Describe steps in SDLC model with an example

The steps in SDLC model are listed as Iollows

System analysis:-
It is a set oI activity in which the system analyst gathers the inIormation requirements oI
the users, analyses them systematically in the Iorm oI Iunctionality oI the application system, the
input data requirement and their sources the output data and their presentation requirements.
The system analyst gathers data about the perIormance expectations oI the users such as
expected response time the total turn around time etc. the system analyst Iinally prepares a
document called as system requirement speciIication(SRS) which documents all the agreements
reached between the users and the system analyst.

System design:-
It involves preparing the blue print oI the new soItware system. Taking the SRS as a base
to start with it prepares various diagrammatic representations oI the logical and physical artiIacts
to be developed during the soItware development stages to Iollow. The maior artiIacts include
data models, process models and presentation model. Iinally the system design is documented

Coding or Construction:-
This involves programming and testing individual programs on the basis oI the design
document. The developers responsible Ior programming also creates text data sets Ior inputs and
veriIies that the program generate the expected output Ior these inputs data sets the individual
program are also reviewed to ensure that they meet programming standard as expected by the
users. This is the only Iace where the conceptual system is Iirst translated into a computer
executable program sources.

Testing:-
It is to demonstrate to the development team members that the soItware system works
exactly to meet the user expectation oI inIormation requirements as well as the perIormance
expectation . it involves planning the testing creating the text data executing text runs matching
the text results with the expected results, analyzing the diIIerences Iixing the bugs and testing the
bug Iixing repeatedly until a satisIactory number oI mismatches are removed.

Implementation:-
It involves installing the soItware system on the user computer system conducting user
trained on new soItware system data preparations parallel running and going live as core
activities. This is the stage where the soItware system is Iirst transIerred to the user`s premises
and the users get a chance to work on the new soItware system Ior the Iirst time. Also it involves
the most important step oI user acceptance testing which marks the technical and commercial
milestone oI the soItware development proiect

Maintenance:-
It involves maintaining the soItware system always up to date to ensure that it is in the
line with current inIormation requirements considering even the latest changes in the same. It
helps keep the soItware system up to date thereby ensuring the user`s high return on their
investment at operational level oI the business. The developer analyses the changes in the light oI
the latest changes in the design identiIies the new changes in the system design, veriIy quickly
that it works as expected.

E.G :- the library management system done as the assignment.

Systems Development LiIe Cycle


Model oI the Systems Development LiIe Cycle with the Maintenance bubble highlighted.
The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC), or Software Development Life Cvcle in
systems engineering, inIormation systems and soItware engineering, is the process oI creating or
altering systems, and the models and methodologies that people use to develop these systems.
The concept generally reIers to computer or inIormation systems.
In soItware engineering the SDLC concept underpins many kinds oI soItware
development methodologies. These methodologies Iorm the Iramework Ior planning and
controlling the creation oI an inIormation system: the soItware development process.

