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1)If the tcp round trip time,RTT is currrently 30msec and

the following acknowledgement come in after 26,32 &

24msec respectively. What is the new RTT estimate
using the Jacobson algorithm.use alpha=0.9


RTT = alpha * RTT + (1-alpha)*M

RTT = 30

RTT = 0.9 * 30 + 0.1 * 26 = 29.6

RTT = 0.9 * 29.6 + 0.1 * 32 = 29.84

RTT = 0.9 * 29.84 + 0.1 * 24 = 29.256

2) A TCP machine is sending full windows 65535 bytes

over a 1Gbps channel that has a 10msec delay one
way. What is the maximum throughput achievable?
What is the line efficiency?


Given RTT=10+10=20msec=1/20*10(pow)-3

= 50bits/sec

Max throughput=(65535*8)bits*50bits/sec


Line efficiency=Max throughput/Bandwidth

= (26.214Mbps/1Gbps)*100 = 2.62%
3) What is the fastest line speed at which a host can blast
out 1500 bytes TCP payloads with a 120 sec maximum
packet lifetime without having the Sequence numbers
wrap around? Take TCP, IP, and Ethernet overhead
into consideration. Assume that Ethernet frames may
be sent continuously.

There are two possibilities: one without segmentation and one

with segmentation.

Case 1: Assume that there is no segmentation needed.

IP header = 20 bytes

TCP header = 20 bytes

TCP payload can be 1500 bytes.

Ethernet header = 8 + 6 + 6 + 2 bytes

Ethernet checksum = 4 bytes

Therefore, the size of first frame is 1566 bytes.

The time to live = 120 sec.

The length of sequence number = 32 bits.

Therefore, the maximum number of bytes that a host can send

out without wrapping around the sequence number is 2 ^32/

Since Ethernet frames may be sent continuously, the maximum

line speed, V can be:V <= 1566 * 8 * (2^32 / 1500) (bits)/120

= 298929723.8016 bits/sec

= 298.9 Mbps
The maximum line speed is 298.9 Mbps.

4) A TCP machine is sending full windows 65535 bytes

over a 1Gbps channel that has a 10msec delay one
way. What is the maximum throughput achievable?
What is the line efficiency?

Answer:Given RTT=10+10=20msec=1/20*10(pow)-3

= 50bits/sec

Max throughput = (65535*8) bits*50bits/sec


Line efficiency=Max throughput/Bandwidth

= (26.214Mbps/1Gbps)*100 = 2.62%

5)A network has a maximum TPDU size of 128 bytes, a

maximum TPDU life time as 30 sec and a 8bit
sequence number. Find the maximum data rate per

Answer:Given 8 bit sequence numbers 2(pow)8=256 packets sent

in 30 sec

In 30 sec 128*8*255=261120 bits can be sent

Max data rate per connection=261120/30

6) Suppose that you are measuring the time to receive a
TPDU. When an interrupt occurs. You readout the
system clock in milliseconds. When the TPDU is fully
processed, you read out the clock again. You measure
0 msec 270,000 times and 1 msec 730,000 times. How
long does it take to receive a TPDU?

Answer: Compute the average: (270,000 × 0 + 730,000 × 1

msec)/1,000,000. It takes 730 µsec.

7)For a 1-Gbps network operating over 4000 km the delay

is limiting factor, not the bandwidth. Consider a MAN
with a average source and destination 20km apart. At
what data rate does the round trip delay due to the
speed of light equal the transmission delay for a 1 KB

Answer: The speed of light in fiber and copper is about 200

km/msec. For a 20-km

line, the delay is 100 µsec one way and 200 µsec round trip. A 1-
KB packet

has 8192 bits. If the time to send 8192 bits and get the
acknowledgement is

200 µsec, the transmission and propagation delays are equal. If B

is the bit

time, then we have 8192B = 2 × 10−4sec. The data rate, 1/B, is

then about

40 Mbps.
8) Calculate the bandwidth – delay product for the
following networks

i. T1 (1.5Mbps)


iii.T3 (45Mbps)


Assume an RTT of 100ms. Recall that a TCP header has 16

bits reserved for window size. What are its
implications in light of your calculations?

Answer:The answer are: (1) 18.75 KB, (2) 125 KB, (3) 562.5 KB,
(4) 1.937 MB. A

16-bit window size means a sender can send at most 64 KB

before having to

wait for an acknowledgement. This means that a sender cannot

transmit con-

tinuously using TCP and keep the pipe full if the network
technology used is

Ethernet, T3, or STS-3.

9) What is the bandwidth-delay product for 50Mbps

channel on a geostationary satellite? If the packets are
all 1500bytes (including overhead), How big should
the window be in packets?
Answer: The round-trip delay is about 540 msec, so with a 50
Mbps channel the

bandwidth-product delay is 27 megabits or 3,375,000 bytes. With

packets of

1500 bytes, it takes 2250 packets to fill the pipe, so the window
should be at

least 2250 packets.

10) Compute a multicast spanning tree for router C in the

following subnet for a group with members at routers
A, B, C, D, E, F, I, and K.

11 )Suppose that node B in Fig. 5-20 has just rebooted
and has no routing information in its tables. It
suddenly needs a route to H. It sends out broadcasts
with TTL set to 1, 2, 3, and so on. How many rounds
does it take to find a route?

