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Parsons the Non Christian Cross

Parsons the Non Christian Cross

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Sections

  • THE COINS OF CONSTANTINE
  • ROMAN COINS AFTER CONSTANTINE
  • THE MONOGRAM OF CHRIST
  • THE CROSS OF THE LOGOS
  • THE PRE-CHRISTIAN CROSS IN EUROPE
  • EVIDENCK OF TROY
  • EVIDENCE OF CYPRUS
  • MISCELLANEOUS EVIDENCE
  • SUMMARY

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THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS .

.

.rv.. THE \^'/r NON-CHRISTIAN THAT OF OUR RELIGION CROSS" AN ENQUIRY INTO THE ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF THE SYMBOL EVENTUALLY ADOPTED AS JOHN DENHAM 'PARSONS LONDON SiMPKiN. Hamilton 1896 [A// Ji igh ts Kent & Co.^y ?? 1929 „a. Limited R ese> ved. ] . Marshall.

.Printed by Bemiose & Sons.. Ltd. Derby and London.

" [BREVIARIUM ROMANUM. Festival of the Invention of the Holy Cross. HOMINIBUS MULTUM AMABILIS.O CRUX. MUNDO CELEBRIS. SANCTIOR UNIVERSIS. SPLENDIDIOR CUNCTIS ASTRIS.\ .

PREFACE.
^HE

''

I

history

of

the symbol
attraction
for

of

the

cross

has had
ever since,
as

an an

the

author

enquiring

youth,

he found
answers

himself
to

unable to obtain

satisfactory

four questions

concerning the same which

presented themselves to his mind.

The
the

first

of those questions was

why John
Jesus

Baptist,

who was beheaded
far as

before

was executed, and so
had anything
in

we

are told never
is

to

do with a

cross,

represented

our religious pictures as holding a cross.

The second

question was whether this curious
itself

but perhaps in

easily

explained practice.

S

PREFACE.
in
its

had

inception
initiatory

any connection with the
rite

non-Mosaic
Jesus

of

baptism;

which

accepted as a matter of course at the
his

hands of
sign

cousin
cross

John, and
for

in

which the
the
all-

of the

has

ages been
it

important

feature.

And

was the wonder

whether there was or was not some association

between
writers
origin
this

the
give

facts

that

the

New

Testament

no explanation whatever of the
an
initiatory
rite
rite,

of

baptism as

that

non-Mosaic

initiatory

was

in

use

among Sun-God worshippers long
era,

before

our

and that the Fathers admitted that the
of
the

followers

Persian

conception

of

the
fore-

Sun-God marked
head
finally

their initiates

upon the

like

the

followers

of the Christ,
to
start

which
syste-

induced the
enquiry into

author
the

a
the

matic

history

of

cross

as a symbol.

The
fact

third

question

was

why,

despite

the

that the instrument of execution to which

PREFACE.

9

Jesus was affixed can have had but one shape,

almost

any kind of
faith.

cross

is

accepted

as

a

symbol of our

The

last

of

the

four

questions

was why

many
which

varieties of the cross of four equal arms,

certainly

was

not

a

representation

of

an instrument of execution, were accepted by
Christians as symbols of the Christ before
cross

any

which could possibly have been a repreof

sentation

an instrument of execution was

given
tianity

a place
;

among

the

symbols of Chris-

while even

nowadays one variety of
is

the cross of four

equal arms

the

favourite
it

symbol of the Greek Church, and both

and

the other varieties enter into the ornamentation

of

our

sacred

properties

and

dispute

the

supremacy with the cross which
its

has

one of

arms longer than the other
Pursuing these matters

three.

for himself, the

author

eventually found that even before our era the
cross

was venerated by many as the symbol

He moreover no one has ever written a complete history of the symbol. E. St.C. Dunstan's Hill. case. in The author has therefore. though our works of reference seldom mention this fact. and certainty that. . 14. incorporated the results of his researches in the present essa}'. and never do discovered that it justice. any what faith eventually became the symbol of as to our owed some of its prestige a the Christian position it symbol of Victory and Life occupied in pre-Christian days. showing post to the possibility that the affixed stauros or which Jesus the was was in not cross-shaped. of Life.10 PREFACE. the hope of drawing attention to the subject. London.

CHAPTER THE CORONATION ORB I04 X. THE EVIDENCE OF THE OTHER FATHERS - - 41 CHAPTER IV. THE ESTABLISHER OF THE CHURCH CHAPTER CROSS AND CRESCENT VIII. CHAPTER WAS THE STAUROS OF JESUS CROSS-SHAPED? I. - ORIGIN OF THE CHRISTIAN CROSS - - 65 CHAPTER VII. - ORIGIN OF THE PRE-CHRISTIAN CROSS 57 CHAPTER VI.3 1 CONTENTS. - CURIOUS STATEMENTS OF IREN^US - 52 CHAPTER V. 1 CHAPTER II. - - - 82 92 IX. THE EVIDENCE OF MINUCIUS FELIX - - - 3 CHAPTER III. - CHAPTER ROMAN COINS BEFORE CONSTANTINE - II9 .

- - 1 83 187 CHAPTER XIX. 193 204 SUMMARY - 214 . PAGE CHAPTER XL THE COINS OF CONSTANTINE CHAPTER XII. - - - - 142 - - - 147 HAPTER THE CROSS OF THE LOGOS XIV. EVIDENCE OF CYPRUS CHAPTER XX. THE PRE-CHRISTIAN CROSS IN ASIA - - 169 - - - 1 78 CHAPTER XVII. - - - 133 ROMAN COINS AFTER CONSTANTINE CHAPTER THE MONOGRAM OF CHRIST XIII. THE PRE-CHRISTIAN CROSS IN AFRICA CHAPTER EVIDENCE OF TROY XVIII. - - - - 163 CHAPTER XV. THE PRE-CHRISTIAN CROSS IN EUROPE CHAPTER XVI.12 CONTENTS. MISCELLANEOUS EVIDENCE CHAPTER --------XXI.

THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. we are told that Alexander Roman. to a cross-shaped instrument set in the like that to be seen in our fanciful illustrations of the execution of Jesus. CHAPTER I. and various Greek. . many at once. WAS THE STAUROS OF JESUS CROSS-SHAPED? IN the thousand and one works suppHed for our information upon matters connected with the history of our race. Titus. they "crucified" so reign. or that rulers or that person." The natural result is that we imagine that all were the people said to have been "crucified" executed by being nailed or otherwise affixed ground. and Oriental "crucified" this the Great. or during their execution is And the instrument of called a "cross. of ancient days.

as well as affixion to an un- pointed stauros or stake .14 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. and the in latter punishto. and that death was in each instance caused by affixion transfixion by. . of. even very in we could prove that this common mode of capital punishment was no case that referred to by the historians who lived in bygone ages. a stauros. somewhat unevery instance in which they despatched a man by affixing him to a post set in the ground. to. upon the face of likely that the ancients would as death in it. This was. Moreover. instead of we should still have to prove that each stauros had a cross-bar before we could it correctly describe the death caused by by crucifixion. It is also. For instance. have gone out of their way to provide the artistic but quite unnecessary cross-bar of our imaginations. ment was not always It is also that referred probable that most of the many cases where we have no clue as to which kind of stauros was used. by no means necessarily the case. the death spoken the staiiros. the cause of the condemned one's death was transfixion by a pointed if stauros. however. death by included transfixion by a pointed stauros or stake.

It is true that a stick may be in the shape of a crutch. and that the stauros to which Jesus .e. there like ours. 15 As it Romans to death in any case. come.IVAS THE STAUROS OF JESUS CROSS-SHAPED? is. no more meant a cross than the English word stick means a crutch. at the beginning of our era. is possible that it was originally fixed it it upon as a symbol of the Christ because . i.. rendered as cross. was a pre-Christian a symbol of Life. well known that the very often despatched those condemned by affixing them to a stake or post arises as which had no cross-bar. Nor as we the question an unimportant one. the word seems to have. all which was. For. was a symbol of Life the assumption that it became a symbol of less Life because was a symbol of the Christ. being in that case neither more nor than a very natural instance of putting the cart before the horse. the question to what proof we have that a cross-bar was in the case is used of Jesus. shall see in the chapters to cross. And it must be obvious to that if the cross was a symbol of Life before it our era. Now of the in the Greek New word which in Latin versions Testament is translated as cj'uxy and is English versions stauros.

. xiv. . What used the the ancients used to signify word stauros. xxiv. iv.y Thuc.^ that the is used The tion for stauros used as an instrument of execu(i) a small was pointed pole or stake used thrusting to through the body. An. was lodged in his hands behind such a way that the point should enter his breast and the weight of the e.g. v. can easily be seen when they by referring to either the Iliad or the Odyssey. " Iliad. 2. e.i6 THE NON-CHRISTIAN affixed CROSS. which the victim. 453.^ It will there be found to clearly signify an stake without any cross-bar. the latter earth. so the latter was not necessarily a cross. upon which the condemned one was . forced capable of escaping (3) a down till inmuch longer and upon tied stouter pole or stake fixed point upwards. . Odyssey. with him. 90 Xen.g. the shape of a was cross. 1 1. may have been in is But just as the former not necessarily a crutch. of ordinary pole or And wood it is as thus signifying a single piece word in question throughout the old Greek classics. or otherwise render death inevitable (2) a similar pole or stake fixed in the ground point upwards. so as to pin the . 21.

which tied behind him so that the position . untrue that it most cases. . was admittedly that had in which Jesus was is . and not two pieces joined together. Stauroi ortha xula perpe- and both Eustathius and Hesychius affirm that meant a straight stake or pole. or to which might become an agonising one or." lexicographer. Suidas. IVAS THE STAUROS OF JESUS CROSS-SHAPED? 17 body cause every movement to hasten the end and (4) a stout unpointed pole or stake set upright in the earth. is unproven. as in the case the doomed one was bound. Even stauros straight as late as the Middle Ages. That had that in it this last named kind to of stauros. every case a cross-bar attached. For the famous Greek expressly states. is unlikely had in the case of Jesus. suspended by a rope round his were first wrists. which affixed. re- to Jesus. the word primarily signified a seems piece to have of wood without " a cross-bar. "That sophist of .. The side light thrown upon the question by it Lucian ferring theirs is also worth noting. alludes to This writer. nailed. from which the victim was . . gota. of Jesus.'' who was fastened to a skolops which word signified a single piece of wood.

that these five references of the Bible to the execution of Jesus as having been carried out by his suspension either a tree or a upon that piece of timber set in the ground.i8 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. in no wise convey the impression in the two pieces of wood nailed together is form of a cross what is is referred to." signified not only " tree " but also It "wood. ii. Moreover. I Pet. 29. 39 ." should be noted. . misleadingly placed after the Gospels. Jesus is said to have been hanged upon a ti'ee. though.^ For " in the first place the " Greek word translated hanged did not necessarily refer to hanging by the neck. iii. 13 . Acts x. Acts xiii. 24 . the a intimation the the effect that instrument ' Gal. And in the second place the word translated "tree. which seem to have been written the before Gospels. like the other Epistles. however. fact that in Only a passing notice need be given to the some of the Epistles of the New Testament. 30 ." though that always used " in referring to what is translated as the Tree of Life. even single in the Greek in of the Bible to Gospels. and simply meant suspended in some way or other. Acts v. there text not.

would referred to the ordinary course have been and some such term as Kata chiasmon. admitted that they did not or venerate it as a representation of the instrument of execution upon which Jesus died. initiatory rite of baptism in the and use at other timics. "like a chi. IVAS THE STAUROS OF JESUS CROSS-SHAPED? of Jesus 19 actually used in the case was cross- shaped. set out at the head of the against Gaul in his famous march Rome and that the Christian crosses . were not venerated hy Christians fateful until after the day when Constantine soldiers of . which was cross-shaped. Had there been any such intimation referring to in the twenty-seven Greek works Jesus. and other lasting representations of the sign or figure of the cross.. Moreover. as will be shown next two chapters." the Greek in letter chi. which our Church selected out of a very large number and called the " New Testament." It made use of should also be borne in mind that though Christians of the first the three centuries cersign tainly made use of a transient of the cross in the non-Mosaic it is. if in reply to it the is foregoing it should be argued that as well known that cross-shaped figures of wood.

and the solar wheel. and that they the soldiers Gaul. the right-angled -4"after these ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^"S crosses were accepted as Christian. which tation of the solar wheel. century were of the remainder of the fourth representations of the instrument of execution upon which Jesus died tions present themselves . that tine. ® of or ©. ©. the ®. ^. » -F. as will was admittedly an adapbe shown Constan- further on and it was as tokens of the conquest one of these symEternal coins City. to show For the Gauls. a dozen other objecif we are honest enough to face the fact that we have of were so from the therefore first. ^^ X. . while the so-called cross which Constantine and his troops are said to have seen above the midday sun was admittedly the monogram of Christ. cross of four equal X and several variations of that other cross of four equal arms. arms *. . Rome by the his Gaulish troops. ®. erected bols in centre of the and afterwards placed upon his the crosses ®. ® or ®.20 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. venerated as symbols of the Sun-God and Victory the cross of four Giver of Life -}- and > equal arms. as their leader.

to be the only one that could weld together the many nations which acknowledged his sway. as the non-national religion ramifications throughout his world-wide dominions. the Church to which we belong would naturally have had to accept as its own the symbols which Constantine had caused to be those of the State in question. of its Anyway. Another point only remembered with is that when Constantine. IVAS THE STAUROS OF JESUS CROSS-SHAPED? 21 cross with one of its and Constantine was dead and buried. that the arms longer than the other (or three two). which alone could be a repreinstrument of execution. estab- lished Christianity as the State Religion of the Roman Empire. the first kind of cross venerated by . apparently conceiving ours. was to be sentation of an made use of by Christians. had and become symbols of therefore Roman Church. And it should be added that the cross of later days with one of its arms longer than the others. if not also the assumption that the stauros to which Jesus was affixed had a the story of Jesus cross-bar. may have been merely the outcome of a wish to associate with these Gaulish symbols of the State victory which State..

But as an explanation of the different kinds of crosses accepted it by us in a as symbols of the Christ. although even to we could prove be a that the stauros which Jesus was affixed had a cross-bar but could representation one kind of that instrument of execution. for some other reason than we As a matter of fact our position regarding . opinions have always differed as to This difference of opinion among Christians as to the shape of the instrument upon which for Jesus was executed. as we do not know what kind of cross which was the real cross. for. CROSS. has to be accounted that is Our only plausible explanation of the fact we hold sacred almost any species of cross that. only lands us not greater difficulty.22 THE NON-CHRISTIAN was not a . the chances we accepted symbol assert. of Christians representation an instrument of execution and the kinds fact that we hold sacred many if different of crosses. Jesus died upon. has certainly existed many many centuries. For if what kind of cross Jesus obviously are that know we did died upon when we the cross as our that accepted the cross as our symbol.

which. little it facts into is will be seen that it not a misleading upon the part of our teachers '* word stauros as cross " when rendering the Greek documents of the Church into our native tongue. It need only be added that there the is single sentence in any of the numerous writings Testament. Taking the whole of the foregoing consideration. and that we do not even know for certain that the instrument in question was not a cross-shaped. ^^AS THE STAUROS OF JESUS CROSS-SHAPED ? 23 is the whole matter illogical it and unsatisfactory.. in forming New the original Greek. not one piece of timber. bears even indirect evidence to the effect that the stauros used in the case of stauros Jesus was less other to than an ordinary it much of the effect that consisted. and to support that action by putting " cross " in our lexicons as the meaning of stauros without carefully exto translate the plaining that that was at any rate not the . facing the and we ought facts that to alter by honestly we cannot satisfactorily prove that our symbol was adopted as a representation of the instrument of execution to which Jesus was affixed. but of two pieces nailed together in the form of a cross.

did not fication till the days of signi- its primary long afterwards. The word prospegnuvii. or other was some reason stauros assumed that the Jesus particular upon But which was executed had that particular shape. only because. and special meant that to had no reference the affixing of ." meant only. to It to or upon. though translated our Bibles as " fix " in crucify or " crucified. —the reader may in object —how is about the translated that " ? Greek word which as " crucify " our Bibles ? or " crucified " " Does not mean " fix to is a cross this or " fixed to a cross And what that but the strongest assertion possible corroboration of our as Christians Jesus was executed upon a cross-shaped ? instrument The answer meaning is that no less than four different in Greek words are translated " crucify " our Bibles as or " crucified.24 THE NON-CHRISTIAN become CROSS. despite the absence it of corroborative evidence. anastaiiroo." The four words in question are the words prospegnumi. and for became so then. if at all. sustauroo. and " " staiiroo. in primary meaning of the word the Apostles." and that not one of the four meant " crucify " or " crucified.

stistattroo evidently pale. either to a stake. pale. The special meaning of this word therefore of ' e. in part Being obviously derived from the word stauros. or . post. or in the it in the derivation of the in either context occurs.fVAS THE STAUROS OF JESUS CROSS-SHAPED? 25 condemned persons more word old reference " fix " has. affixion of the five instances in which that to to show what is referred to is something that was cross-shaped. as has . times and the of the four words in question by far most is frequently. .f Hdt.g. and only times in the Bible against the forty-four times of the word next to be dealt with. or to a tree.^ The word Christian siistmiroo does not occur in prefive writings. which primarily a stake or pale which was a single signified piece of wood and had no meant affixion is cross-bar. been said. to such a stake or Anyhow there nothing whatever either word. 125.four stauroo occurs. The word forty. or to a cross and had no the to a cross than English The word anastmiroo was never used by the Greek writers as meaning other than to impale upon or with a single piece of timber. iii.

not a to pale or stake to . 25.! 26 THE NON-CHRISTIAN It is CROSS. to or affix ence.. anything but ingenuously regard to the symbol of the cross.g. and. Thuc. . This nate is not all. importance. or stake. but pieces of wood. to a cross-shaped instru(2) that balance of evidence is against the truth of our statements to the effect that the instrument in question was cross-shaped. for the statements of which —as translated us — we bow down in reverence. and (3) that we bygone days acted. and has single refer- crosses. however. For in if the unfortu- fact that we have in our zeal almost manufactured evidence favour of the theory its that otir cross or crosses had or their origin ^ e. vii. we do upon due that wherever it it occurs in the pre-Christian classics is used as meaning to impalisade. and our sacred symbol originally a representation of the same Christians have in still .^ It therefore seems tolerably clear (i) that the sacred writings forming the to New Testament. do not the tell us that Jesus was affixed ment of execution . as consequently most significant investigation. to find. alas in act.

carried out his grand project of proclaiming a non-national versal religion and uni- founded upon appearances of . Paul. and like Jesus seems to have intended the results of His mission to have been inasmuch as He solemnly declared that he was sent to the lost sheep of the House of monopoly of a For if Israel and to them alone. as the long-needed proofs of a future had not disregarded the very plain intimathe effect that tions of Jesus to His mission Israel.IVAS in the THE STAUROS OF JESUS CROSS-SHAPED? 27 shape of the instrument of execution to at all. Christ's representative. was what and not. and and. Nor should a it be forgotten that the triumph it of Christianity was due to the fact that " catholic " faith. which Jesus was affixed proves anything it proves the need for a work which. was to the descendants of Jacob or to them alone if Paul had not . withstood face. like the present one. Peter. to the with unsurpassed zeal. the single nation or race. sets in array the evidence available regarding both the pre-Christian cross and the adoption in later times of a similar symbol as that of the catholic faith. taking his and other visions of Jesus life. like the other faiths followed by the subjects of Rome.

as a symbol of the catholic Constantine and his Gaulish of warriors planted what Eusebius the Bishop century in Caesarea and other Christians of the walls question describe as a cross. because. that it became recognized faith. what we would not have come into existence. For. within the Not till after of the Eternal City as the symbol of on their victory. Moreover. as it happened. monarch of his establish as the State Religion loosely knit empire. is clear that it was because Constantine caused the figure of the cross to become a recognized symbol of his catholic empire. . on account of its catholicity. but for the fact that. it cross. did Christians ever set high a cross- shaped trophy of any description.28 THE NON-CHRISriAN CROSS. call Christianity the spirit-form of Jesus. for The fact that but Paul there would have with followers in every been no catholic that astute faith land ruled by Constantine for when to sole emperor. is worthy of a lasting place in our memory. Nor is the noteworthy fact last mentioned unconnected with the symbol of the as will be shown. that best faith of a fitted to hold power as the official crovernment with world-wide dominions.

in For the victory question. To come down from over to get rid of a tor. the cross. the victory of Jesus was not a victory over the cross for He did not .WAS THE STAUROS OF JESUS CROSS-SHAPED? 29 the triumph of Constantine resulted in that of the Christian Church. put the matter plainly. but upon then approaching Sun-day of the Vernal Equinox. This is evident from the fact that the so-called the purpose cross of Jesus admittedly fulfilled for which it was erected at the request of those who sought the death of Jesus. . if to of the instrument of execution to which Jesus was affixed. and their wish inasmuch as. thanks to the He troubled them no more. as anything but the symbol of Victory we now deem it. In other words the victory which to Jesus did not occur during the we ascribe gloom which the hung time like a pall over his native land at the of His execution. Nor was it a victory His enemies for man whom was cross. from whatever . what they sought was they deemed an agitagratified. at the coming of the glory of the dawn. we should probably have our minds a representa- deemed the tion cross. And even according to our Gospels the darkness of defeat o'ershadowed the scene at Calvary.

but for such victory as may happen It is to lay in survival or resurrection. but is retrieval. hoary with antiquity and founded upon the coming. ushered in every year by the Pass-over or crossover of the equator by the sun at the Vernal Equinox. of the bounteous harvests of summer after the dearth of devastating winter .30 THE NON-CHRISTIAN we may look its CROSS. which we now deem cross that the figure of the became our symbol of Life and Victory. . it And is equally incumbent upon us. bidding us ever hope. In any case honesty demands that we should no longer translate as " cross " a word which at the time our Gospels were written did not necessarily signify something cross-shaped. from a moral point of view. And its story an illustration of the old-world promise. not indeed for the avoidance of death and therefore of defeat. was not the avoid- ance of defeat. point of view at it. it would not necessarily the representation follow that was as of the cause of His death it. therefore clear that even of if we cotdd to it prove that the instrument execution which Jesus was affixed was cross-shaped. that as " we should cease to render crucify " or " crucified " words which never bore any such meaning.

CHAPTER

II.

THE EVIDENCE OF MINUCIUS

FELIX.

THE word
word
even
this
in

Fathers

who wrote
is

in Latin,

used the

crux as a translation of the Greek
It

stauros.

therefore

noteworthy that

word "crux," from which we derive our words " cross " and " crucify," did not
Latin
ancient

days

necessarily

mean something
have had
quite

cross-shaped,

and

seems
its

to

another signification as

original

meaning.

A

reference, for instance, to the writings of

Livy, will

show that
it

in his

time the word crux,

whatever else
single

may have
wood
is

meant, signified a
;

piece

of

or timber

he using

it

in that sense.^

This

however

a curious

rather

than

an

important point, for even the assumption that
the

word

crux always and invariably meant

Livy, xxviii. 29.

31

32

THE NON-CHRISTIAN
made

CROSS.
affect

something cross-shaped, would not
demonstration
stauros did not.

the

already

that

the

word

As our
question

Scriptures were written in Greek and
in the first

were written
is

century

A.C.,

the vital

what the word stauros then meant,

when

used, as in the

New

Testament, without

any qualifying expression or hint that other
than an ordinary stauros was
the
that
signified.

What
Latin

Fathers

chose to consider the meaning of
its

word

to be, or tchose to give as

translation, would,

even

if

they had written the

same century,
as

in

no wise
fact,

affect that issue.
earliest

And,
of the

a matter of

even the

Fathers whose

undisputed
till

works have

come

down

to us, did not write

the middle of the

second century.
Granting, however, as not
all all

must, that most

if

of the earlier of the Fathers, and cerall

tainly

the

later

ones,

rightly

interpreted the

word stauros
let

thing cross-shaped,
this

us,

or wrongly meaning someremembering that as

does not dispose of the question whether
it,

they rightly or wrongly so interpreted

in this

and the next two
references
to

chapters pass in review the
cross

the

made by

the Fathers

THE EVIDENCE OF MINUCIUS FELIX.
who
lived
at the

33

before

Constantine's
his Gaulish

march
its

upon

Rome

head of

army.
importance,

Commencing, on account of
that this

with the evidence of Minucius Felix,

we

find

Father wrote

assuredly see the sign of a cross naturally, in when it is carried along with swelling sails, when it glides forward with expanded oars and when the military yoke is lifted up it is the sign of a cross ;
the ship
;

"We

and when a man adores God with a pure mind, with Thus the sign of the cross either arms outstretched. religion is sustained by a natural reason or your own formed with respect to it."^ is

Various other pronouncements to a similar effect are to be found in the writings of other
Christian

Fathers, and such passages are often

quoted as conclusive evidence of the Christian In reality, origin of what is now our symbol.
however,
fairly
it

is

claim

somewhat doubtful if we can them as such; for the question
if

arises

whether,

the

writers

in

their

hearts

believed their cross to be a representation of the instrument of execution to which Jesus was
affixed,
in

they would have omitted, as they did

every instance, to mention that as the right

Minucius Felix, Oct.

xxix.

