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“KOTA SUPER THERMAL POWER STATION”
Submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY In MECHANICAL
2010-2011 (12 May, 2010 - 12th June, 2010)
Submitted To: MECHNICAL ENGINEERING
S.NO. TOPIC REMARK
1. 2. 3. 4.
PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABOUT PLANT PLANT FAMILIARIZATION (i) TUBINE (ii) BOILER (iii) E.S.P. (iv)COAL HANDLING PLANT (v)ASH HANDLING PLANT (vi) GENERATOR (vii) (viii) CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION CIRCLE
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
SWAS PACKAGE ATRS PACKAGE DDC PACKAGE FSSS PACKAGE
A very important element in curriculum of an Engineering student is the Practical Training. I under went practical training at “KOTA SUPER THERMAL POWER STATION” from 11-05-2010 to 11-06-2010. This is a part of total 30 days training program incorporated in the curriculum of the RAJASTHAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY for B.Tech. courses. This period was before my 6th sem. - B.Tech. Exams. As I am a student of Mechanical Branch so the training at K.S.T.P.S. has been particularly beneficial for me. I saw the various procedures, processes and equipment used in production of electricity by thermal powers which were studied in books and this has helped me in better understanding of power generation. S.T.P.S. is a very large plant and it is very difficult to acquire complete knowledge about it in a short span. I have tried to get acquainted with overall plant functioning and main concepts involved therein. The scope of Mechanical engineering is increasing day by day. It is a vital trade. During training I was permitted to take training at many section of mechanical ( Boiler and maintenance, turbine , fan, Air pre heater, coal handling plant, water treatment plant, DM plant, coal mills) and general plant familiarization. I have summarized all the things, which I saw & learned at S.T.P.S. in this training report.
Thermal power station
A thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven.Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which either drives an electrical generator or does some other work, like ship propulsion. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated; this is known as a Rankine cycle. The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different fuel sources. Some prefer to use the term energy center because such facilities convert forms of heat energy into electrical energy.
AN INTRODUCTION TO SURATGARH SUPER STATION
Suratgarh Super Thermal Power Station is owned by Rajasthan Rajya Vidhyut Utpadan Nigam Ltd. and is situated near village Raiyanwali about 25 KM from Suratgarh town, an ideal location for setting up a thermal power station in the state having regards to the availability of land, water, transmission network proximity to broad gauge railway and being an important load centre for north west Rajasthan. The techno-economic clearance for the prefect was issued by CEA in June 1991 – the planning commission accorded investment sanction for the project in Nov. 91 for a total estimated cost of Rs. 1253.31 crores on prices prevailing in Sept. 1990. The updated cost of the project is estimate at Rs. 2300 crores of including IDC. It has generation capacity of 1500 MW and installed with six Units of 250 MW each. It is a coal base thermal station. Water and coal required in a large amount. Coal is received here from coal-fields of MP areas through railways and water is received from INDIRA GANDHI CANAL. The supply of coal is from MP, Jarkhand by rail. About 18000 tonne coal required per day for whole unit and each unit consumes 150 tonnes coal per day. About 2x3 km2 area covered by plant and approximately 1800 employees works in a plant including chief engineer to labour. The supply electricity to the northern Rajasthan, Ratangarh, Bikaner, Ganganagar. FUTURE EXPENSION It has been decided to set up 2 X 660 MW super critical units (Unit # 7 & 8) at SSTPS. For this purpose about 446 Hectare land has been identified adjacent to the existing 6 X 250 MW plant. This land is under process of acquisition. M/s TEC have been appointed consulting engineers for this project. The state Govt. has also accorded its inpriciple approval for setting up in future, two additional units of 2 X 660 MW (Unit # 9 & 10) also based on super critical technology.
Following is the unit wise capacity of the plant.. Stage Stage I 1 Stage I 2 Stage II 3 Stage II 4 Stage III 5 Stage IV Unit Number Installed Capacity (MW) 250 250 250 250 250 Date of Comisioning May, 1998 March, 2000 October, 2001 March, 2002 June, 2003 Status Running Running Running Running Running
Anil Dhawan (AEN) for providing me adequate facilities to undergo training at S.. N. D.I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to my training & placement officer Mr. M. Nadheria (XEN). Equipment and for their kind guidance during the period of training. Without their help guidance and suggestions it was not possible to produce this training report.O. Last but not the least I am equally obliged to all those engineers technical personnel and operators at S. D. I have in particular to appreciate the effort and keen interest taken by Mr.Tech. N. Jangid (TA C&I) for their persistent help and for providing some of the technical data in form of computer print outs. Jain (AEN)..A.T.P.E. (Arvind sharma) 07EMTME021 7th sem.T. It is my proud privilege to express my sense of gratitude to Mr. Jain (XEN) and Mr. of Mechanical Mr. . Deepak Tater (JEN) for their kind help and assistance in under standing the working of diff.S. N. And at last I want to thank my colleagues.P. K.B. K. C.T.S. who gave me their valuable time and rendered practical knowledge in my training period. Mr. I am also grateful to Mr.D.T.S. Naresh for suggest and valuable guidance me for S. JAIPUR .Mech. Mr.I. Arjit Choudhary and H.P.
Turbine and other equipments during this process.P. double flow exhaust type reheat units with initial parameters of 13 kg/cm 2 and 5 low pressure heaters are fed .THERMAL POWER GENERATION Steam and water undergo various phases of “Carnot Cycle” in the Boiler. Operation There are two live steam lines connecting the boiler to the turbine. The direction of revolution of turbine is clock wise when looking at turbine from front bearing pedestal. In Thermal Power Station.P. The steam from H.turbine and strikes its blades hence heat energy of steam is converted into mechanical energy. Here are two cold reheat and two hot reheat lines connecting the reheater and turbine. fossil coal is used as fuel for steam generation in the Boiler. auxiliary systems etc. The turbines are three cylinders. In each of the two live steam lines one electrically operated isolating valve. For the oil lubrication of bearings and for governing. In India. Then steam is sent to L. Here second stage of energy conversion is takes place. STEAM TURBINE Introduction: Steam turbine is a rotating machine which CONVERTS HEAT ENERGY OF STEAM TO MECHANICAL ENERGY.P. are employed in the field of thermal power generation. compound 3000 rpm. turbine through hot steam lines. one water separator and one quick closing stop valve are mounted. Basic principles: . Steam so generated is utilised in Steam Turbine to generate mechanical energy for rotating the Generator for producing electric power. materials. turbine is reheated in reheaters and reheated steam is sent to I. vary widely from each other depending on the capacity and manufacturer of the sets.P. varying from 15 MW to 500 MW.The high pressure cylinder comprises of two curt is wheels as a regulation stage . cylinder consists of four stages. the main oil pump driven shaft is assembled into the front bearing pedestal of turbine itself. Intermediate pressure cylinders comprise of twelve stages and each of the double flow section of the L. TUBINE Introduction The steam turbines and their auxiliaries installed have been manufactured by M/s BHEL . The superheated steam enters the H. steam turbines of different capacities. The design.P. turbine from where it is ejected by vacuum ejectors and condensed.
gland steam cooler and four number low pressure heaters. driving alternating current full capacity Turbo generators. High pressure turbine (HPT) and intermediate pressure turbine (LPT) through two crossover pipes. After passing through High pressure turbine (HPT) steam (27 kg/cm2. The three rotors are supported in five bearings.5 kg/cm . Each constitute an open system. Condensate from the hot well of condenser is pumped by the condensate pumps. Rankine cycle is a vapour power cycle having two basic characteristics: 1. The intermediate pressure turbine has 11 stages. the working fluid is a condensable vapour which is in liquid phase during part of the cycle and 2. the turbine is condensing type with single reheat. In low pressure turbine. 5350C) from the boiler enters into the High pressure turbine through emergency stop valves and four control valves. The direction of rotation of the rotors is clock wise when viewed from the front bearing end towards the generators. with each processes carried out in a separate component specially designed for the purpose. The stages are arranged in HP. The common bearing of High pressure and Intermediate pressure rotors is a combined journal and radial thrust bearing. the first stage being governing stage. when viewed in the direction of steam flow. It is basically engineered on reaction principle with throttle governing.09 kg/cm abs) condenses in the condensers welded directly to the exhaust part of the low pressure turbine. 3270C) flows to boiler for reheat and reheated steam (24. The cycle consists of a succession of steady flow processes. The high pressure turbine (HPT) comprises of 12 stages. IP and LP cylinder.The Thermal Power Plants with steam turbine uses Rankine cycle. the blades in high pressure turbine HPT are designed fro anticlockwise rotation. . 535 C) comes to the intermediate pressure turbine (IPT) through two interceptor valves and four control valves mounted on the IPT itself. Turbine is equipped with a turbine gear which rotates the rotor of the turbine at a speed of nearly 3. steam flows in the opposite paths have four stages in each path. and all the components are connected in series so that as the fluid circulates through the power plant each fluid element passes through a cycle of mechanical and thermodynamic stages. and supplied to he deaerator though ejectors. Form deaerator the feed water is supplied to boiler by boiler feed pumps though three number High pressure heaters. Steam is extraction form the various points of the turbine to the heat the condensate in these heat exchangers. The steam flow in High pressure turbine (HPT) being in reverse direction. After leaving the low pressure turbine the exhaust steam (0. The turbine is of tandem compound design with separate HP.4 rpm for providing uniform heating during starting and uniform cooling during shut down. Rotors of intermediate and low pressure turbines are connected by a semi flexible coupling. The HP & IP turbines are of single flow type while LP turbine is of double flow type. IP and LP turbines. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Superheated steam (130 kg/cm2.
