Summer Internship Project
Recruitment & Selection
Submitted in partial fulfillment of MBA program 2009-11
Company Guide Mr. Johar Osram India Pvt. Ltd 1400576
Submitted by Richa Agarwal Roll no:
Faculty of Management Studies, Graphic Era University, Dehradun
I RICHA AGARWAL, understanding hereby declares that the project entitled “RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION” am the original work. The Project Report submitted in partial fulfilment of course Master of Business administration (MBA) is my original work. No part of this project can be used for any other purpose as stated above. I understand that any detection of copying or using is liable to be punished in any way the company and the institutions deems fit.
Date: Place: -
RICHA AGARWAL 1400576
I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project. I wish to express my gratitude to Mr. JOHAR (VP - HR) & Mrs. RUCHI CHILANA (Project mentor) and also thankful to all others in HR Department. I can’t thank enough for their tremendous support and help. Without their encouragement and guidance this project would not have materialized. The guidance and support received from all the members who contributed and who are contributing to this project, was vital for the success of the project. I am grateful for their constant support and help. My sincere thanks to my faculty Mentor Miss. AISHWARYA MEHTA & all the respected faculties of M.B.A. department who offered me all kind of support and help in preparing the project. Last but not the least; I would like to thank my Family and two of my friends Mani & Avantika for their constant guidance, support and encouragement.
The original work was carried during 1/7/2010 to 15/8/2010 in OSRAM INDIA PVT. Dehradun by RICHA AGARWAL in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Masters in Business Administration. Graphic Era University. This work has not been submitted anywhere else for any other Degree/diploma.
Name of the guide: Mrs. Haryana. Ltd.
This is to certify that the project work done on “Recruitment and Selection” Submitted to Faculty of Management. South City-I Gurgaon 122001. LTD. is a bonafide work carried out by her under my supervision and guidance. Ruchi Seal/Stamp of the Organization Address: OSRAM India Pvt. 11th Floor Tower B. India.
OSRAM Profile • Background • Vision and Mission • History • Social Policy • Taxation Policy • Achievements • Presence of OSRAM IPL in INDIA • Product Catalog 7 8 – 22
4. Executive Summary 2. Introduction to Topic • Definition • Purposes and Importance • Subsystem of Recruitment • Recruitment policy • Inducements • Constraints • Recruitment Strategies • Sources of Recruitment • Recruitment Process
23 – 69
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Recommendations 9. Literature Review 6. Data Analysis and Findings 8. Bibliography 11. Research Methodology 7.6
• Factors Affecting Recruitment • Forms of Recruitment • Recruitment in OSRAM INDIA • Sources of Recruitment • Methods of Recruitment • Alternative to Recruitment • Selection • Selection process • Standard for Selection test • Selection Process • Selection Interview • Types of Interview • Steps in Interview Process • Interviewing Mistakes • BARRIERS TO Effective Selection 5. Annexure 102 70 71 – 76 77 – 87 88 – 91 92 – 98 99 100 –
. Conclusion 10.
The findings suggest varied and not-
. Human Resource Planning is a vital ingredient for the success of the organization in the long run. in every organization personnel planning as an activity is necessary. The Recruitment & Selection Method applied at the OSRAM India Private Limited (OIPL). It is recommended to carry out a strategic analysis of Recruitment and Selection procedure. rather than individual function. There are certain ways that are to be followed by every organization. at the right place and right time. The management is committed to fulfill the requirement of our internal & external customer. The study reveals that a good Recruitment & Selection Process was adopted by the company. which ensures that it has right number and kind of people.8
Today. For every organization it is important to have a right person on a right job.
This Study aims to explore the prevalent Recruitment & Selection Process at OSRAM India Private Limited. As Recruitment and selection process is very important function of the HR department.
The objective of the study is to find the recruitment and selection methods prevalent at Osram India Pvt. Shortage of skills and the use of new technology are putting considerable pressure on how employers go about Recruiting and Selecting staff. the study aims to identify the sources of recruitment of the potential employees. was observed. It is an important part of an organization. Recruitment and Selection plays a vital role in this situation. to prevent the mistake to happen through optimize & harmonies interrelated process. so that organization can achieve its planned objective. Ltd. The primary purpose of the study is to examine the prevailing procedure for recruitment and selection of employees.
expensive ways for retaining people.
Siemens & Halske AG and Deutsche Gasglühlicht AG (Auer Gesellschaft) merged their light bulb production activities. The special display-optic lamp sector is also characterized by a high rate of innovation. Over the next few years OSRAM expects strongest growth in innovations. This global player has its headquarters in Munich and employs more than 39.
Over 100 years of OSRAM
The OSRAM brand name was registered way back in 1906 and is one of the oldest trade names still recognized throughout the world. Business with optical semiconductors is growing rapidly and has taken on major strategic importance.
Light for every walk of life
The highest sales are achieved by the General Lighting division.000 people throughout the world.6% of sales. Siemens AG is the sole shareholder in OSRAM GmbH. OSRAM is the world's number one supplier of automotive lamps and LED for vehicles.
Innovation. also used in English). On July 1.10
Osram. OSRAM is a hightech company in the lighting industry. 1919 AEG. Today. OSRAM generates over 66 per cent of sales from energy-efficient products. the motor for growth
Outlay on research and development is around 6. The name is derived from osmium and Wolfram (German for tungsten. Today. is part of the industry sector of Siemens AG and one of the two leading lighting manufacturers in the world.
. OSRAM is also one of the market leaders in the field of electronic control gear (ECG) for lamps. founded 1906. as both these elements were commonly used for lighting filaments at the time the company was founded.
merged to form Osram GmbH KG. 1927In 1906 the Deutsche Gasglühlicht AG (DGA) registered the trademark “Osram” for a new kind of wolfram lamp. Osram has been wholly owned by Siemens.
After World War I. OSRAM is a true global player.” – OSRAM management team. AEG and Siemens & Halske. “We're proud of our longstanding reputation of providing lighting solutions in homes. the major German manufacturers of incandescent lamps.12
OSRAM is one of the two largest lighting manufacturers in the world. businesses and institutions.
. In 1976 AEG sold its Osram shares to Siemens under the same circumstances which led to the sale of its KWU and TU shares (see Kraftwerk Union and Transformatoren Union AG). the well-known Osram logo was also developed which is still in use today. in 1921/22. when Siemens was also able to acquire General Electric’s shares. AEG and Siemens & Halske brought their own incandescent lamp factories into the new business. OSRAM products are used in about 150 countries. OSRAM. illumination of Potsdamer Platz with a 3000-watt Osram-Nitra lamp. Germany. DGA. Since 1978. With sales outside Germany accounting for 88 % of total turnover and a sales presence on every continent. automobiles and a broad range of specialty applications. OSRAM SYLVANIA is the North American operation of OSRAM GmbH. with only minor modifications since it was first designed. In the same period.
door lock lights and headlamp switches. practical functionality and design flexibility. global product marketing manager at OSRAM for its Automotive LED Systems Strategic Business Segment. Compared to incandescent light sources. generate less waste and offer vehicle designers unprecedented design flexibility. white and Ice Blue -. The design flexibility offered by LEDs makes them even more desirable for defining the signature look of one
. In fiscal 2005 the company. blue.to suit the mood. The Mustang's ambient interior lighting system uses the OSRAM TOPLED family of LEDs to flood color into the cup holders.13
Today it is one of the world’s leading lamp manufacturers. headquartered in Munich. coupled with its long-lasting durability means less waste is generated in the form of replacement parts and packaging. purple. OSRAM LED technology also lights the Mustang's interior. foot wells and console. Incandescent signal lights.
"LEDs continue to define the future of automobile lighting when it comes to environmental sustainability. JOULE Systems can save a driver up to 4 gallons of gasoline every year. The programmable system allows occupants to customize the interior color by choosing from seven colors -.red. the JOULE System uses tiny LEDs that consume 10 times less energy. window switches.3 billion euros. achieved sales of 4. "The reduction in energy consumption. providing the distinctive Ice Blue glow to the center stack. orange. green.
OSRAM TOPLED was the driver behind the industry-first color-configurable instrument cluster in the 2005 Ford Mustang and continues to provide the color lighting source for the 2010 Mustang's interior lighting." said David Hulick. 88 percent of which came from outside Germany. door panels.
a feature not seen on Mustang since the 1960s. offered as an option? "We're proud Ford Motor Company looked to OSRAM. OSRAM is as much a part of Mustang as Mustang is a part of the American fabric. front and rear side marker lamps and the D3S XENON headlamps. The OSRAM JOULE System helps vehicle manufacturers incorporate the functionality. JOULE makes LED technology more accessible in the marketplace by providing OEM designers with a reliable. the world leader in automotive lighting when creating the latest Ford Mustang. industry standardized light source that simplifies the design process and can be utilized by many vehicle platforms for rear combination lamp assemblies (RCLs). LED CHMSL. Along with the Mustang's distinctive rear combination tail lamps." The 2010 Ford Mustang's design is a more aggressive and muscular take on the iconic look that has come to define Mustang. For example. from the center out." said Hulick. "From the bright illumination of the D3S mercury-free XENON HID headlamps to the cool convenience of the interior dome lamp. As the first standardized LED system. and distinctive styling that today's consumers look for in a vehicle. while drawing inspiration from the car's rich heritage. the new vertical tail lamp design utilizes three LED bulbs that fire sequentially. energysavings. The 2010 Mustang is the sixth Ford Motor Company vehicle to benefit from OSRAM mercury-free. fog lamps. OSRAM worked closely with Valero Sylvania to supply the complete exterior package including the.14
of America's most celebrated vehicles.
. durability. high-intensity discharge lighting technology.
OSRAM sets clear and ambitious goals to stay ahead of the pack.
OSRAM believes that its ideas can make a difference in every person's life and that its products reflect a commitment to making the world more comfortable. innovative and environment friendly lighting solutions. and drive. positive change. They are open to. To be the market leader by offering efficient and innovative lighting solution for all applications.15
COMPANY’S Mission Vision
Light up life through efficient. Create an environment that enhances the productivity. Company continues to strive on growth and profitability and are guided by set of values: OSRAM SYLVANIA is its people. more productive and more imaginative.
. motivation of the employees and fosters team-spirit. Company is customer focused.
Company’s mission is to shape today's materials into the lighting solution of tomorrow. They respect and care for the environment. Provide customers with products adhering to the highest quality and safety standards at affordable prices.