" ;

34

THE NON-CHRISTIAN

CROSS.

and proper and

all-sufficient reason for venerat-

ing the figure of the cross.

Moreover

it

is

quite clear that while, as will

be shown hereafter, the symbol of the cross

had

for

ages been a Pagan symbol of Life,

it

can, as already stated, scarcely be said to have

become a
or of

Christian symbol before

the days of

Constantine.

No

ross-shaped symbol of

wood

any other material had any part in the Christianity of the second and third centuries
cross which

and the only

had any part

in the

was the immaterial one traced upon the forehead in the non-Mosaic and originally Pagan initiatory rite of Baptism, and at other times also according to some of the Fathers, apparently as a charm against the
Christianity of those days

machinations of

evil spirits.

This
of
the

" sign " or " signal " rather

than

"

symbol

cross,

referred

to

as

theirs

by the

Christian writers of the second and third centuries,
is

said to have

had a place before our

era in the rites of those
if

not

also of those

who worshipped who worshipped
Sun-God
is
;

Mithras,
certain

other

conceptions

of the

and

it

should be noted that the Fathers
it

insist

upon

that

a

similar

mark

what the prophet

Ezekiel referred to as that to be placed the foreheads of certain 35 upon life men as a sign of and salvation " . xxix. . trying to explain this away by stating that this was done in imitation of the V then despised Christians ^ ! That it was this immaterial sign or signal. You indeed who consecrate gods of wood venerate wooden crosses. the original Hebrew reading Set a tail {Ezek.THE EVIDENCE OF MINUCIUS FELIX. ix. but also that of a man affixed to it. moreover. and the tau having been in the in days of the prophet question — as we know Tertullian from relics of the past it — the figure of a cross. cross. as well as your banners. demonstrated already quoted that by is the fact that the passage accompanied by the remark " Crosses."" ^ De Praescrip. Nor should be forgotten that admits that those admitted into the rites of the Sun-God Mithras were so marked. we Christians neither venerate nor wish for. and flags of your camps. - Oct. what are they but crosses gilded and adorned ? Your victorious trophies not only imitate the appearance of a simple cross. is rather than any material symbol of the which Minucius Felix considered Christian. xl. For your very standards. perhaps as parts of your gods. upon the foreheads of the men " 4).

it reasonably early to date would of course be greatly our . lived as late as the third and can scarcely is worthy of special attention be said to bear out the orthodox account of the origin of the cross as a Christian symbol. is It at any rate clear that the cross . much stress has been laid by us upon what we allege to be a caricature of the crucifixion of Jesus and as having existed of much earlier date. .36 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. This remarkable denunciation of the Cross as a Pagan symbol by a Christian Father who century after Christ. As before our era was six or seven centuries old the crucifix was introduced. than by the worshippers of Mithras and other pre-Christian conceptions of the Sun-God from us. was not our it recognised symbol at that date and that is more likely to have been gradually adopted by us from Sun-God worshippers. and as no Christian representations a of the alleged execution upon a cross-shaped instrument of even exist. in The drawing House under in question was discovered at 1856 to be scrawled upon a the Palatine wall of the Gelotian Rome . and the earliest pictorial representation of the execution of Jesus still existing or referred to in any work was of even later date.

. and feet but with an animal's head. legs. question a very roughly The arms are are extended to . . ass of a priest. 37 be able to quote this alleged caricais which said to be as old as the third and as perhaps even as old as the second century." book It having a hoof on one of his is upon the strength of lines this passage and that the two traversing the figure. But can we in fairly do so is ? The drawing executed representation of a figure with human arms. which in said represent a but appear it. interest to ture. This had an ^ and was dressed in a toga with a feet. and two cross lines. ass's public a caricature of us with this An ears." Tertullian relates that a certain Jew figure " carried about label. is we. independent evidence of the truth of our story. xiv. In the foreground .THE E VIDENCE OF MINUCIUS FELIX. ignoring the fact that the figure this standing. a man " looking at this grotesque figure inscription is and an accompanying to the effect that Alexamenos adores in his God. . claim much-quoted graffito as conclusive evidence Ad Natioues. front of the figure instead of behind traverse is the arms and trunk.

the is hoof upon one not to be seen . mentioned by Tertullian. who is so often to be seen . need not necessarily have formed a part . is themselves to prove nothing. of the historical accuracy of our story. There no is reference a cross in the inscription. Moreover. is . even if they did. the two lines or scratches which we call a for they are little more — cross. a remark which also applies to the toga and the what It Tertullian referred to book he mentions. And even was not a caricature of the execution of Jesus. should also be noted that the head of the figure in this famous graffito. nor there anything to show that an execution of is any kind what is illustrated. made at the date made certainly not less is than two hundred years after the event. of the original graffito and. not altogether trustworthy evidence as to the details. was it a caricature of the execution of It would appear not. Jesus — of And. But it may be pointed out that even if this was a caricature of the execution of Jesus mentioned. a caricature. foot. ? To commence with. of a jackal than that of an ass more like that and appears to upon relics have been a representation of the Egyptian god Anubis.38 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS.

There thus being no opposing evidence of any weight. even so high an authority as the Dean in the next Canterbury admits. he mentioned the Fish and the ^ Dove but said nothing regarding the Cross. II. as we shall see Peed. and with human legs and feet. with human arms extended. that no material representations of that sign or figure later were recognised as Christian date. and it cannot be considered evidence regarding either cross or crucifixion. therefore. it is quite clear from the fact that as late as the third century after Christ we find a Christian Father who venerated the sign or figure it of the cross denouncing as a symbol. iii. till an even And such a conclusion is borne out by the striking fact that when Clement of Alexan- made dria at the beginning of the third century which Christians were out a list of the symbols permitted to use. as in this drawing.THE EVIDENCE OF MINUCIUS FELIX. 39 of the past as a figure with a jackal's head. all Upon ing the points. As to to the sign or figure of the cross referred by the Fathers of the second and third cen- of turies. our claim concernis graffito an ill-founded one . 59- .

not in the main. follow. for And as even he expresses cross. not originally as a representation of the instrument of execution upon which Jesus died. chapter. it would If. And if the sign or figure of the cross did not mainly remind the early Christians of the death of Jesus. that was not " mainly " as reminding them of the death of Jesus that the Christians of the second and third centuries venerated it therefore. what more likely than that the early Christians venerated the sign and figure of the cross as the age-old and widely accepted symbol of Life and of the Sun-God we know it to have been ? Anyway Minucius as Felix may be said to stand of the cross alone in denouncing the symbol non-Christian. that denunciation evidently applied tions of the cross. they after- wards did. . veneration the figure of the and in must have approved of the sign of the cross the initiatory rite of baptism. only to material representadenunciation in question was fear that Moreover the clearly due to the such objects might as degenerate amongst Christians. it must have mainly reminded them of something else. into little better than idols.40 THE NON-CHRISTIAN it CROSS. and.

whether the Fathers wrote lated Greek and used often the word stauros^ or wrote in Latin and transthat word as cnix.CHAPTER III. once referred Another fact worthy of special note in is that. the execution of Jesus was hardly so that as much mentioned by them. " I ^HE ^ works which have come down to us from the Fathers who lived before the days of Constantine make up over ten thousand pages of closely printed matter and the first . they 41 seem to . and no such thing as a representation of the instrument of execution to. point which strikes those who examine first that mass of the literature with a view to seeing what the three centuries Christians of thought and wrote concerning the execution is of Jesus and the symbol of the cross. THE EVIDENCE OF THE OTHER FATHERS.

have had their mind's eye a tree a tree in which moreover was closely connected meaning with the forbidden tree of the Garden of Eden. Gospel Priests of Nicodemits that we read in the when the Chief interviewed certain had raised from the dead. from which the Sun-God Hercules fabled to after killing the Serpent was have picked the Golden Apples of Love. its and that but for the indulgence mankind would cease Starting Christian upon an examination of the early writings in question. an allegorical figure of its undoubtedly counterpart phallic signification which had in the Tree of the Hesperides. sign of the presumably meant and ^ Nicodemus i. it was love sexual which produced passion and to be. for almost every race seems in days of old to have had an allegorical fruit Tree of Knowledge or Life whose was Love . ." ^ . one of which became the symbol of Venus. . Nor was this the only such counterpart.42 THE NON-CHRISTIAN in CROSS. the Goddess of Love. the ancients perceiving that life. those faces " their the cross sign is of men whom Jesus men made upon The the stauros.

behold I again raise you ^ through the Tree of the Stauros. for he wished him ^ Nicodenms vii." in this peculiar Some pronouncement a reference to the doctrine of re-incarnation." Apostle but "did not sever his joints. . our forefather Adam. and rest. all 43 that need be said is that if the men whom acquainted Jesus raised from the dead the cross. were it with the sign of that sign." Elsewhere we read that The King of Glory and took hold of raised said. him : then. the hast thou ^ lost through " Tree of the Stauros. having received this order from the pro-consul. stretched out his right hand.THE EVIDENCE OF THE OTHER FATHERS. " Satan is represented as being told that hast gained through all All that thou Tree of Knowledge. - Nicodemtis viii. turning also to the as he Come with me up see many as have died through the for Tree which all he touched.. it would appear a pre-Christian must have been as Further on in the same the Gospel. In the Acts a7id Martyrdom of the Holy Andrew we are told that those who executed Andrew " lifted him up on the stauros.

" This further reference to the non-Mosaic . he has described at once both the For these words imply. In the Epistle of Barnabas are various ences to the stauros . 44 to be in distress while hanging.Hebrew race. refer- mixed up with various passages from the Hebrew Scriptures. and in the night- time as he was suspended to be eaten by dogs. be it noted. have eone down into the Water. Afterwards we have a quotation of Psalm 3_5 side of a river — which likens the good man to a tree planted and yielding his fruit in " by the due season —and the pronouncement.— THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. that was admittedly Gentile rather than Israelitish origin. Let us further ask whether the Lord took any care to foreshadow the Water and the Stauros " ? i. Blessed are Stauros. Sun-God worship of the and not unconnected with the Persians and other Orientals of non. placing their trust in the Stauros. quoted without any justification as referring to the — . Mark how Water and the they who. The references in question " commence with the enquiry." There is nothing to show that the stauros used was other than an ordinary stauros. initiatory rite of baptism of a rite.

who Further on is a declaration that when Moses stretched out his hands (in a direction not specified) that victory might rest with the forces he in the figure " commanded. reference then made to the Brazen Serit and it to the pole upon which was placed . initiatory rite 45 of baptism xlvii. is followed by a eat quotation of Ezekiel 12. on account of importance as a witness be specially dealt with in the next chapter.THE EVIDENCE OF THE OTHER FATHERS. Justin Martyr. arguing that the figure of the cross is impressed upon the whole of nature. In the Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians we read that the stauros of the Christ is indeed a stumbling block to those who do not believe. to all asks men 4 " Consider things in the world. as that of one who his acquaintance with the aged Poly- touch as his it were with the apostles. and is stated that this lifeless imitation of a serpent was a type of Jesus. he the author of stretched them out of a stauros. as a prophecy that Jesus life." is would be A pent. which speaks of a river by whose side grow trees those the fruit of which grow for ever. whether without . The evidence of was through carp almost will in Irenaeus.

and by those all said to have been events which should happen to the just. through which there is respiration for the living creature . he made them sweet. . sent with a rod to effect the redemption of the people and with hands at the head of the people he divided the sea. : irrational animals in nothing else than in its being erect and having the hands extended and having on the face extending from the forehead what is called the nose. tainty. which were bitter.46 this THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS." ' Elsewhere Christ " Justin Martyr declares that the Was symbolised both by the Tree of Life which was planted in Paradise. Jacob by putting rods into the water troughs caused the sheep this in his . by your own symbols on what are called is shown with which all your processtandards and trophies sions are made. ^ Apol. shows no other form than that of the cross. i. using these as insignia of your power and this . Moses was . and government. form they could be administered or have any cerFor the sea is not traversed except that trophy and the which is called a sail abide safe in the ship earth is not ploughed without it diggers and mechanics do not their work except with tools which have this shape. 55. By this he saw the water gushing out of the rock and when he cast a tree into the waters of Marah. And the human form differs from that of the . The breath before our it was said by the prophet And so And the power of this form face is the Lord Christ.

. remained in this form until evening. 18. cum Trypho. iv.. and this was the Christ. - Dial. 47 of his uncle to conceive Aaron's rod which blossomed declared him to be the High Priest. .THE EVIDENCE OF THE OTHER FATHERS. Isaiah prophesied that a rod would come forth from the root of Jesse. 3 cum Trypho. 4 is was a prediction of There cacy of of the " also in existence a starts " long essay by effi- Tertullian which by discussing the antidote. alluding to the statement in the IsraeHtish " Law tree. iii. Justin Martyr. For indeed the Lord remained upon It " when Hur and Aaron upheld the tree almost until evening. enemy Death tells did he elsewhere us that "Cursed a tree " is every one his who hangeth on death." - Tertullian writes concerning the Christ " With the last and through the trophy of the cross he triumphed " 3 and fight. the sign as as an The sign in cross traced upon the forehead rite the non-Mosaic initiatory of baptism seems Dial. xcvii.." Cursed is every one that hangeth on a states that was not without design that the prophet Moses his hands. * Against Marcion." ^ . Against Marcion. 20. Further on in the same work. . Ixxxvi.

introduces a representation of the resurrection. Apolog-ticus." 4 : .. and no representa- tion instrument of execution. . baptizes some." ' Elsewhere Tertullian writes " If : any of you think we render he is superstitious adoration to the cross. and promises the putting away of sins by baptism and if I remember rightly . Mithras there signs his soldiers upon their foreheads. once mentioned. his own believing and faithful followers.— THE NON-CHRISTIAN what of an is — CROSS. 3 De Pra'scrip. ^ Scorpiace^ i.. or crossis shaped symbol of wood or any material. and places the crown beyond the sword. xl. - De * Corona^ iii. 48 to be referred to . He. You worship is all victories^ for in your trophies the cross religion of the is the heart of the trophy." ^ His famous reference to the Sun-God Mithras trace : we reads as follows " The devil in the mystic rites of his idols competes even with the essential portions of the sacraments of God. like God. In ^ another of Tertullian's " works we come across the passage life In all the actions of daily upon the forehead the sign. . celebrates the oblation of bread. The camp Romans through a worship of the standards I praise your zeal you would not worship crosses unclothed and unadorned. in that adoration sharer with us . that is. xvi.

to ' worship unadorned and simple crosses. 21. and indeed the greater part of its mass. In another of TertuUian's works 49 : we read "As for of a cross." Cyprian contends that "By the sign of the Moses. us is . ." and "Blessed are they that that do his commandments they may have as has power over the Tree of Life. too. him who affirms that we are the priesthood we shall claim him as a co-religionist . I suppose.religion You are ashamed. . was the second." 4 Methodius tells us that " He overcame. " In this sign salvation for " people who are marked on their foreheads quoting as proof of this. also. "They had his name and the name of his Father written on their foreheads. 22. ii. cross . . Every piece of timber which erect position is is fixed in the ground in an part of a cross. Testimonies against the Jeivs. . all The . Amalek was conquered by Elsewhere Cyprian of the cross is tells us that all . ^ Ad Nationes.— THE EVIDENCE OF THE OTHER FATHERS. from the Apocalypse.. ii. and so. 3 4 Testimonies against the Jezvs.. ' xxxvi. xii." 3 cross." In the Instructions of " The first law was ^ in Commodianns we read the tree. But an entire cross is attributed to truth however is that yoiu. .

ii. no concupiscence. no natural passion. to be free with unfettered hands. no sensuality. Lib.50 THE NON-CHRISTIAN said. ad Romaiios. and no envious desire. you wish ^ to define it." = Whether " staiiros however " is this reference to the of Christ or is is not a reference to the figure of the cross. doubtful. is able to overcome Christ. it is is carried about. been figure of the cross powers that enslaved us by the and shadowed forth man. if corruption as by the a tyrant power." Passing on to Origen. we find in : one of his works the noteworthy passage " It is ' — possible to avoid saith if Mortify your it if we do what the Apostle members which are upon earth. vi. him. the CROSS. . Such is the evidence regarding the cross. sin cannot reign.' and we always For carry about in our bodies the death of certain that where the death of Christ For the power of the stauros of Christ is so great that if it be set before a man's eyes and kept faithfully in his mind so that he look with steadfast eyes of the mind upon that same death of Christ. whether considered as immaterial sign or material symbol. . obtainable ^ from the writings of the Apud Gretserum. - Epist. is confirmation of victory. who had been oppressed by For the cross.

Apostles and course than those other of the Octavins Minucius Felix. . however mind is in should be carefully borne evidence as a whole leads to the conis that the Christians of the second and third centuries made it " use of the sign and vene- as rated the figure of the cross without. This what that the clusion and but a negative point. . p. last which was dealt with the writings in the chapter.THE EVIDENCE OF THE OTHER FATHERS. them of the death of Jesus and therefore instruotherwise than as a representation of the which Jesus died." remind. 23. ing only or even mainly. which be dealt with in the next. evithe noteworthy features of the stands out the dence in question prominently Among smallness of its volume. Christians $1 who lived between the days of the of Constantine of . ^ ment of execution upon C/irisi in Art. will and of Irenaeus. Dean Farrar admits.

STATEMENTS OF IRENiEUS. to say. then. due to the fact that of all the whose undisputed works have us come down to he is the only one who can be considered to have been anything like in touch with the Apostles. As an is acquaintance of the aged Polycarp. ? As a matter of very 52 little. who youth a Apostle pupil St. What. Irenaeus had opportunities for ascerlife taining facts concerning the and death of Jesus which the other Fathers upon whose works we rely did not possess. . importance of the evidence of THE Fathers special is Irenaeus. does this important witness have which bears upon the points at issue fact. said to have been in his of the aged Evangelist and John and to have met yet other Apostles.CHAPTER CURIOUS IV.

for instance Transfiguration " the account of the so-called . xxiv. if Jesus was metamorphosed upon the Mount. or at previous to the scene at ^ Ai-ainst Heresies^ i. and that is the question how. upon the Mount our Bibles as " " the Greek word rendered in transfigured " being the word which in translations of the older Greek classics is rendered metamorphosed/' pass Even the if we by this belief of certain of early Christians that Jesus was never executed. of these passages Irenseus mensome Christians believed that Simon of Cyrene was executed instead of Jesus.CURIOUS STATEMENTS OF IREN. Jesus was died as a man at Calvary? For Mount of Transfiguration. ^ power " is referred more than once in in our Gospels. he can be said to have if upon the any other time Calvary. . a question here arises which should at least be stated. two passages in the works of Iren^us which it would not be right to altogether ignore. 53 There arc. tell as the Gospels us. owing to the power of Jesus to metamorphose himself In the first tions that and others having object in been exercised This with that to view. however.-EUS.

The less other passage in the writings of Irenseus is which deserves our himself. it away how we the remains and it certainly ought not to be ignored. At first sight this statement of Irenaeus to support the theory would decidedly seem advanced by some. as the Roman Procurator Pontius to carry out the Pilate admittedly did not want extreme penalty in the case of Jesus. by Irenaeus that Jesus was not executed when a will. though he reluctantly consented to the do so in order to pacify Jews and allowed Jesus to be fixed to a stauros and suspended in public view.54 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. that. in appearance. over thirty years of age. little neither more nor than an emphatic declaration. have had the farce of burial . things so that Jesus should only appear to The idea of course life is that if Pilate wished to preserve the of Jesus he while in could easily have had him taken down a drueeed condition. but lived to be an old man. and can have been human only notice. he took care to manage die. fact Explain . result metamorphosed. the form which was the to to of the process of re-metamorphosis necessary make him recognisable again cannot be said have been born of the Virgin Mary.

Against Heresies. which our Lord possessed while he still fulfilled the office of a Teacher even as the Gospel and all the fortieth . and heard the very same account from them. and then have had him resuscitated and removed to some region where he could dwell in safety.CURIOUS STATEMENTS OF IRENyEUS. sanctifying at the same time the aged also and becoming an example last. Then. not merely as regards the setting forth of the truth but also as . among them up to the times of Trajan. From the and fiftieth year a man begins to decline towards old age. then. What "He infants.... never executed ^ or that he was executed but xxii. elders testify. those who were conversant in Asia with John the disciple of the Lord affirming that John conAnd he remained veyed to them that information. becoming an infant for So likewise he was an old man for old men. should we Whether such men the apostles to as these. or Ptole- maeus. and bear testimony as to the statement. to them likewise. Irenaeus says concerning Jesus is that passed through every age. . that he might be a perfect Master for all. IL. carried out at the earliest possible 55 moment. 4-5. Some of them moreover saw not only John but the other apostles also.. rather believe ? Whom.. regards age. at he came on to death itself . in who never saw ? his dreams attained " ' the slightest and who never even trace of an apostle The self reader must decide for himself or her- whether Irenaeus believed that Jesus was .

And fact remains that.56 THE NON-CHRISTIAN . . executed when but executed thirty years or so later than suppose . tions neither cross nor execution. little this For it is clear that if even he knew so about the execution of Jesus. year or B. Irenaeus stated that old lived to be an man . the pre-Christian cross. survived or that he was born when we suppose. the details of that execution cannot have been particularly well to known . or middle or end of 4. or whenever the orthodox date but thirty years or more before what we to in call our era began. however mis- taken he Jesus may have been. and was born. CROSS. his evidence none the less affects one of the most important points debated work. Even granting that Irenaeus must have been in mistaken. not at the the commencement A. and the affirmation that the stauros which Jesus was affixed had a transverse bar attached may have had no foundation in fact. i. and may have arisen from a wish to connect Jesus with that well-known and widely-venerated Symbol of Life. though we we suppose. and stated so emphatically. is. or that. he was then an old man.C. An3^how he menand here seems any case the assume that Jesus died a natural death.C.

however. by the it is now the desirable that. the origin of the /r^-Christian cross. The authorities subjects. that the early Christians signified that instrument sign of the cross .CHAPTER V. is and that generally was. That there was a pre-Christian it cross. than it and having if also shown that was not mainly. if not indeed probable. like ours. unfortunately differ as the reason why the . HAVING in the foregoing chapters it demon- strated that is possible. ORIGIN OF THE PRE-CHRISTIAN CROSS. as a preliminary to an enquiry into the circumcross became we should enquire stances under which the into symbol of Christianity. indeed even partially. a Symbol of upon such to 57 Life. admitted. that the instrument of execution to otherwise which Jesus was affixed was cross-shaped .

the facts mentioned would lead idea. . let us ask at a very early ourselves what the untutored likely to select as mind of Man would be most its symbol. the obvious and Lord of the Hosts too. and conceive the genus Homo creeds.58 THE NON-CHRISTIAN Symbol of CROSS. Let us bear in mind. And as Life. that though the Nature Worship of our remote ancestors had other striking features. And not one of their suggestions matter. as a race gradually awakening ere he to reason but as yet unfettered by inherited traditions and Let us imagine in his Man him began to make gods that all own image. seems to go to the root of the thought go back tens of Let us therefore in thousands of years. what would far strike marvels would of necessity be Life and that and away the next greatest marvel . Let us remember as the greatest of itself. the greatest marvel of it must have had a symbol allotted to date. to the its predominance of the phallic and to association with Sun-God worship. of Heaven. all. must have been the glorious Sun source of earth life. Cross came to be selected by the ancients as the Life.

which I For the ancients cannot that all life fail to have perceived Mfiion of simplest. consequently straight upon another be seen . at such line superimposed an angle that both could in other words. two sexes or two powers or two alone produces life. more immediately proceeds from the and the first. find pleasure in connecting with other objects of his regard than . so far as the author : see. 59 To can this question there is. whatever the original reason. and most natural symbol of Life. It is reason evidently probable that this was the real why the figure of the cross originally came to be adopted as the Symbol of Life.ORIGIN OF THE PRE-CHRISTIAN CROSS. of course. But. but one reasonable answer —the figure :— because of the cross. a cross of some descrip- tion or other. was two principles one . readiest. as time rolled on other reasons for the veneration of the cross were pointed out. nothing being more natural than that primitive certain Man should. And the author conceives this to be the real solution of the difficulty for this reason the figure of the cross representation is the simplest possible of that union of two bodies or principles. or more than that he did.

in And. a term badly trans- lated in our versions of the Gospel of St. John " as the Word of God. or rather the different ways in which. . gave for declaring the cross to be the figure of the Logos. which they called the Logos of God . " It Logos or Second God *' whom Philo.6o THE NON-CHRISTIAN itself. The most in notable instance of this the way which." and even as God's " First Begotten " and " Beloved " offspring. described as the Intellectual Sun. the reason the philosophers. A good example of the last named fact. the figure of the cross was connected with the Sun-God. and the " Light of the World " terms afterwards our Gospels will . is the declaration of the philosophers of ancient Greece that the figure of the cross " was the figure of the Second God " or " Universal Soul. as be shown a chapter upon the subject. among whom was Sun Plato. made use of by the writers of in describing the Christ." the Ratio as well as the Oratio of the All-Father. was that the creates this figure by crossing the Equator. CROSS. who was born before the commencement of our era. as was this if it signified the Oratio only. Life Life that which as the Symbol of is was pre-eminently a symbol of good omen.