they form annular ducts which are used for extractions. Turbine Casing: The IP turbine is split axially and is of single shell design. Steam Valves: A turbine is equipped with one or more emergency stop valves. together with the inner casing.P. In addition governing valves are used to provide accurate control of steam flow entering the turbine. The inner shell of the inner casing acts as the guide blade carriers for the initial stages of the turbine. 2. 3. H.P Turbine Casing: The principal parts of the HP turbine casing are and axially split inner shell. enclosing the rotor and outer shell of a barrel-type construction. fabricated construction. I. . The outer casing accommodates a double flow inner casing. The casing is of triple shell.P Turbine Casing: The LP turbine is of double flow type. The guide blade carriers of the LP stage groups are so designed that. The steam coming from the reheater is passed into the inner casing via admission branches which are symmetrically arranged in the top and bottom halves of the outer casing. The outer casing consists of the front and rear end walls.Specification Type Reaction Rated output of turbine Rated speed Main steam temperature Rated pressure 250 KW 3000 RPM 537 C 150 kg/cm tandem compound condensing TURBINE COMPONENTS Casing or Cylinders: A casing is essentially a pressure vessel which must be capable of withstanding the maximum working pressure and temperature that can be produced within it. 1. in order to cut off the steam supply during periods of shut down and to provide prompt interruption of the steam flow in emergency. two longitudinal girders and a top cover. The working pressure aspects demand thicker and thicker casing and the temperature aspects demand thinner and thinner casings. L. The barrel type of cylinder construction ensures symmetry of the wall thickness around the axis of rotation and hence the wall thickness itself is relatively less than that used in other type of construction.
. which is then dissipated as eddies as the steam passes through large no. Turning gear: The turbine is equipped with hydraulic turning gear capable to rotate the shaft system at high speed during shut-down and start-up periods in order to minimize. It is obvious that balding has got direct impact on the efficiency and reliability of turbine. The turning gear assembly is fixed on the front pedestal of HP turbine and engages the shaft of the main oil pump and thereby also turbine shaft via the solined shaft. shaft flance and over-running clutch. Shaft Glands: Labyrinth type glands seal the shaft where it passé through the casing. Bearings. Intermediate pressure and low pressure rotors have a single journal bearing each at the rear ends. of strips. wheel which is driven by pressure oil supplied by Jacking oil pump. Three journal bearings and one combined journal and thrust bearing are used for supporting the turbine shafting system. These blades have a 50% reaction component and both fixed and moving blades have the same profiles. LP Balding. these consist of a series of sealing strips alternatively into the shaft and into stationary rings.Blading: In steam turbine. The fixed blades of the last two stages are hollow. the blades transform the thermal energy into mechanical energy. In the case of HP and IP Turbine. Appropriate blade profile. In case of the LP turbine glands sealing strips are fitted into stationary rings only. The HP Rotor is carried into two bearings. a simple journal bearing at the front end of the shaft and a combined journal and thrust bearing at the end immediately adjacent to the coupling with the IP Rotor. The turbine generator shaft system is rotated by Hydraulic motor. the fixed blades are made of solid drawn materials. Each rotor blade is milled from a single piece of material complete with inverted T-root and integral shroud. HP and IP Balding. In medium and low temperature regions. with high aerothermodynamics efficiency having sufficient mechanical strength to withstand the steam forces. The least three stages of the LP turbine have twisted blades. The differences between the circumferential velocity at the rotor blade root and tip is quite considerable and is taken into account by twisting the blade along its length. A final accurate check is made when the blades have been fitted into the rotor. The pressure of the steam leaking through the gland is reduced by converting the pressure energy into velocity energy.
the regulation is done by throttling steam through this valve. The governing system also includes other devices to protect the turbine from abnormal condition that may arise during operation. Turbine governing system The main purpose of governor is to maintain this desired speed of turbine during fluctuations of load on the generator by varying steam input to the turbine. bypassing the first stage and some high-pressure stages. Governing of Reheat Turbine In reheat turbines in cases of partial of full load ow off even after the HP control valves are fully closed the entrained steam in the reheaters and hot reheat line is more than enough to speed up the turbine above over speed limits. The governing system in addition to ensuring the falling load-speed characteristics of the turbine also ensures the following functions: 1. a secondary valve. developing additional blade torque to meet the increased load. While the stop valve is operated controlled similar to HP control valve but at a higher speed range by a secondary of pre-emergency governor as it is called. 2. 3. The valve remains full open at rated speed and starts closing at about 3% overspeed and is fully closed at about 5% over speed. In STPS By-pass Governing is used.Thermal insulation of Turbine: The thermal insulation of turbine shall consist of Asbestos free Mineral Wool mixed with suitable filling and binding agent. Protecting the machine by reducing the load or shutting off completely in abnormal and emergency situations. Meeting the system load variations in a predetermined manner. is opened and throttled steam is supplied downstream. This steam joins the partially spent steam admitted through the primary valve. By-pass Governing: In this system. when running in parallel with other machines. in general. When the load on the turbine exceeds this economic load which can be developed by the unthrttole full flow through the primary valve. the steam is supplied through a primary valve and is adequate to meet a major fraction of the maximum load which is called economic load loads less than this. The run up the turbine from rest to rated speed and synchronizing with the grid. . Insulation thickness to be applied shall vary depending on the surface temperature prevailing in that zone. This is being done to achieve uniform rate of cooling of different section of turbine casing. Hence it is necessary to provide stop valves and interceptor valves on hot reheat line before IP turbine.
(one for each boiler) is arranged to handle flue gases from the respective boilers. fan and a motor is provided near the chimney to induce the flue gases. dry bottom reheat type and is designed for pulverizing coal firing with a max. natural gas or coal. are made by M/s BHEL . BOILER Introduction The boiler is the main part of any thermal power plant.S. The boilers may be fired from the multiple fuels. Oil burners are provided for initial start up and stabilization of low load . which is produced by.TURBINE OIL SYSTEM Purpose of Oil System 1. It converts the fuel energy into steam energy. Maintaining the temperature of the turbine bearings constant at the required level. balanced draft. 3. Each of the boilers are single drum. tangential fired water tube naturally circulated over hanged. The boiler installed in S.T.S. Continuous steam output of 375 tons/hour at 138 kg/cm2 pressure and 540 degree cent.are discharged through 180 meters high chimney. and magnetic separator hopper.S. Four no. The oil does this by removing the heat. Provides for hydrogen-cooled generators a sealing medium o prevent hydrogen leaking out aling the shaft. The gases from E. Adequate clearance is also provided for the downward expansion of the furnace. The thermal efficiency of each boiler at MCR is 86. The fuel may be furnace oil. The water filled in the stainless steel seal through the hydraulic seal between the furnace ash hoppers and the water wall ring heater. Flue gases are utilized to heat the secondary air for combustion in the tubular type air heaters installed in the boilers. I. Ash is formed by the result of burning of coal inside furnace.S. 4. diesel oil. It: Provides a supply of oil to the journal bearings to give an oil wedge at he shaft rotates. the surface friction and the turbulence set up in the oil.Two E.P. Provides a medium for hydraulically operating the governor gear and controlling the steam admission valves. to avoid atmospheric air entering the furnace a hydraulic pressure is maintained at the furnace bottom. the shaft conduction. Temp.P. Of bowl mills have been installed for each boiler. . 2.P. The boiler is provided with a balanced draft consisting of two forced draft fans and two induced draft fans.8 %. A small quantity of ash is collected in the bottom ash hopper and considerable amount of ash is collected in the E.D. This collected ash is extract and disposed off in a slurry form in the ash disposal arc.P. The turbine of system fulfils four functions. Since the boiler furnace is maintained at a negative pressure.
The economizer has a no. The heat source is obtained by burning the fuel. The heat energy applied in the furnace is absorbed by the water walls and water in this ckt. gets heated up . Natural Circulation: . as ‘steam generator’ is a container in which water can be fed and by the application of heat evaporated continuously into steam. As the mixture of water and steam takes place in the steam separators and the saturated steam is led into the upper heaters for further heating and water particles fall back into the drum water. The heat absorption takes place in the water walls. This is irrespective of the mode of circulation being used. which is coal here in our case .This give rise to the formation of steam bubble in the water walls and risers . The flow direction of feed water in the economizer is in counter flow direction to the gas flow. The furnace sidewalls are fed by the two side walls inlet header. Of sections composed of parallel tube ckt. In the drum there by establishing a natural circulation. The boiler drum is located at 44-m level.The wet steam which enter the drum from the riser tubes is collected in a compartment. CIRCULATION SYSTEM: It is essential to provide an adequate flow of water and/or of water-steam mixture for an efficient transfer of heat from furnace to the working fluid and to prevent ‘burn-outs’. formed by internal baffles.The walls contained in the boiler drum flows through the down corner water walls and then through risers back to the drum.Basic theory and auxiliaries The boiler also termed. Movement of boiler water is termed as circulation. The economizer is located below the real horizontal super heater in the boiler near gas pass. The feed water coming out of the economizer of the outlet header enters the boiler drum.A series of riser tubes are provided to carry the water and steam mixture from the water wall header into the drum where separation of water and steam takes place . The mixture of water and steam is continuously displaced by the colder water. the steam is passed through too rows of turbo separator which has a primary and a secondary stage. As a result of heat absorption there will be a mixture of water and steam in the ckt. There are four downcomers pipes connecting the water side of the drum to the furnace lower water wall inlet headers. Which is collected in the outlet headers . The mixture of water and steam will rises continuously and move to the steam drum due to its lightness. In STPS NATURAL type of circulation system are used. In the turbo separator water is thrown off and the steam passes through the screen separators in the internal stage of separation. From here. After the feed control station the feed water enters into the economizer inlet header where the feed water is preheated before entering the boiler drum. The front and rear wall inlet header feed the front and rear furnace wall tubes. This closed ckt.
