parameters. A typical representation of this function is shown in Figure 4. Figure 4. The probability of the stress range occurring between Si − dS dS and S i + is given by p (S i ) ⋅ dS .6 shows a one second piece cut out from the time signal. Figure 4.5.3) where Nt is the total number of cycles in histogram and dS is the bin width.The stress range histogram information can be stored in the form of a probability density function (pdf) of stress ranges.2.
5) γ = (4.6) Irregularity factor is found in the range of 0 to 1.4) (4. These points can be seen in Figure 4. Zero and peak crossing rates Number of upward zero crossings. The irregularity factor is defined as the number of upward zero crossings divided by the number of peaks. zero crossings with positive slope and E [P] is the number of peaks in the same sample. This process is known as narrow band as shown in the Figure 4.7(a). E [0] = 3 Number of peaks. E [P ] = 6 irregularity factor. = upward zero crossing = peak Figure 4. E[0] 3 = E [P ] 6 (4.E [0] is the number of upward zero crossings.5.6. As the divergence from narrow band increases then the value for the irregularity factor tends towards 0 and the process 28 . Narrow band process is built up of sine waves covering only a narrow range of frequencies.e. i.
From the characteristics of the power spectral density.7(c).3. The relevant spectral moments are easily 29 . Moments from the Power Spectral Density The probability density function of rainflow ranges can be extracted directly from the power spectral density (PSD) function of stress. Equivalent time histories and power spectral densities 4. shown in Figure 4. It is built up of sine waves over the whole frequency range. Figure 4.7(d). Figure 4.3.7(b).is illustrated as broad band as given in Figure 4. After the calculations of the moments. nth moments of the power spectral density function are obtained. a white noise is shown which is a special time history. In sine wave. Broad band process is made up of sine waves over a broad range of frequencies. a sinusoidal time history appears as a single spike on the PSD plot. fatigue damage can be calculated.7.
3. In theory. all the possible moments should be calculated. The nth moment of area of the PSD (mn) can be calculated by summing the moments of all the strips. m0. G(f). using the following expression: mn = ∞ f n ⋅ G ( f ) ⋅ df = f kn ⋅ Gk ( f ) ⋅ δf (4. m1. Figure 4.computed from a one sided power spectral density. m2.8. 30 . Onesided power spectral density function 4.7) 0 The curve is divided into small strips as shown in Figure 4.8. however. The nth moment of area of the strip is given by the area of the strip multiplied by the frequency raised to the power n. in practice. Peaks and Irregularity Factor from a Power Spectral Density The number of upward zero crossings per second E[0] and peaks per second E[P] in a random signal expressed solely in terms of their spectral moments mn . Expected Zeros. m4 are sufficient to calculate all of the information for the fatigue analysis.4.
The number of upward zero crossings per second is [36]: E [0] = m2 m0 (4. Tuna and Hancock [23]. total number of peaks and zeros are found by multiplying E[0] and E[P] with the total record length. 4.12) where T refers to the total time. This approach was used by Wirsching et al.3.10) Then.9) γ = E [0] = E [P ] 2 m2 m0 ⋅ m 4 (4. Cycles at level i : ni = p[S i ] ⋅ dS ⋅ N t Total cycles : N t = E[P ] ⋅ T (4.8) The number of peaks per second is: m4 E [P ] = m2 Therefore.11) (4. Chaudhury and Dover. It is important to note that the solutions are expressed in terms of spectral moments up to m4. Estimation of Probability Density Function from Power Spectral Density Moments (Dirlik’s Solution) Many expressions have been produced by generating sample time histories from power spectral densities (PSD) using Inverse Fourier Transform techniques. 31 . irregularity factor is found as: (4. From these a conventional rainflow cycle count was then obtained.5.
m1.18) D3 = 1 − D1 − D2 R= γ − X m − D12 1 − γ − D1 + D12 5 ⋅ (γ − D1 − D2 ⋅ R ) 4 ⋅ D1 Q= (4.21) As can be seen from the equations above Xm.15) 1 − γ − D1 + D12 D2 = 1− R (4. −Z −Z 2 −Z 2 2 D1 Q D2 ⋅ e + 2 ⋅ e 2 + D3 ⋅ Z ⋅ e Q R p (S ) = 2 ⋅ m1 2 0 where. D3. m2 and m4. Z= S 2 ⋅ m1 2 0 (4. D1.14) D1 = 2⋅ Xm −γ 2 1+ γ 2 ( ) (4.20) Xm = m1 m2 ⋅ m0 m4 (4.Dirlik [23] has produced an empirical solution for the probability density function of rainflow ranges. 32 .13) (4. D2.19) where γ = m2 m0 ⋅ m4 (4.16) (4. Dirlik’s equation is given below. Q and R are all functions of m0.17) (4.
It also permits design estimates to be made for operation under conditions of variable load amplitude using the standard constant amplitude SN curves that are more readily available. Target is to estimate how many of the blocks can be applied before failure occurs. provides a comprehensive review of the models that have been proposed to predict fatigue life in components subject to variable amplitude stress using constant amplitude data to define fatigue strength. Many different cumulative damage theories have been proposed for the purposes of assessing fatigue damage caused by operation at any given stress level and the addition of damage increments to properly predict failure under conditions of spectrum loading. The key issue is how to use the mountains of available constant amplitude data to predict fatigue in a component. However. to have an available theory or hypothesis becomes important which is verified by experimental observations. in practice. The original model. This theory may be described using the SN plot. The variations and changes in load amplitude. originally suggested by Palmgren (1924) and later developed by Miner (1945) [13]. in 1981. Collins. often referred to as spectrum loading. the alternating stress amplitude may be expected to vary or change in some way during the service life when the fatigue failure is considered. a linear damage rule. In this case. This linear theory. Life estimates may be made by employing PalmgrenMiner rule along with a cycle counting procedure. is referred to as the PalmgrenMiner rule or the linear damage rule. 33 . which is still widely used. make the direct use of SN curves inapplicable because these curves are developed and presented for constant stress amplitude operation.CHAPTER 5 PALMGRENMINER RULE Almost all available fatigue data for design purposes is based on constant amplitude tests.
at this point there is no explicit consideration of the possibility of mean stress. Figure 5. Spectrum of amplitudes of stress cycles [13] In Figure 5.1. The constant amplitude SN curve is also shown in Figure 5. By using the SN data. and this curve is compatible with the definition of stress. 34 .1. that is. ii) A constant amplitude SN curve is available. number of cycles of S1 is found as N1 which would cause failure if no other stresses were present.2. Such a spectrum will lose any information on the applied sequence of stress cycles that may be important in some cases. a spectrum of amplitudes of stress cycles is described as a sequence of constant amplitude blocks.In this rule. Operation at stress amplitude S1 for a number of cycles n1 smaller than N1 produces a smaller fraction of damage which can be termed as D1 and called as the damage fraction. the assumptions can be summarized as follows: i) The stress process can be described by stress cycles and that a spectrum of amplitudes of stress cycles can be defined. each block having stress amplitude Si and the total number of applied cycles ni.
4) The limitations of the PalmgrenMiner rule can be summarized as the following: 35 ..2) Then. Constant amplitude SN curve [22] Operation over a spectrum of different stress levels results in a damage fraction Di for each of the different stress levels Si in the spectrum.. It is clear that.Figure 5. + Di −1 + Di ≥ 1. failure occurs if the fraction exceeds unity: D1 + D2 + . 0 (5. the damage fraction at any stress level Si is linearly proportional to the ratio of number of cycles of operation to the total number of cycles that produces failure at that stress level.3) and the event of failure can be defined as D ≥ 1. that is Di = ni Ni (5.1) According to the PalmgrenMiner rule.2.0 (5. a total damage can be defined as the sum of all the fractional damages over a total of k blocks. D= k i =1 ni Ni (5.
PalmgrenMiner rule is still used widely in the applications of the fatigue life estimates. does not affect the damage caused by S1. 36 . however.i) Linear: It assumes that all cycles of a given magnitude do the same amount of damage. ii) Noninteractive (sequence effects): It assumes that the presence of S2 etc. The assumptions are known to be faulty. iii) Stress independent: It assumes that the rule governing the damage caused by S1 is the same as that governing the damage caused by S2. whether they occur early or late in the life.
1. produced by Ling Dynamic Systems (LDS).1.CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF THE EXPERIMENTS 6. Vibration test system The essential components of a vibration test system as can be seen in Figure 6.2 are: • • • • Vibrator (shaker) Amplifier Controller Vibration transducer (typically accelerometer) 37 . Figure 6. VIBRATION TEST SYSTEM Tests were carried on the mechanical vibration test system which is V864640 SPA 20K. The model of the system has armature in 640mm diameter and the power amplifier has 4 modules each being rated at 5kVA power. The system is shown in Figure 6.1.
T). The static magnetic field is produced by an electromagnet in the vibrator. The electromagnet is a coil of wire which is commonly referred to as the field coil.2. The force that the armature can produce is proportional to the current flowing in the coil. which is an electrodynamic instrument. where the movement of the armature is produced by an electrical current in the coil which produces a magnetic field opposing a static magnetic field. I is the current (Amper.Figure 6. B is the magnetic flux density (Tesla.N). Figure 6.3.A) and L is the thickness of the magnet (meter. To calculate the force produced. the following formula can be applied: F = B⋅I ⋅L (6. Left hand rule 38 . Components of the vibration test system In principal the vibrator. operates like a loudspeaker. The direction of the force is well illustrated by Flemming’s left hand rule.m).1) where F is the force (Newton.
road transport. like the Land Rover and the Hammer military vehicle. The Minimum Integrity Test according to MILSTD810F is used for general purposes where the place of the specimen is not known. Vibration controller is used to ensure that what is seen by the control accelerometer is what has been programmed into the controller. and regulatory compliance are factors driving the materials decisions daily. the aliminum material is chosen because it is widespreadly used in the areas such as aircraft. the random vibration profile in the form of band limited noise shown in Figure 6. In the experiment.4 is applied to the specimen. It is intended to provide reasonable assurance that material can withstand anywhere such as in transportation and handling including field installation. rail transport. to monitor the system interlock signals and initiate amplifier shutdown when any system abnormality sensed. The controller will monitor the result on the table from the output from the control accelerometer and then correct its output to match the defined test. with 0. 6. cooling fan supply and auxiliary supplies. Its function is also to provide the necessary field power supply.04g2/Hz power spectral density value. In the experimental design. TEST MATERIAL The reality of shortened lead times. all 39 . sea. The random vibration test is performed in frequencies between 5Hz and 500Hz.45 for the specified range. rugged vehicles. removal or repair. Since aluminum is very strong.The purpose of the amplifier is to provide electrical power to the vibrator’s armature. The system behaves as a closed loop system.2. The root mean square (rms) value of the acceleration (g) is obtained as 4. The power is in the form of voltage and current. performance improvements in products and materials as well as business complexity and globalization. and also in the building. Aluminum is ideal material for any transport application.