ORIGIN OF THE PRE-CHRISTIAN CROSS. as was often and naturally the case. in honour of the Passover or Crossover of the Sun. 6i even better illustration can be seen in the days of old almost every civilised race held feasts at the time of the Vernal Equinox. and the waxing and waning moon. as we know." was doubtless due to their perceiving. As the Giver of Life. fact that in An The fact that the ancients were thus at special symbol of Life with the Sun-God. Moon. spoke of him as the " Giver of Life " and the only " Saviour. were associated with each other. the to be course considered the two the great lights Sun-God was of But when of heaven. not only the result of the union of the two principles distinguished by the titles male and life is pains to connect the that female. Hence the the worship of the 5 God associated with . the Sun and bi-sexual. the Sun was considered to be more especially a personification of the Male Principle. a personification of the Female Principle. but also that the salvation of life is due to the action of the sun in preserving the body from cold and its in producing and ripening for use the fruits of the earth. and also. as represented by the Crescent.

mother or bride. . as of that of the Goddess associated with the crescent called the Sun-God's . phallic in character and from their connection repeatedly symbolised upon the relics which have antiquity come down to us by the sign of the crescent containing within its horns either a disc or what we should object. being for these very reasons also the simplest and most natural symbol of Life. is extremely curious that the selection of the of the cross in figure comparatively modern times as the simplest and most natural symbol both of addition and of multiplication. radiate sun. as the first and simplest representation of that union of the Male and Female Principles which alone produces what we mortals it call life. consider a star-like which latter was of almost as favourite a of representing the mode sun as with the it ancients is with us representing a star or planet. however. a probable the solution of the pre- mystery surrounding origin of the it Christian cross as a symbol of Life.62 THE NON-CHRISTIAN moon and was is CROSS. should have led no one to perceive that. as stared were them in the face. ^' shown of the Returning. to the symbol cross. as will be further on.

and not certain that either chariots or wheels had It is true that the Solar Wheel became a recognized symbol of the Sun-God. 63 As to the contention of not a few authorities. that cross the pre-Christian originally a repre- sentation of the wheel-like motion of the sun or a reference to the wheel of the Sun-God's chariot it need only be remarked that evidence exists to that the cross show was a symbol of Life from it a period so early. the between the pre-Christian Cross as the Symbol Solar Wheel as a symbol of the Sun-God. but it is putting the cart that its the to suppose the cross became the symbol of so discoverable. because the figure of the symbol of Life was more or before less discoverable in the spokes allotted to the Solar Wheel horse .. however of Life. that is doubtful if the Sun- God had then been likened to a charioteer. It Life because form was only remains to be added that there slight. and that additional veneration was paid to it been invented. apparently founded upon the mistaken assumption that the Svastika was the was earliest form of cross to acquire importance as a symbol. ORIGIN OF THE PRE-CHRISTIAN CROSS. and the Cross as the symbol of the . undoubtedly was a connection.

^ or -f- . be shown further on. allowed a loop to be added to the top of the vertical spoke so that the Christians victorious i. XP or XPI.64 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. and obtain that who was anxious the support of the Christians. ® or to 0. the first two or three letters of the Greek word XPISTOS. as will our religion was considerably influenced by the facts that the Gaulish soldiers whose victories V enabled Constantine to become Sole Emperor venerated the Solar Wheel. their leader. And first whatever the date at which the cross was adopted as a Christian symbol. Christ.e.y might be able to interpret the symbol as (^ or ^. Christ. there is no doubt that. Christos. . or whatever the reason for that adoption.

ORIGIN OF THE CHRISTIAN CROSS. himself a greatly that Constantine the Great the small but enthusiastic bodies of Christians everywhere to be met with could aid the him in his designs supreme power. seeing how Gaul. it is evident that our beloved Christendom more or less owes its existence to the fact when only ruler of Sun-God worshipper at the head of an army of Sun-God worshippers.CHAPTER VI. that its For to and Constantine's religion support perception only a non-national whose followers sought to convert the whole world and make their faith a catholic one. A S has already been to some extent pointed -^~^ out. we owe the fact that when he became Sole Emperor 65 . bid this politic upon success. could really weld together different races of men. attainment of for their move.

The played probability of this is more or less apparent from what we are told concerning the part he in connection with what. far-reaching effects. he advised others catholic what he wished should become a refused to and all-embracing himself till do so he was dying —who called together our bishops. are not It This act and all we owe to Constantine. and. For it was this Sun- God worshipper to enter — who. demanded that they should determine the controversy in the ranks of the Christians as to whether the Christ was or was not God.God and the Christ were one and the same deity. as we . either from policy or convicConstantine acted as if he thought the Sun. thanks. presiding over them in council at Nica^a. however. should be remembered that even our creed was to some extent decided by him. by It is subscribing to a declaration of his Deity. even recorded that he forced the unwilling ones to sign under penalty of deprivation and banishthese and other incidents in his career ment. From tion.66 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. he made Christianity the State ReHgion of the world-wide Roman its Empire. though religion. it would appear that.

bearing upon it attached to the inscription EN TOYTG NIKA. except so far as we can gather it from a study of ancient coins and other relics. are to He said that at mid-day when the sun was beginning dedine he saw with his own eyes the trophy of a cross of light in the heavens. by Constantine in connection with the symbol of the cross. and his . who is By this conquer.C. bearing the inscription EN TOYTO NIKA. Our knowledge of And the first that famous bishop and ecclesiastical historian Eusebius of Caesarea. 312 —a Sun it quarter of a century before his admission into the Christian Church Light — Constantine and the Gaulish soldiers he at was leading saw in noon over the a cross of or having the heavens.— ORIGIN OF THE CHRISTIAN CROSS. is and the that in the year A. to whom we owe or so large a proportion of our real supposed knowledge of the early days of Christianity. to him. he himself. 67 became our recognised symbol. unfortunately comes to us solely through Christian the part played sources. are about to see. above the Sun. The words of what he told " the Bishop. tells us about Constantine cross. reporting states the Emperor : in question to have him personally.

Mention should therefore be made of the that. >^ and and "^ _fL . are also to be seen. the symbol is fact ® . put before us as a Christian cross. appeared to an army of Sun-God himself worshippers. and the ® I. CoJisf. the without the circle." being struck with amazement at this Though the Of this marvellous cross. —as can seen from his coins if —remaining till one many is years afterwards not his death. declared by Christian writers of that century to have been so-called Monogram Constantine of Christ © ^ for it or >^ be o^ --p. . upon the coins he struck. It is also noteworthy that no material repre- sentation of a cross of any description was ever held aloft by adherents of the Christian Church. whole army sight. until after Constantine is said to have had this more or less solar cross so represented as the standard of his Gaulish army. ' CROSS. ^ Vit. perhaps the one which occurs the most frequently upon representations of the famous Labarum or Military Standard of Constantine but that the symbol © .68 THE NON-CHRISTIAN also.

Con^t. Solar Wheel. It is same upon their not improbable that even before the date of the alleged vision when marching upon Rome. I. liable to be at times by is his enthusiasm beyond the limits of veracity. ORIGIN OF THE CHRISTIAN CROSS. 29. directed same sign him to have a similar symbol made. like other enthusiasts. 30. evident. <^ or ® and the warriors of been the in the habit of their native land had long therefore wearing a representation of helmets. 69 Now the Gauls led venerated the. For Eusebius tells us in the Life of Constantine he wrote after the death of his patron. the Christ appeared to Constantine. carried the worthy Bishop Eusebius was. of Sun-God march conquering and to conquer Vit. that Anyhow. and. or else was the victim of imperial men- dacity. that the " cross " night after this miraculous in the and motto were seen sky above the Sun. under which his army —an ^ ! army. some such symbol formed the standard of Constantine's army. 28. by Constantine specially This had some- times six and sometimes four spokes. be it worshippers —should ^ remembered. .. showing the Gaulish general the that had been seen in the sky..

70 THE NON-CHRISTIAN All that is CROSS. wishing to encourage his troops. and that as with are point Constantine and his Gauls Rome. and that they do not quite after The Bishop night of Csesarea's account that the the all Emperor — then only ruler of " Gaul —and his soldiers saw the cross " and motto above the meridian sun. bade them rally round a standard on which was Solar represented the sacred Wheel venerated this as a rallying by the Gauls of . be demonstrated further A noteworthy point is that we have two agree. upon the estabState Religion of lishment of our faith as the Roman Empire. also a Christian —symbol. so that Christians could accept it as a Monogram of Christ will . And a loop seems to have been sooner or later added to the top of the vertical spoke of the Gaulish symbol. is really likely to have happened that Constantine. accounts of Constantine's alleged vision of the Christ. the Christ appeared to Constantine "With the same sign which he had seen in the . and as on. later became masters discussing became a on. is. the symbol we Roman — and the therefore. as has already been hinted.

Pers." ' a likeness of that it as But the author of Be Mortihus Persecutorem. .. ^- De Mort. and marked the battle. who tells us that the morning after the Christ appeared to Constantine. 29. refers to the alleged vision as follows " Constantine : was admonished in his sleep to mark the God on the shields. /. sign his troops — Armed with this ~ " and the differences between these two accounts are greater than would at first sight appear. and. and to use a safeguard in all engagements with his enemies. sending for the workers in gold and precious assumed to have accompanied the Gaulish army. directed them to overlay with who are gold a long spear Vit. the Emperor stones told this second marvel to his friends. and attributed to Lactantius. name of the Christ on the shields by the letter X drawn celestial sign of across them with the top circumflexed.— ORIGIN OF THE CHRISTIAN CROSS. a work said to have been written during the reign of Constantine. Const. Let us however return to the story of the Bishop of C^sarea. and thus engage in He did as he was commanded. heavens. c.. 44. and 71 commanded him to make sign which he had seen in the heavens.

31.72 " THE NON-CHRISTIAN On CROSS. adopt a symbol which he warranted would enable Constantine to lead on the Gauls to victory ? Pursuing the narrative of Eusebius that he. /.. it Only one such quesis this : Is it likely that the Infinite Ruler of the universe. setting victorious trophy and salutary symbol in front ^ of his soldiers. the letter P the top of the whole of which of gold being intersected with the letter X in its centre. Constantine Vit." ^ Several questions naturally arise at this point of our enquiry. either at mid-day or to induce a way Sun-God worshipper who would not at mid-night. . was fixed a wreath and precious stones. went out of his enter the Christian Church till a quarter of a century later and ere then was to become a murderer Caesar of innocent to persons like the boy- Licinius. it is impossible — for us Christians to honestly dispose of all of them and yet and retain our cherished opinions upon this matter. and within this the symbol of the Saviour's name. and it is not easy —nay. as a monogram but this " " states that. tion need be stated. alluding to the we find symbol which he describes calls a cross. Const. two letters indicating the name of the Christ by means of its initial characters.

and thanked God its He had I enabled him to defeat and slay purple in and assume the tells all that ruler's stead. his rivals who sole did not dispose of and become emperor the fight till some twelve years later. Const. and the it in the Latin tongue: which is the true test of have preserved and liberated your city from the yoke of tyranny.' virtue of this salutary sign I By valour. setting up this great expressly causing ters that trophy of victory over his enemies. '' ^ Vit. Const. 73 and. as victor in with Maxentius and master of Rome at though not as yet of the whole empire.. /. and I have also set at liberty the Roman Senate and People. 4c.— ORIGIN OF THE CHRISTIAN CROSS.. divinely aided. Eusebius then us that Constantine. and it to be engraven in indelible charac- the salutary symbol was the safeguard of the Accordingly he immediately ordered a lofty spear in the figure of a cross to be placed beneath the hand of a statue representing entire people. I." overthrew Emperor just in outside the Imperial City. once " By loud proclamation and monumental inscriptions made known to all men the salutary symbol. entered that ruler Rome triumph. Roman Government and following inscription engraven on ' himself in the most frequented part of Rome. . continued his march against Maxentius with his forces thus the " . and have restored to them their ancient distinction and splendour. 37. - Vif.

was the " salutary symbol " and trophy of victory " referred to in the above that this "lofty spear in passage from the same authority. And such a conclusion is borne out by the fact that spears with cross-bars use among both Gauls and Romans this for centuries.74 THE NON-CHRISTIAN Now. what Eusebius above the the referred to as the " cross " observed mid-day sun (and accompanied by a miraculous inscription in. That. " the " Greek language . presumably. as CROSS. which or was. was referred to Monogram had been in of Christ. we have already seen. that it should also be noted was as a . whereas one is referred to as something out of the It common. therefore. too. well. It is therefore clear the figure of a cross" which Eusebius tells us was placed under the hand of the statue of Constantine in the central place of honour in " by Eusebius as a " cross because it was shaped like or in some way connected with some form or other of the so-called Rome. Greek to the Gaulish soldiers) was the so-called Monogram of Christ @ " ® ^ or tells or -|L. was what Eusebius us the Christ afterwards told the Gaulish leader Constantine to model his military standard after. That. to agree with monogram.

II. valour. the most distinguished for piety. he gave orders that the "salutary trophy" should be moved in that direction. and strength. One would imagine from was only one labarum. ^ or ^k . Further on his of the Emperor. that Constantine caused this or . and those who stood their ground were always miraculously preserved. sole . all this that there Many different kinds however. Eusebius his troops tells us that whenever Constantine saw hard pressed. 75 and not as either a monogram of the Christ or a representation of the stauros upon which Jesus was executed. or which variations occur upon the coins of Constantine and his succes- or ® or -f (all sors). Vit.5^ . whose this fifty. are. The Bishop of Csesarea then goes on to relate that Constantine selected fifty men it of his body- guard. Const. of the elect who ^ fled were always slain. to become in a symbol history of the Roman Empire. . represented upon the coins of 7—9. victorious military standard. duty was to defend famous standard those and that. and that victory always resulted.ORIGIN OF THE CHRISTIAN CROSS.

III. rate.76 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. ' Vit. . Constantine as also almost every variety of ordinary cross. except. such as might conceivably have been a representation like of an instrument of since execution. 49. Const. perhaps. elevated either as a representation of an instru- ment of execution. Constantine caused " the symbol of our Saviour's passion to be fixed. and on coins always attributed his victories to the Sun. which has come into vogue among tells Eusebius also us that Constantine caused to be erected in front of his palace a lofty tablet. on a vast tablet in the ceiling. but it is." 2 stones inwrought with Which of all the " salutary " signs that appear upon the coins of Constantine these particular crosses were. we do not know refused to . ^ a dragon or serpent under his He also informs us that inside the palace and in the principal apartment. III. at any obviously unlikely that a worshipper of Apollo who till enter the Christian his Church he was dying. 3. Const. on which was painted a representation of himself with the " salutary sign " over his head and feet. ^ Vit.God. that us. composed of a variety of precious gold. .

The Christian Church. even the Vatican Cross. by of three Helena the mother of Constantine. of which were ancient instruments of execution and one of which was shown by the occurrence of a before. and Helena's Eusebius.C. and such few others of which as survive 6 would not if 'tis said. St. miracle to have been a cross to which Jesus was affixed this is three centuries it is clear that a fairy tale. 77 As to the. what was broken up into relics for the faithful throughout Christendom . and while what was suffered of the city to remain the Jerusalem true cross became treasure of that and a trophy captured by its foes but afterwards secured from them and once more placed in its holiest shrine. multiplied into a thousand fragments one of which forms the centre of examined. . does in not mention question . all stakes with transverse bars attached. alleged finding at Jerusalem. visit who as gives an account of to Jerusalem. in a weak moment vouched for the truth of this ridiculous story in .ORIGIN OF THE CHRISTIAN CROSS. however. any such occurrence it that a sure sign that was an invention of later date. The to story cannot be traced Cyril further back than A. of Jerusalem about 350.

as well as kept in festival by St. or even limited to the two kinds for the presence of which a supposed cross-bar of another kind Bishop to in of timber might be held accountable. And by St. and the Alexandrine Chronicle. The same fairy tale Christian whom this can be traced. Idatius.78 THE NON-CHRISTIAN all CROSS. These painfully obvious inventions cannot but incline broad-minded Christians to the belief that our Church went to great lengths in order to induce people to believe that the cross was ' opera S. day sign in question. prove to be of the same kind of wood. ^ and Sun fo?.C. a solemn being held upon anniversaries of the . Cyril and is still memory by the Greek Church.several hours. 351 he and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem saw a from brilliant cross in the heavens. stretching Mount Golgotha shining like the this to the Mount of is Olives. . Cyrilli cura Ant. a letter to one of the Emperors that succeeded Constantine de- clared that on the seventh of May A. Socrates. marvellous vision vouched for Jerome. " But which particular in " salutary thus is shone the sky like the Sun for hours. Touttee 351 Menaeum Graecum ad diem 7 Maii. uncertain.

. 79 show It that there symbol which tends to was a danger of their thinking from the otherwise. as a whole dispute the supremacy with the Latin cross) occurs the coins of Constantine. is also clear evidence already in quoted concerning the adoption by Christians the fourth century of a symbol they denounced in the third. preceded the Latin cross as a Christian symbol. yet many it times upon was the so-called Monogram the of Christ or adapted solar wheel of Gauls which the Christians of the fourth century were most careful to claim as a Christian symbol. that whether Jesus was executed not. as will (a shown. is still and one form of which the favourite symbol of the Greek Church while even in the other two great divisions of Christendom its numerous variations. should also be noted. wheel-like and otherwise. essentially a CJwistiaii . the cross of four equal arms which. cross For though the also of four equal arms was put by . The that though. ORIGIN OF THE CHRISTIAN CROSS. that upon a cross-shaped instrument or not the chief reason Life was why the phallic sj^mbol of as the became recognised striking fact symbol of the be Christ. as cross we have seen.

a Gaulish symbol as the other that and it was evidently because other was the symbol followed by the triumphant leader of the Gauls and his victorious army. as for ages previously. as was the . a symbol of the Sun-God of world-wide acceptation. of the Roman State. That should of the more generally accepted symbol of the Sun-God. and of the universally adored the Christian Church what was Sun-God. in time supplant the more local one. was not so much . whether the so-called Monogram faith it of Christ was more or less tianity forced upon Chris- when Constantine made our the State Religion of his empire. was only to course be expected . and shall see one which as we as such had already appeared it upon Roman coins. Constantine upon his coins as a solar symbol. the cross of four equal arms. was a politic move (than which few possible to moves could have done more faith) to secure the triumph of our accept as the symbol of at one and the same time the symbol of Constantine. being then. yet that. that it the Christians wished to specially identify with the Christ. or whether was it adopted by Christians of their own volition.8o THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. In any case.

" mainly. to use Dean not " Farrar's expressions." only. of the sign or figure of the cross than the origin of the Christian cross the answer first is obvious. 8i adoption of a cross with one arm longer than the others." was the one which if was the first to be considered. representation of an instrument of execution which cross was undoubtedly not a transient sign or gesture but a material representation of the cross with one arm longer than the after others and was introduced of the cross of four so-called such representations equal arms and of the Monogram of Christ had come into vogue among Christians as a consequence of the influence of Constantine. . As to the possible in this objection that what has been dealt with chapter has been rather the origin of the Christian custom of manufacturing and venerating material representations itself." a .ORIGIN OF THE CHRISTIAN CROSS. And the answer is that the cross which can justly be called " Christian. as being the only kind which could possibly be connected with the story of Jesus as the Christ incarnate.

HAVING cross as our already shown not a little cause of the for believing that the adoption is symbol due to the fact that we Christians helped to secure the triumph of the ambitious ruler of the Gauls. 82 . THE ESTABLISHER OF THE CHURCH. it to our faith as best we is desirable that trace the career of the we should pause to man we hail as the first Christian Emperor. and after receiving numberless smaller favours from Constantine during the years he was ruler of not as yet sole Rome but emperor eventually of the obtained from him the establishment of Christianity as the State Religion Roman Empire. adapting the victorious trophy of the Gauls and the various crosses venerated by them and other Sun-God worshippers could.CHAPTER VII.

C. . Finding the supreme rule of the almost world- wide Roman Empire year A. 83 To do referring this properly we must commence by father.C. to Constantine's to the favour Constantius Chlorus . 305 Diocletian relinquished power altogether. too much for one man in ill-health to in the undertake successfully. Constantius Chlorus died in Britain the year after Diocletian abdicated a and of the Galerius. and shown to Constantius Chlorus by his patron the Emperor Diocletian. In A. for it was Gaul to the ruler of Iltyricum and not to that of that Diocletian gave the Caesars to govern Italy power of appointing and the East.C. obtaining the coveted title of Augustus. forcing Maximian to abdicate with him Galerius and Constantius Chlorus thus Caesar . who had married daughter Diocletian. under circumstances he ought to become sole emperor. 292 Diocletian followed the inferior up by of conferring position and title upon Galerius and Constantius Chlorus. 306. naturally thought that however. however . and sharing the supreme power. proclaimed . Diocletian 286 made Maximian co-emperor. Galerius now ranked first.THE ESTABLISHER OF THE CHURCH. The legions of Gaul. A. this And in A.C.

CROSS. the son of Maximian. Maxentius. defeated After being more or less expelled by his son Maximian Gaul and Constantine in the year his A. the Governor of Syria and . this Upon marched upon Rome. the Constantius Chlorus as Augustus in his stead and as Constantine thus became to ruler of Gaul and a power it be reckoned with. 308 time marched Fausta conferring to to married . Galerius thought far best to give way so as to grant Constantine the inferior title of Caesar. through the revolt of his son-in-law Maxentius. both taking Severus at the request of Galerius of Augustus. He was. and slain. and he and Maxentius the shared the title power between them. however. Licinius an Augustus in the place of Severus whereupon Maximin. The Senate to of Rome then asked Maximian re-assume the purple. About time Galerius made friend .C. Soon afterwards Galerius conferred the title and a little while of Augustus upon Severus after that the Eternal City was lost to Galerius ./ / 84 THE NON-CHKISTIAN son of . daughter at title the same his upon him the this of Augustus.

was Constantine's favourably placed.C. Constantine was all of the enthusiastic backing of to the Christians his be found in the dominions of various rivals. as lay in his Moreover by reversing so power as of ruler of Gaul the traditional policy setting Rome towards as Christianity. . 85 title There were thus half-a-dozen in the year A. 311 the Emperor Galerius died from . This decided break-up of the Roman Empire . or caused and the first of his commit suicide five rivals was disposed of In A. not to mention Dio- who was content to remain in retirement. and Maximian the Maxentius Rome. 308 some . Galerius. and Maximin elsewhere cletian.C. In A. Egypt.THE ESTABLISHER OF THE CHURCH. demanded and was granted that also. and of himself national forward religion it a champion a non- because secure which had been persecuted was non-national.C. faithful opportunity for and he was he had a warlike and far people under him. Licinius. Roman Emperors at instead of one in there being Constantine west. 310 Constantine either executed father-in-law the to his him Emperor Maximian. and .

312 Constantine marched at the head of the Gauls against the defeated Emperor Maxentius. Licinius. him near the Milvian Bridge outside Rome. defeated him. disease. That despite his great qualities as a ruler the character of Constantine was not fact perfect. a boy certainly not over twelve years of age.86 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. not content with executing the Emperor Licinius after accepting his submission. and the Senate decreed that Constantine first should rank as the Augusti.C. and he soon afterwards his Some to ten years or so later Constantine went war with only remaining rival.C. Maxentius is said to have been drowned in the Tiber . and Constantine's most formidable comand one who undoubtedly had a better himself to claim than the position of for sole emperor. thus opportunely ruler made way the of Gaul. In A. In the A. were defeated. he murdered the young Licinius .C. Maximin fought his Emperor but forces died. petitor. and became sole emperor. and entered the Eternal City in triumph. can be easily seen from the that. A. 324. and according to some authorities . of the three remaining 313 the Emperor Licinius .