verview

Systems and Development LiIe Cycle (SDLC) is a process used by a systems analyst to
develop an inIormation system, including requirements, validation, training, and user
(stakeholder) ownership. Any SDLC should result in a high quality system that meets or exceeds
customer expectations, reaches completion within time and cost estimates, works eIIectively and
eIIiciently in the current and planned InIormation Technology inIrastructure, and is inexpensive
to maintain and cost-eIIective to enhance.
Computer systems are complex and oIten (especially with the recent rise oI Service-
Oriented Architecture) link multiple traditional systems potentially supplied by diIIerent
soItware vendors. To manage this level oI complexity, a number oI SDLC models have been
created: "waterIall"; "Iountain"; "spiral"; "build and Iix"; "rapid prototyping"; "incremental"; and
"synchronize and stabilize".
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SDLC models can be described along a spectrum oI agile to iterative to sequential. Agile
methodologies, such as XP and Scrum, Iocus on light-weight processes which allow Ior rapid
changes along the development cycle. Iterative methodologies, such as Rational UniIied Process
and Dynamic Systems Development Method, Iocus on limited proiect scopes and expanding or
improving products by multiple iterations. Sequential or big-design-upIront (BDUF) models,
such as WaterIall, Iocus on complete and correct planning to guide large proiects and risks to
successIul and predictable results
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. Other models, such as Anamorphic Development,
tend to Iocus on a Iorm oI development that is guided by proiect scope and adaptive iterations oI
Ieature development.
In proiect management a proiect can be deIined both with a proiect liIe cycle (PLC) and
an SDLC, during which slightly diIIerent activities occur. According to Taylor (2004) "the
proiect liIe cycle encompasses all the activities oI the proiect, while the systems development liIe
cycle Iocuses on realizing the product requirements".
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istory
The systems development liIe cycle (SDLC) is a type oI methodology used to describe
the process Ior building inIormation systems, intended to develop inIormation systems in a very
deliberate, structured and methodical way, reiterating each stage oI the liIe cycle. The systems
development liIe cycle, according to Elliott & Strachan & RadIord (2004), "originated in the
1960s to develop large scale Iunctional business systems in an age oI large scale business
conglomerates. InIormation systems activities revolved around heavy data processing and
number crunching routines".
Several systems development Irameworks have been partly based on SDLC, such as the
Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM) produced Ior the UK government
OIIice oI Government Commerce in the 1980s. Ever since, according to Elliott (2004), "the
traditional liIe cycle approaches to systems development have been increasingly replaced with
alternative approaches and Irameworks, which attempted to overcome some oI the inherent
deIiciencies oI the traditional SDLC".
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Systems development phases
The System Development LiIe Cycle Iramework provides system designers and
developers to Iollow a sequence oI activities. It consists oI a set oI steps or phases in which each
phase oI the SDLC uses the results oI the previous one.
A Systems Development LiIe Cycle (SDLC) adheres to important phases that are
essential Ior developers, such as planning, analysis, design, and implementation, and are
explained in the section below. A number oI system development liIe cycle (SDLC) models have
been created: waterIall, Iountain, spiral, build and Iix, rapid prototyping, incremental, and
synchronize and stabilize. The oldest oI these, and the best known, is the waterIall model: a
sequence oI stages in which the output oI each stage becomes the input Ior the next. These stages
can be characterized and divided up in diIIerent ways, including the Iollowing
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:

Project planning. feasibility study: Establishes a high-level view oI the intended proiect and
determines its goals.
Systems analysis. requirements definition: ReIines proiect goals into deIined Iunctions and
operation oI the intended application. Analyzes end-user inIormation needs.
Systems design: Describes desired Ieatures and operations in detail, including screen layouts,
business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code and other documentation.
Implementation: The real code is written here.
Integration and testing: Brings all the pieces together into a special testing environment, then
checks Ior errors, bugs and interoperability.
Acceptance. installation. deployment: The Iinal stage oI initial development, where the
soItware is put into production and runs actual business.
Maintenance: What happens during the rest oI the soItware's liIe: changes, correction, additions,
and moves to a diIIerent computing platIorm and more. This, the least glamorous and perhaps
most important step oI all, goes on seemingly Iorever.
In the Iollowing example (see picture) these stage oI the Systems Development LiIe Cycle are
divided in ten steps Irom deIinition to creation and modiIication oI IT work products:


The tenth phase occurs when the system is disposed oI and the task perIormed is either
eliminated or transIerred to other systems. The tasks and work products Ior each phase are
described in subsequent chapters.
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Not every proiect will require that the phases be sequentially executed. However, the phases are
interdependent. Depending upon the size and complexity oI the proiect, phases may be combined
or may overlap.
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System analysis
The goal oI system analysis is to determine where the problem is in an attempt to Iix the
system. This step involves breaking down the system in diIIerent pieces to analyze the situation,
analyzing proiect goals, breaking down what needs to be created and attempting to engage users
so that deIinite requirements can be deIined. Requirements analysis sometimes requires
individuals/teams Irom client as well as service provider sides to get detailed and accurate
requirements....oIten there has to be a lot oI communication to and Irom to understand these
requirements. Requirement gathering is the most crucial aspect as many times communication
gaps arise in this phase and this leads to validation errors and bugs in the soItware program.