Aluminum plate girders. durable and thermally efficient. engine parts and automobile wheels. transmission housings.4. In addition.Figure 6. such as craft. They are extremely stable. Minimum Integrity Test applied to the specimen between 5500Hz[26] use aluminum extensively. and aluminum is the preferred material. In conclusion. Highly resistant and rigid. because of its properties. are weightcritical. which are frequently used in ships and modules in aluminum. The structures in the sea. they have low rates of expansion and contraction and also of condensation. truck and automobile engine blocks and cylinder heads. the aluminum test specimen is chosen to analyze in the experiment. Since the products are mostly seen as aluminummade. heat exchangers. aluminum’s strength. may experience a dramatic reduction in strength due to the vulnerability of aluminum material to heating. aluminum material is preferred in every area. weight and versatility make it an ideal building and cladding material since these properties encourage its use in earthquake prone zones and its resistance to corrosion means it is virtually maintenancefree. The main properties of the aluminum can be summarized as follows: 40 . Aluminum is also used for railroad cars.
High strengthtoweight ratio: At 2700 kg/m3, aluminum is only one third the density of iron. Aluminum is typically used as construction material in weightcritical structures. Highstrength aluminum alloys attain the tensile strength of regular construction steel. Durability: Its natural airtight oxide skin protects aluminum against corrosion. Electrically conductivity: An equivalent conductive cross section of aluminum is equal to 1.6 times that of copper, however brings with it a significant weight advantage or approximately 50%. Heat conductivity: With a value of 2.03W/cmK, aluminum exhibits excellent heat conductivity. This is why it is ideal for solar panels, cooling elements, brake discs, etc. Ductility: Aluminum can be shaped and moulded in all the usual cutting and noncutting ways. Recyclability: Aluminum is almost predestined for reuse. With an energy requirement equivalent to 5% of the raw material gain, aluminum is efficiently brought back into circulation with minimal emissions. In addition, this lightweight metal is nontoxic and completely harmless in all applicaitons.
6.3. STRAIN GAGES
In the experimental analysis, a strain gage is used to measure the strains on the surface of the aluminum plate where is the most critical point. Because the resistance change in a strain gage is very small, it can not be measured accurately with an ordinary ohmmeter. The Wheatstone Bridge is used which of its one arm is strain gage. The basic principles of the stress, strain, strain gage, measuring circuit and shunt calibration are described in this part. The maximum benefit from strain gage measurements can only be obtained when a correctly assembled measuring system is allied with a through knowledge of the
41
factors governing the strength and elasticity of materials. This knowledge allows the strain gages to be in the most effective manner, so that reliable measurements can be obtained. During the design and construction of machines and structures, the strength of the material to be used plays a very important part in the calculations. The strength of the material is used to find whether the parts can carry the loads demanded of them without excessive deformation or failure. These load carrying abilities are normally characterized in terms of stress. Stress can be calculated by dividing the force applied by the unit area for a uniform distribution of internal resisting forces:
F A
σ=
(6.2)
where σ is stress, F is the force and A is the unit area. In the same way that loads are characterized in terms of stress, extension is characterized in terms of strain. Strain is defined as the amount of deformation per unit length of an object when a load is applied. Strain is measured as the ratio of dimensional change to the total value of the dimension in which the change occurs:
∆L L
ε=
(6.3)
where ε is the strain and L is the original length. Poisson’s ratio is the ratio of transverse to longitudinal unit strain. The modulus of elasticity is the ratio of stress to the corresponding strain (below the proportional limits). It is defined by Hooke’s Law as
E=
σ ε
(6.4)
where E is the modulus of elasticity which is constant.
42
The tensile and compressive modulus of elasticity are defined separately as
ET =
σT ε σC ε
(6.5)
and
EC =
(6.6)
Then the tensile modulus of elasticity becomes,
FT ET = A ∆L L
(6.7)
where FT is the tension force, ∆L is the elongation along the direction of application force. And, the compressive modulus of elasticity becomes,
FC EC = A ∆L L
(6.8)
where FC is the compression force, ∆L is the contraction along the direction of application force. Strain gages are one of the most universal measuring devices for the electrical measurement of mechanical quantities. As their name indicates, they are used for the measurement of strain. As a technical term ‘strain’ consists of tensile and compressive strain, distinguished by a positive or negative sign. Thus, strain gages can be used to pick up expansion as well as contraction. The strain of a body is always caused by an external influence or an internal effect.
43
as measured inside the grid endloops and grid width refer to active or strainsensitive grid dimensions. Gage Dimensions: The uniaxial strain gage dimensions are shown in Figure 6. STRAIN GAGE CHARACTERISTICS The characteristics of the strain gage are gage dimensions. temperature and selftemperature compensation. Dimensions listed for gage length. The length of the straight portion of the grid determines the gage length of the strain gage and the width is determined by the width of the grid as can be seen in the figure.6. gage pattern.1. Figure 6. the range. The endloops and solder taps are considered insensitive to strain because of their relatively large crosssectional area and low electrical resistance. gage sensitivity (gage factor). Detail description of the uniaxial strain gage [16] 44 . matrix length.5.5. gage resistance. overall width. matrix width and the gridline direction.3. gage series. The figure also shows the overall length.
produced by a resistance strain gage. However. improved strain averaging on inhomogeneous materials such as fiber reinforced composites and easier handling and installation. The range comprises strain gages with a nominal resistance of 120. For the majority of applications. a hole or shoulder and when very limited space available for gage mounting. and 700 ohms.A larger gage has greater grid area which is better for heat dissipation. 120ohm gages are usually suitable. 350. for example. In addition. 600. however. Strain gages with resistances of 120 and 350 ohms are commonly used in experimental stress analysis testing. to reduce leadwire effects. Gage Resistance: The resistance of a strain gage is defined as the electrical resistance measured between the two metal ribbons or contact areas intended for the connection of measurement cables. or to improve signalto noise ratios in the gage circuit. This may be because of cost considerations and particularly in the case of very small gages. a shorter gage has advantages when measuring localized peak strains in the vicinity of a stress concentration.9) 45 . The strain sensitivity of a single uniform length of a conductor is given by: dR k= R ε (6. Gage Sensitivity (Gage Factor): The strain sensitivity k of a strain gage is the proportionality factor between the relative changes of the resistance. 350ohm gages are preferred to reduce heat generation. It is a figure without dimension and is generally called gage factor which is referred as the measure of sensitivity. fatigue life reduction can also be expected. there are often advantages from selecting the 350ohm resistance if this resistance is compatible with the instrumentation to be used. or output. For the high resistance small gages.
where ε is a uniform strain along the conductor and in the direction of the conductor. certain effects take place. A trielement strain rosette (0º45º90º rectangular rosette or 0º60º120º delta rosette) is selected if the principal stresses need to be investigated. but also can alter the properties of the base material to which the strain gage is attached. the principal axes are unknown. Whenever a conductor.3. which alter the resistance of the strain gage to a certain degree. for instance a wire. They are available with different aspect ratios. lengthtowidth. Differences in expansion coefficients between the gage and base materials may cause dimensional changes in the sensor element. and various solder tab arrangements for adaptability to different installation requirements. Expansion or contraction of the strain gage element and/or the base material introduces errors that are difficult to correct. is wound into a strain gage grid. A biaxial strain rosette (0º90º tee rosette) is selected if the principal stresses need to be investigated and the principal axes are known. however. Temperature: Temperature can alter not only the properties of a strain gage element. Uniaxial strain gage is selected if only one direction of strain needs to be investigated. The Range: Range represents the maximum strain which can be recorded without resetting or replacing the strain gage. This value of sensitivity is assigned to the gage. Gage Pattern: Gage pattern commonly refers to the number of the grid whether it is uniaxial or multiaxial. 46 . Gage Series: Gage series should be selected after the selection of gage size and the gage pattern. i. however. The standard gage series table is given in Appendix B.e. Table B. The range and sensitivity are interrelated since very sensitive gages respond to small strain with appreciable response and the range is usually limited to the fullscale deflection or count of the indicator.
both fed by the same input. E B is voltage difference on R4 . However. It is simply shown in Figure 6. The D alloy is not available.13.06.09.18. that occur in the gage resistance due to variations in the applied strain can be measured by Wheatstone Bridge.09. Today. and R4 are the resistances in terms of ohm ( ).03. it is also suitable to measure the resistance change in a strain gage.05. P alloy: 08. The STC numbers which are available can be given as.15. The Wheatstone Bridge was actually first described by Samuel Hunter Christie (17841865) in 1833. E A is voltage difference on R3 . R3 . R2 . DY is used instead of D in selftemperaturecompensated form.15.6. the Wheatstone Bridge remains the most sensitive and accurate method for precisely measuring resistance values.SelfTemperature Compensation (STC): It is the approximate thermal expansion coefficient in ppm/°F of the structural material on which the gage is to be used.05.03. R1 .3. THE MEASURING CIRCUIT The extremely small changes of the order of thousandths of an ohm. The Wheatstone Bridge is two voltage dividers. Since the Wheatstone Bridge is well suited for the measurement of small changes of a resistance. 47 . All gages with XX as the second code group in the gage designation are selftemperaturecompensated for use on structural materials.13. Voltage differences are given in terms of volt (V). K alloy: 00. E is voltage difference between C and D. Sir Charles Wheatstone invented many uses for this circuit once he found the complete description in 1843 [24]. eo is voltage difference between A and B. A alloy: 00.06. The circuit output is taken from both voltage divider outputs.2. 6.
is remote from the instrument and connected to gage resistance RG by leadwires of resistance RL .2. The external circuit with active gage is illustrated with instrument in Figure 6.1. in a threewire circuit. Since the input impedance of the instrument applied across the output terminals of the bridge circuit is taken to be 48 . Basic Wheatstone Bridge circuit 6.7. If all leadwire resistances are nominally equal.8 in which an active gage. This arrangement is employed for many dynamic and static strain measurements where temperature compensation in the circuit is not critical.10) and R2 = R L + RG (6.6. then R1 and R2 shown in Figure 6.3.6 are calculated as R1 = R L + RG (6.Figure 6.11) This means that the same amount of leadwire resistance in series with both the active gage and the dummy. Quarter bridge circuit with active gage is shown in Figure 6.instrument terminal. Quarter Bridge Circuit Quarter bridge circuit is one of the cases of Wheatstone Bridge. There is also leadwire resistance in the bridge output connection to the S.