Answer:It will take 3 rounds of broadcasts to locate a route to H.

12)Describe two major differences between the warning

bit method and the RED method.


1. Different ways to notify the source the congestion

In the warning bit method, the router explicitly sets a special bit
in the packet’s header to tell the source the congestion.

In the RED method, the router just discards the selected packet
and not report it, waiting the source eventually notice the
lack of acknowledgement and implicitly know the congestion.

2. Different time to drop the packets

In the warning bit method, only when there is no buffer space left
will the router drop the packet.

In the RED method, the router will drop the packet if the average
queue length on some line exceeds a threshold, even though
at that time there is still buffer space left.

13) Is fragmentation needed in concatenated virtual-

circuit internets or only in datagram systems?
Answer:Fragmentation is needed in both systems.Because when
a large packet wants to travel through a network whose
maximum packet size is too small, we need to break up the
packet into fragments. And this will occur in both
concatenated virtual-circuit internets and datagram systems,
so fragmentation is needed in both systems.

14) Imagine a flow specification that has a maximum

packet size of 1000 bytes, a token bucket rate of 10
million bytes/sec, a token bucket size of 1 million
bytes, and a maximum transmission rate of 50 million
bytes/sec. How long can a burst at maximum speed

Answer:Assume S = burst length (sec)

C = token bucket capacity (bytes)

M = maximum translation rate (bytes/sec)

ρ = token bucket rate (bytes/sec)

An output burst contains a maximum of C + ρS bytes, so

C +ρS = MS

S = C / (M – ρ)

C = 1 million bytes M = 50 million bytes ρ = 10 million bytes

S = 1 / ( 50 – 10 ) = 25 ms.
15) A computer on a 6-Mbps network is regulated by a
token bucket. The tokenbucket is filled at a rate of 1
Mbps. It is initially filled to a capacity with 8
megabits.How long can the computer transmit at a full
6 Mbps?


S = C /(M - r) = 8 /(6 -1) = 1.6s

16) A router is blasting out IP packets whose total length

(data plus header) is1024 bytes. Assuming that
packets live for 10 sec., what is the maximum data
linespeed the router can operate at without danger or
cycling through the IP datagram ID number space?

The IPv4 header provides 16 bits to the Identification field. This

means that there shouldonly be a maximum of 216 packets
alive at a certain time to ensure that they are allunique.

1024 bytes/packet * 6553.6 packets/sec * 8 bits/byte

= 53687091.2 bps

= 53.7Mbps
17)Suppose that host A is connected to a router R1,R1 is
connected to another router R2 & R2 is connected to
host B. Suppose that a TCP message that contains 900
bytes of data & 20 bytes of TCP header is passed to
the IP code at host A for delivery to B.Show the Total
Length, Identification,DF,MF & Fragment offset fields
of the IP header in each packet transmitted over the 3
links.Assume that link A-R1 can support a maximum
frame size of 1024 bytes including a 14-byte frame
header, link R1-R2 can support a maximum frame size
of 512 bytes, including an 8-byte from header & link
R2-B can support a maximum frame size of 512 bytes
including a 12-byte frame header.


a) Link A-R1:

– Length = 940; ID = x; DF = 0; MF = 0; Offset = 0

b) Link R1-R2:

– (1) Length = 500; ID = x; DF = 0; MF = 1; Offset = 0

– (2) Length = 460; ID = x; DF = 0; MF = 0; Offset = 60

c) Link R2-B:

– (1) Length = 500; ID = x; DF = 0; MF = 1; Offset = 0

– (2) Length = 460; ID = x; DF = 0; MF = 0; Offset = 60

18) A network on the Internet has a subnet mask of What is the

Maximum number of hosts it can handle?

Therefore there are 212 - 2 hosts. The reason 2 is subtracted is
because the values 0 and-1 are reserved. This calculates to
be 4094.

19) A large number of consecutive IP addresses are

available starting at . Suppose that four
organizations, A, B, C and D, request 4000, 2000,
4000and 8000 addresses, respectively and in that
order. For each of these, give the first IPaddress
assigned, the last IP address assigned, and the mask
in the w.x.y.z/s notation.

Ans: In keeping with the practical restrictions of CIDR, the number

of addresses requestedmust first be rounded up to a power of
2 for each request. Accordingly, the requests arefor 4096,
2048, 4096 and 8192 addresses in order. The number of bits
needed in the host part for each network is, therefore, 12, 11,
12 and 13 in order. The masks therefore are going to be /20, /
21, /20 and /19. Now all we have to do is to arrange them in
the earliest available address chunk of that size and aligned
on the appropriate boundary as per CIDR rules. The table
below shows the actual assignments. The last row shows the
state of the address space after satisfying each request.
Notice the “holes” that had to be left in the address space
assignment in order to align the address chunks to the
appropriate power-of-2 addresses.

The table below shows the actual assignments.

20) Consider the network , Imagine that one new line is
added between D & G. What changes occurs to sink tree &
tree built by reverse path forwarding.

21) At a certain router, an IP datagram consisting of 926

data bytes to be fragmented for transmission on a
network with a maximum data field of 256 bytes. The
header length of the original datagram is 36 bytes.
Assuming that all fragments are of the maximum length,
find the values of the header length, total length,
fragment affect & more fields for each fragment.

1 36 292 0 1

2 36 292 256 1

3 36 292 512 1

4 36 292 768 0