All the bottom headers are connected together in the form of a ring. after which further increase in heat absorption will result in a decrease in flow. In superheater tube with high temperature region but does not directly view the flame. The furnace sidewalls are supplied by the two side wall bottom headers. There are three modes of heat transfer : • • • Conduction Convection Radiation Heat energy is transferred from a heat source to a heat receiver by one or more of these modes for which heat source should be at a higher temperature than the receiver. The front and rear wall bottom headers feed the front and rear furnace wall tubes. The difference in densities in contents of fluids in down comers from the drum and risers in the furnaces is used to effect the movement of fluids. Some tubes of the furnace rear wall form the supply tubes to the extended side wall inlet headers. The waterside of the steam drum is connected with the furnace bottom water-wall header through down-comers. One of the characteristics of natural circulation is its tendency to provide the highest flow in the tubes with the greatest heat absorption. The movement of the steam and water will increase with increased heat input to a maximum value or so called end point. This type of circulation is employed in most of the utility boiler. no external pumping device is used for the movement of the fluid. Here the heat is transferred from flue gas to superheater tube metal by convection and by non-luminous radiation and in the tube metal by conduction and to the steam by forced convection. BOILER PRESSURE PARTS WATER & SATURATED STEAM CIRCUITS Feed water is supplied to the steam drum from the economizer outlet links. Heat Transfer in Boiler: In boiler heat energy is released from the combustion of fossil fuels and the heat is transferred to different fluids in the system and a part of it is lost or left out as unutilized.In this type. . The power plant boilers are large capacity steam generators used purely for the electrical power generation.
The resulting mixture of water and steam is collected in the outlet headers and discharged into the steam drum through a series of riser tubes In the steam drum separation of water and steam takes place . Steam Drum Internals: The function of the steam drum internals is to separate water and steam from the mixture generated in the furnace walls. the steam is superheated to the design temperature. Always use only deaerated water for boiler feeding. In STPS Plain tube type of economizer are installed. it has the disadvantage of giving a higher draught loss. the inside of the drum should be thoroughly cleaned and should be free from foreign materials. The fitting and alignment of drum internals are very important fro its efficient performance. The steam purification primarily depends on the extent of moisture removal. Any misalignment with gap will lead to heavy carry-over of impurities into steam which will get deposited in the superheater and turbines. This is essential to keep down the inside corrosion of pressure parts including economizer. The drum internals reduce the dissolved solids content of the steam to below the acceptable limit. and to recover some of the heat from the flue gases leaving the boiler. The separating chamber should be leak proof for efficient performance of drum internals. Passing through the various stages of super heaters. Super heater: Superheated (SH) are meant for raising the steam temperature above the saturation temperature present trend is to limit the superheated and . After the fit-up of drum internals is over. The staggered formation induces more gas side turbulence than the in line and so results in a higher rate of heat transfer. Economizer: The purpose of the economizer is to preheat the boiler feed water before it is introduced into the steam drum. since solids in steam are carried by the moisture associated with it. However. The water in the furnace walls front and rear water-walls and the extended sidewalls absorb heat. Each section is composed of a number of parallel tube circuits.The extended side wall tubes terminate in the rear section of the side wall top headers. The economizer is located in the boiler real gas pass below the rear horizontal superheater.The saturated steam is led to the super heater connecting tubes.The boiler water mixes with the incoming water . All tube circuits originate from the inlet header and discharge into the outlet header through economizer intermediate headers and economizer hanger tubes. From the super heater outlet header the superheated steam is led to the turbine via the main steam lines.
The super heater is composed of four basic stages or sections: a Pendant Spaced Section. a Platen Section.super heater rear horizontal assemblies – super heater de-super heater. The predominant mode of heat transfer is convection. The platen Section is located directly above the furnace in front the furnace arch. Reheater: Reheater are provided to raise the temperature of the steam from which part of energy already been extracted by HP turbine. The reheat de-super heaters are located in the cold reheat lines. The vents and drains to the atmosphere must be closed prior to raising a vacuum in the condenser. The reheater is composed of two stages or section. Super heated steam from the pendant super heater outlet header goes to the turbine via the main steam lines. the reheated steam is returned to the low-pressure section of the turbine via the hot reheat line.The steam cooled wall suction from the side. a Rear Horizontal Section and the Steam Cooled Wall and Roof Section. front and rear walls and roof of the vertical gas pass. The front pendant vertical spaced plated section is located between the rear waterwall hanger tubes and the superheated platen section. steam is returned to the re-heater via the cold reheat lines. The rear pendant vertical spaced section is located above the furnace arch between the water. After being reheated to the design temperature.cooled screen tubes and rear water wall hanger tubes. All reheater drains and vents are opened before lighting off. The Pendant Section is located behi9ng the screen tubes. Steam Flow: Saturated dry steam from the drum follows the course that is: Steam cooled wall roof tubes –steam cooled side wall tubes – extended steam cooled side wall tubes – front steam cooled wall tubes – steam cooled roof and rear wall tubes. Drains connecting with the condenser may be lift open until the boiler is under light load Desuperheater: Desuperheaters are provided in the superheater connecting links and the cold reheater lines to permit reduction of steam temperature when .reheated steam temperature around 5400C. counter flow type. The percentage of heat to super heater and reheater for the 165 bar boiler is approx 50%. Reheat flow through the unit is as follows: Front pendant re heater – rear pendant re-heater. the front pendant vertical spaced platen section and the rea5r pendant vertical spaced platen section. The Horizontal Section of the superheater is located in the rear vertical gas pass above the economizer. After passing through the high-pressure stages of the turbine. It absorbs heat mainly by radiation. This is the primary superheater of the convective.platen super heater – pendant super heater.
necessary and t maintain the temperatures at design values within the limits of the nozzle capacity. Blow down: Boiler blow down used as a means of controlling boiler water concentration and to remove sludge formation. . Heavy local accumulation could be avoided by proper use off soot blowing equipment. In high pressure boilers iron and copper oxides introduced form the pre-boiler system. 2. in most cases the continuous blow down system is sufficient. This is accomplished by proper boiler water and feed water treatment. The frequency of blowing down depends upon local condition. such as: character of the water nature of feed water treatment. • The maintenance work involved in repairing the fire bricks is practically eliminated. Temperature reduction is accomplished by injecting spray water into the path of the steam through a nozzle at the entering end of the desuprheaterthe spray water source is from the boiler feed water system. but should be kept “reasonably clean”. The furnace walls cannot be entirely kept free from deposits. Internal Deposits : It is essential that the tubes be kept free form scale formation and copper and iron oxides deposits. design and rating of e boiler etc. Ash Deposits (slugging): The amount and the rate of slagging depends largely on the type of fuel burned. Furnace is designed for efficient and complete combustion. temperature inside the furnace and turbulence which causes rapid mixing between fuel and air. The location of the desuperheaters helps to ensure against water carryover to the turbine and also eliminates the necessity for high temperature resisting materials in the desuperheater construction. Furnace is the primary part of boiler where the chemical energy available in the fuel is converted to thermal energy by combustion. It has following Advantage: • In furnace not only combustion but also heat transfer is taking place simultaneously. Major factors that assist for efficient combustion are time of residence (fuel) inside the furnace. Feed water treatment in this case comprises corrosion control in pre-boiler system. 3. may lead to internal corrosion in the areas of deposits and eventually cause tube failures. Water Cooled Furnaces: Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited has developed the modern water-cooled furnace. • Due to heat transfer in the furnace the flue gas leaving the furnaces is reduced to the acceptable level to the superheating surfaces. Operation: 1.
Either a water seal arrangement or a mechanical seal (expansion joint) prevents leakage of air at this point. Open Hoop Type Construction: In this type of bottom construction two furnace water walls. Wall blowers can be used to keep these controls. Soot Blowers: Because of the mature of the deposits resulting from the combustion of coal. The leakage if air through the furnace should be avoided. often referred to as the dry bottom type. BOTTOM CONSTRUCTIION The construction of the furnace bottom depends on fuel and ash conditions. and to a relatively smaller extent from oil. but recently the used low-pressure air as a soot blowing medium has been introduced as this offers a number of advantage. Flame inside the furnace should be watched and taken care to keep them off from impinging furnace walls. six to fourteen inches clearance between the furnace and ash hopper is allowed for downward expansion of the furnace walls. such as shot cleaning on economizers and tubular air heaters have been used to a more limited extent on order boiler. means have to be provided to prevent an accumulation of deposits from chocking the boiler gas passes and to maintain the boiler heating surfaces in a suitably clean condition for effective heat transfer whilst on load. within their operating range. Gradual fouling of the furnace walls during commercial operation will cause increasing furnace outgas temperature and high steam temperature which may result in exceeding the range of steam temperature controls. Steam has mainly been used as the soot blowing medium. The selection of burners and loading is to be done such that the heat loading is uniform in furnace. although other methods. AIR AND GAS PATH . Bottom designs most commonly used for coal fired units are of the open hopper type. Depending on the height of the furnace. closed bottoms are generally utilized. usually the front and rear walls slope down toward the centre of the furnace to form the inclined side of the bottom. The most commonly used method of on load cleaning is soot blowing. Ash and /or slag from the furnace is discharged through the bottom opening into an ash hopper directly below it. For gaseous and oil fuels.The wall blowers should not be used indiscriminately but only as required in the affected areas.