Thus.7. Quarter bridge circuit with active gage [16] 49 .8. no current flows through the instrument leads.infinite. the latter resistance has no effect. The external circuit with active gage illustrated with instrument [16] Figure 6. Figure 6.
it is necessary to convert the deflection of the recording instrument into the strain quantity being measured. For simplicity and without loss generality. A single calibration for the complete system is obtained so that readings from the recording instrument can be directly related to the strains which produced them.3. the bridge is initially balanced. The process of determining the conversion factor or calibration constant is called calibration. it is assumed that R1 = R2 = R3 = R4 . SHUNT CALIBRATION OF STRAIN GAGE In strain measuring system. R1 = RG and ∆R1 = ∆RG (quarter bridge). The calibration resistor RC is shunted across R1 by 50 . Figure 6. and then adjusting the gage factor or gain of the instrument until it registers the same strain.6.3.9.9. Shunt calibration of single active gage [25] The strain measuring system is calibrated by connecting a resistor RC of known resistance across an active arm of the bridge to produce a known change ∆RG in resistance of this arm. The basic shunt calibration of single active arm is shown in Figure 6. Thus. Shunt calibration is to simulate a predetermined strain in the gage.
by using Equation (6. FG : ∆R = FG ⋅ ε RG (6. The equivalent resistance of the bridge arm with the calibration resistor shunted across this arm is Re = R1 ⋅ RC R1 + RC (6. 51 .15) where ε S is the calibration strain which produces the same voltage output from the bridge as the calibration resistor RC . The acquired experimental data are then analyzed statistically.4.closing the switch. 6.14) Since. The unit resistance change in the gage is related to strain through the definition of the gage factor. The steps of preparing the test specimen are given as follows. a cantilever aluminum plate with a side notch under certain loading conditions is used as a test specimen. then εS = − RG FG ⋅ (RG + RC ) (6. R1 = RG . the following is obtained: ∆R1 − R1 = R1 R1 + RC (6.1) where RC is the calibration resistor.12) and the change in the arm resistance ∆R1 = Re − R1 . The minus sign indicates that the deflection of the recording system produced by the connection of RC is along the same direction as that produced by a compressive strain in the gage resistance RG .12). The fatigue behavior of the test specimen subjected to random loading is investigated experimentally. TEST PROCEDURE In the experiment.
has 4mm thickness.11.10.11. which is 79 gram mass. The end mass which is made up of steel has mass of 486. Side notch is placed 50mm from the other side of the aluminum plate as shown in Figure 6. Aluminum plate End mass Figure 6. An 8mm diameter hole is placed to apply an end mass on one side of the plate. This configuration can be seen in Figure 6.10. 50mm width and 150mm length. Aluminum test specimen side notch Figure 6.Aluminum plate.3 gram. Side notch in the aluminum test specimen 52 .
53 . test adaptor. polyurethane foam is glued on the aluminum plate to increase the dry friction coefficient. a cantilever beam with base excitation is obtained. Before inserting.13.e. i. Since notched end of the aluminum plate is fixed. It is used since an intermediate element is needed to match the whole pattern of the test specimen to the pattern of the vibrator. The combined system is shown in Figure 6. Cantilever aluminum plate The cantilever aluminum plate is screwed to the fixture which is used to attach the test specimen to the vibration test system. Figure 6.12.The test specimen is carefully inserted between the materials from 40mm inside of the left notch side of the aluminum plate as seen in Figure 6.12.
gluing.15.14. is strongly glued with the chemical consolidation behind the notch where the strain measurement is done. Test specimen with fixture Strain gage is used to specify the fatigue life of the specimen. A commercial strain gage. Also. soldering the cable.13. selfcompensated for aluminum.Figure 6. placing the strain gage.14 shows the aluminum test specimen with strain gage which is glued on. in Figure 6. The process steps are the surface preparation. Figure 6. surface protection cover and eye inspection. strain gage Figure 6. Strain gage glued on the aluminum test specimen 54 . the side notch which is placed under the strain gage is seen.
side notch Figure 6. low in cost. Uniaxial strain gage [16] In the experiment. Side notch placed under the strain gage The ideal strain gage would change resistance only due to the deformations of the surface to which the sensor is attached.16. EDDY060CP350 type general purpose strain gage is used. Figure 6. The uniaxial strain gage is shown separately in Figure 6.15. It should be small in size and mass.16. easily attached. and highly sensitive to strain but insensitive to ambient or process temperature variations. The description of the strain gage is given below: 55 .
Resistance is 350 ±0.18 0.26 1.18 0.57 4.9 6. The Table 6.350 Resistance in Ohms Grid and Tab Geometry Active Gage Length in Milseconds SelfTemperatureCompensation Foil Alloy Carrier Matrix (Backing) E refers openfaced general purpose gage with tough.2. high gage factor and high fatigue life excellent for dynamic measurements.06 0. The temperature range is between 195°C and +205°C and the strain range is ±2%.52 5. Dimensions of the strain gage used in the experiment Dimensions in mm Gage length Overall length Grid width Overall width Matrix length Matrix width 0.08 4.2. flexible cast polyimide backing. 56 . D refers as isoelastic alloy.2 0.060 CP .4% dimensions of the strain gage used in the experiment are given in Table 6. One of the wires of the cable is soldered to one leg of the strain gage and two of the wires are soldered to the other leg of the strain gage.57 7.E D – DY .17. . 4wire cable is used. The screen is shielded to the aluminum plate to prevent the electrical noise.6 One side of the cable is soldered to the uniaxial strain gage and the other side is going through the connector by the quarter bridge as shown in Figure 6.31 0.
is soldered to 2.18. 57 . 915 and 810 are made short circuited. Aluminum test specimen. The screen is soldered to 12.17. coming from one leg of the strain gage which is single soldered. cable and the connector Quarter Bridge is installed as a circuit. As can be seen from the figure. The electrical connection of the circuit is shown in Figure 6. coming from the second leg of the strain gage which is soldered at the same leg. 65. The other ends of the two wires. are soldered from 10 and 11 separately to the connector. The other end of the cable wire.Figure 6. 31.
modulus of elasticity. The strain gage resistance and the gage factor. as the name implies.19. Quarter bridge circuit diagram of the strain gage connector The connector provides the connection with the channel where the data is collected from. can be seen in Figure 6. Data acquisition system. After then. Traveller Plus. ESAM (Electronic Signal Analysis Measurement) software is run from the computer to collect the data while the specimen is in the vibration test. 58 . is a product and/or process used to collect information to document or analyze some phenomenon. The data acquisition system.Figure 6. poisson’s ratio of the specimen and the environment temperature are entered to the software as input parameters. Traveller Plus is used as a data acquisition system.18. ESAM software is ready to analyze the data. is connected to the laptop computer with USB port.
19.Laptop Traveller Plus Data Acquisition System Figure 6. Measuring equipment 59 .
CHAPTER 7 RESULTS OF MODAL ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES
7.1. MODAL ANALYSIS
Modal analysis has been used to determine the vibration characteristics of the specimen which are undamped natural frequencies and mode shapes. By examining the undamped natural frequencies obtained from the analysis, the sampling rate has been determined and the graphs are drawn half of the sampling frequency which is called Nyquist frequency. Nyquist frequency is the maximum frequency that can be detected from data sampled at time spacing referred as sample period. From the analysis, the behavior of the aluminum test specimen has also been examined. The material properties used in the design of a structure for dynamic loading conditions are given for the aluminum plate, steel end mass and screw are listed in Table 7.1.
Table 7.1. Material properties of the elements used in the modal analysis Material Property Young’s Modulus (Modulus of Elasticity) Density Poisson’s Ratio Aluminum Plate 70x109 Pa. 2,700kg/m3 0.33 Steel End Mass 210x109 Pa. 7,800kg/m3 0.27 Screw 210x109 Pa. 106 kg/m3 0.27
Second order element has been used in the modal analysis in ANSYS software. SOLID92 element with 10 node has been selected for the aluminum and steel elements, and BEAM4 has been selected for the screw. Screw has been modeled in 8mm diameter. In the modal analysis, Block Lanczos solver is used.
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The analysis has been performed with different mesh sizes and first four undamped natural frequencies have been obtained. In the first analysis, mesh size has been taken as 0.01m. The results have been obtained as f1=42.96Hz, f2=136.41Hz, f3=254.67Hz and f4=997.85Hz. By decreasing the mesh size to 0.005m, the second analysis results have been obtained as f1=46.20Hz, f2=148.13Hz, f3=266.38Hz and f4=1019.24Hz. In the third analysis, mesh size has been reduced to 0.003m and the results have been found as f1=46.89Hz, f2=148.79Hz, f3 =267.29Hz, f4=1020.30Hz which have been obtained very close to the second analysis results. It has been examined that after a certain value for the mesh size, the undamped natural frequencies have been obtained very close to each other. Therefore, third analysis has been considered in the following experimental studies. The maximum frequency of interest has been considered to define the sampling frequency. According to the third analysis results, to examine the first three natural frequencies, sampling frequency has been decided to be 1,000Hz. Mode shapes of the test specimen for the first three undamped natural frequencies are given in Figure 7.1, 7.2 and 7.3.
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Figure 7.1. 1st mode shape of the test specimen obtained by ANSYS
Figure 7.2. 2nd mode shape of the test specimen obtained by ANSYS
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The results have been obtained both in time and frequency domains.1. The straintime data has been collected during the experiment. The 63 . 7. Each random signal has been divided into the single cycles.2. during the vibration testing of the test specimen.2. The straintime data has been taken by the data acquisition system. Total damage has been calculated by PalmgrenMiner rule and statistical errors associated with the spectral measurements have been performed for the analysis in frequency domain. One of the methods of cycling implemented in the software was rainflow.3. Experimental Results in Time Domain Electronic Signal Acquisition Module (ESAM) software has been used for processing the random stresses. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The aluminum cantilever plate has a side notch and this notch was the most critical point against the stress concentration.Figure 7. Traveller Plus. 3rd mode shape of the test specimen obtained by ANSYS 7.