Design
In systems design the design Iunctions and operations are described in detail, including
screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams and other documentation. The output oI this
stage will describe the new system as a collection oI modules or subsystems.
The design stage takes as its initial input the requirements identiIied in the approved
requirements document. For each requirement, a set oI one or more design elements will be
produced as a result oI interviews, workshops, and/or prototype eIIorts.
Design elements describe the desired soItware Ieatures in detail, and generally include Iunctional
hierarchy diagrams, screen layout diagrams, tables oI business rules, business process diagrams,
pseudocode, and a complete entity-relationship diagram with a Iull data dictionary. These design
elements are intended to describe the soItware in suIIicient detail that skilled programmers may
develop the soItware with minimal additional input design.

Implementation
Modular and subsystem programming code will be accomplished during this stage. Unit
testing and module testing are done in this stage by the developers. This stage is intermingled
with the next in that individual modules will need testing beIore integration to the main proiect.
Testing
The code is tested at various levels in soItware testing. Unit, system and user acceptance
testings are oIten perIormed. This is a grey area as many diIIerent opinions exist as to what the
stages oI testing are and how much iI any iteration occurs. Iteration is not generally part oI the
waterIall model, but usually some occur at this stage.
Following are the types oI testing:
O Data set testing.
O Unit testing
O System testing
O Integration testing
O Black box testing
O White box testing
O Regression testing
O Automation testing
O User acceptance testing
O PerIormance testing
O Production process that ensures that the program perIorms the intended task.

perations and maintenance
The deployment oI the system includes changes and enhancements beIore the
decommissioning or sunset oI the system. Maintaining the system is an important aspect oI
SDLC. As key personnel change positions in the organization, new changes will be
implemented, which will require system updates.
Systems development liIe cycle topics


Management and control


SDLC Phases Related to Management Controls.
The Systems Development LiIe Cycle (SDLC) phases serve as a programmatic guide to
proiect activity and provide a Ilexible but consistent way to conduct proiects to a depth matching
the scope oI the proiect. Each oI the SDLC phase obiectives are described in this section with
key deliverables, a description oI recommended tasks, and a summary oI related control
obiectives Ior eIIective management. It is critical Ior the proiect manager to establish and
monitor control obiectives during each SDLC phase while executing proiects. Control obiectives
help to provide a clear statement oI the desired result or purpose and should be used throughout
the entire SDLC process. Control obiectives can be grouped into maior categories (Domains),
and relate to the SDLC phases as shown in the Iigure.
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To manage and control any SDLC initiative, each proiect will be required to establish
some degree oI a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) to capture and schedule the work necessary
to complete the proiect. The WBS and all programmatic material should be kept in the 'Proiect
Description¨ section oI the proiect notebook. The WBS Iormat is mostly leIt to the proiect
manager to establish in a way that best describes the proiect work. There are some key areas that
must be deIined in the WBS as part oI the SDLC policy. The Iollowing diagram describes three
key areas that will be addressed in the WBS in a manner established by the proiect manager.
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Work breakdown structured organization


