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Wer r u? M hir olredi. Wt’s tkng u xo long???=) Pls. txbk. Are you familiar with this way of texting? Here in Philippines, this kind of texting is common to mobile or cellular phone users. Even I sometimes type a message this way. For me, shortened words consumed little space in message pad and little time before sending.
Anyway, text speaks could be a new term for some readers, right? This is a kind of texting like what is typed above. Unlike some studies about text messaging and spelling proficiency, this is a novelty one. Realistic, complicated, yet informative; in the end, epiphanies will encounter.
It is in 2006, when my mother gave my first cellphone. It is 6510, small, monophonic and a second hand. I was excited, happy and inattentive. I was excited and happy, because it was my first time to hold a cellphone, and my first time to experience unlimited chatting. My concentration was not for my studies. I concentrated more in texting rather than listening to my teachers. My grades became lower and it also affected my way of writing.
The first word I can remember that made me confused is the Filipino text auq which is correctly spelled as ayoko, in English, it means I don’t like. I thought before that, that word is acute; funny isn’t it? But I am using that shortcut now. Another is, re4t from a quotation sent to
Text Speaks and Its Effect on Adolescents’ Spelling Proficiency me. I did not understand it until I realized that it is read as re-four-t or report. I also learned that to laugh in text is by typing hehe, jeje or ahehe, and to cry is by typing huhu or T_T.
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Texting has not just become a tool for communication, but as an entertainment as well. Now, it has become everyone’s habit and addiction, since we now have promos from networks such as: unlimited texting, unlimited call and texting, text to all networks, etc. Moreover, everything in cellular world has gone influential. There comes now the jejemons that styles and add complications in comprehending a text message. Jejemon is very popular now in Philippines; it is just by replacing morphemes to “j” such as jejejejeje (laugh).
However, I admit that I was a moderate jejemon before, and it had an effect in my writing skills. I knew it was not healthy. Unconsciously, I wrote shortened words and even run-on sentences. I almost forgot how to spell the word “tomorrow” correctly. My dad even got mad at me when I texted him xan n ke0, which means where are you?, and I regret it because it affected my writing skills somehow.
I find text speaks as a code that only few people understand. It is a selfish communication that breaks its own definition. Many things are done to make texting fun, but that fun could gradually kill a brain. I shall conduct this study, because it interests me a lot. This intends to show the effect of text messaging on adolescent’s spelling proficiency. Does it have an effect or does it not have?
Text Speaks and Its Effect on Adolescents’ Spelling Proficiency Statement of the Problem At the end of the study, will adolescents finally be objective about their spelling proficiency? Especially everytime they type a message, will they be thinking about its effect later on their language development? This study has four main questions to answer, and these are:
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1. How often do students unconsciously write in a text speak way? 2. Are they aware that how they text affects their spelling skills? 3. Does frequent texting really affect their spelling skills? 4. Should text speaks be significant problem in education or not?
Text Speaks and Its Effect on Adolescents’ Spelling Proficiency Significance of the Study Throughout the history, Americans have perceived spelling to be the very soul and fiber of education (Templeton, 1992). In the Philippine education, do young Filipinos perceive the same way too? The aim of this study is to test whether text speak has negative effect on spelling skills of adolescents, or if text speak has no effect at all. It is stated in my introduction that I experienced a difficulty in spelling since I was somehow influenced by frequent texting.
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If text speak affect adolescent’s spelling proficiency, is it now time to give credits to conventional spelling? Further learning starts at the adolescence. “It is the time when adolescents face a range of developmental issues”, taken in press, by Amundson and Borgen. One of this study’s concerns is how teenagers value the importance of conventional spelling. It is important especially to formality of word construction. Knowledge in linguistics, specifically spelling, is important, for teenagers are just beginners in language learning; some worry that correct spelling is losing importance (Deseret news, 2006); spelling is important in formal transactions such as: schools and future business. Sara ring of “The Edutopia Poll” suggested “Is the prevalence of text messaging something to worry about? Does text messaging harm student’s writing skills?”, to be voted by the concerns. 52% believes that students are carrying over the writing habits they pick up through text messaging into school assignments, 19% says maybe, 25% says students can write one way to their friends and another way in class, and 3% for none of the above (as of Oct. 19, 2010). Majority believes that text messaging is a significant problem for students. Furthermore, if we allow people to misspell words, pretty soon, people will not care about spelling our names correctly in our passport, contracts, diplomas, and other important documents; perhaps only then we will realize that spelling does matter (Yanzon, 2005).