Each amplitude class has been determined by class range. Full range of possible amplitudes has been divided into certain number classes to calculate classes count.obtained straintime data has been used to get the stresstime data by using the equation: σ = E ⋅ε (7. where the abscissa shows the time values and the ordinate shows the stress ranges.6MPa. has been obtained for 1.4. Random data acquired from the test specimen Cycle counting by using rainflow has been executed to find the rainflow cycles in time domain for the strain gage signal. also amplitude tolerance has been defined as the minimal value of classified amplitude. Each classified cycle has been described by the stress amplitude and the mean stress value by considering the stress range for the test.800 seconds which can be seen in Figure 7.4. stress range for the test has been obtained between 132. Amplitude tolerance 64 . From the experiment.1) The random signal.7MPa and 132. Figure 7.
the full range for the amplitude classes has been considered such that the extreme values of the stress range for the test should be included. According to the amplitude class. the full range has included the maximum stress range obtained from the test. In the experiment. Since the maximum value for the full range is 160MPa. amplitude tolerance has been taken as 1.5. cycles count versus stress amplitude is shown and cycles count as a percentage versus stress amplitude can also be seen in Figure 7.5. Cycle counting in full range by rainflow method on the test specimen 65 .160]. the full range has been obtained as [0.has been set to the half of the amplitude class range. In Figure 7. Figure 7..5MPa and the classes count as 64.6 in the full ranges. By taking into consideration the full range. amplitude class and the class range have been determined. When the amplitude class range has been taken as 2.25MPa.
By considering the stress range for test. Percentage of cycle counting in full range by rainflow method on the test specimen Mean classes have been defined similarly. 66 . The full range of possible mean stress values has been divided into certain number classes which have been given as classes count. Each successive mean classes have also been determined by class range and additionally by minimal class which is the minimal value of the first mean class. Cycles count versus stress amplitude and mean stress value is obtained in Figure 7. The full range for the mean classes has comprised of the stress range for test. When the class range has been taken as 5MPa and the classes count as 64.185]. The full range of the mean classes should also include the stress range obtained for the test. the full range has been obtained as [135..7 and cycles count as a percentage versus stress amplitude and mean stress value is also shown in Figure 7.Figure 7.6.8 in the full ranges. the minimal class has been taken as 135MPa.
Percentage of cycle counting and mean classes in full range by rainflow method on the test specimen 67 .8. Cycle counting and mean classes in full range by rainflow method on the test specimen Figure 7.Figure 7.7.
9 can be drawn for the data collected for 1. The data is tabulated in Appendix A. From the graph.4. the first damped 68 . Since the sampling frequency has been taken as 1. Number of cycles versus stress obtained from the test in time domain 7.2.800 seconds.800 seconds and the result for the number of cycles has been obtained as 127.000Hz. Therefore. Nyquist frequency which is half of the sampling frequency has been obtained as 500Hz.9.2. the power spectral density estimates versus frequency graph has been drawn up to 500Hz.567. Since the total time has been obtained as 22. The number of cycles versus stress graph in Figure 7.142 seconds. Experimental Results in Frequency Domain Frequency analysis of the test specimen has been performed to find the number of cycles for the test specimen. the total number of cycles for the whole test has been found as 1.413 cycles and 16 halfcycles for this time period.420 cycles in time domain.The data has been analyzed for 1. which has been obtained in ESAM software for the signal given in Figure 7. 30000 25000 Number of cycles 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Stress Amplitude(MPa) Figure 7.
4 69 . Power spectral density function estimates of the test specimen for signal in Figure 7. The obtained data from the graph has been exported from ESAM software to the text file. peaks and the irregularity factor in MATLAB software.10. According to Figure 7. have been used to calculate the first four moments and the expected zeros. The probability density function estimates have been used to obtain the number of cycles in the stress amplitudes.2. Figure 7. The total number of cycles has then been calculated.natural frequency of the specimen is expected to find. which have been formed by power spectral density estimates and frequency. a peak is obtained at frequency of 45.10. The algorithm for calculating the probability density function (pdf) estimates of stresses in Dirlik’s formulation has also been written in MATLAB software. The two columns.43Hz. The results obtained are given in Table 7.
end. end. 70 . m4=0. fclose(fid). peaks and irregularity factor. m0=0. for i=1:size(psdx. zc=sqrt(m2/m0).4f \nm2= %6.4f\n nop=%6.1) m2=m2+psdx(i. expected zeros.4f'. fid = fopen('data. end. m1=0. the following algorithm has been used in MATLAB software: clc.2).4f\n zc=%6. vars=[m0 m1 m2 m4 zc nop irf]'. end.1)^4*psdx(i.1) m0=m0+psdx(i. fprintf(fid.4f \nirf=%6.vars). psdx=psd_data. m2=0.2).4f \nm1= %6. load psd_data_mat1.'m0= %6. for i=1:size(psdx.'w').4f\n m4=%6. nop=sqrt(m4/m2).1)*psdx(i.1)^2*psdx(i. for i=1:size(psdx.To calculate the PSD moments.1) m4=m4+psdx(i. for i=1:size(psdx.2).txt'.1) m1=m1+psdx(i. irf=zc/nop.2).
r=(irfxmd1^2)/(1irfd1+d1^2).013 in the frequency domain. z=stress.7 ⋅ 22./(2*sqrt(m0)).860 69. m=0. following algorithm has been used in MATLAB software: stress=2.565 305. d3=1d1d2. d2=(1irfd1+d1^2)/(1r).677.223.5:2. 71 .499.209.142 = 1. To calculate the probability density function estimates of stress ranges using Dirlik’s approach. stress=stress'.499.14 Total number of cycles can be found as by using Equation (4. d1=(2*(xmirf^2))/(1+irf^2).991 15. by multiplying the number of peaks per second with the total test time. the number of cycles ( N t ) has been calculated as 1.The results taken from the algorithm are given in the tabular form: Table 7. xm=(m1/m0)*sqrt(m2/m4).12): N t = E [P ] ⋅ T where T is the total time of the test. N t = 67.407 77 67. q=(5*(irfd1d2*r))/(4*d1).2.7 1.013 As done above. Data obtained for the test specimen by MATLAB software Definition 1st psd moment value 2nd psd moment value 3rd psd moment value 4th psd moment value Number of zero crossings per second Number of peaks per second Irregularity factor Termed m0 m1 m2 m4 zc nop irf Data obtained 2.5:135.
'%18. fclose(fid).0040 0.10.0015 0.pdf_dirlik=((d1/q)*exp(z. Probability density function estimates versus stress amplitude obtained from PSD graph of the test specimen in Figure 7.800 seconds for the total analyzed period of time and dS is 2. The probability density function estimates has been found by Dirlik’s formulation from the power spectral density (PSD) estimates graph in Figure 7.5MPa and by the increment of 2.0000 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Stress Amplitude(MPa) Figure 7. the values have been calculated up to 135MPa.0045 0.9f\n '.5 MPa.^2/2)). 72 . 0.0025 0.0005 0. the first stress value was 2.0035 pdf_dirlik 0. fid = fopen('data1.0020 0.txt'.^2). The tabulated form of the stresspdf_dirlik has been listed in Appendix A.11.0050 0./r^2)+d3*z. The graph is given in Figure 7.0010 0.11.*exp(z.10 by Dirlik’s formulation From Equation 4. fprintf(fid.0030 0.10. According to the algorithm written to find the probability density function estimates.'w'). cycles at level i has been given as: ni = p[S i ] ⋅ dS ⋅ N t where Nt value is 1.pdf_dirlik')./q)+(d2/r^2)*exp((z./(2*sqrt(m0)).5MPa.
linear damage rule.3.2): N = 10 4.3) 73 .800 The number of cycles obtained for the stress amplitudes have also been listed in Appendix A. This has been confirmed by Mr. Fatigue life calculation has been done by using PalmgrenMiner rule along with a cycle counting procedure. can be found from the Equation (7.23− log ( S ) 0. According to the SN graph.5 ⋅ 67. has been applied to find the fatigue damage of the test specimen which is accepted for the StressLife method.48 (7.48 ⋅ log( N ) (7. number of cycles. Number of cycles versus stress obtained from the test in frequency domain 7.ni = p[S i ] ⋅ 2.12. PALMGRENMINER RULE APPLICATION PalmgrenMiner rule. the equation of the aluminum material has been obtained [34]: log(S ) = 4.2) Then. Al 2024 T351 has been used as an aluminum plate. N.23 − 0.12. Neil Bishop referring to the mail given in Appendix D. In the test specimen.7 ⋅ 1. The number of cycles versus stress amplitude graph which has been obtained from Dirlik’s solution is given in Figure 7. 1800 1600 Number of Cycles 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Stress Amplitude(MPa) Figure 7.
has been calculated as 54.13 for Al 2024 T351: 54 i =1 ni = 0.4) According to Equation (7.3.5MPa.3. k.4). the number of blocks. since the stress values were between 2.1. Total Damage Calculation in Time Domain by PalmgrenMiner Rule Total damage has been calculated by dividing the number of cycles found in the time domain for each stresses to the number of cycles found from the Equation 7.3): D= k i =1 ni Ni where. The data has been tabulated in Appendix A. total damage obtained from the time domain analysis: D = 0.5MPa and 135MPa by an increment of 2.61 74 . the number of cycles can be obtained. 7. total damage in time and frequency domains can be found. the total damage can be written as: D= 54 i =1 ni Ni (7. Then. The total damage has been defined as the sum of all the fractional damages over a total number of blocks as given in Equation (5.61 Ni That is.By putting the stress data into Equation 7. named ‘N theoretical’.
Sample time history has been taken as 1.4.13 for Al 2024 T351: 54 i =1 ni = 0.54 7.3. the analysis has been performed up to 500Hz.000Hz.024 seconds and statistically independent subrecords have been taken as 64. Total Damage Calculation in Frequency Domain by PalmgrenMiner Rule Total damage has been calculated by dividing the number of cycles found in the frequency domain for each stresses to the number of cycles found from the Equation 7. STATISTICAL ERRORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SPECTRAL MEASUREMENTS The accuracy of the measurement of the power spectral density estimates may have been affected.7.2. Since Nyquist frequency is half of the sampling frequency. in which any one sample function completely represents the infinity of functions which make up the ensemble.54 Ni That is. total damage obtained from the frequency domain analysis: D = 0. Nyquist frequency (cutoff frequency). since a limited length has been analyzed. Therefore. Spectral linear analysis parameters have been taken as the sampling frequency. errors should still be defined when only dealing with a limited length of a sample function. Average 75 . errors should be introduced into the measured spectrum. Even assuming that random process is ergodic. By considering the modal analysis results. bandwidth and the number of blocks of frequency versus power spectral density estimates. sampling frequency has been taken as 1.