ork Breakdown Structure.
The upper section oI the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) should identiIy the maior
phases and milestones oI the proiect in a summary Iashion. In addition, the upper section should
provide an overview oI the Iull scope and timeline oI the proiect and will be part oI the initial
proiect description eIIort leading to proiect approval. The middle section oI the WBS is based on
the seven Systems Development LiIe Cycle (SDLC) phases as a guide Ior WBS task
development. The WBS elements should consist oI milestones and 'tasks¨ as opposed to
'activities¨ and have a deIinitive period (usually two weeks or more). Each task must have a
measurable output (e.g. document, decision, or analysis). A WBS task may rely on one or more
activities (e.g. soItware engineering, systems engineering) and may require close coordination
with other tasks, either internal or external to the proiect. Any part oI the proiect needing support
Irom contractors should have a Statement oI work (SOW) written to include the appropriate tasks
Irom the SDLC phases. The development oI a SOW does not occur during a speciIic phase oI
SDLC but is developed to include the work Irom the SDLC process that may be conducted by
external resources such as contractors and struct.
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Baselines in the SDLC
Baselines are an important part oI the Systems Development LiIe Cycle (SDLC). These
baselines are established aIter Iour oI the Iive phases oI the SDLC and are critical to the iterative
nature oI the model .
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Each baseline is considered as a milestone in the SDLC.
Functional Baseline: established aIter the conceptual design phase.
Allocated Baseline: established aIter the preliminary design phase.
Product Baseline: established aIter the detail design and development phase.
Updated Product Baseline: established aIter the production construction phase.
Complementary to SDLC
Complementary SoItware development methods to Systems Development LiIe Cycle (SDLC)
are:
SoItware Prototyping
Joint Applications Design (JAD)
Rapid Application Development (RAD)
Extreme Programming (XP); extension oI earlier work in Prototyping and RAD.
Open Source Development
End-user development
Obiect Oriented Programming


Comparison oI Methodology Approaches (Post, & Anderson 2006)
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SDLC RAD
pen
Source
bjects 1AD Prototyping End User
Control Formal MIS Weak Standards Joint User User
Time Frame Long Short Medium Any Medium Short Short
Users Many Few Few Varies Few One or Two One
MIS staII Many Few Hundreds Split Few One or Two None
Transaction/DSS Transaction Both Both Both DSS DSS DSS
InterIace Minimal Minimal Weak Windows Crucial Crucial Crucial
Documentation
and training
Vital Limited Internal In Obiects Limited Weak None
Integrity and
security
Vital Vital Unknown In Obiects Limited Weak Weak
Reusability Limited Some Maybe Vital Limited Weak None

Strengths and weaknesses
Few people in the modern computing world would use a strict waterIall model Ior their
Systems Development LiIe Cycle (SDLC) as many modern methodologies have superseded this
thinking. Some will argue that the SDLC no longer applies to models like Agile computing, but
it is still a term widely in use in Technology circles. The SDLC practice has advantages in
traditional models oI soItware development, that lends itselI more to a structured environment.
The disadvantages to using the SDLC methodology is when there is need Ior iterative
development or (i.e. web development or e-commerce) where stakeholders need to review on a
regular basis the soItware being designed. Instead oI viewing SDLC Irom a strength or weakness
perspective, it is Iar more important to take the best practices Irom the SDLC model and apply it
to whatever may be most appropriate Ior the soItware being designed.

A comparison oI the strengths and weaknesses oI SDLC:
Strength and Weaknesses oI SDLC
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Strengths eaknesses
Control. Increased development time.
Monitor Large proiects. Increased development cost.
Detailed steps. Systems must be deIined up Iront.
Evaluate costs and completion targets. Rigidity.
Documentation. Hard to estimate costs, proiect overruns.
Well deIined user input. User input is sometimes limited.
Ease oI maintenance.

Development and design standards.

Tolerates changes in MIS staIIing.


An alternative to the SDLC is Rapid Application Development, which combines
prototyping, Joint Application Development and implementation oI CASE tools. The advantages
oI RAD are speed, reduced development cost, and active user involvement in the development
process.
It should not be assumed that iust because the waterIall model is the oldest original
SDLC model that it is the most eIIicient system. At one time the model was beneIicial mostly to
the world oI automating activities that were assigned to clerks and accountants. However, the
world oI technological evolution is demanding

that systems have a greater Iunctionality that
would assist help desk technicians/administrators or inIormation technology specialists/analysts.


A data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation oI the "Ilow" oI data through
an inIormation system. DFDs can also be used Ior the visualization oI data processing (structured
design).
On a DFD, data items Ilow Irom an external data source or an internal data store to an
internal data store or an external data sink, via an internal process.
A DFD provides no inIormation about the timing oI processes, or about whether
processes will operate in sequence or in parallel. It is thereIore quite diIIerent Irom a Ilowchart,
which shows the Ilow oI control through an algorithm, allowing a reader to determine what
operations will be perIormed, in what order, and under what circumstances, but not what kinds oI
data will be input to and output Irom the system, nor where the data will come Irom and go to,
nor where the data will be stored (all oI which are shown on a DFD).

verview


Data Ilow diagram example.


