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SUBMITTED BY Abhishek Sharma BBA(CAM)3rd sem
About BSNL Introduction: The Telephone Systems GSM GSM Network GSM Network Areas GSM Specification Subscribers Identity Module GSM Subscriber Services Supplementary Services Evolution of Mobile 3 4 6 9 12 14 15 16 17
BSNL is miles ahead of its rivals.7 million cellular customers. broadband. is world’s 7th largest telecommunications company providing comprehensive range of telecom services in India: wire line. That means that almost every fourth mobile user in the country has a BSNL connection. BSNL is the only service provider. comprehensive range of the telecom services and the desire to excel has made BSNL the no. carrier services. reach. GSM mobile. multi-protocol convergent IP infrastructure that provides convergent services like voice. CDMA mobile. BSNL cellular service cellone. making focused efforts and planned initiatives to bridge the rural –urban digital divide ICT sector. Within a span it has become the one of the largest public sector unit in India.1. garnering 24 % of all mobile users as its subscribers. In basic services. Formed in oct. 3 . The turnover. internet. data and video through the same Backbone and broadband access network. has more than 20. 85 % share of the subscribers and 92 % share in revenue terms. with 35. At present there are 0.1 million Basic Phone Subscribers i.e. About BSNL Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. nationwide coverage. 1 telecom company of India. BSNL has set up a world class multi-gigabit. 2000. In fact there is no telecom operator in the country to beat it reach with its wide network giving services I every nook & corner of country and operates across India except Delhi & Mumbai.6 million Data one broadband customers.
Introduction: The Evolution of Mobile Telephone Systems Cellular is one of the fastest growing and most demanding telecommunications applications. it represents a continuously increasing percentage of all new telephone subscriptions around the world. 4 . forecasters predict that there will be more than 100 million cellular subscribers worldwide. Currently there are more than 45 million cellular subscribers worldwide. Cellular Subscriber Growth Worldwide The concept of cellular service is the use of low-power transmitters where frequencies can be reused within a geographic area. Latin America. creating the largest potential market in the world for cellular. Figure 1. However. It has even been estimated that some countries may have more mobile phones than fixed phones by the year 2000 (see Figure 1). and Oceanic countries. The idea of cell-based mobile radio service was formulated in the United States at Bell Labs in the early 1970s. Cellular systems began in the United States with the release of the advanced mobile phone service (AMPS) system in 1983.2. It is forecasted that cellular systems using a digital technology will become the universal method of telecommunications. Today. By the year 2005. the Nordic countries were the first to introduce cellular services for commercial use with the introduction of the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) in 1981. The AMPS standard was adopted by Asia. and nearly 50 percent of those subscribers are located in the United States.
digital technology was welcomed. This presented many problems directly related to compatibility. and increased ability to meet capacity demands. especially with the development of digital radio technology. The Development of Mobile Telephone Systems Throughout the evolution of cellular telecommunications. various systems have been developed without the benefit of standardized specifications. As a result. The advantages of digital systems over analog systems include ease of signaling. like today's newer systems. From 1982 to 1985 discussions were held to decide between building an analog or digital system. After multiple field tests. The next task was to decide between a narrow or 5 . The GSM standard is intended to address these problems. Year 1981 1983 1985 1986 1991 1991 1992 1994 1995 1996 Mobile System Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) 450 American Mobile Phone System (AMPS) Total Access Communication System (TACS) Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) 900 American Digital Cellular (ADC) Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) Digital Cellular System (DCS) 1800 Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) PCS 1900—Canada PCS—United States Table 1. a digital system was adopted for GSM. One challenge facing analog systems was the inability to handle the growing capacity needs in a cost-efficient manner. Table 1 charts the worldwide development of mobile telephone systems. integration of transmission and switching. most mobile telephone systems were analog rather than digital.In the early 1980s. lower levels of interference.
GSM responsibility was transferred to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). A summary of GSM milestones is given in Table 2. the narrowband time division multiple access (TDMA) solution was chosen. particularly in Europe. GSM The growth of cellular telephone systems started in the early 1980s. The lack of a technological standardization prompted the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) to create the Groupe Special Mobile (GSM) in 1982 with the objective of developing a standard for a mobile telephone system that could be used across Europe In 1989.broadband solution. In May 1987. Year 1982 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 GSM formed field test Milestone TDMA chosen as access method memorandum of understanding signed validation of GSM system Pre operation system commercial system start-up coverage of larger cities/airports coverage of main roads coverage of rural areas 3. and phase I of the GSM 6 .