6) From Equation 7.024 seconds of each 64 sample time history Power spectral density estimates in dB form have been examined to see the second and third damped natural frequencies of the specimen along with the first natural frequency. By taking the reference value as 1 MPa2/Hz.024 x 64 seconds which can be given as G ave ( f k ) = 1 ⋅ 64 64 i =1 Gi ( f k ) (7. average power spectral density estimates can be written as: LGave ( f ) = 10 ⋅ log(Gave ( f )) (7.13.. and k = 1. The result is obtained as in Figure 7.64 .5) where the frequency is in the range of 0 ≤ f ≤ 500 Hz. The first three damped natural frequencies can be seen clearly in the graph. the graph of average power spectral density estimates versus frequency is obtained as in Figure 7. Average result of power spectral density estimates versus frequency for 1.14. 76 .power spectral density estimates have been found for the total record length of 1.13.6. 450 400 350 PSD(MPa2/Hz) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 Frequency(Hz) Figure 7.
Random Error The estimate Gave ( f ) has a variance error [33] Var (Gave ( f )) ≈ G2 ( f ) Be ⋅ Ttotal (7.30 20 10 L(f) (dB) 0 10 20 30 40 Frequency(Hz) 0 100 200 300 400 500 Figure 7.1. the record length T.14. the equation can be given as: T total = nd ⋅ T and Be is the effective bandwidth and given as: Be = ∆f = (7. Frequency domain quantities occurring in the analysis have been discussed.9) 77 . Average power spectral density estimates versus frequency The statistical errors which are random and bias errors have been examined in the computation of desired quantities from random process.8) 1 T (7.7) where Ttotal is the total record length and knowing that statistically independent subrecords nd . 7.4.
then random error is found as: ε r (Gave ( f )) = 1 64 = 0. 7.13) The frequency response function for the single degree of freedom system can be represented by H(f ) = 1 k f + j ⋅ 2 ⋅ς ⋅ fn (7. In the frequency analysis of the experiment.11) The random error formula for the measurements of the average power spectral density estimates is only determined by nd .5%.12) The normalized bias error is given by d2 G ave ( f ) Be2 df 2 ε b (Gave ( f )) ≈ ⋅ 24 G ave ( f ) (7. n d = 64 .2.Then.10) Equation 7.10 yields the normalized random error formula ε r (Gave ( f )) = 1 nd (7.14) f 1− fn 2 78 .125 The random error is obtained as 12.4. equation becomes Var (Gave ( f )) = G ave ( f ) nd 2 (7. Bias Error The estimate of G ave ( f ) is a biased estimate where Be2 d 2 b(Gave ( f )) ≈ ⋅ Gave ( f ) 24 df 2 (7.
18) Second derivative of G ave ( f ) with respect to f is: d2 −K G ave ( f ) ≈ 2 4 2 df 2 ⋅ k ⋅ς 4 ⋅ fr d2 Gave ( f r ) −2 df 2 ≈ 2 G ave ( f r ) ς ⋅ fr 2 (7. a constant.15) Then. G ave ( f ) = 1− f fn K k2 + 2 ⋅ς ⋅ f fn 2 2 2 (7. If a theoretical white noise input with power spectral density function G w ( f ) = K .19) (7.where ς is the damping ratio and f n is the undamped natural frequency.50 It is seen that if ς 2 << 1.16) This result describes realistic bandwidthlimited white noise data. fr ≈ fn and G ave ( f n ) = K 4 ⋅ k 2 ⋅ς 2 (7. The peak value of Gave ( f ) occurs at the resonance frequency f r and is given by G ave ( f r ) = K 2 4 ⋅ k ⋅ς 2 ⋅ 1 − ς 2 ( ) (7.20) 79 . then the output average power spectral density function takes the form G ave ( f ) = ( H ( f ) ) ⋅ G w ( f ) 2 (7. then.17) where f r = f n ⋅ 1 − 2 ⋅ ς 2 for ς 2 ≤ 0.
i. 80 .6%.10) yields 1 B ε b (Gave ( f )) ≈ − ⋅ e 3 Br 2 (7. the bias error is found as: ε b (Gave ( f )) ≈ 0.23) Be = 1 1 = = 0.024 The halfpower bandwidth. substituting (7. Br = 3.When the damping ratio is relatively small.e. d2 Gave ( f r ) −8 df 2 ≈ 2 G ave ( f r ) Br Then. ς 2 << 1.12) into (7.977 T 1.22) (7.21) Hence. the halfpower point bandwidth Br around f r is given approximately by Br ≈ 2 ⋅ ς ⋅ f r (7. In the frequency analysis of the experiment.026 The bias error is approximately obtained as 2.481 is obtained from the power spectral density estimates versus frequency graph for the test specimen.
which is the data acquisition system. The Traveller Plus. Modal analysis of the test specimen has been carried on ANSYS software to determine the undamped natural frequencies and mode shapes of a structure. has been investigated. the strain data has been collected by Traveller Plus and the results have been followed by laptop computer. The structural fatigue analysis has been carried out in time and frequency domains.e.CHAPTER 8 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 8. The strain gage has been glued on the critical stress location at the specimen where the strain measurement has been done. To achieve this target. The aim of the fatigue analysis was to predict the crack initiation after a certain number of cycles by the strain gage approaches. the fatigue behavior of cantilever aluminum plate with a side notch under certain loading conditions.1. has been used in the experiment. The strain data for the graph has been taken from the uniaxial strain gage measurement while the test specimen was excited by random vibration simultaneously. i. An experimental approach has been presented for the stress state of the cantilever aluminum plate by using strain gage. During the random vibration test. SUMMARY In this study. The experimental data has then been analyzed statistically. The experimental results have also been used to check the accuracy of fatigue damage estimation based on PalmgrenMiner rule. The finite element model was developed employing second order BEAM4 and 81 . base excitation. firstly the stresstime graph has been derived from the straintime data by converting the strain data into stress data. The test specimen has been exposed to random vibration test.
01m.8 in terms of percentages of cycles count. Since the undamped natural frequencies obtained were very close in the second and the third analysis. and the results have been found as f1=46.. the results have been found as f1=46.4. the sampling frequency is determined and the analysis has been performed up to the Nyquist frequency (cutoff frequency) which is the half of the sampling frequency of 1000Hz.38Hz and f4=1019. f3=266. The total number of cycles for the whole test has been found as 1. The graph for the cycles count has been found with respect to the stress amplitudes as given in Figure 7.003m in the third modal analysis.7 in terms of cycles count and in Figure 7.5. f2=148. ended at 135MPa.SOLID92 elements. In the second modal analysis. The experimental random stress data converted from strain measurements has been obtained as shown in Figure 7. f2=136.567. their mean values have also been obtained.800 seconds. By rainflow cycle counting.005m. The number of cycles obtained for 82 .96Hz.79Hz. Taking the mesh size equal to 0. the number of cycles has been calculated in the stress amplitude which has been started from 2. This graph has also been given in terms of percentage of the cycles count in Figure 7.13Hz.29Hz and f4=1020.5MPa.89Hz..24Hz.6.30Hz.142 seconds.413 cycles and 16 halfcycles have been found for a sample length of 1. According to the range of undamped natural frequencies.20Hz. The analysis has been done by processing the random signal in rainflow cycle counting to obtain the stress intervals and the number of cycles at these stress intervals by using the stresstime graph. The first modal analysis has been performed by taking the mesh size as 0. f3=267. Consequently. the mesh size has been taken as 0.85Hz. The undamped natural frequencies have been obtained as f1=42. f3=254.41Hz.5MPa and by the increment of 2. In time domain approach. the fatigue state has been determined by the cycle counting used.67Hz and f4 = 997. 127. This result has been shown in Figure 7. f2=148.420 in time domain according to the total time of 22. the third analysis results have been considered in the experimental analysis. For the specific stress amplitudes.
The number of cycles has been determined for each stress value and the graph of the number of cycles versus stress amplitude has been illustrated in Figure 7. power spectral density estimates versus frequency data has been obtained from the stresstime data. the first four spectral moments have been obtained as 2. the second undamped natural frequency of 148. found from the modal analysis.29Hz.each stress ranges has been used in the cumulative damage theory to achieve an estimate of the structural fatigue life.14 respectively. And finally. 305.677. has been investigated 4. Dirlik’s empirical solution has been employed to find the probability density function estimates of rainflow ranges and the graph of the probability density function estimates versus stress amplitude has been given as in Figure 7.79Hz. The total number cycles in frequency domain approach has been obtained by 83 .209.3.860 and 69. When the modal analysis result has been compared with the experimental result. In the graph.12. 67.2% higher than the experimental result.89Hz.223. In frequency domain approach.70Hz in the experiment. The graph of the power spectral density estimates versus frequency. a peak has been observed at frequency of 45. respectively. by using the frequency analysis in ESAM software. number of peaks per second and the irregularity factor which have been calculated as 77.43Hz. 15.11. From the characteristics of the power spectral density estimates. which has been obtained from the time history.565. The third damped natural frequency has also been obtained at frequency of 263.10. Therefore. The second damped natural frequency has been obtained at frequency of 142. has been presented in Figure 7.7 and 1.407 .2% higher first undamped natural frequency has been obtained from the modal analysis which has been found as 46.79Hz in the experiment. since it has been obtained as 267.991. 3.36% higher. The algorithm for the Dirlik’s solution has been implemented in MATLAB software. These moments have been used to find the number of zero crossings per second. The modal analysis result has been found 1.
which has been determined by the effective and halfpower point bandwidths. In the same way. has been found as 12.024 seconds and independent subrecords have been taken as 64.61 whereas in the frequency domain approach.54.5%. has been obtained as 2. As a result. The statistical errors associated with the spectral measurements have also been investigated. By referencing the statistical errors for the measurement. total damage has been calculated as 0. In the time domain approach. The reliability has been achieved by calculating the average of the power spectral density estimates when sample time history has been taken as 1. The graph for the average result of power spectral density estimates versus frequency has been given in Figure 7.013 cycles have been found as total number of cycles to failure in frequency domain.6%. It is also clearly seen from Figure 7. Fraction of damage has been obtained for each of the stress levels and then total damage has been calculated as the sum of all the fraction of damages over the total number of blocks. the first three natural frequencies have been obtained sufficiently close to those found from the modal analysis. PalmgrenMiner rule application has been performed both in frequency and time domains to estimate the structural fatigue life.13. bias error. total damage has been calculated as 0.multiplying the total time by the number of peaks per second. 1. random error.499. Random and bias errors have also been calculated for the desired quantities. 84 . which is only a function of the statistical independent subrecords.14 that taking the power spectral density estimates.