Pontifex when called upon by one who was Maximus and therefore their spiritual rite superior as well as the supreme emperor. He and put own son Crispus to death. whereupon this worshipper of the Sun-God turned to his friends the Christians and they gave him what he desired.^ This statement seems somewhat improbable. but that they bravely said that there was no absolution for such sins.THE ESTABLISHEK OF THE CHURCH. these blot out the stain of every crime and thoroughly appease offended heaven. show how badly advised we ^ are to so needlessly go Zosimus ii. after his alleged conversion to our committed many years faith. however. as one would imagine that the Pagan priests. would not have scrupled to invent some purifying — if they had none such — warranted to been. We are told that Constantine was so tortured by the memory of these and other crimes that he applied to the priests of the Gods of Rome for absolution. two also 87 or three his years younger than that. However this may have all terrible crimes of Constantine. . other relations as well.

but in should at the same time be borne mind that whether Constantine called him Apollo or Christ. not to want of but to excess of belief . at last been able to induce him to Constantine's idea rite take the decisive step. it was the Sun-God to whom show all For everything tends to that this astute emperor. acted his if supreme first ruler of the if Roman World. not from to last. that delay would enable to sin with him it impunity a longer. being that the longer he put off the question. was due. This may possibly have been the case.88 THE NON-CHRISTIAN way CROSS. as the Christ were but another . in other words. out of our to claim as a Christian one who he was refused to enter the Christian Church till dying and possibly no longer master of himself. who so naturally wished to establish and mould a religion which his subjects of whatever race or nationality during reign as might be reasonably expected to become in time willing to accept. Or. it seems probable that he referred. It is said that this refusal till of his to be baptised he was weak and dying and surrounded by Church officials who would perhaps have spread the report that he had been baptised even if they had not then belief. the in more crimes would little it wash out.

an not dedicated A. on the and It often called by the name till Byzan- tium. or.^ fact that remind us of the long before our ' Both Zonaras and Cedrenus bear testimony to this effect. as some even later date A.C. Constan- tinople. Constantine dying in the year We are told that Constantinople was dedicated This should era. New Rome.C.THE ESTABLISHER OF THE CHURCH. This point fact that is not only demonstrated by the his coins upon that Constantine repeatedl}his invincible declared the Sun-God was guide and protector and the giver even of the victory foreshadowed by the alleged of Christ clearly also vision of the b}' the cross or sun. as we now call it. or. the city of Constantine. was not designed till : A. was built of.C. . and was think. 324. 337. Monogram but is above meridian certain shown incidents connected with the founding life towards the end of his of the new metropolis which all in less than a century equalled Rome in save antiquity. 330. site of. to the Virgin Mother of God. 89 conception of the Sun-God he was brought up to worship as Apollo and all countries venerated under some name or other.

and down to the time selected Byzantium as the site of a when Constantine new capital. to the Virgin that place was considered dedicated Queen of Heaven. Constantine. as in a later has been mentioned and will be shown chapter. there nothing inconsistent with the supposition that he was a Christian only in so far as. he attributed his Whose. For although. then. was a statue of the Sun-God Apollo or. In fact. to one erect would to expect Conother to something honour of the victories. a statue of himself adorned with the attributes of the Sun-God. upon the many varieties of coins he issued. he acted as he considered the Christ to be one of many conceptions of the Sun-God. Now stantine in the central place of honour in his naturally or new the metropolis. taking the career of Constantine as a is whole. as some explain it. repeatedly acclaimed the . was statue Constantine towards the end of his centre and about twenty faith. God whom the life. if out of policy or conviction.90 THE NON-CHRISTIAN right CROSS. years after his alleged conversion to our erected in the of the Forum of New Rome It ? .

he never once. so attributed his victories to the Christ. except in so far as he may have considered God we Christians worship to be the Sun-God. Sun-God as his 91 companion and the author of the his triumphs. .THE ESTABLISHER OF THE CHURCH.

AND CRESCENT. 92 . in should be remembered. it necessarily bi-sexual character of the creator of both the Male and Female all Principles. borne mind by the thinkers of old the while they accom- modatingly spoke of the Sun-God or Giver of Life as being a personification of the Male Principle to represent the and gave him a Bride or Virgin Mother Female Principle.CHAPTER CROSS VIII. The was. upon the Giver being of Life bi-sexual no life known to them which was not a result of the conjunction of the Male and Female Principles. a few introductory remarks are neces- sary regarding the too often forgotten fact that the ancients as naturally looked . in BEFORE able passing review the evidence regarding the symbol of the cross deriv- from Roman coins and other relics of antiquity.

naturally came Male to Principle. not a mere crescent its but one which has within horns what we consider to be a star-like form call a star. of the city founded by Constantine. as their compilers one from another without troubling to consider the evidence for themselves. manner came to symbol of the Female not be amiss to In this connection to the it will draw attention symbol of the conquerors For though to be aware. or the star-like form which the ancients often used to be recognised as the symbol of the so signify the radiate or impregnating Sun. this dual symbol was a com- and therefore it sible that bination of the ancient symbols of the Male and Female bol as a Principles. the Crescent." that symbol fail as the reader cannot very well . 7 . An erroneous account of the origin of this symis Moslem symbol copied given in all our works if of reference which deal with the matter. just as the disc of the Sun. And though it is poswas not knowingly adopted as such by the Moslems. misleadingly called is. in like be adopted as the natural Principle. as signifying the increasing Moon and the lesser of the two great lights of heaven.CROSS AND CRESCENT. " the Crescent. 93 Moreover.

Constantinople to the Virgin Mother of God and Queen of Heaven whose symbol. our works of reference stating that was then adopted by city Mahomet symbol of the famous he had taken from the Christians. long before our era and up to the days of Constantine. he dedicated New Rome or.— 94 THE NON-CHRISTIAN The CROSS. as we now call it. It would therefore appear that the symbol of the city is more likely to have been a simple crescent than the so-called star and crescent. as stated chapter. incorrect but widely accepted explanation is in question. Queen of Heaven whose symbol was a crescent. But was the " star and crescent ? " the symbol of the City of Constantine not. is also a crescent. as the A. right considered. It would appear in a previous Ancient Byzantium was. Such a conclusion is entirely borne out by . And when Constantine rebuilt and renamed Byzantium. to the effect that the so-called its star and crescent had origin as a Moslem symbol tinople in the capture of Byzantium or Constanin it by the Turks IL. as can be seen upon reference to both ancient and modern representato the Virgin — . tions of the Virgin Mary.c. as dedicated . 1453 .

is Moreover the question tured what the symbol it of Constantinople was at the time was cap- coins issued by the Turks. star 95 For though the so-called and be seen upon three or four coins struck at Byzantium before such a place as New any- Rome was thing . crescent can AND CRESCENT. this proves little if in question inasmuch as the symbol was a very common one in days of old. was a simple crescent.CROSS the evidence. will reveal to the enquirer that though the crescent with a appears occasionally upon cross within its horns the coins in of the Emperors instances of the East. by the And an inspection of the Christian rulers of that city it during the thousand years and more their was in hands. Metropolis We learn from other sources also that the Christian five symbol of the imperial captured by the Turks nearly hundred years ago and ever since retained by them. And there is no doubt what- ever that the dual symbol of the Moslems was . and occurs frequently upon coins struck elsewhere. thought of. if it is a single example of the so-called " star and crescent " symbol can be found upon them. and one or two we see a cross of four equal arms with doubtful each extremity piercing a crescent.

with scarcely an exception. the feet of the Iran followers of the Prophet the kingdom of or Persia. It was in the year A. not when they brought about the downfall of Constantinople as a Christian city. Now and ''star for the coins of the Sassanian kings the previous then two centuries bore upon them. ever Victory by the Moslems the at of Victories. was. and brought to an end the Sassanian Monarchy. sition The suppoorbs. For though the conjunction of the two crescentshaped and feminine lights of heaven. of certain writers that the dual symbol represented the two crescent-presenting is Venus and the Moon.C. as What the star-like object (star-like. that the Moslems adopted their own. entirely mistaken. but centuries before. in our opinion) represented upon the coins of Iran or Persia when placed within the horns of a crescent. and it was as the symbol of this dynasty and of the it fair land of Iran.96 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. was of . that is. as a result of the con- quest of Persia. adopted by them. the so-called and crescent" Zoroastrian . of course. the Sun. 641 that the battle of after called laid Nehavend.

was undoubtedly Life. " star But the dual symbol miscalled the and crescent was one even then of great antiquity. not only was the star-like the symbol of the as And it object in question Sun-God Mithras. by Perozes. substituted for dynasty can Upon in the Sassanian coins the so-called representation neither star. like the AND CRESCENT. any student of the coins of the Sassanian see. as will be shown relics in a later chapter dealing with Phoenician discovered in Cyprus and elsewhere. was. reality a of a star nor of a planet but of the radiate Sun. the disc in the horns tiie crescent being the father Isdigerd II. held Life. often accompanied on the Sassanian by a prayer that the monarch might increase." or flourish generally.C. but the disc. 457 ." CJ^OSS old. symbol on coins of his and other predecessors. And it is clear that the conjunction of . about A. seems to have been first substituted for the round of a disc as a representation of the Sun. the 97 combination of the symbol of the Sun —as representing and Male Principle — with to that ever feminine signify Increase symbol the Crescent. we are dealing with what was admittedly a Mithraic symbol. signification of the dual The primary coins " symbol in question.

98 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. must have not only signified Life. We are thus brought to the conclusion that the Cross and the so-called Crescent are or less allied in signification. is this noteworthy fact to be wondered faiths For only words and forms divide the of Mankind. do so in hope of being rewarded with longer life and more blissful life hereafter. is clear that the . and at heart the one object of our desires is Life. And as the Cross as the recognised is symbol of the Christ the conquest of or less resulted not of older date than the Gauls. that if the followers of the so-called Crescent have. we be followers of the Cross in may all unconsciously regarding a very similar position our symbol. the Crescent as the symbol of the Female Pnnciple of Life with the the star-like figure which represented radiate. Even those who piously for others lay the down their lives here. or impreg- nating Sun. as would appear to be the case. and it Rome by more therefrom. more Nor at. forgotten the meaning of their symbol and the fact that it alludes to tlie bi-sexual nature of the Creator. Another point which is too is often overlooked. but also the necessarily bi-sexual Giver of Life. life-giving.

a good exists in relic illustration of the fact in question the Caroccio crucifix of Milan in which we under the usual inscription. with a man's head see. but half the body of instead ansata. was . of a cloth or fig-leaf. as be clear to those who understand how cross came to be recognised ages before our era as the natural symbol of Life. signalling to them . an androgynous Christ upon a cross. And still . placed sideways. rather than as one with the primal and natural interpretation of which they were content. and as the oval represented the female organ of reproduction. and with. if 99 same remark applies we consider the Moslems to have adopted their symbol as that of the land they conquered from the Sassanian kings.CROSS AND CRESCENT. Anyway crescent " will the is cross as well as the " star less and the \ / more or a bi-sexual symbol. not only being considered so in but being also used on the battlefield as a rallying point for wounded soldiers. once so common in Italy. female form. a symbol of Life and Salvation in it two senses itself. the Caroccio bi-sexual crucifix. the phallic crux cross if or Egyptian or symbol of Life. and the tau or incomplete cross that of the other sex. Like the Red Cross of to-day.

." In this all ignore. that the Infinite also existence must be " Our respect Protestants have if possible gone even further astray than members of the Greek and as Roman paid the Churches. the latter For to in the veneration by Mary of Nazareth of Bride of God. also. the Mother of God. could be obtained where it towered These references old that to the fact that in days of many very naturally came to the conclusion the Creator and Giver of Life and only us Saviour must be bi-sexual. and the Queen survival. conceived what we wrongly Author of Mother. rightly. can be seen a however toned down or distorted. drugs. aid. of the old idea that the Deity must necessarily be of both sexes. Heaven. that bandages. has in Christian times come to be considered . and viz. Even the sented it plainly evident fact that.lOO THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. while in pre-Christian days the symbol of the cross repre- the two sexual powers in conjunction. should remind Christians that Spirit is our assertion is that the Infinite all " Our Father " For they not from points of view an improvement upon the ideas of the ancients. and surgical aloft. the Star of the Sea.

must have been born is Yet that assumption modern Christianity.CA'OSS the AND CRESCENT. " is speak of " ? God " the Son yet never of God the Daughter The the to fact that the natural disabilities and disadvantages of the childbearing sex have from first resulted in the power of the male sex result rule the roast. even granting that the Deity was specially incarnated in Jesus the Nazarene and if its therefore as a male. the genus for instance. in the is economy of Nature by the fair This doubtless due to the fact that the moulding of our creed and the interpretation of things hard to be understood has for the most part been in the hands of the sex which. why should we. moreover. it. lead us to note Son that our religion scarcely does justice to the part played sex. and one of the pre- dominance thus ensured to the male sex by the . can be more unfair than if the assumption that God. at the very basis of Moreover. as sup- posing that a passing form could stamp sex " upon an Infinite Spirit. loi symbol of Life as being the symbol of the of God. should. incarnated as one of a male ? Homo. may by way of contrast be Wl at. as the author belongs to called unfair.

to whom out of compliment the Deity — or thing. of the priesthood. however and in few monopoly if any instances did the priests of old go so far as to teach that the Creator. a similar laws of Nature has of course been predominance is for the opinion that the Creator of the male sex. themselves —they naturally spoke of as belonging to the stronger sex. For the account of the Creation which the Jews brought . not Man from the beginning made God in his own image ? The male sex did not always have a . As that a matter of fact the it is by no means as certain Creator is not represented being in androgynous even in our Bible. assume such a Nor did they even Though the different gods as belonging to and goddesses were spoken of this or that sex.102 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. so was very generally recognised. was a male and only a male. so far as to may even go ask with a special meaning. Some enthusiastic champion of her sex. alluding to the fact that the opposing sex now Has has a monopoly of the priesthood. more than one were regarded as in reality androgynous and the fact that the Creator and Giver of Life must of necessity be .

have accepted such a declaration as a divine revelation if image" they conceived the God This supposed to be speaking to be androgynous. of creating life in himself. but was is afterwards divided into halves." to the utter of the equally important fact that the Deity in whom we our being must also be and move and have Our Mother. or in the image the Creator.ent emphasis that man was it created of. In any case is clear that God be female as well as male. the Creator.CI^OSS AND CRESCENT. is 103 with them from Babylon. Suffice it to add that it can scarcely be said in to have been altogether progress the right call the direction." . which has led us mortals to all Author of obscuration Life *' Our live " Father. Man was not created in The theory of the ancients that Man himself like was created an androgynous being. capable. reprein 07ir saying " Let 71s make man and a race which Hke the Jews solemnly declared that there was but one God. one of which ever seeking to find the other. could only. the Creator sented as ." like. the likeness of God. if upon the "male and not female. need only be mentioned. and addressing the other for the part of himself laid would account staten. it would seem.

Another point to be kept in view is the evolution of the Christian symbol so pro- now known as the Coronation Orb. including both St. also crowns the topmost height of many a Christian Temple 104 .CHAPTER IX. This compound symbol. only fact which those antiquity. ^T^HE fact ^ do the that though we Christians fail to matter justice. should ever bear in mind. evidence a view ascertaining that bears is derivable from them upon the history of the symbol of the cross. . THE CORONATION ORB. is not the of who examine coins to relics such with as the of the Roman what Empire. the ancients upon the contrary recognised that the Creator and the Giver of Life cannot be rightly spoken of as belonging to one sex and one alone. which plays minent a part in the regalia of a Christian Monarch.

it a matter of very . is or Ruler. Upon meant ball in other coins also. The evidence as a whole. the . however. hand of a female upon coins of representing Rome is exactly as the so-called Coronation later date in the Orb to be seen hand of this or that Christian Emperor. at 105 Rome and St. so conmet with upon ancient coins of the hand of this or that God. This being the case. which appears . favours the supposition that the Coronation Orb. once worn by the Salian priests and afterwards by the Pontifex the Fabia gens Maximus and the Flamens generally.THE CORONATION Peter's at is ORB. upon ancient coins of the office of Flainen Quirinalis having been hereditary in the Fabia family. instead of having been derived from the priests Apex of the Pagan priest- and thus signifying the claim to hood or headship of the church so often made by monarchs. is a development of the round object. frequently unsurmounted tinually to be Rome in by anything. Paul's it London. Goddess. a certain And it noteworthy that bears resemblance to the representation of the Apex. what is said to be for the pontifical apex occurs figure as a round surmounted by something very like a cross.

in itself. as time rolled on. the step seems to have a been taken upon the death of Constantine. it the round object in question was. Although several the initiative in assume that this direction first was taken by Constantine himself. gradually. and. more and more small surmounted by a . when coin or medal was issued on which the is deceased monarch called a God and . the State after the establishment of Christianity as Religion of the Roman Empire. is repre- sented as holding a round object surmounted by the so-called Monogram of Christ a symbol continually referred to by Eusebius and other writers of the fourth century as a cross. frequently. we should be in question used to and should base our assurance upon the results of personal investigation rather than upon the assumption that the popular explanation is necessarily the correct one. and only gradually. supplanted by writers of note the figure of the cross. Though stated. quite considerable importance that sure what the round object signify.1 06 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. was. as days of old often used as a symbol by \ was sometimes. . female figure with wings which figure This figure was a representation of Victory.

we find that that Emperor issued a coin upon is which a round object surmounted by a cross to be seen in the hand of Victory have been the call herself This would appear to first instance in which what we should figure with wings. the former. it The named will be under- stood. I. the round object held by those rulers is surmounted by either a Victory or a Phcenix usually by . as well as upon those of the intervening Emperors. supplanted the representation of Victory as a small female symbol surmounting the round object which we are considering. are..1 HE CORONATION ORB. the exceptions to the general rule during a considerable period. but in several instances by the latter. coins of the And upon many of the Emperors mentioned. surnamed the Great whole of the the last of the Emperors Rome whose rule Roman instances extended throughout the world. The first ruler who caused himself to be . Passing on to the reign of Valentinianus II. A of similar coin was issued by Theodosius . This is upon a coin iss jed by Nepotianus. 107 Later on an instance occurs of the Monoeram a female surmounting a round object held figure representing b}^ Rome.. a nephew of Constantine. as a a cross.

and the Cross were allied in signification. object sur- represented holding a round mounted by an ordinary cross. and the Cross. Emperor of the East. For the facts II. inasmuch in not only did the cross course of time entirely supplant the Victory. that the round object is held by Theodosius as b\- as often surmounted by a Victory a \'ictory a Cross.. The as fact that for a long time the \''ictory. and nothing but the world. worthy of special note. of course. and equally round are object the nature and meaning of which we about to enquire into. .or a Phoenix or a signified the world upon which we dwell.io8 THE NON-CHRISTIAN as CROSS. were made use of for symbols which might be substituted one is another. to last. the round world. the popular assumption . was Theodosius II. The as reader may possibly object that no case has been made out for such enquir}-. by succeeding Christian Emshow that the Victory. mounted by anything or by a Victory. but the round object from first and whether unsursurmounted Cross. the connected with the Phoenix. the Phoenix. and that tend to instead of a Cross was often used perors. Such is.

THE CORONATION and ORB. and is achieved every time that a man is born into the world as a result of the tasting of the fruit of the Tree of Life or of evil. fact. as a mctter of many : cases the round . but of the Golden Apple. had a phallic as well as a martial meaning. as signifying the triumph of Life over Death. admittedly signified an apple of the Hesperides a well the Golden xApple phallic symbol. b}- known Whenever thing is a round object unsurmounted any- to be seen in or the Sun-God Hercules Love. it so occur in but upon a very large number some instances we see the it . Victory surmounting recalling to our minds the fact that victory. in school 109 based upon what we are taught in books object standard works of reference. in But. it hand of either the Venus the Goddess of have been. though the fact reason or other ignored. is the knowledge of good and Moreover. instance in the so important . And not only does of coins. for it admittedly was. may a admittedly often representation. documents of famous the Middle 8 Ages for . the tion now for some itself is so-called Corona- Orb of to in Christian as Monarchs Latin was It once known referred the Golden Apple. not of the world.

the Charles IV. the Imperial Apple. classic story of how the tree which bore in grew up the Garden of honour of the wedding of Hera. who more or less personified how the Golden Apples are have been dedicated to the variously said to Sun (Helios). above it. And to this very is day the so-called Coronation Orb known throughout Germany and Austria as Reichsapfel. to the Sun-God (Dionysos). and . to the Goddess of Love (Aphrodite) how the Sun-God Hercules which guarded the as one of the twelve labours which represented the months. regarding Imperial elections. slew the Serpent tree.". fruit all and how the Goddess who alone of . a goddess the female sex . and plucked the Eris. Every one should know the the Golden Apple the Golden Apples the Hesperides in . It is therefore by no means certain that the round portion of the Coronation thus caused the to be given to is Orb which name of " the Golden Apple this compound Christian symbol. like the cross to some extent a phallic symbol. not. no Bull THE NON-CHRISTIAN of CROSS. wherein we read of the right of the of the at Counts Palatine Rhine to carry the symbol in question the coronation of their Emperor.

Also that much evidence has accrued which. according to the legends of that city.ong the guests a Golden Apple Paris inscribed it "To the fairest. for it is obvious that the same phallic meaning underlies each. leads clearly to the conclusion that the all-important forms as it commencement of Genesis. versions of the It and that they are but same allegory. that Eden was the name given by Babylonians in days of old to the plain outside Babylon. which were the very basis of both the Jewish and the Christian Scriptures. And that it was in reality a Babylonian tradition or series of traditions of far older date than any writing of purely Jewish origin. to different may here be called mind that it has this century been discovered from the cuneiform inscriptions of Western Asia. whereupon. revenged herself by throwing an:. impartially weighed in the balance. Aphrodite or Venus. The story of the Garden of the Hesperides is at heart one with that of the Garden of Eden . the 1 1 nuptials of Peleus and Thetis.1 THE CORONA TION the deities was not invited to ORB. has not only been amply ." and awarded to the Goddess of Love. the creation of living beings took place. was bor- rowed by the Jews from Babylon.

according the cuneiform relic in inscription upon another time-worn the Babylonians of the British Museum.CHRIS TIAN CR OSS. for among discovered in Western Asia is the age-old relics a pictorial repre- sentation of the allegorical Temptation and Fall. Nor is this all. the Serpent. at a time when the descendants of Jacob or were without scriptures of their own. — . thanks to a wicked Serpent of Israel — Darkness. tasted of the forbidden fruit which placed grew It in the " Garden of the Gods " their " —was in the hands of Redeemer. had a tradition to the effect that the fate of our first parents who." should also be pointed out that this voice that the from the dim and distant past distinctly states Redeemer in question was the Sun-God. old. less identified .2 1 1 THE NON. proved by recent discoveries. are all represented. Upon figure this noteworthy piece of evidence the Life. but might indeed have been guessed from its reference to the Tower of Babel or Babylon. the Man the Woman And to . Tree of Knowledge or Christians with which the of the cross was identified by the early . and the Apple is . which in all countries and every age has been more or with the sexual powers . it important to note that.

THE CORONATION ORB. 13 In ancient days the so-called forbidden fruit or seems to have borne somewhat the same symbolic meaning that the egg did. as the acknowledged Giver of Life and Saviour of Life. on the other hand. two the sexes which produces ^gg more or less lacked the latter meaning. or can be traced further back. Hence the prominent part which it played in the various religious mysteries of the ancients.%%^ my nest. and. and primarily. and none can break custom my of The ^%% Even our Christian referred to.gg. signified the Sun-God. than the one that the whole visible creation emerged from the original Chaos or Darkness in the shape of an Q. None 0. to the conceptions of many and few ideas were more widely spread. but also. The Cosmos itself was an egg according of the ancients . was of course the Sun itself exchanging . signified Existence in a wider sense than the apple did. But aj pie while the apple not only represented Life. that or principles union between life. and above all. and also the fact that the Egyptians represented the Sun-God Ra as " I as giving forth such utterances am the sees Creative Soul of the celestial abyss. The egg also.