The seal air takes suction from the atmosphere. Gas system: The flue gases produced in the furnace as a result of combustion. Control of secondary air flow is done by FD fan blade pitch control. 2. VISIBLE LIGHT SCANNER. of scanner air fans are provided to supply the required air for cooling these flame scanners. Additionally an emergency air supply connection from atmosphere is provided for supplying the cooling air to the scanners in case both FD fans trip. one is in operation and the other standby. The schematic of air and flue gas system is enclosed. per mill) are provided for each boiler. Two no. The two no. . Air for Drying and Transportation of pulverized coal (Primary Air) : The cold primary air fans supply the air required for drying the coal in the tube mills/mixing box and for transporting the pulverized fuel from both ends of the tube mill to the coal burners. The air is filtered and boosted to the required pressure by the scanner air fans. of seal air fans are (2 nos. Scanner Cooling Air : Each boiler is provided with 20 no. RPAH. of the two seal air fans provided for each tube mill. 4. The flue gas produced in the furnace from combustion of fuel is evacuated by two numbers radial double suction Induced draft fans. The supply of air is taken from FD fan discharge. Air System: 1. across the horizontal pass and downward through the second pass of the boiler to the air preheater. travels upward in the furnace. This air is preheated by two no. The ID fans are provided with hydraulic coupling and inlet damper control. The primary air is heated in the primary sectors of the Rotary RAPH. Combustion Air (Secondary Air) : The forced draft fans supply the required secondary air for combustion.General: The total air flow through the unit is handled by two numbers axial reaction forced draft fans and two numbers axial reaction primary air fans. The distribution of hot secondary air to the wind box compartments is controlled by “Secondary air dampers”. 3. The control for the primary air pressure is achieved through PA fan inlet dampers. The sealing air is required for mill trunounim mill discharges valves and gravimetric feeders. of Induced draft fans are provided to evacuate the flue gas from furnace to the chimney. Seal Air: Six no.
noxious and dirty environments and under corrosive conditions. bonnet enclosures are provided to limit thermal differential during operation. This procedure until the gate blade is fully closed. In large boilers. While passing through the spray nozzles of the oil gun. with numerous complex circuits and bends. for satisfactory atomization the viscosity shall be less than 15-20 centistokes. usage of guillotine gate is probably the best device for isolation and it can be relied upon to operate completely even in hot. the pressure energy of the oil converts into velocity energy. The guillotine must be used only in a fully opened fully closed position and never left in an intermediate position. Fro services operating 2600C or above. If the gate blade should stall while closing run the gate blade up to 150 mm and attempt to close again. travels to close against a nonfouling rigid seat. ID fan inlet and outlet. and has adequate provision for clean out.PRESERVATION OF BOILERS Atmospheric corrosion of ferrous materials proceeds rapidly in the presence of oxygen and moisture. which breaks up the oil stream into fine particles. Pit type corrosion can also occur in walls. the gate blade must be withdrawn completely form the seal. GUILLOTINE GATE In the power plants. Fuel Oil Burning System Fuel Oil Atomization: Atomizes the process of spraying the fuel oil into fine mist. Guillotine is simply a free moving obstruction tolerant blade which travels in a rigid frame. When the gate blade is open. for better mixing of the fuel with the combustion air. it is practically impossible to completely dry the boiler in preparation for storage. HEA Ignitors: HEA Ignitors are provided in this Boiler. Primary air fan outlet and mill isolation from cold and hot air. is triggered by reliable operator. Guillotine gates are recommended for EP inlet and outlet. Air Cooled Oil Guns: The atomized assembly of an operating oil gun is protected from the hot furnace radiation by the flowing fuel oil and steam . This ignitor uses LFO/HFO as main fuel and this is ignited using spark and is mounted adjacent to oil gun. The oxides produced are objectionable and can be transported to critical heat transfer areas as well as to the turbine.
The boilers consist of the following main parts: 2. Housing : 25 lt.5 fcu 2. is raised by transferring heat from other fluids such as flue gas . Main Parts of Boiler: 1. Down Comer Tubes 8. Specification 1. Forced Draft Fan (FDF) 3.then it is possible with economizer the heat ejected to chimney can be reduced to a great extent thus increasing the efficiency of a boiler. Oil capacity Guide brg. pneumatic operated trip valves are used. Up Rise Tubes 7. Heating element . Hot intermediate. Water Tubes 9. Rotor main drive motor .which keeps it relatively cool. 1450 rpm. Super Heaters 10. Burner Trip Valves: To control the atomizing medium and fuel flow to the oil guns. Since air heater can be successfully employed to reclaim heat from flue gas at lower temp. . The oil gun assemblies supplied for this project have been designed for air cooing provision. level . Cold end Materials .11 kW. Induced Draft Fan (IDF) AIR PREHEATER Air preheater is a heat exchanger in which air temp. because hot air is necessary for rapid and efficient combustion in the furnace and also for drying coal in the milling plant. Air Preheater (RAH) 4. Gas Recirculation Fan (GRCF) 11. Regeneration Air Pre Heater It is an essential boiler auxiliary. Burners 5.Fluid coupling 11.Hot end. Re-Heater 12. Bearing Guide bearing : Spherical roller bearing Support bearing : Spherical roller thrust Thermostat: Burling thermostat 3. Furnace 6.Carbon & Corten steel 2. 50 Hz Coupling .
As the rotor slowly revolve the mass of the elements alternately through the air and gas passages. pneumatic spray gun of 5 to 10 lt. Description HOW THE LJUNGSTROM REGENERATIVE AIR PREHEATER WORKS The Ljunstrom RPAH absorbs waste heat from flue gas and transfers this heat to incoming cold air buy means of continuously rotation heat transfer elements. To guide the upper end of the rotor. a guide trunnion is bolted to the face of the rotor post. The load is transmitted to the thrust bearing by a trunnion. Rotor Drive Unit The driving force for turning the rotor is applied at its periphery. Steam Coil Airpreheater Number of steam Coil APH : 2 Nos per boiler Installed position : Vertical Design Pressure: 20 kg/cm2 Design Temperature: 2500C Weight of One steam coil APH: 1950 kg. heat is absorbed by the element surfaces passing through the hot gas stream. 4. then. Both the support and guide bearings are lubricated with an oil bath. Cleaning . as same surfaces are carried through the air stream.A pressure pump. capacity is suitable to apply anti rust oil with good penetration. A pin rack mounted on the rotor shell is engaged by a pinion attached to the low speed . Rotor Bearing The complete rotor is supported by a thrust bearing. bolted to the lower end of the rotor post of by an extension to the rotor post. they release the stored up heat thus increasing the temperature of the incoming combustion or process air..Support Brg. Parts of RAPH Heating Element The heating element is a compact arrangement of formed metal sheets contained in the rotor in two or more layers. Housing: 150 lt. garden type. The position of this trunnion is maintained by a radial guide bearing assembly.
Seals provided at the rotor post are set to operate with minimum clearances with respect to the horizontal sealing surface go the sector plate. Water washing of air heater When residua deposit accumulations cannot be removed readily by soot blowing.shaft of a power driven speed reducer. Caution . It may be either bathe lubricated. Air Motor is used for the auxiliary drive. therefore. Rotor seals Seals are providing at both the ends of the Air Preheater to minimize leakage between the air side and the gas side. or lubricated by means of a combined bath and forced circulation and filtering system. It consists of an electric motor coupled to a gear driven crank mechanism which oscillated the swivel heater carrying the nozzle pope or pipes. Auxiliary Drive . sometimes becomes necessary to water wash the heating surface to maintain acceptable draft losses through the air preheater. Generally. The most commonly used sources of water for washing air preheaters are rivers. Lubrication Rotor Support Bearing The rotor support bearing of the Ljungstrom air preheater may be lubricated by one of the two methods. In turn will depend upon the type of .Fresh water is ordinarily used for washing air preheaters. The choice of lubricant will depend on the expected maximum operation temperature of the support bearing. all seals may be adjusted to necessary clearances. and ponds although well water and house service water are also used extensively.Air motor should not be operated without the Lubricator. it. Water source . Most deposit accumulations forming on the air prehearater heat transfer surface are highly soluble in water and.This drive ensure the continued operation of the Preheater even if power to the electric motors interrupted. The hot and cold end radial seals are attached to each diaphragm of the rotor. This. Cleaning Device Cleaning Device is provided at the cold end (gas side) to remove soot deposits on the heating elements. are easily removed by washing provided a sufficient quantity of water is used. The bypass / circumferential seals provide sealing between the periphery of the rotor and the connection plate/housing. lakes.