which emerges as one of more popular techniques. minimum possible values have been taken for the amplitude class range and classes count to obtain the accurate results in time domain. The rainflow cycle counting is a procedure for determining damaging events in variable amplitude loadings. Generally damage of the cycles has been quantified by considering Wöhler curves (SN curves) from constant amplitude tests. Numerical experiments have been conducted to improve the accuracy in the calculation of undamped natural frequencies by varying the mesh size.003m which is small enough for the test specimen. almost the same results have been calculated. Therefore. Since the calculation of fatigue damage under certain loading histories requires an appropriate cycle counting method.000Hz. the experimental analysis in frequency domain has been examined up to the Nyquist frequency of 500Hz corresponding to a sample frequency of 1. then fatigue failures can be catastrophic. As a result. has been used in the thesis. Unfortunately. Modal analysis of the test specimen has been carried to examine the vibration characteristics of the test specimen. Through continuously decreasing the mesh size. Fatigue cracks contribute to serious structural failures. the rainflow cycle counting method. most loadings that occur in nature do so in a random manner. after a certain value. CONCLUSION If the cracks through the material are not detected in time to perform the necessary repairs. the first four undamped natural frequencies have been examined by taking the mesh size as 0. a phenomenon of random vibrations has been used to study responses of structural components.8. It has been understood from the graph of cycles count versus stress 85 . Results of modal analysis have been utilized to determine the sampling frequency to be employed in data acquisition. In the experimental stress analysis.2. Therefore.
This can also be shown by Figures 8.10. higher number of cycles have been obtained. In addition. Experimentally observed frequencies at which such peak behavior is observed are lower than the corresponding calculated theoretical undamped natural frequencies due to presence of damping. after a certain stress amplitude. The same conclusion can be made for the graph of percentages of the cycles count versus stress amplitude presented in Figure 7. the number of cycles counted decreases.7 in terms of cycles count and in Figure 7.1 and 8. Since the small percentage errors have been obtained when comparing the modal analysis and frequency analysis results for the first three of the natural frequencies.6. In the frequency analysis. It has been seen that the results of rainflow cycle counting method obtained from time and frequency domain approaches were close to each other. As the mean value has increased in magnitude. when the mean value is zero. Since the excitation is of band limited white noise type. it has been concluded that for certain stress amplitude. That is. less number of cycle counting have been observed. For the specific stress amplitudes. the differences are found reasonable.5 that higher number of cycles has been obtained in small stress amplitudes.2 given below. Frequency domain approach is found 86 . the graph of the power spectral density estimates versus frequency has been obtained as given in Figure 7. when the stress range increases.8 in terms of percentages of cycles count. it is expected peaky response around natural frequencies due to low damping characteristics of the cantilever plate. Sharp decrease in the number of cycles has been observed when the stress amplitude has been increased. stress amplitude has again decreased.amplitude given in Figure 7. their mean values have also been given in Figure 7. the number of cycles has decreased. larger mean values have been observed for small stress ranges and few cycles counted at these points. From the graphs. In maximum stress amplitudes. Small increases have occurred up to 50MPa stress amplitude and then.
Number of cycles vs stress diagram (time domain approach) 1800 1600 Number of Cycles 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Stress Amplitude(MPa) Figure 8.1. additional complexity has been 87 . 30000 25000 Number of cycles 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Stress Amplitude(MPa) Figure 8.to provide a marginally safer prediction tool when compared with time domain approach. in theory.2. Number of cycles vs stress diagram (frequency domain approach) The PalmgrenMiner rule predicts. Practically. that the specimen should fail when the total damage is equal to 1.
by considering the assumptions. a conservative limit of 0.800 seconds. the estimated fatigue damage based on PalmgrenMiner rule is known as nonconservative. no rule more applicable than PalmgrenMiner’s rule. Therefore. It is also assumed that the damage accumulates without being influence of one level on the other and rate of damage is a function of n / N independent of the amplitude of the cyclic stress.introduced for different areas of application. PalmgrenMiner rule is a linear law independent of stress level and without interaction. it is still widely used since. a more conservative limit is used. Since PalmgrenMiner rule is an approach and this approach has some assumptions. Therefore. For instance. which is accepted as 0.7 [11]. it is concluded that reliable test results have been found from the analysis. On the other hand.2 should be regarded as an approximation and SN curves are empirical. This conservative limit has also been suggested for the mechanical structures and the electronic equipment by Steinberg [14]. The error is inherent within the rule itself and but also depends on the precision of the SN curve used. In addition.6 has been proposed by W. Because of these reasons. The same power spectral density estimates versus frequency graph has been obtained with the graph found in frequency analysis by calculating the average power spectral density estimates when sample time history has been taken as 1. In addition. is developed. Schutz [14]. the expected three natural frequencies have been obtained from the power spectral density estimates. it 88 . it has become very difficult to obtain the same result as given by the approach. However. reasonable values have been found since close damage fraction have been obtained for both time and frequency domains.024 seconds and independent subrecords have been taken as 64 with the graph found for 1. the SN equation for the aluminum plate which has been given in Equation 7. It is assumed that the same amount of damage has been incurred by all cycles of a given magnitude whether they occur early or late in the life. From the calculations of the statistical errors which have been found for the measurement. but. in the result of the PalmgrenMiner rule application for the experiment. for aerospace electronic structures.
For instance. care has been exercised in the selection of the strain gage. Before the vibration test has been started. Shunt calibration has been done in ESAM software for the sensitivity. Fatigue may cause significant property damage as well as loss of life. the screen of the cable.28 times of the halfpower point bandwidth.has been resulted that acceptable random error and negligible bias error have been observed from the analysis. the possible smaller strain gage has been preferred. 89 . some important and critical points have been considered to obtain sensitive results for the experimental test. Therefore. The calculated fatigue life has represented the predicted number of cycles that can be applied to the component before failure. so that small strains give as large changes as possible to the resistance. Therefore. the cable which has provided the connection between the strain gage and the connector have all been shielded to reduce the electrical noise in the measured data. Ideally the conductor should have a high gage factor. the goal in the design process is to perform fatigue calculations at earlier stages. A bias error value has been accepted to be ignored when effective bandwidth has been obtained 0. This would reduce and/or eliminate the need for expensive redesign. In this study. the voltage value for the quarter bridge has also been selected as high as possible to get better signal.
Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 16(6).529535. Lund Institute of Technology. Henry D. 412 96. Mitchell. Anthes.R. Active Structures Laboratory and Foret de Vernon. Dan Lingenfelser.Berns. Am Rathenaupark. 2002. 1999. Chalmers University of Technology.J. Mathematical Statistics.Macinnes. Brian N.Rise. 1998. Safety and Reliability. 1997.Preumont. [3] Paul W. Drew V. Inc. pp.16. pp. Germany. [4] Georg Lindgren and Jesper Ryden. Tools for a Multiaxial Analysis of Structures Submitted to Random Vibrations.123130. Centre for Mathematical Sciences. 1988.REFERENCES [1] Richard C. M. On Rainflow Cycles and The Distibution of the Number of Interval Crossings by a Markov Chain . Sweden. pp.Winter and Don A. pp. [6] Par Johannesson. Modified Rainflow Counting Keeping the Load Sequence . 979989. Fatigue Under Variable Amplitude Loading: A New Approach. 1993.127. Mathematical Statistics. [5] R. 2000. AEA Technology. 90 . Brussels. [7] X. Fatigue Design Handbook. Rainflow Analysis of Switching Markov Loads. Vernon. 16761 Hennigsdorf. ABB DaimlerBenz Transportation GmbH. pp. pp. Lund Institute of Technology. A.Kernilis. Sweden. Transfer Function Approximations of the Rainflow Filter. [2] Par Johannesson.Pitoiset. 99106. A.Leis. Volume II.Nelson. Society of Automotive Engineers.
Mitchell.Preumont. Henry D. Random Vibrations. Society of Automotive Engineers Inc. A WileyInterscience Publication. 1996. McGraw Hill Companies. 1999.Davidson. Thomas L. 91 .P.Leis. Fatigue Damage. [9] T. 1999. [10] Richard C. [11] Tom Irvine.Henry. Random Vibration Fatigue. A. William W. M. A Multiaxial Fatigue Cycle Counting Technique Based on the Rainflow Method.Nordmark. Amy Hammel. Mechanical Vibration & Shock.Scott. Fatigue and Fracture Volume 19. Warrendale.Byrne and G.Berns. 400 Commonwealth Drive.Lampman.Nelson. 1996. pp. [14] Christian Lalanne. 2000. Drew V. Inc. [13] Paul H. Brian N. pp. Measurements Group Inc.Morandin. Theory and Practice. Inc. Volume IV. [15] Maurice L. NonLinear. Dan Lingenfelser.R..Boring. 541550. Keith Ortiz. Spectral Methods for Multiaxial Random Fatigue Analysis of Metallic Structures. Fatigue Design Handbook. Finite Element Applications: Linear.Wirsching. 1995. Randall L. International Journal of Fatigue.Sharp.Paez. Revision B. 1988. Faith Reidenbach. 2003. 1998.Rice. Scott D.[8] X. [16] Traveller Plus and ESAM Software Manual. Craig C. ASM International.1925.Menzemer. John Wiley & Sons. Fatigue Design of Aluminum Components and Structures. [12] Steven R. Optimization and Fatigue and Fracture. Glenn E. Grace M. PVPVol.370.Pitoiset. Taylor and Francis Books. Inc.D.
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The crack initiation has been observed from the welded points in the vibration test as in Figure A.APPENDIX A EXPERIMENTAL WORK FOR THE TEST SPECIMEN DETERMINATION In the experimental design part of the thesis. The form of the aluminum specimens used in the test is given in Figure A.1.3 and it has been observed that the specimen has been started to bend from end of the support part. Aluminum test specimens In the first experiments. perpendicular Sshaped specimen which is standby with the welded part and under certain loading condition has been tested in the vibration test system. The specimens made of aluminum alloy have been studied and the analysis has been done in the thesis according to the selected specimen. Since the crack initiation under 94 .2.1. Figure A. many tests have been performed to decide the test specimen. The specimen which is on the vibrator has been shown in Figure A.