88 percent of which came from outside Germany. 1921/22:The well-known Osram logo was also developed which is still in use today. After World War I.16
EVENTS 1906:In 1906 the Deutsche Gasglühlicht AG (DGA) registered the trademark “Osram” for a new kind of wolfram lamp. with only minor modifications since it was first designed 1976:AEG sold its Osram shares to Siemens under the TU shares (see Kraft work Union and Transformatoren Union AG. 1978:When Siemens was also able to acquire General Electric’s shares.3 billion euros.
. headquartered in Munich. AEG and Siemens & Halske. AEG and Siemens & Halske brought their own incandescent lamp factories into the new business. the major German manufacturers of incandescent lamps. Today it is one of the world’s leading lamp manufacturers 2005:The company. Osram has been wholly owned by Siemens. merged to form Osram GmbH KG. DGA. achieved sales of 4.
Sylvania also expanded into consumer electronics. prevent discrimination & ensure timely compensation. In the 1980s.
Management is committed to: To ensure conformation to all regulation of SA-8000 Standard & compliance towards national and the applicable laws/regulation. support freedom of association. In the 1970s and 1980s.17
The 1940s and 1950s company witnessed enormous growth. OSRAM SYLVANIA in its current form was created in January 1993. for example. It increased its production of materials and components. as new plants were opened. the SYLVANIA Octron® fluorescent lamp and the OSRAM Dulux® compact fluorescent lamp represented major innovations. phosphors and metals. OSRAM gradually moved out of consumer electronics to focus on lighting and precision materials. To prevent use of child and forced labour improve health & safety. our code of conduct
. used in lighting and other products. television tubes and radios. To encourage our suppliers & contractors to support our principles & commitment on social accountability.
The management shall review social performance at regular interval for continual improvement taking consideration in changes of legislation. This policy is committed to all personnel directly or indirectly employed or otherwise represented by the organization through awareness training. In 1998 company established confidential e-team to begin discussing how best to utilize the Web to forward the company’s business objectives. To conduct our business & with fairness honesty & integrity by follow on the business conduct Guidelines & Compliance Programs.
This policy shall be made to interested parties/ stakeholders/and public on request . OHSAS 18001 (health and safety) and SA 8000 (social accountability).
The current charge for income tax is calculated in accordance with the relevant tax regulations applicable to the Company. Deferred tax asset and liability is recognized for future tax consequences attributable to the timing differences that result between the profit offered for income tax and the profit as per the financial statements.
The OSRAM plant in Sonepat is the fourth in India and the seventh in the world to be awarded the Best4 (Business Excellence Sustainability Task) Integrated Management certification by RINA. This indicates compliance with international standards ISO 9001(quality).18
guidelines and the regulation.
The Sonepat Plant has also been honored with the Siemens Environmental Award 2006. ISO 14001 (environment). Deferred tax asset & liability are measured as per the tax rates/laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date.
MADISON . Airport Road (1/3 Kodihalli Main Road) Bangalore . Gurgaon] OSRAM Factory: OSRAM India Pvt. India.4th Floor. South City-I Gurgaon 122001. Unit No# 301 .
Regional Office In SOUTH
OSRAM India Pvt.560008
Gurgaon IDC Times Square Building.19
Presence of OSRAM IPL in India
Head / North Office:
OSRAM India Pvt. Sushant Lok-1. 11th Floor Tower B. Signature Towers. Ltd. Haryana. Delhi Road Sonepat .131 001 Tel: +91-130-2218101 to 10 Fax: +91-130-2218113
. B-Block. Ltd.303. Ltd. IInd Floor.
7-1-282/C/1/56. Hyderabad-500038 Andhra Pradesh OSRAM India Pvt. OSRAM India Pvt. NSS Working Women Hostel. Devi Pharmaceuticals. C/o Aruna Trade Combine #38/10.20
OSRAM Distribution Centers:
OSRAM India Pvt. C/o Fixit & Co. Laxman Road Kandanchavaidi Chennai OSRAM India Pvt. New Timber Yard Layout Opp. Ltd. Mysore Road Bangalore – 27 OSRAM India Pvt. Balakampet. Padivattom. Lingaiah Nagar. Ltd. Door no 34/527A.N H Bypass. Ltd. Ltd.682 024 Opp. C/o. 225/20B. Edappally-Arkkaakadavu Road Cochin . Ltd.
.303. 178 Sec-A . PHARMA MARKETING SERVICES PVT. Budge-Budge Trunk Road.M. Agility Logistics Private Ltd. M. Khagaul Road. LTD.21
Unit No# 301 . Kolkatta OSRAM India Pvt. Bhuwaneshwar OSRAM India Pvt. General Magnets Premises JayShree Bus Stop. C/o Rashmi Agency.N. Ltd.4th Floor.
Mourya Vihar Phulwari Sharif. MADISON . Zone-B Mancheswar Industrial Estate. Ltd.560008
OSRAM India Pvt. Plot No. Rasulgarh. Patna OSRAM India Pvt. Ltd. Airport Road(1/3 Kodihalli Main Road) Bangalore .Gobindpur. C/o P.P 16. Ltd. C/o Trishakti Enterprises West of B.
"Gour Smriti" A.K. DEB Road Fatashil (AMBARI) Guwhati- 781025, Assam OSRAM India Pvt. Ltd. Garg Niwas, Lake Avenue Kanke Road RANCHI - 834 008
OSRAM India Pvt. Ltd. C/o Baba Associates Khasra No.43/25 Near Giri Raj Dharamkanta Khera Kalan, Delhi-110082, OSRAM India Pvt. Ltd. Resort, C/o Sumit & Co. Kay Ess Associates SCO No. 32-33-34 (1st Floor ) Chandigarh-Zirakpur Road,
Opposite Imperial Resort, Adjoining Link Road to Choice Zirakpur, Distt. Mohali Punjab - 140 105 OSRAM India Pvt. Ltd. Shambhoo Enterprises G519, Road no. 9-A, Vishwakarma Industrial Area
Jaipur - 302013. OSRAM India Pvt. Ltd. C/o Kamal Sons C-46, Akashdeep Building Transport Nagar Lucknow 226012 OSRAM India Pvt. Ltd. C/o Nitin Enterprises 1557/2, Near Shankar Cold Storage Road, Bulandshar Bridge Ghaziabad - 201 001 OSRAM India Pvt. Ltd. C/o Nitin Enterprises D.K Cold Storage Compound Sunhera Road, Idgah Chowk , Kashipur Roorkee, Uttranchal OSRAM India Pvt. Ltd. C/o Sunder Cols Storage GT Karnal RoadKundli, Dist. Sonepat Haryana
Incandescent lamps Compact fluorescent lamps / Energy saving lamps Fluorescent lamps Special lamps LED systems Display/Optic Light management systems
Tungsten halogen lamps LED lamps High intensity discharge (HID) lamps Display and signal lamps and lamps for traffic light installations Automotive lamps Control gears Luminaires
OSRAM Opto Semiconductors: LED and optical semiconductors
qualifications and experience. Once the required number and kind of human resources are determined. Recruitment is only one of the steps in the entire employment process.. These two are not one and the same. Without positive and creative contributions from people. they need to recruit people with requisite skills. Technically speaking.Formal definition of recruitment would give clear cut idea about the function of recruitment. whereas the selection is the process of finding out the most suitable candidate to the job out of the candidates attracted (i. Recruitment is distinct from Employment and Selection. In order to achieve the goals or the activities of an organization. While doing so. therefore. they have to keep the present as well as the future requirements of the organization in mind. “a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting
. developing the sources of prospective employees and attracting them to apply for jobs in an organization. These are not the same either. organizations cannot progress and prosper. the management has to find the places where the required human resources are/will be available and also find the means of attracting them towards the organization before selecting suitable candidates for jobs. Some people use the term “Recruitment” for employment.25
INTRODUCTION TO TOPIC
The human resources are the most important assets of an organization.e. the function of recruitment precedes the selection function and it includes only finding. The success or failure of an organization is largely dependent on the caliber of the people working therein. Some others use the term recruitment for selection. DEFINITIONS Recruitment is defined as. All this process is generally known as recruitment. recruited).
that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient workforce. the purposes are to: Determine the present and future requirements of the organization in conjunction with its personnel-planning and job-analysis activities. Thus. Specifically. Flippo defined recruitment as “the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. will leave the organization only after a short period of time. Help reduce the probability that job applicants. Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate
. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected. the recruitment process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted.” Edwin B. under qualified or overqualified job applicants. In order to attract people for the jobs. the organization must communicate the position in such a way that job seekers respond. the recruitment process should attract qualified applicants and provide enough information for unqualified persons to self-select themselves out. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost. Help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number of visibly. once recruited and selected.
PURPOSES AND IMPORTANCE
The general purpose of recruitment is to provide a pool of potentially qualified job candidates. It is a ‘joining process’ in that it tries to bring together job seekers and employer with a view to encourage the former to apply for a job with the latter. To be cost effective.” Recruitment is a ‘linking function’-joining together those with jobs to fill and those seeking jobs.
Search for talent globally and not just within the company. and generate enthusiasm among the best candidates so that they will apply for the vacant positions. Induct outsiders with a new perspective to lead the company. Search or head hunt/head pouch people whose skills fit the company’s values.27
candidates. whereas. Devise methodologies for assessing psychological traits. provide enough information about the jobs so that applicants can make comparisons with their qualifications and interests. Infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organization. a haphazard and piecemeal effort will result in mediocre ones. and eventually decide whether they wish to work for it. It can greatly complicate the selection process
. Design entry pay that competes on quality but not on quantum. create a positive image of the company. The recruitment process should inform qualified individuals about employment opportunities. The negative consequences of a poor recruitment process speak volumes about its role in an organization. are not interested in working for the company and do not apply. A well-planned and well-managed recruiting effort will result in high-quality applicants. Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees. Increase organizational and individual effectiveness in the short term and long term. Evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants. The failure to generate an adequate number of reasonably qualified applicants can prove costly in several ways. High-quality employees cannot be selected when better candidates do not know of job openings. It is through recruitment that many individuals will come to know a company. Anticipate and find people for positions that do not exist yet. Develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to the company.
SUB-SYSTEMS OF RECRUITMENT
The recruitment process consists of the following four sub-functions:• • • • Finding out and developing the sources where the required number and kind of employees will be available.28
and may result in lowering of selection standards. Developing suitable techniques to attract the desirable candidates. Though. the effectiveness of a recruitment process can play a major role in determining the resources that must be expended on other HR activities and their ultimate success. a number of factors make performance of recruitment a complex one. the function of recruitment seems to be easy. Employing the techniques to attract candidates.