because of entrainment by rotary action. 2.lubrication an cooling system. Leakage of air into gas because of the impossibility of perfect sealing. Ducting arrangements are neat. This is the type can be economically used for high capacity boiler. where as a result most fouling and corrosion occur. pr a straight mineral oil. 2. Minimum metal temperature occurs at the cold end. It compact and hence save space and structure coal. dust into air. Big foreign materials jammed in Between the rotor and sector plates. Fouling . gas . and upon condition surrounding the support bearing. . simple and less costly 5. plugging and Corrosion Deposits in airheateras are initiated by condensation of acid or moisture from flue gas on metal surface. The lubrication oil used may be either an FP type of lubricate with lead napthenate additive. Proper maintenance of the main motor ADVANTAGE 1. Degree of fouling depends on air heater heating element metal surface. Reason for rotor stopping 1. streamlined. Moving parts increase the possibility of outages. 3. The oil selected for the support bearing will also be suitable for the GUIDE BEARING Rotor stoppage alarm It is a device which is used to give a signal when the rotor is stopped without our control. Main drive will fail remedial measure Thoroughly cleaning the Air Preheater after maintenance. Leakage of air into. will not materially affect for performance of the heater. Holes in the elements due to corrosion etc. Less weight of metal permit economic usage of alloy steel. 4. DISVANTAGE 1. 2.
which encloses the steam space. Condensation of exhaust steam takes place on the outer surface of the tubes. CONDESER The functions of condenser are: 1. IN STPS RVUN SURFACE CONDESER is used. to the outlet water box on the other side. each supplying cooling water to a separate bundle of tubes. To form a convenient point for introducing makes up water. To provide lowest economic heat rejection temperature from the steam. The tubes are supplied cooling water form inlet water box on one side and discharged. 4. Deaeration of make-up water introduced in the condenser. The gas outlet temperature and /or air inlet temperature has to be raised to restrict the corrosion to the permissible level. the may be two or more pair of separate inlet-outlet water boxes. Instead of one inlet and one outlet water boxes. after taking away heat form the steam. Tubes carrying cooling water pass through the steam space.As coal contains less sulphur corrosion is not nor normally as much a problem as fouling and hence lower exit gas temperature to a level of 1200C. which are cooled by water flowing inside them. The condenser essentially consists of a shell. To convert exhaust steams to water for reuse this saving on feed water requirement. Surface Condenser: This type is generally used for modern steam turbine installations. 3. This enables cleaning and maintenance of part of the tubes while turbine can be kept running on a reduced load. . 2. During starting and at low loads the flue gas exit temperature fails to a low value that will lead to corrosion. Thus saving on steam required per unit of electricity.
But as copper has very little mechanical strength. a . 350% capacity condensate pumping sets are installed for pumping the condensate from condenser to the deaerator4 through low-pressure heaters. A by-pass branch pipe has interconnected these woe condensers. to a heater this system is called regenerative. There is an optimum point at which the steam is bled form the turbine once a feed temperature is selected. The tube layout of condenser has been arranged to ensure efficient heat transfer from steam to cooking water passing through the tubes. to the fluid whilst in another state to raise its temperature. each connected with exhaust part of low pressure casing. and at the same time the resistance to flow of steam has been reduced to the barest minimum. Two pumps are for normal operation and one works as stand by pump. The condenser has been designed to create vacuum at the exhaust of steam turbine and to provide pure condensate for reusing as feed water for the boilers. Regenerative Feed Heating System If steam is bled from a turbine and is made to give up its latent and any superheat it may possess. Materials for Condenser tubes Selection of tube material mainly on the quality of cooling water and the cost. which would be otherwise wasted. because the fluid gives up heat. it has to be reinforced by alloying with other metals. The highest theoretical temperature to which the feed water may be raised in the heater is the saturation temperature of the bled steam.Description of condenser The condenser group consists of two condensers. Coppers alloys are preferred as copper has very high heat transfer coefficient. Stainless steel tubes has also been used and has good corrosion resistance though heat transfer coefficient is quite lower ht an the copper alloy.
The feed water after being deaerated in the deraerator is drawn buy the boiler feed pump and pumped to boiler through high pressure heaters where it is heated up by the bled steam from the turbine. The HP-Bypass system diverts the steam before main steam valve to he cold reheat CRH line. The LP Bypass diverts the incoming steam from hot reheat line before intercepting valves to he condenser after reducing the HRH steam parameters to the conditions approximately to that of LP steam turbine exhaust steam. 2. The bypass system had two sections: HP & LP. and pressure after HP turbine exhaust). HP Bypass system also reduces the rated steam parameters of the incoming steam from the superheated to the steam condition expected in the CRH line (i. thus avoiding loss of boiler water. Regenerative system of 250 MW unit The regenerative system of the turbine consists of four low-pressure heaters. This system enables starting of he unit of sliding parameters and also facilitates hot restarting of the unit. HP-LP BYPASS SYSTEM This bypass system has been provided to allow the steam generator to build up.tapping point near the stop valve produces no gain in efficiency as practically live steam is used for heating. one deaerator and three high-pressure heaters. during start-up. steam temp.e.3 and 4 flows in cascade and is ultimately pumped into the main condenasate line after heater No. The drain of condensate steam on LP heaters No.2 or flows to condenser. the bypass system disposes the steam produced by. The drain of condensed steam of HP heaters flows in cascade and under normal load conditions flows to the deaerator. The condense is drawn by condensate pumps from the hot well of condenser and is pumped to the deaerator through gland coolers and low pressure heaters where it is progressively heated up by the steam extracted from seals and bled points of the turbine. the boiler automatically to he condenser without affecting the boiler operation. The steam generated is dumped into the condenser. two gland coolers. . In the event of loss of load on the turbine. matching steam parameter with the tribune.
in each case through a spacer type flexible coupling. 3. Chemical dosing for maintaining quality of boiler water. 4. Booster Pump WORKING: 50 % tandem boiler feed pump sets are supplied to this contact. Functions of de aerator are: 1. Storage of feed water in water/steam cycle. The drive is transmitted. Removal of dissolved air/oxygen in boiler water. • DEAERATER Condensate from hot well is pumped to de aerator by condensate extraction pump.HP Bypass station is utilised for the following tasks: 1. Regenerative heating of feed water for increasing its temperature and efficiency of plant. and a “FK6D30’ boiler feed pump driven from the opposite end of the motor shaft through a variable speed turbo-coupling. 2. supplying each boiler. directly driven form one end of the shaft of an electric driving motor. To establish flow at the outlet of superheated for raising boiler parameters during starts up. axial split casing type. 2. Two sets are run in parallel. thus allowing the pump internals to be removed without disturbing the suction and discharge pipe work of the alignment between the pump and the motor. To warm up the steam lines. . The pump shaft is sealed at the drive end and the non-drive end by mechanical seals which are flushed by a supply of clarified water. three pump sets for each boiler. 2. proportional to the opening of HP bypass valves. The bearings in the booster pump and pressure stage pump and in the motor are lubricated from a forced lubricating oil system incorporated in the turbo coupling. Each pump set consists of a “FA1856” booster pump. 3. Control of steam pressure after reheater. horizontal. To control steam temperature down of HP bypass at the reset value LP Bypass station is utilised for the following tasks: 1. 4. with one pump set being on stand-by. Establish flow of steam from reheat lines to condenser by its opening. The booster pump is a single stage. having the suction and discharge branches on the casing bottom half. To maintain or controls steam pressure at pre-set value in main steam line during start up.
Flow rate Efficiency Input power Speed of pump : : : : : : Boiler Feed Water 161.10C 490 m3/hr. each seal being flushed by water in a closed .TECHNICAL DATA: Pump type Direction of rotation (Viewed from drive end) Liquid pumped Suction temp. horizontal centrifugal pump of barrel casing design.clockwise Components of Booster Pump: • • • • • • Pump Casing Rotating Assembly Journal and Thrust bearing Bearing Housing Mechanical Seals Motor / Pump Casing Boiler Feed pump WORKING: The FK6D30 type Boiler Feed Pump is a six stage. The pump internals are designed as cartridge which can be easily removed for maintenance without disturbing the suction and discharge piping work or the alignment of the pump and the turbo coupling. The pump shaft is sealed at the drive end and non-drive end by mechanical seals. 81 % 151 KW 1485 rpm : : FA1856 Anti .
Haridwar 3550 KW 1492 rpm 6.E. of the booster pump and boiler feed pumps and the drive motor will be supplied form the lubrication oil system associated with the hydraulic coupling and should be as follows: Condensate Extraction Pump .6 kv. 3-ph. of stages Direction of rotation Suction temp..H. 50 Hz : : : : : : : : FK6D30 6 Anti – clockwise (Viewed form drive end) 161. [assign through a seal cooler.10C 490 m3/hr. which is circulated with clarified cooling water. Design flow Efficiency Speed Input power Drive Motor Manufacturer Rating Speed Electrical supply : : : : B.L.circuit and which is circulated by the action is cooled by. TECHNICAL DATA: Pump type No. one per pump. 81 % 5310 rpm 3322 KW Components of Boiler Feed Pump: • Pump Casing • Discharge Cover • Suction Guide • Ring Section Assembly • Mechanical Seal • Journal and Thrust bearing • Bearing Housing • Hydraulic Balance • Flexible Coupling The lubricating oil for the journal and thrust bearings. The rotating assembly is supported by plain white metal lined journal bearings and axially located by a Glacier double tilting pad thrust bearing.