Figure A. Crack initiation occurred in the welded points in the vibration test 95 .control has been aimed.2.4. it would not be a suitable solution for the test specimen. bending of the specimen can be seen clearly. In Figure A.3. Perpendicular Sshaped test specimen under vibration test Figure A.
however for this specimen it would be difficult to examine the crack initiation position.4. Aluminum cantilever plate under a certain loading condition 96 . A cantilever aluminum plate has been decided to use which is under a certain loading condition.5. Bending started from the end of the support part in the test specimen A cantilever beam form has then been used for the test specimen. Figure A. the crack has been started to occur around the screw.Figure A.5. For the first experiment. the end mass has been selected less in weight according to the first end mass. The vibration test is done to the specimen. It has been seen that. The test specimen has been shown in Figure A.
Cantilever aluminum test specimen Figure A. An accelerometer has been put on the aluminum plate to watch over the vibration level on it.7. the crack has been started from the fixed side as shown in Figure A. Figure A. the aluminum plate has been compressed from the top side as well as the under side as can be seen in Figure A.6.6. The heavier end mass has been used in the test. Crack occurred in the fixed side of the aluminum plate in the vibration test 97 . During the vibration test.7.In the next experiment.
The weight of the end mass has also been decreased to increase the vibration test time period. In this way. the notch has been placed 1cm away from the fixed side of the aluminum plate as shown in Figure A. notch is obtained as the critical position. The polyurethane foam is glued on the compressed part of aluminum plate surface.10.To make the crack under control. The notch placed on top surface of the cantilever aluminum plate 98 . as given in Figure A.9.8. The notch placed on the aluminum plate Figure A. The test has been done to a specimen given in Figure A. to increase the friction. The notch has been made by the fret saw.9. Figure A.8.
12. The crack has been made on the aluminum plate such that it has been positioned under the plate which can be seen clearly in Figure A. Polyurethane foam glued on the aluminum plate In the same configuration.11. Notch position on the aluminum plate 99 . only by changing the position of the crack.10. vibration test has been performed.Figure A. Test specimen with side notch which is placed under the aluminum plate has been given in Figure A.11 and strain gage has been decided to stick on aluminum plate that has been placed above the notch. Figure A.
the crack has been zoomed to see the propagation of the crack clearly. the vibration test has been continued to watch over the crack propagation also.13. Crack propagation occurred in the vibration test 100 .13.Figure A. the test specimen has been watched for the crack initiation and it has been examined under the microscope. In Figure A.12. In one of the experiment. Figure A. The notch placed on the bottom surface of the aluminum plate During the vibration test.
299 2.213 3.040.749 Number of Halfcycles 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 N theoretical 96.367.984.3 394.955 3.490.0 17.0 52.192 1.626 2.5 1.6 187.0 62.8 100.0 22.369.2 5.303.585.262.5 5.2 3.548 2.1 1.759 2.5 25.9 651.082 2.760.094 2.0 47.238.0 Number of Cycles 26.560.4 86.5 45.1 128.5 169.5 30.5 10.748 2.5 65.714.3 341.403.5 50.797.0 989.0 42.APPENDIX B TABLES Stress amplitudes (MPa) versus number of cycles (n) and halfcycles found from the rainflow cycle counting in time domain are tabulated as follows: Table B.034 973 1.927 2.023.132.246 2.2 108.0 67.541.0 32.9 9.3 153.455.0 7.0 794.903 2.0 57.4 263.635.642 2.0 12.084.6 459.177.1 80.725.8 233.258 2.0 27.128.5 75.929 2.5 15.437 18.831 2.5 40.0 72.5 101 .079 3.7 298.670. Stress versus number of cycles in time domain Stress (MPa) 2.511.5 70.5 20.3 22.5 93.0 140.0 37.013.020 3.0 208.463.360.4 117.7 2.456.5 35.129 3.029 1.986.989 3.603 1.5 60.354 1.5 55.334.925 1.177 2.452.761.264.556.783.1.214.7 543.465.
523 1.8 31.5 pdf_dirlik 0. Stress versus number of cycles in time domain (continued) Stress (MPa) 77.612.0 82.053.1 44.9 42.0 127.5 95.9 55.026 853 797 719 660 564 480 440 379 308 289 224 175 173 162 133 152 104 182 Number of Halfcycles 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 2 N theoretical 75.675.9 27.577.004383 N theoretical 96.425.0 112.065.044.5 105.8 38.0 87.1 26.617.0 Number of Cycles 1.0 102.069.0 23.7 Stress(MPa) 2.5 125.761.348 1.8 Stress versus probability density function (pdf) estimates obtained from Dirlik’s algorithm in frequency domain and number of cycles is found as follows: Table B.5 115.5 120.5 39.023.052.0 30.431.4 66.5 90.0 92.0 70.2 28.5 24.231.2.987.0 107.0 132.630 1.4 58.241.793.0 117.965.5 130.137 1.615.3 34.262.8 25.274.4 46.5 85.241.1 49.1 33.0 97.0 122. Stress versus probability density function estimates and number of cycles in frequency domain Number of Cycles 1.260.5 100.5 135.3 102 .101.669.Table B.9 36.205 1.5 80.2 52.1.616.2 62.638.5 110.
5 10.585.3 394.3 736. Stress versus probability density function estimates and number of cycles in frequency domain (continued) Number of Cycles 331.2 589.177.9 574.101.0 pdf_dirlik 0.1 751.264.4 658.0 47.5 65.8 100.5 70.5 429.0 12.9 651.2 409.0 82.452.5 169.456.241.001024 0.001948 0.002047 0.4 633.001405 0.5 30.238.367.465.5 90.0 77.4 487.7 389.128.002096 0.5 25.8 670.00183 0.2 108.002097 0.001972 0.002093 0.7 2.002014 0.986.1 709.Table B.0 794.001893 0.3 341.0 17.8 717.511.001994 0.4 66.4 103 .8 749.2 62.0 208.0 87.2 3.069.9 9.001503 0.403.369.002061 0.6 753.3 153.9 55.635.5 55.5 15.6 754.5 85.1 1.1 468.002095 N theoretical 22.000922 0.1 80.714.000967 0.001455 0.0 27.303.001681 0.023.044.0 22.002032 0.0 32.5 1.0 37.760.040.001081 0.0 7.0 989.670.013.001301 0.052.9 605 619.7 298.4 58.0 140.541.8 724.3 754.9 731.463.6 701.556.231.2 646.455.6 187.5 40.8 233.2 52.001354 0.783.5 75.00155 0.002081 0.4 691.6 541 557.5 80.2 Stress(MPa) 5.2 5.1 49.001248 0.7 543.001922 0.431.4 263.490.3 505.5 35.5 50.360.3 754.002088 0.984.0 42.5 95.0 67.5 45.725.6 459.001721 0.5 93.9 741.001595 0.425.5 75.001759 0.5 20.0 72.7 745.001193 0.334.132.0 52.001796 0.0 57.001863 0.5 60.2.0 92.797.001639 0.4 86.0 70.1 128.0 62.5 449.214.001138 0.7 523.560.4 117.5 681.9 368.084.002072 0.9 347.
001841 N theoretical 46.6 745.002 0.5 115.5 130.0 112.8 Table B. high endurance lead wires High elongation constantan grid Isoelastic foil.260.002092 0.615.0 pdf_dirlik 0.5 110.2.638.001868 0.8 31. high endurance lead wires Encapsulated isoelastic grid.9 42.001917 0.1 33.0 102.00194 0.002048 0.002087 0.Table B.9 27. Standard gage series Code EA CEA N2A WA SA EP ED WD SD EK Definition Constantan grid. polyimide backing Encapsulated constantan grid.0 122.2 28.2 662. solder dots Kalloy grid.0 107.0 127.4 741. thin polyimide backing Encapsulated constantan grid. Stress versus probability density function estimates and number of cycles in frequency domain (continued) Number of Cycles 753 751.2 690 681.616.612.5 100.669.5 105.0 30.3 34.9 36.002034 0.002071 0.9 726.8 38.241.3 672.965.5 125.001982 0.1 748.8 25.0 132. polyimide backing 104 .5 120.3 720 713.793.002018 0.3 706 698.001893 0.987.0 117. polyimide backing Encapsulated isoelastic grid.1 44.065.0 23.00206 0.7 Stress(MPa) 97.675. high endurance lead wires Encapsulated constantan grid.023.274.5 39.001961 0.5 737 731. copper solder tabs Constantan grid.00208 0.1 26.5 135.053.3.5 24.617.
Table B.3. copper solder tabs Encapsulated Kalloy grid. solder dots 105 . Standard gage series (continued) CEA WK SK Encapsulated constantan grid. high endurance lead wires Encapsulated Kalloy grid.
APPENDIX C FIRST NATURAL FREQUENCY CALCULATION OF THE ALUMINUM CANTILEVER PLATE
The first natural frequency of the aluminum cantilever plate has been calculated. It is known as the most damaging frequency. The cantilever aluminum plate is assumed in such a structure that a simple mass m supported by a pure spring stiffness k, which when deflected, resonates at a frequency:
fn = wn 1 k = ⋅ 2 ⋅π 2 ⋅π m
Hz
(C.1)
For the single degree of freedom model of a cantilever plate, first natural frequency is given as:
wn =
k eq meq
(C.2)
The equivalent stiffness can be calculated from the equation:
k eq = 3⋅ E ⋅ I L3
(C.3)
where E is the Young’s modulus(N/m2), I is the crosssectional moment of inertia(m4) and the mass can be calculated from the equation:
meq = m + 0.24 ⋅ m Al
where m is the end mass(kg) and m Al is the mass of aluminum plate. For a rectangular section, crosssectional moment of inertia is
(C.4)
(C.5) where b is width(m), h is thickness of the plate(m).
106
By giving the inputs for the cantilever aluminum plate, the equations can be solved as in the following:
m Al = 79 ⋅ 10 −3 kg meq = m + 0.24 ⋅ m Al meq = 0.505 kg
b = 5 ⋅ 10 −2 m I= 1 ⋅ b ⋅ h3 12
m = 486.3 ⋅ 10 −3 kg
h = 4 ⋅ 10 −3 m
I = 2.667 ⋅ 10 −10 m4 E = 70 ⋅ 10 9 N/m2 L = 11 ⋅ 10 −2 m
k eq =
3⋅ E ⋅ I L3
k eq = 4.207 ⋅ 10 4 N/m
weq = k eq meq
weq = 288.568 rad/s wn =
1 ⋅ weq 2 ⋅π
wn = 45.927 Hz The first natural frequency of the cantilever aluminum plate is calculated as 45.927Hz. It is obtained almost the same with the experimental result of first natural frequency which has been obtained as 45.43Hz.