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Moreover, if text speaks does not affect adolescent’s spelling proficiency, then this study has still its significance for it supported the evolution of language. One of the characteristics of language is dynamic. Then, teenagers’ “text-speak” will no longer be a very significant problem for some learners. Basically, what it is important to know is that texting has its unique style and culture—particularly to teenagers and young people. Even Shakespeare wrote his legendary plays in his own style before spelling was standardized in eighteenth century. Now it is 2010, and the history seems to be repeating itself.
Text Speaks and Its Effect on Adolescents’ Spelling Proficiency Scope and Delimitations This study has started in the middle of October 2010, and will be ended at the end of the SY 2010-2011 second semester. The coverage is teenagers of age 13 to 17 years and frequent text speakers. However, the study will be:
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1. Conducted to 500 highschool students from Roosevelt College Lamuan and Marikina Heights Highscool. 2. Students who frequently type text-speaks. 3. The test is just for an hour of the same day.
The activity to be used is the pre-test writing in their text-speaks and the post-test enhanced “Mcgraw Hill Basic Goals in Spelling” and “Silver Burdett & Ginn, Spelling Connection”, used in a study of Kathleen Gamble (1995) to test the knowledge of students in Conventional Spelling. These tests are under Communicative Approach, a strategy used by Second Language teachers.
Text Speaks and Its Effect on Adolescents’ Spelling Proficiency Definition of Terms
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Below are the following terms used and to be used in this study. • • • Cellular phone- a wireless gadget which purpose is for instant messaging by text and call. SMS- Stands for “Short Message Service.” Text messaging. Text speak- involves texting using abbreviations and symbols, instead of correct spelling to shorten the length of time it takes to write a sentence without diluting its meaning. • Adolescents- a person who is no longer a child but is not fully adult. Usually starts at 12 years of age. • • Spelling Proficiency- Skills in writing the every single unit of a word. Morphemes- Smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language (Payne, 1997). Ex: Unladylike- consists of three morphemes and 4 syllables. Un- not Lady- female adult woman Like- having the characteristics of. • • Conventions- rules of language. “Mc-Graw Hill Basic Goals in Spelling” and Silver Burdette & Ginn Spelling Connection“- a “which-among-these” exercise to test spelling proficiency. • Communicative Approach- Theory of teaching through two-way process. The approach will be introduced in theoretical framework.
Text Speaks and Its Effect on Adolescents’ Spelling Proficiency Organization of the Study Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, the “Background of the study”, “Statement of the problem”, “Significance of the study”, “Scope and delimitation” and “Definition of terms” are placed. Chapter 2 REVIEWS OF RELATED STUDIES AND LITERATURE In this chapter, I have three topics to be discussed: • How Spelling is Developed and Invented- Includes how a person invented a spelling. • How Text Speaks Affect Language Development- This chapter specifies spelling affected by text speak. The studies that show no effect and negative effect of text messaging are under this, and how text messaging started. • Conventions- These are the rules of language. Though this generally discusses the language, the topic is related to text messaging. • Communicative Approach- This is a strategy to be used to test a learner’s proficiency. The Mc Graw Hill and Silver Burdett Ginn word recognition are under this. Chapter 3 DESIGN OF THE STUDY The theoretical/conceptual framework (Communicative Approach), Setting of the study, Description of Population, and Description of the Instrument are under this. Chapter 4 PRESENTATIONS, INTERPRETATIONS AND ANALYSES Data gathered will be summarized in tables. Chapter 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Data to be gotten here
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could be an interview from teachers, students I will be tested, and my own analysis.
Text Speaks and Its Effect on Adolescents’ Spelling Proficiency CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
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How Spelling is Developed and Invented
In this article, how a person invented a spelling and how a person spells a word will be discussed. Templeton and Henderson are introduced here. They are also linguists who stated that spelling is a major element of language acquisition.
When a teacher asks to spell "cat", the students will automatically answer "Capital C, small A, and small T, CAT." That's the real thing whenever we ask a child to spell a word. What is spelling anyway? How important is it to be studied? Spelling is a major component of language acquisition, and it focuses on the written word (Temple, et al., 2005). Since spellers learn through invented spelling, teens go through different stages as experimenting with words. Moreover, to understand better how spelling is developed, we should be aware of its past.