such as the Short message service (SMS.specifications were published in 1990. By the end of 1993. GSM differs significantly from its predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are digital call quality. Like other cellular standards. Release '99 introduced higher speed data transmission using Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution About GSM Radio interface GSM is a cellular network.[ The Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. and so is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone system. This has also meant that data communication was built into the system from the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). GSM allows network operators to offer roaming services so that subscribers can use their phones on GSM networks all over the world. by means of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). also called "text messaging"). GSM networks operate in four 7 . The GSM logo is used to identify compatible handsets and equipment The key advantage of GSM systems to consumers has been higher digital voice quality and low cost alternatives to making calls. enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. Its ubiquity makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators. The advantage for network operators has been the ease of deploying equipment from any vendors that implements the standard. over a million subscribers were using GSM phone networks being operated by 70 carriers across 48 countries. Newer versions of the standard were backward-compatible with the original GSM phones. GSM service is used by over 2 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories. For example. The first GSM network was launched in 1991 by Radiolinja in Finland. Release '97 of the standard added packet data capabilities. which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity.
called "Full Rate" (13 kbit/s) and "Half Rate" (6 kbit/s). In addition to being efficient with bit rates. and less robust but still relatively high quality when used in good radio conditions on half-rate channels. each spaced 200 kHz apart. named after the types of data channel they were allocated. There are eight radio timeslots (giving eight burst periods) grouped into what is called a TDMA frame. GSM was further enhanced in 1997 with the GSM-EFR codec. The rarer 400 and 450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries. and the downlink frequency band is 935-960 MHz.different frequency ranges. and the frame duration is 4. EFR was refactored into a variable-rate codec called AMR-Narrowband. which is high quality and robust against interference when used on full rate channels. pico and umbrella cells.615 ms. These used a system based upon linear predictive coding (LPC). a 12. In the 900 MHz band the uplink frequency band is 890-915 MHz. GSM has used a variety of voice codes to squeeze 3. where these frequencies were previously used for firstgeneration systems. Originally. notably Scandinavia.macro. Some countries in the Americas (including Canada and the United States) use the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands because the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands were already allocated. Most GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. This 25 MHz bandwidth is subdivided into 124 carrier frequency channels. two codecs.2 kbit/s codec that uses a full rate channel. with the development of UMTS. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation environment. Time division multiplexing is used to allow eight full-rate or sixteen half-rate speech channels per radio frequency channel. The transmission power in the handset is limited to a maximum of 2 watts in GSM850/900 and 1 watt in GSM1800/1900.833 kbit/s. micro.1 kHz audio into between 6 and 13 kbit/s. Half rate channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot. were used. these codecs also made it easier to identify more important parts of the audio. Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the base station antenna is installed on a mast or a building above average roof 8 . Finally. allowing the air interface layer to prioritize and better protect these parts of the signal. There are four different cell sizes in a GSM network . The channel data rate is 270.
Picocells are small cells whose coverage diameter is a few dozen meters. The longest distance the GSM specification supports in practical use is 35 km or 22 miles. Micro cells are cells whose antenna height is under average roof top level. where the cell radius could be double or even more.16(half rate) 4. or an indoor repeater with distributed indoor antennas fed through power splitters.8. they are typically used in urban areas. the type of terrain and the timing advance. since indoor coverage is also provided by in-building penetration of the radio signals from nearby cells. for example in shopping centers or airports. There are also several implementations of the concept of an extended cell.top level. Cell horizontal radius varies depending on antenna height. antenna gain and propagation conditions from a couple of hundred meters to several tens of kilometers. Multiple Access Uplink frequency(mobile to base) Downlink frequency(base to mobile ) Channel Bandwidth Number of channels Channels/carrier Frame duration Interleaving duration Modulation Speech coding method Speech coder bit rate Associated control channel Handoff scheme Mobile station power levels TDMA/FDMA/FDA 890-915 Mhz 935-960 Mhz 200 Khz 124 8(full rate).58 w Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM and may be achieved by using an indoor picocell base station. These are typically deployed when a lot of call capacity is needed indoors. 9 . 2. this is not a prerequisite. they are mainly used indoors.6ms 40ms GMSK RPE-LTE convolution 13kb/s (full rate) Extra frame Mobile assisted 0. to deliver the radio signals from an antenna outdoors to the separate indoor distributed antenna system. depending on the antenna system. However. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells.