107
APPENDIX D COMMUNICATION
Experimental stress analysis has been defined to Mr. Neil Bishop and asked whether PalmgrenMiner rule can be used for the crack initiation method. The answer has been mailed by Mr. Neil Bishop as following: ‘ Actually the term crack initiation is a very misleading term since most conventional metals have cracks in from the beginning and so all you are actually doing when applying loads is to grow these cracks to detectable lengths. So the crack initiation method (StrainLife) is conceptually the same as the SN or StressLife method. For both methods the PalmgrenMiner rule is generally accepted as the only method to accumulate damage. ’ It is also approved by Mr. Neil Bishop that PalmgrenMiner rule can be used for the StressLife method to find the cumulative damage.
108
The boundaries of the ranges from the peaks are provided in arrays Peak_Max( ) and Peak_Min( ) and those of the ranges resulting from the valleys in Valley_Max( ) and Valley_Min( ) . obtained: Peak_Max(Nbr_Peaks) and Peak_Min(Nbr_Peaks) = limits of the ranges of the peaks Valley_Max(Nbr_Peaks) and ranges These values make it possible to calculate the ranges and their mean value. The total number of peaks and valleys must be even and an array of the peaks and valleys (Extrama( )) must be made up from the signal thus prepared.APPENDIX E SUBROUTINE FOR RAINFLOW COUNTING The routine below makes it possible to determine the ranges of a signal to use for the calculation of the fatigue damage according to this method. Range_Peak(Nbr_Peaks) = array giving the listed ranges relating to the peaks Valley_Min(Nbr_Peaks) = limits of the valley 109 .V. The signal must be first modified in order to start and to finish by the largest peak. as well as their mean Peak_Min ( i) + Peak_Max ( i) Valley_Min ( i ) + Valley_Max ( i) value 2 and 2 . These values make it possible to calculate the two types of ranges Range_Peak( ) and Range_Valley( ). Procedure Rainflow of Peaks Counting According to D. NELSON The procedure uses as input/output data: Extremum(Nbr_Extrema+2) = array giving the list of Nbr_Extrema extrema successive and starting from the largest peak At output.
VAR Extremum()) LOCAL i.m.Q.k Separation of peaks and valleys Nbr_Peaks=(Nbr_Extrema+1)/2 FOR i=1 TO Nbr_Peaks Peak(i)=extremum(i*21) NEXT i FOR i=2 TO Nbr_Peaks Valley(i)=Extremum(i*22) NEXT i Research of the deepest valley Valley_Min=Valley(2) FOR i=2 TO Nbr_Peaks IF Valley(i)<Valley_Min Valley_Min=Valley(i) ENDIF NEXT i Valley(Nbr_Peaks+1)=1.n.Range_Valley(Nbr_Peaks) = array of the ranges relating to the valleys Procedure rainflow (Nbr_Extrema.01*Valley_Min Treatment of valleys FOR i=2 TO Nbr_Peaks (Initialization of the tables with Peak(1)) L(i)=Peak(1) LL(i)=Peak(1) NEXT i FOR i=2 TO Nbr_Peaks n=0 Q=i Output=0 DO (Calculation of the Ranges relating to the Valleys) IF LL(i+n)<Peak(i+n) Range_Valley(i)=ABS(LL(i+n)Valley( i)) (Array of the Valleys Ranges) Valley_Max(i)=LL(i+n) (Array of the Maximum of the Ranges of the Valleys) Valley_Min(i)=Valley(i) (Array of the Minimum of the Ranges of the Valleys) Output=1 ELSE IF Valley(i+n+1)<Valley(i) Range_Valley(i)=ABS(Peak(Q)Valley(i)) Valley_Max(i)=Peak(Q) Valley_Min(i)=Valley(i) Output=1 ELSE IF Peak(i+n+1)<Peak(Q) 110 .j.Output.
L(i+n+1)=Peak(Q) n=n+1 ELSE L(i+n+1)=Peak(Q) Q=i+n+1 n=n+1 ENDIF ENDIF ENDIF LOOP UNTIL Output =1 m=i+1 IF m<=Q FOR j=m TO Q LL(j)=L(j) NEXT j ENDIF NEXT i Treatment of peaks FOR i=2 TO NBR_Peaks+1 (Initialization of the arrays with Valley_Min) L(i)=Valley_Min LL(i)=Valley_Min NEXT i For i=1 TO Nbr_Peaks n=0 k=i+1 Q=k Output=0 DO IF LL(k+n)>Valley(k+n) Range_Peak(i)=ABS(Peak(i)LL(k+n)) (Array of the Ranges of the Peaks) Peak_Max(i)=Peak(i) (Array of the Maximum of the Ranges of the Peaks) Peak_Min(i)=LL(k+n) (Array of the Minimum of the Ranges of the Peaks) Output=1 ELSE IF Peak(k+n)>Peak(i) Range_Peak(i)=ABS(Peak(i)Valley(Q) Peak_Max(i)=Peak(i) Peak_Min(i)=Valley(Q) Output=1 ELSE IF Valley(k+n+1)>Valley(Q) L(k+n+1)=Valley(Q) n=n+1 ELSE L(k+n+1)=Valley(Q) 111 .
Q=k+n+1 N=n+1 ENDIF ENDIF ENDIF LOOP UNTIL Output=1 m=k+1 IF m<=Q FOR j=m TO Q LL(j)=L(j) NEXT j ENDIF NEXT i RETURN 112 .
There were expressions developed with reference to offshore platform design where interest in the techniques has existed for many years. They are all expressed in terms of the spectral moments up to m4. they were produced by generating sample time histories from power spectral density using Inverse Fourier Transform techniques. The solutions of Wirsching. From these a conventional Rainflow cycle count was then obtained.APPENDIX F SOLUTION METHODS There are various approaches for estimating the probability density functions from power spectral density moments. Tuna and Hancock were all derived using this approach [23]. In general. Chaudry and Dover. The best method in all cases D RL K CHAUDRY & DOVER WIRSCHING HANCOCK Developed for offshore use STEINBERG Electronic components (USA) TUNNA Railway engineering (UK) 113 .
926 − 0. S eqStein = f (m0 ) S eqStein = 0.323 .043 ⋅ 6 ⋅ m0 ( ) m 1m This solution is based on the assumption that stress levels occur for 68.1% time at 2rms.3% time at 1rms.3% time at 3rms. ε = 1 − γ 2 HANCOCK SOLUTION S eqHanc m = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ m0 ⋅ γ ⋅ Γ +1 2 ( ) 1m STEINBERG SOLUTION ‘THREE BANDED TECHNIQUE’ Three banded technique is used for testing electronic equipment in the USA.587m − 2. TUNNA SOLUTION p (S )T = S 4 ⋅ γ 2 ⋅ m0 −S 2 ⋅e 8⋅γ 2 ⋅m0 114 .HAUDRY AND DOVER SOLUTION S eqCandD = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ m0 ⋅ ( ) ε m+ 2 m +1 γ m+2 γ m+2 ⋅Γ + ⋅Γ + erf (γ ) ⋅ ⋅ Γ 2 2 2 2 2 2⋅ π WIRSCHING SOLUTION 1m E (D )Wirsch = E (D ) NB ⋅ a (m ) + (1 − a(m )) ⋅ (1 − ε ) where m is the slope of the SN curve and [ c (m ) ] a (m ) = 0.033m .271 ⋅ 4 ⋅ m0 ( ) m + 0. 4.683 ⋅ 2 ⋅ m0 ( ) m + 0. 27. c(m ) = 1.
or a secondary higher level associated with each level below the reference load. and this order could have a secondary effect on the amount of damage. Although various methods may still be in use.APPENDIX G COUNTING METHODS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE RANDOM TIME HISTORY Various methods of counting were proposed. to errors in the calculation of the fatigue lives. until all level crossings are used. By this way.1(b) illustrates this method. followed by the second largest.. There are practically restrictions on the level crossing counts which are often specified to eliminate small amplitude variations. Once this most damaging cycle count is obtained. Peak Counting. Simple Range.1(c).1. leading to different results and. small amplitude variations can give rise to a large number of counts. 115 . This can be accomplished by making no counts at the reference load and to specify that only one count be made between successive crossings of a secondary level associated with each level above the reference load. the cycles could be applied in any desired order. LEVEL CROSSING COUNTING The results of the level crossing count are shown in Figure G. for some. Reversal points are assumed to occur halfway between levels. Figure G. This process is shown in Figure G. etc. This method includes a family of various computer algorithms. thus. Older methods which often utilized analog logic circuits are Level Crossing. The most damaging cycle count for fatigue analysis is derived from the level crossing count by first constructing the largest possible cycle. Rainflow Counting is the preferred method.
Level crossing counting example 116 .1.(a) Level crossing counting (b) Restricted level crossing counting (c) Cycles derived from level crossing counting of (a) Figure G.
This process can be seen in Figure G. To eliminate small amplitude loadings.PEAK COUNTING Peak counting identifies the occurrence of a relative maximum or minimum load value. (a) Peak crossing 117 . This illustrates in Figure G. followed by the second largest cycle. using the highest peak and lowest valley. Instead of counting all peaks and valleys. until all peak counts are used. and this order could have a secondary effect on the amount of damage.2(c). A variation of this method is to count all peaks and valleys without regard to the reference load. the cycles could be applied in any desired order. mean crossing peak counting is often used. and valleys below the reference load level are counted. Once this most damaging cycle count is obtained. only the largest peak or valley between two successive mean crossings is counted as can be seen in Figure G. etc.2(a). Results for peaks and valleys are reported separately. The most damaging cycle count for fatigue analysis is derived from the peak count by first constructing the largest possible cycle. Peaks above the reference load level are counted..2(b).
or both may be counted with this method. then each is counted as one cycle. Positive ranges.(b) Mean crossing peak counting (d) Cycles derived from peak count of (a) Figure G. a range is defined as the difference between two successive reversals. If both positive and negative ranges 118 . If only positive or only negative ranges are counted. the range being positive when a valley is followed by a peak and negative when a peak is followed by a valley. Peak counting example SIMPLE RANGE COUNTING For this method.2. negative ranges.
An example is given in Figure G.3 which shows that both positive and negative ranges are counted.3. then each is counted as onehalf cycle. (a) Simple range counting (b) Counting from simple range counting (a) Figure G. Ranges smaller than a chosen value is usually eliminated before counting. Simple range counting example 119 .are counted.
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