. resulting in avoidable consequences. This can distort traditional wage and salary relationships in the organization. Furthermore. a typical response is to raise entry-level pay scales. the unsuitable candidates are automatically eliminated. Management has to attract more candidates in order to increase the selection ratio so that the most suitable candidate can be selected out of the total candidates available. when recruitment fails to meet the organizational needs for talent. Stimulating as many candidates as possible and asking them to apply for jobs irrespective of the number of candidates required. The poor quality of selection means extra cost on training and supervision. Recruitment is positive as it aims at increasing the number of applicants and selection is somewhat negative as it selects the suitable candidates in which process. Thus.
. They are:Government policies Personnel policies of other competing organizations Organization’s personnel policies Recruitment sources Recruitment needs Recruitment cost Selection criteria and preference
Organizational inducements are all the positive features and benefits offered by an organization that serves to attract job applicants to the organization. social responsibility in absorbing minority sections. etc. The following factors should be taken into consideration in formulating recruitment policy. recruitment policy by itself should take into consideration the government’s reservation policy.. internal sources. etc. However. Recruitment policy should commit itself to the organization’s personnel policy like enriching the organization’s human resources or servicing the community by absorbing the retrenched or laid-off employees or casual/temporary employees or dependents of present/former employees. policy regarding sons of soil. etc. women. In other words the former is a part of the latter. personnel policies of other organizations regarding merit.29
Recruitment policy of any organization is derived from the personnel policy of the same organization.
Recruiting efforts require money. If the job is not attractive.
Image or Reputation. incentives and fringe benefits can all serve as inducements to potential employees. Sometimes because of limited
. hazardous. low-paying. many of the prospective candidates may not even apply for vacancies advertised by the firm. anxiety producing. the nature and quality of its products and services and its participation in worthwhile social endeavors. qualified people may not even apply.
Factors that affect an organization’s reputation include its general treatment of employees.
If a firm has a poor image in the market.
These help the present employees to grow personally and professionally and also attract good people to the organization. or lacking in promotion potential seldom will attract a qualified pool of applicants. Any job that is viewed as boring. The feeling that the company takes care of employee career aspirations serves as a powerful inducements to potential employees.30
inducements need specific mention here. they are:-
Starting salaries. frequency of pay increases.
resources. reservations to specific groups (such as scheduled castes. etc. etc. backward castes. Government policies often come in the way of recruiting people as per the rules of the company or on the basis of merit/seniority.
. constrain a recruiter’s effort to attract the best person for the job. ultimately.) have to be observed as per constitutional provisions while filling up vacancies in government corporations. organizations may not like to carry on the recruiting efforts for long periods of time. quasi-government organizations. ex-servicemen. local bodies. this can. For example. scheduled tribes. etc. departmental undertakings. physically handicapped and disabled persons.
For formulating an effective and successful recruitment strategy.32
Recruitment is of the most crucial roles of the human resource professionals. there is a need to identify the positions requiring immediate attention and action. It is impossible to fill all the positions immediately. A successful recruitment strategy should be well planned and practical to attract more and good talent to apply in the organization.
Candidates to target
The recruitment process can be effective only if the organization completely understands the requirements of the type of candidates that are required and will be beneficial for the organization. The level of performance of and organization depends on the effectiveness of its recruitment function. This covers the following parameters as well:
. the strategy should cover the following elements:
Identifying and prioritizing jobs
Recruitment keeps arising at various levels in every organization. it is useful to prioritize the vacancies whether to focus on all vacancies equally or focusing on key jobs first. To maintain the quality of the recruitment activities. it is almost a neverending process. Organizations have developed and follow recruitment strategies to hire the best talent for their organization and to utilize their resources optimally. Therefore.
The candidate’s experience can range from being a fresher to experienced senior professionals. top performers of the industry etc. Which are the sources to be used and focused for the recruitment purposes for various positions.
Sources of recruitment
The strategy should define various sources (external and internal) of recruitment. technical etc. Like the rounds of technical interviews.e.
How to evaluate the candidates
The various parameters and the ways to judge them i. They should also be aware of the major parameters and skills (e.: behavioral.
. different industry.33
Performance level required: Different strategies are required for focusing on hiring high performers and average performers.g. He/she can be from the same industry. Employee referral is one of the most effective sources of recruitment.
The recruitment professionals conducting the interviews and the other recruitment activities should be well-trained and experienced to conduct the activities. Experience level required: The strategy should be clear as to what is the experience level required by the organization. unemployed. Category of the candidate: The strategy should clearly define the target candidate.) to focus while interviewing and selecting a candidate. the entire recruitment process should be planned in advance. HR interviews.
To attain budget approval you must have your position approved by your area VP. CPM Job-E Committee assigns CPM bands to the position. psychometric tests etc. no changes to job .
RECRUITMENT PROCESS: THE ‘HEART’ OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
Recruitment Process 1) Recruitment request and job summary:
Required to post a position Electronic forms can be used to expedite posting.
5) Short listing/Selection:
Hiring manager can review files and may or may not involve Recruitment Services in the selection process.
3) Posting new positions:
Provisional ratings done for YUSA.34
Forwarded to hiring manager once posting has closed. Please note that these positions must be budget approved.
2) Posting existing positions:
Verifying status of current position.
6) External Searches:
Can be conducted when internal applicants are not qualified.
The hiring manager can screen and interview the applicants. Recruitment Services provides the incumbent with two letters. Affirmative Action search begins with a possibility of advertising. with or without Recruitment Services.
10) Recruitment Forms:
ETFs / PAFs must be forwarded to Recruitment Services.
9) Job Offer:
The hiring manager or Recruitment Services makes the offer.
8) Reference Checks:
The hiring manager will conduct reference checks.
11) Offer letters:
The ETF/PAF generates the offer letter. one to be signed and returned.
. if accepted.
Set-up by Recruitment Services and is required for all new employees to York. Recruitment Services optional.
FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT
The recruitment function of the organizations is affected and governed by a mix of various internal and external forces. The internal forces or factors are the factors that can be controlled by the organization. And the external factors are those factors which cannot be controlled by the organization. The internal and external forces affecting recruitment function of an organization are:
Forms Of Recruitment
The organizations differ in terms of their size, business, processes and practices. A few decisions by the recruitment professionals can affect the productivity and efficiency of the organization. Organizations adopt different forms of recruitment practices according to the specific needs of the organization. The organizations can choose from the centralized or decentralized forms of recruitment, explained below:
The recruitment practices of an organization are centralized when the HR / recruitment department at the head office performs all functions of recruitment. Recruitment decisions for all the business verticals and departments of an organization are carried out by the one central HR (or recruitment) department. Centralized from of recruitment is commonly seen in government organizations. Benefits of the centralized form of recruitment are: • • • • • Reduces administration costs Better utilization of specialists Uniformity in recruitment Interchangeability of staff Reduces favoritism
Every department sends requisitions for recruitment to their central office
Decentralized recruitment practices are most commonly seen in the case of conglomerates operating in different and diverse business areas. With diverse and geographically spread business areas and offices, it becomes important to understand the needs of each department and frame the recruitment policies and procedures accordingly. Each department carries out its own recruitment. Choice between the two will depend upon management philosophy and needs of particular organization. In some cases combination of both is used. Lower level staffs as well as top level executives are recruited in a decentralized manner.
MERITS OF DECENTRALISED RECRUITMENT
The unit concerned concentrates only on those sources/places wherein normally gets the suitable candidates. As such the cost of recruitment would be relatively less. The unit gets most suitable candidates as it is well aware of the requirements of the job regarding culture, traditional, family background aspects, local factors, social factors, etc. Units can recruit candidates as and when they are required without any delay. The units would enjoy freedom in finding out, developing the sources, in selecting and employing the techniques to stimulate the candidates. The unit would relatively enjoy advantage about the availability of information, control and feedback and various functions/processes of recruitment. The unit would enjoy better familiarity and control over the employees it recruits rather than on employees selected by the central recruitment agency.
Both the systems of recruitment would suffer from their own demerits. It usually prefers online recruitment through job or web portals like www. No intermediaries. The management has to find out and develop the sources of recruitment after deciding upon centralizing or decentralizing the recruitment function.com etc. Some of the advantages and the disadvantages of erecruitment are as follows:
Advantages of E-Recruitment are:
Lower costs to the organization. Also. All the recruitment activities take place from its headquarters. Alternatively management may decentralize the recruitment of certain categories of employees preferably middle and top level managerial personnel and centralize the recruitment of other categories of employee’s preferably lower level positions in view of the nature of the jobs and suitability of those systems for those categories of positions.naukri. the management has to weigh both the merits and demerits of each system before making a final decision about centralizing or decentralizing the recruitment.
. Hence. posting jobs online is cheaper than advertising in the newspapers. There are many benefits – both to the employers and the job seekers but the e-recruitment is not free from a few shortcomings.
RECRUITMENT IN OSRAM INDIA
Recruitment in Osram India is in centralized form.
. There is low Internet penetration and no access and lack of awareness of internet in many locations across India. Gives a 24*7 access to an online collection of resumes. Some of them are: Screening and checking the skill mapping and authenticity of million of resumes is a problem and time consuming exercise for organisations. which helps the HR managers to take various HR decisions like promotions. Online recruitment helps the organizations to weed out the unqualified candidates in an automated way. e-recruitment has its own share of shortcomings and disadvantages. Facilitates the recruitment of right type of people with the required skills.40
Reduction in the time for recruitment (over 65 percent of the hiring time). Organizations cannot be dependant solely and totally on the online recruitment methods.
Recruitment websites also provide valuable data and information regarding the compensation offered by the competitors etc. Improved efficiency of recruitment process. salary trends in industry etc
Disadvantages of E-Recruitment
Apart from the various benefits.
External Sources :
External sources lie outside an organization. (g) Unsolicited applications/ Walk Ins
. issued by the organization. (c) Students from reputed educational institutions. (d) Candidates referred by unions. Retrenched employees.
Persons who are already working in an organization constitute the ‘internal sources’. someone from within the organization is upgraded. Here the organization can have the services of : (a) Employees working in other organizations. Both have their own merits and demerits. Let’s examine these. promoted or even demoted. (f) Candidates responding to the advertisements. retired employees. (b) Jobs aspirants registered with employment exchanges.41
SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT
The sources of recruitment may be broadly divided into two categories: internal sources and external sources. relatives and existing employees. transferred. Whenever any vacancy arises. (e) Candidates forwarded by search firms and contractors. friends. dependents of deceased employees may also constitute the internal sources.
higher level positions in an organization. It motivates them to work hard and earn promotions. Existing employees may fail to behave in innovative ways and inject necessary dynamism to enterprise activities. As years roll by.