computers. The GSM Network GSM provides recommendations. a kind of continuous-phase frequency shift keying. and personal music devices. and could be mitigated or eliminated by use of additional shielding and/or bypass capacitors in these audio devices. dit dit dit. the base station system (BSS). These signals have been known to interfere with other electronic devices. the radio signal is strong enough that the solid state amplifiers in the audio chain function as a detector. This is a form of RFI. 4. the signal to be modulated onto the carrier is first smoothed with a Gaussian low-pass filter prior to being fed to a frequency modulator. The clicking noise itself represents the power bursts that carry the TDMA signal. DETAILS: A nearby GSM handset is usually the source of the "dit dit dit. which greatly reduces the interference to neighboring channels (adjacent channel interference). The GSM network is divided into three major systems: the switching system (SS).The modulation used in GSM is Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK). such as car stereos and portable audio players. However. not requirements. When these audio devices are in the near field of the GSM handset. The reason for this is to limit the designers as little as possible but still to make it possible for the operators to buy equipment from different suppliers. In GMSK. The GSM specifications define the functions and interface requirements in detail but do not address the hardware. dit dit dit" signal that can be heard from time to time on home stereo systems. the increased cost of doing so is difficult for a designer to justify. and the operation and 10 . televisions..
The switching system includes the following functional units.support system (OSS). as it stores permanent data about subscribers. location information. GSM Network Elements The Switching System The switching system (SS) is responsible for performing call processing and subscriber-related functions. including a subscriber's service profile. and 11 . • Home location registers (HLR)—The HLR is a database used for storage and management of subscriptions. Figure 2. The basic GSM network elements are shown in Figure 2. The HLR is considered the most important database.
Visitor location registers (VLR)—The VLR is a database that contains temporary information about subscribers that is needed by the MSC in order to service visiting subscribers. It is a high-capacity switch that provides functions such as handover. The VLR is always integrated with the MSC. A number of BSCs are served by an MSC. which consists of base station controllers (BSCs) and the base transceiver stations (BTSs). The BTS is the radio equipment (transceivers and antennas) needed to service each cell in the network. When an individual buys a subscription from one of the PCS operators. • BSC—The BSC provides all the control functions and physical links between the MSC and BTS. if the mobile station makes a call. the VLR connected to that MSC will request data about the mobile station from the HLR. It controls calls to and from other telephone and data systems. It also performs such functions as toll ticketing. network interfacing. When a mobile station roams into a new MSC area. and control of radio frequency (RF) power levels in base transceiver stations. BTS—The BTS handles the radio interface to the mobile station. Authentication center (AUC)—A unit called the AUC provides authentication and encryption parameters that verify the user's identity and ensure the confidentiality of each call. or defective mobile stations. • • • The Base Station System (BSS) All radio-related functions are performed in the BSS. he or she is registered in the HLR of that operator. cell configuration data.activity status. and others. • Mobile services switching center (MSC)—The MSC performs the telephony switching functions of the system. equipment identity register (EIR)—The EIR is a database that contains information about the identity of mobile equipment that prevents calls from stolen. • 12 . Later. common channel signaling. unauthorized. The AUC and EIR are implemented as stand-alone nodes or as a combined AUC/EIR node. The AUC protects network operators from different types of fraud found in today's cellular world. A group of BTSs are controlled by a BSC. the VLR will have the information needed for call setup without having to interrogate the HLR each time.
Additional Functional Elements Other functional elements shown in Figure 2 are as follows: • Message center (MXE)—The MXE is a node that provides integrated voice. The MSC is then referred to as the GMSC. An important function of OSS is to provide a network overview and support the maintenance activities of different operation and maintenance organizations. Gateway mobile services switching center (GMSC)—A gateway is a node used to interconnect two networks. location areas (LAs). As shown in Figure 3. • • • 5. and local operational and maintenance activities that are required for a GSM network. 13 . and public land mobile network (PLMN) areas. The OSS is the functional entity from which the network operator monitors and controls the system. voice mail. The gateway is often implemented in an MSC. cell broadcast.The Operation and Support System The operations and maintenance center (OMC) is connected to all equipment in the switching system and to the BSC. fax. Specifically. The implementation of OMC is called the operation and support system (OSS). users can alternate between speech and data during the same call. e-mail. GSM interworking unit (GIWU)—The GIWU consists of both hardware and software that provides an interface to various networks for data communications. Mobile service node (MSN)—The MSN is the node that handles the mobile intelligent network (IN) services. regional. and data messaging. the MXE handles short message service. these areas include cells. The purpose of OSS is to offer the customer cost-effective support for centralized. The GIWU hardware equipment is physically located at the MSC/VLR. Through the GIWU. fax mail. and notification. GSM Network Areas The GSM network is made up of geographic areas. MSC/VLR service areas.