Gravity Speed Power absorbed Efficiency : : : : : : : EN 8 H 32 Clock-wise 46. The eight pump stages are contained within a fabricated canister. Components of Condensate Extraction Pumps: • • • • • • • Head piece Foundation Ring Canister Stuffing Box Assembly Thrust and journal bearing assembly Coupling Driving motor . eight stage.9901 1485 266 KW 78 % WORKING: The condensate Extraction Pumps are of the vertical. nuts and lock washer. and each stage casing is located by spigot and secured together with bolts. The head piece is also secure to the canister with screws.10C 0. with the driving motor supported on a fabricated head piece and the eight inter connected pump stage are suspended below the head piece.Technical Specification: Type Direction of rotation viewed Suction temp. The pump discharge branch and suction branch are formed on the head piece above floor level. Each pump directly driven through a flexible coupling by a 325 KW electric motor. The canister is suspended and secure to a foundation ring with screws. Sp. Centrifugal canister type.
The working compartment is the chamber between the primary and secondary wheels which is a connected to a rotating chamber consisting of an inner and an outer shell. Basic Principle and Operation: A fluid coupling is basically a combination of pump and turbine connected in series.FAN (Induced fan) 3. P. The rest of the energy is converted into static pressure in the diffuser. The rotating impeller energy to the operating fluid.Variable Speed Fluid Coupling Some boiler feed pumps the KHI types are coupled with their driving motor through a variable speed hydraulic coupling.FAN (Primary fan) Forced Draft Fan In the Axial Reaction Fans (Type AP).A. there are three fans: 1. This enables precise adjustment of the driven machine speed to be achieved.D. In SURATGARH THERMAL POWER PLANT. The working circuit is governed by a system which can continuously extract or supply the working compartment fluid. These fans are generally driven at constant speed. The flow of the fluid into the runner takes place at the outer diameter. The fluid contained in the runner blade chambers then flows inwards to the centre and back into the impeller blade chambers. I. The oil level in the working compartment determines the speed at the output side of the coupling and depends upon the radial position of a scoop tube located in the scoop chamber.FAN (Forced fan) 2. F. .D. The hydraulic coupling serves the purpose of controlling the speed of feed pump for maintaining definite delivery head and delivered quantity of the feed water as per requirement of the boiler. The resultant centrifugal force causes the fluid to flow outwards whereby the velocity is increased by the impeller. where the energy is transmitted from the fluid. The flow is controlled by varying the angle of incidence of impeller blades. It therefore becomes possible by this process to achieve high efficiencies even during part load operation. This reduces the power consumption particularly at part load operation. the major part of (about 80 %) energy transferred is converted into static pressure in the impeller itself.
the fan consists of the following Components: • • • • • • Suction chamber Fan Housing Rotor Consisting go shaft.The blade pitching operation is performed by mechanical linkages connected to a hydraulic servomotor which is flanged to the impeller. Main bearings (Antifriction bearings) Outlet Guide Vane housing with guide vanes Diffuser Fan Accessories: . Technical Data: Application No.2 m3/Sec 450C 1480 rpm Rigiflex coupling When looking in flow direction. Of medium Speed Coupling Drive motor Rating Speed Fan Weight Type of fan regulation : : : : 700 KW 1480 rpm 8 Tones Blade Pitch Control : : : : : : : : Forced Draft Fan 2 Atmospheric Air Vertical Suction and Horizontal Delivery 105. one impeller with adjustable blades with pitch control mechanism. off Medium handled Orientation Capacity Temp.
off Type Medium handled Orientation : : : : : Induced Draft Fan 3 NDZV 33 S Flue Gas 450 Top incl. simply supported/overhung centrifugal machine which can be used to handle fresh air as will as hot gases in power plant application. Lubrication: The lubrication oil for the fan bearings ate supplied by the centralized oil pumps which supply oil for the hydraulic servo meter also. A large part of the energy transferred to the medium is converted into kinetic energy as the medium passes through the impeller. Airborne noise to acceptable level. These fans are generally driven by constant speed motors. The output of the fan is usually controlled by inlet dampers or inlet guide vanes or by varying the speed of the fan by suitable speed control device. Recommend Oil: Servo Prime Turbinal 68 of IOC 68 of HPC INDUCED DRAFT FAN Radial fans manufactured are single stage. The spiral casing converts part of the kinetic energy in the medium to pressure energy. Silencer: These fans are provided with a silencer to attenuate. two pumps(on Stand by). Technical data: Application No. coolers and necessary fitting.Rigiflex Shaft Coupling: The fan shaft is connected to the motor shaft by means of Rigiflex couplings. Suction . In this. single/ double suction. the medium handled enters the impeller axially and after passing through the impeller leaves radially. Oil Circulation System : The oil system consists of an oil tank. Drive Motor: These fans are driven by constant speed Synchronous Induction motors. filters.
7 Tones : : : : 250.Bottom Horizontal. The oil must not foam during operation.5 m3/Sec 1540C 740 rpm Hydraulic Coupling The major sub-assemblies of the fan are as follows: • • • • • • Impeller with shaft assembly Bearings and thermometers Suction chamber and spiral casing Flow regulation devices Shaft seals Couplings • The fan is drive by an electric motor. The oil must have good anti-corrosion properties. • The fan bearings are lubricated by means of oil lubrication. Foam removing agents containing silicon must not be utilized. the two impellers are connected by means of a link rod. PRIMARY AIR FAN PA Fan is same as forced draft fan. Technical data : . with this we can operate both the impeller blades synchronously. of medium Speed Coupling Drive motor Rating Speed Fan Weight : : : 1750 KW 740 rpm 52. Only the differences is that in this fan there are two stages AP fan(Axial Profiles fan). Delivery Capacity Temp.
The voltage gradient between electrodes creates “CORONA DISCHARGE”. is a highly efficient device for extraction of suspended particles and fly ash from the industrial flue gases.C source of order of 37 KV collecting electrodes are connected to + ve polarity.P THEORY E.High collection efficiency Low resistance path for gas flow Treatment of large volumes at high temp.8 tones E. off Type Medium Handled Speed Rating Fan wt. The emitting electrodes are placed in the center or midway between two plates and are connected to-ve polarity of H. : : : : : : : Primary Air Fan 3 AP 2 17/12 Atmospheric Air 1480 rpm 1400 KW 10. The deposited particles are removed by knocking the electrode by a process called “RAPPING’ DONE BY “ E. The dust particles present in flue gases acquire -ve charge and deposited on collecting electrodes.P.P. Removal of paE.P. E.S.S. D.S. consist of two sets of electrodes.S.S. WORKING PRINCIPLE : particles are to be removed Advantages of E.P. can be defined as a device which utilized electric forces to separate suspended particles from flue gases WORKING STEPS : Ionization of gases and charging of dust particles Migration of dust particles. are :. Cooling Towers: Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere.P can handle large volume of gases from which solid RAPPING MOTORS”. Deposition of charge particles on collector surface. Ionizing the gas molecules.V. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or rely solely on air to cool the .An E.S.Application No.S.Ability of cope with corrosive atm. one in the form of thin wire.P. called discharge or emitting electrode in the form of plates.
Common applications include cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries.working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature. A steel hopper has been provided in crusher house to receive coal and distribute it through manually operated rack and pinion gate to three vibrating screens of 675 t/hr. Cooling Water Pump: The motor of the CWP has following specification. Type: Y1600-16/2150 Out Put Power: 1600KW Stator Voltage: 6.6KV Speed: 372rpm Frequency: 50Hz Stator Rated Current:182A Stator Connection: 2Y Ambient Temperature: 50C Insulation Class B Weight 17500Kg CW Pump: Type is single stage double suction centrifugal pump Type: 1400S25-1 Capacity: 16000m3/H Speed: 370rpm Power Weight Head : : : 1600KW 35000kg 25m 8. capacity each coal above 200 mm size passes on granules for crushing and reduction in size. Coal below 20 mm size passes granular and discharged on to crushed coal conveyor belt. To transfer part of received crushed coal . To transfer all crushed coal received from crusher house to live storage pipe. chemical plants. each have been provided feeding unloads coal. including shunting and spotting time of haulage equipment. Following permutation and combination of operation are possible with installed system. For vibrating feeders of capacity 350 tons/hr. power stations.5m NP SHR : COAL HANDLING PLANT Wagon tippler has rated unloading capacity of twelve box wagon per hour.