Limited Choice: The organization is forced to select candidates from a limited pool of candidates. Bone of contention: Recruitment from within may lead to infighting among employees aspiring for limited. No expenses are incurred on advertising. They will work with loyalty commitment and enthusiasm. The candidate can choose a right vacancy where their talents can be fully utilized. Inefficiency: Promotions based on
length of service rather than merit. available outside an organization.42
Merits and Demerits of ‘Recruiting people from ‘Within’: Merits
Economical: The cost of recruiting internal candidates is minimal. the race for premium positions may end up in a bitter race. Inbreeding: It discourages entry for talented people. Satisfying: A policy of preferring people from within offers regular promotional avenues for employees. may prove to be a blessing for inefficient candidate. Suitable: The organization can pick the right candidates having the requisite skills. They do not work hard and prove their worth.
It may end up hiring someone who does not fit and who may not be able to adjust in the new setup. screen.43
Merits and Demerits of External sources of Recruitment: Merits
Wide Choice: The organization has the freedom to select candidates from a large pool. Such a competitive atmosphere would help an employee to work to the best of his abilities. etc. De-motivating: Existing employees who have put in considerable service may resist the process of filling up vacancies from outside.
Expenses: Hiring costs could go up substantially. to test and test and to select suitable employees. The feeling that their services have not been recognized by the organization. Where suitable ones are not available. new ideas could find meaningful expression. forces then to work with less enthusiasm and motivation. Time consuming: It takes time to advertise. Tapping multifarious sources of recruitment is not an easy task either. Persons with requisite qualifications could be picked up. Motivational force: It helps in motivating internal employees to work hard and compete with external candidates while seeking career growth. the process has to be repeated. Uncertainty: There is no guarantee that Long term benefits: Talented people could join the ranks. a competitive atmosphere would compel people to give out their best and earn rewards. Infection of fresh blood: People with special skills and knowledge could be hired to stir up the existing employees and pave the way for innovative ways of working. the organization ultimately will be able to hire the services of suitable candidates.
Organizations generally prepare badli lists or a central
. A transfer is a lateral movement within the same grade. responsibilities.
INTERNAL METHODS: Promotions and Transfers
This is a method of filling vacancies from within through transfers and promotions. but not necessarily salary. etc. from one job to another. status and value. Promotion.. on the other hand.44
METHODS OF RECRUITMENT
The following are the most commonly used methods of recruiting people. working conditions. It may lead to changes in duties and responsibilities. involves movement of employee from a lower level position to a higher level position accompanied by (usually) changes in duties.
electronic method and similar outlets. are encouraged to recommend the names of their friends.
Job posting is another way of hiring people from within. In fact. Such persons are usually passed on to various departments. this has become a popular way of recruiting people in the highly competitive Information Technology industry nowadays. gratuity. It is a recommendation from a current employee regarding a job applicant. The logic behind employee referral is that “it takes one to know one”.45
pool of persons from which vacancies can be filled for manual jobs. including provident fund. In this method. in this case. One of the important advantages of this method is that it offers a chance to highly qualified applicants working within the company to look for growth opportunities within the company to look for growth opportunities within the company without looking for greener pastures outside. working in other organizations for a possible vacancy in the near future. the
organization publicizes job opening on bulletin boards. retrenchment compensation. As a goodwill gestures.
. If a person remains on such rolls for 240 days or more. depending on internal requirements. he gets the status of a permanent employee as per the Industrial Disputes Act and is therefore entitled to all relevant benefits.
Employee referral means using personal contacts to locate job opportunities. Companies offer rich rewards also to employees whose recommendations are accepted – after the routine screening and examining process is over – and job offers extended to the suggested candidates. Employees working in the organization. companies also consider the names recommended by unions from time to time.
Further. Citibank. campus recruiting means hiring people with little or no work experience. in turn. Here the recruiters visit reputed educational institutions such as IITs. colleges and universities with a view to pick up job aspirants having requisite technical or professional skills. State Bank of India. most reputed organizations (such as Hindustan Lever Ltd. The organizations will have to offer some kind of training to the applicants.. applicants can be prescreened. etc. IIMs. almost immediately after hiring. Advantages of this method include: the placement centre helps locate applicants and provides resumes to organizations.46
External (direct) Methods: Campus Recruitment:
It is a method of recruiting by visiting and participating in college campuses and their placement centers. Job seekers are provided information about the jobs and the recruiters. campus recruiting can be costly for organizations situated in another city (airfare. It demands careful advance planning. site visit of applicants if allowed. looking into the placement weeks of various institutions in different parts of the country. If campus recruitment is used. get a snapshot of job seekers through constant interchange of information with respective institutions. On the negative front. In view of the growing demand for young managers. Proctor & Cable. applicants will not have to be lured away from a current job and lower salary expectations. A preliminary screening is done within the campus and the short listed students are then subjected to the remainder of the selection process.). Tata and Birla group companies) visit IIMs and IITs regularly and even sponsor certain popular campus activities with a view to earn goodwill in the job market. boarding and lodging expenses of recruiters. steps should be taken by human resource department to
Use effective recruitment material:
Attractive brochures. funding university infrastructural requirements. Guidelines for campus recruiting: companies using college campuses as recruitment source should consider the following guidelines:
Identify the potential candidates early:
The earlier that candidate with top potential can be identified. the more likely the organization will be in a position to attract them. in the long run these will enhance the prestige of the company in the eyes of potential job seekers.47
ensure that recruiters are knowledgeable concerning the jobs that are to be filled and the organizations and understand and employ effective interviewing skills. correspondence with placement offices in respective campus in a friendly way – will help in booting the company image in the eyes of the applicants. The company must provide detailed information about the characteristics of entry – level positions. films.
Employ various means to attract candidates:
These may include providing research grants. etc. internships to students. especially those that have had a major positive impact on prior applicants’ decisions to join the company. followed by enthusiastic and effective presentations by company officials.
Offer training to campus interviews:
. consulting opportunities to faculty members. computer diskettes.
etc.as far as ads are concerned:
. etc. this method is appropriate when: (a) The organization intends to reach a large target group and (b) The organizations want a fairly good number of talented people – who are geographically spread out. long term income potential. challenging assignments. etc. this medium has become just as colourful. while talking to candidates. trade. To apply for advertised vacancies let’s briefly examine the wide variety of alternatives available to a company .
Indirect methods:Advertisements:These include advertisements in newspapers. lively and imaginative as consumer advertising. radio and television. prospects in organizations. professional and technical journals.
Come out with a competitive offer:
Keep the key job attributes that influence the decisions of applicants such as promotional avenues.. The ads generally give a brief outline of the job responsibilities. in recent times.48
Its better to devote more time and resources to train on campus interviewers to answer specific job –related questions of applicants. compensation package.
large companies with a national reputation may also go in for blind-box ads in newspapers. these ads are expensive. Job aspirants are asked to respond to a post office box number or to an employment firm that is acting as an agent between the job seekers and the organization. making application difficult. sending signals to competitors. As a result.). they are more likely to stand out distinctly. the company may be bombarded with applications from a large number of candidates who are marginally qualified for the job – adding to its administrative burden.
Television and radio ads:
These ads are more likely to each individual who are not actively seeking employment. while some of the best candidates who are well paid and challenged by their current jobs may not be aware of such openings. Also. cutting down expenses involved in responding to any individual who applies.
Third Party Methods :
. However. because the television or radio is simply seen or heard. On the negative side. potential candidates may have a tough time remembering the details.49
Here it is easy to place job ads without much of a lead time. etc. To maintain secrecy for various reasons (avoiding the rush. they help the organization to target the audience more selectively and they offer considerable scope for designing ads creatively. especially for filling lower level positions. newspaper ads tend to attract only those who are actively seeking employment at that point of time. It has flexibility in terms of information and can conveniently target a specific geographic location.
a number of search firms operate – providing multifarious services to both recruiters and the recruiters. KPMG. physically handicapped.) many organizations have successfully fought court battles when they were asked to pick up candidates from among those sponsored by the employment exchanges. applies) their vacancies through the respective Employment Exchanges. Boble and Hewitt. vacancies and shortages. AT the lower end. especially for top and middle level executive vacancies. ex-military personnel. 1959. SB Billimoria. etc. AS per the Act all employers are supposed to notify the vacancies arising in their establishments form time to time – with certain exemptions – to the prescribed employment exchanges before they are filled. ABC consultants. created all over India for helping unemployed youth. etc. in view of the practical difficulties involved in implementing the provisions of the Act (such as filing a quarterly return in respect of their staff strength. returns showing occupational distribution of their employees. Firms like Arthur Anderson. However. companies are also expected to notify (wherever the Employment Exchanges Act.50
Private Employment Search Firms:As search firm is a private employment agency that maintains computerized lists of qualified applicants and supplies these to employers willing to hire people from the list for a fee. The Act covers all establishments in public sector and nonagricultural establishments employing 25 or more workers in the private sector. Ferguson Associates offers specialized employment-related services to corporate houses for a fee.
Employment Exchanges:AS a statutory requirement.
Gate Hiring and Contractors:-
. displaced persons.
recruiting through word-of-mouth publicity are still in use – despite the many possibilities for their misuse – in the small scale sector in India. the number of such applications depends on economic conditions. the image of the company and the job seeker’s perception of the types of jobs that might be available etc.
Unsolicited Applicants / Walk-ins:Companies generally receive unsolicited applications from job seekers at various points of time. the company would intimate the candidates to apply through a formal channel. generally blue collar employees.51
Gate hiring (where job seekers. hiring through contractors.
. present themselves at the factory gate and offer their services on a daily basis). Such applications are generally kept in a data bank and whenever a suitable vacancy arises.
companies rely on the following:
Time lapse data:
They show the time lag between the dates of requisition for manpower supply from a department to the actual date of filling the vacancies in that department. time. if the company starts the recruitment and selection process now it would require 42 days before the new employee joins its ranks. from interview to offer is 7.
