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aa) Free Vibration PREVIEW A structure is said to be undergoing free vibration when itis disturbed from its static equilibrium position and then allowed to vibrate without any external dynamic exci- tation. In this chapter we study free vibration leading to the notions of the natural vibration frequency and damping ratio for an SDF system. We will see that the rate at which the motion decays in free vibration is controlled by the damping ratio. Thus the analytical results describing free vibration provide a basis to determine the natural frequency and damping ratio of a structure from experimental data of the type shown in Figs. 114, Although damping in actual structures is due to several energy-dissipating mecha- nisms acting simultaneously, a mathematically convenient approach is to idealize them by equivalent viscous damping. Consequently, this chapter deals primarily with vis- cously damped systems. However, free vibration of systems in the presence of Coulomb friction forces is analyzed toward the end of the chapter. 2.1 UNDAMPED FREE VIBRATION ‘The motion of linear SDF systems, visualized as an idealized one-story frame or a ‘mass-spring-damper system, subjected to external force p(t) is governed by Eq, (1.5.2). Setting p(¢) = 0 gives the differential equation governing free vibration of the system, which for systems without damping (c = 0) specializes to mit + ku = 0 2.11) 36 Free Vibration Chap. 2 Free vibration is initiated by disturbing the system from its static equilibrium position by imparting the mass some displacement u(0) and velocity (0) at time zero, defined as the instant the motion is initiated: (0) 21.2) Subject fo these inital conditions, the solution to the homogeneous differential equation is obtained by standard methods (see Derivation 2.1) uO) 40) u(t) = 2(0) cos wyt + sin ant (2.1.3) hers =/E aa oN oe Equation (2.1.3) is ploted in Fig. 2.1.1. It shows thatthe system undergoes vibra- tory (or oscillatory) motion about its static equilibrium (or undeformed, w = 0) position; and that this motion repeats itself after every 2sr/ay, seconds. In particular, the state (isplacement and velocity) of the mass at two time instants, f; and fy + 2s/ay, is iden tical: u(t) = w(t) + 2n/om) and dt) = s(t + 2/0). These equalities can easily be proved, starting with Eq. (2.1.3). The motion described by Eq. 2.1.3) and shown in Fig. 2.1.1 is known as simple harmonic motion. The portion a-b-c-d-« of the displacement-time curve describes one cycle of free vibration of the system, From its static equilibrium (or undeformed) position at a, the ‘mass moves to the right, reaching its maximum positive displacement uy at b, at which time the velocity is zer0 and the displacement begins to decrease and the mass retums 40) Figure 21.1. Free vibration of a system withous damping Sec. 2.1. _Undamped Free Vibration a7 back to its equilibrium position c, continues moving to the left, reaching its minimum displacement —u, at d, and then the displacement decreases again with the mass returning to its equilibrium position at e. At time instant e, 27t/oy seconds after time instant a, the state (displacement and velocity) of the mass is the same as it was at time instant a, and the mass is ready to begin another cycle of vibration. ‘The time required for the undamped system to complete one cycle of free vibration is the natural period of vibration of the system, which we denote as T,, in units of seconds. It is related to the natural circular frequency of vibration, om, in units of radians per second th 15) A system executes 1/T, eycles in 1 sec. This natural cyclic frequency of vibration is denoted by a T ‘The units of f, are hertz (Hz) [eycles per second (cps)}; fy is obviously related to ay through fa (2.1.6) Sa The term natural frequency of vibration applies to both wand fy ‘The natural vibration properties «,, Ty, and f, depend only on the mass and stiffness of the structure; see Eqs. (2.1.4) to (2.1.6). "The stiffer of two SDF systems having the same mass will have the higher natural frequency and the shorter natural period. Similarly, the heavier (more mass) of two