The spelling is a repository of the history of the English language (Henderson, 1990). The forces and the languages that have shaped English still reside in its spelling (Templeton, 1992). Every word has its own spelling that reveals different semantics. It is sometimes identifiable because of having phonological changes conditioned by or blocked at word boundaries, and the spelling of a word depends on how it is stressed (phonology). In each word, morphemes are introduced. A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language. For example: dogs; the word dogs consists of two morphemes. The dog, and -s that shows plurality.
Text Speaks and Its Effect on Adolescents’ Spelling Proficiency If the word dogs is spelled as dgs, no morpheme and phoneme is created. Therefore, there is no word constructed.
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According to an article entitled "Writing Process" of Bernadette Erwin, in order to explore the spelling of a word, a person will undergo stages. The first stage is the "early phonetic stage". Just like in children, we use letters to represent some sounds in words. Second stage is "letter name", we are able to match written letters to the appropriate sounds, but is diverted to conventional English spelling. Third is "transitional", we are already becoming aware of most spelling sounds. Last is the conventional stage, wherein we use mostly correct spelling when writing. In relation to this study, the statement of Templeton and Henderson shows that spelling should not be ignored. Since it is a major component, it should be seriously acquired or learned.
However in Bernadette Erwin's stages of learning spelling, it is normal for a person to invent spellings. In classroom practices, most children are becoming aware of the alphabet and how a sound accompanies each letter. The teacher stretches the sound of each letter for the children to identify the spelling. For students who are English language learners, this practice is important as a help with their writing. There are suggested family strategies to help students build the competency in spelling. It is “Reading a book together”, as an encouragement to try new words and a help to build spelling proficiency. Another is, teaching to use dictionary as early as possible. The dictionary can be used as a tool to find the correct spelling of a word. Other strategies are through word and picture sorts, songs and finger plays, and scrabble games.
Text Speaks and Its Effect on Adolescents’ Spelling Proficiency How Text Speaks Affect Language Development
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Among the Asian countries, interestingly, Philippines has the largest population of cellphone users who use text messaging as a means of communication. Not less than the average of 20 text messages is being sent daily by a subscriber. Because of this, Philippines has been considered as the text capital of the world. In 2007, 42.70 million people who are users of cellphone consider text messaging as a cheap and reliable alternative means of communication. According to the Global messaging Survey conducted by Nokia, text messaging was proven to be an addictive activity. It is also confirmed by the study of University of Queensland in Australia (Umman, 2009).
In this topic, two sides are expounded. First, "Text messaging has an effect in language development" and "Text messaging has no effect in language development at all".
There is a long history of trying to correct and change the illogical system of English spelling. In Ammon Shea's article entitled "The keypad solution", Benjamin Franklin, Andrew Carnegie and President Theodore Roosevelt tried to fix the issue of spelling change. Now, the widespread change in how people spell English words appears to have come from a large group of young people sending text messages. We can never please everyone to stick on conventional spelling. Perhaps, the first most successful attempt at spelling reform was written by Noah Webster. Somehow, it is a reliable source of conventional spelling.
Text Speaks and Its Effect on Adolescents’ Spelling Proficiency “It does affect, sometimes, how I do my schoolwork…” an interview with Margarete Stether from Hartland. She said this as she stopped in a mall, where cellular phones as common as low-cut jeans. “I do put, instead of a Y-O-U, I put a U” (Linguists Mixed on Effects of Text Messaging, 2003). That way alarms some linguists who worry that the proliferation “textspeak”—cellphone users type and send short messages—will enforce undisciplined habits.
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Ms. Mildred Rojo-Laurilla of de La Salle University had a research entitled “Predicting Text Messaging Style in the Philipines—A sociolinguistic Analysis”. The results have revealed that the texter’s age, sex and work are predictors of texting styles. In terms of the discourse features, certain politeness markers, role, topics, speech acts and cotexter texting styles are also predictors of texting style, same to perception and texting profile as weak predictors. The texters and co-texters’ shared field of experiences through symbolic interaction, as realized via texting over time, that allowed them to overly participate in texting culture. The shares of these common texters have the same interpretations of the discourse markers that produce a unique Filipino texting style.
It is also stated in the article that problems arise when people use quick-casual language in different forms of written communication, such as e-mail, in which the sender may not receive the message for some time. Moreover, text messages, e-mails and the push for faster and more efficient communications are taking people’s knowledge on grammar (Text Messages are Killing Grammar: Linguists, 2004). In line with this, people using e-mail and SMS were unconcerned about grammar and punctuation (Carr, J. 2004). “Grammar and Punctuations, through SMS and e-mail, have been increasingly underused around the world.” said Sue Butler, editorial
Text Speaks and Its Effect on Adolescents’ Spelling Proficiency committee member of Macquarie Dictionary. She also added that they are now getting a failing in standards of punctuation that can be disconcerting. Mediums such as television advertisements and public billboards often sacrifice grammar and punctuation to attract audiences in the possible
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shortest time. “It was also being sacrificed on radios and t.v. because often, presenters have to speak faster.” She added. Even the 98% of her first year students did not know about apostrophes (Carr, J. 2004). Text messaging phenomenon impacts not just what youth say but also on how they spell; should we push back on conventional spelling, or allow a new generation to develop own standards? (Enie, M. 2010) However, on the other way around, some believe that text messaging has no harm. There are several studies that are saying “Text message is not harm to poor written language…” In a study of Plaster, Wood and Bell in 2008, entitled “Txt Msg n School Literacy: Does texting and knowledge of Text Abbreviations Adversely Affect Children’s Literacy Attainment?” the findings suggest that children’s knowledge of textisms is not associated with poor written language outcomes for children in this age range. Also, Maria Enie, the author of “The Gr8 Spelling Revolution: Texting’s Impact on the English Language” said that as long as she does not see any inconvenience in writing what are you doing or WRUD in keypad, the shorthand may feel more natural to others. What important is, communications should remain open to emerging trends, she also added.
Jesse Shieldower, principal of the U.S. office of the Oxford English Dictionary also agrees that text messaging goes through the natural progression of language, and text-speak was even first used in instant-messaging programs, it has been used for decades. As text messages explore and share new abbreviations and acronyms, the language is no longer unfamiliar to an
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increasing population of cellphone users. This is a proof that language and languages change as said by Carolyn Adger, director of the Language in Society Division of the Center for Applied Linguistics in Washington. Besides, text messaging is making it easier for people to communicate and innovating with language is not dangerous, she added.
In the study “Does Text Messaging Affect the Spelling Skills of the Students?” by Edison Yanzon, a pre-test and post-test were done to grade 5 students of Xavier Highschool to test their spelling proficiency. It says there that the misspelling is just characterized mostly by typographical non-conformity and not by incompetence.
Text Speaks and Its Effect on Adolescents’ Spelling Proficiency Conventions
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This part discusses the rules of Language, particularly the Spelling. How conventions are followed, and what are those changes that do not follow conventions.
Where are conventions coming from? Some we know as formal conventions such as rules of grammar (Fiske, 1982). All rules like predicate agreeing to its subject is not some law established by nature, but a social convention. Grammar adjusts with the social situation and involved group. There are some famous commercials that are not are not following conventions such as: “Toys R us” and “we B toys”, that proves informal conventions.
What happens to what we so-called conventions of language?
Nonetheless, language users of a particular group can identify and generally accept certain formal conventions. There are also less formal conventions like director’s words to imply intimacy. It is probably apparent that informal conventions are far more numerous that formal conventions. Some persons who are in formal designation find a person who says “He ain’t got no hammer” and “We B toys” as uneducated.
However, it is included in informal conventions that signs and codes (including text speaks) are arbitrary or flexible. These codes link signs together in ways that reflect a particular interpretation of a community system. A sign system may not be shared by many people; it is a
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way of understanding the code of the group of people who share it. Signs are the basis for defining the community.
Codes reveal the view of society a person has. Person learns how to talk from their peers and limitations of language around, and adopting the language of majority used. In relation with the “text-speaks”, since SMS has just arisen this 2000, different codes and signs are done by adolescents to make language not a very serious matter.
A site called “KS3 Grammar” is a tutorial in grammar for teachers of English at KS3. KS3 is the terminology used by UK for ages 12-14, 7, 8 and 9. The average 12 y.o may know about 12,000 different English words. This may look like a large number to learn how to spell if each is to be memorized by rote, but the task becomes a lot more manageable when memory is supported by understanding. Pupils need to be able to call on their knowledge of patterns and conventions to support their spelling. They also need a range of learning strategies, knowledge and skill to spell words they want to use but have no seen in print before. There are two kinds of knowledge to spell a word: phonological and morphological knowledge.
Text Speaks and Its Effect on Adolescents’ Spelling Proficiency Communicative Approach In classroom settings, there have been two approaches used in English language, the “Natural Approach” and “Communicative Approach”. The “Natural approach” is a result of
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Krashen’s work, “Monitor model 1982”. It emphasizes only after a period of extensive exposure to the target language. On the other hand, communicative approach uses a set of methods with the purpose of the student practice of the target language (Lee, J. 2000).
From Jongbok Lee’s study of communicative approach, learners move toward the target language through a process of hypotheses and testing. The hypotheses are based on their general knowledge of their native language. This topic is related to the Conventions of language, because this approach includes rules of the target language. However this generates the question of fluency versus accuracy, anyway most theories contribute to the order thinking skills of learners. Under this approach, students communicate in a conscious way, and one of the activities that I got is the “Mc Graw Hill and Silver Burdett & Ginn word recognition test”. (The use of text speak is the acting native language, while the word recognition test acts as the target language.)
The communicative approach could be said to be the product of educators and linguists who had grown dissatisfied with the audio-lingual and grammar-translation methods. They said that students were not learning the whole language realistically. They said that students did not know how to communicate using appropriate social language, or in brief, they were at a loss to communicate in the culture of the language studied (The Communicative Approach in English as a Foreign Language Teaching, 2007).
Text Speaks and Its Effect on Adolescents’ Spelling Proficiency In 1970’s, the use of Communicative approach became popular and interestingly learned
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by students. In the intervening years, the Communicative Approach has been adapted to all levels, and the approach has been named differently. The communicative Approach is different from repetition of drills; this can leave students with an exercise that will be just varied according to their reactions and responses. No preparations and no memorizations. “Language is interaction; it is interpersonal activity and has a clear relationship with society” (Berns, M. 1984)
In real classroom scenario, teachers using communicative approach will find themselves talking less and listening more. Students are more responsible managers of their own learning (Larsen- Freeman, 1986).
William Littlewood, a user of Communicative Language teaching and engaged in an English Language Training (ELT) project of Institute of Language Education in Hong Kong, said that Communicative Approach is a valuable guide for helping teachers broaden their repertoire of techniques, so that they can enable learners to use a foreign language more effectively.
Text Speaks and Its Effect on Adolescents’ Spelling Proficiency CHAPTER 3 DESIGN OF THE STUDY Theoretical and Conceptual Framework Since this study involves testing proficiency, Communicative Approach will be used to gather data. Communicative Approach as Selinker (1972) started to test English learners on an “Inter-language continuum”, it means learning between native language and the language being used. According to this theory, learners learn through a process of hypothesis construction and testing. In line with the testing of highshool student’s text speak, and “Mc graw Hill andd Silver Burdette & Ginn”, spelling proficiency will be analyzed with an interference text speak. Will
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students be able to recognize the right spelling if they had just text a message in their own way? Text speak is a destruction that is why it will be conducted before the spelling proficiency test.
The study is primarily based on testing Spelling proficiency. For reliable result, I choose tested “Mc Graw Hill third basic goals in spelling, eighth edition” and “Silver Burdette & Ginn”. It is found effective in a study conducted by Kathleen Gamble entitled “A Comparison between a Formal Text-Based Program and An Integrated Approach”. However, in this study, the word recognition tests are enhanced. The words are appropriately chosen from New Webster’s dictionary to fit the highschools’ proficiency. It means, it is more difficult than the eighth edition. Through this activity, students will be able to know how they are when it comes to spelling proficiency. The conduct of the study will be anchored on the research paradigm that follows:
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Pre- test MHS Students RCM Students
Instruction for Post test administration
Text Speaks and Its Effect on Adolescents’ Spelling Proficiency Setting of the Study The schools to be used in this study are Roosevelt College Marikina where I graduated highschool and Marikina Heights School where I transferred in grade 5 and 6. In Marikina, there are public schools in each district and MHS is one of those, while Roosevelt College has seven branches out in Luzon.
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Description of the Population In RCM, each classroom in highschool has a minimum of 45 students, while in MHS is 60 students or more. Since my target population is 500, I will get 63 respondents in every highschool level, so 21 respondents each classroom. Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula will be used for item analysis, and so on. Only 27% of the 500 respondents will be analyzed.
Description of the Instrument All students in this study will be administered by a pre-test writing text speaks, and posttest McGraw Hill and Silver Burdett & Ginn word recognition.
Text Speaks concerned about student’s way of shortening words, and how they understand and correct text speaks.