. interviewing agency fee. from offer to acceptance is 10 and from acceptance to report for work is 15. it may be extremely difficult to remove them if their performance is marginal. flexibility. For example.) firms these days are trying to look at alternatives to recruitment especially when market demand for firm’s products and services is sluggish. a company’s past experience may indicate that the average number of days from application to interview is 10. the length of the time needed for alternative sources of recruitment can be ascertained – before pinning hopes on a particular source that meets the recruitment objectives of the company. Moreover. Armed with this information. Some of the options in this regard may be listed thus:
Evaluation of Alternative Sources
Companies have to evaluate the sources of recruiting carefully – looking at cost. They cannot afford to fill all their vacancies through a particular source. To facilitate the decision making process in this regard. etc. quality and other criteria – before earmarking funds for the recruitment process.52
Alternatives to Recruitment
Since recruitment and selection costs are high (search process. once employees are placed on the payroll. Therefore.
if a company needs 10 management trainees in the next six months. it has to monitor past yield ratios in order to find out the number of candidates to be contacted for this purpose. For example. the human resource managers must also look into the cost or hiring a candidate. For example. On the basis of past experience.
Surveys and studies:
Surveys may also be conducted to find out the suitability of a particular source for certain positions. Lastly. it has to extend 20 offers. employee referral has emerged as popular way of hiring people in the Information Technology industry in recent times in India. The cost per hire can be found out by dividing the recruitment cost by the number of candidates hired.53
These ratios indicate the number of leads / contacts needed to generate a given number of hires at a point at time. the company finds that to hire 10 trainees. as many as 40 candidates must be invited. as pointed out previously. Correlation studies could also be carried out to find out the relationship between different organizational positions. Before finally identifying the sources of recruitment.
. If the invitees to interview ratios are 4:3 then. then 30 interviews must be conducted. If the interview-to-offer is 3:2. to continue the same example.
. The basic purpose is to choose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of qualified candidates. provides a pool of applicants for selection.54
The size of the labour market. the compensation package and a host of other factors influence the manner of aspirants are likely to respond to the recruiting efforts of the company. the needs of the job are matched with the profile of candidates.
The purpose of selection is to pick up the most suitable candidate who would meet the requirements of the job in an organization best. if hired. Selection is the process of picking individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill jobs in an organization. the place of posting. The most suitable person is then picked up after eliminating the unsuitable applicants through successive stages of selection process. skills. To meet this goal.
To select mean to choose. the company obtains and assesses information about the applicants in terms of age. Recruiting. experience. to find out which job applicant will be successful. the nature of job. Through the process of recruitment the company tries to locate prospective employees and encourages them to apply for vacancies at various levels. etc. the image of the company. thus.
Selection is usually a series of hurdles or steps. For example some organizations’ may give more importance to testing while others give more emphasis to interviews and reference checks. Similarly a single brief selection interview might be enough for applicants for lower level positions. from job to job within the same organization.
. Each one must be successfully cleared before the applicant proceeds to the next one. The sequence of steps may also vary from job to job and organization to organization. while applicants for managerial jobs might be interviewed by a number of people. The time and emphasis place on each step will definitely vary from one organization to another and indeed.
Steps in Selecting Process
usually containing the following things: Personal data (address. demographic. aptitude. In order to attract people with talents. a prescribed application form is given to the applicants to fill and submit. experience.57
A company is known by the people it employs. choice etc. If no jobs are available at that point of time. If the department finds the candidate suitable. the applicant may be asked to call back the personnel department after some time. pay expectations. sex. It is a brief history sheet of employee’s background. A junior executive from the Personnel Department may elicit responses from the applicants on important items determining the suitability of an applicant for a job such as age.
A preliminary interview is generally planned by large organizations to cut the cost of selection by allowing only eligible candidates to go through the further stages in selection. Whoever meets the applicant initially should be tactful and able to extend help in a friendly and courteous way.
Application blank or form is one of the most common methods used to collect information on the various aspects of the applicants’ academic. work related background and references. telephone number) Marital data
. social. education. skills and experience a company has to create a favourable impression on the applicants’ right from the stage of reception. Employment possibilities must be presented honestly and clearly. this ‘courtesy interview’ as it is often called helps the department screen out obvious misfits. location.
Over the years employment tests have not only gained importance but also a certain amount of inevitability in employment decisions. Since they try to objectively determine how well an applicant meets the job requirement. polygraphy and honesty tests. the environment in which the test is administered and the way the individual scores are calculated. performance simulation tests including work sampling and the tests administered at assessment centres. objective measure of a person’s behaviours.58
Educational data Employment Experience Extra-curricular activities References and Recommendations
In this section let’ examine the selection test or the employment test that attempts to asses intelligence.
. It is objective in that it tries to measure individual differences in a scientific way giving very little room for individual bias and interpretation. personality trait. A test is a standardized. performance or attitude. abilities. It is standardized because the way the tests is carried out. graphology and integrity test.followed by a discussion about the polygraph test. Some of the commonly used employment tests are: Intelligence tests Aptitude tests Personality tests Achievement tests Miscellaneous tests such as graphology. most companies do not hesitate to invest their time and money in selection testing in a big way.are uniformly applied.
Binet-Simon Test. numerical ability.clerical. Standford –Binet Test. The basic objective of such test is to pick up employees who are alert and quick at learning things so that they can be offered adequate training to improve their skills for the benefit of the organization. The definition of personality. methods of measuring personality factors and the relationship between personality factors and actual job criteria has been the subject of much discussion.59
These are mental ability tests. Eg.
. aptitude tests are necessary. An aptitude tests is always administered in combination with other tests like intelligence and personality tests as it does not measure on-the-jobmotivation. many people still consider personality as an important component of job success. Researchers have also questioned whether applicants answer all the items truthfully or whether they try to respond in a socially desirable manner. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale are example of standard intelligence test. perception etc. These tests measure several abilities such as memory.
Of all test required for selection the personality tests have generated a lot of heat and controversy. mechanical. etc. In order to recruit efficient office staff. verbal fluency. They measure the incumbent’s learning ability and the ability to understand instructions and make judgements. mathematical. These tests indicate whether or not an individual has the capabilities to learn a given job quickly and efficiently.
Aptitude test measure an individual’s potential to learn certain skills. vocabulary. Regardless of these objections.
etc. To asses the potential of a candidate for managerial positions assessment centres are commonly used. Initially a small batch of applicants comes to the assessment centre (a separate room).e..
Simulation exercise is a tests which duplicate many of the activities and problems an employee faces while at work. Such exercises are commonly used while hiring managers at various levels in an organisation.
An assessment centre is an extended work sample. The assessors’ judgement on each exercise are complied and combined to have a summary rating for each candidate being assessed.60
These are designed to measure what the applicant can do on the job currently. A typing test tests shows the typing proficiency.
. It uses procedures that incorporate group and individual exercises. These exercises are designed to stimulate the type of work which the candidate will be expected to do. i. whether the testee actually knows what he or she claims to know. Their performance in the situational exercise is observed and evaluated by a team of 6-8 assessors. a short hand tests measures the testee ability to take dictation and transcribe.
The recruiting company.61
Graphology involves using a trained evaluator to examine the lines.
. It records fluctuations in respiration. curves and flourishes in a person’s handwriting to assess the person’s personality and emotional make-up. questions of validity and just plain skepticism have limited in use. loops. may. is dependent on the training and expertise of the person doing the analysis. ask the applicants to complete the application forms and write about why they want a job. The use of graphology. The fact is that the polygraph records the biological reaction in response to stress and does not record lying or even conditions necessarily accompanying lying. Critic. The polygraph operator forms a judgement as to whether the subject’s response was truthful or deceptive by examining the biological movements recorded on the paper. hooks. Since they invade the privacy of those tested. These samples may be finally sent to graphologist for analysis and the result may be put use while selecting a person. however. many applicants vehemently oppose the use of polygraph as a selection tool. for example. Is it possible to prove that the responses recorded by the polygraph occur only because a lie has been told? What about those situations in which a person lies without guilt (pathological liar) or lies believing the responses to be true? The fact of the matter is that polygraphs are neither reliable nor valid. stokes. however. In the actual practice. blood pressure and perspiration on a moving roll of graph paper.
These are designed to measure employee’s honestly to predict those who are more likely to steal from an employer or otherwise act in a manner unacceptable to the organization. questions the appropriateness of the polygraphs in establishing the truth about an applicant’s behaviour.
Polygraph (Lie-Detector) tests:
The polygraph records physical changes in the body as the tests subject answers a series of questions.
The applicants who take these tests are expected to answer several ‘yes’ or ‘no’ type questions.
Typical Integrity Questions: Typical Integrity Questions
Have you ever told a lie? Do you report to your boss if you know of another employee stealing from the store? Do you carry office stationary back to your home for occasional use? Do you mark attendance for your colleagues also?
Often these tests contain questions that repeat themselves in some way and the evaluator then examines the consistency in responses. Companies that have used integrity tests have reported success in tracking employees who indulge in ‘theft’. these tests ultimately suffer from the same weakness as polygraph and graphology test. However. why one behaves the way one does. Tests also provide unbiased information that can be put to scientific and statistical analysis. what situational factors influence employee productivity.
Tests as Selection Tool:
Test are useful selection devices in that they unover qualifications and talents that can’t be detected otherwise. They can be used to predict how well one would perform if one is hired.
If the test has commenced at some other point. The question if determining the validity of a selection test. he should get approximately identical score. thus. we can’t use scales which have a know zero point and equal intervals. An intelligence test. has a lot to do with later performance on
. tests suffer from sizeable errors of estimate. Likewise.
Validity is the extent to which an instrument measures what it intends to measure. If a test is administered to the same individual repeatedly. where there easier questions. their score might have been different. In a typing test validity measures a typist’s speed and accuracy. Reliability is the confidence that an indicator will measure the same thing every time. where a person may not be able to answer question properly. that is. Most psychological tests also have one common weakness. To determine whether it really measures the speed and accuracy of a typist is to demonstrate its validity.
Standards for Selection Tests :
To be useful as predictive and diagnostic selection tools. To compound the problem further. for example starts at an arbitrary point. test must satisfy certain basic requirements:
Test scores should not vary widely under repeated conditions. Test also fails to elicit truthful responses from testees. a person who is able to answer all the 10 questions correctly cannot be called twice as intelligent as the one who was able to answer only 5. test results are interpreted in a subjective was by testers and unless these testers do their homework well. the results may not be reliable. This does not mean that the person is totally lacking in intelligence.64
To be useful. it is always better to use a battery of test.
A test should be well prepared.
Norms for finalizing test scores should be established.
. There must be prescribed methods and procedures for administering the test and for scoring or interpreting it. It should be easy to understand and simple to administer. Professional technicians are needed for skilled judgmental interpretations of test scores.