structures having the same stiffness ‘wll have the lower natural frequency and the longer natural period. The qualifier nar- ural is used in defining T,, @», and f, to emphasize the fact that these are natural Properties ofthe system when itis allowed to vibrate freely without any external exci tation, Because the system is linear these vibration properties are independent of the initial displacement and velocity. The natural frequency and period ofthe various struc- tures of interest to us vary over a wide range, as shown in Figs. 1.10.1, 1.102, and 2.2af ‘The natural circular Frequency ay, natural cyclic frequency J, and natural period Ty, defined by Eqs, (2.1.4) to (2.1.6) can be expressed in the altemative form fz Life fis a= [E AJE nar) ag VE * "20%, Ve : where dy = mg/k, and where g is the acceleration due to gravity. This is the static defection of the mass m suspended from a spring of stiffness k; it can be visualized a5 the system of Fig. 1.6.1 oriented in the vertical direction, In the context of the one-story frame of Fig. 1.2.1, 8418 the lateral displacement of the mass due to lateral force me Q1.7 Sec. 2.1 Undamped Free Vibration a The undamped system oscillates back and foth between the maximum displace- meet ty and minimum displacement —uy. The magnitude n, ofthese two dsplocement vals is the sume; itis called the amplinude of motion and given by ——— 7 n= wor [2] 219) ‘The amplitude 14» depends on the initial displacement and velocity. Cycle after cycle it remains the same; that is, the motion does not decay. We had mentioned in Section 1.1 this unrealistic behavior of a system if a damping mechanism to represent dissipation of energy is not included. The natural frequency of the one-story frame of Fig. 1.3.2a with lumped mass m and columns clamped at the base is fe 24E, 2p +1 Vn ® Dp+d 2.1.10) where the Jateral stiffness comes from Eq, (1.3.5) and p = Ip/4I.. For the extreme cases of a rigid beam, o = ce, and a beam with no stiffness, p = 0, the lateral stiffnesses are given by Eqs. (1.3.2) and (1.3.3) and the natural frequencies are (Ode = (ordoeo = ye Quay The natural frequency is doubled as the beam-to-column stiffness ratio, p, increases from 0 t0 00; its variation with p is shown in Fig. 2.13. The natural frequency is similarly affected by the boundary conditions at the base of the columns. Ifthe colurans are hinged at the base rather than clamped and the beam is rigid, % = V/ET./mh?, which is one-half of the natural frequency of the frame with clamped-base columns. (pen Dou0 +1248, ot to? 0? otto! ° Figure 2.13 Variation of natural frequency, on, with beam-to-olum ste rai, 42 Free Vibration Chap. 2 Derivation 2. ‘The solution of Eq, 2.1.1, a linear, homogeneous, second-order differential equation with ‘constant cooficients, has the form @ whore the constants is unknown, Substitution into Eq. (2.1.1) gives ins? +e ‘The exponential term is never zero, So the characteristic equation is (ms +h) =0 54.25 40m © where ‘The general solution of Bg. (2.1.1) is Mit) = Aye + Ane Which after substituting Bg. (b) becomes H(t) = Aye + Age © Where Ay and Az are constants yet undetermined. By using de Moivre's theorem, [Equation (c) can be rewritten as Nt) = Acosayt + Bsinant @ here A and B ate constants yet undetermined. Equation (d) is differentiated to obtain (1) = ~ayA sin ay! + ay B coset © Evaluating Eqs. (€) and (¢) at time zero gives the constants A and # in terms of the initial isplacement u(0) and initial velocity (Oy uQ) =A GO) =o4B © Substituting for A and B from Eq, (f) into Eq, (A) leads 10 the solution given in Eq, (2.13). Example 2. For the one-story industrial building of Example 1.2, determine the natural circular fre- ural cyelic frequency, and natural period of vibration in (a) the: north-south and (b) the east-west direction “a Free Vibration Chap. 2 Solution From Example 14, the torsional stiffess ky and the moment of inertia fg are ey = ky d? by B® = 1.5(12)(20)? + 1,0(12)(30)? = 18, 000 kip-terad 0.180 x 20) f (30)? + 20)? « 2D Jem 86 kip 9d radjsce fy =149H2 Ty = 0.67 see 2.2 VISCOUSLY DAMPED FREE VIBRATION Setting p(t) = 0 in Bq, (1.5.2) gives the differential equation governing free vibration of SDF systems with damping mii + cli +ku = 0 (2.2.1a) Dividing by m gives i+ 2m +ofu=0 22.18) where oy = YEJAT as defined earlier and ee : Gaon aes 2.2.2) We wil refer to Ger = 2a, = Whe = 2.23) as the critical damping coefficient for reasons that will appear shortly; and & is the damping ratio or fraction of critical damping. The damping constant c is a measure of the energy dissipated in a cycle of free vibration or ina cycle of forced harmonic vibration (Section 3.8). However, the damping ratio—a dimensionless measure of damping—is 4 property of the system that also depends on its mass and stifness. The differential equation (2.2.1) can be solved by standard methods (similar to Derivation 2.1) for given inital displacement u(0) and velocity (0). Before writing any formal solution, however, we examine the solution qualitatively 2.2.1 Types of Motion Figure 2.2.1 shows a plot of the motion u(t) due to initial displacement u(0) for three values of £. If ¢ = cer or ¢ = 1, the system returns to its equilibrium position without oscillating. If ¢ > ea § > 1, again the system does not oscillate and returns to its equilibrium position, as in the ¢ = I case, but at a slower rate. If ¢ < ca or <1, the system oscillates about its equilibrium position with a progressively decreasing amplitude, ‘The damping coefficient ce is called the critical damping coefficient because it is the smallest value of c that inhibits oscillation completely. It represents the dividing line between oscillatory and nonoscillatory motion. ‘The rest of this presentation is restricted to underdamped systems (c < cq) because structures of interest—buildings, bridges, dams, nuclear power plants, offshore structures, Sec. 22 Viscously Damped Free Vibration 45 ; Ceitically damped, 5 = L Overdamped, HT, \ tnderdanped. $= 0.1 Figure 22.1 Free vibration of undertamped, etialy damped, and overdamped sys- etc.—all fall into this category because typically their damping ratio is less than 0.10. ‘Therefore, we have litle teason to study the dynamics of critically damped systems (c = cq) or overdamped systems (¢ > cq). Such systems do exist, however; for example, recoil mechanisms, such as the common automatic door closer, are overdamped; and instruments used to measure steady-state Values, such as a scale measuring dead weight, are usually critically damped. Even for automobile shock absorber systems, however, damping is usually less than half of critical, ¢ < 0.3. 2.2.2 Underdamped Systems “The tosion oH. 21) ae 1 te leona fy. (2.12) or pee Geeetee eee beea = woe [rtreonoar (2) inoys] 029 wp = amyl (2.2.5) Observe that Eq, (2.2.4) specialized for undamped systems (f = 0) reduces to Eq, (2.1.3). of an SDF system with damping ratio ¢ = 0.05, or 5%, Included for comparison is Fig. 2.1.1. Free vibration of both systems is initiated by the same initial displacement 1¢(0) 28 cdscky rid bts bod donaeoeacae plac aa eha soe a ape tae rep etre the system without damping. The natural period of damped vibration, Tp = 2n/wp, is 226) 46 Free Vibration Chap. 2 Undamped strvetre 0) Figure 222 Effects of damping on tee vibration ‘The displacement amplitude of the undamped system is the same in all vibration cycies, butthe damped system oscillates with amplitude, decreasing wit every eycle of vibration Equation (2.2.4) indicates that the displacement amplitude decays exponentially with time, a8 shown in Fig. 2.2.2. The envelope curves koe", where [fay reo eo yuo + [HOt Eon) peeeeet "} e227 ep touch the displacement-time curve at points slightly to the right ofits peak values. Damping has the effect of lowering the natural frequency from a to wo and lengthening the natural period from T, to Tp. These effects are negligible for damping ratios below 20%, a range that includes most structures, as shown in Fig. 2.23, where Sf — Renge of damping for most structures 08 wis 06 ne 04) ale | 02 ° 0 02 04 06 08 1 Figure 22.3 Effects of damping onthe renee tural vibration fequency. Sec. 2.2 Viscously Damped Free Vibration 47 the ratio @p/a% = T,/To is plotted against £. For most structures the damped properties wp and Tp are appros ely equal to the undamped properties «, and T,, respectively. For systems with critical damping, «»p = 0 and Tp = 20. This is another Way of saying that the system does not oscillate, as shown in Fig. 2.2.1 ‘The more important effect of damping is on the rate at which free vibration decays. This is displayed in Fig. 2.2.4, where the free vibration due to initial displacement u(0) is plotted for four systems having the same natural period 7, but differing damping ratios: £=2,5, 10, and 20%. igure 22.4 Fice vibration of systems with four levels of damping: Derivation 22 ‘The solution ofthe differential equation (22.16) has the form Substitution into Eq. 2.2.16) gives (P+ ays + which is sisted for all values of ¢ if P4208 bo} <0 a c ANNA ANA Ann yy \AAY 11 c= 10% c= 20% oh\\w— A 1 ° 5 rr) 5 oS ut, UT, 5=2.5, 10, and 208. @ o [Equation (b}, which is known ab the characteristic equation, has 10 roots: nazee(-<4/=B) Howe gen lon wy ae et which after substituting Eq, (c) becomes ai) =e (Ape 4 Age) © @ 48 Free Vibration Chap. 2 ‘where Ay and A> are constants as yet undetermined and nV © or ‘As in Derivation 2, the term in parentheses in Eg, () can be rewritten in terms of trigono- metric functions to obtain, ult) = € 5 (Acos@pt + Bsinept) o where A and B are constants yet undetermined. These can be expressed in terms of the initial conditions by proceeding along the lines of Derivation 2.1 (0) + Sen u(0) A OB @ Substituting for A and B in Eq. (Pleads to the solution given in Ba. (22.4). 2.2.3 Decay of Motion In this section a relation between the ratio of two successive peaks of damped free vibration and the damping ratio is presented. The ratio of the displacement at time 1 to its value a full vibration period To later is independent of 1. Derived from Eq. (2.2.4), this ratio is given by the first equality in _u) u(t+Tp) exp are7o) 2.28) and the second equality is obtained by utilizing Eqs. (2.2.6) and (2.1.5). This result also gives the ratio u;/u,-1 of successive peaks (maxima) shown in Fig. 2.25, because these peaks are separated by period To: 229) Figure 225 Sec. 2.2 Viscously Damped Free Vibration 4 ‘The natural logarithm of this ratio, called the logarithmic decrement, we denote by 8 a (2.2.10) IF is small, T—€? ~ | and this gives an approximate equation 82mg 2.2.1) Figure 2.2.6 shows a plot of the exact and approximate relations between 3 and &. It is clear that Eq, (2.2.11) is valid for { <0.2, which covers most practical structures. 10 Logarithmic decrement 8 00204 06 08 1 on eee pus seem! Damping aio tol damping, Ifthe decay of motion is slow, as is the case for lightly damped systems such as the aluminum model in Fig. 1.1.4, itis desirable to relate the ratio of two amplitudes several cycles apart, instead of successive amplitudes, to the damping ratio. Over j cycles the motion decreases from uy 10 uj41- This ratio is given by Therefore, (2.2.12) ‘To determine the number of cycles elapsed for a 50% reduction in displacement ampli- tude, we obtain the following relation from Eq, (2.2.12): ou json 2.2113) ‘This equation is plotted in Fig. 2.2.7. 50 Free Vibration Chap. 2 1p Figure 22.7 Number of cycles eouired 005 OF O15 02 iS edce the te wbraionampite by Damping ratio S08. 2.2.4 Free Vibration Tests Because it is not possible to determine analytically the damping ratio § for practical structures, this elusive property should be determined experimentally. Free vibration ‘experiments provide one means of determining the damping. Such experiments on two one-story models led to the free vibration records presented in Fig. 1.1.4; a part of such a record is shown in Fig. 2.2.8, For lightly damped systems the damping ratio can be determined from Bap ia) Bi ig a The first of these equations is equivalent to Eq. (2.2.12), which was derived from the equation for u(t). The second is a similar equation in terms of accelerations, which are easier to measure than displacements. It can be shown to be valid for lightly damped systems ‘The natural period Tp of the system can also be determined from the free vibration record by measuring the time required to complete one cycle of vibration. Comparing To Tp at a fos a Time igure 22.8 Acceleration rootd of a rely vibrting system,