" and from which earthly life and power may be said to proceed. Moreover the Chinese believe that the first man was born from an ^g%." " First-Begotten One " as " egg- and the Greeks fabled that their Sun-God it Dionysos sprang from the cosmic egg. derived eggs at Easter more is Sun-God worship.114 THE NON-CHRISTIAN or CROSS. As to the origin of the Coronation Orb. when the Orient Light crosses the Equator to rise once more in the Northern Hemisphere. the Orphic hymns speak of the born. finer or is more natural symbol been fixed upon than a of Power could have representation of that ball of fire which was so noteworthy that no frequently spoken of in bygone ages as "the all Orb. certainly seems are considering However the available evidence to show that the round object we . and the Sun-God Osiris was also said to have been born from an Q<gg. for the Sun-God Apollo was of old represented as born from the egg of Leda. Nor are these the only facts connecting the egg with Sun-God worship. being a period of the year. the less from survival from customs practised long before our era at that particular time of the Vernal Equinox or Pass-over of the Sun.

that he claimed to be. the cross which signified Life. In any case the object in question cannot be shown to have represented the world upon which that alone we dwell and likely than that so and nothing is more famous a symbol should. It now adorns it. 1 1 more likely to have signified the cosmic egg than the solar orb. the only legitimate The facts that the symbol was used in days of old by others than the Emperors whose sway extended over the whole of the Roman Empire. his hand power possibly. like . though not of much value as evidence. have more or less should also be pointed out that this symbol of Power the Ruler may have who used of signified. It should however be remembered that thoueh .5 THE COR ONA TION is ORB. as even petty rulers have been known to boast that they held the world in their grasp. also and. and is nowadays considered the rightful symbol of every Christian Monarch however limited the area over which his power is felt. it not so much that laid claim to in world-wide dominion. should also be borne in mind . as that he held over the lives others . Life. as the vicegerent of the Sun-God and Giver of Saviour of his country.

and some even constructed celestial globes upon which to record the it is movements of Sun. and Stars. and yet. was not as is vulgarly supposed the earth. doubtful if Planets. conceived the by the dome-Hke appearance movements of the cosmos or universe instances in to be spherical. that many a we dwell to be spherical. but the heavens . a single one of them considered the world upon which Also. the ancients. Christian Monarch has used as a the Coronation Orb symbol of power. and yet believed the earth to be otherwise than a globe in shape. of course possible that the ancients may conceived the earth to be otherwise than have spherical.ii6 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. Ovid that upon Atlas rested heaven and all the stars. Hesiod his telling us that Atlas bore heaven with head and hands. In this connection it should be pointed out that the round object which the ancients repre- sented Atlas as supporting upon his shoulders. usually in the presence of Jupiter. Moon. and other writers of bygone ages that Atlas was a king who first taught men that heaven had the shape of a globe. because the horizon which It is . struck of the sky and the circular constellations.

which they did consider to be globular. reason. . is obvious that the ball-like symbol question is much a less likely to have signified the than it — to in their belief — non-globular earth. however. some other to have considered a it.THE CORONATION appears to limit or for its ORB. For being coin is though the ancients " may have we live conas ceived and spoken of the world " upon round in the same sense as a circular it round. they did not think of it as being a in globe. even Orb of Christian by Christians. however. including the important fact that the so-called Coronation Monarchs used to be called. the are considering symbol we may have represented something is other than the Golden Apple. Although. the probability that it seldom as. Such is the nature of the evidence which tends to show that we Christians may be mistaken in supposing that our famous symbol the Coronation Orb represents the round world upon which of we dwell. 117 extent seems to be circular. representation is have been of something. most points have now been touched upon. if ever represented the earth. surmounted by the instrument execution upon which Jesus died. rouna object be a representation of ball-like Even where.

perhaps signifying the into a complete female principle. be supposed to have signified the male reversed (e. derivable from the coins of the Roman Empire.g. set upon the top of the tan. in Even this point does not exhaust the for the fact that in days of hand . the Goddess of Love.. it the Golden Apple.. reversed. ever to be pointed out that the like the ought. . and thus turning really cross what is an incomplete one. as standing the phallic in is apple. however desirable that before discussing the matter further we should ascertain the nature this of the evidence. the idea that may have been the crux ansata.Il8 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. howis Orb even more sacred ancient symbol of the planet to Venus. Tree of Life for by the and holding a round object meant viz. regarding and kindred subjects. has not yet been dealt with It any way. xlii. subject old we used to represent the Christ as the Pagans represented the Sun-God. principle). or Life Egyptian symbol of (an upright oval. Archceological Journal It should at least be mentioned. and may 164). or T cross.

and make The or indirectly. 74. 73. ^Z. even by such well-known authoas Mr. the coins in .C.C.CHAPTER X. question.C. cross in question consists of the name Cossutiiis Maridiamis arranged as a cross of four equal arms. directly upon the history of the cross. appointed Flamen Dialis Pontiff B. M.. Military Tribune B. C. upon one of Julius Caesar who was B. it And W. cross we meet with on B. 87.A. ROMAN COINS BEFORE CONSTANTINE. let us two now pass in review the coins struck by the Romans. rities King. The C. Quaestor fex Maximus B. bear first is a note of such features as may. it should be noted that is admitted. and Dictator Ponti- B.C. 49.C. BEARING in the in mind the matters mentioned last chapters.C. 63. that the name was so arranged out of compliment 119 to the official .

have upon them representations of military standards bearing the Upon its another coin struck same symbol. we see a .C. ' Early Ckristian NiiiJiis)natics.— 120 THE NON-CHRISTIAN question because his stin.C 117 161) — 138). the almost B.C.^ CROSS. presenting a military standard. . equally famous Augustus (Consul R. tree Upon two coins of Antoninus Pius (A. 14).C. the banner is of which ornamented with a St. Two other coins of the same reign and about the same date. the ancient phallic symbol adopted by the followers of the prophet turies later.C. about twenty before our era. 138 we see the Sun-God Hercules plucking the around which the is Golden Apple from a traditional serpent coiled. head of the Sun-God Bacchus upon one side and on the reverse a Andrew's man cross. Emyears 29 — A. by Augustus we see a crescent with a star or radiate sun within horns. Muhammad cen- A similar symbol occurs upon the coins of Hadrian (A. 43. reference to the in name had meridian Upon peror a coin struck by Caesar's heir.

. The favourite legends are Vemts Victrix. and by Marcus Aurelius the — iSo). coins issued in the name 161 of Annia Pius.C. and . have upon them representations of Venus the Goddess of Love holding a round object which is admittedly meant for the Golden Apple. Other coins of Marcus Aurelius or his wife have upon them representations of Eternity as a female figure holding a round is object. and of the Goddess who represented (i) the Love of the two sexes and (2) the Female Jove Principle. and name of his wife Annia Faustina. in Galeria Faustina the wife of Antoninus (a. that symbol both of the Sun-God as (i) the bi-sexual Giver of Life and (2) the personification of the Male Principle. \z\ pnother coin of the same reign the SunHercules can be seen holding a round object which admittedly represents the Golden Apple. In some cases the round object surmounted by a Phoenix. Many . Venus Felix. Vernis Genetrix. Upon another coin holds a similar looking object.ROMAN On God COINS BEFORE CONSTANTINE. and of in one instance the infant phallic import and in Goddess of Love holds an wrapped swaddling clothes as well as the phallic apple.

cases surmounts it. A Victory in Apple Venus holding to the Golden in — that is a round object which be seen upon of Lucilla. while a child is stationed her feet. coins issued Upon On 193 a coin struck by Septimus Severus (a. — 211) we see Rome represented as a female figure with a shield at her side cross. arc nearly a dozen varieties upon which Venus . the such instances admitted have represented the Golden Apple — is to many sister coins issued in the name of Commodus. marked with a the Goddess of Upon for the a. Upon (a.C.t another coin we see Love holding a round object admittedly meant Golden Apple. by Caius Pescennius Niger a small round object surmounted by a Victory is to be seen in the hand of Jove. the coins issued in the the wife of the last name of Julia named Emperor.C. Among Domna. 180 — 192) some is. sometimes Jove and sometimes the Emperor holds a small round object. On the coins of Commodus (A.122 THE NON-CHRISriAN a coin struck CROSS. The legend is Vejius Genetrix.C. by Lucius Aurelius Verus is 160-169) that ruler to be seen holding a round object surmounted by a Victory.

In the reign of Elagabalus or Heliogabalus (a. Venus. 218 — 222) a coin was struck on which we o'^ see the Goddess Astarte. A crescent instances.C. several coins of Caracalla (a. Upon a coin of Trebonianus Gallus (a. 249 Maeonia. his wife Julia Aquilia Severa. occurs upon the reverse in some Upon 217) we others only. as 123 represented holding a round object. show us the object. to be seen holding a Victory Various coins issued Plantilla in the name of Fulvia the wife of Caracalla.C.— ROMAN is COINS BEFORE CONSTANTINE. and his wife Orbiana. we meet with the soof Christ " called " Monogram upon a Roman coin in the form ^ for the first time. Julia Mammaea the mother of Alexander Severus. On 251) a coin of the struck at Emperor Decius (a. Ashtoreth. 251 — . Ishtar. holding a Venus holding a round object is to be seen upon many coins issued in the names of Soaemias the mother of Elagabalus.C. Goddess of Love holding a round The legends are Vemis Felix and Venus Victrix. cross.C. 211 — see that round object surmounted by a Victory he is Emperor holding a small upon .

267 264) has upon its reverse a representation of the Sun- — — God holding a round object. A coin struck by Tetricus (A. 254 268) we see the Sun-God Apollo holding a cross.C.124 '^^E NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. and upon a coin issued by Gallienus (A. On a coin issued by Vabalathus we see the Sun-God Hercules holding a round object admittedly representing the Golden Apple. Upon we a coin of Numerianus (a. Many the of the coins of ancient Rome acclaim Sun-God as the Saviour. by Aurelianus we see the Sun-God holding a round object surmounted Upon a coin issued by a crescent.C. 283 — 284) see the Goddess of Love holding a round . while is in the field near the Sun-God a cross. is 254) Eternity represented as a female holding a small round object. Upon a coin issued by the younger Valerian we see the Sun-God holding a small round object. On another coin of this reign we see a Phcenix instead of a Victory upon the round object held by the Emperor.C. II. On a coin issued by Claudius we see the Sun-God Hercules holding a round object admittedly meant for the Golden Apple.

as nothing distinguishes the round from those held by Venus which represent fashion admittedly the Golden Apple. and the present the Coronation of our symbol is Orb or Imperial Apple later due II. Crescent accompanies the representations of the Goddess of Love. by Diocletian (a. Upon 284) we round several coins of Carinus (a.C.— ROMAN as this COINS BEFORE CONSTANTINE. small round object A Victory in some cases surmounts it. 9 . 282 see the Sun -God holding a small object. objects Such instances so surmounted should be specially noted. On as other coins of this reign Eternity appears a female holding a small round object sur- mounted by a Phoenix. wife of Carinus.C. 125 object surmounted by a Victory. coins issued On we see both Jove . 284—305) and the Sun-God liolding a like the Emperor himself. on which name of Magnia we see Venus the holding a small round object which admittedly represented the frequently Golden Apple. to the fact that a century Theodosius Emperor of Constantinople started the idea of substituting a cross for the Victory. Upon the coins issued in the Urbica.

upon a coin bearing In — the legend Herculi mvicto Aug. admittedly meant for the Golden Apple. A coin issued in the joint names of Galerius .God. — the Golden Apple is surmounted by a Victory. we see the latter represented as holding a round object. Apple plucked from the Tree On the reverse of another coin bearing the of Jove the All-Father names both and Hercules the Sun. the Gaul and father of Constantine the Great. issued A ruler coin by Constantius Chlorus. some cases where Hercules holds the Golden Apple for instance. in Sun-God Hesperides the Garden encircled the Tree by the Serpent he The Sun- God holds a round object representing a Golden in question. Among Emperor sentation the coins by Diocletian's co- Maximian. The Apple Hercules holding a round object which admittedly signified to be seen the Golden on other coins issued during issued is this reign. represents the Sun-God Hercules in the act of plucking a Golden Apple from the of famous Tree.126 THE NON-CHRISTIAN Sun-God is CROSS. of of the the one bearing a repreHercules near slew.

127 and Constantius Chloms. therefore before our era. It will also have been noticed in the how very large a number of signified cases round symbol Apple. which takes the place occu- by a star-like object not improbably representing the sun. has in the pied upon otherwise similar coins on the reverse side a cross. bearing the legend field Genio Populi Romaiii.ROMAN COINS BEFORE CONSTANTINE. a cross admittedly occurs as a symbol of the sun. Another point which the reader cannot very well fail in mind. The in reader will have seen that the symbol of the cross occurs several times upon the coins question. and which was a precursor of our Coronation Orb admittedly therefore the Golden was of to bear phallic import. The and fact that upon a coin of Julius Caesar. and in almost if not quite every instance in connection with the Sun-God. Such are the more striking features of the evidence which can be obtained from the Roman coins issued prior to the accession of Constantine to the throne of Gaul. is that where the Goddess of Love. will also have been remarked. as the representative of the sex whose felicity lies in motherhood or the .

usually to be seen but when the Christ is reprelying near him sented as a man. was at times surmounted by the figure of Victory for which Christian Emperors gradually and only gradually substituted the figure of the cross. or . seen carrying the is victorious production of symbol in question. the surrounding legend Victrix. in a picture which occurs upon a The Likeness of Christ. For instance a good example of the Christ holding the fruit of the Tree of Life the well is repro- duced for us in likeness of Jesus by the late known work on the Thomas Heaphy. ^ Here we see. . or or Felix. p. it is placed in his hand. is it curious to note that in early Christian repreis sentations of the Christ he often to be seen with the Apple or forbidden Life or of the fruit of the Tree of evil. If we also keep before us the that the Golden Apple whether held by the Sun-God or his complement the Goddess of Love. knowledge of good and is When the Christ in such cases depicted as a is youth. Venus Genetrix. 20.128 THE NON-CHRISTIAN life. is CROSS. some variation or other of the same and that the said fact legends are obviously phallic in signification. the phallic apple .

ROMAN glass in the COINS BEFORE CONSTANTINE. an side of illustration of the Christ standing by the the Tree of Life. and in phallic Apple. I And the fabulous bird in question was. object to be seen in the hand of upon innumerable Roman coins and popularly supposed to have always represented the round world it is at the upon which we dwell although same time believed that the world was not then considered to be round. . which cannot fail to have been noticed by the reader of the evidence from the coins of ancient earlier Rome is quoted in the part of this chapter. in the 129 ornament found Catacombs of Rome tomb of a Christian named Eutychia. It is self-evident that a representation less of the world we live on is likely to Life. J2>- . It Sun surround his hand is the will have been remarked that the round this or that ruler or deity. that in several instances a Phoenix and not a Victory surmounts the so-called orb. have been so placed than a symbol of A still more striking fact. frequently occurs in the hand of a female figure representing Eternity. For the story of the Phoenix City of the was derived from the Egyptian Sun. ^ Herodotus II. The rays of the the head of the Christ.

the Phoenix and its wonderful egg were not only connected with the Sun-God. being " I shall die in my " and shall multiply my days as the Phcenix according to some of the best authorities. 28. of the connected with the temple Sun-God at Heliopolis. the lifetime of the Phcenix as among them are one of 600 years.. AnnaL vi.' I30 THE NON-CHKISTIAN Tacitus as CROSS. as according to specially well Herodotus. Septuagint version oi Job xxix. It is also clear that. but also had a phallic signification." This is borne out by the periods spoken of as .461 years. Pliny. ^ Tacitus. who tells us that "The revolution of the Great Year in which the seasons and stars return to their former places. like the . the Great Year referred to by Josephus and others. Pliny. this point it Upon known nest may be added that the the famous story of the Phcenix seems to have been to the writer i8. agrees with the hfe of this bird. had reference as indeed we learn from. . The bird various ages allotted to this allegorical to the calendar .. X. 2.Victory and the Golden Apple it surmounted. which was the Sothic period of the Egyptians. of Job . and one of 1.

and caused themselves to be sented. is that we Christians are expressly taught that God the Father and God the Son are as nearly identical . though it may at times have more or less represented the world upon which we dwell. both the egg-like Cosmos or Universe in all.ROMAN COINS BEFORE CONSTANTINE.. viz. and need not be discussed here. life repre- upon Roman coins as receiving the Golden Apple. to whose favouring influence all earthly traceable. object Suffice it to say that the round which that Christian symbol the is descended. Life. and Eternity all. from the Sun-God. as the symbol of their authority. and upon Egyptian monuments as receiving the Cross. power whether finite or and above the basis infinite. seems to have primarily from Coronation Orb signified. It is therefore not surprising to find that the to rule monarchs of ancient days claimed by is divine right as vice-gerents of the Sun-God. Yet another point to be borne in mind. as to whether bird or egg 131 The problem first existed scarcely applies to the fabulous Phoenix and its equally fabulous egg. both the Golden Apple of Love and the Phoenixlike life principle enshrined in the Egg. but of all and through all. . as associated with each other in idea.

" ours as For though we Trinity. and without a counterpart in the theology of the ancients. and the Warmth and Light be " I . describe a co-equal no such the it identity with either Son is is affirmed of God God in the Father or the God Holy Ghost. and the emanations thererepresented as saying " from seen the Christ being and My Father are one and " He that hath Me hath seen the Father. which they deemed the Parent of things. both the First and the Second are represented as holding the so-called globe and Cross.132 THE NON-CHRISTIAN the ancients CROSS. an idea which did not find Christians is till much acceptance among paratively late date and a com- the outcome of conseparate personality entirely fused thought. and remarkable that our ancient illustrations of the Three Persons. is not. The fact is that the co-equality of the Holy Spirit of a God who is Himself. few if any Pagan any case. as Jesus deis clared. Central all as considered the Fire. a Spirit. Spirit And of a the of this Spirit being a Christian conception. while the Third. even where depicted as of human shape like the other two. issuing therefrom to or the Sun's disc . symbols such as the so-called globe and the cross would have been associated with it in .

this alleged vision of Constantine 133 is said to have . under the rays of a meridian sun (" About noo7i suddenly there shone from heaven a great light round about me.). the establisher of that faith as the State Religion of the empire in which Paul was so proud of his rights as a citizen. Vit." Acts xxii. it less in the habit of assuming that just as Paul. 6 "At mid-day'. the founder of the catholic by reason but as was converted. was in similarly rapid fashion converted by the appearmeridian /. not altogether were by force and with the rapidity of a flash of lightning. as has already been pointed out. . Const.' Acts xxvi.CHAPTER XL THE COINS OF CONSTANTINE. But. ance of a miraculous " cross " of light and an accompanying (" legend above a sun At viid-dciyl' Eusebius. so Constantine. 13). WE are more or faith.

the evidence of his coins conto shows that the God first whom Constan- from to last attributed his victories. and . is a significant one. indeed. was — the Sun-God. and during the remaining twenty-five years of his hfe he acted rather as if he were converting Christianity into what he thought most likely to be accepted by his subjects as a catholic religion. The to fact is that Constantine was favourable our religion out of policy rather than conand if after refusing so long he did viction . Anyway. and the surrounding legend Soli Invicto Comiti. with the right hand elevated toward the east. In the field is a cross widened at the extremities. coin issued Upon one by Constantine we see upon the reverse a nude figure crowned with rays. Rome in 312. consent to be baptised when ill and dying. This coin was struck years after the allesred conversion of Constantine.134 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. a quarter of a century after the alleged vision. taken place during his march upon the year A.C. and a round object in the left hand. policy doubtless swayed him even then. as has already been stated and will now be clusively tine seen. than as if he had been converted to the teachings of Jesus the Nazarene.

a coin with the anything but Christian legend Marti Conservatori. the combined reference to the I35 Sun-God and use of the cross are worthy of special notice.THE COINS OF CONSTANTINE. Upon two somewhat similar coins of Constantine the cross is placed within a circular wreath of bay or laurel. while in the field we see the Gaulish symbol. being Marti Patri Con- On a coin issued in the name of his son Crispus during the reign of Constantine. the helmet on the reverse ornamented with the so-called Monogram of Christ. . representing the Sun-God and carrying a round On object. On a somewhat similar coin with the same is legend. as turned into the so-called we shall Monogram see later on. we see two Victories holding a shield upon a pedestal marked with a cross of four equal arms. we see Mars leaning on a Upon shield adorned with the so-called Monogram another coin of Christ. of Christ. the legend servatori. another coin with the same legend we see the same nude figure crowned with rays. sometimes called a cross. is a cross with four Upon equal arms. which by the addition of a loop was.

between which the symbol of the On a somewhat similar coin the compound tau cross. Aug. On tus another coin surrounds two holding military standards. Some copied however. we an upon the coin reverse a cross of four equal arms. Upon form of a well-known engraving of a coin in the Annales Ecclesiastici of Baronius. authorities. . A appears upon a coin issued in during this reign of Constantine. similar place Such a dot can be seen in a upon two or three coins bearing the legend Gloria Exercisoldiers is the legend Virtus Exercit. with a dot representing a star near the top of the vertical bar. the name of another son Upon tinus a coin bearing the inscription Constansee Max. On ta7i otherwise similar a compound cross of four equal arms. cross. appears. the >^ the so-called Monogram of Christ appears upon the helmet of Constantine. occurs between the standards. of which we have already noted an example. >Jfl. state that this is what appeared on the helmet being the Gaulish symbol >}C as the familiar ^ in error .136 THE NON-CHRISTIAN similar cross CROSS.

Upon tinus Max. his son Constantine.. a of four equal arms spear and occurs near a soldier shield. Aug. the extremities of which are rounded. and between the the so-called Monogram Christ A coin of similar type was issued during the reign of Constantine the Great in the his son Constantine. In field is is the symbol The surrounding motto Aug. standards. -SL. On an otherwise similar coin the compound a coin bearing the inscription Constancross tau cross appears. coin issued during the reign of Constantine the Great in the name of has upon its reverse a cross of four equal arms. 137 A A cross of four equal arms appears upon a coin bearing the legend Pax Publica. armed with On the reverse of one coin military we see two of soldiers holding standards appears. we see upon the reverse Victory carrying a palm. Aug. Victoria Constantini Several coins with the legend Gloria Exercitus have upon the same side two soldiers with a .THE COINS OF CONSTANTINE. name of Upon the a coin which on the obverse bears the inscription Constantiniis Max.

Upon the banner three globules are embroidered. and on the surrounded by the legend Spes Publica. Aug. another coin bearing the same legend we upon the reverse Victory standing upon a and to the left the so-called monogram. Constantimis Max.. Upon obverse banner is the symbol coin On a bearing upon its the inscription Constantinopolis. and represents Constantine holding a in labarum a or military object. On see ship. >|C . standard the terminating round JL. In the field the Gaulish symbol The as reverse of another coin has the legend Constantinus Aiig. a labarum or military standard the handle or base of which transfixes a serpent. Upon another coin we see the same symbol the above wolf and twins of the city of Rome.. we see upon the other side a figure of Victory and a cross of four equal arms. A rare coin bears upon the obverse the in- scription reverse. upon the banner of which the symbol -p. 138 THE NON-CHRISTIAN standard is CROSS. and the . On we a coin with the legend Victoria Ccesar NN is see Victory carrying a palm.. labarum or military between them.

the Upon Aug. 139 appears above the cross-bar from Upon one medal see Atig.. another piece struck by Constantine the Sun-God is given the title Comes Companion. Great. D. surrounded NN. NN.. Soli Invicto Com. like. N. Other significant Sun-God legends to be met upon the coins of this alleged Christian Emperor. Soli Augg. inscribed or coin of Constantine we the significant legend Soli Invicto Aeterno around the quadriga of the Sun- God Phoebus. .N. symbol '^ which the banner hangs. several coins we see the legend Comiti by the same. or Saviour. On a coin with the les^end Pax Auzustoi'um. Guardian. Co7niti Soli Invicto. the Sun-God holding a small round object. are Comis Constantini Aug. of the . Emperor. is represented as holding a small round object. On Aug. the Sun-God and. THE COINS OF CONSTANTINE. and the Upon a coin bearing the legend Soli Comiti Aug. On numerous other coins also. we see the Sun-God presenting Constantine with a small round object surmounted by a Victory.

said to be a representation of On a coin issued in his own name. The same remark similar coin. A and coin with the inscription Divo Constantino. Constantine holds a standard ornamented with a cross. upon an altar Upon a somewhat ornamented with the altar is object which in days of old so often stood for the radiate sun. as others already mentioned as issued in the upon names of his sons. and on the reverse the legend Aeterna Pietas a representation of Constantine holding a round object surmounted by in the symbol of his after ^. to a somewhat in which has an additional symbol in a plain cross the field to the right of the Emperor-God. shield we see two Victories supporting a ornamented with a similar coin the star-like cross.140 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. Upon another coin Constantine is is to be seen holding what the Zodiac. that though usually included the coins Emperor was evidently applies struck death and deification. It should be noted that the question here as to arises how far it is fair of us to claim this cross and so-called Monogram of Christ as .

Guardian. This being that so. yet never as symbols of the Sun-God .THE COINS OF CONSTANTINE. need only be remarked once more that while upon many a of the pieces struck by him Constantine attributed his victories to the Sun- God. Christian 141 as to As to the coins of Constantine the Great as a it whole. and at the same time denounce Pagan the deification of Constantine referred upon the same coins. or Saviour. not upon attribute single one of them did he . Partner. and other forms of the cross. the them to the Christ while it was ever Sun-God and never the Christ whom he to alluded on his coins as his Companion. were ever placed upon his V coins by Constantine symbols of the ? Christ. the so-called how can we Monogram as honestly claim of Christ.

as the cross signified the sun. the surrounding legend.CHAPTER XII. coin A very similar has symbol y^ between the military standards. both this Christian Emperor and the Sun-God the former holding a small 142 round object. pASSING - on to the Christian successors of Great. the Sun-God as holding a small round object and. Claritas Reipiiblicae. its reverse a Cross if and a Crescent the in juxtaposition. fact Constantine the we are at once met with the significant the Second issued many a representation that Constantine different coins bearing of . and one which deserves special attention. ROMAN COINS AFTER CONSTANTINE. and . Upon another coin we see on the reverse . Another coin of has upon this son of Constantine the Great.