The GSM network identifies each cell via the cell global identity (CGI) number assigned to each cell. Network Areas The cell is the area given radio coverage by one base transceiver station. Each LA is served by one or more base station controllers. yet only by a single MSC (see Figure 4).Figure 3. Each LA is assigned a location area identity (LAI) number. Figure 4. It is the area in which the subscriber is paged. Location Areas 14 . The location area is a group of cells.
Figure 5. the faster data can be sent bits per second (bps)—a single on-off pulse of data. MSC/VLR Service Areas The PLMN service area is an area served by one network operator (see Figure 6). as it is registered in the VLR of the MSC (see Figure 5). eight bits are equivalent to one byte 15 . 6. it is important to understand the following basic terms: • • bandwidth—the range of a channel's limits. the broader the bandwidth. GSM Specifications Before looking at the GSM specifications.An MSC/VLR service area represents the part of the GSM network that is covered by one MSC and which is reachable.
frequency is measured in hertz (Hz) kilo (k)—kilo is the designation for 1.850 to 1. This is done in GSM via Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK). Listed below is a description of the specifications and characteristics for GSM. the abbreviation kbps represents 1. Access method—GSM utilizes the time division multiple access (TDMA) concept. 80 MHz apart. Transmission rate—GSM is a digital system with an over-the-air bit rate of 270 kbps. TDMA is a technique in which several different calls may share the same carrier. Duplex distance—The duplex distance is 80 MHz.000. leaving behind a residual signal. Channel separation—The separation between adjacent carrier frequencies. Duplex distance is the distance between the uplink and downlink frequencies. The LPC provides parameters for a filter that mimics the vocal tract. Each call is assigned a particular time slot.000 bits per second megahertz (MHz)—1. • • • • • • 7. this is 200 kHz.000. In GSM.000 hertz (cycles per second) milliseconds (ms)—one-thousandth of a second watt (W)—a measure of power of a transmitter Specifications for different personal communication services (PCS) systems vary among the different PCS networks. Speech is encoded at 13 kbps. A channel has two frequencies. Speech coder—GSM uses linear predictive coding (LPC).990 MHz (mobile station to base station).• • • • • frequency—the number of cycles per unit of time. The signal passes through this filter. The purpose of LPC is to reduce the bit rate. • • Frequency band—The frequency range specified for GSM is 1. Modulation—Modulation is the process of sending a signal by changing the characteristics of a carrier frequency. Subscriber identity module 16 .
or make use of ample software and websites available on the Internet to unlock the handset themselves. This allows the user to retain his or her information after switching handsets. etc. India. However. the user can also change operators while retaining the handset simply by changing the SIM. or only a SIM issued by them. It is always possible to switch to another (non-locked) handset if such a handset is available. While most web sites offer the unlocking for a fee. This is done because the price of the mobile phone is typically subsidized with revenue from subscriptions. all phones are sold unlocked. Indonesia and Pakistan. removing the lock is legal. identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number. this practice is known as SIM locking. Europe and the United States many operators lock the mobiles they sell. Alternatively. In Australia.. some do it for free. Canada. This was also the case in Finland until April 1. commonly known as a SIM card. in Belgium. not to the account (which is identified by the SIM card). it is unlawful for operators there to offer any form of subsidy on the phone's price. Cingular and T-Mobile provide free unlocking services to their customers after 3 months of subscription In countries like Belgium. and is illegal in some countries. Some providers will unlock the phone for free if the customer has held an account for a certain time period. when selling subsidized combinations of 17 .A SIM for Bell Mobility (Canada) One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). Third party unlocking services exist that are often quicker and lower cost than that of the operator. The locking applies to the handset. In most countries. 2006. Some operators will block this by allowing the phone to use only a single SIM. A subscriber can usually contact the provider to remove the lock for a fee. The SIM is a detachable smart card containing the user's subscription information and phonebook. utilize private services to remove the lock. and operators want to try to avoid subsidizing competitor's mobiles.
8. This function ensures that the message will be received. though operators have to unlock phones free of charge after a certain period (at most 24 months). a special fax converter connected to the exchange is used in the GSM system. the following subscriber services are supported by GSM: • Dual-tone multi frequency (DTMF)—DTMF is a tone signaling scheme often used for various control purposes via the telephone network. the message is stored and offered back to the subscriber when the mobile is powered on or has reentered the coverage area of the network. A message consisting of a maximum of • • 160 alphanumeric characters can be sent to or from a mobile station. This service can be viewed as an advanced form of alphanumeric paging with a number of advantages. • Cell broadcast—A variation of the short message service is the cell broadcast facility. This enables a GSM–connected fax to communicate with any analog fax in the network. A message of a maximum of 93 characters can be broadcast to all mobile subscribers in a certain geographic area.handsets and accounts became legal. If the subscriber's mobile unit is powered off or has left the coverage area. Telephony services are mainly voice services that provide subscribers with the complete capability (including necessary terminal equipment) to communicate with other subscribers. GSM Subscriber Services There are two basic types of services offered through GSM: telephony (also referred to as teleservices) and data (also referred to as bearer services). In addition to normal telephony and emergency calling. 18 . GSM supports full-originating DTMF. Data services provide the capacity necessary to transmit appropriate data signals between two access points creating an interface to the network. Facsimile group III—GSM supports CCITT Group 3 facsimile. Short message services—A convenient facility of the GSM network is the short message service. As standard fax machines are designed to be connected to a telephone using analog signals. such as remote control of an answering machine.