Test requires a high level of professional skills in their administration and interpretation.65
Exclusive reliance on any single test should be avoided.
A test must fit the nature of the group on which it is applied. A written test comprising difficult words would be fruitless when it is administered on less educated workers. since the results in such a case are likely to be criticized.
While evaluating candidates. The company uses occupational personality questionnaire to understand the candidate’s personal attributes and occupational testing to measure competencies.
LG Electronics India:
LG Electronics uses 3 psychometric tests to measure a person’s ability as a team player. the company conducts critical behaviour interviewing which evaluates the suitability of the candidate for the position.
The following throws light on how the global giants use selection testing as a basis for picking up the right candidates to fill up the vacancies arising internally:
It uses extensive psychometric instruments to evaluate short-listed candidates. to check personality types and to find a person’s responsiveness and assertiveness. largely based on his past experience and credentials.
nervousness and so forth. the company uses a competency. problem solving. This apart. these individuals possess strong functional knowledge and come from a cosmopolitan background. To assess subjective aspects of the candidate – facial expressions.based interviewing technique that looks at the candidate’s abilities in terms of strategizing. managing the environment. Interview gives the recruiter an opportunity – To size up the candidate personally. To ask question that are not covered in the tests. and promote goodwill towards the company. To give facts to the candidates regarding the company. This is the most essential step in the selection process. In a NON-DIRECTIVE INTERVIEW the recruiter asks questions as they come to mind. There is no specific format to be followed. etc. In this step the interviewer matches the information obtained about the candidates through various means to the job requirements and to the information obtained through his own observations during the interview.
Interview is the oral examination of candidates for employment.67
The Company uses India as a global recruitment resource. appearance. To make judgments on candidates enthusiasm and intelligence. Pepsi insists that to succeed in a global posting. its policies. lateral thinking. To select professionals for global careers with it.
Types of interviews
Several types of interviews are commonly used depending on the nature and importance of the position to be filled within an organization.
In a PATTERNED INTERVIEW. motivation. etc.
. Here the interviewee is given a special form containing questions regarding his technical competence. attitudes. the employer follows a pre-determined sequence of questions.
there is the APPRAISAL INTERVIEW. In a PANEL INTERVIEW several interviewers question and seek answers from one applicant. Interviews can also be designed to create a difficult environment where the applicant’s confidence level and the ability to stand erect in difficult situations are put to test.
. there are fixed job related questions that are presented to each applicant. often. The panel members can ask new and incisive questions based on their expertise and experience and elicit deeper and more meaningful expertise from candidates. where a superior and subordinate sit together after the performance appraisal to discuss the subordinate’s rating and possible remedial actions. rude. This is basically an interview in which the applicant is made uncomfortable by a series of. annoying or embarrassing questions.
In the final category. These are referred to as the STRESS INTERVIEW.69
In a STRUCTURED OR SITUATIONAL INTERVIEW.
The candidate should be properly received and led into the interview room. Find
. HR experts have identified certain steps to be followed while conducting interviews:
Establishing the objective of the interview Receiving the candidates application and resume Keeping tests score ready. etc. It demands a positive frame of mind on part of the interviewers. along with interview assessment forms Selecting the interview method to be followed Choosing the panel of experts who would interview the candidates Identifying proper room for environment. how the qualifications are going to be matched with skills needed to handle the job. Focus on the applicant’s education. work experience. Start the interview on time.70
Steps in interview process
Interview is an art. Begin with open ended questions where the candidate gets enough freedom to express himself.
State the purpose of the interview. training. Interviewers must be treated properly so as to leave a good impression about the company in their minds.
unusual stamina. A job offer is often contingent upon the candidate being declared fit after the physical examination. etc.
Reference Checks. These references may be from the individuals who are familiar with the candidate’s academic achievements or from the applicant’s previous employer. Candidates are required to give the names of 2 or 3 references in their application forms. the personnel department will engage in checking references. the candidate is required to undergo a physical fitness test. who is well versed with the applicant’s job performance and sometimes from the co-workers.
Certain jobs require physical qualities like clear vision.71
unexplained gaps in applicants past work or college record and elicit facts that are not mentioned in the resume. perfect hearing. Medical examination reveals whether or not a candidate possesses these qualities.
After the selection decision and before the job offer is made. clear tone.
Once the interview and medical examination of the candidate is over. In case the reference check is from the previous
. tolerance of hard working conditions.
Evaluation is done on basis of answers and justification given by the applicant in the interview.
A careless decision of rejecting a candidate would impair the morale of the people and they suspect the selection procedure and the very basis of selection in a particular organization. rate of absence. They are job title. After taking the final decision. benefits provided. The method of mail query provides detailed information about the candidate’s performance. when used sincerely. etc. information in the following areas may be obtained. the organization has to intimate this decision to the successful as well as unsuccessful candidates. But a good reference check.
. progress. a personal visit is superior to the mail or telephone methods and is used where it is highly essential to get a detailed. behavioral and social implications of the selection decisions. character. A true understanding between line managers and personnel managers should be established so as to facilitate good selection decisions. Reference checks are taken as a matter of routine and treated casually or omitted entirely in many organizations. willingness of previous employer to employ the candidate again. can be obtained. pay and allowances. gross emoluments.72
employer. The line manager has to take adequate care in taking the final decision because of economic. character and behavior. However.
The line manager has to make the final decision now – whether to select or reject a candidate after soliciting the required information through different techniques discussed earlier. etc. period of employment. Often a telephone call is much quicker. job description. Further. first hand information which can also be secured by observation. The organization sends the appointment order to the successful candidates either immediately or after sometime depending upon its time schedule. will fetch useful and reliable information to the organization. information regarding candidate’s regularity at work.
the applicants try to get by the interviewer. These types of responses are known as cultural noise – responses the applicant believes are socially acceptable rather than facts. Too often interviewers form on early impression and spend the balance of interview looking for evidence to support it. but not very revealing. making a decision as to the applicant’s suitability in the first few minutes of the interview. so they try to give the interviewer responses that are socially acceptable. etc. write and speak English language and hence not select them at all.’ To get the job. attractive females are good for public dealings. Not be asking right questions and hence not getting relevant responses. May conclude that a poorly dressed candidate is not intelligent. If they reveal wrong things about themselves. Resort to snap judgments. he may feel that candidate from Bihar may find it difficult to read.74
Favors applicants who share his own attitudes. they may not get the job. The halo effect is present if an interviewer allows a candidate’s accomplishments in athletics overshadow other aspects and leads the interviewer to like the applicant because ‘athletes make good sales people’. May have allowed him to be unduly influenced by associating a particular personality trait with a person’s origin or cultural background and that kind of stereotyping/ generalizing ultimately determining the score of a candidate. May have been influenced by ‘cultural noise. Have been influenced more by unfavorable than favorable information about or from the
. This is known as ‘Halo Effect’ where a single important trait of a candidate affects the judgment of the rather. For example.
The impediments which check effectiveness of selection are perception. with the aim of choosing the right persons for the jobs. This objective is often defeated because of certain barriers. validity. race or gender.75
candidate. and pressure. Our limited perceptual ability is obviously a stumbling block to the objective and rational selection of people. fairness.
Fairness in selection requires that no individual should be discriminated against on the basis of religion. But the low number of women and other less privileged sections of society in the middle and senior management positions and open discrimination on the basis of age in job advertisements and in the selection process would suggest that all the efforts to minimize inequity have not been very effective. reliability.Unfavorable information is given roughly twice the weight of favorable information.
. Selection demands an individual or a group to assess and compare the respective competencies of others. We all perceive the world differently. But our views are highly personalized.
Barriers to effective selection
The main objective of selection is to hire people having competence and commitment. region.
Our inability to understand others accurately is probably the most fundamental barrier to selecting right candidate.
Appointments to public sector undertakings generally take place under such pressure.
A reliable method is one which will produce consistent results when repeated in similar situations. is a test that helps predict job performance of an incumbent. relatives. It can only increase possibility of success. friends. However. A test that has been validated can differentiate between the employees who can perform well and those who will not. bureaucrats. and peers to select particular candidate. Like a validated test.76
Validity. as explained earlier.
Pressure is brought on the selectors by politicians.
. Candidates selected because of compulsions are obviously not the right ones. a reliable test may fall to predict job performance with precision. a validated test does not predict job success accurately.
More time is required.
Selection It is a process of picking up more competent and suitable employees.
It follows recruitment.
Economy Time Consuming
It is an economical method. Less time is required. It is a complicated process.77
Difference between recruitment n selection
Recruitment It is an activity of establishing contact between employers and applicants.
It is a positive approach.
The candidates have not to cross over many hurdles.
It is a simple process.
Many hurdles have to be crossed.
It precedes selection.
It is a negative approach. It attempts at rejecting unsuitable candidates.
It is an expensive method.
It encourages large number of Candidates for a job.
To find the reasons of the high attrition rate. For this the employee’s feedback was sought. This was a big limitation. It was tried to do a survey on
. To gain a deeper understanding about the phenomenon of high attrition and its cause. literature particularly journals. The literature on Recruitment and Selection is not quite vast. 2.
SCOPE & LIMITATIONS
While surveying at OIPL.78
Recruitment and selection is one of the most generally discussed in the study of Human Resource.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This study reports the findings on Recruitment and Selection Process at the OSRAM India Private Limited. 3. To find out the current practices adopted for the Recruitment and Selection of the potential candidates. The Study is intended to achieve the following objectives: 1. The findings would not have been realistic without the feedback of employees of OIPL. The various websites were also helpful in gaining a large view of attrition among employees and the ways to reduce such high rate. However I felt difficulty as most of the respondents were reluctant to fill the questionnaire. To find the ways to reduce high attrition rate. reference books were studied in detail. Most of the respondents were afraid of getting fired if they answered anything wrong about the company and its policy.HR Manager was quite helpful. I always sought him help even when I had to get the questionnaires filled from the employees.
. Research design is of three types Exploratory Descriptive Casual or experiment Primary Data The Study is based on the primary data collected from the employees at Osram IPL through the assistance of the questionnaire. it is very important to have the necessary & useful data. and temporary and permanent employees. It was ensured that there was a good mix of respondents. The selection of research design depend the objective of the research.
This study focuses on the Recruitment and Selection at Osram India Private Limited as a matter of interest. It is the specification method & procedure for collection the needed information. For this purpose the web pages and the journals were sought. The Future research may be done on large number of employees to get a better result.To make the research complete.