On another coin . while in the other hand he holds a small round object surmounted by a Phoenix. The reverse of another coin bears the same Sun-God legend. and represents the Sun-God as holding a small round object. being Sahis Aug.ROMAN the latter is COINS AFTER CONSTANTINE. Upon a Victory. the Sun. him. yet another Great. upon one side and upon the other the letters symbol >^ between the once again. issued a coin on which letters the symbol (? ^ the between the legend A and 12 APXO) . Nepotianus.. the reverse the symbol ^. as Nostri. son of Conis Constantius stantine the II. Constans Great. from which hangs a banner bearing the symbol ^ . is Constantius II.. another son a coin of Constantine the is issued on which he repre- sented as holding in one hand a simply formed labarum or military standard consisting of a straight pole terminating at the top in a crossbar. another coin we is see Constantine holding a small round object surmounted by On I. 143 crowning The surrounding legend Soli Invicto Comiti. a alpha and omega nephew of Constantine the .

364-378)..C. P surmounting Glo7'ia a surrounded by the Romanorum. see And upon the letter one coin of legend Emperor we cross . and of the Emperor holding a round object surmounted by a Victory. the round object surmounted legend being Victoria Augus378-395) On we the coins of Theodosius I. is a female figure killed as representing Rome and -f- holding in her hand • a round object surmounted by the symbol >^ frequently occurs upon the The symbol coins of Valeus this (A. This Emperor Theodosius I. Great A. better known as Theodosius the Great.C 350 but was an usurper the same year. as also of Victory holding a round object surmounted by a cross. we see Victory holding cross. a coin Valentinianus II. of a Upon by a torum. find representations of the Emperor holding a round object surmounted by a Phoenix. (A.C. surrounded by the legend Urbs Roma. after securing sole control of the Roman Empire brought about the final disruption of the world-wide dominions of Rome by bequeathing them in two portions . issued a coin on the reverse of which.144 THE NON-CHRISTIAN who took Rome in CROSS.

and the East. 475 between the was finally and 480.C. 145 to his sons Arcadius and Honorius the elder. II. as has been noted. Eastern Empire surviving it nearly a thousand years. Honorius. the symbol Eudoxia. and the coins of others.. while the younger. and often the centre of a circle or laurel. later. becoming Emperor of Constantinople Arcadius. 395 to the capture of Constantinople by II.. Theodosius >|C frequently. . And >Pr it need only be added that the symbols _£.C. Theodosius II. 395. 1453. upon Leo I. and the undisguised solar wheel. lasting as the latter did from the partition in A. Less than a century years A.. the Western Empire the extinguished by Odoacer . . Mahomet It in A. surmounted by a cross . became Emperor of Rome and the West A. (^.. upon the coins of an Emperor of the that East. instances of Victory carrying an object so surmounted had previously occurred.: ROMAN COINS AFTER CONSTANTINE. as stated in a previous chapter. viz.C. viz..C.. surrounded by a circular wreath of bay or continually occur upon the coins of the Eastern Empire. the first example occurs of a representation of an round object Emperor holding a though. was.

lead the unprejudiced enquirer to sion than that the cross any other conclubecame the symbol of and the Christendom because the advent of Constantine his Gauls made it a prominent symbol of Roman Empire. should be equally the reader. And that the symbol clear in question was not altogether unconnected with Sun-God worship. will be seen. coupled with fact that the only form of cross which could possibly be a representation of the instrument of execution to which the very last form Jesus was affixed was as of cross to be adopted it a Christian symbol. cannot. of the The evidence Empire given in Roman forgotten this and the two preceding the too-often chapters. to .146 THE NON-CHRISTIAN of the coins CROSS.

THE term ^ or so-called "Monogram at of Christ" —a )fC . like the X cross and the many varieties of right-angled crosses of four equal arms. as but variations of one and the same symbol to itself — deserves a chapter Though not first placed upon the coins of the Roman Empire by or the so-called St. which has one time or another been applied to each of the symbols ^ . the symbol >^ was. it Roman would ruler symbol by the Emperor From the evidence at our disposal first appear that Decius was the 147 Roman . THE MONOGRAM OF CHRIST. first brought into prominence as a in question. Constantine any more than was the right-angled cross of four equal arms Andrew's cross. and ® ® or or -f-.CHAPTER XIII.

250 and therefore more than half a century before the days of Constantine. and the occurs in the centre of a Greek of the surrounding a representation . as an amalgamation contraction of the two viz.: 148 THE NON-CHRISTIAN of this CROSS. lies Romains. uncertain and the arose or as an question arises as to whether the as a contraction of such ^ first Greek letters. symbol as has already been remarked. struck at Mseonia J about A. X. Sun-God Bacchus or letters equivalent to and. or P^^^ the Greek P (our K) as the of the Greek name for Rome. letters Roman X Moreover ^ if it be decided that the symbol An engraving of the coin can be seen in Duruy's Histoire vii. it And is noteworthy that it was as a Pagan symbol that the coinage. Tom. should . ^ thus first appeared upon the Roman " The coin in question Monogram of Christ " inscription is a bronze one.C. the Greek letters P and is. a coin of the >^ occurs upon Emperor Decius . Greek our ^ R and C H. . however. apparently. amalgamation of the as the cross initial letter P and X. of the so-called to make use Monogram of form Christ. Why these particular letters have been contracted. this Anyhow.

. certain varieties of Bockh.THE MONOGRAM OF CHRIST. for instance. according to our Church. and an eagle bearing the in its claws upon the ^ other. the Christ caused Constantine to use it as the military standard its of the Gauls. which dates era. Before going into such matters as these. it is important that we should fully realise it how even its certain is that the so-called Monogram For of Christ was originally a if this Pagan symbol. Also upon the coins of Ptolemaeus on one of which is a head of Zeus Ammon upon one side.I. C. it is clearly shown by occurrence upon many relics of pre-Christian date. ^ 4713 b. of Jesus for instance upon n. 2 The symbol in question also appears upon Greek money struck long before the birth . ^ Mother of the from the second century before our . arose as a contraction . the Sun-God. : yet further questions arise in what order those letters first were first read. The Virgin so-called " seen. and what word / they represented. of certain viz. be not considered demonstrated by occurrence upon a Roman coin long before.G. however. first 149 letters. Monogram of Christ " can be upon a monument of Isis. Berlin Collection 428.

the the tetradrachma. was that actually carried by the Gauls in triumph within the walls of Rome and set up by is Which form their leader in the heart of the Eternal City. Christ The the probability that Christians had the at least drawn attention symbols in to this possible interpretation of question this before scarcely days of less Constantine. -^ occurs first upon many coins of the Herod.ISO THE NON-CHRISTIAN Attic CROSS.C. is Ckristos. or cross. uncertain. of solar wheel. monogram. symbol of the Gaulish the wheel (^ their or 0. Almost equally uncertain is the date at which we as Christians Christian as first adopted these Pagan symbols because they could be first symbols interpreted formed of the two letters of the Greek word XPISTOS. struck thirty years or more originally Whether the Pagan had the same ^ and the Pagan -E. sooner or later altered by leader ^ or © to please the Christians while the symbols ^ and -EL were also made use of by Constantine. was into . that the warriors. renders noteworthy the favourite solar shown further on. But it is clear that as . not quite certain. But fact. is signification or not. different And B.

" ' ' Strange Survivals^ 286. both the i^ and the -f- 151 appeared upon coins struck before our era. that well known writer the Reverend S. That there was poHcy in his conduct we the symbol he set up gratified the hardly doubt on Christians in his army on one side and the Gauls For the former it was a sign compounded of the other. when he favoured the addition of a loop to the top of the vertical or >jc and bar of the Gaulish solar symbols or + (J) in order that v/hat his Gaulish army venerated as triumphal tokens might be accepted as symbols of victory by his Christian supporters also.A. For. . to the latter it was the . amongst venerated by his troops. M. referring to the solar wheel as a symbol of the Sun-God venerated by the ancient Gauls. of the favour of the solar deity.THE MONOGRAM OF CHRIST. token the initial letters of Christ. is others. the symbol or admitted by. Constantine this author tells us that " Adopted and adapted the sign for his standards. and symbols for the reason named. Baring Gould. Constantine cannot very well have been ignorant of the fact that these were originally Pagan symbols. That this Gaulish monarch did so alter. and Christian the Labariim of Constantine became a common can symbol.

and that if the -p. we see at once that the monogram may have been derived . As >P: and -^ were in use as symbols before the commencement of the so-called in " our era thoroughly disposes of our contention as Christians that its Monogram formation letters of Christ" had origin the of a monogram out of the two first of the it Greek word other origin.152 THE NON-CHRISTIAN the fact that both the CROSS. the two to have arisen as a combination of the Greek letters P and X let us in passing briefly V enquire into the origin of the so-called Mono- gram of Christ as If we seek for that the first a Pagan symbol. the moment assume the letters P and X to have occurred in the same order as in that word. and the same signification. origin as a combination of two letters of some other Greek word and for than Christos. ^ ^ . as these would be very considerable assumptions. XPIST02 {Christos. is clear that these symbols must have had some and J^ had Assuming that the symbols same origin. Christ. more or less confining as the more likely of our attention to the the .was a combination of two letters the Greek or Latin T (instead of X) was not one of them or rather. Christ).

e. or the word Chrusos. the word Gold. spoken of as the Golden age when the ancients were to referring what they pictured It will as the good old times. and representative a word in in which they occur in the same order -f-. y There nection question. by the way. Good. If we suppose that the so-called monogram ' e. And the fact that in the not also in the >^ the P is the leading feature. to assume that first the symbol we are considering arose as a comof. if not do. as if Christos. they were of necessity taken from. however. the Old Father from descended whom we in are all —was identical with Saturn. as eclogue. . ^ And . bination of the Greek letters P and X.. 153 from the word Chrestos.g. XPONOS. Mundi.. another curious conthe three between Greek spelt words in For the name of the famous god Kronos or Cronos was often i.THE MONOGRAM OF either CHRIST. or Chronos. Chronos. Arist. this god Chronos —the father of tion of Zeus and more or less a personifica- Time. is. gives emphasis to the point in question. Virgil's while the fourth Saturnian ever Age that was. Time.

the latter some form or other being an This title was that given of the title Archoji. Chief. as will be seen. to the dignitary who was at one and the same time the chief magistrate of the state and its letter forming the PX abbreviation of chief priest. last are. the student to note that of such matters can scarcely fail the letters in question occur in that order as the centre both of the or First . the Head. the only remaining first letters of which. be first. arose as a combination of the Greek letters in question occurring in the order P X. it In this connection that according to should be pointed out the coin. Alpha and Omega. as and it may be worth remark that Bacchus was the deity worshipped in Lydia. and also as the centre of the kindred to word APXO. word APXH. the either letters so continually placed on side of the symbol ^ in Christian times. . should be taken with that of APX. and therefore the and the of this word as of the old Greek alphabet. first ^ some of the best authorities which occurs upon any Roman it coming as as does after the letter alpha in a Greek inscription.154 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. the Archon in question would therefore have been the chief priest of the Sun-God.

and gone so so-called as to assume that the existence of the monogram of Christ upon this coin of the Emperor Decius is due to some Christian having been employed in turning out the coin in question. But though gravely supported by more than one great authority.THE MONOGRAM OF CHRIST. that. Several writers i55 have. there is as a combination of two Greek the It R no proof that letters . seventh. we have next even if to note the symbol letters. as before hinted. and had for centuries been in in this instance as a Pagan symbol. arose and the symbol m. however. outrun their discretion. in their zeal for our far religion. and having in his zeal surreptitiously introduced a symbol of his faith. . Passing on. arose as a combination of two ^^ though we know (our that symbol to have been often used as a contraction of the Greek letters P and X it and CH). this is obviously an absurd position to take up. And in any case the facts remain that it was placed over a representation of use the Sun-God.ay have arisen as a combination of Roman letters P and X. in should therefore be pointed out that the inscriptions which have come down to us from and the Gaulish Christians of the sixth.

signifying Rome.are continually used as contractions of Peace. the symbols >^ and -E. All the foregoing references to the origin of V the so-called monogram as a Pagan symbol of for certain.C. the Latin word PAX.156 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS.. eighth centuries afier Christ. pre-Christian date. arose as a Pagan symbol centuries such a possibility should be kept before us. into being as a combination of two letters Greek. centuries For though the can by no means it fact that the Monogram was A. Its origin cannot be ascertained . less variations ^ these being obviously the natural ways of adding the letter P.C. as a symbol of Life and of the Sun-God. or otherwise Even symbol not certain. often so interpreted by Christians it be considered evidence that first was thus that B. Such account an for explanation the more or and -f. for this pre-Christian may originally have been a cross. are but speculations however. plus the Greek letter P word " Rome " as in the initial character of the called the court what may be would language^of the time. this is Roman. to the crosses X and -f- respectively. But did the so-called first Monogram ? of Christ come .

and when ornamentation ecclesiastical our properties we the omit the cross circle we as often as not make the itself wheel-like by rounding till ex- tremities and widening them they nearly meet. accept as therefore who induced the Christians to the Monogram of the Christ. Moreover II it should not be forgotten that it . And.THE MONOGRAM OF CHRIST. so used should not blind us to the facts that centre of a circle. traceable. as has been shown. are. like it was at first usually the wheel and that the undisguised the spokes of a it . while since his reign the solar wheel solar wheel ® ® and many an of artistic variation of the same in have been Christian symbols. however. the as a Gaulish symbol of Solar Wheel venerated of Christ by the Gaulish conquerors of Rome. they Constantine. Nowadays is the so-called Monogram almost always reproduced for us as >^ or -Ebut the fact that Constantine sometimes . and as well as a Christian victory. and the prominence given upon the coins are traceable to Roman Empire. The of the revival I57 of this pre-Christian to it symbol. appears upon not a few of the coins issued by the Christian successors of Constantine.

158

THE NON-CHRISTIAN

CROSS.
solar
to

was evidently one form or other of the
wheel
of
its

the

Gauls, phis the

politic

loop

one of
the

spokes, which

Constantine and his

Gaulish warriors are said to have seen above

meridian

sun,

with

the

divinely written
this

legend

EN

TOYTi:!

NIKA, By

conquer,

attached.
is

For though that miraculous symbol

referred to as a " cross," the

Monogram

itself

was so

referred to

;

and Eusebius,

after telling

us that the Christ appeared to Constantine and

commanded him
for the

to make a military standard Sun-God worshipping Gauls, " With the

same
letters

sign which he

had seen

in the

heavens,"
"

expressly describes this as composed of
indicating

Two

the

name

of the Christ, the

letter

P being

intersected with

X

at the centre."

And on
as

this particular

Labarum of

Constantine,

on the majority of the Labara represented
his
coins, the

upon
wheel.
/

^

was the centre of a

circle or circular
^

wreath, like the spokes of a

In

any case the
it

fact that the

symbol

>p:
is

was
said

a Pagan one centuries before the Christ
to

have made

a Christian one for the

Sun-God

'

Bar.

Ann.

A.C. 312.

THE MONOGRAM OF CHRIST.
worshipping

159

Gauls

to

follow

on

to

victory,

coupled with the facts that they are said to

have seen
it

it

above the mid-day sun, and that
politic

was admittedly a

adaptation

of the

Solar Wheel, show us
other Christian

how much Eusebius and
both invented and
largely the influence

chroniclers

suppressed, and also

how

of

Sun-God worship permeated and moulded
In
this

our religion.

connection

it

may
as

be

noted,

as

a

curious

fact

rather than

evidence, that ac-

cording to some authorities the so-called

grams of Christ were
of
the

in earlier

ages

MonoMonograms

Sun-God Osiris. ^ Also that both Socrates and Sozomen tell us that when the temple of the Sun-God Serapis at Alexandria was pulled down, the symbol of the Christ was discovered upon its foundations and the Christians made many converts in consequence a somewhat significant statement. Moreover we are told that upon every Dies Soils, or in other words upon that day of the week which throughout the Roman Empire was held sacred to the Sun-God and throughout
:

^

Basnage,

iii.,

23.

i6o

THE NON-CHRISTIAN
is

CROSS.

Christendom

called

Sun-day,

Constantine

made

his

troops, assembled under what was

admittedly a solar symbol, recite at a given time, which was probably dawn or mid-day, a prayer

commencing " We acknowledge thee alone, and own that our victories
thy favour."
but the
^

to be

God

are

due to

Who

could this

God have been

Sun-God

Sun-God, seeing that it was to the that Constantine upon his coins ever
his

attributed

victories?

And what
by

is

more

likely than that, wishing to take a friendly view

of the deity worshipped
Christians,
it

their supporters the

was as conceiving the Christ to be

but the latest addition to the many conceptions of the Sun-God, that Constantine altered the
solar

symbols of
of

his troops

into

the

so-called

Monograms

Christ,
?

and

that

his

troops

accepted the alterations

And, passing from the symbol represented, let us remember that
bore upon them
the

to the deity
it

is

recorded

that various Christian paintings of ancient times

dedicatory words

DEO

SOLI.
"

For

this
"

remarkable legend means both

To God

alone

and

"

To
Vi(.

the Sun-God," both

'

Eusebius,

Const,

iv.

"

THE MONOGRAM OF CHRIST.
"

i6i
;

To

the Sole
forcibly

God

"

and

"

To
not

the

God

Sol

and

reminds

us,

only

of

the

prayer which Constantine caused his troops to
repeat,
"

but also of
"

that

fine

address to the

universally adored
"

Sun-God commencing
because
in

Latium

calls thee Sol

honour thou

art Solitary,

After the Father."'

Now, as will be shown further some description or other was
accepted
as

on, a cross of
in

every land
universally

the

symbol

of

the

adored
one
of

Sun-God.
the

And

while

not

a
the

single

many books

forming

New

Testament states that Jesus was executed upon a cross-shaped instrument, and the first crosses

C

hristians used as signs or

symbols bore every

form but that which a cross-shaped instrument
of execution would have borne, the Christians

of the fourth century, as
out of their

we have
even
;

seen,

went

way

to

claim

the so-called

Monogram
relates

of Christ as a cross
of
it

Eusebius so

carefully speaking

as such even

where he

that

Constantine and his soldiers saw

'

Martianus Capella.

it above the meridian sun.i62 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. . that one might not it unreasonably imagine him to be claiming as ^/ Christian because it was more or less cruciform and therefore more or less like the world-wide symbol of the Sun-God.

THE CROSS OF THE LOGOS. that the 163 . HAVING his made the clear the part played in by Constantine lifetime to in the prominence given the cross as a symbol of Roman Empire and its what he made also shown that State Religion.CHAPTER XIV. associate it with the such. in which that So -reat was the veneration the cross was held in phallic and solar symbol of the birth and death the ages which preceded even philosophers of those days Jesus. and having therefore of are chroniclers of those days while the Christian of crosses various forms silent concerning the upon his coins they went placed by Constantine allude to the so-called out of their way to to claim it as Monogram of Christ as a cross. sun. let and even to us now turn our attention agam to the pre-Christian cross.

went SO far as to declare that the cross was the figure of the Life or Soul of the Universe. ^ by the Sun " and a per- Light of the World of the ' being. incarnate in As the Logos of God in (or. as sonification Thought and Speech of the De Sonuiiis. became about the year specially incarnate in 4 the person of Jesus the Nazarene. the Word of God) was philosophers called the the " " Intellectual ". it is a matter of very Christians for considerable or we some reason conceived other ignore the fact that long before our era commenced \/ figure philosophers thus the of the cross to be the symbol of the Gospel of Logos of God. Speech. we ought not to forget that. Philo. i. the Authorised and will be.164 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS.C. was created and that exists sustained. although. every sentient being. as Version of the Bible into English most inadequately renders it the first chapter of St. really the Thought phis B. of God. the Logos in any case ever was. we have made a main article of our belief that the Logos. Though importance. being the one Power by which all that all ever came into existence is is. following the it St.g. e. . John's Gospel. Now John.

" an even more than the the emanations of the physical sun." God ten " and as God's Plato says Beloved Son. the " Light the Cosmos the fact that pre-Christian philosophers affirmed " that the cross was the is symbol of the said Light of the Cosmos. All-Father.' THE CROSS OF THE LOGOS." and "First-Begot"). where. That pre-Christian philosophers did be seen by turning to the Thnceus of Plato. so affirm." "Mediator. Such was the whole plan of the Eternal God about God that was to be and in the centre he put the soul which he diffused throughout the body and he made the Universe a circle moving in a circle. referring to the begetting of the Universal Soul tian (whom Philo." "Ambassador. 165 a personification in of Wisdom and real sense Reason (which. " . . as the original text it. form Light of the World. speaks " of as the " " Second Image." every writer obviously one which concerning the cross as a Christian symbol ought in com- mon can honesty to deal with. of of New Testament puts "). another pre-Chris- philosopher. Having these purposes in view he created the world a blessed the : — : — God : —he made the soul on this wise —^joined — at the centre like the letter X-" ' Ti/ncetis." the or. 34-36.

were God more that or less derived from pre-Christian philosophers. Whereas Plato. One of these is called the circle of the Same and one the circle of the Different."^ And that " another place this famous Father states Son of God. For the Equinoctial Circle does not cut the Zodiac at right angles. Proclus wrote as follows " Two circles will be formed. we find Justin Martyr remarking Plato declared that " The Power in the shape of the letter next to the Supreme God was figured in X upon the universe. Such therefore in short is the mathematical discussion of to the figure of the (Universal) Soul. or rather of the Equinoctial Circle and of the Zodiac.1 66 THE NON-CHRISTIAN this CROSS. = Apol. of which one is interior but the other is exterior. Plat. or of the Fixed and of the Variable. like the letter Same about Hence we conceive that the right lines are not to be applied to each other at right angles but Xj as Plato says. Concerning pronouncement of the great Teacher he so revered. so as to cause the angles be equal only at the summit but those on each side and the successive angles to be unequal. . philosophising about the ^ Theol. The circle of the Different revolves about the Zodiac. but the circle of the the Equinoctial." ^ Even the Fathers of the and of the For Christian Church admitted that their ideas of the Son of cross being his symbol.

X ' the "Logos" to or "First-begotten" of God in preference • the + may because does the zodiac or pathway of the Sun equator at right it not "cross" a the solar angles. he evidently took of the and and made the sign of the cross who took brass and declared that it olaced it by the holy tabernacle." ' The that its value of all this evidence is so obvious mere parade is almost pointed out that this It should however be by the t)eing avowedly adopted cross the symbol of pre-Christian philosophers as sufficient. is admittedly a worthless the solar This claim of Justin Martyr that cross of the philosophers was a pre-Christian Apol. was clearly symbol. ment so shaped. . Justin Martyr careful to solar cross as a symbol of the no one upon an instruclaims that Jesus was executed that St.THE CROSS OF THE LOGOS. And is be added that though claim this particular Christ. while the story was affixed to an instrument of exe- Andrew cution legend. 167 upon the universe in the shape says God expressed him the hint from Moses letter X. so shaped. and believe they would people would look upon that cross be saved.

CROSS. is. significant of much. as a life-giving symbol from time immemorial.1 68 THE NON-CHRISTIAN Christ. . any kind of cross. in symbol of the connection with when considered that the fact nearly all the Fathers allude to the figure of the cross.