The ash slurry from the two units is taken in one discharge line through electrically operated valves. At a time one pump is working and other two are stand by. The coal carried on various conveyers shall be main monitored to ensure proper loading and distributing weightless and vibrating feeders. Undissolved and suspended solid materials • Turbidity and Sediment . the vibrating ones as stated above can be obtained by the use of flap gates which are installed on various chute and two vibrating feeders. Bottom ash from the boiler furnace is passed through slag crushers and then slurred to the slurry chamber at the suction of the ash disposal pumps. Too separate discharge lines are provided one for each unit but only one line is used. this water cannot be used for the generation of steam in the boilers. From the ash disposal pump house ash slurry is pumped through pipe lines to the ash dump area within about 1. WATER TREATMENT INTRODUCTION: The natural water contains solid. These are high pressure and low pressure pumps for this purpose. To transfer the plant crushed coal at 750 T/hr from the reclaim live pile and simultaneously stock and s/ road. ASH HANDLING PLANT The ash handling system provide for continuous collection of bottom ash from the furnace hearth and its intermittent removal by hydro ejectors to a common slurry sump. The necessity for reducing the corrosive nature & quantity of dissolved and suspended solids in feed water has become increasingly important with the advent for high pressure. It also provides for removal of fly ash to the common slurry sump. IMPURITIES IN WATER: The impurities present in the feed water are classified as given below – 1. critical & supercritical boilers. liquid and gaseous impurities and therefore. Each boiler is provided with ash precipitator for collecting the fly ash from the flue gases with high efficiency of collection to minimize the dust mains and to reduce the wear of induced draft fan. The impurities present in the water should be removed before its use in steam generation.5 km away from the ash disposal pump house. The fly ash separated from flue gases in the ash precipitator is collected in hoppers at the bottom from where it is mixed with water to form slurry and disposed off to pumping area by means of hydro ash pumps. installed on tower. To deliver the raw coal bunkers part and received crushed coal mixed with balanced coal from the live storage pipe.to plant and to balance to storage yard.
water used directly or indirectly in an industrial process is made suitable for that particular application.mud. Dissolved Gases • • • • Oxygen Carbon Dioxide 4. Shallow wells and Deep Wells) Impurities: The major impurities of water can be classified in three main groups are: Non. Dissolved Salts and Minerals • Calcium and Magnesium Slats 3.• • • • Sodium and Potassium Salts Chlorides Iron Manganese & Silica 2. varying degrees of purity of treated water are required.ionic and Undissolved : These are mainly turbidity. For example. whereby. Lakes) c) Ground water ( Springs. . Ponds. Other Materials Free Mineral Acid Oil RAW WATER AND IMPURITIES: Source: The various sources of water can be broadly classifies as: a) Rain water b) Surface water (Rivers.Ionic and Dissolved 2. Streams. Depending on the process. slat. dirt and other suspended matter 1. The use of water in boilers fro steam generation is an obvious industrial use. a textile . Gaseous Impurities : Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Removal Of Impurities: Our major concern is industrial water treatment.
With exhauster provided at hr exit of pulverize to boost the pulverized coal into the pressurized furnace. The disadvantage of this system id that he high speed exhauster has to handle coal air mixture and tends to wear more as the pulverized size increase. Is the cost increase due to additional duct work and air heater. 4. Since the pulverized operates with lesser pressure than forced draft fan pressure.5mg/litre or less. 3. Disadvantages are that the fan is required to handle high temperature air resulting in high a fan power.processing unit will require soft and clear water for process use: a chemical plant or electronic components manufacturing unit will require ultra-pure water containing total dissolved impurities not exceeding 0. MILLING PLANT Pulverized coal Systems: For steam generation. Hot Primary System: In this system the fan is located before the pulverized and handles complete primary air required for drying a transporting the coal. The advantage of suction system is that the plant can be maintained clean. The advantages are saving in fan power and maintenance. there is basically system of pulverization normally in STPS plant used is Direct Firing System Direct Firing System: 1. The only disadvantage. Pressurized Exhauster system: In this system the mills operate under positive pressure. . Suction System: In this system the mill operates under negative pressure. Suction being created by an exhauster placed after the mill. Separate sealing air fans are required to seal the mill and Journal bearings. The exhauster handles all the coal air mixture and forces it into the burners. Cold Primary Air System: The primary air fan handles clean cold air either from FD fan discharge or taking suction from atmosphere. 2.
up to 50 tones per hour. Advantage: • • • • • • High output possible. As a result of this high availability in a tube. The ball charge and the coal are carried to certain height inside the drum and slowed to fall down. is required because of the low air /fuel ratio . this helps to reduce the overall capital cost of the plant. Raw-coal is fed to the drum through the inlet elbow and gets crushed to powder inside the mill drum. but they are still much greater than those for medium-speed mills. the coal gets crushed. Virtually constant power consumption at all loads. Due to the impact of the balls on cola particle sand due to attrition as the particles slide over each other and also over the liners. They operate at a speed of 17-20 rev/min and formerly were designed as suction mills. No maintenance over long periods High availability Because of high availability no stand by capacity is required No mill rejects.In plant TUBE type of pulverized mill is used. low load With high moisture content fuels a high primary air temperature operation of therefore not economical. no problems with ‘tramp’ iron Reserve of fuel within mill makes output more stable. Drum/Tube mills: This type mills is slow speed type.ball mill installation. Disadvantage: • • • • High power consumption Some problems with control of coal level within the mill. The mill drum carrying the ball charge rotate in the antifriction bearings. it is not normal to provide standby milling capacity. Power requirements have also been reduced. Hot flue gases are used for drying and transporting the pulverized coal from the mill to the classifier.
Electric forces cause a steam of ions to pass from the discharge electrodes to the collecting electrodes and the particles of dust entrained in the gas are deflected out o the gas steam into the collecting surfaces where they are retained. The depth of the cola bed is controlled by the height regulating gate. They are removed by an intermittent blow usually . DUST EXTRACTION PLANT In plant the methods used for the removal of dust from gases are ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR which uses electrical forces to remove the dust from the gas stream. At the end of the top plate the cola falls down between the stands of the chains to the Point of discharge at the mill inlet coal delivery chute. In plant Drag Link Coal Feeders type of Coal Feeder is used. under unfavorable conditions. ionizing field. This coal has to be quenched and even dug out otherwise the mill cannot be restarted. This is normally achieved either by control of feeder speed or by control of the position of a scraper knife or plough. The cola falls on the feeder top plate and is dragged along by the conveyor chain to the point where the top plate ends. Electrostatic Precipitators Working Principle: The principles upon which an electrostatic precipitator operates are that the dust laden gases pass into a chamber where the individual particles of dust are given an electric charge by absorption of free ions from a high voltage d. the coal leaves the bottom of the bunker through a large outlet hopper which is connected directly to the feeder casing. through the feeder has to be controlled. Since the amount of coal delivered determines the output of the mill. The rate of coal feeds controlled by variable speed motor drive. if follows that the cola flow. . either by electrical or molecular attraction. COAL FEEDERS Coal feeders deliver the cola from the bunkers to the mill. can ignite.• Unplanned stops leave the mill full of coal which.c. Drag Link Coal Feeders: In this type of cola feeder.
Deposition of charged particles on the collecting surface. There are four different steps in the process of precipitation 1. source if the order if 25-100 kv. b) Chemical composition c) Moisture content d) Quantity to be handled e) Pressure Description: The electrostatic precipitator essentially consists of two sets of electrodes.referred to as rapping. one in the from of thin wires called discharge or emitting electrodes and other set called collecting electrodes in the from of pipes or plates. 4. The collecting electrodes are connected to the positive polarity of the source and grounded. .c. Migration of the particle to the collector. this causes the dust particles to drop into dust hoppers situated below the collecting electrodes. Dislodging of particles from the collecting surface. 3. Performance Criteria: The performance of the electrostatic precipitator depends on several factors among which the prominent are: • Characteristics of dust: a) Particle size distribution b) Dust loading c) Chemical composition d) Electrical resistively e) Adhesive/cohesive properties • Characteristics of gases : a) Temperature. Ionization of gases and charging of dust particles. The emitting electrodes are placed in the centre of pipe or midway between two plates and are connected usually to negative polarity of high voltage d. 2.
2. 4.5 KV and 50 HZ frequency. 7. 6. HV isolating switches are provided with key interlocks. Rotating magnetic field is created by field windings mounted on rotor shaft with the help of excitation system. When the shaft is rotated at 3000 RPM by the coupled turbine electric power is generated at a voltage 16. the supply voltage cloud is maintained near the flash over level between the precipitator electrodes.0 million units energy is generated in 250 MW unit in a single day. Casing Hoppers Has distributor screen Collecting System Emitting system Rapping mechanism for collecting system Rapping mechanism for emitting system Insulator housing Electrical System: For optimum functional efficiency of the precipitator. This can be achieved by an electronic control system which rises the output voltage to flash over level and reduces it automatically by a small amount in the event of a flash over. The exchange boxes are located in control room and at prominent places on the precipitator casing. hopper doors. Interlocking System: This system is designed for the safety of the personnel and protection of equipment during the operation and maintenance. . out of this about ten percent is consumed in unit itself for running its auxiliary equipments like pumps. In the interlocking system. inspection doors. 5. This system will not operate unless the instructions are followed sequentially. fans etc. 6. the insulator housing. 8. GENERATOR Mechanical energy is converted into electric power the stator windings of generator by the interaction of rotating magnetic field. The system consists of rotary switches interlocks and key exchange boxes.The major fundamental parts of the electrostatic precipitator consist of the following: 1. and different areas of Rajasthan. about 3300 metric tons of coal is consumed in one 250 MW unit in one day. The voltage of such generated electricity is step up to 220kv or 400kv through transformer and power transmitted to Ratangarh GSS for Northern Grid. 3. Generator is filled with hydrogen gas for cooling its winding which in turn is cooled by circulating water.