Call waiting—This service enables the mobile subscriber to be notified of an incoming call during a conversation. Supplementary Services GSM supports a comprehensive set of supplementary services that can complement and support both telephony and data services. Fax mail—With this service. Call hold—This service enables the subscriber to interrupt an ongoing call and then subsequently reestablish the call. There are two types of AoC information: one that provides the subscriber with an estimate of the bill and one that can be used for immediate charging purposes. • 9. if it is busy. Call waiting is applicable 19 • • • • • . The call hold service is only applicable to normal telephony. The subscriber can answer. Barring of incoming calls—This function allows the subscriber to prevent incoming calls. Advice of charge (AoC)—The AoC service provides the mobile subscriber with an estimate of the call charges. AoC for data calls is provided on the basis of time measurements. or ignore the incoming call. The messages are stored in a service center from which they can be retrieved by the subscriber via a personal security code to the desired fax number. Barring of outgoing calls—This service makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to prevent all outgoing calls. reject.Typical applications include traffic congestion warnings and reports on accidents. Supplementary services are defined by GSM and are characterized as revenue-generating features. which is controlled by the subscriber. or if call forwarding is allowed unconditionally. A partial listing of supplementary services follows. Calls can be forwarded to the subscriber's voice-mail box and the subscriber checks for messages via a personal security code. the subscriber can receive fax messages at any fax machine. The following two conditions for incoming call barring exist: baring of all incoming calls and barring of incoming calls when roaming outside the home PLMN. if there is no reply. • Call forwarding— This service gives the subscriber the ability to forward incoming calls to another number if the called mobile unit is not reachable. • Voice mail—This service is actually an answering machine within the network.
Closed user groups (CUGs)—CUGs are generally comparable to a PBX. • Multiparty service—The multiparty service enables a mobile subscriber to establish a multiparty conversation—that is. This service is only applicable to normal telephony. a simultaneous conversation between three and six subscribers. • • 20 . The restriction service enables the calling party to restrict the presentation. They are a group of subscribers who are capable of only calling themselves and certain numbers. Calling line identification presentation/restriction—These services supply the called party with the integrated services digital network (ISDN) number of the calling party. The restriction overrides the presentation.to all GSM telecommunications services using a circuit-switched connection.
Upadhyay (J. Prakash Hari Sharma Final Year (CSE) HRIT. Ghaziabad 21 .O. O.D.) and the other technical staff members. With their expert guidance and kind help this training would have been a distant dream. In particular I am extremely grateful to BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED for providing me with an excellent opportunity of undergoing summer training for the duration of four weeks.) for providing me the required information for completion my job.O. I express my sincere gratitude to Mr.T.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to add a few heartfelt words for the people who were part of this training report in numerous ways. K. People who gave unending support right from the stage the training report idea were conceived. I express my effusive thanks to Mr.N. Singh (S.P.
e. It helps us to know the kind of environment we would be getting in an industry and help us to get with the kind of environment. Industrial training helps us to know what kind of grade an engineer of specific branch plays in an industry. We should known in order to get a good job i. have a good professional carrier. 22 . It help us to get used to working in groups of known people in it teach us team work because my work in industrial is accomplished by a group and not an individual. In totality the industrial teaches us industrial ethics.PREFACE Industrial training is must for every student perusing professional degree because the ultimate goal of every student is to get the information the industrial training helps us to get an idea of things. Some advance technical knowledge how and help us to acquired with industrial working style. Industrial training teaches us a lot of things.
THANKS! PRAKASH HARI SHARMA Final Year Computer Science & Engg. which switched my knowledge and logic. As a student of computer science I learned GSM which is mainly concerned with my focus area. HRIT. At last. Ghaziabad 23 . Compound Agra Exchange and tried to group as much as I could.CONCLUSION I saw various division of C.O.T. I would like to say thanks again all staff of the unit who helped me through my training period.
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