Data Ilow diagram - Yourdon/DeMarco notation.
It is common practice to draw a context-level data Ilow diagram Iirst, which shows the
interaction between the system and external agents which act as data sources and data sinks. On
the context diagram (also known as the 'Level 0 DFD') the system's interactions with the outside
world are modelled purely in terms oI data Ilows across the 8v8tem boundarv. The context
diagram shows the entire system as a single process, and gives no clues as to its internal
organization.
This context-level DFD is next "exploded", to produce a Level 1 DFD that shows some
oI the detail oI the system being modeled. The Level 1 DFD shows how the system is divided
into sub-systems (processes), each oI which deals with one or more oI the data Ilows to or Irom
an external agent, and which together provide all oI the Iunctionality oI the system as a whole. It
also identiIies internal data stores that must be present in order Ior the system to do its iob, and
shows the Ilow oI data between the various parts oI the system.
Data Ilow diagrams were proposed by Larry Constantine, the original developer oI
structured design,
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based on Martin and Estrin's "data Ilow graph" model oI computation.
Data Ilow diagrams (DFDs) are one oI the three essential perspectives oI the structured-systems
analysis and design method SSADM. The sponsor oI a proiect and the end users will need to be
brieIed and consulted throughout all stages oI a system's evolution. With a data Ilow diagram,
users are able to visualize how the system will operate, what the system will accomplish, and
how the system will be implemented. The old system's dataIlow diagrams can be drawn up and
compared with the new system's data Ilow diagrams to draw comparisons to implement a more
eIIicient system. Data Ilow diagrams can be used to provide the end user with a physical idea oI
where the data they input ultimately has an eIIect upon the structure oI the whole system Irom
order to dispatch to report. How any system is developed can be determined through a data Ilow
diagram.
In the course oI developing a set oI levelled data Ilow diagrams the analyst/designers is
Iorced to address how the system may be decomposed into component sub-systems, and to
identiIy the transaction data in the data model.
There are diIIerent notations to draw data Ilow diagrams (Yourdon & Coad and Gane & Sarson),
deIining diIIerent visual representations Ior processes, data stores, data Ilow, and external
entities.

Developing a data flow diagram
Event partitioning approach
Event partitioning was described by Edward Yourdon in u8t Enough Structured
Analv8i8.
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A context level Data Ilow diagram created using Select SSADM.
This level shows the overall context oI the system and its operating environment and
shows the whole system as iust one process. It does not usually show data stores, unless they are
"owned" by external systems, e.g. are accessed by but not maintained by this system, however,
these are oIten shown as external entities.
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Level 1 (high level diagram)
This level (level 1) shows all processes at the Iirst level oI numbering, data stores,
external entities and the data Ilows between them. The purpose oI this level is to show the maior
and high-level processes oI the system and their interrelation. A process model will have one,
and only one, level-1 diagram. A level-1 diagram must be balanced with its parent context level
diagram, i.e. there must be the same external entities and the same data Ilows, these can be
broken down to more detail in the level 1, example the "enquiry" data Ilow could be split into
"enquiry request" and "enquiry results" and still be valid.
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This is all about using your
creativity.

Level 2 (low level diagram)



A Level 2 Data Ilow diagram showing the "Process Enquiry" process Ior the same
system.
This level is a decomposition oI a process shown in a level-1 diagram, as such there
should be a level-2 diagram Ior each and every process shown in a level-1 diagram. In this
example, processes 1.1, 1.2 & 1.3 are all children oI process 1. Together they wholly and
completely describe process 1, and combined must perIorm the Iull capacity oI this parent
process. As beIore, a level-2 diagram must be balanced with its parent level-1 diagram.

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