Sources of Data
For conducting the survey the data were collected from the employees of Osram IPL . employees of various designation. However.males. the attrition and the reasons why employees leave. the use of some secondary data were taken help of to gain a better understanding of the Recruitment and Selection process.79
80 employees but only 58 of them came up with their response. The survey was conducted with 58 respondents.
All the other source of information is external source of data. industry profile can be used. the company profile.
The type of enquiry you want to have and the nature of data that you want to collect Fundamentally determines the technique or method of selecting a sample. a researcher can use these to collect internal information. Secondary data Primary data In this project mainly primary data from internal sources is used to make results authentic. The procedure of selecting a sample may be broadly classified under the following two heads: · Probability Sampling Methods · Non-Probability Sampling Methods PROBABILITY SAMPLING:
. It is collected by personal administration of the questionnaire.80
Sometimes data can be available readying one form or the other & sometimes data has to be collected A researcher can tap sources to heads:Internal sources External sources
It is the companies own record registered document etc. To get this information about the company.
Thus in simple random sample from a population of size N. In this method an equal probability of selection is assigned to each unit of population at the first draw. 2. picking numbers out of a hat or bag 2 The use of a table of random numbers. we can say that simple random sample is more representative of population than purposive or judgment sampling. You can ascertain the efficiency of the estimates of the parameters by considering the sampling distribution of the statistic (estimates) For example: One measure of calculating precision is sample size. Therefore.g. the element of subjectivity or personal bias is completely eliminated. the probability of drawing any unit in the first draw is 1/N. Since samples units are selected at random providing equal chance to each and every unit of population to be selected.
1. The probability of drawing a second unit in the second draw is 1/N-1 . e. Sample mean becomes an unbiased mean of population mean or a more efficient estimate of population mean as
. The two basic procedures to are: 1 The lottery method.
Simple Random Sampling :
It is the technique of drawing a sample in such a way that each unit of the population has an equal and independent chance of being included in the sample.81
A sampling procedure in which each element of the population has a fixed probabilistic chance of being selected for the sample is called probability sampiling. It also implies an equal probability of selecting in the subsequent draws. The probability of selecting a specified unit of population at any given draw is equal to the probability of its being selected at the.
a simple random sample might give most nonrandom looking results. The selection of simple random sample requires an up. which are widely spread geographically and in such a case the administrative cost of collecting the data may be high in terms of time and money. This might include. 4. 2.
1.to -date frame of population from which samples are to be drawn. which I will explain with the help of an illustration next. This restricts the use of simple random sample. Sometime. Although it is impossible to have knowledge about each and every unit of population if population happens to be very large.
Non Probability Sampling
Non-probability methods are all sampling procedures in which the units that make up the samples are collected with no specific probability structure in mind. A simple random sample may result in the selection of the sampling units. simple random sample usually requires larger sample size as compared to stratified random sampling which we will be studying next.82
sample size increases. For a given precision.
that is. a member drops out. some of which are: 1. If personal biases are avoided. Judgment sampling is used in a number of cases. If for some reason or the other. This new member was chosen deliberately . from the panel.83
for example. 2. Having done so.a case of Judgment sampling. the chairman of the panel may suggest the name of another person whom he thinks has the same expertise and experience to be a member of the said panel. the following: the units are self-selected. It is not possible to make an estimate of sampling error as we cannot determine how precise our sample estimates are. The method could be used in a study involving the performance of salesmen. The salesmen could be grouped into top-grade and low-grade performer according to certain specified qualities. Suppose we have a panel of experts to decide about the launching of a new product in the next year. It is used for most test markets and many product tests conducted in shopping malls. the sample is made up of `volunteers' the units are the most easily accessible (in geographical terms)
It is that sample in which the selection criteria are based upon your (researcher’s) personal judgment that the members of the sample are representative of the population under study. would fall into which category. then the relevant experience and the acquaintance of the investigator with the population may help to choose a relatively representative sample from the population. Needless to mention this is a biased method. However in the absence of any objective
. the sales manager may indicate who in his opinion.
When data is to be collected from each member of population of interest. Low cost. The work of several authors
. it is known as sample survey. Results entirely dependent on the judgment of the researcher. one might have to resort to this type of sampling. No direct generalizations to a specified population. 3. Sample plan Judgment sampling Sample size 58 % of staff members
The methodology of study is based on secondary information as well as primary information i.e. If on the other hand data are to be collected from only some member of the population.
1. staff member of OSRAM INDIA PVT. Convenient to use. LTD.84
data. Less time consuming than most techniques. 2. it is known as census survey.
from the various libraries has been instituted. consulted & used to arrive at conclusion. analysis of the collected information using relevant statistical analysis.
The methodology used essentially involved collection of information from executives of Osram IPL. and interpretation of results.
. on the Recruitment and Selection Process through questionnaire.
1.initiative or walk-ins. What was your mode of recruitment?
Employee Referral: 21 Web Portal: 04 Placement Agency: 12 Campus Placement: 01 Other/Walk-ins: 20
Em ployee Referral Web Portal Placem ent Agencies Cam pus Placem ent Other/ Walk Ins
Interpretation:Most of the employees were recruited by the employee referral but it is also worth notable that almost equal employees were recruited through other methods that include the candidate’s self. Employee referral
What was the method of your selection?
Written test Medical Test Interview: 57 Other: 01
Written Test Medical Test Interview Other
Interpretation:The question was aimed to find the efficient method on which the company relied upon for the selection of the potential applicants. It was observed that Personal Interview is
We b Portal Placement Agency Campus Placement Others
extensively used for selection of the candidates.
. Interview Other
3. Many of them did not want to show their dissatisfaction towards their employer as they feared of getting fired. Are you satisfied with your present job at OIPL?
Yes: 49 No: 09
Interpretation:This question is somewhat tricky as it would find the satisfaction of the respondent through following questions. As 57 out of 58 respondents were selected through interview. However 84% of the respondents were satisfied. It is also observed that the reference checks were not used for the final round of selection.
Ye s No
4. There is only a minor difference of 4 employees. The unsatisfaction level towards the salary is 47%.This shows that pay is a major cause of leaving the OIPL. How do you find your package (salary + incentive) at OIPL?
Satisfied: 31 Unsatisfied: 27
Interpretation:Out of the 58 respondents 53% were satisfied with their salary package.
Are you able to overcome the stress at work and maintain balance between work and life?
Yes: 52 No: 06
Interpretation:52 out of the 58 respondents felt comfortable and had no problem with the workload. Ye s No
5. How often do you receive appraisal/ get motivation from your employer?
Very Often: 22 Sometimes: 34 Never: 02
. They could maintain the balance between work and life.
59% get motivation only sometimes.e.. Very Often Sometimes Never
7. This again emphasizes on bad reward policy of the company.91
Interpretation:The above data indicates that a major lot of employees i. Do you find career growth opportunities at OIPL?
Yes: 42 No: 16
Interpretation:The above data collected shows that 72% of the respondents feel there is a career growth opportunities. Ye s No
8. The respondents find suitable growth opportunities at OIPL. What is your level of trust & confidence in senior boss?
High: 35 Moderate: 23 Low
High Moderate Low
9. While 40% have less confidence.93
Interpretation:60% percent of the respondents have faith and trust in their seniors/bosses. This fact indicates that the company needs to gain confidence of the employees through various ways. Do you find yourself valued and recognized at OIPL?
Yes: 52 No: 06
Ye s No
Interpretation:A major portion of the respondents i. This is good sign regarding the recognition of the employees at OIPL.. How often do you receive appreciation on your excellent Performance?
Very Often: 23 Sometimes: 33 Never: 02
.e. 90% of them feel valued and recognized at OIPL.
Interpretation:The major problem felt at OIPL is that the employees do not get enough appreciation (Monetary / Non-Monetary) from their employer. Very Often Sometimes Never
11. The above data indicates only 40% of the respondents get appreciation while 57% of them are not appreciated on their best performance. Do you find pressure at work to perform better?
Yes: 37 No: 21
80. This creates a stress to them and thereby hampers their decision of staying with the company. Ye s No
.000. It is worth to be noted that the Telecallers and the Marketing Executives have to achieve the target of Rs.00 pm (as a score).96
Interpretation:Another major setback for the employees or the main reason for leaving is the pressure of work that the employees feel.
Past Stability.promotion. • Career Progress and Development.
An individual’s relationship with his or her manager has the greatest impact on job satisfaction thereby influencing his/her decision to stay with the organization.the more time the people had spent in their previous job. • Of all the drivers of attrition Pay levels have the smallest impact. and pay growth have the biggest combined effect on employees leaving. etc.
Supervisory/Management support and Co-worker relations influence employee decision to stay-in.
. the greater the chances that they would stay long in the present assignment/job. mobility.
Candidates who have been referred by the employees are more likely to stay long than those who came through other channels like wanted ads.97
Job Quality and Organizational support are more important to retention than earnings or benefits.
The organization should use structured interview assessment sheet for all positions classed as medium to high skilled. Age Min to Max experience Qualification Competencies Brief of Job description
The organization should use an employment agency for the recruitment of low skilled. A framework for Internal Job posting should be developed to give opportunity to internal talent pool. temporary staff.
• Current referral program should be made more attractive for employees to encourage them to refer potential candidates. The organization should advertise for medium to high skilled vacancy positions in the metropolitan daily newspaper. More emphasis should be laid on employee referral program to reduce the hiring cost. The form should include some detail of the candidate profile required like. The organization should advertise all vacant positions internally in the first instance.
. As this will help people to have job enrichment and job rotation.98
The organization should develop a suitable formal written request such as a requisition form or memo.
Reference check format should be developed to ensure genuine candidates. Developing assessment sheet as per job profile or grades with assessment grading on the requisite competencies related to profile or grades. Each panel member should go training for effective interviewing skill to reduce the gap between right and ideal candidate. Ensure comments of each interviewee clearly mentioned on the assessment sheet for the next round of interview Certain psychological tools like Thomas profiling should be used for high profile selection. Certain questions based on specific competencies identified for the position should be included. Various style of interview like stress interview. situational interview etc should be used in combination rather than just following one pure style. Assessment centre should be developed with help of external agency expertise in same to have an effective process of internal recruitment.
. Analysis of the fresh recruitment should be done in order to identify the diversity in the work force and to formulate a balanced approach towards future recruitment. Structured interview questionnaire should contain mix of both technical and creative thinking. Asking candidates to bring along supporting of their achievements or extra ordinary performances.
alternatively. HR Practices to retain Employees
Aptitude test should be introduced for entry level in order to assess on numerical ability. rejected candidate in order to avoid any reappearance of rejected candidate. Data base should be maintained for both selected. change
. learning aspects and performance oriented work culture.