THE PRE-CHRISTIAN CROSS THAT is widely the symbol of the cross was before our era. in Of those days we know next to nothing.CHAPTER XV. And it is noteworthy cross is to the that both of it and the solar several the earliest wheel occur upon British coins. venerated in Europe long well known Britain to archaeologists. IN EUROPE. history being subject and relics almost silent conspicuous by their absence. whether issued as some say of aver after. which before. upon the The however a conspicuous feature upon to date back certain funeral urns which are said period in question. Julius were in Evidences of the veneration of the cross are so numerous and France before our era 169 . or as others Caesar. the advent admittedly of pre-Christian date.

la Saussaye. For upon in a very large proportion of the articles discovered in the ancient tombs of the cemetery question. continuing our journey eastwards. that will only be necessary to refer the reader to the Collection Roujoii^ the pages of the Revue de Ntunis^natiqiie. a cross of some kind can be is the prominent feature. Particulars of these articles found recorded in the literary and scientific journals of France. Let us take for example the evidence fur- nished by the remarkable discoveries made in the pre-Christian cemetery unearthed at Gola-Secca. the And the conclusion arrived at by upon such matters cannot be better put than in the revised edition in book form of an article in the Revue Archeologique authorities by Monsieur G. relics After referring to the of so much of . De Saulcy. and other French If. Lambert. we pass over the border into the northern provinces of Italy. we find equally striking evidence of the pre-Christian veneration of the symbol in question. de Mortillet. and the writings of Messieurs De E.I70 THE NON-CHRISTIAN it CROSS. Lenor- mant. authorities. easily ascertainable.

a subject he takes leave of in the words — j \ " But the pre-Christian cult of the cross was not confined to Savoy and the environs of Lyons. crossing the frontier and dealing with the said tombs of Gola-Secca near Milan in Italy. A glance at the coins of ancient Gaul is sufficient to show that it / existed in nearly every part " M. Switzerland.C. all The Lake Dwellings of Switzerland may be said to have been brought to light by the extraA. The cult of the cross was well spread over Gaul before its conquest and already existed in Emilia in the Bronze Age. sums up as follows " One sees that there can be no doubt whatever concerning the use of the cross as a religious sign for a very long time before Christianity. more than a thousand years before Jesus Christ.CHRIS TIAN CR OSS IN E UR OPE. Here also we find unexceptional evidence of the general recognition of the cross before our era as a symbol which should above others be venerated. ancient Gaul as is 1 1 7 comprised in modern France.— THE PRE. for though piles and ancient remains were found upon the shores of various lakes ." Let us pass on to yet another country. ordinary drought experienced in the years 1853-4. de Mortillet.

are not improbably 4. to record the fact that these relics are admittedly pre-Christian. Upon the articles in question. dies for dis- stamping covered articles with the cross have been among the remains of the are of three Dwellers. no great heed till was paid them the drought in question lowered the waters of the lake of Zurich and of other lakes to an unprecedented extent.000 some authorities — Monsieur Morlot for instance — estimating their age at from 6. Even Lake kinds .000 years old. These relics. placed upon those Dwellers relics by this forgotten race of hoary antiquity as the sign they venerated. And. (i) And the crosses the . preserved for us by the sediment carried into the lakes by various rivers. and of salvation.000 years. cannot be less than 3. may quite possibly be 5. and certain discoveries due thereto led to the matter being thoroughly by antiquarians.000 years old. of good omen. as on those discovered in the pre-Christian tombs of GolaSecca. to before that date.172 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. and years old . was that many relics of the Lake were found. the cross is stamped as a symbol of life.000 Suffice it to 7. was the symbol of investigated The result the cross.

though. Birdwood Male that the right handed Svastika signifies the journey from East Principle. The names Fylfot and Svastika are very generally applied to both these symbols. 173 right-angled cross of four equal arms. and (3) the Fylfot The ties. THE PRE-CHRISTIAN CROSS IN EUROPE. For instance we are told by Sir G. of which one obviously an impression or reverse view of the other. (2) the other cross of four equal arms. are used as Christian symbols. Light and Life. The term Svastika. are. last named cross . also like them. and that the signifies the left- handed Svastika the Sun in Hades or the Underworld on 12 Female Principle. . is however applied by the inhabitants of Hindostan to one only they calling the other Sauvastika. some enclosed in circles and some with the extremities widened and rounded. the reverse or negative or complement of each other. known as the St.. like the symbols allied in nature. its . Andrew's cross or Chi cross or Svastika cross. is a peculiar one of quite varie- unmistakeable design and there are two is UC and ftj . of which so many variations. the Sun on its daily to West. an Indian one. And it is curious to note that the meanings attached to these names.

and represented the latter only in a minor sense and owing to the Life negative.i West to East. complement of the Male Principle . and that between the Autumnal Equinox and Vernal Equinox Darkness and Death.. ^ Report on the Old Records of the India Office.174 THE NON-CHRISTIAN from CROSS. Darkness and This more or be taken as a less official pronouncement mayalthough it fairly accurate one. journey Death. will have some difficulty in seeing how a sign or symbol of the Female Power of Generation can have signified Death. just as clearly as do the half days between sunrise and the half year between the Vernal sunset. referred Equinox to and Autumnal Equinox representing Light and Life. X. xi. [891. . sunset and sunrise. But it is to be feared that even those who remember how often Death and Darkness are referred to as periods of Gestation. or fact that the Female Principle of was regarded as the necessary reverse. is obvious that the annual as well as the diurnal movement of the Sun should have been . The fact of course is that the symbol in question represented both Life and Death. London.

us now consider the evidence At Mycenae and elsewhere discovered. giving impressions of such crosses thus demonstrating the how large and prominent a in symbol of the cross played times pre- Christian among those in whose classic . some extent signified and Water Fire being of course the Male Principle. Day. of Greece. to be considered the starter of was the one more It particularly identified with Life and therein fore with the vernal Sun-God. and Switzerland. and having already dealt with the lands now known let as Britain. would to also appear that the two symbols Fire question . 1 75 having of the two the better claim life. Italy. Schliemann among other relics of a bygone age. and Life and Water the Female Principle. This still further illustrates the point dealt with above for though Water is . not only articles marked with the Svastika cross and the cross of four equal arms. yet Fire cannot produce Life without the aid of Water. Light. Returning however to our consideration of the cross as a symbol of Life of pre-Christian date and origin. but even and part dies seals . France. . which latter. Summer. the negative of Fire. Dr.THE PRE.CHRIS ITAN CR OSS IN E UR ORE.

and as. like both bodies and the tombs which are enclosed them. have gone to remarkable. dust. these discoveries. and the remains of the Lake Dwellers of Switzerland. Schliemann found golden crosses in the previously unopened Mycenae in .176 THE NON-CHRISTIAN earliest CROSS. it would only have been with the would have been bodies of important personages that crosses of so valuable a material as gold buried. tongue the known copies of the Christian Scriptures were written centuries later. It is also remarkable that Dr. most And they entirely corroborate the testimony borne by the coins of ancient Gaul. . tombs he discovered and explored as at many as five such crosses having V instances been placed with a single sealed some body by question centuries those who up the vaults in thousands before the of years ago and many era. the contents of the tombs of Gola-Secca. any unrifled As few moreover. commencement of our if tombs of so ancient a date have been discovered in Greece and first explored by a trustworthy investigator. and by this time. coupled with the self- evident material fact that crosses of more perishable may have been the buried with the bodies of less distinguished people.

for if unexpected them. .77 paid long before our era by to the veneration the cross as the inhabitants of Europe to the recognised symbol of Life. rise from one life were or were not unFor whether the ancients in the resurrection philosophic enough to believe atoms are contmually of bodies whose constituent form part of other bodies.EUROPE. from of the glorious hope considered from a we derive that life. even so we who only the Giver of Life and may. the reasoning minds what has been common to women of all eras. Life-to-come. a with us. changing it is a. whether rise of view sinks but to daily or yearly point lives to the owe our brief aaain. like Sun-God. of suffering men and us disingenuous on the part of It is equally notebackground the to keep in the label as Christian Christians worthy fact that even in pre-Christian ages the symbol of that hope was—the cross. but whom that as the Sun. as it was with Moreover it is to hope. THE PRE-CHRISTIAN CROSS IN . Nor as the symbol only of the life also which ends in the grave. and it is disingenuous and to claim as ours what was pre-Christian. Saviour. to another.>d in time did not at times absurd to assume that they and dwell upon a hopedlike ourselves conceive and improbable.

we a find that not only have the two varieties of Svastika crosses for thousands of years played prominent part as of a religious symbol in Hindostan. and we are told that the oldest of after the rock-hewn caves were planned It is also same in figure. we pass on into Asia. concerning some of which Sir A. THE PRE-CHRISTIAN CROSS IF. well-known that isolated stone are to crosses of pre-historic date be seen various parts of India. The evidence of Hindostan is however out- weighed by that obtainable from the antiquities of Western Asia. Thibet. and China. Layard wrote : 178 . but that other kinds crosses also were in bygone ages is venerated by their inhabitants. IN ASIA. like those of Christendom in later days. in the shape of a cross its . H. For instance our Eastern Empire with the remains of ancient temples strewn built.CHAPTER XVI. leaving Europe.

ii. frequently occurs upon the ancient coins of Western Asia and was not improbably more or less akin in signification The fact that to the crux ansata of Egypt. now the the symbol of the planet held sacred to Goddess of Love. a long handled such as is frequently to be seen in our pictorial representations of John the Baptist. where it occurs in the cross of the goddess in question. upon very ancient remains still existing the Baal is represented as crowned with a wheel-like nimbus of rays should also be mentioned. Baal or Sun-God and that the circle and cross. 213. . is found the ivories of in the sculptures of Khorsabad. that the Bride of the Sun-God — a cross was also associated with the Phoenician . the tau or sign of life. was. 179 crux ansata. was a cross. ^ Nineveh. or Ishtar. The cross more especially connected with the " Phoenician " Bride of the Sun-God in ancient days. Ashtoreth. on Nimroud— which as I have shown are of the same age— carried too by an Assyrian King. as can easily be seen upon reference hand to ancient coins." ' We have also to note the equally significant facts that the recognised symbol of the Phoenician Goddess of Love— Astarte.THE PRE-CHRISTIAN CROSS IN "The ASIA.

nothing to do with a cross. concerning Jesus. birthday of John the and upon the day which the same relation to the other if solstice as birthday of Christ. John the Baptist. as holding if it be not that while Jesus was its supposed ascension. may be Church and its (2) that the Christian framing calendar fixed as the upon what we bears the Midsummer day Baptist.i8o THE NON-CHRISTIAN the CROSS. pause to consider the question Christians represent why we who had a cross . thus placed the days begin to lengthen. to represent the Sun in annual John in its was supposed to represent ? the Sun (i) annual declension What of other facts. Baptist was an Asiatic and to pre-Christian Asiatic. rational explanation have but we the that John with is represented as saying that he baptised baptise with water fire that Jesus rains V would (where the of winter referred to) in call and the heat of summer . far some extent a without in we can the wandering very from matter hand. " He must increase but I must decrease"? . As John here. as that other remarkable wishing to illustrate pronouncement of John where thus placed at the point where the days begin to shorten.

quarters. prominent for feature of our religion instance. the Day of the Sun. Sun then crosses the supported by evidence from all is And if we refuse to admit that that the Christianity is permeated with the ideas of Sun-God worship. another such as. we not only have no rational explanation to offer of the prophecies put by the Evangelists in the mouth of John the with Baptist to the eftect that Jesus would baptise none to fii^e and would increase. For to aver day of rest not the seventh . but also offer of many . the day which from time held sacred throughout the Roman Empire as Dies Solis. i8i probability that to Life. in particular is due to the fact that at the Vernal Equinox the the Sun-God fruits " crosses " summer and fact of the earth and therefore salvation and increase being due to the Equator. that of its] original significa- Salvation was added to the cross as a recognition of the fact that the salvation of Earth-Life in general and of Mankind to save. all the the fact that while pretending to reverence Ten Commandments we of breaking one of deliberately make a point them in order to keep as a day but the immemorial was first.THE PRE-CHRISTIAN CROSS IN The tion of ASIA.

. ' e. Moreover. Professor Rawlinson . Returning however it to the matter more is particularly in hand. &c. others be venerated. as all visitors to our museums should be aware. . should be pointed out that the crux ansata mentioned by Layard not the only kind of cross to be found upon the relics of ancient Babylonia and Assyria. but purposely rose from the underworld on the Day of the Sun.A. i82 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. &c. the monarchs are represented as wearing in the place of honour round their neck and on this their breast. M. or as best signifying their power over the position as lives of their subjects and to their is vice-gerents of all the Sun-God. For the cross of four equal arms and the solar wheel are also to be met with. as of a we do that Jesus was not made the subject Sun-God allegory.. C. And worn by the kings centuries before our era as the symbol which should above all cross. a Maltese cross. at the time of the Vernal Equinox. W. only ourselves ridiculous.g.^ . in order to annul a commandment make previously laid in down by God is and substitute a new one to silence. Early Christian Numismatics King. admitted by the best authorities have been the sign and symbol of the Sun-God.

IN THE PRE-CHRISTIAN CROSS AFRICA. The connection between the crux and the Sun-God in the minds 1 8:? the .CHAPTER XVII. As Egyptian end cross to who enquires into in the the matter in thorough going fashion. being symbol both ansata of of Life and of the Giver of Life. PASSING the Nile/ on to Africa and a consideration ' of the crux ansata or so-called Key of we find that this variety of cross had it much the same significance attached to by the ancients as had the more widely a matter of fact no one acquainted with antiquities accepted varieties. can fail to be convinced that the Egyptian was a and phallic the sexual symbol having reference powers of generation and to therefore a the Sun.

1

84

THE NON-CHRISTIAN
Land

CROSS.
in

inhabitants of the
Christian days,
illustration
is

of the Nile

pre-

very clearly set forth
in

by an
of
dis-

of Khuenaten
gifts

the

act

tributing

to

his
I.,

courtiers

which
J.

faces

page

40,

volume
"

of

Sir

Gardner

Wilkinson's

Manners

and
IV.

Customs of the

Ancient

Egyptians!'
as

For

this

monarch
his

— also
are

known

Amenophis

— and
its

wife

both represented as receiving the crux ansata

from the Sun-God, and the Sun
with the crux ansata as

is

marked
symbol.

peculiar

Upon
the

Plate IV. facing page 43 of the
see
Seti
I.

famous work, we

surmounted
the
to

same by
two

Sun

;

two
are,

crosses

adorning

latter.

The
in

crosses

moreover,

attached
;

serpents issuing from the sun

and these were
representing

ancient

days

phallic

signs

the

sexual powers.

On page

405

is

a

representation

of the

Egyptian god Khem, or
the Egyptian Priapus,
or

Amen-Ra

Generator;

The names
connection
It
is

of this

god of Generation. his phallic deity show
this
is

with the Sun.
that
particular

noteworthy
of the
of the

con-

ception

Sun-God

accompanied

by

emblems

sexual organs of reproduction,

THE PRE-CHRISTIAN CROSS IN AFRICA.
and that he bears a
his breast.
St.

185

Andrew's cross upon
III. of the

Upon page 24
work
is

of volume

same
or
is

another

representation

of

Khem,

Amen-Ra
and
wears

Generator.

In this case also he

accompanied
a
breast.

by
St.

phallic

and solar emblems
cross

Andrew's

upon

his

On page
us that
"

26 Sir

J.

Gardner Wilkinson

tells

Khem was
sun,

the

whence
with

considered the generating influence of perhaps the reason of his being

connected
hieroglyphic

Amen-Ra
that
is

legends
;

and accompanying
:

in

one

of

the
is

his

name he
in

styled the sun

the

pro-creating power
assists

of the
con-

only

source

of

warmth,

which

the

tinuation of the various created species."

Upon
III.,

Plate XXII., facing page 44 of

volume
crux
the
as

are three different

instances of the
to

ansata

being

attached

the

sun

symbol of the Sun-God.

Upon page 46
crux
ansata
issuing

is

another instance of the
attached
to
disc.

being

the

solar

serpent

from the sun's

On

Plate XXIII., facing

page

52,

is

another

illustration of the reception of the

crux ansata

from the Sun-God.

i86

THE NON-CHRISTIAN
82
Sir
it

CROSS.

Upon page

J.
is

Gardner
absurd
to

Wilkinson
speak of

rightly observes that

the crux ansata or Egyptian cross as the

Key
less

of the Nile, inasmuch

as

this

cross

"is

frequently seen in the hand of the

God

Nilus

than any deity of the Egyptian pantheon."

Upon

the

remarkable

Plate

XXXI., facing

page 136, we see inscriptions describing the reigning Pharaoh as the " Vice-gerent of the
Giver of Eternal Life
the
"
;

or,

in

other words, of

Sun-God.

Other
"

expressions

applied

to

the Pharaoh are
like the

Giver of Life and Strength
gives
"
;

Sun

"
;

"Who
the

all

Life, Stability,
"

and Health
the

like

Sun

and

Approved of
Sun."

Sun and Giver of
was
venerated

Life like the

It is

thus clear that ages before our era the
in

cross

Egypt

as

in

other

lands as the symbol both of Life and of the

Giver of Life
as

;

and that the deity worshipped
of
Life,

the

Giver

and

ever

associated

with that salutary symbol the cross, was the

Sun-God.

CHAPTER

XVIII.

EVIDENCK OF TROY.

DR.
locaHty

SCHLIEMANxN
bis

has told us that
site
if

in

researches
in

upon the

of

Troy

he found that

pre-Christian

not indeed

pre-historic times the cross was, in that classic

as

elsewhere,
life
;

a phallic emblem

and

the symbol of

as well as a solar
fire

emblem
which

and the symbol of the holy
life

with

was more or
instance
edition)
idol

less identified.

For
(1880
leaden

on
Dr.

page

337 of his Ilios Schliemann describes a

discovered

by him and of great
that
it was female in marked with the

antiquity.

He

tells

us

character and had the vulva
triangle,

a symbol of the

Feminine

Principle.

And

he points out that within the triangle was
187

the Svastika cross.

was have a sign of generation in ancient and pre-historic This remark should evidently been applied by him as well. with the characteristics a woman upon cross.l88 THE NON-CHRISTIAN page 521 CROSS. describes On of St. are here reminded of the already their that the Egyptians wearing represented or God of Generation. Generator. Here also appears to mark the vulva. Schliemann admits that Svastika cross drawn within the triangle this cross marking the vulva. shows that times. An illustration of one example of the crosses . it. Khem. On the page 353 Dr. Andrew's cross to shows that also of the have been used as a as has been sign organ of generation. We noted. a as Amen-Ra St. fact. and on the vulva a Andrew's Upon page vase of 523 is a reference to another a cross similar design. for he to the St. conspicuous Andrew's out that to And it Khem was the Egyptian Priapus it ought also to be pointed ancient times the practice this was in erect wooden crosses to conception of the Sun-God. Schliemann an ancient terra cotta vase. shown above. as cross. Dr.

189 erected to Priapus can be seen in figure XI. Thomas our distinguished Oriental numismatist " Has coins Sir vol. of plate XXIX. . Madras Jozir.. shows us that the fl^ it is inaccurate and mis- leading to speak of it as " Indian. M. . however.EVIDENCE OF TROY. clearly proved that on some of the Andra and likewise on some punched coins depicted on W. Schliemann quotes with approval Professor remarks to the effect that Max Mr. Elliot's plate IX. find ^ And to the nature of such crosses cannot be denied. of that well-known work. the Svastika can only be traced back as far as the fourth and its occurrence upon these and other relics of earlier ages and other lands. Dr. Antique phallic Gems and Rings. whether . we on page 350 of that both varieties of the Svastika cross are extraordinarily comcross mon upon the articles he As an Indian symbol or fifth century B. the site discoveries of Schliemann upon the Ilios of Troy. discovered.A. but Dr. W. Lit. King. and Science." The origin of Lp or the the Miiller's Svastika cross. III. the place of the more definite figure of the ^ C. is unknown . Returning.C.

and therefore a natural the autumnal sun. ' yule-tide. wheel . from hjol. . life. hvel.' the " time of the winter solstice. we have very the clear pointing in the right direction. and wealth. with was originally a Sk. the indications Svastika. 4. Schliemann remarks that we find the Svastika or Sauvastika cross "In Ezekiel ix. sun often taken by the Svastika..I90 THE NON-CHRISTIAN is CROSS. the (solar) wheel. i. 6. health. and that the Svastika has been coins. perhaps of the vernal sun as opposed the Sauvastika. and Dr. and derives ' j6l. symbol of light. A. where— in is Hebrew the letter Tau—it written as the form of the old the sign of life on We find like the corresponding Indian symbol. I think. hvehol. that Here the then. it . That in ancient mythology the sun was frequently represented as a wheel Grimm identifies the Old Norse hjol or is well known. Kakra. twice on a large piece of ornamental leather contained in the celebrated Corneto treasure preserved also on ancient pottery in the Royal Museum at Berlin found at Konigsberg in the Neumark and preserved in forehead. English 'wheel.-S.' with kukAoc.' Both the Ifl and the ^ occur upon the famous footprints of Buddha carved upon the Amaravati Tope. Svastika. hands symbol to of the Sun.e. the sun. in the inserted within the rings or normal circles representing the four suns of the Ujjain pattern on He long has also called attention to list the fact that of the recognised devices of the twentybut that Tirthankaras the sun is absent four Jaina while the eighth Tirthankara has the sign of the halfmoon the seventh Tirthankara is marked with the .

like our sign of addition. Schliemann quotes with approval the opinion of Professor Sayce that " the Svastika cross. a cross of four equal arms. worship it were admittedly always closely connected. and on a Bowl from Yucatan in the Berlin Ethnological Museum. It is noteworthy that in the neighbourhood of Troy. as in Cyprus and other places. in days of old shared with the Svastika crosses the veneration of the people and was evidently more or less akin to those crosses in signification. We also see it on coins of Gaza.' ." and that suggest. the fire as Burnouf and others " fU and ^ represented primitive machines." Elsewhere the same work Dr. the Markisches 191 Museum in Berlin . pre-historic cities of Hissarlik. this other cross might also claim pieces the honour of representing the two of wood for producing the holy in fire by friction.EVIDENCE OF TROY. Schliemann tells us that this cross of four equal arms " occurs innumerable times on the whorls of the three upper if. Dr. as well as on an Imperial coin of Asido also on the drums of the Lapland priests." As not also phallic worship and Sun-God Dr. p^ oi* ^' was a symbol of generation. surprising to is find that Schliemann on very highly commends a dissertation .

recognised ductive affinity between the proin forces and the sun. the by Mr.192 THE NON-CHRISTIAN fH and |f| is CROSS." It may Land therefore be considered proven that those of the inhabitants of classic Troy and like the of a the close Nile other countries. and were one description as accepting a cross of some the natural symbol whether of Life or of the Giver of Life. Edward Thomas. they one and all resolve themselves into the primitive conception of solar motion. . which was intuitively associated with the rolling or wheel-like projection of the sun through the upper or visible arc of the heavens. that whose conclusion " As far as I have been able to trace or connect the various manifestations of this emblem.

come from Cyprus. then favoured position between the countries ALTHOUGH foremost in the arts of In those civilisation. as Dr. " In the very midst of 193 . when face to face with the Ohnefalschof the Phoenicians we are.: CHAPTER XIX. days Cyprus was a as centre of Phoenician enterprise. themselves examples of letters properly so called. the island of Cyprus is out otherthe way and seldom visited." relics As. it was once a of old it occupied For in days wise. the Bible. we are told in work ' Kypros. owing to the march of of events. moreover. Max Richter also remarks. that fine And. times. and Homer in ancient Oriental Civilisation. EVIDENCE OF CYPRUS. Art and Religion earliest "The oldest extant the Phoenician inscrip- tions. now.

194 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. can us regarding phallic worcross in ship in general and the pre-Christian particular. upon which the Svastika cross occurs. On Plate XX v. Let us therefore see what the ancient remains found in the island in question. and commonly spoken of as the ' star it and crescent ' although. One Richter Plate X. as already shown. and others referred to in the work mentioned tell as illustrative of the same. Upon Plate xix. by Dr. Max Ohnefalsch- a cut of an ancient Cyprian coin on upon which coin we see over a temple gateway the phallic symbol since adopted by the Moslems. we see several the Svastika cross occurring examples of upon an ancient a Cyprian vase. originally represented the radiate Sun or Male Principle in conjunction with the Crescent moon or Female Principle. we are shown gold leaf taken from an ancient grave. of the first points to be noted in the illustrations supplied is in . ." civilisation it will be seen that a study of the antiquities of Cyprus should have a special interest for us Christians. as depicted in ancient Canaanitish the Old Testament.

EVIDENCE OF CYPRUS. upon the capitals of which are phallic emblems. representing the radiate Sun by the the Female Principle. surmounted by the star-like form which represented and an Ashera. Crescent moon. surmounted Figure . On Plate XXX. we have representations of stone pillars at Atheniaon. the Sun in being represented as a disc in the this instance horns of the crescent. Figure 10 upon leaf discovered at tlie 195 same plate shows us a gold the Amathus upon which we see Sun and Moon in conjunction. upon the same plate shows us a Masseba representing the Male Principle. upon which are represented both the Sacred Tree and the Ashera. important cylinder we have now in figure 7 a cut of an the Berlin stored in Museum. Just as in distinction modern Christianity alleging we make a difference without much between the Father and the Son. even so in ancient times a distinction of a similarly vague . including that of the Sun as a disc within the horns of the Crescent moon. Upon Plate XXVI. disc appears over the former The winged Sunand the Crescent moon over the 1 1 latter.

question is an important On . illustration in The one. and symbolled. and (3) the one origin things and Father of Spirits. Over her we see the phallic symbol . the First-born Son of Fire of all . the bride of the Sun-God. we have in figure 4 a repre- sentation of the goddess Ishtar. to be (2) the Male Principle and Light. The disc of the Sun seems to have represented the former and the Sun-star or radiate Sun the illus- latter where both were represented in one tration. : The Female Principle and perhaps the or primeval Darkness. as is best Light. kind was All-Father Fire and His Image and First-begotten Son Light. and a kind of Trinity presented to us. .. needing impregnation illumination ere the same can cause aught Fire itself. made maniSolar fest unto mortals by His First-born Son. by the Orb. The (i) meaning of is this is evident viz. 196 THE NON-CHRISTIAN made between the CROSS. On Plate XXXI. moon altar in the centre a Masseba under the Sun-star or radiate Sun and on the right all is an under a sun phallic disc. the left is an Ashera under a Crescent is . as for instance in figure 12 last on the plate mentioned.

Upon Plate LXIX. points out that in the former event the Male Principle . This cross coupled with the presence of two bulls. representation of a scarab from lalysos.EVIDENCE OF CYPRUS. are given no less than 134 illustrations of ancient religious symbols. phallic holding in symbol the apple. where pillars are illustrated. In twelve of these the presence of the Sun or the Crescent Moon as the case may be. seem to referred to. of the radiate 197 Sun and Crescent moon in conjunction. show that the Male Principle is On Plate XL.. its we have a hand that cut of a votive arm. one on either side of the tree. moon The same remark two more such applies to Plate LIX. in representations of the stone capitals of two votive pillars from the shrine of Aphrodite at Idalion. we see in figure 23 the Svasin a tika cross under a tree. On Plate XXXII. we see various phallic emblems Crescent . including the familiar Sun disc and in conjunction. and the all is phallic character of nearly if not quite plainly apparent. On Plate LVIII. and obtained from the sanctuary of Apollo at Voni.

moon in juxtaare Principles And in four other examples the presence of the Sun and Crescent moon in con- junction shows that the union of those Principles is referred to. Plate LXXV. The said cross. which like various Christian crosses of the Dark and Middle Ages has been projecting branches and foliage. On LXXVI. respectively Principles. and of Life. is an illustration of a vase painting in red figures from a Stamnos is from Vulci Panofka.198 THE NON-CHRISTIAN in CROSS. Female Principle referred In six other cases the presence of the Sun and Crescent position shows that both those referred to. is the latter the to. the The representation one of Sun-God Dionysos upon a cross. symbol cross Among Upon the remaining symbols is the of four equal arms. we are given thirteen . representing the Male and the Female vulva we see numerous examples female of the triangle which represented and of the diamond shaped which represented the female pudendum. of Life. Besides the numerous Masseboth and Asheroth. seems to have more Plate or less connected with the Tree worship of ancient times.

Upon man Plate important Phoenician kneeling in seal. Ohnefalsch-Richter states. these evidently phallic symbols undoubtedly played a part in the worship of the Sun-God Tammuz-Adonis and LXXVII. in On LXXIX. and (2) a priest worshipping three symbols.EVIDENCE OF CYPRUS. we have figure 14 a representation both of the Sacred Tree and of the combined Ashera and Masseba. being clay copies of the Sacred Trees erected As Dr. In figure 16 on the same plate sentations an Ashera and a Masseba. The the three sacred symbols in question are (i) Ashera . . 199 examples of Sacred Trees discovered in the groves of Astarte-Aphrodite and Tanit-Artemis-Cybele. Male of the Life Principle and (3) a combination repre- Ashera and Masseba symbols Plate senting the two Life Principles in conjunction. or Principle (2) the symbol of the Female Life Masseba or symbol of the . we have a cut of an where we see (i) a adoration to a Divine Trinity connected with the winged disc of the sun. latter we naturally see the radiate Over the Sun and are repre- Crescent moon of in conjunction. his bride Astarte-Aphrodite. at the entrances to the temples.

fjl serpents surrounded . of tau crosses. fine we have in figure 8 a cut vase from Melos ornamented with a Svastika cross. and a radiate Sun. . respectively surmounted by a Crescent moon figure in this 17. Upon ark. Plate CXXXIII. On Plate LXXX. and disc in conjunction as in the but without the cross. representations of a sacred Boeotian chest or On the front are seven Svastika crosses (some of each variety) and one ordinary cross On the lid we see two like our sign of addition. in figures I to 4. A last similar remark applies to can A sacrificing priest be seen and the a repre- named instances. On the same plate we see in figure 7 a Sun column from Tyre.200 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. upon which we see the Crescent last case. by eight Svastika crosses (some of each variety) and eight crosses formed besides two other crosses. it Crescent moon within the is a disc plainly marked with a This is taken from an ancient cylinder of Hittite origin. the volute capital of which has on horns of which cross. we have. we have a in figure i sentation of a holy pillar. On of a Plate CXVIII.

we see in in group 19 objects discovered ancient graves one bearing several ordinary crosses and also several Svastika crosses. are cuts of various of the circle and the phalHc symbol cross occurring upon Nos. Upon coins. each variety) and eight other In figure 6 we have a cut of a chest from Athiaenon upon which two will Svastika crosses be noticed. on which two Svastika from seen. E VIDENCE OF C YPR US. . we have Cyprian in in figure 9 a cut an important Gr^co-Phcenician grave at Amphora The Tree discovered an ancient the British Kition and now stored in Museum. marked at the bottom with with Andrew's cross and surrounded crosses. an illustration In figure 8 of the same plate is sacred chest or ark of one'' side of another crosses Athiaenon. Cyprian Plate CXCII. Svastika On various Plate CLXXIII. of the other variety can be Upon of Plate CLV. Svastika crosses of both kinds. 201 On of crosses (some the back are eight Svastika crosses.. one bearing a Svastika and a third bearing cross of the other variety. a object represented upon it is Sacred a St. 9> and 10. i.

Leaving the Book of Plates and turning to the illustrations given with the valuable work we are considering. as Ohnefalsch-Richter is remarks. Nationale of which. where the in Sun 117 is represented by a Cross of four equal arms. On page 148 we have in figure 150 an illustra- tion of a coloured image of Aphrodite or Astarte discovered in an early Graeco-Phoenician at Kurion. the priest or king represented his raising arm in the direction of the Cross suspended him. 85 Upon page illustration we have an figure an of to inscribed cylinder. Text of the we discover upon page 62 a cut showing the impression of a chalcedony cylinder from the collection of the Due de Luynes. a holy object we often meet on Assyrian and Babylonian monuments. ." in the air before " In adoration This a cross. tomb This representation of the Goddess is of Love and Bride of the Sun-God several marked is with Svastika of crosses. and yet solar further evidence the phallic and character of that symbol.202 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. now belonging France. like that last named. is more like Greek cross than a Maltese cross. in the Bibliotheque Dr.

the author of the ultra-orthodox Impregnable Rock of Holy Scripture'' .EVIDENCE OF CYPRUS. Such their is 203 the evidence of the phallic worship and Sun-God worship of the Phoenicians and neighbours. of the close relationship between such phallic with the worship and Sun-God cross. and of the part played in connection borne by same by a work the pre-Christian of research so free from bias against the views of the Christian Church that it has prefixed to it a letter of warm commendation " from that veteran statesman and theologian. worship.

while very similar figures are to be seen illustrated upon Christian antiquities.CHAPTER XX. For instance. such 204 . is noteworthy that some in at least of the early Christians discovered the more or less cruciform outline of the for Hermae a reason or excuse paying them homage. MISCELLANEOUS EVIDENCE. THE most noteworthy now been indirectly features of the avail- able evidence illustrative of the real origin and history of the symbol of the cross have placed before the reader. no mention has yet been made of the Hernice of their origin bygone And although may have had no it connection with the symbol in question. but a number of more or less miscellaneous facts directly or throwing still additional light upon the to. subject have to be drawn attention ages.

that of Dionysos the Sun-God. These pillars were erected . was always erecless Moreover these phallic and often solar tions called Hermae. of temples. a phallus a prominent feature. or. much used upon. Lateran forms tlie The Hermae venerated by were pillars. posts at cross roads and whether the head at the top was that of Hermes the Messenger of the Gods. in surmounted either most instances with a head of or Dionysos just . the ancient Greeks usually of stone and quadrangular. as the mosaic of 205 which the great cross of the principal feature. as was very often the case. and houses but more especially as sign . which hanging garlands made the whole look more or less like a cross.MISCELLANEOUS EVIDENCE. undoubtedly more or rail^ cross-shaped owing to the transverse were worshipped as conducive to fecunditj^ It is also worthy of notice that the cross to have been venerated in is well known America preceded re- before even set the foot Norsemen upon that who Columbus afterwards discovered continent. For instance a cross surrounded by a T4 circle . in front tombs. Hermes rail and with a peculiar transverse for below the head.

an altar discovered at Rudchester. was use among the ancient Mexicans as a solar sign. occurs upon Runic before Other noteworthy points are that the cross monuments in Europe long Christianity was . : ShetTer. Northumberland : Lappanic. using the for that purpose. and that the Laplanders of old Engwhen sacrificing marked their idols with the life symbol of the cross. ^ It blood of their victims should also be pointed out that on a coin of Thasos bearing representations of a phallic character connected with the worship of is the Thracian Bacchus.206 THE NON-CHRISTIAN in CROSS. Scandage Runic.g. a pro- minent symbol that upon ancient vases the ^ First Annual Report U. .S. introduced into the regions containing them that ancient altars to the Sun-God Mithras bearing the sacred symbol in of the cross have been discovered even land . Bureau of Ethnology. Varelli. another cross was a solar symbol of the natives of Peru from time immemorial. Rudbeckins. e. and we are also at the told by the authorities that a cross of four equal arms with a disc or circle centre was ^ the age-old Moqui symbol of the Sun. Ans. -01. Atlant. a Svastika cross .

either a Pagan or Christian symbol. headgear of Bacchus is 207 sometimes ornamented with the cross of four equal arms. the Svastika cross. Andrew's cross. being marked with resembled the disc-like wafers of the Christian Mass. Museum. and the other and right angled cross of four equal arms. appear under the rays of the Sun. .MISCELLANEOUS EVIDENCE. it is note- worthy that a cross representation of a is said to appear upon the the circular wafer used in mysteries of Mithras which occurs upon an ancient fresco at 14a Rome. the mysteries the Sun-God a cross. the St. that upon a Greek vase at Lentini. wafers of or We are told in that circular cakes were used Bacchus. Sicily. Nor should it be forgotten that though the Svastika cross has almost died out as a Christian symbol and was perhaps never thoroughly acclimatised as such. Whether this was so or not. and. and. an ancient representation of the Sun-God Hercules is accompanied by no less than three different kinds of crosses as symbols and that upon an . tical it archaic Greek vase in the British often appeared upon Christian ecclesias- as properties of the Middle Ages. continually occurs in the catacombs of Rome.

which the story of the birth of Jesus referred in and that fixed framing its calendar our Church upon the recognised birthday of Mithras." Matt. to have been born in a cave the Fathers that admitted that the new-born Sun in had been worshipped to the cave at Bethlehem .2o8 THE NON-CHRISTIAN it CROSS. after " (" After three days. the Natalis Invicti of the the birthday of the Christ. In this connection may be mentioned. as noteworthy that the Christ is thus said to have been born as well as to have risen again the third or fourth Matt. xxvii. that in astrian reh'gion long before our era Sunto ours. xii. . God Mithras the bore much the the in the same relation in All-Father that is Clirist does and referred to Zend Avesta Mithras is as the like Incarnate Woi'd . 40) day. 6'^ . the Christ. For the birthday of Mithras and afterwards of the Christ. as a the Zorothe series of curious coincidences." Three days and three nights. It is also Roman Brumalia. seems to have been fixed upon as the third or fourth day first after the winter solstice. and as that upon which the sun's resur- rection its from the south was discernible after apparent cessation of movement or death. . known to us as Christmas day. that said.

us brought before days a by the fact that it was in well-known symbol both of generative . and death of a then. often. surmounts the wherewith ancient the we adorn our Christian churches.MISCELLANEOUS EVIDENCE. at dawn. while instead of the prophesied " three days and three nights in the heart of the earth " {Matt. In this connection it 209 should be that added that Sun-God by the Fathers as worshipped at Bethlehem was lamented as dead once a year and always acclaimed as alive again the third fact Lucian records to the the referred day . rises free from all earthly attach- ments . question viz. and that we say that the execution of Jesus took place at the time of the Pass- over or Vernal Equinox. like the by the Equator. 40) the period between the death and burial on Good Friday evening and the resurrection before dawn on Easter Sunday the Sun's disc fixed is just about that during at the which is Vernal Equinox trans32f hours. that in several we meet with Zend Avesta passages which show that the places in the Mithras worshippers of old believed that at the man his spirit sits at the head of the corpse for three days and three nights. The why the Cock so steeples is Cross. xii..

C. We to the reminded as of the facts that we Christians were once in the habit cross of alluding the Tree of Life. and that the ancients dressed up the trunks of trees and worshipped them as symbols of life and growth. and it would seem that we place its effigy aloft with the same idea be noted at in view. and surrounding the trunk a shirt or garment covered with crosses. is Another point Kunthistorisches to that in is the Museum is Vienna his an ancient vase upon which the as a representation of breast Sun-God Apollo bearing upon his one ornament and symbol a Svastika are cross.2IO THE NON-CHRISTIAN . CROSS. As to the evidence obtained from the ruins . " was probably as the " herald of the dawn that this bird became a symbol of the SunGod. Upon so this is a red coloured painting of a tree dressed. often powers and of the Sun-God appearing as such upon the top of a sacred pillar in Assyrian and Babylonian representations of priests in It the act of sacrificing or worshipping. by an Attic vase of the fifth century B. on which is to be seen near the top a head of the Sun-God Dionysos.

which the author thinks bring necessary to contention.1 MISCELLANEO US E VIDENCE. of Herculaneum 21 and Pompeii. the background. that ancient symbol of the generative power and therefore transferred into the Bacchic mysteries. He tells us that the Cross and the Phallus were found placed in juxtaposition upon the walls as meaning one and the same thing. King. least can M. of it is said that much been. and at be com- mented upon. been mentioned by in W. which is a phaUic character has in from quite worthy motives. kept Mr. and he goes on to add that "This cross seems to be the Egyptian Tau. An important fact has however C.A. reader can reasonably deny that the cross it that was a well known ." The foregoing are the last of the evidences throwing light upon the origin and history of the symbol adopted by our religion it as its own. forward in support of his of And however much by him by itself proved into the evidence sought out by the author and in this work marshalled something like order may seem no has been to be untrustworthy or worthless. his well known work on this the Gnostics and their Remains..

it the that withthat desire may that said God for is Life. for and Death but another drawal of Deity. is And what the symbol the the moral of the real. symbol of Life long before our as it and that and as a whole the evidence tends to show that such as became a phallic symbol. as has been said before. Humanity but of has ever had but one from God one term be and point one view Religion. . more Life. Life is And as but another term for the Real Presence. therefore as a symbol of the Sun-God. Moreuniversal in over. and Religion fuller the Life. this Life is worship of willingness to discernible to sacrifice in even the of some what remains hope life them is of mortal life the of thus being enabled to lay hold of a immortal which not for all. the or with which this or that set of ? name men have clothed similar ideas For. distinguished from the of the imaginary.212 THE NON-CHRISTIAN CROSS. era. and Life. history : of cross but this that from beliefs beginning nought has caused the of men dress to assume an appearance of save the difference in radical difference. as has already been hinted.

MISCELLANEOUS EVIDENCE. which any of either in our brothers and or in sisters reality. 213 is natural. The worship of Life of necessity continue. and to either seek or accept a life of bliss hereafter are. . our imagination to be debarred from sharinor. and must Let us however render it nobler by recognising? its by contemptuously refusing catholicity.

CHAPTER SUMMARY. not one of the Apostles or Evangehsts ever stated that Jesus was executed upon a of cross- shaped instrument of execution. The circumthe cross under which the figure became the symbol of our made clear. which to for may have Jesus given rise to the desire associate therewith. XXI. And. commencement AT shown the that. having spread veneration of the as religion. little remains notice the author to do the save draw the of of reader to the 214 admissions other . were then of a wide- since demonstrated the existence in pre-Christian ages figure of the cross the symbol of Life and of the Sun-God. stances /. of this work it was as the Greek text of the writings forming the New Testament testifies.

we meet with no description of such an instrument of execution as we picture. we suppose the term staurosis have included every form of carrying out the extreme penalty by means of affixion or suspension.as it prove the stmirosis crucifixion. we cause and even to if. for the sake of brevity to his attention two known works upon should first the history of religious It however be pointed out that affirm though we Christians that crucifixion was a form of capital punishment made use of in days of old. ' For various as are the different forms of death by the stauros of which descriptions have come ' down first to us from pre-Christian ages and the of three centuries our era. . . by Constantine because we cannot exactly thus abolished v.SUMMARY. or even that included crucifixion. and abolished the fourth century after Christ Jesus was that so executed. 215 writers concerning the rise of the cross as the symbol of Christianity more or less confining well art. no of relic of in- that date bears of a representation an strument execution such as pictures. appear in our sacred regardless of the more exact meaning of the word to stauros.

is Emperor abolished was what usually understood by the term crucifixion. is also admitted in Chambers where we read that was not really first "The a cross so-called cross of Constantine but a circle containing the X P I. . It will not be of necessary the to quote S.A. the three letters of the deity. again the admission Reverend Baringso-called Gould.s 2i6 THE NON-CHRISTIAN if CROSS.. the that forms we could evidence astute before us. to the effect that Cross of Constantine or the monogram of Christ was but the symbol of the Sun-God of the Gauls with a loop added by their crafty leader to please the Christians. and thus made symbols of the Roman Empire in the first half of the fourth century. Therefore even we were to exclude from all the staurosis aboh'shed by Constantine of transfixion by a stauros. M. fairly upon say that what not." name of Christ in Greek and was merely an adaptation of a symbol of a Gaulish solar And may be added that the fact that the Monogram of Christ and the ordinary cross it so frequently used as symbols by Constantine upon his coins and elsewhere. were at first Pagan . but it may be pointed out that this fact Eyicyclopcedia .

where he " I states monument question whether a cross occurs on any Christian of the first four centuries. after confessing that the cross was venerated by the heathen as a symbol of Life before the period of Christianity and referring to St. works on Christian already referred come of Our Lord first we to Mrs. 315 of Volume II. rather 217 than Christian symbols. equal and. Upon page authoress." far as hitherto That the is to say. also seems to in be borne out by Dean Burgon his Letters from Rome.SUMMARY. Chrysostom. Chrysostom." ' Passing on however to Art the representative to. of the making them ^ symbols Roman Letters from Rome. p. arms before Chrysostom was born. after Constantine. 1S62. . " It who flourished half a century admits that must be owned that ancient objects of Art. afford no corroboration of the use of the cross in the simple transverse form famihar to us at any period preceding or even closely succeeding the words of St. 210. as known. Jameson's famous History the gifted as exemplified in zvorks of art. although Constantine introduced Monogram of Christ and the cross of four St.

" is it In other cross words. As this to is the crucifix. would. Empire.C. crucifix. in any case have imposed them upon what he established as his State Religion. we are told that though by some lived in to be referred to in the works of Gregory of Nyssa the of sixth —a Bishop of Tours also in who the of century." " Insufficient to convince that a crucifix in most modern archaeologists any sense now accepted was meant. not only clear that the as a representation of the instrument of execution introduced upon till which after the Jesus died was not days of Constantinc. quoted council " is Greek bishops " 692 called the the evidence Quini-sextum or " in Trullo. . said St.8 21 THE NON-CHKISTIAN CROSS. often and injunctions the A. till was not introduced centuries later. it was not till after these solar symbols of the Gauls were accepted as Christian that such a cross as tation could possibly have been a represenof an instrument of execution was introduced. but it is also evident that the the earliest known representation of that execution. whether a Sun-God worshipper or a Christian.

Moreover the Dean significantly adds upon the next page.SUMMARY." I of the mean the cross and the monos^ram of . Farrar goes on say "Two not until common. Christ." The Fish . Other noteworthy admissions the work above quoted from. Dean Farrar states upon page 1 1 of Life of Christ as represented in Art that recent " his Of all early Christian symbols the Fish was the most frequent and the favourite. and not the Cross. for may account the displacement of the symbol of the to Fish from favour. Upon page that 19 Dr. that the Fish " Continued to be a days of Constantine. but are 219 made in we must pass on to the Dean of Canterbury's comparatively work upon the same subject. generally adopted." common symbol down to the And the significance lies in the fact that the introduction by Constantine of the solar symbols venerated by the Gauls. symbols continued for ages to be especially They were of which I have not yet spoken. after the Peace of the Church at the beginning fourth century. even if they appeared at all.

the Dean admits that the cross. Farrar. not by to the way. whatever shape the symbol of the cross was. and appears have been rail." For the exact reverse as in the truth.220 THE NON-CHRISTIAN again. On page 23 Dr. came in with Constantine. inasmuch of almost every land for a cross some as description had been ages venerated a symbol of Life. The fact of course is that the Dean here does and elsewhere. as has necessarily in the shape of a cross. Here will be seen. been shown. in most cases a stake without a transverse What affixion the Pagans held in utter horror was the awful fixion its death caused to by trans- by or . was. alluding to the use . as the symbol of our religion. not take the like other Christian writers. an object of veneration among them from time immemorial. which instrument. upon the contrary. Directly after the passage last quoted Dean must an Farrar very misleadingly remarks cross : " It be remembered that the object was in itself of utter horror even to is the Pagans. trouble to distinguish between the symbol of the cross and the death caused by execution upon a stauros . it CROSS. a stauros.

Upon page 24 Dean " The cross was only introduced among the Christian It may be doubted symbols tentatively and timidly.SUMMARY. without notice from symbols to instruments of execution and making no distinction whatever. states that " Crosses were of two kinds. used sometimes to impale. whether it once occurs till after the vision of Constantine in 312 and his accession to the Empire of the East and West in 324." Exactly so. makes the admission "That and other it did not only or even mainly relics. The Cntx Simplex. .' was a mere stake. of one single piece without transom. seems of a to the air at have been the survival Farrar admits that Pagan and pre-Christian custom. sometimes to hang the victim ' by the hands." is remind them of the Crucifixion proved alike by their literature Exactly so : for the non-material sign traced in by them (and by us) upon rite the forehead the non-Mosaic initiatory of baptism and in perhaps also upon the breast or other times." Further on of upon the same page the Dean passing Canterbury. of 221 the transient sign of the cross by the Christians of early days.

upon no executed ? as the refers to. the questions whether Jesus did not is that prophesy should that the final would come die. as we do our versions of as the Christian or Scriptures. in disingenuous extreme upon the part of those of us Christians to hide the fact that it who know here that better. before those Day whom of Judgment he addressed and did not solemnly declare that his mission was to the descendants of Jacob . But. cross at Jesus was Is it not dishonest of us to place before the masses Bibles and Lexicons wherein we ever carefully translate as " cross " a word classics which at the time the ancient and our sacred writings were penned did not necessarily. not one of in which referred anything necessarily the shape of a cross Another point which should be mentioned. " crucified " upon translating four to ? " crucify " different words. though such matters cannot be discussed here. if indeed ever. signify something cross-shaped it ? Is not gross disloyalty to Truth to in insist. may have been upon Dean all. to bring this to a conclusion with is it what not is the crux of the whole matter. V some such cross that is.222 THE NON-CHRISTIAN work the CROSS.

or Israel 223 and to them alone. As have not wc limitinor its Christians by. cross effected? and all that the so-called Moreover. equally mag- nificent hatred of qualities not altogether disenables some of us similar to from to which claim be not only admirers but also genuine followers of a Communist who declared first that those who would follow him must sell all their possessions and give the proceeds . what possible good purpose can be served by all insisting upon supplementing the simple story life. undoubtedly affect our story. to the Gospel of the Cross. men. and from an unselfish point of view.SUMMARY. in our imaginations. able to saving effects to the few who are the centuries that we have believe in it. whether the message of Jesus which we proclaim and variously interpret was " glad tidings"— to or was not a gospel— that is. of his the stressful his magnificent his love for afflicted and that suffering. all re-echoed is the " cry " the Kingdom of Heaven at hand ably selfish for forced upon the same the unuttermeaning that the kingdom at hand believe is the of many who simply cannot Hell? that Was that what Jesus meant.

and the account of the to the final — conflict of Jesus with the officials of his native land and his subsequent execution upon a stauros or stake not stated to have had a culture cross-bar attached.224 THE NON-CHRISriAN poor . what good purpose can be served by supplementing this. . by the adoption and misleading fiction of a partisan and the origin cross ? regarding and history of the symbol of the THE END. CROSS.

.

Date Due .

.

BL604. an enquiry into Princeton Theological Semmary-Speer Library 1 1012 00163 4718 .C7P26 The non-Christian cross.

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