5 kV+/. Temp. Rated Field Current 294MVA 250 MW 10290 Amps. 4. supply. CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION CIRCLE: STPS have divided four sections in C&I (control & instrumentation) Circle: 1.C. core etc as per loads. The Source of excitation to rotor wdgs is thyristorised D. Cooling medium hydrogen is contained within a frame and circulated by fans mounted at either ends of rotor.p. The Generator is driven by directly equipped steam turbine at a speed of 3000 r. permit the measrement of wdgs. The Ausiliary equipment supplied with M/C superrises and enables the control of hydrogen pressure and purity.825V 3000 rpm 0. supporting and enclosing the stator wdgs. There is a provision for cooling water in order to maintain a constant temp.0 bar 2386 Amps. teeth core. easy and constructional and operational economicity. Technical Data: Apparent power Active Power Current Voltage Speed Power Factor Hydrogen Pr. of coolant (hydrogen) which controls the temp. 2. 3. shaft sealing lubricating oils. The generator is designed for continuous operation at rated O/P.85 3. detector and other devices installed or connected within the M/c. and hydrogen temp. The generator stator is a tight construction.THEORY Turbo generator manefactured by BHEL in Co-Operate with most modern design concept and constructional features which ensures reliability. 16. hydrogen pressure and purity in M/C under the conditions.. core and hydrogen coolers. SWAS package FSSS package ATRS package DDC section . of wdg.m.
LP Heater inlet 4. Boiler drum water 7. These nine lines go in cooling system for temperature Maintain. The equipment is designed and assembled to enable the conditioning of samples of Boiler water and steam by reducing the temperature and pressure to a suitable state to enable the chemical parameters of the sample to be monitored. Primary cooling system and Secondary cooling system. There are coming nine lines from the Boiler. Feed water economizer inlet 6. SWAS package is use for analysis of steam sample which coming from Boiler. Feed water booster pump 5. Conedensate pump Discharge 3. Sample conditioning panel comprises: Line Numbers: 1. There are two types of cooling system. Make up drum water 2. Main steam 9.SWAS [Steam Water Analasis System]: Steam Water Analysis System is full form of SWAS. Hot well BLOCK DIGRAM OF SWAS PACKAGE Steam samples Form Boiler Primary Cooling Secondary Cooling Conditioning P&T Dry Panel There are different measurements of samples of steam: - . Boiler saturated steam 8.
sodium measurement presents particularly important risk of corrosion and other effects. Actually sodium cations and anions are always linked. High – pressure circuits operating with the alkaline reign. therefore employ volatile alkalizing agents such as ammonia in combination with hydrazine to elevate the feed water pH to a level > pH 9.SODIMAT: - The measurement of sodium in industrial ultrapure waters. Most cations have a corrosive influence in water and vapor cooling circuits. Technique using highly sensitive sodium glass electrode. thus imposing an upper limit of ph 9-9. Became of this chemical link between sodium ions and anions. It flows by transportation such as Na+ and .The electric conductivity measures the transport of electric change in any field. conductivity and silica trace.5 provided the totally demineralized water is available ammonia concentrations required to reach this high degree of alkalinity would be detrimental to the copper tubes of the condenser because of dissolution of copper. CONDUCTIVITY MEASURMENT: . The measurement is based on a direct potentionetric technique. Modern high-pressure power plants require feed water of very high purity. The difference of potential between the glass electrode and the reference electrode is directly proportional to the sodium concentration. The SODIMAT uses a sodium sensitive glass electrode to measure sodium in a sample which has been previously conditioned to a pH > 10.0.3. In metal conductors the current flows by transport of electrons where as in solution. HYDRASTAT: - low-carbon steel exhibits a significantly improved resistance to corrosion it in contact with water of high alkalinity (pH 9-10). Safety in that sector is of great importance and the sodium measurement plays a specific role compared to pH. The anodic dissolution of iron in low carbon steels is nominal at ph 9. The addition of hydrazine serves the dual function of an alkalizing agent as well as on oxygen scavenger thus lowering the level of corrosion.
ions can no longer be neglected in the presence of the product this. dissolved Oxygen. Therefore leads to a non-linear variation conductivity/ concentration. ferrites. pH.Hp turbine nozzles and blades may. In order to assure optimum turbine performance continuous monitoring of silica in superheated steam. cation conductivity. calcium. The polymetron silcostat has been designed specifically to complete this task. under the influence of high-pressure superheated steam exhibits significant capacity and conversion efficiency losses as a result of silica contaminated steam latter tends to from insoluble deposits on critical part of the turbine leading to surface roughness which. Line 3 LP heater / inlet . SILICOSTAT: . specific conductivit y. specific conductivity. magnesium. is detrimental to turbine efficiency.Cl. in turn. The concentration of H+ protons and hydroxyl OH. sodium.which the higher transport of charges is the conductance of the solution. Conductivity is the capacity of a solution has to conduct current: - In solution conductivity is much more complicated than in conductors because several species ensure the transport of charge for instance in drinking water the conductive species registered are sodium. Analyzers: Lines Coming from Type of Analysis Line 1 Line 2 Make up Drum water Conedensate pump discharge Specific conductivity pH. boiler water and feedwater is of the utmost importance. dissolved oxygen. phosphates and nitrate ions for slightly concentrated solution. ferrous cations.
silica. specific Economizer conductivit inlet y. Hydrazine. Line 5 Feed water pH. Specific conductivity. Line 6 Boiler drum water pH. Specific conductivity. of Analyzers 1 1 2 1 14 4 1 Analysis Single channel silica Two channel silica Dissolved oxygen Hydrazine Conductivity pH Sodium . cation conductivit y. silica. cation conductivit y.Line 4 Feed water booster pump Dissolved Oxygen. specific conductivit y. Line 7 Boiler saturated Steam Line 8 Main steam Line 9 Hot well (2 off) The sample analysis panel comprises the following analyzers: No. Specific conductivity. cation conductivity. silica.
The local bus can be grouped together in the same panel or distributed in different panels. Procontrol requires serial data exchange confined to the electronic room(panels).plant buses and transmission freq. protect individual valves. 2. SGC-Oil :. These modules can handle single.JOP) interlocks. AS47.These implemented to control.Local bus interconnects all input. LOGIC: SN 1 TURBINE PROTACTION SERVICE ALARM Lub oil Pr V. built-in l/o and dedicated control entity to control element. milliamp signals etc. & Evac. Swth. And through which Monitoring computer and diagnostic station connected. : . thermocouple.Various modules for input/output capabilities and connected to local bus. Hardwired interface is also provided to control room.This modules used for automation and superimposed on the individual control modules and allows to build control. • Input/Output modules:. electronic contact output signals. output. Each local bus work independently from any other local bus or Intra-Plant. Operation are realized in this group. • Intra – Plant Bus: . Oprt. Modules equipped with a microprocessor. protection and alarms. monitor. Modules are.For automatic synchronization of machine to the grid. 3. process computer(monitoring) and control room. • Programmable Processor:.) TRIP 2. Each massage is cyclically transmitted over the local as well as intra.CEP’s & vacuum pump operation. The system is divided in three sub groups: 1. fans etc.AS45. double throw contacts. A serial l/o interface to the local bus to receive process signals required for interlaces & permissive logoc. and processing electronic modules. Module is-PR05. automatic & protn.1kg/cm2 . SGC-Conden.This bus interconnects its related local buses via coaxial cables.EOP. or to provide milliamp.ATRS [Automatic Turbine Run Up System ]: IntroductionAll control function related to turbine are realized by Microprocessor based PROCONTROL ATRS System. AS46. This is based on user friendly programming languageP10. supervise. PROCONTROL has following basic type of electronic modules: • Individual Control modules: . RTD’s. Is selectable and can be every 10 ms. Low (2 out of Pr. which is part of station.Oil pumps(AOP. voltage. SGC-Turbine :. pumps. HARDWARE The data transmission is performed with two level serial bus system• Local Bus: .
PR<2.5mm.1 EMER.OIL PUMP(EOP-DC) Protection ON:.2 CH-1 (2)FIRE PROT.1 (ii) SLC EOP-DC ON & EOP AC OFF & EOP AC DIST.1 SLC EOP-DC CMD-51 (i) SLC EOP-DC ON & EOP AC FAIL & L.SLC JOP-2 CMD-51 (i)SLC JOP-2 ON & JOP PR. & LUBE OIL PR<2.2 CH-1 (2)FIRE PROT. ON:JOP-1(AC) OFF Auto ON:1.1) FIRE PROT. ON (i) SLC EOPAC ON & LUB OIL PR<2.) 3 HPT Exhst Stm Tmp V. OIL PUMP(EOP-AC) Protection ON:. (iii) SLC JOP-2 ON & JOP AC FAIL & TUR SPEED<510 Prot.2 CH-1 (2) FIRE PROT.) Protection ON:. 2 CH-2 3) JOP-1 OFF & JOP AC FAIL & TUR SPEED<510 Prot.8 -0.O.2 CH-2 3)ANY JOP ON & SPEED<10 RPM &SPEED RELEASE & SO/H2 DP>1.0.2 CH-1 (2)FIRE PROT. ON:1) FIRE PROT.2 BAR EMER. Hi +/. Hi 480 510 (2 out of 3 T/C Tmp.0mm (2 out of 3 Senser optd.2 CH-2 3) JOP-1 OFF & JOPAC FAIL & TUR SPEED>15 & TUR SPD<2800 .1)FIRE PROT.7kg/cm2 (2 out of 3 vac. Low -0. ON:1)FIRE PROT.2 CH2(3)EOP AC PROT. +/1.<100 &TUR SPEED<510 (ii)SLC JOP-2 ON &JOP-1 OFF & JOP-1 DIST. Swth.2 Cond vacuum V. Rises) 4 Axial Shift V.1 (ii) EOP DC ON JACKING OIL PUMP-2 (JOP-DC) Per. Oprt.
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