2. The program may include business case development. in the first week. No candidate should start his profile without going through the complete Induction.
Introduce career Management program
The company should introduce the career management tool or program that would help the employees to find growth opportunities in the company by identifying those jobs that match their skills sets.
The organization should ensures that the orientation program is carried out with new employees on their first day. logical reasoning and data interpretation. Initiate Leadership Development
The company should invest in leadership development program. strategic projects and team building. The organization should develop and implements employee orientation program with emphasis on work life balance. where possible or.
Today when customers are happy.
4. Improve Retention Policy
The retention policy needs to be enduring.
3. Any initiative to retain the employees would succeed only when the overall organization climate is conducive for that.101
management. creates opportunities for employees to advance in their careers.
5. they express their appreciation to OIPL employees who are proud of being on the OIPL team. creativity and initiative and. Training of Employees
The company can avoid the attrition by improving retention strategy by placing more time and effort in the selection and training of employees and aligned the training to support the organization’s mission – goal of providing excellent customer service. Organizations should take all steps to collect data and their retention plans should be based on this data. Good Working Environment
The company should develop the right kind of work environment and organizational culture that rewards performance. most importantly. and in-depth discussions with business leaders from OIPL and other companies. long-term oriented and integrated with other HRM Policies.
The effectiveness of many other HR activities. the recruitment process should be seen in the context of ongoing staff planning that is linked to the strategic and financial planning of the organization.102
6. such as selection and training depends largely on the quality of new employees attracted through the recruitment the recruitment process.
Recruitment is essential to effective Human Resources Management. Recruitment and selection process are important aspects in staffing and the decisions
. The HR should indicate disagreement in the event that biasing toward certain candidates is creeping in and point out the repercussions that may follow in terms of performance and motivation. Recognition and Reward
The employees should be recognized and rewarded for a job well done by the employees and this act would instill in them a sense of pride and satisfaction in their own work. Policies should always be reviewed as these are affected by the changing environment. Management should get specific training on the process of recruitment to increase their awareness on the dangers of wrong placements. It is the authors conviction that. It is the heart of the whole HR systems in the organization. HR practitioners should be on the guard against all the malpractices and advocate for professional approach through out the system.
A healthy mix is recommended to strike a balance between internal employee carrier development and infusion of new blood and diversity in the system. The organization needs to advertise all positions internally. This systematic and standardized approach for evaluating various aspects using multiple inputs is called ASSESSMENT CENTRE.
An organization needs to have well defined process to communicate the request for vacant and new position mentioning all the aspect required to hire a candidate. It’s important for an organization to lay equal importance to both the internal and external sources in reference to organization benefit. Success of an interview depends establishing the right
. As the next level decision should not only be based on his performance in present profile but also his potential for future role. Interview is one of the most important selection methods. talent pool etc. The organization has to decide whether to hire temporary or permanent employees or recruit from the internal workforce or select through external sources.103
regarding them have to be taken keeping in view the fit between the employee and the organization. Hence a structured process needs to be followed announcing the position for all the eligible employees. There can not be fixed way of interview as it needs too be altered as per the job requirement. time. An organization needs to have a structured process on interview in order to match the right applicant with the right job. In case an organization decides to resource the vacant position through an external source it needs to analyze the various options in term of cost. As each source type comes along with its own pros and cons. In order to make right decision for internal promotion a systematic approach needs to be developed. It’s an attempt to satisfy an organization in respect to intellectual and social requirements necessary to contribute to their betterment. prior to searching outside the company for the most suitable applicant.
mix in order to
When large number of candidates needs to be and one requires consistent information on certain parameters this format can be of great help. The interviewer clearly identifies job-related experiences." It is an opportunity given to candidate to demonstrate their knowledge. behaviors.
There is no real set format and begins with broad question such as "Tell me about yourself. By seeing how you will react when placed in a challenging or uncomfortable situation. These include self-confidence.
This type of interview is intended to be confrontational in style and is aimed at unsettling the candidate.
This interview style is based on the assumption that experiences and behaviors shown by a candidate in previous job will be same show in future assignments. Thus an attempt is made to predict the applicant's potential contributions and success within the organization. critical thinking. skills. professionalism. the interviewers can get a strong sense of your stress and conflict-management style as well as your ability to deal with uncertainty. and time management. and then the interviewer asks you to provide clear examples of how you demonstrate these skills and abilities. In order to put potential employees into stressful and difficult situations to evaluate how they react and work under pressure. knowledge. and abilities in reference to job and organization. skills and abilities that the company has decided are desirable in a particular position.
As the combination of both the tools can help us in following ways: It provides objective and accurate behavioral based data in order to make informed decision. The information from these test are scientifically more consistent. MBTI. Once the candidate is finalized from the departmental and HR level his credentials needs to be verified. Following topics can very well analyzed with the combination of both type of tools: General intellectual level and problem-solving style Emotional maturity and personal Insight Interpersonal style Management style or selling ability Decision-making and organizational skills Leadership competencies Ambition and aspirations A structured interview assessment sheet needs to be used to capture all the required information related to the job in a structured manner.105
In order to enhance the interview effectiveness psychological tools like Thomas profiling. An organization needs to establish an process for same to decide for pre
. The range of data gathered is much more in the same time along with higher level of accuracy. test should also be used in addition to personal interview. It helps in gathering and re verification of information gathered at various levels in a structured manner. A candidate can not face same interview related question at various level. and personality etc.
A job description along with offer letter should be handed over to the finalized candidate for the complete understanding of the profile. regulations and policies Employee benefits and incentives Induction is the process of initiation into a new job or company by which a new employee learns about and becomes part of an organization. Its overall purpose is to provide necessary information. Employee orientation is the process to welcome the new joinee and make him should be made special and every detail should be taken care to make it a special day. its mission and
. Orientation is the introductory stage which familiarizes the new employee to his/her new working environment by introducing aspects of the company such as: Company mission Quality and value statements Organization chart Business objectives Management Workplace facilities Work rules. In case an organization decides for post screening it needs to have some information for initial authentication. Employment verification format needs to be developed to authenticate data captured through interview. facilities and motivation to assist the employee to adjust to the new work environment to learn the ropes and become productive on the job.106
employment verification or post employment screening. It aims to help him/her to understand company's expectations and convey what he or she can expect from the job and the company. Induction ranges from formal orientation programs to informal familiarization and social events. A 360° Approach to Orientation can be focused on organization’s history. It encourages the development of loyalty and enthusiasm towards the company and gain employee commitment.
The emerging new systems are both an opportunity as well as a challenge for the HR
. HR should maintain the timeliness of the process
Lack of motivation:
Recruitment is considered to be a thankless job. the job market has undergone some fundamental changes in terms of technologies. career development initiatives.107
vision statements. Even if the organization is achieving results. adaptive and responsive to the immediate requirements. competition in the market etc. environment.
The immediacy and speed of the recruitment process are the main concerns of the HR in recruitment. The recruitment process should also be cost effective. values. In the last few years. where the practices like poaching and raiding are gaining momentum. HR department or professionals are not thanked for recruiting the right employees and performers. business strategy. sources of recruitment.
The major challenges faced by the HR in recruitment are:
Adaptability to globalization – The HR professionals are expected and required
to keep in tune with the changing times. i. policies.e. the changes taking place across the globe. or employee benefits. The process should be flexible. In an already saturated job market.
the outsourcing firms or the intermediaries charge the organizations for their services. as it weakens the competitive strength of the firm. It has become a challenge for human resource managers to face and tackle poaching. Therefore. A company can attract talent from another firm by offering attractive pay packages and other terms and conditions.
. There has been a tremendous change in recruitment trend as compared to previous time. Outsourcing firms develop their human resource pool by employing people for them and make available personnel to various companies as per their needs. Poaching means employing a competent and experienced person already working with another reputed company in the same or different industry. In turn.
Some of the major trends are:
OUTSOURCING The outsourcing firms help the organization by the initial screening of the candidates according to the needs of the organization and creating a suitable pool of talent for the final selection by the organization. the organization might be a competitor in the industry. Indian software and the retail sector are the sectors facing the most severe brunt of poaching today. better than the current employer of the candidate.108
POACHING/RAIDING “Buying talent” (rather than developing it) is the latest mantra being followed by the organizations today. But it is seen as an unethical practice and not openly talked about. reviewing staffing needs and prioritizing the tasks to meet the changes in the market has become a challenge for the recruitment professionals.
The job seekers send their applications or curriculum vitae i.109
E-RECRUITMENT Many big organizations use Internet as a source of recruitment. Alternatively job seekers place their CV’s in worldwide web. E-recruitment is the use of technology to assist the recruitment process.
. They advertise job vacancies through worldwide web. CV through e mail using the Internet. which can be drawn by prospective employees depending upon their requirements.e.
wikipedia.org 4) www.110
1) www.osramindia.osram.com 3) www.com 2) www.google.com
A mix of direct and indirect questions was present. It was a structured questionnaire that was pre-tested to ensure clarity of the questions asked and that the respondents understood the questions.
RECRUITMENT PROCESS SURVEY
Instruction: Tick mark (v) wherever required. It included 12questions.111
A list of questions was prepared for the questionnaire to be filled. How Osram IPL is involved in Recruitment and Selection process? ____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Which level of employees do you look for? Good Opportunities Outside Junior Middle Senior
. Name________________________________________ Designation___________________________________ Working in Osram IPL since__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ Contact No___________________________________ .
for 10 candidates 100 resumes are sourced (10:100)? ________________________________________________________ .112
.. What are the important things you look while screening resumes of candidates? Qualification Experience Communication skill Attitude Presentation Skill Others . What are the sources used for recruitment in Osram IPL? Direct Recruitment Employee’s reference Campus Recruitment Placement Agency Web Portals .e. What is the vacancy ratio i. What kind of staffing service do you provide? Contract Temporary Permanent
. What is the reliable selection process for the candidates? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ .
What challenges/issues are involved in approaching the candidates? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ . the reason of such turnover? Low Package Job Hoping Termination Retirement Others . What is the turnover level of employees in Osram IPL? Low Medium High If High. New strategies you would like to add in your recruitment model?
. What areas do you recruit in? Operations Finance Administration Sales Marketing HR Phone Calls . As a recruiter what are the challenges involved? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ .113
________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫ THANK YOU▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫▫