Special Article

International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 20021,2
Kaye Foster-Powell, Susanna HA Holt, and Janette C Brand-Miller
ABSTRACT Reliable tables of glycemic index (GI) compiled from the scientific literature are instrumental in improving the quality of research examining the relation between GI, glycemic load, and health. The GI has proven to be a more useful nutritional concept than is the chemical classification of carbohydrate (as simple or complex, as sugars or starches, or as available or unavailable), permitting new insights into the relation between the physiologic effects of carbohydrate-rich foods and health. Several prospective observational studies have shown that the chronic consumption of a diet with a high glycemic load (GI dietary carbohydrate content) is independently associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers. This revised table contains almost 3 times the number of foods listed in the original table (first published in this Journal in 1995) and contains nearly 1300 data entries derived from published and unpublished verified sources, representing > 750 different types of foods tested with the use of standard methods. The revised table also lists the glycemic load associated with the consumption of specified serving sizes of different foods. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:5–56. KEY WORDS glycemic load Glycemic index, carbohydrates, diabetes, food choices. To promote good health, the committee advocated the consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet (≥ 55% of energy from carbohydrate), with the bulk of carbohydrate-containing foods being rich in nonstarch polysaccharides with a low GI. In Australia, official dietary guidelines for healthy elderly people specifically recommend the consumption of low-GI cereal foods for good health (3), and a GI trademark certification program is in place to put GI values on food labels as a means of helping consumers to select low-GI foods (4). Commercial GI testing of foods for the food industry is currently conducted by many laboratories around the world, including our own. Many recent popular diet books contain extensive lists of the GI values of individual foods or advocate the consumption of low-GI, carbohydrate-rich foods for weight control and good health (5). Reliable tables of GI compiled from the scientific literature are instrumental in improving the quality of research examining the relation between the dietary glycemic effect and health. The first edition of International Tables of Glycemic Index, published in this Journal in 1995 with 565 entries (6), has been cited as a reference in many scientific papers. In particular, these tables provided the basis for the GI to be used a dietary epidemiologic tool, allowing novel comparisons of the effects of different carbohydrates on disease risk, separate from the traditional classification of carbohydrates into starches and sugars. Several large-scale, observational studies from Harvard University (Cambridge, MA) indicate that the long-term consumption of a diet with a high glycemic load (GL; GI dietary carbohydrate content) is a significant independent predictor of the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (7, 8) and cardiovascular disease (9). More recently, evidence has been accumulating that a low-GI diet might also protect against the development of obesity (10, 11), colon cancer (12), and breast cancer (13). The EURODIAB (Europe and Diabetes) study, involving > 3000 subjects with type 1 diabetes in 31 clinics throughout Europe, showed that the GI rating of self-selected diets was independently related to blood concentrations of glycated hemoglobin in men and women (14)
1 From the Human Nutrition Unit, School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, Australia. 2 Reprints not available. Address correspondence to JC Brand-Miller, Human Nutrition Unit, School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences (G08), University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. E-mail: j.brandmiller@biochem.usyd.edu.au. Received November 20, 2001. Accepted for publication March 26, 2002.

INTRODUCTION Twenty years have passed since the first index of the relative glycemic effects of carbohydrate exchanges from 51 foods was published by Jenkins et al (1) in this Journal. Per gram of carbohydrate, foods with a high glycemic index (GI) produce a higher peak in postprandial blood glucose and a greater overall blood glucose response during the first 2 h after consumption than do foods with a low GI. Despite controversial beginnings, the GI is now widely recognized as a reliable, physiologically based classification of foods according to their postprandial glycemic effect. In 1997 a committee of experts was brought together by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO) to review the available research evidence regarding the importance of carbohydrates in human nutrition and health (2). The committee endorsed the use of the GI method for classifying carbohydraterich foods and recommended that the GI values of foods be used in conjunction with information about food composition to guide

Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:5–56. Printed in USA. © 2002 American Society for Clinical Nutrition

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FOSTER-POWELL ET AL REVISED INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GI VALUES For all clinical and research applications, reliable GI values are needed. Therefore, the purpose of this revised table is to bring together all the relevant data published between 1981 and 2001 (Table 1). Unpublished figures from our laboratory and those from others have also been included when the quality of the data could be verified on the basis of the method used [ie, the method is in line with the principles advocated by the FAO/WHO Expert Consultation (2)]. In total, the new table contains nearly 1300 separate entries, representing > 750 different types of foods. This number of foods represents an increase of almost 250% over the number provided when the international tables were first published in 1995. As in the original tables, the GI value for each food (with either glucose or white bread used as the reference food), the type and number of subjects tested, the reference food and time period used, and the published source of the data are provided. For many foods there are ≥ 2 published values; therefore, the mean (± SEM) GIs were calculated and are listed underneath the data for the individual foods. Thus, the user can appreciate the variation for any one food and, if possible, use the GI value for the food found in their country. It is hoped that the table will reduce unnecessary repetition in the testing of individual foods and facilitate wider research and application of the GI. In some cases, the GI values for different varieties of the same type of food listed in the table indicate the glycemic-lowering effects of different ingredients and food processing methods (eg, porridges made from rolled grains of different thicknesses and breads with different proportions of whole grains). This information could assist food manufacturers to develop a greater range of low-GI processed foods.

and to waist circumference in men (15). In addition, higher blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations were observed in patients consuming low-GI diets from the northern, eastern, and western European centers participating in the study (15). Indeed, several studies have shown that the dietary GI is a good predictor of HDL concentrations in the healthy population, whereas the amount and type of fat are not (16–18). Thus, the GI has proven to be a more useful nutritional concept than is the chemical classification of carbohydrate (as simple or complex, as sugars or starches, or as available or unavailable), providing new insights into the relation between foods and health. In parallel with these advances have been studies documenting the importance of postprandial glycemia per se for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality in healthy populations (19). For example, in the Hoorn study there was a significant association between the 8-y risk of cardiovascular death and 2-h postload blood glucose concentrations in subjects with normal fasting glucose concentrations, even after adjustment for known risk factors (20). Multiple mechanisms are probably involved. Recurring, excessive postprandial glycemia could decrease blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations, increase triglyceridemia, and also be directly toxic by increasing protein glycation, generating oxidative stress, and causing transient hypercoagulation and impaired endothelial function (21, 22). If postprandial glycemia is indeed important, then dietary treatment for the prevention or management of chronic diseases must consider both the amount and type of carbohydrate consumed. An issue that is still being debated, particularly within the United States, is whether the GI has practical applications for the clinical treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Three intervention studies in adults and children with type 1 diabetes showed that low-GI diets improve glycated hemoglobin concentrations (23–25). In subjects with cardiovascular disease, low-GI diets were shown to be associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity and blood lipid concentrations (23, 26). In addition, evidence from both short-term and long-term studies in animals and humans indicates that low-GI foods may be useful for weight control. Laboratory studies examining the short-term satiating effects of foods have shown that low-GI foods are relatively more satiating than are their high-GI counterparts (10). Compared with low-GI meals, high-GI meals induce a greater rise and fall in blood glucose and a greater rise in blood insulin, leading to lower concentrations of the body’s 2 main fuels (blood glucose and fatty acids) in the immediate postabsorptive period. The reduced availability of metabolic fuels may act as a signal to stimulate eating (11). It is also important to emphasize that many low-GI foods are relatively less refined than are their high-GI counterparts and are more difficult to consume. The lower energy density and palatability of these foods are important determinants of their greater satiating capacity. In obese children, the ad libitum consumption of a low-GI diet has been associated with greater reductions in body mass indexes (27). However, some experts have raised concerns about the difficulties of putting advice about GI values into practice and of the potentially adverse effects on food choice and fat intake. For this reason, the American Diabetes Association does not recommend the use of GI values for dietary counseling. However, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (28), the Canadian Diabetes Association (29), and the Dietitians Association of Australia (30) all recommend high-fiber, low-GI foods for individuals with diabetes as a means of improving postprandial glycemia and weight control.

WHY DO GI VALUES FOR THE SAME TYPES OF FOODS SOMETIMES VARY? Many people have raised concerns about the variation in published GI values for apparently similar foods. This variation may reflect both methodologic factors and true differences in the physical and chemical characteristics of the foods. One possibility is that 2 similar foods may have different ingredients or may have been processed with a different method, resulting in significant differences in the rate of carbohydrate digestion and hence the GI value. Two different brands of the same type of food, such as a plain cookie, may look and taste almost the same, but differences in the type of flour used, in the moisture content, and in the cooking time can result in differences in the degree of starch gelatinization and consequently the GI values. In addition, it must be remembered that the GI values listed in the table for commercially available processed foods may change over time if food manufacturers make changes in the ingredients or processing methods used. Another reason GI values for apparently similar foods vary is that different testing methods are used in different parts of the world. Differences in testing methods include the use of different types of blood samples (capillary or venous), different experimental time periods, and different portions of foods (50 g of total rather than of available carbohydrate). Recently, 7 experienced GI testing laboratories around the world participated in a study to determine the degree of variation in GI values when the same centrally distributed foods were tested according to the laboratories’ normal in-house testing procedures (31). The results showed that the 5 laboratories that used finger-prick capillary blood samples to

INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD measure changes in postprandial glycemia obtained similar GI values for the same foods and less intersubject variation. Although capillary and venous blood glucose values have been shown to be highly correlated, it appears that capillary blood samples may be preferable to venous blood samples for reliable GI testing. After the consumption of food, glucose concentrations change to a greater degree in capillary blood samples than in venous blood samples. Therefore, capillary blood may be a more relevant indicator of the physiologic consequences of high-GI foods. Although it is clear that GI values are generally reproducible from place to place, there are some instances of wide variation for the same food. Rice, for example, shows a large range of GI values, but this variation is due to inherent botanical differences in rice from country to country rather than to methodologic differences. Differences in the amylose content could explain much of the variation in the GI values of rice (and other foods) because amylose is digested more slowly than is amylopectin starch (32). GI values for rice cannot be reliably predicted on the basis of the size of the grain (short or long grain) or the type of cooking method. Rice is obviously one type of food that needs to be tested brand by brand locally. Carrots are another example of a food with a wide variation in published GI values; the oldest study showed a GI of 92 ± 20 and the latest study a GI of 32 ± 5. However, the results of an examination of the SEs (20 compared with 5) and the number of subjects tested (5 compared with 8) suggest that the latest value for carrots is more reliable, although differences in nutrient content and preparation methods contributed somewhat to this variation. An important reason GI values for similar foods sometimes vary between laboratories is because of the method used for determining the carbohydrate content of the test foods. GI testing requires that portions of both the reference foods and test foods contain the same amount of available carbohydrate, typically 50 or 25 g. The available or glycemic carbohydrate fraction in foods, which is available for absorption in the small intestine, is measured as the sum of starch and sugars and does not include resistant starch. Most researchers rely on food-composition tables or food manufacturers’ data, whereas others directly measure the starch and sugar contents of the foods. This difference in the accuracy of measurements of the carbohydrate content might explain some of the variation in reported GI values for fruit and potatoes and other vegetables. Food labels may or may not include the dietary fiber content of the food in the total carbohydrate value, leading to confusion that can markedly affect GI values, especially those for high-fiber foods. Consequently, researchers should obtain accurate laboratory measurements of the available carbohydrate content of foods as an essential preliminary step in GI testing. The available carbohydrate portion of test and reference foods should not include resistant starch, but, in practice, this can be difficult to ensure because resistant starch is difficult to measure. There is also difficulty in determining the degree of availability of novel carbohydrates, such as sugar alcohols, which are incompletely absorbed at relatively high doses. Measuring the rate at which carbohydrates in foods are digested in vitro has been suggested as a cheaper and less time-consuming method for predicting the GI values of foods (33). However, only a few foods have been subjected to both in vitro and in vivo testing, and it is not yet known whether the in vitro method is a reliable indication of the in vivo postprandial glycemic effects of all types of foods. It is possible that some factors that significantly

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affect glycemia in vivo, such as the rate of gastric emptying, will not change the rate of carbohydrate digestion in vitro. For example, high osmolality and high acidity or soluble fiber slow down the gastric emptying rate and reduce glycemia in vivo, but they may not alter the rate of carbohydrate digestion in vitro. It is difficult to mimic all of the human digestive processes in a test tube. In fact, research results from our laboratory have shown that GI values measured in vivo can be significantly different for the same foods measured in vitro. Until we know more about the validity of in vitro methods, it is not recommended that they be used in clinical or epidemiologic research applications or for food labeling purposes because of the potential for large over- or underestimates of true GI values.

GUIDE TO THE USE OF THE REVISED TABLE The GI values listed in the revised table represent high-quality data published in refereed journals or unpublished values generated by Sydney University’s Glycemic Index Research Service, often as a result of contract research by industry. The foods have been described as unambiguously as possible by using descriptive data about the food given in the original publication. In some cases, descriptive details were extensive, including the species or variety of plant food, the brand name of the processed food, and the preparation and cooking methods. In other cases, the only description was a single word (eg, potatoes or apple). If the cooking method and cooking time were stated in the original reference, the details are given. The user should bear in mind that countries often have different names for the same food product or, alternatively, the same name for different items. For example, Kellogg’s Special K breakfast cereal is a very different product in North America (Kellogg Canada Inc) than in Australia (Kellogg, Sydney, Australia), each of which has a different GI value. Similarly, food names may mean different things in different countries. For example, biscuits, muffins, and scones have different meanings in North America and in Europe. The terms used in the revised table have been selected to be as internationally relevant as possible. Some research laboratories continue to use white bread as the reference food for measuring GI values, whereas others use glucose (dextrose); therefore, 2 GI values are given for each food. The first value is the GI with glucose as the reference food (GI value for glucose = 100; GI value for white bread = 70), and the second value is the GI for the same food with white bread as the reference food (GI value for white bread = 100; GI value for glucose = 143). When bread was the reference food used in the original study, the GI value for the food was multiplied by 0.7 to obtain the GI value with glucose as the reference food. The table lists the reference food that was originally used to measure the GI value of each food. The foods in the table are separated into the following food groups: bakery products, beverages, breads, breakfast cereals and related products, breakfast cereal bars, cereal grains, cookies, crackers, dairy products and alternatives, fruit and fruit products, infant formula and weaning foods, legumes and nuts, mealreplacement products, mixed meals and convenience foods, nutritional-support products, pasta and noodles, snack foods and confectionery, sports bars, soups, sugars and sugar alcohols, vegetables (including roots and tubers), and indigenous or traditional foods of different ethnic groups. Within each section, foods are arranged in alphabetical order by common name. This classification of the foods was made on a practical rather than a sci-

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FOSTER-POWELL ET AL
5. Brand-Miller J, Wolever TMS, Colagiuri S, Foster-Powell K. The glucose revolution. New York: Marlowe & Company, 1999. 6. Foster-Powell K, Miller J. International tables of glycemic index. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62(suppl):871S–90S. 7. Salmeron J, Ascherio A, Rimm E, et al. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care 1997;20:545–50. 8. Salmeron J, Manson J, Stampfer M, Colditz G, Wing A, Willett W. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA 1997;277:472–7. 9. Liu S, Willett W, Stampfer M, et al. A prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1455–61. 10. Ludwig D. Dietary glycemic index and obesity. J Nutr 2000;130: 280S–3S. 11. Ludwig D, Majzoub J, Al-Zahrani A, Dallal G, Blanco I, Roberts S. High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity. Pediatrics [serial online] 1999;103:e26. Internet: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/ content/full/103/3/e26 (accessed 9 April 2002). 12. Franceschi S, Dal ML, Augustin L, et al. Dietary glycemic load and colorectal cancer risk. Ann Oncol 2001;12:173–8. 13. Augustin L. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load in breast cancer risk: a case control study. Ann Oncol (in press). 14. Buyken A, Toeller M, Heitkamp G, et al. Glycemic index in the diet of European outpatients with type 1 diabetes: relations to glycated hemoglobin and serum lipids. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:574–81. 15. Toeller M, Buyken AE, Heitkamp G, et al. Nutrient intakes as predictors of body weight in European people with type 1 diabetes. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001;25:1–8. 16. Ford E, Liu S. Glycemic index and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration among US adults. Arch Intern Med 2001; 161:572–6. 17. Frost G, Leeds A, Dore C, Madeiros S, Brading S, Dornhorst A. Glycaemic index as a determinant of serum HDL-cholesterol concentration. Lancet 1999;353:1045–8. 18. Liu S, Manson J, Stampfer M, et al. Dietary glycemic load assessed by food-frequency questionnaire in relation to plasma high-densitylipoprotein cholesterol and fasting plasma triacylglycerols in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:560–6. 19. European Diabetes Epidemiology Group. Glucose tolerance and mortality: comparison of WHO and American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria. The DECODE study group. European Diabetes Epidemiology Group. Diabetes Epidemiology: Collaborative analysis Of Diagnostic criteria in Europe. Lancet 1999;354:617–21. 20. De Vegt F, Dekker J, Ruhe H, et al. Hyperglycaemia is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the Hoorn population: the Hoorn study. Diabetologia 1999;42:926–31. 21. Ceriello A, Bortolotti N, Motz E, et al. Meal-induced oxidative stress and low-density lipoprotein oxidation in diabetes: the possible role of hyperglycemia. Metabolism 1999;48:1503–8. 22. Gavin J. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of postprandial hyperglycemia. Am J Cardiol 2001;88:4–8. 23. Frost G, Leeds A, Trew G, Margara R, Dornhorst A. Insulin sensitivity in women at risk of coronary heart disease and the effect of a low glycemic diet. Metabolism 1998;47:1245–51. 24. Gilbertson H, Brand-Miller J, Thorburn A, Evans S, Chondros P, Werther G. The effect of flexible low glycemic index dietary advice versus measured carbohydrate exchange diets on glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2001;24:1137–43. 25. Giacco R, Parillo M, Rivellese A, et al. Long-term dietary treatment with increased amounts of fiber-rich low-glycemic index natural foods improves blood glucose control and reduces the number of hypoglycemic events in type 1 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 2000; 23:1461–6. 26. Jenkins D, Jenkins A. The glycemic index, fiber, and the dietary treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr 1987;6:11–7.

entific basis. There are no GI values given for meat, poultry, fish, avocados, salad vegetables, cheese, or eggs because these foods contain little or no carbohydrate and it would be exceedingly difficult for people to consume a portion of the foods containing 50 g or even 25 g of available carbohydrate. Even in large amounts, these foods when eaten alone are not likely to induce a significant rise in blood glucose.

GLYCEMIC LOAD Both the quantity and quality (ie, nature or source) of carbohydrate influence the glycemic response. By definition, the GI compares equal quantities of carbohydrate and provides a measure of carbohydrate quality but not quantity. In 1997 the concept of GL was introduced by researchers at Harvard University to quantify the overall glycemic effect of a portion of food (7–9). Thus, the GL of a typical serving of food is the product of the amount of available carbohydrate in that serving and the GI of the food. The higher the GL, the greater the expected elevation in blood glucose and in the insulinogenic effect of the food. The long-term consumption of a diet with a relatively high GL (adjusted for total energy) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (9). In the revised table, 3 columns of data not given in the 1995 table are included: GL values, a nominal serving size for each food (weight in g or volume in mL), and the carbohydrate content of each food (in g/serving). The GL values are included for most of the foods and were calculated by multiplying the amount of carbohydrate contained in a specified serving size of the food by the GI value of that food (with the use of glucose as the reference food), which was then divided by 100. The nominal serving sizes were chosen after consideration of typical serving sizes in different countries. The carbohydrate content was obtained from the reference paper or, when not available, from appropriate food-composition tables (34–38). For indigenous foods, values were extrapolated from Western foods thought to be closest in composition when the nutrient content was not available. The purpose of including GL values in the revised table was to allow comparisons of the likely glycemic effect of realistic portion sizes of different foods. The data should be used cautiously because they are not applicable to all situations. Portion sizes vary markedly from country to country and between people in the same country. Researchers and health professionals should therefore calculate their own GL data by using appropriate serving sizes and carbohydrate-composition data. In the interest of future editions of the table, we ask that reliable published and unpublished data be sent to us for consideration. REFERENCES
1. Jenkins D, Wolever T, Taylor R, et al. Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34:362–6. 2. FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. Carbohydrates in human nutrition: report of a joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation, Rome, 14–18 April, 1997. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization, 1998. (FAO Food and Nutrition paper 66.) 3. National Health and Medical Research Council. Dietary guidelines for older Australians. Canberra, Australia: Commonwealth of Australia, 1999. 4. Brand-Miller J, Barclay AW, Irwin T. A new food labeling program for the glycemic index. Proc Nutr Soc Aust 2001;25:S21 (abstr).

INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD
27. Spieth L, Harnish J, Lenders C, et al. A low-glycemic index diet in the treatment of pediatric obesity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2000;154:947–51. 28. Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Nutritional recommendations for individuals with diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 1988;1:145–9. 29. Canadian Diabetes Association. Guidelines for the nutritional management of diabetes mellitus in the new millennium. A position statement by the Canadian Diabetes Association. Can J Diabetes Care 2000;23:56–69. 30. Perlstein RWJ, Hines C, Milsavljevic M. Dietitians Association of Australia review paper: glycaemic index in diabetes management. Aust J Nutr Diet 1997;54:57–63. 31. Wolever TMS, Brand-Miller J, Brighenti F, et al. Determination of the glycaemic index of foods: interlaboratory study. Br J Nutr (in press). 32. Brand-Miller JC, Pang E, Bramal L. Rice: a high or low glycemic index food? Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:1034–6.

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33. Englyst K, Englyst H, Hudson G, Cole T, Cummings J. Rapidly available glucose in foods: an in vitro measurement that reflects the glycemic response. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:448–54. 34. Pennington JAT. Bowes and Church’s food values of portions commonly used. 17th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1998. 35. US Department of Agriculture. USDA nutrient database for standard reference, release 14. Version current 1 February 2002. Internet: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/cgi-bin/nut_search.pl (accessed 24 April 2002). 36. English R, Lewis J. Food for health. A guide to good nutrition with nutrient values for 650 Australian foods. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1991. 37. Xyris Software. FoodWorks™ nutrition software. Australian food composition tables and manufacturers’ data, professional edition, version 2. High Gate Hill, Australia: Xyris software, 2001. 38. Crawley H. Food portion sizes. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1988.

TABLE 1 International table of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values: 20021 GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g BAKERY PRODUCTS Cakes 1 Angel food cake (Loblaw’s, Toronto, Canada) 2 Banana cake, made with sugar 3 Banana cake, made without sugar 4 Chocolate cake made from packet mix with chocolate frosting (Betty Crocker; General Mills Inc, Minneapolis, MN, USA) 5 Cupcake, strawberry-iced (Squiggles; Farmland, Grocery Holdings, Tooronga, Australia) 6 Lamingtons (sponge dipped in chocolate and coconut) (Farmland, Australia) 7 Pound cake (Sara Lee Canada, Bramalea, Canada) 8 Sponge cake, plain 9 Vanilla cake made from packet mix with vanilla frosting (Betty Crocker, USA) 10 Croissant (Food City, Toronto, Canada) 11 Crumpet (Dempster’s Corporate Foods Ltd, Etobicoke, Canada) 12 Doughnut, cake type (Loblaw’s, Canada) 13 Flan cake (Weston’s Bakery, Toronto, Canada) 14 Muffins Apple, made with sugar5 Apple, made without sugar5 Apple, oat, and sultana, made from packet mix (Defiance Milling Co, Acacia Ridge, Australia) Apricot, coconut, and honey, made from packet mix (Defiance Milling Co, Australia) Banana, oat and honey, made from packet mix (Defiance Milling Co, Australia) Bran (Grandma Martin’s Muffins; Culinar Inc, Aurora, Canada) g/serving

Food number and item

67 47 ± 8 55 ± 10 38 ± 3 73 ± 12 87 ± 17 54 46 ± 6 42 ± 4 67 69 76 65

95 ± 7 67 79 54

Type 1 and 2, 9 Healthy, 8 Healthy, 7 Healthy, 10

White bread, 3 h White bread, 2 h White bread, 2 h Glucose, 2 h

1 2 2 UO4

50 80 80 111

29 38 29 52

19 18 16 20

104

Healthy, 10

Glucose, 2 h

UO4

38

26

19

124 77 ± 8 66 60 96 ± 6 98 ± 4 108 ± 10 93 ± 6

Healthy, 10 Type 1 and 2, 10 Healthy, 5 Healthy, 10 Type 1 and 2, 13 Type 1 and 2, 13 Type 1 and 2, 10 Type 1 and 2, 10

Glucose, 2 h White bread, 3 h Glucose, 2 h Glucose, 2 h White bread, 3 h White bread, 3 h White bread, 3 h White bread, 3 h

UO4 1 3 UO4 1 1 1 1

50 53 63 111 57 50 47 70

29 28 36 58 26 19 23 48

25 15 17 24 17 13 17 31

44 ± 6 48 ± 10 54 ± 4 60 ± 4 65 ± 11 60

63 69 78 ± 6 86 ± 6 93 ± 16 85 ± 8

Healthy, 8 Healthy, 8 Healthy, 9

White bread, 2 h White bread, 2 h White bread, 2 h

2 2 UO4

60 60 50

29 19 26

13 9 14

Healthy, 9

White bread, 2 h

UO4

50

26

16

Healthy, 10 Type 1 and 2, 14

White bread, 2 h White bread, 2 h

UO4 1

50 57

26 24

17 15

(Continued)

9 Type 2. Australia) 23 Fanta. 39 ± 5 55 ± 7 reconstituted (Berri Ltd. Australia)6 30 Up and Go. Tarren Point. soy. 3 h White bread. buckwheat. 11 Healthy. 5 Healthy. 8 Healthy. Berri. 7 Type 2. 10 Healthy. UK) 25 Smoothie. 10 Bread. Canada) 15 Pancakes. Quaker Oats Co 76 109 ± 6 of Canada) BEVERAGES 21 Coca Cola Coca Cola. Glendenning. prepared from shake mix 67 ± 5 96 (Green’s General Foods. Canada) Mean of 3 studies 40 ± 1 57 ± 1 Type 1 and 2. orange soft drink (Coca Cola 68 ± 6 97 Amatil. 2 h UO4 250 mL 34 13 Healthy. 10 Glucose. 43 ± 5 61 rice cereal liquid breakfast) (Sanitarium Health Foods. Tip Top Bakeries. 2 h Glucose. Carrum Downs. 2 h 4 4 1 UO4 57 50 80 29 35 58 30 24 39 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. 10 Glucose. 85 ± 14 121 Chatswood. 2 h UO4 5 2 2 3 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 250 mL 26 250 mL 26 250 mL 20 250 mL 34 250 mL 42 250 mL 41 250 mL 22 250 mL 25 250 mL 29 250 mL 26 14 16 13 23 40 14 7 8 17 11 Healthy. soft drink (Cadbury 58 ± 5 83 Schweppes. soft drink (Coca Cola Amatil. 10 Glucose. 2 h Glucose. 33 ± 9 48 ± 13 Omaha. made from mix (Quaker Oats 69 98 ± 15 Co of Canada. Australia) 24 Lucozade. pure. gluten-free. 6 — Bread. unsweetened (Allens. 3 h — UO4 6 7 — — — — — — — — — — 12 250 mL 29 (Continued) . Australia) 19 Scones. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. raspberry (Con Agra Inc. 3 h6 Glucose. 10 Healthy. made from packet mix 92 ± 8 131 (Defiance Milling Co. 2 h Bread. 2 h Glucose. unsweetened. cereal and 39 ± 2 56 legume extract drink with fructose) (So Natural Foods. 10 Healthy. 10 Type 2. 10 Type 1 and 2. 2 h Glucose. 66 ± 8 94 Berri. reconstituted (Berri Ltd. USA) 63 90 Mean of 2 types 58 ± 5 83 ± 7 22 Cordial. Canada) 59 84 ± 8 Carrot (Culinar Inc. 7 Healthy. Uxbridge. unsweetened 40 57 Apple juice. 10 Glucose. Australia)6 27 Smoothie drink. 3 h 3 UO4 UO4 1 57 40 25 35 26 21 9 13 15 18 7 10 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 3 h Glucose. 2 h Glucose. cocoa malt flavor (soy milk. 10 Type 1 and 2. Canada) 62 88 ± 12 Chocolate butterscotch. Peterborough. low-amylose 102 146 Corn muffin. 10 Healthy. made 102 ± 11 146 from packet mix (Orgran Natural Foods. 2 h 1 1 UO4 57 57 50 Type 2. 10 White bread. Sydney. USA) 26 Smoothie drink. orange. 3 h6 White bread. 9 Healthy. high-amylose 49 70 Oatmeal. made from 53 ± 5 75 ± 7 packet mix (Defiance Milling Co. 2 h White bread. 10 Healthy. 3 h White bread. chocolate hazelnut 34 ± 3 49 (So Natural Foods. 10 Healthy. GA. 46 ± 5 66 rice cereal liquid breakfast) (Sanitarium Health Foods. lemon squash. 5 h6 Bread. 10 Healthy. plain. Australia)6 29 Up and Go. 2 h UO4 250 mL 24 11 Healthy. Australia) 16 Pancakes. banana (So Natural 30 ± 3 43 Foods. 41 59 ± 8 Toronto. Australia)6 28 Solo. 2 h Glucose. Australia) Corn muffin. NE. 5 Healthy. 9 Type 1 and 2. 53 ± 7 76 Sydney. original malt flavor (soy milk. chocolate (soy bean. Berkeley Vale. Australia) Apple juice. 10 Glucose. soy. Australia) 17 Pastry 59 ± 6 84 18 Pikelets (Golden brand. 2 h UO4 77 22 22 Healthy. Australia)6 Juices 32 Apple juice Apple juice. Australia) 20 Waffles (Aunt Jemima. Australia)6 31 Xpress.10 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 29 32 28 17 20 15 Blueberry (Culinar Inc. soft drink (Atlanta. original (sparkling glucose 95 ± 10 136 drink) (Glaxo Wellcome Ltd. Australia) Coca Cola.

10 Healthy. 2 h Bread. pure. Berri Ltd. Switzerland Australia) 47 Sports Plus (Berri Ltd. Auckland. Australia) 50 Complete Hot Chocolate mix made with hot water (Nestlé. 2 h Glucose. MA. 13 Glucose. 10 Healthy.INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) 44 ± 2 37 ± 3 43 ± 3 43 ± 3 52 ± 3 68 ± 3 56 ± 4 48 GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 7 11 Food number and item Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 13 10 14 10 16 24 16 11 33 Apple juice. 7–10 Healthy. New Zealand) dissolved in water Mean of 2 studies Milo (Nestlé. Australia) 48 Sustagen Sport (Mead Johnson. New Zealand) dissolved in full-fat cow milk Mean of 2 studies 54 Nutrimeal. Australia) 35 Apple and cherry juice. Bridgewater. Australia) 34 Apple juice. Australia) mixed in reduced-fat (1. USA) 63 53 61 61 74 97 80 69 ± 5 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 3 h 250 mL 30 250 mL 28 250 mL 33 250 mL 23 250 mL 31 250 mL 36 250 mL 29 250 mL 22 46 ± 6 53 ± 6 50 ± 4 46 38 ± 4 46 ± 6 66 76 71 ± 5 66 ± 3 54 66 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 9 Healthy. Lakeville-Middleboro. 2 h Glucose. Nyon. 8 — Type 2. containing soy protein and whey powder (Harrod foods. unsweetened. Berri. Rydalmere. 2 h Bread. 10 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 10 Healthy. 10 Healthy. Wandin. Australia) Sports drinks 45 Gatorade (Spring Valley Beverages Pty Ltd. 13 Healthy. 7–10 Bread. Australia)6 37 Cranberry juice cocktail (Ocean Spray. 7–10 Healthy. (Nestlé. pure. 3 h Glucose. Australia) Drinks made from drinking mix powders 49 Build-Up nutrient-fortified drink.5%) cow milk 52 Malted milk powder in full-fat cow milk (Nestlé. Toronto. Australia) dissolved in water Milo (Nestlé. meal replacement drink. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Glucose. 10 Glucose. 10 — Healthy. 7–10 Glucose. Ocean Spray (Gerber Ltd. 10 Glucose. 10 Type 2. unsweetened (Wild About Fruit. freshly made (Sydney. Dutch Chocolate (Usana. 10 Healthy. 2 h Bread. unsweetened (Dole Packaged Foods. Australia) 36 Carrot juice. Cheltenham. clear. Australia) 53 Milo (chocolate nutrient-fortified drink powder) Milo (Nestlé. Toronto. 7–10 Healthy. USA) 39 Cranberry juice drink. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. cloudy. 10 Glucose. 2 h Bread. 2 h — Glucose. UT. 2 h Glucose. fermented milk drink with Lactobacillus casei (Yakult. pure. Salt Lake City. 2 h Glucose. 2 h 3 2 — 7 UO4 8 — — — — — — 13 16 4 6 250 mL 26 250 mL 34 250 mL 9 65 mL 12 78 ± 13 70 ± 15 74 ± 6 43 ± 9 41 ± 4 51 ± 3 36 ± 3 111 100 106 61 Healthy. 10 Healthy. 2 h UO4 250 mL 26 12 55 ± 3 52 ± 5 54 ± 2 35 ± 2 36 ± 3 36 ± 1 26 ± 3 79 ± 4 74 ± 7 77 ± 3 50 51 51 37 Healthy. unsweetened (Wild About Fruit. 6 Healthy. 10 Glucose. Australia) 46 Isostar (Novartis Consumer Health. Sydney. vanilla. 2 h — Bread. 2 h UO4 UO4 250 mL 16 250 mL 16 9 9 Healthy. Australia) 51 Hi-Pro energy drink mix. 10 Healthy. Australia) Mean of 2 studies 42 Pineapple juice. 10 Healthy. UK) 40 Grapefruit juice. 2 h UO4 UO4 UO4 250 mL 33 250 mL 23 250 mL 19 14 11 7 45 ± 3 64 Healthy. canned. Dandenong. Sefton. Canada) 43 Tomato juice. vanilla with fiber. Melbourne. 2 h 8 8 8 8 250 mL 15 250 mL 18 250 mL 17 250 mL 49 12 13 13 21 59 73 51 Healthy. unsweetened (Sunpac. 10 Healthy. 2 h Bread. reconstituted (Quelch. Canada) 41 Orange juice Orange juice (Canada) Orange juice. Australia) dissolved in full-fat cow milk Milo (Nestlé. unsweetened (Wild About Fruit. no added sugar (Berri Ltd. Carlton. Australia)6 44 Yakult. 2 h UO4 UO4 — UO4 250 mL 25 250 mL 26 — — 250 mL 17 9 9 — 4 (Continued) . Australia) 38 Cranberry juice cocktail (Ocean Spray Inc.

Canada) Barley breads 62 Coarse barley kernel bread. 2 h Whole-meal barley bread. 3 h Bread. 11 Healthy. Toronto. 13 Type 2. dissolved in water Quik.5%-fat milk Quik. dissolved in 1. 11 Healthy. France) 61 Bread stuffing. 3 h Bread. 8 Bread. 11 Whole-meal barley bread. 5 Healthy. 50% high-fiber barley flour) (Sweden) Whole-meal barley bread. 2 h Bread. 8 Bread. Australia). 2 h 10 11 11 — 10 12 — 13 30 30 30 — 30 30 30 30 20 20 20 — 20 20 20 11 5 7 8 — 9 10 9 6 67 67 50 96 ± 6 95 ± 15 71 ± 11 61 ± 7 Type 2. 11 Healthy. 2 h Bread. Australia). Montreal. 9 Healthy. 1. 14 Healthy. 10 Bread. thin. 2 h Bread. 1. 3 h Glucose. white. soft (50% regular barley flour.5%-fat milk BREADS 56 Bagel. 2 h Whole-meal barley bread. Paxo (Campbell Soup Co Ltd. 9 Healthy. 10 — Type 2. 2 h Glucose. 2 h 15 15 15 15 15 30 30 30 30 30 20 20 19 20 20 14 10 12 12 13 (Continued) . 2 h 10 11 14 30 30 30 13 20 15 9 13 7 43 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. Australia). dissolved in 1. 10 Bread. 3 h 1 9 UO7 UO7 UO7 1 70 30 70 70 60 30 35 15 37 41 32 21 25 15 27 26 20 16 63 ± 10 90 74 106 ± 10 27 34 40 34 ± 4 43 48 46 ± 2 57 ± 6 39 ± 7 48 ± 10 57 ± 10 48 ± 9 62 ± 4 69 ± 7 66 ± 3 81 Type 2. 12 Type 1 and 2. Australia) 65 Barley flour breads 100% barley flour (Canada) Whole-meal barley flour (80%) bread (20% white-wheat flour) (Sweden) Whole-meal barley bread. 10 Healthy. Australia). 6 Healthy. white. frozen (Lender’s Bakery. 3 h Glucose. chocolate (Nestlé. soft (20% regular barley flour. flat. Sydney.5 h Bread. flat. chocolate (Nestlé. 3 Healthy. plain (France) 58 French baguette with chocolate spread (France) 59 French baguette with butter and strawberry jam (France) 60 Pain au lait (Pasquier. 50% kernels 50% kernels (Canada) 50% kibbled barley (Australia) Mean of 2 studies 64 Sunflower and barley bread (Riga bakeries. 2 h — Bread. 2 h Whole-meal barley bread. strawberry (Nestlé. thin.5 h — Bread. 2 h Whole-meal barley bread. dissolved in water Quik. 11 Healthy. Sydney. Canada) 57 Baguette. 75–80% kernels 75% kernels 80% scalded intact kernels (20% white-wheat flour) 80% intact kernels (20% white-wheat flour) Mean of 3 studies 63 Barley kernel bread. 14 Healthy. 8 Bread. 3 h Bread. 5 Healthy. 2 h 14 30 11 5 70 53 66 59 65 100 76 94 84 93 Healthy. 10 Healthy. 80% high-fiber barley flour) (Sweden) 66 Whole-meal barley flour (80%) and white-wheat flour (20%) bread fermented or with added organic acids or salts (Sweden) Whole-meal barley flour bread (used as reference for the 5 breads below)8 Whole-meal barley flour bread with sourdough (lactic acid)8 Whole-meal barley flour bread with lactic acid8 Whole-meal barley flour bread with calcium lactate8 Whole-meal barley flour bread with sodium propionate8 53 ± 5 41 ± 4 64 ± 8 35 ± 3 76 ± 8 59 92 ± 12 50 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 8 — Healthy. 2 h UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 250 mL 250 mL 11 250 mL 8 250 mL 12 72 95 ± 15 72 ± 8 62 ± 7 103 ± 5 136 101 89 Type 1 and 2. 2 h Glucose. 10 Healthy.12 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 7 4 5 5 4 55 Quik (sweet drink powder) Quik. strawberry (Nestlé.

10 Healthy. USA) 72 Muesli bread. soya bran) (UK) Mean of 2 studies Oat bread 79 Coarse oat-kernel bread. 2 h Bread. 10 Glucose. 12 Bread. pumpernickel (Canada) Whole-grain pumpernickel (Holtzheuser Brothers Ltd. Dandenong. 10 White bread. 10 — Healthy. WI. 12 Type 1 and 2. 2 h Glucose. 3 h Bread. 2 h Bread. 1. 2 h Bread. 8 Healthy. number NS Type 1 and 2. 2 h 15 30 47 67 ± 10 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 3 h White bread. 10 Healthy. 3 h White bread. 2 h UO4 30 13 10 71 80 76 ± 5 69 76 73 ± 4 65 101 ± 22 114 ± 21 108 ± 7 99 ± 12 109 ± 13 104 ± 5 93 ± 11 63 ± 10 72 ± 10 68 ± 5 103 ± 10 88 ± 13 Type 2. Australia) 77 Gluten-free white bread (gluten-free wheat starch) (UK) Unsliced Sliced Mean of 2 studies 78 Gluten-free fiber-enriched Unsliced (gluten-free wheat starch. Canada) 74 Kaiser rolls (Loblaw’s. soya bran) (UK) Sliced (gluten-free wheat starch. low-amylose Calrose rice (Pav’s Allergy Bakery. and pecan bread) (Natural Ovens. 14 Bread. Mannitowoc. Etobicoke. Canada) Gluten-free bread 76 Gluten-free multigrain bread (Country Life Bakeries. wheat bread with dried fruit (Australia) 71 Happiness (cinnamon. 3 h — White bread. Moorebank. 3 h 17 UO4 2 UO4 UO4 1 1 1 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 13 15 15 14 12 15 16 23 6 8 7 9 7 9 12 16 79 ± 13 113 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 10 16 30 21 10 44 ± 5 54 ± 6 47 ± 6 63 ± 5 54 ± 6 61 73 70 63 ± 7 77 67 89 ± 7 77 ± 9 87 ± 5 104 ± 5 100 ± 6 Healthy. high-amylose Doongara rice (Pav’s Allergy Bakery. 8 Healthy. 11 Bread. Australia) Rye bread 84 Rye-kernel (pumpernickel) bread Coarse rye-kernel bread. 80% intact oat kernels and 20% white-wheat flour (Sweden) Oat-bran bread 80 50% Oat bran (Australia) 81 45% Oat bran and 50% wheat flour (Sweden) Mean of 2 studies Rice bread 82 Rice bread. time NS Bread. raisin. thick sliced (Buttercup Bakeries. 2 h 8 30 12 7 41 41 46 55 58 ± 8 58 66 ± 7 78 ± 3 Healthy. 80% intact kernels and 20% white-wheat flour (Sweden) Rye-kernel bread. 12 Bread. 10 Healthy. Ingleburn. 3 h — Bread. 2 h 18 18 — 18 18 — 11 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 15 15 15 13 13 13 19 11 12 11 9 10 9 12 44 50 47 ± 3 72 ± 9 61 ± 9 Healthy. Toronto. Canada) 75 Melba toast. pumpernickel (80% kernels) (Canada) 57 82 Healthy. Australia) 69 Fruit and spice loaf. 10 Diabetic. 2 h Glucose. Canada) Rye-kernel bread. 3 h Bread. 3 h Bread. 12 — Type 2. 12 Type 2. 12 Type 1 and 2.5 h — Bread. 11 Type 2. USA) 73 Hamburger bun (Loblaw’s. 12 — Healthy. 2 h 12 19 — 8 30 30 30 30 18 18 18 12 8 9 9 8 Healthy. 9 Type 1 and 2. Australia) 70 Continental fruit loaf. 11 Whole-meal barley bread. 10 Type 1 and 2. made from packet mix in bread making machine (Con Agra Inc. 3 h 11 20 1 21 30 30 30 30 12 12 11 12 5 5 5 7 (Continued) . 50% dehusked buckwheat groats and 50% white-wheat flour (Sweden) Fruit bread 68 Bürgen fruit loaf (Tip Top Bakeries.INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference 13 Food number and item Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 19 11 Whole-meal barley flour bread with higher dose sodium propionate8 Buckwheat bread 67 Buckwheat bread. 2 h Bread. Australia) 83 Rice bread. Old London (Best Foods Canada Inc.

Canada) Wheat bread 95 Coarse wheat-kernel bread. Canada) 89 Light rye (Silverstein’s Bakery. 3 h — Glucose. Riga (Berzin’s Specialty Bakery. 7 Bread. Toronto.14 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) 79 ± 3 88 ± 13 71 ± 7 58 89 ± 6 90 ± 7 94 ± 10 83 ± 8 109 Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 12 12 12 — — — — 14 13 7 8 6 — — — — 8 10 Cocktail. Sydney. Australia) 93 Sourdough rye Sourdough rye (Canada) Sourdough rye (Australia) Mean of 2 studies 94 Volkornbrot. 14 — Type 1 and 2. Riga (Berzin’s Specialty Bakery. Australia) White flour (Dempster’s Corporate Foods Ltd. sliced (Kasselar Food Products. 80% intact kernels and 20% white-wheat flour (Sweden) 96 Cracked wheat kernel (bulgur) bread 50% cracked wheat kernel (Canada) 75% cracked wheat kernels (Canada) Mean of 2 studies Spelt wheat bread 97 White spelt wheat bread (Slovenia)9 98 Whole-meal spelt wheat bread (Slovenia)9 99 Scalded spelt wheat-kernel bread (Slovenia)9 100 Spelt multigrain bread (Pav’s bakery. 2 h 3 28 UO4 1 29 30 30 30 30 30 14 14 14 14 13 10 10 10 10 9 (Continued) . whole-meal rye bread (Dimpflmeier Bakery Ltd. 9 Type 1. 3 h Glucose. sliced (Kasselar Food Products. 3 h Bread. 3 h — Bread. 3 h — Glucose. 6 — Type 2. 2 h Glucose. Australia) Mean of 2 studies 88 Klosterbrot whole-meal rye bread (Dimpflmeier Bakery Ltd. Vogel’s (Stevns and Co. 6 Healthy. 7 Glucose. 6 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 2 h — Bread. 3 h 26 UO4 — 1 — — 30 30 — — 12 13 — — 6 7 52 Healthy. 3 h Bread. Tip Top Bakeries. 6 Type 2. Australia) 87 Bürgen Dark/Swiss rye Bürgen Dark/Swiss rye (Tip Top Bakeries. 10 Type 1 and 2. 12 Healthy. 9 Type 1. 9 Type 2. 3 h Glucose. 3 h Bread. 6 Healthy. 2 h — Bread. 6 — Healthy. 14 Type 2. 10 — Type 1 and 2. 3 h Bread. Toronto. 10 Type 2. 2 h 22 22 — 23 21 22 22 — 24 30 30 30 — — — — 30 30 79 106 93 ± 14 95 ± 6 97 ± 6 78 ± 8 84 123 Healthy. Sydney. 9 Healthy. 2 h 11 30 20 10 58 48 53 ± 3 74 63 67 54 ± 10 69 ± 5 70 70 71 71 ± 7 Type 2. 8 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 3 h Bread. 7 Glucose. Australia) 92 Schinkenbrot. 13 Healthy. 2 h 10 10 — 27 27 27 UO4 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 20 20 20 23 19 22 12 12 10 11 17 12 15 7 99 100 100 101 ± 9 101 Healthy. 3 h Bread. time NS Bread. Sydney. Canada) White flour (South Africa) 55 62 50 ± 4 41 62 63 66 58 ± 6 76 ± 14 55 ± 12 74 ± 6 65 ± 10 67 68 55 59 ± 5 86 ± 15 Type 2. Canada) Cocktail. Canada) 91 Roggenbrot. 3 h Bread. number NS Type 1 and 2. 10 Type 1 and 2. 3 h Bread. 6 — Healthy. 610 Healthy. 3 h Bread. 10 Bread. 3 h Bread. 12 Type 1 and 2. Australia) 101 White-wheat-flour bread White flour (Canada) White flour (USA) White flour (Sunblest. 10 Bread. 2 h Bread. IGT. 12 Bread. 3 h Bread. Canada) 90 Linseed rye (Rudolph’s Specialty Bakery Ltd. 5. Australia) Bürgen Dark/Swiss rye (Tip Top Bakeries. Canada) Mean of 6 studies 85 Whole-meal rye bread Whole-meal rye bread (Canada) Whole-meal rye bread (Canada) Whole-meal rye bread (Canada) Whole-meal rye bread (Canada) Mean of 4 studies Specialty rye breads 86 Blackbread. 2 h 25 25 — 1 1 1 13 24 — — 30 30 30 30 30 30 — — 10 13 14 13 14 14 — — 7 9 10 7 8 12 57 48 53 ± 5 56 83 69 76 ± 7 80 ± 5 74 ± 7 83 ± 4 69 ± 4 76 ± 4 105 91 96 77 ± 14 Type 2.

INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) 102 ± 5 101 ± 0 104 ± 5 Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference 15 Food number and item Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 14 14 15 10 10 11 White flour (Canada) Mean of 6 studies 102 White-wheat-flour bread. 12 Healthy. 6 Diabetic. high-fiber (Weston’s Bakery. New Zealand) 115 Wonderwhite (Buttercup Bakeries. 2 h Bread. enriched white bread Mean of 3 studies 104 White Turkish bread (Turkey) White bread with enzyme inhibitors 105 White bread + acarbose (200 mg) (Mexico) White bread + acarbose (200 mg) (Mexico) White bread + acarbose (200 mg) (Mexico) Mean of 2 groups of subjects 106 White bread roll + 3 mg trestatin (pancreatic -amylase inhibitor) (Switzerland)7 107 White bread roll + 6 mg trestatin (Switzerland)8 White bread with soluble fiber 108 White bread + 15 g psyllium fiber (Plantago psyllium) White bread + 15 g psyllium fiber (Plantago psyllium) (Mexico) White bread + 15 g psyllium fiber (Plantago psyllium) (Mexico) Mean of 2 groups of subjects 109 White bread eaten with vinegar as vinaigrette (Sweden) 110 White bread eaten with powdered dried seaweed Nori alga (Spain) 111 White bread containing Eurylon high-amylose maize starch (France)12 White fiber-enriched bread 112 White. enriched white bread Wonder. 6 Bread. 10 Healthy. 14 Healthy. 13 Type 1 and 2. MO. 2 h — Glucose. 12 Healthy. 17 Bread. 10 Healthy. 12 Healthy. number NS Type 2. 3 h — Bread. 10 — Healthy. Canada) Mean of 2 studies White resistant starch-enriched bread 114 Fibre white (Nature’s Fresh. 3 h — Bread. toasted (Italian) 103 Wonder. time NS Bread. 10 — Type 2. Auckland. 11 Type 1 and 2. Kansas City. 3 h 38 10 20 22 21 22 30 30 30 30 30 30 12 12 12 12 12 12 6 8 8 8 8 8 (Continued) . 2 h UO4 UO4 UO4 — 32 — — — 30 30 — — — 14 17 — — — 10 15 18 50 34 ± 16 48 26 ± 13 70 ± 5 48 ± 22 69 Type 2. 12 — Healthy. 8 Bread. 2 h Glucose. 6 — Type 2. 3 h — Glucose. 6 Bread. 52. 14 Type 1. 3 h — Glucose. 31 Bread. enriched white bread (Interstate Brands Companies. 3 h 30 — 31 30 30 30 71 ± 9 72 ± 4 77 ± 3 73 ± 2 87 101 ± 13 103 110 105 ± 3 124 Healthy. Canada) 113 White. USA) Wonder. Australia) 116 Whole-meal (whole-wheat) wheat-flour bread Whole-meal flour (Canada) Whole-meal flour (Canada) Whole-meal flour (Canada) Whole-meal flour (Canada) Whole-meal flour (Canada) Whole-meal flour (Canada) 71 70 ± 0 73 Type 2. 3 h Glucose. healthy. 3 h Bread. 9 Type 2. high-fiber (Dempster’s Corporate Foods Ltd. 1. 8 Bread. hard. 3 h Bread. 5 Bread. 3 h Bread.6 h Bread. 4 h11 33 33 — 34 30 30 30 30 17 17 17 12 3 8 6 6 29 42 Type 2. 2 h Glucose. Toronto. enriched white bread Wonder. 4 h11 34 30 12 4 41 65 53 ± 12 45 48 42 59 ± 10 93 ± 24 76 ± 17 64 68 60 ± 6 96 ± 6 98 ± 5 97 ± 1 110 114 Type 2. 3 h Bread. 3 h Bread.8 h12 33 33 — 35 36 37 30 30 30 30 30 30 17 17 17 15 15 19 7 11 9 7 7 8 67 69 68 ± 1 77 ± 10 80 ± 8 Type 1 and 2. 2. 2 h Bread. 10 — Type 2. 3 h Bread. 2 h 1 1 — 25 13 — — 30 30 30 — — 13 15 14 — — 9 11 11 52 64 65 67 67 69 74 ± 15 92 ± 11 93 95 ± 7 96 ± 5 98 ± 5 Type 2. 10 Healthy.

13 71 ± 15 — 44 Healthy. 2 h 25 25 — 17 8 12 UO4 UO4 12 UO4 41 UO4 UO4 — — 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 — 30 30 — — 14 14 15 14 12 13 14 13 — 14 10 — — 11 6 8 6 7 5 7 9 — 8 5 85 ± 11 Healthy.16 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) 102 ± 6 103 104 107 110 111 Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 12 12 14 13 12 12 13 13 16 8 8 10 9 9 9 11 9 8 Whole-meal flour (Canada) Whole-meal flour (Canada) Whole-meal flour (USA)8 Whole-meal flour (South Africa) Whole-meal flour (Tip Top Bakeries.5 h — Glucose. USA) 71 72 ± 6 73 75 ± 9 77 ± 9 78 ± 16 87 71 ± 2 49 Type 2. 2 h 30 3 4 29 39 24 40 — 32 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 124 ± 40 Type 2. 2 h Bread. 8 51 Healthy. 8 Healthy. 14 — Healthy. 2 h Glucose. Australia) 134 Ploughman’s Whole-meal. 10 75 ± 10 107 84 ± 8 120 80 ± 5 114 ± 7 43 ± 5 61 54 ± 10 43 59 ± 7 38 ± 3 47 64 ± 10 64 54 50 ± 6 77 61 ± 7 Healthy. Australia) 129 Multigrain loaf. 10 Healthy. 10 Healthy. spelt wheat flour (Australia) 130 Multigrain (50% kibbled wheat grain) (Australia) 131 Nutty Natural. Australia) 126 Hunger Filler. USA) 127 Molenberg (Goodman Fielder. 2 h Glucose. 8 Bread. 2 h Glucose. 2 h — Bread. 8 Glucose. original recipe (Quality Bakers. 2 h Bread. 10 Type 2. Australia) 120 Bürgen Soy-Lin. 10 Healthy. 10–12 Bread. USA) 123 Healthy Choice Hearty 100% Whole Grain (Con Agra Inc. 8 Healthy. healthy. 2 h — Bread. 2 h Bread. 10–12 109 ± 11 Healthy. Australia) 135 Semolina bread (Kenya) 136 Sourdough wheat (Australia) 137 Soy and linseed bread (made from packet mix in bread maker) (Con Agra Inc. 10 79 89 97 100 Healthy. Chatswood. Australia) Whole-meal flour (Tip Top Bakeries. 10 55 ± 4 67 ± 4 91 92 ± 7 77 71 ± 9 Healthy. Australia) 133 Ploughman’s Whole-grain. 8 Healthy. 2 h 17 25 25 — 13 17 — — — 30 30 30 — — — 11 10 9 — — — 6 3 3 64 Healthy. 7 Bread. 3 h Glucose. 10 99 Type 2. 10 Healthy. 31 34 ± 4 45 ± 12 69 ± 6 49 ± 10 31 ± 3 36 ± 4 77 ± 7 55 ± 6 62 ± 6 68 ± 9 70 ± 14 59 ± 8 49 Healthy. Australia) 121 English Muffin bread (Natural Ovens. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Glucose. 7–10 Healthy. 10 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 12 Type 2. Australia) Whole-meal flour (Kenya) Mean of 13 studies 117 Whole-meal Turkish bread Specialty wheat breads 118 Bürgen Mixed-Grain bread (Australia) Bürgen Mixed-Grain (Tip Top Bakeries. 10 Healthy. Sydney. 6 Healthy. 3 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. 8 Healthy. 15 Type 2. whole-grain bread (Natural Ovens. whole-grain bread (Natural Ovens. 2 h Bread. USA) 132 Performax (Country Life Bakeries. 2 h Glucose. smooth milled (Quality Bakers. USA) 122 Healthy Choice Hearty 7 Grain (Con Agra Inc. Auckland. kibbled soy (8%) and linseed (8%) loaf (Tip Top Bakeries. 2 h Glucose. USA) 124 Helga’s Classic Seed Loaf (Quality Bakers. 2 h UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 30 30 30 30 30 30 14 14 14 14 13 13 11 8 9 9 9 7 84 ± 12 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 2 h Bread. 2 h Bread. 2 h Bread. 10–12 Healthy. New Zealand) Molenberg Molenberg Mean of 2 studies 128 9-Grain Multi-Grain (Tip Top Bakeries. 52. 10 (Continued) . Australia) Bürgen Mixed-Grain Bürgen Mixed-Grain Mean of 3 studies 119 Bürgen Oat Bran and Honey Loaf with Barley (Tip Top Bakeries. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. 2 h Bread. 2. 3 h Glucose. 2 h Glucose. 9 101 ± 3 — 70 Type 2. Australia) 125 Helga’s traditional whole-meal bread (Quality Bakers. Dandenong.

Dorset. white (Seda Bakery. boiled 2.5 min (Sweden) 156 Whole-meal high-fiber barley flour porridge (50% regular barley flour: 50% high-fiber barley flour) (Sweden) 157 Barley porridge made from steamed thin (0. Etobicoke. USA) 139 Sunflower and barley bread. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. 13 Type 1 and 2. 13 Bread. 6 Type 2. Riga brand (Berzin’s Specialty Bakery. USA) 144 White-wheat-flour flatbread (Sweden) Unleavened bread 145 Lebanese bread. UK) 143 100% Whole-grain bread (Natural Ovens. whole-grain bread (Natural Ovens. Australia) 142 Whole-wheat snack bread (Ryvita Co Ltd. 3 h14 Bread. 7 Type 2. 6 Bread. Australia)13 All-Bran (Kellogg’s. 12 Type 1 and 2. Australia) 153 All-Bran Soy ’n Fibre (Kellogg’s. 10 Healthy. eaten with milk and nonnutritive sweetener (India) Barley porridge 155 Whole-meal barley flour porridge (100% regular barley) (flour:water.INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference 4 17 Food number and item Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 15 13 14 14 22 13 16 16 16 17 16 15 15 10 7 7 8 16 7 13 12 15 10 10 10 11 138 Stay Trim. Poole. 8 Healthy. France) 70 ± 10 101 ± 15 57 ± 6 55 ± 5 59 ± 5 74 51 ± 11 79 75 ± 9 97 ± 29 57 66 ± 9 66 ± 10 76 ± 20 81 79 84 105 ± 8 73 ± 15 113 ± 13 107 139 82 ± 10 94 94 109 Healthy. MI. 8 Bread. 10 Healthy. 1:3). 8 Type 1 and 2. 8 Healthy. 2 h UO 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 13 13 13 1 UO4 14 UO4 42 1 43 43 43 30 38 50 51 ± 5 42 ± 5 39 33 ± 3 97 ± 19 43 ± 3 54 72 ± 5 73 60 ± 7 56 47 ± 4 139 Healthy. Australia) 154 Amaranth (Amaranthus esculentum) popped. 10 Type 1 and 2. 2 h — Bread. extruded wheat-bran cereal) All-Bran (Kellogg’s. Australia) 163 Cheerios (General Mills Inc. 10 Healthy. Canada) Mean of 4 studies 152 All-Bran Fruit ’n Oats (Kellogg’s. Battle Creek. 10–12 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 7 Healthy. 2 h Bread. Australia) 146 Middle Eastern flatbread 147 Pita bread. 2 h Bread. 2 h Bread. Australia) 140 Vogel’s Honey and Oats (Stevns and Co. Canada)15 160 Bran Buds with psyllium (Kellogg’s Inc. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. 10 Healthy. Toronto. 6 Healthy. Australia) 141 Vogel’s Roggenbrot (Stevns and Co. 3 h Glucose. 3 h Glucose. 3 h 44 45 30 3 — 17 UO4 43 30 30 30 30 — 30 30 30 15 23 23 23 — 17 14 19 4 9 9 9 — 7 4 18 68 97 ± 16 78 ± 8 88 ± 6 93 ± 9 83 ± 11 67 ± 4 83 ± 6 106 106 ± 9 120 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. 6 Bread. Canada)15 164 Chocapic (Nestlé. 8 Type 2. 10 Healthy. 2 h 14 50 (dry) 15 8 62 65 58 47 58 74 74 84 ± 9 Healthy. 3 h Bread.0 mm) dehulled barley flakes (Sweden) 159 Bran Buds (Kellogg’s Inc.5 mm) dehulled barley flakes (Sweden) 158 Barley porridge made from steamed thick (1. 6 — Healthy. 10 Healthy. 8 Healthy. 3 h Glucose. 11 Healthy. 10 Healthy. Canada)15 161 Bran Chex (Nabisco Brands Ltd. 12 Type 1 and 2. Sydney. white (Canada) 148 Wheat-flour flatbread (India) 149 Amaranth:wheat (25:75) composite flour flatbread (India) 150 Amaranth:wheat (50:50) composite flour flatbread (India) BREAKFAST CEREALS AND RELATED PRODUCTS 151 All-Bran (high-fiber. 3 h Bread. 2 h Bread. 8 Bread. 2 h 14 50 (dry) 34 23 55 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 3 h Bread. 3 h Bread. 2 h Bread. USA) All-Bran (Kellogg’s Inc. Pagewood. Canada) All-Bran (Kellogg’s Inc. 8 Type 1 and 2. Etobicoke. 2 h Bread. Canada)15 162 Bran Flakes (Kellogg’s. 6 Type 2. 3 h Glucose. 2 h 46 46 1 1 1 UO4 1 UO7 50 (dry) 28 50 (dry) 28 30 30 30 30 30 30 12 12 19 18 20 25 17 18 7 6 11 13 15 21 (Continued) . 2 h Glucose.

2 h 25 47 3 30 4 — 1 UO4 UO4 1 1 1 UO7 UO4 UO4 25 25 1 UO4 1 UO4 — 1 17 UO4 UO4 UO4 17 UO4 UO4 17 UO4 UO4 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 250 250 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 25 25 26 26 26 26 23 24 26 26 30 25 24 26 26 20 22 25 23 19 22 21 22 12 18 19 27 23 22 19 22 23 21 18 20 21 22 24 21 17 17 21 17 22 22 19 18 15 12 25 18 16 13 16 15 17 5 12 9 20 11 8 5 13 14 10 (Continued) . 2 h Bread. 11 Healthy. 3 h 2 UO4 1 1 — — 30 30 30 72 ± 16 77 80 ± 6 86 92 81 ± 3 74 72 ± 4 80 ± 4 66 74 87 80 ± 7 69 ± 9 55 61 ± 20 113 ± 10 71 71 ± 8 67 75 ± 6 71 ± 4 80 37 ± 9 66 ± 9 48 ± 5 77 ± 4 71 ± 10 37 ± 6 25 ± 5 60 ± 15 62 ± 11 48 ± 5 103 110 114 123 ± 5 130 116 ± 5 105 ± 6 103 114 94 ± 4 105 ± 8 124 ± 5 112 98 ± 13 79 86 161 102 ± 12 101 ± 11 96 ± 9 107 ± 8 102 ± 6 114 ± 8 53 94 69 110 101 53 ± 8 36 ± 7 86 88 ± 16 68 ± 7 Healthy. 9 Healthy. high-fiber (Presidents Choice. 3 h Glucose. USA) Mean of 2 studies 183 Grapenuts Flakes (Post. 3 h Bread. Instant (Nabisco Brands Ltd. 3 h Bread. 2 h Glucose. Canada)15 174 Crispix (Kellogg’s Inc. 3 h Glucose. 9 — Type 1 and 2. Kraft General Foods Inc. 10 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. Australia) Mean of 2 studies 166 Corn Bran (Quaker Oats Co of Canada)15 167 Corn Chex (Nabisco Brands Ltd. 12 Healthy. 10 Healthy. unflavored (Con Agra Inc. USA) 190 Hot cereal. 10 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 10–12 Healthy. Australia) 178 Fruitful Lite (Hubbards. 9 Type 1 and 2. 2 h Bread. Australia) Coco Pops (Kellogg’s. Australia) 185 Healthwise for bowel health (Uncle Toby’s. 2 h Bread. 2 h Glucose. Canada) Cornflakes (Kellogg’s Inc. 2 h Glucose. 10 Healthy. Australia) 177 Frosties. Australia) 188 Honey Smacks (Kellogg’s. 2 h Bread. 6 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 10 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. Canada)15 170 Cornflakes. 6 Type 2. Canada)15 181 Golden Wheats (Kellogg’s. NY. USA) 191 Just Right (Kellogg’s. Australia) 192 Just Right Just Grains (Kellogg’s. 3 h Bread. USA)7 Mean of 5 studies 169 Cornflakes. 9 Healthy. sugar-coated cornflakes (Kellogg’s. 2 h — Bread. apple and cinnamon (Con Agra Inc. France) 176 Froot Loops (Kellogg’s. Auckland. Australia) 77 ± 8 77 ± 3 77 75 83 110 110 110 107 ± 6 118 ± 11 Healthy. New Zealand) 180 Golden Grahams (General Mills Inc. 14 Healthy. Port Chester. 10 Glucose. 9 Type 1 and 2. 10 Type 1 and 2. Australia) 189 Hot cereal. Canada)15 184 Guardian (Kellogg’s. 10 — Type 1 and 2. Toronto. 10 Type 1 and 2. Australia) 193 Komplete (Kellogg’s. 9 Bread. Canada) Cornflakes (Kellogg’s. 3 h Bread. Auckland. Canada)15 168 Cornflakes Cornflakes (Kellogg’s. 10 Type 1 and 2. 2 h Bread. 3 h Bread. 8 Healthy. Crunchy Nut (Kellogg’s. 3 h — Bread. 3 h Bread. 10–12 Healthy. 11 Healthy. Toronto. Canada)15 175 Energy Mix (Quaker. 2 h Bread.18 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) Subject Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving — — 26 20 25 — — 20 15 21 165 Coco Pops (cocoa-flavored puffed rice) Coco Pops (Kellogg’s. Australia) Cornflakes (Kellogg’s Inc. Sunfresh Ltd. 2 h Glucose. Australia) 182 Grapenuts Grapenuts (Post. Wahgunyah. 3 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. 2 h Bread. 10 Healthy. 7 Type 2. 10 Healthy. Canada)15 173 Cream of Wheat. 2 h Bread. berry (Sanitarium. New Zealand) 179 Fruity-Bix. 10–12 Healthy. 10 Healthy. 2 h — Bread. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. Australia) 187 Honey Rice Bubbles (Kellogg’s. 10 Healthy. Australia) 171 Corn Pops (Kellogg’s. 2 h Glucose. Australia) 172 Cream of Wheat (Nabisco Brands Ltd. Canada)15 Grapenuts (Kraft Foods Inc. 9 Healthy. 10 — Type 1 and 2. 12 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. Australia) 186 Healthwise for heart health (Uncle Toby’s. Kraft General Foods Inc. 10 Type 1 and 2. New Zealand) Cornflakes (Kellogg’s.

New Zealand) 202 Muesli. Australia) 207 Oat ’n Honey Bake (Kellogg’s. Canada) One Minute Oats (Quaker Oats Co. Canada)15 Oat bran. Toronto. boiled 2.0 mm) dehulled oat flakes (Sweden) 216 Instant porridge Quick Oats (Quaker Oats Co. Natural (Sanitarium. Canada) 195 Mini Wheats. 3 h — Bread. Australia) 218 Pro Stars (General Mills Inc. Cheltenham. Canada)15 66 58 ± 8 72 ± 10 — 66 ± 9 55 ± 10 39 ± 6 54 ± 12 57 ± 9 40 ± 6 49 ± 9 60 56 ± 8 Type 1 and 2. 6 Healthy. Australia) 196 Mini Wheats. 1:3). 6 Type 1 and 2. Canada)15 204 Muesli. 9 Healthy. 10 Healthy. 2 h Bread. Australia) 205 Muesli. Lite (Sanitarium.0 mm) dehulled oat flakes (Sweden) 214 Oat porridge made from roasted and steamed thin (0.5%-fat milk 200 Muesli. gluten-free (Freedom Foods. time NS Bread. Natural (Sanitarium. 6 Healthy. Australia) Porridge (Hubbards. 10 Healthy. 10 Healthy. 7 Diabetic. 2 h Bread.0 mm) dehulled oat flakes (Sweden) 212 Oat porridge made from roasted thin (0. Swiss Formula (Uncle Toby’s. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. NS (Canada) 198 Alpen Muesli (Wheetabix. Australia) Mean of 2 studies 203 Muesli. 3 h — Bread. blackcurrant (Kellogg’s. 2 h Bread. Australia)13 Porridge (Canada)16 Traditional porridge oats (Lowan Whole Foods. 2 h Bread. 9 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 3 h Bread. Sydney. 2 h — Bread. 10 Type 1 and 2. 3 h Bread. Australia) with 1. double chocolate (Kellogg’s. 2 h Bread. 10 Healthy.INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) 15 19 Food number and item GI2 (Bread = 100) 94 ± 8 83 103 — 94 77 56 77 81 57 69 ± 12 85 ± 12 80 Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 25 21 21 21 24 19 19 18 19 19 20 18 16 17 15 17 5 5 5 21 23 21 21 21 23 15 12 15 12 17 10 7 10 11 8 10 11 9 7 10 13 2 3 3 9 11 11 12 12 14 16 17 13 24 15 19 14 22 194 Life (Quaker Oats Co. 7 — Healthy.5 min (Sweden) 211 Oat porridge made from thick (1. 3 h — Glucose. 11 Type 2. 2 h Glucose. 3 h Bread. 8 Healthy. toasted (Purina. 2 h — Glucose. 6 Type 2. Box Hill. 14 Healthy. 2 h 46 250 27 14 65 66 66 ± 1 70 ± 2 71 93 94 ± 10 94 ± 1 100 102 ± 7 Type 2. 3 h Bread. 8 Healthy. 2 h Bread. ≤13 — Healthy. whole wheat (Kellogg’s. 3 h Glucose. 10 Type 1 and 2. 2 h Bread. 10–12 — Healthy. 2 h Bread. 10 Bread. 8 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Glucose. 8 Healthy. 2 h 1 13 17 — 3 UO7 UO4 25 25 UO4 — 1 2 2 2 UO4 1 26 — 44 3 UO4 25 48 20 30 4 — 14 46 46 46 46 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 10 10 10 250 250 250 250 250 250 43 ± 4 61 66 ± 12 94 77 ± 11 111 ± 16 50 59 55 ± 5 42 49 ± 8 51 ± 8 58 ± 9 58 ± 4 62 69 75 58 ± 4 74 55 69 50 80 72 ± 6 84 78 ± 6 60 ± 5 70 73 ± 12 82 83 88 98 ± 9 107 83 ± 5 106 ± 19 78 ± 9 99 ± 10 72 ± 9 114 ± 12 76 ± 8 250 23 250 23 250 22 50 (dry) 32 250 250 250 250 27 27 27 27 53 Healthy. raw (Quaker Oats Co. 10 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. Australia) 208 Oat bran Oat bran. number NS Type 2. Canada)15 Mean of 2 studies 217 Pop Tarts. No Name (Sunfresh Ltd. Australia) 206 Nutrigrain (Kellogg’s.5 mm) dehulled oat flakes (Sweden) 215 Oat porridge made from steamed thick (1. 8 — Healthy. 10 — Type 1 and 2. 9 Healthy. Australia) Muesli 197 Muesli. New Zealand) 201 Muesli. 2 h Bread. 7 Healthy. France) 199 Muesli. 10 Bread. 2 h Glucose.5 mm) dehulled oat flakes (Sweden) 213 Oat porridge made from roasted thick (1. 3 h Glucose. New Zealand) Porridge (Australia) Porridge (Canada) Porridge (Canada) Porridge (USA)6 Mean of 8 studies 210 Whole-meal oat-flour porridge (flour:water. 2 h Bread. 8 Healthy. raw Mean of 2 studies 209 Porridge made from rolled oats Porridge (Uncle Toby’s. 10 Bread. 2 h Glucose. 10 Healthy. 10 Healthy. 3 h 49 1 — UO4 1 — — 250 50 30 — — 26 36 24 — — 17 25 17 (Continued) .

20 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 20 21 21 19 22 14 13 17 16 12 13 3 219 Puffed wheat Puffed Wheat (Quaker Oats Co. 2 h Glucose. 8 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 10 Healthy. Australia) 233 Sustain (Kellogg’s. 3 h Glucose. 10 Bread. 3 h — 44 UO4 47 — 1 1 — 3 1 — — — — 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 — — — 26 26 26 25 20 20 20 — — — 22 23 22 22 13 17 15 77 98 ± 7 118 86 70 Healthy. 10 — Bread. Australia) 238 Wheat-bites (Uncle Toby’s. 10 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. USA) 221 Red River Cereal (Maple Leaf Mills. 2 h Glucose. 2 h UO4 UO4 30 30 20 17 14 10 (Continued) . Canada)15 Weetabix (Weetabix of Canada Ltd) Whole-wheat Goldies (Kellogg’s. 8 Healthy. 2 h — 13 44 UO4 UO4 UO4 1 3 UO4 — 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 25 20 20 17 17 22 22 20 19 18 12 13 12 12 16 16 14 13 96 87 Healthy. dried fruit) (Sanitarium. 12 — Healthy. 2 h Bread. 10 Bread. 7–10 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. Australia) 239 Wheat biscuits (plain flaked wheat) Vita-Brits (Uncle Toby’s. Australia)13 Vita-Brits (Uncle Toby’s. Thornhill. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. 9 Healthy. Australia) 67 80 ± 11 74 ± 7 61 ± 5 49 19 ± 3 96 ± 7 114 105 ± 9 87 ± 7 70 ± 5 27 Type 1 and 2. 2 h Bread. extruded (Rice Growers Co-Operative Ltd. 2 h Bread. 10 Healthy. 6 Healthy. 10 Healthy. 3 h Glucose. Australia) Mean of 2 studies 220 Raisin Bran (Kellogg’s. Canada)15 237 Ultra-bran. 2 h Bread. 3 h Glucose. Australia) Weet-Bix (Sanitarium. Vogel’s. 3 h Glucose.1 g fiber/100 g) (Specialty Cereals. Australia) 228 Special K (Kellogg’s. 12 Healthy. Australia) 231 Soytana. Australia) 223 Rice Bubbles (puffed rice) Rice Bubbles (Kellogg’s. 10 Healthy. USA) 229 Special K (Kellogg’s. 10 Healthy. Vogel’s. 3 h13 Bread. 11 Type 1 and 2. 3 h — Glucose. Canada) 222 Rice Bran. Australia) Mean of 3 studies 224 Rice Chex (Nabisco Brands Ltd. 10 Healthy. Toronto. 8 Bread. 8 — Healthy. Australia)13 Rice Bubbles (Kellogg’s. 10 Glucose. Australia) Weet-Bix (Sanitarium. Australia) 241 Hi-Bran Weet-Bix. Mt Kuring-gai. Canada)15 Mean of 2 studies Special K (formulation of this cereal varies in different countries) 227 Special K (Kellogg’s. 11 Healthy. 2 h 1 38 — UO4 1 48 30 30 30 30 30 30 81 85 ± 3 95 87 ± 4 89 82 — 67 ± 10 83 75 ± 8 54 ± 4 69 ± 5 84 ± 12 60 ± 5 49 ± 3 116 ± 11 121 136 124 ± 6 127 ± 5 117 ± 5 — 96 118 ± 6 107 ± 11 Healthy. France) 230 Soy Tasty (flaked grains. Australia)13 234 Team (Nabisco Brands Ltd. 2 h Glucose. 7 Type 1 and 2. Australia) Mean of 7 studies Wheat biscuits (flaked wheat) with additional ingredients 240 Good Start. 7 Healthy. muesli wheat biscuits (Sanitarium. soy nuts.2 g fiber/100 g) (Specialty Cereals. soy and linseed extruded wheat bran cereal (30. 2 h Bread. 12 Healthy. 7 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 6 — Type 1 and 2. Canada)15 Puffed Wheat (Sanitarium. 3 h Glucose. Sydney. New Zealand) 236 Total (General Mills Inc. Australia) 232 Sultana Bran (Kellogg’s. 3 h Bread. 3 h Glucose. Australia) Weetabix (Weetabix of Canada Ltd. 3 h Bread. 10 Type 1 and 2. 6 Type 1 and 2. 2 h Bread. 2 h — Bread. Australia) Rice Bubbles (Kellogg’s. Canada)15 235 Thank Goodness (Hubbards. 2 h — Bread. 10 Healthy. Canada)15 226 Shredded wheat Shredded Wheat (Canada) Shredded Wheat (Nabisco Brands Ltd. wheat biscuits with extra wheat bran (Sanitarium. 2 h 13 UO4 UO7 UO4 UO4 30 30 30 30 45 21 21 24 20 25 11 14 20 12 12 73 ± 13 104 68 97 ± 9 82 117 ± 9 65 ± 18 93 76 41 ± 4 72 ± 11 61 68 ± 6 69 69 ± 4 74 75 ± 10 70 ± 4 70 ± 2 68 ± 4 61 ± 4 109 ± 6 59 Healthy. 14 — Bread. 10 Type 1 and 2. 2 h 8 44 1 25 1 UO4 30 30 30 30 30 30 19 22 22 23 22 13 14 15 17 15 17 5 103 87 ± 14 97 99 99 105 ± 8 107 100 96 ± 4 Healthy. Canada)15 225 Rice Krispies (Kellogg’s Inc. 11 Type 1 and 2. soy and linseed bran crunch with sultanas (20. Leeton.

3 h Bread. 2 h Glucose. 2 h UO4 30 19 9 103 110 90 ± 15 82 ± 15 Healthy. 12 Type 2. 6 — Healthy. 2 h Bread. 12 Healthy. no added sugar (Sanitarium. 8 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Reference UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 13 UO4 21 Food number and item 242 Hi-Bran Weet-Bix with soy and linseed (Sanitarium. 13 Type 1 and 2. 12 Bread. 10 Healthy. wheat biscuit cereal with fruit and covered with yogurt coating (Sanitarium. 5 Type 1. 3 h Glucose. Australia) 248 Fibre Plus bar (Uncle Toby’s. 7 — Type 2. 10 Healthy. 3 h — Bread. Tunisia) 259 Barley. wild berry. Toronto. 6 Glucose. 3 h Bread. boiled 12 min (Sweden) Corn and maize 262 Maize (Zea mays). Australia) 245 Oat bran Weet-Bix (Sanitarium. cracked (Malthouth. 2 h Glucose. plain. Australia) CEREAL GRAINS Amaranth 255 Amaranth (Amaranthus esculentum) popped. Australia) 253 Rice Bubble Treat bar (Kellogg’s. boiled in salted water 20 min (Gouda’s foods. 10 Type 2. 10 Healthy. wheat biscuit cereal with dried fruit and nuts with yogurt coating (Sanitarium. 10 Glucose. fruit and nut. 3 h Bread. 10 Bread. boiled in salted water 2 min (McNair Products Co Ltd. 10 Healthy. eaten with milk and nonnutritive sweetener (India) Barley 256 Pearl barley Barley. Australia) 254 Sustain bar (Kellogg’s. 2 h 22 26 UO4 10 22 — 50 50 1 48 22 3 22 — 16 — — — — — 150 — — — — — 42 — — — — — 11 — — 26 21 25 — — — 16 13 — — — — 150 42 150 42 50 (dry) 38 — — — 150 150 — — — 30 30 59 109 68 85 156 ± 15 97 ± 5 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 3 h — Bread. 3 h Bread. 18 Type 1 and 2. 3 h 43 30 22 21 22 22 25 ± 2 27 29 25 ± 1 37 48 43 ± 6 50 66 ± 5 49 51 ± 10 63 54 ± 4 45 32 ± 3 31 36 39 ± 6 41 ± 10 36 ± 2 53 69 61 ± 8 72 ± 7 94 70 ± 6 73 90 ± 8 78 ± 6 64 ± 10 Type 2. pearled (Canada) Mean of 5 studies 257 Barley (Hordeum vulgare) (India) Barley (Hordeum vulgare) (India) Barley (Hordeum vulgare) (India) Mean of 2 groups of subjects 258 Barley. dehusked. 10 Healthy. Canada) Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 g/serving 16 21 20 20 21 26 23 19 9 15 14 11 13 19 18 10 73 Healthy. hydrothermally treated. 2. 4 Type 1. Australia) 246 Sultana Goldies (Kellogg’s Australia) BREAKFAST CEREAL BARS 247 Crunchy Nut Cornflakes bar (Kellogg’s. Australia) 250 Fruity-Bix bar. 8 Type 2. flour made into chapatti (India) 263 Maize meal porridge. 10 Glucose. Australia) 252 K-Time Strawberry Crunch bar (Kellogg’s. Canada) Barley (Canada) Barley. 2 h UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 30 30 30 30 24 25 24 25 17 19 15 14 139 Type 2. Australia) 249 Fruity-Bix bar. pearled (Canada) Barley (Canada) Barley. pot. 2 h Bread. 3 h Bread. 13 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 10 Healthy. 10 Glucose.INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) 57 ± 3 72 ± 3 70 ± 3 57 ± 4 65 ± 6 72 ± 6 78 ± 9 56 ± 4 51 ± 4 72 ± 4 77 ± 5 63 ± 11 57 ± 10 97 ± 19 GI2 (Bread = 100) 81 103 97 82 93 102 ± 8 111 80 Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Healthy. gruel (Kenya) 264 Cornmeal Cornmeal. 3 h Glucose. 10 Healthy. Concord.5 h Bread. 18 Type 2. Australia) 251 K-Time Just Right bar (Kellogg’s. 3 h 50 40 1 — — 150 — — 13 — — 9 (Continued) . 2 h Glucose. 10 Healthy. Australia) 243 Honey Goldies (Kellogg’s Australia) 244 Lite-Bix. 10 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 14 Healthy. 10 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 3 h Bread. 2 h Bread. 2 h Glucose. rolled (Australia) 260 Buckwheat Buckwheat (Canada) Buckwheat (Canada) Buckwheat (Canada) Mean of 3 studies 261 Buckwheat groats. 2 h Glucose.

whole kernel. 2 h 43 53 54 20 55 30 56 3 57 58 40 53 53 — 57 58 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 43 30 38 42 36 42 38 42 38 30 42 30 30 36 38 30 30 14 18 21 19 23 26 30 27 31 47 13 14 23 20 31 41 50 58 ± 4 71 Type 2. 20 Bread. 22 Healthy. featherweight (USA) 267 Sweet corn. boiled (France) Type NS. 3 h14 Glucose. 5. boiled Long grain. 10 Type 2. Australia) 273 White (Oryza sativa). diet-pack. boiled (France) Mean of 12 studies 275 Type NS. 3 h — Glucose. 16 Type 2. on the cob. Rice Growers Co-Op. boiled (India) 274 Rice. 14 Type 2. 2 h 59 47 150 150 40 43 16 21 55 56 ± 7 79 80 Type 2. 3 h 1 — 25 47 3 51 28 29 — 52 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 47 68 67 ± 4 97 ± 9 Type 1 and 2. boiled white. 3 h Glucose. Canada) Mean of 2 studies 265 Sweet corn Sweet corn. 13 Healthy. 14 Glucose. 6 Healthy. Canada) Long grain. Leominster. USA) Couscous. 3 h14 — Bread. 13 Healthy. time NS Bread. 5 Type 2. 5 Healthy. 2 h Bread. Canada) Couscous 269 Couscous. 16 — Healthy. 12 — Healthy. Wetherill Park. 3 h14 Wheat chapatti. 14 Type 2. 3 h Bread. MA. white (Uncle Bens. unconverted. 7 — Type 2. 3 h Wheat chapatti. 3 h Bread. 2 h Glucose. boiled 13 min (Italy) Type NS (Kenya) Type NS. 8 Healthy. refrigerated 16–20 h. 6 Type 2. IGT. type NS Type NS. 9 Type 1 and 2. eaten alone (France) Type NS (India) Type NS (Canada) Type NS (France) Type NS (Canada) Type NS (Pakistan) Type NS (Canada) Type NS. frozen. boiled 13 min. boiled 5 min (Near East Food Products Co. risotto rice. 9 Healthy. Canada) 268 Taco shells. boiled 15 min (Mahatma brand. 2 h — Bread. 3 h Glucose. 6 Type 2. Auckland. 3 h Glucose. white 272 Arborio. reheated (India) 276 Type NS. 2 h Bread. 9 — Healthy. 10 Healthy. Toronto. 14 Bread. 3 h Bread. Leeton. honey and pearl variety (New Zealand) Sweet corn. 3 h 1 1 150 20 33 12 16 8 61 69 65 ± 4 87 ± 7 99 ± 6 93 ± 6 Type 1 and 2. Toronto. 2 h Glucose. white. 7 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 3 h Bread. 3 h Glucose. 6 Bread. boiled 20 min (Australia) Sweet corn (Canada) Sweet corn (USA) Sweet corn (USA) Sweet corn (South Africa) Mean of 6 studies 266 Sweet corn. 2 h17 Glucose. 3 h Glucose. cornmeal based. reheated in microwave (Green Giant Pillsbury Ltd. 610 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 9 Type 1 and 2. 3 h17 Glucose. 2 h 60 25 150 150 40 43 22 24 (Continued) . boiled in salted water (India) Type NS. 6 Type 2. boiled 5 min (Tunisia) Mean of 2 studies Millet 270 Millet. drained. Toronto. boiled in salted water. boiled (Canada) 271 Millet flour porridge (Kenya) Rice. Australia) Gem long grain (Dainty Food Inc. 2 h Bread. boiled 5 min Couscous. 8 Healthy. boiled (Sun Rice brand. then baked 10 min (Italy) 277 Long grain. 10 Bread. 3 h Glucose. canned. 6 Diabetic NS Type 2. boiled 5 min (Canada) Long grain. 2 h Glucose 2 h 1 1 — 3 40 UO4 — — 150 150 — 150 — — 35 36 — 53 — — 23 25 — 36 71 ± 10 101 107 153 ± 14 69 ± 7 69 ± 15 45 48 51 52 56 69 72 ± 9 72 102 112 43 47 64 ± 7 53 104 99 99 64 68 73 74 ± 9 80 ± 5 98 103 103 146 160 ± 34 61 66 91 ± 9 76 149 Type 2. 30 Healthy. Riviana Foods. New Zealand) 69 69 ± 1 37 ± 12 48 59 ± 11 60 60 62 ± 5 53 ± 4 46 Type 1 and 2. 10 Bread. baked (Old El Paso Foods Co.22 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) 99 ± 10 98 ± 1 53 69 84 86 85 89 78 ± 6 66 Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 12 13 30 30 33 33 33 33 32 28 9 9 11 14 20 20 20 20 17 13 Cornmeal + margarine (McNair Products Co Ltd. 3 h — Glucose.

Masterfoods. Thailand) Rice. Thailand) 288 Jasmine rice. 9 Healthy. UK) Rice. 10 — Healthy. 2 h UO4 150 42 46 83 ± 13 87 ± 7 88 ± 11 93 ± 11 139 119 124 126 133 199 Healthy. 10 Glucose. medium grain. 8 Type 1 and 2. 10 Healthy. specialty rices 281 Cajun Style (Uncle Ben’s. cooked in rice cooker (Lion Foods. type 2. boiled 7 min (Star brand. 8 Type 1 and 2. 11 Type 1 and 2. 6 Type 1. boiled (Turkey) Rice. 3 h — 61 62 — 150 150 150 39 39 39 14 15 15 50 ± 6 69 Healthy. 2 h 1 1 1 1 1 UO4 UO4 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 37 37 37 37 32 43 32 19 21 20 22 18 37 31 57 81 ± 8 86 ± 10 123 ± 14 98 ± 7 140 ± 10 109 ± 10 156 ± 14 Healthy. 2 h — Glucose. microwaved 2 min (Express Rice. Canada) 283 Long Grain and Wild (Uncle Ben’s. 2 h Bread. Bolton. boiled 17. 2 h Glucose. 5. 3 Type 1. Uncle Ben’s. Canada) 282 Garden Style (Uncle Ben’s. Canada) 285 Saskatchewan wild rice (Canada) 286 Broken rice. white high-amylose 294 Bangladeshi rice variety BR16 Bangladeshi rice variety BR16 (28% amylose) Bangladeshi rice variety BR16. Canada) Long grain. Effem Foods Ltd. Australia) 293 White. 3 h Glucose. long grain. white low-amylose 289 Calrose. Canada) Long grain. 2 h 9 60 59 22 22 UO4 — UO4 UO4 UO4 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 51 55 54 58 72 ± 13 79 ± 6 77 ± 9 83 ± 7 Type 1 and 2. Norfolk. white. 3 h Bread. white. low-amylose. boiled (Rice Growers Co-op. 3 h Bread. Effem Foods Ltd. Effem Foods Ltd. 11 Type 1 and 2. Gouda foods. 13 Type 1. cooked in rice cooker (Golden World Foods. cooked in rice cooker (Bangsue Chia Meng Rice Mill.INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) 56 ± 2 57 58 60 60 64 ± 3 56 ± 2 68 ± 6 75 ± 7 52 ± 5 GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference 23 Food number and item Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 43 40 40 40 40 40 41 37 37 37 24 23 23 24 24 26 23 25 28 19 Long grain. 13 Type 2. 2 h Bread. Canada) Mean of 10 studies Rice. 3 h Bread. Effem Foods Ltd.5 min Mean of 2 studies 295 Doongara. 20 min cooking time (Uncle Ben’s. 2 h 48 48 48 48 32 150 150 150 150 150 43 43 43 43 43 36 37 38 40 60 37 39 38 53 ± 7 55 ± 5 54 ± 1 Type 2. 3 h Bread. 3 h Bread. Australia) 80 82 83 ± 5 86 ± 6 86 ± 11 91 80 ± 3 97 107 74 Type 2. plain. white. Canada) Gem long grain (Dainty Food Inc. 2 h Glucose. white. Canada) 284 Mexican Fast and Fancy (Uncle Ben’s. King’s Lynn. Masterfoods. white (Rice Growers Co-op. 7 Healthy. white (Rice Growers Co-op. 12 Bread. precooked. 3 h Bread. quick-cooking varieties 278 Long grain. Thailand) 287 Glutinous rice. white. Belgium) 280 Long grain. Australia) 292 Pelde. boiled 15 min Gem long grain (Dainty Food Inc. 2 h Bread. white (Rice Growers Co-op. 8 Bread. Pelde. 3 h Bread. parboiled. Australia) 290 Sungold. 7 Type 2. 12 Type 2. Bangkok. 8 Healthy. Australia) 291 Waxy (0–2% amylose) (Rice Growers Co-op. 9 — Bread. 2 h 63 — — — (Continued) . 8 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. healthy. parboiled (Rice Growers Co-op. Bangkok. 12 Healthy. Australia) Doongara. 2 h Glucose. 10 Healthy. Bangkok. 3 h Glucose. 6 Healthy. Belgium) 279 Long grain. white long grain. 12 Glucose. boiled 25 min (Surinam) Gem long grain (Dainty Food Inc. 3 h Bread. 52. long grain (27% amylose). 3 h Bread. parboiled 10 min cooking time (Uncle Ben’s. white. 31 Bread. Concord.

3 h 48 63 — 64 — — 150 150 83 81 Healthy. 7 Healthy. Australia) 300 Parboiled rice Parboiled rice (Canada) Parboiled rice (USA) Converted. 10 Bread. 2 h 63 UO4 150 150 38 41 22 24 60 ± 5 86 Healthy. boiled 15 min (Canada) 91 75 78 ± 7 68 Healthy. 12 min (Denmark) Boiled. Australia) Precooked basmati rice in pouch. white (Rice Growers Co-op. 3 h Bread. 8 Healthy. 6 Healthy. 12 min (Denmark) Boiled. white. type 2. boiled 20–30 min (Uncle Ben’s. white. white. brown Brown (Canada) Brown. cooked 5 min (Uncle Ben’s Snabbris. Kings Lynn. 7 Type 2. boiled 15 min then steamed 10 min (Japan) 297 Basmati Basmati. boiled (South India)8 Mean of 3 studies Calrose brown (Rice Growers Co-op. 3 h Glucose. Australia) Doongara. short-grain. boiled 1 min (Canada) Instant rice. high-amylose (Rice Growers Co-op. 610 Type 1. Australia) Puffed. white. white (Rice Growers Co-op. 3 h Bread. 3 h Bread. IGT. 2 h Bread. CA) Converted. white. 2 h Bread. white (Uncle Ben’s. 2 h — Glucose. Australia) Parboiled. Masterfoods Olen. Canada) Converted. white. 5. 2 h 3 45 65 — 48 48 48 UO4 48 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 33 33 33 33 38 37 38 36 38 21 16 16 18 33 24 29 23 31 46 87 74 ± 5 69 ± 12 94 ± 7 65 ± 5 124 106 98 ± 17 132 Type 2. Masterfoods. white. 12 min (Denmark)6 Boiled. Masterfoods Olen. 8 Healthy. white. 3 h18 — Bread. 8 Bread. 10 Glucose. 3 h Glucose. 12 Type 2. 10 min (USA)8 Long grain. 2 h UO4 150 38 23 66 ± 5 50 50 ± 19 55 ± 5 87 ± 8 66 ± 7 76 ± 6 64 ± 7 80 ± 7 94 72 72 79 ± 6 124 94 109 91 114 Healthy. 2 h — Bread. Belgium) Mean of 3 studies Instant doongara. 5 h Bread. 3 h Bread. 2 h Bread. 10 Healthy. cooked 5 min (Rice Growers Co-op. 16 Type 2. 8 Healthy. 5 h Bread. 8 Healthy. 2 h 59 47 UO4 — 63 150 150 150 150 150 42 42 42 42 42 19 36 31 29 35 48 72 45 38 50 39 42 43 46 38 61 47 68 ± 6 103 64 ± 7 54 72 55 ± 10 60 ± 8 62 ± 9 66 ± 5 54 ± 5 87 67 ± 5 Type 2. steamed (USA)8 Brown (Oryza sativa). 2 h Glucose. Sydney. Australia) 299 Instant or puffed rice Instant rice. reheated in microwave (Uncle Ben’s Express. cooked 20 min (Uncle Ben’s Natur-reis. long grain. 2 h Glucose.24 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) 64 ± 9 54 ± 7 56 ± 4 48 ± 8 58 ± 8 57 ± 4 GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving — — 39 38 — — 22 18 Doongara. Australia) Mean of 3 studies 296 Koshikari (Japonica). Effem Foods Ltd. 3 h Bread. Masterfoods USA. 13 Healthy. 5. 13 Type 2. 3 h18 Glucose. 8 Type 1. UK) Quick-cooking white basmati. 9 Bread. Belgium) 298 Rice. Australia) Doongara brown. 13 Bread. Australia) Pelde brown (Rice Growers Co-op. cooked 10 min (Uncle Ben’s Superior. boiled 5 min (Canada) Long grain. boiled (Mahatma brand. 3 h Bread. 2 h Glucose. 5 Healthy. 7 Type 2. 8 Glucose. 9 — Healthy. white. 2 h Glucose. 12–15 — Healthy. Vernon. 2 h Bread. 8 Healthy. Masterfoods Olen. boiled. boiled 20–30 min (Uncle Ben’s. Norfolk. 9 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 10 — Healthy. 11 Type 2. 3 h 22 28 22 51 52 66 66 67 67 59 4 59 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 18 26 16 14 18 14 15 16 17 14 22 17 (Continued) . Masterfoods USA) Boiled. 13 Type 2. 20 Type 2. Belgium) Sunbrown Quick (Rice Growers Co-op. cooked 6 min (Trice brand. 12 min (Denmark) Long grain. 2 h Bread.

2 h 61 48 150 150 38 39 19 34 69 50 ± 7 46 ± 8 39 ± 6 47 ± 4 50 ± 5 42 ± 7 47 ± 5 56 ± 12 48 ± 4 Healthy. low-amylose Bangladeshi rice variety BR2. 2 h Glucose. 3 h Bread. 12 — Type 2. 3 h Bread. 6 Type 2. 2 h — Bread. 2 h 39 150 47 25 79 77 78 ± 1 66 ± 4 65 ± 4 65 ± 5 75 ± 13 68 ± 3 Type 2. 3 h Bread. 2 h 59 — 68 150 150 — 51 87 ± 7 50 ± 6 35 32 27 33 35 ± 4 29 34 39 34 ± 3 30 ± 9 42 44 48 41 ± 3 90 52 ± 4 50 ± 5 40 ± 5 54 ± 11 55 ± 9 54 ± 13 55 ± 1 46 46 46 53 48 ± 2 73 ± 7 124 Type 2. 3 h Bread. 9 Type 2. 7 — Bread. 8 Glucose. Chateaudun. 12 Type 2.INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) 66 ± 4 68 ± 4 141 Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference 25 Food number and item Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 36 36 — 17 17 — Long grain. France) Durum wheat. type 2. 20 Healthy. 10 Healthy. cooked 10 min (Ebly. 12 Type 1. parboiled (12% amylose) Parboiled. 3 h18 Bread. whole kernels (Canada) Mean of 3 studies Wheat 305 Wheat. whole kernels (Triticum aestivum) (India)11 Wheat. roasted at 105°C then gelatinized with water (India) Semolina. traditionally parboiled (27% amylose) Bangladeshi rice variety BR16. 5. 2 h Glucose. precooked kernels Durum wheat. 2 h Glucose. 6 — Glucose. 3 h Bread. reheated in microwave (Ebly Express. 2 h Glucose. precooked in pouch. boiled 20 min (Canada) Bulgur. 12 Type 2. 3 h Bread. Ebly. 10 Glucose. 20 Bread. Doongara (Rice Growers Co-op. whole kernels (Canada) Rye. 6 Type 1. 13 — Type 2. boiled 25 min (Canada) Mean of 13 studies 301 Parboiled rice. whole kernels (Canada) Wheat. high-amylose (28%). 3 h — 69 69 — 10 21 22 22 — — — 150 — — — — 150 — — 11 — — — — 26 — — 6 — — — — 12 (Continued) . precooked. 9 Type 2. Australia) 308 Semolina Semolina. 11 Type 1. whole kernels Rye. eaten as part of a traditional Indian meal (India)8 302 Parboiled. 8 Type 2. 3 h — Glucose. Pelde. 12–15 Type 2. 6. boiled 20 min (Canada) Mean of 4 studies 46 47 ± 3 99 Type 2. boiled (Canada) Bulgur. 2 h 65 22 21 22 — 68 UO4 UO4 UO4 50 (dry) 38 50 (dry) 33 50 (dry) 33 50 (dry) 33 50 (dry) 34 50 (dry) 38 50 (dry) 37 50 (dry) 33 125 39 11 14 14 16 14 34 19 17 16 77 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 3 h Bread. whole kernels. Sydney. 7 — Type 2. Sungold (Rice Growers Co-op. parboiled (28% amylose) Bangladeshi rice variety BR16. pressure cooked (15 psi) 30 min in 2 L water (Canada) Rye. France) Quick cooking (White Wings. type NS (India) 307 Wheat. type 2. high-amylose Parboiled. boiled in 800 mL water 20 min (Canada) Bulgur. 3 h Bread. Australia) Bangladeshi rice variety BR16. 3 h Bread. precooked. low-amylose. parboiled (27% amylose) Mean of 5 studies 304 Rye. Australia) 303 Parboiled. steamed and gelatinized (India) Mean of 2 studies 309 Cracked wheat (bulgur or bourghul) Bulgur. 3 h Bread. 12 Healthy. 11 Type 1. 8 Bread. 5. pressure parboiled (27% amylose) Bangladeshi rice variety BR4. whole kernels Wheat. 6 — Type 2. 3 h — 63 61 62 62 61 — 22 21 22 — 150 150 150 150 150 150 39 37 38 41 38 39 19 13 12 11 13 14 11 13 15 13 50 (dry) 38 50 (dry) 38 50 (dry) 38 50 (dry) 38 43 60 ± 8 63 ± 6 69 ± 7 59 ± 4 129 74 71 57 Healthy. 3 h — Glucose. 9 Type 1. 10 Healthy. cooked 20 min (Ebly. 3 h — Bread. 3 h Bread. 9 Type 1. whole kernels (Canada) Mean of 4 studies 306 Wheat. type 2. pressure cooked (15 psi) 30 min in 2 L water (Canada) Wheat. France) Durum wheat. whole kernels.

Netherlands) 320 Golden Fruit (Griffin’s Foods Ltd. 3 h — Bread. 13 — Type 2. 3 h Bread. Czech Republic) 315 Bebe Dobre Rano Honey and Hazelnuts (Opavia/LU. 9 Healthy. 12 Healthy. Orangis. Netherlands) 326 Highland Oatmeal (Westons biscuits. Australia) 327 Highland Oatcakes (Walker’s Shortbread Ltd.19 UO7. France) 314 Bebe Dobre Rano Chocolate (Opavia/LU. Brazil) 323 Grany en-cas Abricot (LU. Auckland. 2 h Bread. 7 Type 1 and 2. 3 h Glucose. 12 Healthy. 11 Bread. New Zealand) 331 Morning Coffee (Arnotts. 3 h Bread. 12 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 12 Healthy. UK) 319 Evergreen met Krenten (LU. 11 — Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 2 h 1 1 2 — UO7 UO7. Australia) 332 Nutrigrain Fruits des bois (Kellogg’s. 2 h Bread. Sydney. Canada) 312 Milk Arrowroot (Arnotts.19 — 25 2 UO20 3 UO7 UO21 — UO20 38 25 25 30 30 30 30 25 25 50 50 50 50 50 25 25 35 25 40 40 40 25 21 17 18 23 16 14 20 18 15 34 35 35 35 35 17 19 23 17 32 32 32 19 14 13 14 6 9 7 12 10 8 14 16 18 18 17 9 15 13 9 20 21 20 10 (Continued) . Italy) Oro (Saiwa.19 UO7. gluten-free (maize starch) (Nutricia Dietary Care Ltd. Oats and Honey (LU. 8 — Healthy. Canada) 322 Gran’Dia Banana. Czech Republic) 316 Bebe Jemne Susenky (Opavia/LU. 10 Healthy. Interbare Foods. 2 h Bread. Ris. 6 Healthy. 12 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 14 Healthy. 8 Healthy. Toronto. France) LU P’tit Déjeuner Miel et Pépites Chocolat (LU. Czech Republic) 317 Digestives Digestives (Canada) Digestives (Canada) Digestives. France) LU P’tit Déjeuner Miel et Pépites Chocolat (LU. Scotland) 328 LU P’tit Déjeuner Chocolat (LU. 2 h Glucose. 12 Healthy. France) 325 Grany Rush Apricot (LU. 2 h Glucose. 11 Healthy. 2 h Glucose.26 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving COOKIES Arrowroot 310 Arrowroot (McCormicks’s. 2 h Glucose. 11 Healthy. Sydney. 10 Type 1 and 2. Peak Freans (Nabisco Ltd. 2 h Glucose. 3 h Glucose. Aberlour-on-Spey. 2 h Glucose. Canada) Mean of 3 studies 318 Digestives. 2 h Glucose. 2 h — Glucose. Canada) 311 Arrowroot plus (McCormicks’s. 13 — Healthy.19 25 25 25 25 40 50 50 25 20 18 18 19 32 33 34 20 13 11 12 12 23 19 17 14 55 59 ± 7 62 59 ± 2 58 79 ± 9 84 88 ± 7 84 ± 2 83 ± 14 Type 2. France) Mean of 3 studies 330 Maltmeal wafer (Griffin’s Foods Ltd. France) 324 Grany en-cas Fruits des bois (LU. 2 h — Glucose. 11 Bread. 2 h — Glucose. 2 h Bread. 2 h UO7 25 1 UO7 UO7 UO7 UO20 2 1 UO7 UO7 UO20 UO7. France) 63 62 69 ± 7 65 ± 2 71 ± 6 57 ± 9 51 ± 9 67 ± 11 90 ± 4 88 ± 7 99 92 ± 3 101 81 73 96 Type 1 and 2. 2 h Glucose. France) 333 Oatmeal (Canada) 334 Oro (Saiwa. New Zealand) 321 Graham Wafers (Christie Brown and Co. 6 Healthy. 11 Healthy. 9 Healthy. Australia) Mean of 3 studies 313 Barquette Abricot (LU. 6 Type 1 and 2. 11 Healthy. Italy) Oro (Saiwa. 2 h Glucose. Stockport. Redish. Toronto. 13 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 3 h Glucose. 12 Healthy. Italy) Mean of 2 studies 335 Petit LU Normand (LU. France) 329 LU P’tit Déjeuner Miel et Pépites Chocolat (LU. 13 Type 1 and 2. 12 Glucose. 2 h Bread. 2 h Glucose. 14 Healthy. Toronto. 3 h 30 3 1 — 18 — — — 25 25 — — — 16 17 — — — 10 10 66 ± 12 77 ± 25 74 28 ± 5 55 ± 6 50 ± 5 62 ± 3 55 ± 8 57 42 ± 5 45 ± 5 52 ± 3 49 ± 8 49 ± 2 50 ± 10 79 ± 6 57 ± 4 54 ± 4 61 ± 9 67 ± 17 64 ± 3 51 ± 3 94 110 106 ± 9 40 79 71 89 79 81 ± 6 60 64 74 70 69 ± 3 71 113 81 77 87 96 92 ± 5 73 Healthy.

9 Healthy. 10 Glucose. 12 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. 2 h Glucose. gluten-free (Real Foods. 2 h Bread. 2 h Glucose. 10 Glucose. UK) Mean of 4 studies 357 Kavli Norwegian Crispbread (Players Biscuits. 6 Healthy. 10 Type 1 and 2. Malaysia) 353 Jatz. Poole. 8 Healthy. 2 h — Glucose. number NS Glucose. 12 — Healthy. 8 — Type 1 and 2. 2 h Glucose. 12 Healthy. 10 Healthy. Australia) 351 Cream Cracker (LU Triumfo. 2 h — Bread. 10 Healthy. 2 h Bread. Brazil) 352 High-calcium cracker (Danone. 2 h Bread. Canada) 348 Véritable Petit Beurre (LU. 10 Healthy. 8 Healthy. France) 347 Vanilla Wafers (Christie Brown and Co. France) Prince fourré chocolat (LU. Dorset. Australia) 359 Stoned Wheat Thins (Christie Brown and Co. 2 h Glucose. Kitchener. 3 h Type 1 and 2. original. Canada) 360 Water cracker Water cracker (Canada) Water cracker (Arnotts. France) Mean of 2 studies 339 Prince Meganana Chocolate (LU. Australia) Rice cakes. 2 h Bread. 2 h Glucose. France) 337 Prince Energie+ (LU. 2 h Glucose. 8 Healthy. Australia) 358 Sao. 2 h Bread. 3 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. 2 h Glucose. 2 h 3 39 — 1 UO4 25 25 25 25 25 18 18 18 17 19 11 14 13 12 10 (Continued) . 7 Glucose. white (Rice Growers Co-op. 2 h Type 1 and 2. 11 Healthy.INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) 48 ± 4 73 ± 5 53 ± 5 50 ± 5 52 ± 2 49 ± 12 45 ± 6 55 ± 4 57 ± 10 64 ± 8 62 ± 4 45 ± 3 41 ± 7 77 51 ± 8 67 87 ± 10 65 ± 11 52 ± 8 55 ± 5 81 ± 9 82 ± 11 91 ± 7 61 ± 5 78 ± 9 63 69 ± 10 59 63 64 ± 2 71 ± 7 70 ± 9 67 GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference 20 27 Food number and item Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 18 17 — — 30 36 36 19 15 16 18 19 16 18 18 14 20 9 13 — — 16 18 16 10 8 10 11 9 6 14 9 10 18 336 Petit LU Roussillon (LU. 12 Type 1 and 2. 2 h UO UO20 UO7 UO7 — UO7 UO7 3 UO7 39 2 UO4 UO7 1 UO7 1 UO4 25 25 — — 45 50 50 25 20 25 25 25 20 25 25 25 25 93 74 79 116 117 128 85 110 ± 13 90 99 84 ± 7 90 ± 4 91 ± 3 101 100 96 ± 4 Healthy. France) CRACKERS 349 Breton wheat crackers (Dare Foods Ltd. 6 Healthy. France) 343 Shortbread (Arnotts. UK) Rye crispbread (Ryvita Company Ltd. 12 Healthy. 12 Healthy. plain square crackers (Arnotts. 13 Healthy. crispbread (Arnott’s Australia) 69 104 76 71 74 70 64 79 81 91 89 64 57 110 ± 4 73 96 ± 4 124 Healthy. 12 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. France) 338 Prince fourré chocolat (LU. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. Canada) 350 Corn Thins. 2 h Bread. Spain) 340 Prince Petit Déjeuner Vanille (LU. 6 Healthy. 3 h Glucose. France) Prince fourré chocolat (LU. 8 Healthy. 11 Bread. Australia) Rice cakes. Australia) 344 Shredded Wheatmeal (Arnotts. 2 h Glucose. Sydney. 2 h Glucose. Australia) 345 Snack Right Fruit Slice (97% fat-free) (Arnott’s. 8 Type 1 and 2. time NS Healthy. 3 h Bread. Doongara rice (high-amylose) (Rice Growers Co-op. 9 Bread. Australia) 355 Puffed rice cakes Puffed rice cakes. Australia) 354 Puffed Crispbread (Westons. St Peters. France and Spain) 341 Rich Tea (Canada) 342 Sablé des Flandres (LU. puffed corn cakes. Australia) Mean of 2 studies 361 Premium Soda Crackers (Christie Brown and Co. 12 Healthy. Australia) 346 Thé (LU. 9 — Glucose. 3 h Glucose. 8 Healthy. 2 h — UO7 UO7 2 39 48 63 63 — 23 3 1 1 13 2 1 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 17 17 17 19 21 21 21 21 16 16 15 18 16 16 17 17 11 9 10 15 17 19 13 17 10 11 9 11 11 12 12 12 Type 2. Australia) Mean of 3 studies 356 Rye crispbread Rye crispbread (Canada) Ryvita (Canada) High-fiber rye crispbread (Ryvita Company Ltd. plain salted craker biscuits (Arnotts. 3 h 63 ± 9 90 78 ± 11 111 71 ± 8 101 ± 11 74 106 ± 5 55 ± 4 79 Healthy. 7 Healthy. Calrose rice (low-amylose) (Rice Growers Co-op. Canada) 362 Vita-wheat. 12 Healthy.

South Brisbane. Sweden)6 371 Fermented cow milk (filmjölk. 14 Healthy. 10 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 16% fat (Sara Lee. Norco. 2 h — Glucose. half chocolate) (Italy) Ice cream. 2 h Glucose. sweetened (Nestlé. Australia)6 Ice-cream. 2 h UO4 39 UO4 — 3 70 6 71 70 — 2 100 100 100 100 — — — — — 50 50 17 17 15 16 — — — — — 13 6 6 7 6 6 — — — — — 8 3 62 89 68 ± 15 97 80 114 ± 31 61 ± 7 50 ± 8 47 ± 5 37 ± 4 39 ± 3 37 ± 3 38 ± 3 87 ± 10 71 67 Healthy. Skånemejerier. 2 h UO4 50 10 5 53 55 Healthy. Australia) 376 Milk. and sugar (Australia) 365 TRIM. home made from milk. prepared from powder with whole milk (Nestlé. Australia) 35 ± 2 43 ± 10 37 ± 4 38 ± 2 36 ± 8 57 50 ± 3 61 52 ± 6 54 ± 3 51 82 ± 40 Healthy. premium. 10 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. 2 h Glucose. 10 Type 2. Gosford. 2 h Glucose. 14 Healthy. långfil. 12 Healthy. 2 h 70 72 70 UO4 3 6 — 72 72 — 70 70 — 3 73 2 2 — — — — — — 250 — — — — — 250 250 250 250 250 — — — — — — 12 — — — — — 12 13 136 15 26 — — — — — — 3 — — — — — 3 4 83 3 9 (Continued) . 8 Healthy. 10 Glucose. 7 — Healthy. 2 h Bread. Dairy Farmers. with aspartame (Lite White. Australia) Ice-cream. reduced-fat custard (Pauls Ltd. 7 Type 2. Australia) Mean of 3 studies 366 Ice cream. Australia) Full-fat (Canada) Full-fat (USA) Mean of 5 studies 370 Fermented cow milk (ropy milk.4% fat) (Prestige Light traditional toffee. 8 Glucose. 2 h UO4 UO4 50 50 14 12 5 5 53 54 Healthy. skim (Canada) 374 Milk. with sugar (Lite White. Sweden)6 Full-fat (Italy) Full-fat cow milk. French vanilla. full-fat Full-fat (Italy) Full-fat (3% fat. NS Ice cream. 2 h Glucose. ultra chocolate. 8 Healthy. 10 Healthy. low-fat (1. Australia)6 Ice-cream. 14 — Healthy. 2 h Bread. 2 h UO4 UO4 50 50 9 9 4 3 11 21 24 31 ± 2 34 ± 6 40 27 ± 4 11 11 11 25 28 27 ± 2 32 ± 5 61 ± 6 24 ± 6 34 ± 4 15 ± 8 30 ± 4 34 ± 9 44 ± 2 49 57 38 ± 6 15 ± 3 15 ± 3 15 35 ± 11 40 ± 27 38 ± 3 46 87 ± 9 34 49 Healthy. premium. low-fat (1. NS (USA) Ice cream. condensed. 10 — Healthy. Norco. 10 — Type 2. 3% fat) (Skånemejerier. 5 h23 — Bread. Peter’s. 10 Glucose. 6 Healthy. 2 h — Bread. Australia) 364 Custard. 3 h Bread. Australia) 369 Milk. 2 h — Bread. Dairy Farmers. Malmö. Sweden)6 Mean of 2 foods 372 Milk. 2 h Glucose. Lismore. 15% fat (Sara Lee. reduced-fat (7. 10 Glucose. 2 h Bread. low-fat. vanilla (Light. 2 h Bread. 6 Type 2. 2 h — Glucose. Malmö. 10 Healthy. Norco. premium (high-fat) Ice cream. 2 h Glucose. 10 Healthy. wheat starch.2% fat) (Prestige Light rich vanilla.or low-fat Ice cream. 7 Healthy.1% fat) (Prestige golden macadamia. Australia)6 368 Ice cream. 5 Healthy. regular. low-fat. fresh (Dairy Farmers. 5 h22 Glucose. 7 — Healthy. Australia) Ice cream. Australia) 375 Milk. NS (Canada) Ice cream (half vanilla. low-fat. 2 h Bread. Sydney. 3% fat) (Arla. full-fat. 2 h Bread. 2 h Bread. plus bran Full-fat + 20 g wheat bran (Italy) Full-fat + 20 g wheat bran (Italy) Mean of 2 studies 373 Milk. chocolate. 12 Type 2. half chocolate) (Italy) Mean of 5 studies 367 Ice cream.28 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving DAIRY PRODUCTS AND ALTERNATIVES Custard 363 No Bake Egg Custard. chocolate. reduced. 7 Type 2. 8 Bread. chocolate flavored (USA) Ice cream (half vanilla. Gävle.

Light (So Natural Foods. 2 h Bread. 10 Healthy. reduced-fat. Australia) Hazelnut. 10 — Healthy. sugar (Ski. 2 h Glucose. 0 mg Cal.5%).3% fat (Nestlé. 10 Healthy. chocolate. Australia) 381 Nonfat yogurt. mango (Pauls Ltd. 2 h — Bread. Australia) Mean of 6 foods 378 Pudding Instant. Australia) Instant. sweetened with acesulfame K and Splenda Diet Vaalia. 1. Australia) Mango. apricot and mango (Pauls Ltd. 2 h Glucose.9% fat (Nestlé. 10 Healthy. Dairy Farmers. 10 Healthy. tropical passion fruit (Pauls Ltd. 10 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 2 h Glucose. 2.2% fat (Nestlé. 2 h — Bread. 1% fat (So Natural Foods. reduced-fat. NS (Canada) 380 Low-fat yogurt Low-fat. 2 h Glucose. wild strawberry (Ski d’lite. Australia) Chocolate. 1. Australia) Mixed berry. Australia)6 Mean of 2 drinks 36 ± 4 31 ± 4 36 ± 4 33 ± 5 36 ± 5 32 ± 3 34 ± 1 47 ± 4 40 ± 4 44 ± 4 36 ± 4 14 ± 4 33 ± 7 31 ± 14 51 44 ± 6 51 47 51 46 48 ± 1 67 57 62 ± 5 51 20 47 44 Healthy. 10 Healthy. Australia)6 Diet Vaalia. 10 Healthy. Australia)6 Soy milk. 2 h Glucose. Australia) Strawberry. 1% fat (So Natural Foods. 8 Healthy. 7 Healthy. full-fat (3%). 10 — Healthy. Australia)6 Soy milk. Australia)6 Diet Vaalia. 120 mg Cal. chocolate hazelnut. 2 h UO4 UO4 UO4 250 250 250 17 18 17 8 6 8 43 49 46 ± 3 Healthy. exotic fruits (Pauls Ltd. Vaalia. Australia)6 Reduced-fat. 10 Healthy. french vanilla (Pauls Ltd. 2 h Bread. Dairy Farmers.9%). Original (So Natural Foods. 10 Healthy. Australia)6 Mean of 5 foods 382 Reduced-fat yogurt Reduced-fat. 2.INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference 29 Food number and item Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 377 Mousse. 2 h Glucose. Vaalia.4% fat (Nestlé. 10 — Healthy. 2 h Glucose. Australia)6 Soy-based dairy product alternatives 384 Soy milks (containing maltodextrin) Soy milk. made from powder and whole milk (White Wings. 2% fat (Nestlé. strawberry (Pauls Ltd. Vaalia. 2 h Bread. strawberry (Extra-Lite. 10 Healthy. vanilla (Pauls Ltd. Australia) Low-fat (0. Australia)6 Diet Vaalia. made from powder and whole milk (White Wings. 2 h — Glucose. prepared from commerical mousse mix with water Butterscotch. fruit. Australia)6 Diet Vaalia. banana. fruit. Calciforte (So Natural Foods. full-fat (3%). 2 h Glucose. 10 Healthy. 10 Glucose. aspartame (Ski. Australia)6 Soy smoothie drink. 2 h Glucose. 2.8% fat (Nestlé. Australia)6 385 Soy milk drinks Soy smoothie drink. 5 Healthy. 10 Healthy. 10 Healthy. Dairy Farmers. 9 Glucose. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Glucose. fruit. 2 h Glucose. 2 h — UO4 UO4 — 250 250 250 22 25 23 7 8 7 (Continued) . Australia) Mean of 2 foods 379 Yogurt Yogurt. 10 — Glucose. 2 h UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 — UO4 UO4 — 3 2 2 UO4 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 100 100 100 200 200 200 200 10 11 10 11 10 10 10 16 16 16 9 13 31 30 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 7 6 7 3 2 10 9 23 ± 2 23 ± 2 25 ± 3 23 ± 2 23 ± 2 24 ± 1 26 ± 4 26 ± 4 28 ± 4 27 ± 1 38 ± 4 33 33 36 33 33 34 ± 1 38 ± 6 38 ± 5 40 ± 6 39 ± 1 54 ± 6 Healthy. 10 Glucose. 2 h Glucose. Australia)6 Reduced-fat. 10 Healthy. 10 Healthy. reduced-fat (1. 2 h Glucose. Australia)6 Mean of 3 foods 383 Yogurt drink. Pauls Ltd. 120 mg Cal. vanilla. 10 — Healthy. mixed berry (Pauls Ltd. Australia) Low-fat. 2 h — Glucose. 2 h UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 — UO4 UO4 UO4 — UO4 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 16 14 13 13 13 14 30 10 33 24 29 4 3 3 3 3 3 8 3 9 7 11 44 ± 5 36 ± 4 44 ± 3 30 ± 3 34 ± 3 32 ± 2 63 51 63 Healthy.

braeburn (New Zealand)6 Apple. 3 h UO4 71 200 50 26 9 13 10 28 32 ± 4 34 39 ± 3 40 44 38 ± 2 39 ± 5 40 41 40 ± 1 29 ± 5 57 64 40 ± 11 46 48 56 57 63 ± 3 52 ± 3 55 ± 7 57 59 ± 8 57 ± 2 41 ± 7 82 ± 3 91 ± 6 Type 2. chocolate with high fructose (24%) corn syrup (USA) FRUIT AND FRUIT PRODUCTS 388 Apples. 2 h UO4 250 24 11 64 ± 3 56 — Healthy. rice cereal liquid breakfast) (Sanitarium. 1510 Type 2. raw. NS (USA) Apple. 5 h24 20 76 30 3 29 77 78 77 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 25 23 25 25 23 25 21 25 12 13 15 16 16 13 6 11 (Continued) . puréed dried apricot filling in whole-meal pastry (Mother Earth. 7 Type 2. Australia)6 Mean of 2 drinks Xpress. Australia) 396 Apricot Fruity Bitz. chocolate (soy bean. dried (Wasco foods. dried Apricots. New Zealand) 395 Apricot fruit spread. 10 Bread. 6 Healthy. unsweetened (Allens. 5 h23 Bread. 5 h23 Bread. 10 Type 2. Canada) Mean of 3 studies 390 Apple. dried (Australia) Apricots. Australia)6 387 Tofu-based frozen dessert. 2 h Glucose. time NS Glucose. ripe. original malt flavor (soy milk. 4 h Glucose. Australia) 397 Banana. slightly underripe. unsweetened (USA) Apple juice. Australia)6 386 Soy yogurt Soy yogurt. 10 Glucose. 2 h Glucose. 3 h — Bread. Australia) Apple juice. Para Hills. raw Banana (Canada) Banana (Italy) Banana (Canada) Banana (Canada) Banana (South Africa) Banana. 10 — Glucose. number NS Type 2. vitamin and mineral enriched dried fruit snack (Blackmores Ltd. 10 Type 2. 9 Bread. underripe (Denmark) Banana. number NS Healthy. NS (Italy) Mean of 6 studies 389 Apple juice Apple juice. NS (Canada) Apple. 3 h Bread. 3 h Glucose. 3 h — Bread. 7 Glucose. 2 h 2 7 — 25 60 60 60 50 27 30 28 34 8 10 9 17 78 ± 10 61 Healthy. Toronto. 2 h Glucose. rice cereal liquid breakfast) (Sanitarium. 10 Glucose. NS (Italy) 392 Apricots. dried (Australia) Apricots 391 Apricots. Montreal. IGT. 7 Type 2. Canada) Mean of 2 studies 394 Apricot fruit bar. golden delicious (Canada) Apple. sugar (So Natural Foods. 6 — Healthy. 7 — Healthy. yellow with green sections (USA) 61 Healthy. 6 Type 2. 3 h Bread. 10 Bread. Montreal. cereal and legume extract drink with fructose) (So Natural Foods. 8 Type 2. Aliments Caneast Foods. peach and mango. 9 — Healthy. 2 h Bread. 3 h 74 75 23 3 6 76 — UO4 6 7 — UO4 75 7 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 13 13 16 16 16 13 15 4 4 5 6 6 6 6 10 12 12 11 10 5 12 250 mL 25 250 mL 29 250 mL 30 250 mL 28 60 34 120 120 9 19 30 ± 7 32 31 ± 1 50 ± 8 55 ± 7 42 ± 3 43 46 ± 7 44 ± 2 71 Healthy. cocoa malt flavor (soy milk. all yellow (USA) Banana. 8 Type 2. 8 Type 2. 3 h — Glucose. 3 h Glucose. Berri. time NS Bread. 7 Type 2. Balgowlah. 7 Type 2. 2 h Glucose. 2 h UO4 UO4 30 15 13 12 7 5 46 58 58 62 ± 9 70 ± 5 51 30 42 66 83 ± 3 83 ± 7 89 100 73 43 ± 10 60 Diabetic. 3 h Glucose. raw Apple. reduced sugar (Glen Ewin Jams. 5 h24 Bread. 12 Glucose. NS (Denmark) Apple. canned in light syrup (Riviera. 2 h Bread. Australia)6 Up and Go. 8 Type 2. 10 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 2 h UO 250 66 Healthy. reconstituted (Berrivale Orchards Ltd. Canada) 393 Apricots. 2 h — UO4 250 250 25 34 11 13 50 ± 3 115 ± 14 71 164 Healthy. 10 Type 2. unsweetened.30 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) 43 ± 5 46 ± 5 45 ± 2 39 ± 2 GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference 4 Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 26 11 Up and Go. Auckland. 2% fat. 6 Healthy. 10 Type 2. 2 h Glucose.

raw Kiwi fruit. raw 41 59 Mango (Mangifera indica) (Philippines)6 Mango (Mangifera indica) (Australia)6 51 ± 3 73 Mango. 6 Type 2.INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period 24 31 Food number and item Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 25 20 24 20 27 12 29 12 11 12 12 18 3 12 Banana. 3 h25 Type 2. NS (Canada) 43 62 Grapes. 2 h Bread. time NS Type 2. number NS — Healthy. 10 Glucose. 3 h Bread. raw Grapes. 42 ± 3 60 Weis Frozen Foods. 5 h 77 78 — UO4 79 23 80 120 120 120 30 120 120 120 Bread. 3 h Healthy. orange (Australia) 48 ± 9 69 ± 12 415 Oranges. 3 h22 — Glucose. Somerset. Australia) 399 Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis). 2 h 23 76 — UO4 75 2 — 73 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 17 19 18 18 12 12 12 20 7 9 8 11 5 7 6 16 Type 2. 8 Bread. 2 h Bread. canned (Delmonte 55 79 ± 5 Canadian Canners Ltd. 10 Bread. 79 ± 8 113 ± 11 Narcissus brand (China) 412 Mango. 2 h Type 2 and IGT. 2 h Glucose. Hamilton. 2 h Glucose. 3 h Bread. NS (Denmark) 31 44 ± 13 Oranges. USA) Cranberry juice drink (Ocean Spray. 3 h — — Healthy. Hayward (New Zealand)6 47 ± 4 68 Kiwi fruit (Australia)6 58 ± 7 83 Mean of 2 studies 53 ± 6 75 ± 8 411 Lychee. Bridgewater. overripe. canned in syrup and drained. 10 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 4 h — Glucose. Australia) 406 Fruit Cocktail. 6 Healthy. 2 h 80 2 65 — UO4 UO4 74 29 3 76 7 23 — 3 2 120 120 120 120 100 30 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 20 15 15 17 23 20 11 10 11 11 11 11 11 8 8 9 8 10 9 3 3 4 5 5 6 5 12 9 250 mL 26 250 mL 18 (Continued) . Dessert Maid 61 ± 6 87 brand (Ernest Hall and Sons. time NS — Glucose. Quelch brand (Berri Ltd. NS (South Africa) 33 ± 6 47 Oranges. dried (Australia) 103 ± 21 147 ± 30 405 Figs. Waltham Cross (Australia) 59 84 410 Kiwi fruit. 1510 Glucose. Malvern. 2 h Bread. 12 Glucose. Canada) 409 Grapes. 3 h 7 23 7 120 16 9 3 9 Type 2. number NS Glucose. 11 Bread. 6 Healthy. flesh only (Australia) 54 ± 2 77 ± 3 404 Dates. 48 69 ± 5 Toronto. 2 h Glucose. number NS Glucose. reconstituted 53 ± 6 76 concentrate. 2 h — — Healthy. 10 — Healthy. NS (Canada) 22 32 401 Chico (Zapota zapotilla coville). 52 ± 3 74 Australia) Cranberry juice cocktail (Ocean Spray 68 ± 3 97 Inc. 10 Healthy. number NS Glucose. NS (Italy) 48 68 ± 2 Oranges (Sunkist. 7 Type 2. 10 Healthy. yellow flecked with 48 69 brown (USA) Banana. 10 Healthy. Australia) Type 2. Sydney. CA. raw. Australia) 414 Marmalade. 3 h Glucose. time NS Type 2. 12 Healthy. ripe (Mangifera indica) (India)11 60 ± 16 86 Mean of 3 studies 51 ± 5 73 ± 8 413 Mango. 10 Type 2. 2 h Potato. overripe (Denmark) 52 74 ± 9 Mean of 10 studies 52 ± 4 74 ± 5 398 Banana. raw 40 57 (Philippines)6 402 Cranberry juice Cranberry juice cocktail (Ocean Spray. 9 Type 2. time NS Type 2. 7 Bread. Heinz 61 ± 11 87 Kidz (H J Heinz. 7 Glucose. 2 h UO4 UO4 UO4 73 UO4 UO4 250 mL 31 250 mL 35 250 mL 29 120 60 60 19 40 26 16 24 16 10 42 16 Type 2. raw 68 97 (Australia)6 400 Cherries. 8 Type 2. NS (Italy) 49 70 ± 3 Mean of 2 studies 46 ± 3 66 ± 4 Grapes. dried. Van Nuys. 10 Healthy. black. 12–15 — Normal. USA) 48 69 ± 11 Oranges NS (Canada) 51 73 Mean of 6 studies 42 ± 3 60 ± 5 416 Orange juice Orange Juice (Canada) 46 ± 6 66 Orange juice. 8 Healthy. 3 h Healthy. 56 ± 4 80 Gerber Ltd. 3 h 120 11 250 mL 20 Type 2. processed fruit fingers. 8 Bread. 7 Healthy. 10 Healthy. 2 h Bread. unsweetened. Toowong. raw Oranges. 9 Bread. unsweetened (Sunpac. 2 h Glucose.10 Healthy. Canada) 407 Grapefruit. 2 h Glucose. low-fat frozen fruit dessert (Frutia. 2 h Bread. NS (Canada) 40 ± 3 57 Oranges. UK) 403 Custard apple. raw. 3 h Glucose. tenderized. 13 Bread. raw (Canada) 25 36 408 Grapefruit juice.

canned in light syrup (Delmonte. 3 h 23 75 7 76 — 8 8 7 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 13 12 8 11 11 14 13 11 4 4 3 4 4 4 5 5 66 ± 7 51 59 ± 8 46 94 73 84 ± 11 66 ± 3 Healthy. raw (Australia)6 Pineapple. winter Nellis. Australia) Mean of 2 studies 420 Peach. 8 Type 2. raw (New Zealand)6 425 Pear. Australia) 429 Pear. raw (Australia)6 436 Strawberries. NS (Italy) Mean of 2 studies 433 Prunes. 7 — Healthy. 2 h Bread. 3 h — — Healthy. 1510 Type 2. 8 Bread. canned in reduced-sugar syrup (SPC Lite. 2 h — Bread. and IGT. raw (Canada) Peach. Real Fruit Bars (Uncle Toby’s. 10 Glucose. 7–10 — Healthy. 8 — Healthy. 8 Type 2. 11 Healthy. 10 Healthy. fresh. USA) 434 Raisins (Canada) 435 Rockmelon/Cantaloupe. 2 h 8 — 2 7 8 120 120 120 120 120 11 11 15 18 17 5 4 9 9 11 33 34 ± 4 41 42 38 ± 2 25 ± 6 43 ± 15 44 47 49 58 ± 7 60 ± 2 54 ± 3 36 61 63 ± 6 Type 2. raw. number NS Glucose. Australia) 439 Sultanas Type 2. NS (Italy) Mean of 4 studies 427 Pear halves. 2 h 23 76 — 2 120 120 120 120 13 8 11 11 4 5 5 3 64 54 ± 11 83 74 ± 7 89 Healthy. 2 h Bread.32 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) 57 ± 6 52 ± 3 56 ± 6 60 ± 16 60 59 ± 1 GI2 (Bread = 100) 81 ± 8 74 ± 4 80 86 86 84 ± 2 Subject Reference food and (Type and number) time period 23 Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 15 12 5 17 9 10 Orange juice. 10 — Glucose. raw. 3 h Bread. canned in pear juice. 3 h — 28 56 42 ± 14 30 ± 4 45 ± 6 38 ± 8 58 ± 11 52 62 ± 9 40 80 ± 3 60 ± 20 43 Type 2. 13 Type 2. 7–10 Bread. 2 h Healthy. 2 h Bread. 6 Healthy. 5 h — 6 — 2 65 80 — 250 mL 26 250 mL 23 120 120 120 120 8 29 15 17 Bread. 8 Glucose. canned in natural juice (SPC Ltd. time NS Glucose. Australia) Peach. 2 h Bread. Australia) 421 Peach. time NS Type 2. 10 — Type 2. 2 h Glucose. Hawthorn East. raw (Italy) Mean of 2 studies 419 Peach. raw (Philippines)6 Mean of 2 studies 431 Pineapple juice. Australia) 428 Pear halves. 7–10 Type 2. 13 Bread. pitted (Sunsweet Growers Inc. Australia) Pears 423 Pear. Canada) Plums 432 Plum. 2 h Bread. ripe (India)11 Papaya (Carica papaya) (Philippines)6 Mean of 3 studies Peaches 418 Peach. raw Pineapple. 3 h Bread. raw Paw paw (Carica papaya) (Australia)6 Paw paw (papaya). raw Peach. raw. 3 h — Bread. raw (Canada) 426 Pear. Yuba City. NS (Canada) Plum. time NS Type 2. 7–10 Healthy. 10 Healthy. Toronto. NS Plum. NS (Canada) 424 Pear. 3 h 2 80 — 7 120 120 120 250 mL 10 16 13 34 6 8 7 15 24 53 39 ± 15 29 ± 4 64 ± 11 65 ± 9 40 ± 7 51 ± 10 90 ± 12 56 ± 11 34 75 ± 3 55 ± 21 41 91 93 57 73 ± 14 129 80 Type 2. 3 h Bread. 2 h Glucose. 9 Healthy. 8 Healthy. raw (Australia)6 437 Strawberry jam 438 Strawberry processed fruit bars. 2 h Bread. number NS Type 2. Bartlett. canned in natural juice (SPC Ltd. reconstituted from frozen concentrate (USA) Mean of 3 studies 417 Paw paw and papaya. Canadian Canners Ltd) 422 Peach. Mooroopna. CA. Ardmona Foods. 12–15 Type 2. 2 h Bread. number NS Glucose. unsweetened (Dole Packaged Foods. canned in natural juice Peach. SPC Ltd. 10 Glucose. canned in reduced-sugar syrup (SPC Lite. 7 Bread. 7 Bread. Bartlett (Delmonte Canadian Canners Ltd) Pineapple 430 Pineapple (Ananas comosus). 2 h Glucose. 2 h 23 76 — UO4 3 2 UO4 UO4 UO4 2 120 120 120 60 60 120 120 30 30 60 14 11 12 33 44 6 3 20 26 45 3 6 5 10 28 4 1 10 23 25 (Continued) . 3 h — Bread. 3 h — — Healthy. raw. canned in heavy syrup (Letona Foods. 7 Healthy. Shepparton. 3 h22 Bread. SPC Ltd. raw. canned in natural juice (Goulburn Valley.

2 h — — 70 70 — 150 150 150 150 15 30 30 30 7 11 6 9 50 33 ± 4 42 ± 9 28 ± 7 29 ± 8 36 ± 4 31 ± 3 30 ± 2 Type 2. 11 Bread. type NS (Italy) Mean of 2 studies 451 Black-eyed beans and peas (Cowpeas). no added sugar (Berri Ltd. 2 h Healthy. 2 h 95 ± 13 56 ± 8 59 ± 8 59 ± 6 67 ± 11 65 ± 13 40 ± 3 56 136 Healthy. 2 h Healthy. 11 (adults) Glucose. boiled + 5 g sucrose (South Africa) 54 58 Healthy. 14 — — Bread. 2 h UO4 UO4 120 120 7 15 5 10 57 80 ± 8 69 ± 12 52 ± 25 28 ± 14 40 ± 12 71 ± 5 47 59 ± 12 40 41 51 44 ± 3 43 Healthy. Australia)6 441 Tropical Fruity Bitz. 11 Healthy. wild berry. Malvern. 3 h Glucose. cooked 1. 7 Type 2. UK) Apple. Baulkham Hills. healthy. 7 Type 2. soy-based. 2 h UO4 2 UO4 100 120 15 21 6 12 12 4 4 55 ± 6 35 ± 5 30 ± 6 36 ± 6 78 Healthy. nondairy. 2 h Bread. 11 (adults) Glucose.INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) 38 ± 4 41 ± 3 59 ± 8 72 ± 13 35 ± 4 GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference 4 33 Food number and item Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 9 11 4 5 440 Tomato juice. healthy. 11 (adults) Glucose. 10 Healthy. 2 h Bread. vitamin and mineral enriched dried fruit snack (Blackmores Ltd. McNeill and Libby.and mineral-enriched dried fruit snack (Blackmores Ltd. milk-free (Wyeth Nutritionals. apricot and banana cereal6 Creamed porridge6 Rice pudding6 448 Heinz for Baby from 4 months (Heinz Wattie’s Ltd. boiled Beans. dried. 8 Type 2. raw (Australia)6 444 Wild Berry Fruity Bitz. 11 (adults) Glucose. 2 h Glucose. Chatham. Auckland. 2 h UO4 UO4 UO4 100 mL 100 mL 100 mL 7 8 7 2 2 3 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. Australia)6 Karicare gold starter formula with omega plus LCP oils (Nutricia. 2 h Healthy. 11 (adults) Glucose. Sydney. frozen fruit dessert (Nestlé. 9 (adults) Glucose. Australia) INFANT FORMULA AND WEANING FOODS 445 Formula Infasoy. 6 Healthy. 3 h 3 81 — — — — — — 48 ± 8 36 20 29 ± 9 — Healthy. Australia) 443 Watermelon. 2 h UO 250 mL 15 UO4 85 ± 11 103 50 Healthy. canned haricot and navy beans in tomato sauce (Libby. 11 (adults) Glucose. Canada) Mean of 2 studies 450 Beans. Wells. 8. 6 — Healthy. canned (Canada) Baked beans. 2 h Healthy. Australia) Chicken and noodles with vegetables (strained)6 Sweetcorn and rice6 LEGUMES AND NUTS 449 Baked beans Baked beans. 2 h 30 3 — 29 82 3 — 82 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 30 30 30 20 20 20 20 20 15 10 13 5 6 7 6 6 (Continued) . 10 (adults) Glucose. 21. 6 — Type 2. 2 h UO4 87 6 6 80 84 84 Healthy. 2 h — Glucose. 7 Glucose. Australia) 442 Vitari. 2 h Bread. Australia)6 447 Robinsons First Tastes from 4 months (Nutricia. 10 (adults) Glucose. 2 h UO4 UO4 UO4 75 75 75 13 9 11 11 5 6 96 93 Healthy. Australia)6 S-26 infant formula (Wyeth Nutritionals. type 1. 8. dried. 2 h — Glucose. 10 Bread. 21. dried. 2 h Glucose. 10 (adults) Glucose. type 1. 2 h UO4 100 mL 7 4 50 73 52 Healthy. dried. vitamin. dried. Australia)6 Weaning foods 446 Farex baby rice (Heinz Wattie’s Ltd. 10 Healthy. 10 Glucose. type NS (Italy) Beans. New Zealand)6 Nan-1 infant formula with iron (Nestlé. boiled Black-eyed beans (Canada) Black-eyed beans (Canada) Mean of 2 studies 452 Butter beans Butter beans (South Africa) Butter beans. 8 Healthy. 2 h Glucose.25 h (South Africa) Butter beans (Canada) Mean of 3 studies Butter beans.

Canada) 455 Chickpeas. 8. 3 h 4 3 — 81 9 85 — 81 — — 150 150 150 150 150 150 — — 18 18 18 14 17 17 — — 5 4 6 5 5 9 (Continued) . dried. 7 Healthy. 1h Bread. 11 Healthy. 3 h22 Bread. Canada) 456 Haricot and navy beans Haricot and navy beans. 21. dried. 10 Type 2.34 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) 31 ± 2 54 ± 4 GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 20 20 6 11 Butter beans. 1 h 81 3 60 84 — 83 54 4 9 19 3 81 30 19 81 65 83 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 30 30 30 33 31 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 17 25 25 9 9 12 19 12 3 5 6 6 6 7 10 11 7 8 9 17 5 28 29 ± 3 29 ± 1 22 30 ± 15 37 ± 3 30 ± 4 52 40 41 41 ± 1 31 ± 5 43 53 42 ± 6 74 ± 5 Type 2. dried. 7 Healthy. 3 h Bread. 3 h — Bread. soaked overnight. canned (Canasia Foods Ltd. 1. 2 h Bread. boiled + 15 g sucrose (South Africa) 453 Chickpeas (Garbanzo beans. Glucose. green. dried. soaked. canned in brine (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd. 3 Healthy. 7 — Type 2. green. 3 h Glucose. 3 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. 11 Bread. Canada) Mean of 5 studies 457 Kidney beans Kidney/white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Linn). 3 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. dried. pressure cooked (15 psi) 25 min (King Grains. 1 h Glucose. 6 Type 1. 11 82 82 150 150 10 31 33 36 ± 5 28 ± 6 42 41 14 ± 3 44 ± 8 47 ± 9 51 39 ± 8 60 ± 7 58 ± 7 41 ± 5 43 ± 5 44 56 ± 16 84 ± 10 54 ± 8 19 ± 5 27 33 33 36 ± 6 41 60 ± 6 66 ± 7 39 ± 6 49 ± 5 74 ± 8 100 28 ± 4 Healthy. boiled Chickpeas (Cicer arietinum Linn). 2 h healthy. 3 h Glucose. 2 h — Bread. soaked. soaked 12 h. Toronto. 3 h Glucose. 3 h Glucose. 10 Healthy. green Lentils. 3 h 83 81 30 3 — 81 1 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 30 30 30 30 30 22 16 3 9 10 11 8 9 7 29 Type 2. 3 h Glucose. 1 h Bread. boiled (Canada) Chickpeas (Canada) Chickpeas (Canada) Mean of 4 studies 454 Chickpeas. 6 Healthy. steamed 1 h (India)11 461 Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Linn). pressure cooked (15 psi) 25 min (King Grains. dried. 6 Type 2. 8 Healthy. red. 3 h Bread. boiled (Canada) Lentils. 11 Type 2. 11 Healthy. dried. boiled (Canada) Haricot and navy beans (King Grains. Canada) Haricot and navy beans. 6 Type 2. boiled 17 min (Philippines) Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) (India) Kidney beans (USA)8 Kidney beans. 3 h Bread. type 1. green. Scarborough. Canada) 460 Kidney beans. cooked 45 min (Philippines) 462 Lentils. canned (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd. stored moist 24 h. 11 Type 2. type 1. 1. 11 Glucose. boiled (Canada) Kidney beans (Canada) Mean of 8 studies 458 Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris Linn). dried. 7 — Type 2. dried. 7 Healthy. 3 h Bread. boiled + 10 g sucrose (South Africa) Butter beans. type NS (USA) Lentils. Glucose. 8 Type 2. type NS Lentils. autoclaved 459 Kidney beans. Canada) 44 77 Type 2. Canada) Haricot and navy beans. 3 h 84 150 33 9 30 31 ± 6 39 59 38 ± 6 13 19 23 23 ± 1 25 29 ± 8 42 46 28 ± 4 34 52 70 ± 11 20 Type 2. boiled (France) Lentils. 3 h Glucose. 8. dried. Bengal gram). type NS (Canada) Mean of 2 studies 463 Lentils. dried. 11 Type 1 and 2. 2 h healthy. 2 h — Bread. curry. green.5 h Glucose. Toronto. 6 — Healthy. 12–15 Healthy. boiled 35 min (Philippines) Chickpeas.5 h Bread. 2 h — Bread. 6 Type 2. boiled (Canada) Haricot and navy beans. 6 — Type 2. 8 Type 2. 11 Type 2. 7 Bread. boiled 70 min (Sweden) Kidney beans (Canada) Kidney beans. 3 h Bread. soaked 20 min. boiled (France) Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris Linn). boiled (Australia) Mean of 3 studies 464 Lentils. canned in brine (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd. 21. 7 Bread.

number NS Glucose. dried.A. 11 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. canned (Canada) 474 Split peas. 2 h Glucose. dutch chocolate L. peanut crunch L. 10 Healthy.).A. dried. 2 h Bread. dried. reheated in microwave oven (York. 5 Bread. 2 h — UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 — 50 250 40 40 40 29 13 19 19 19 13 3 6 6 6 14 ± 3 29 ± 3 23 ± 3 30 ± 4 38 ± 4 22 ± 4 43 ± 4 40 ± 4 20 41 33 43 54 31 61 57 Healthy. 2 h — — Healthy. chocolate crunch Mean of 2 Nutribars Worldwide Sport Nutrition reducedcarbohydrate products (Worldwide Sport Nutritional Supplements Inc. 2 h Bread. 8 Bread. 3 h Glucose. red. UT. 10 — Glucose. South Yarra. red.N products (Usana Inc. 9 Type 2. 7 Type 1. Canada) 467 Marrowfat peas Marrowfat peas. Canada) MEAL-REPLACEMENT PRODUCTS 475 Hazelnut and apricot bar (Dietworks. 6 Healthy. 10 Healthy. 10 Type 2. sugar-free6 478 Burn-it bars Chocolate deluxe6 Peanut butter6 479 Pure-protein bars Chewy choc-chip6 Chocolate deluxe6 Peanut butter6 Strawberry shortcake6 White chocolate mousse6 18 21 31 32 26 ± 4 32 25 30 ± 4 44 ± 7 45 ± 9 36 ± 5 46 ± 13 Healthy. 7 Healthy. 10 Bread. dried. time NS Bread. 3 h Bread. 3 h 81 81 30 3 85 3 1 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 26 22 18 6 6 6 6 19 10 10 8 1 1 1 1 6 42 ± 7 Healthy. baby. 2 h Glucose. 7 Type 1 and 2. germinated (Australia) Mung bean. 6 Glucose. boiled 20 min (Philippines) Mung bean. Canada) 472 Romano beans (Canada) 473 Soya beans Soya beans. soaked. 1 h Bread. FL. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Glucose.A. harvest oat Nutrimeal. 2 h Glucose. Mississauga.E. US) L. Salt Lake City. 3 h 86 22 30 22 — 1 150 150 150 150 150 150 31 47 ± 3 39 ± 8 31 53 ± 8 25 ± 4 42 ± 5 22 22 44 68 56 ± 12 44 ± 6 76 ± 11 36 ± 5 60 ± 7 32 31 ± 4 55 ± 6 64 ± 6 65 ± 7 21 29 25 ± 4 20 45 ± 4 60 ± 10 Type 2. 2 h Glucose. number NS Healthy.N (Life long) Nutribar. boiled (Canada) Lentils. 10 Healthy. boiled (Canada) Mean of 2 studies 468 Mung beans Mung bean (Phaseolus areus Roxb.INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference 35 Food number and item Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 18 18 18 18 18 30 3 4 6 6 5 10 465 Lentils.N Fibergy bar. 2 h Glucose. boiled (Canada) Lentils. canned in brine (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd. 7 Healthy. dried. 14 Type 2. 10 Healthy.A. dried. 10 Healthy. dried. 10 Glucose. time NS Healthy. red Lentils. Toronto. red. boiled (Canada) Soya beans.E. US) 477 Designer chocolate. 9 Type 2. boiled (Canada) Pinto beans. Canada Packers. 1 h 4 3 — 83 UO4 UO4 UO4 85 83 — — 150 150 — 150 150 150 150 — — 19 17 — 17 17 9 20 — — 7 5 — 4 7 2 4 39 45 46 15 ± 5 20 ± 3 18 ± 3 14 ± 2 32 Type 2. frozen. 2 h UO4 50 22 9 45 ± 4 26 ± 3 30 ± 4 32 ± 4 31 ± 1 64 37 43 46 45 ± 2 Healthy. red. 2 h UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 35 50 50 80 80 80 80 80 22 8 6 14 13 9 13 15 3 2 1 4 5 2 6 6 (Continued) . soaked. boiled (USA) Marrowfat peas. drink powder. 10 Healthy.E. 3 h — Bread. 10 Healthy. 10 Healthy.). 10 Healthy. 3 h Bread. 2 h Glucose. 3 h Bread. Australia) 476 L. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. boiled 20 min (Nupack. 2 h Glucose. boiled (Canada) Mean of 4 studies 466 Lima beans.N (Life long) Nutribar. 1 h Bread. boiled 45 min (Philippines) 471 Pinto beans Pinto beans. dried. 11 Bread. fried (Australia) Mung bean. dried. boiled (Australia) Mean of 2 studies Soya beans. Largo. 2 h Glucose. 3 Type 2. 2 h Glucose. boiled (Australia) 470 Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan Linn Huth. 10 Healthy. dried. boiled (Canada) Lentils. 10 Healthy. yellow.E. 3 h Bread. 10 Healthy. 11 — Type 1 and 2. pressure cooked (Australia) 469 Peas.

8 Type 2. cheese. French style chicken with rice. 2 h Glucose. Sydney. 10 Glucose. 2 h Glucose. 8 Healthy. 14 — Healthy. 10 Type 2. homemade (Australia) 493 Sushi Sushi. 2 h Bread. 9 Glucose. 2 h UO4 100 16 7 54 57 93 51 64 Healthy. 16 Type 2. 5 Healthy. Toronto. 2 h Glucose. and butter (France) Mean of 2 groups of subjects White bread with toppings 495 White-wheat-flour bread. homemade (Australia) 492 Stir-fried vegetables with chicken and boiled white rice. 10 Healthy. Grocery Holdings. beef. 10 Healthy. 2 h26 — Glucose. 10 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. Australia) 488 Pizza Pizza. 2 h 1 31 UO4 UO4 UO4 3 87 87 87 100 100 100 100 100 100 360 360 360 27 27 24 22 25 3 53 48 75 16 22 9 7 12 1 35 25 55 69 79 74 ± 5 38 32 35 ± 3 79 ± 10 55 ± 7 84 ± 10 Healthy. yogurt. 3 h14 Glucose. and pickled cucumber (Sweden)6 497 White bread with butter (Canada) 25 ± 3 42 ± 5 37 ± 7 47 ± 6 37 ± 6 42 ± 4 32 ± 5 46 ± 4 38 ± 6 40 ± 5 65 ± 6 36 ± 6 45 ± 6 36 60 53 67 53 60 46 Healthy. cheese. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Glucose. reheated (Nestlé. served with parmesan cheese and tomato sauce (Italy) Pizza. Canada) Pizza. 10 Healthy. homemade (Australia) 491 Spaghetti bolognaise. grilled beefburger. healthy. Australia)6 489 Sausages. 17 Healthy. regular cow milk. 10 Healthy.8% fat) (Pizza Hut. 10 Healthy. 8 Healthy. Super Supreme. cheese. homemade (Australia) 485 Kugel (Polish dish containing egg noodles. 3 h White bread. party size (Farmland Grocery Holdings. sugar. 3 h 72 84 200 100 28 48 11 29 (Continued) . Australia) 483 Fish fingers (Canada) 484 Greek lentil stew with a bread roll. 2 h Glucose. 7 Healthy. pan (11. 10 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. and fresh cucumber (Sweden)6 496 White-wheat-flour bread. 3 h14 — Bread. 2 h Rice. thin and crispy (13. Australia) Pizza. salmon (I Love Sushi. 6 Bread.4% fat) (Pizza Hut. butter. Tooronga.36 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 11 9 9 1 3 1 3 3 4 3 1 1 1 1 480 Pure-protein cookies Choc-chip cookie dough6 Coconut6 Peanut butter6 481 Ultra pure-protein shakes Cappuccino6 Frosty chocolate6 Strawberry shortcake6 Vanilla ice cream6 MIXED MEALS AND CONVENIENCE FOODS 482 Chicken nuggets. Australia)6 487 Pies. vinegar and rice (Japan) Mean of 2 studies 494 White boiled rice. 3 h14 Glucose. 2 h Glucose. 7. and butter (France) White boiled rice. 10 Healthy. 5 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Glucose. 8 White bread. 2 h Glucose. Australia) Pizza. NS (Canada) 490 Sirloin chop with mixed vegetables and mashed potato. plain baked dough. 10 Healthy. 2 h UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 55 55 55 250 mL 250 mL 250 mL 250 mL 66 Healthy.2% fat) (Pizza Hut. cheese. Vegetarian Supreme. roasted sea algae. 2 h Glucose. and raisins) (Israel) 486 Lean Cuisine. butter. reheated in microwave oven 5 min (Savings. frozen. 2 h UO4 89 — 53 53 — 72 100 100 100 440 440 440 200 36 37 37 50 50 50 68 17 20 19 14 11 13 38 39 59 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. grilled beefburger. thin and crispy (7. cheese (Pillsbury Canada Ltd. 10 Glucose. 12 Type 2. 2 h 3 87 88 UO4 UO4 100 360 150 400 100 19 37 48 68 27 7 15 31 24 12 60 80 36 ± 6 30 ± 4 49 ± 6 28 ± 6 66 ± 12 52 ± 9 73 ± 17 48 ± 8 55 52 ± 4 27 22 25 ± 2 55 86 ± 5 114 ± 14 51 43 70 40 94 74 104 Type 1 and 2. 3 h Glucose. 9 — Type 2. Australia)6 Sushi. 10 Healthy. 10 Glucose. 2 h Glucose. Sydney. 8 Healthy. Super Supreme.

egg Fettucine. OH. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Glucose. chocolate fudge brownie (Abbott Australasia) 506 Ensure Plus. Australia) 521 Fettucine. 5 Type 1. 2 h — Bread. 10 Healthy. 10 Bread. 8 Healthy. New Zealand) 514 Resource fruit beverage. Auckland. Rydalmere. 12 Bread. egg Fettucine. 2 h Glucose. 11 Healthy. vanilla (Abbott Australasia) 507 Ensure Pudding. 7 Healthy. USA)6 511 Resource Diabetic. US) 502 Enercal Plus. 3 h Glucose. USA) PASTA AND NOODLES 519 Capellini (Primo Foods Ltd. 2 h Bread. 2 h Glucose. vanilla (Abbott Laboratories Inc. 7–10 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Glucose. NJ. Swiss chocolate (Novartis. egg (Mother Earth Fine Foods. 10 Glucose. 10 Healthy. New Zealand) 512 Resource thickened orange juice. 5 h27 84 84 84 84 — 8 90 100 100 100 100 100 237 mL 24 237 mL 40 71 69 61 57 51 44 69 49 Healthy. New Zealand) 513 Resource thickened orange juice. Rowville. 2 h Bread. Australia) Mean of 2 studies 522 Gluten-free pasta. USA)6 509 Jevity (Abbott Australasia) 510 Resource Diabetic. 10 Healthy. gluten-free (Orgran Natural Foods. Evansville. NS (Latina. 8 Glucose. nectar consistency (Novartis. Pillsbury Australia Ltd. 6 Type 1. 2 h 91 25 — 18 13 180 180 180 180 180 46 46 46 42 48 15 22 18 22 33 (Continued) . Dutch Chocolate (Mead Johnson. 2 h Glucose. Young America. 2 h 25 25 25 25 UO4 UO4 237 mL 41 237 mL 39 237 mL 36 237 mL 41 250 mL 41 250 mL 44 19 21 14 13 13 15 Healthy. drink made from powdered mix (Mead Johnson. vanilla. 10 Healthy. 3 h Bread.INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) 79 ± 10 89 ± 9 73 ± 6 95 ± 9 84 ± 11 33 87 Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference 37 Food number and item Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 47 38 44 44 44 26 23 23 30 26 6 19 498 White bread with skim milk cheese (Canada) 499 White bread with butter and skim milk cheese (Canada) 500 White and whole-meal wheat bread with peanut butter (Canada) White and whole-meal wheat bread with peanut butter (Canada) Mean of 2 studies NUTRITIONAL-SUPPORT PRODUCTS 501 Choicedm. New Zealand) 515 Sustagen. IN. Carrum Downs. old-fashioned vanilla (Abbott Laboratories Inc. 3 h Bread. 3 h Bread. Australia) 518 Ultracal with fiber (Mead Johnson. Kurnell. 11 Healthy. Australia) 504 Ensure. 10 Bread. Bristol Myers Squibb. 3 h — Bread. 2 h Glucose. 8 Healthy. made from powdered mix (Mead Johnson. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Glucose. Australia) 517 Sustagen Instant Pudding. vanilla (Mead Johnson Nutritionals. maize starch. made from powder (Wyeth-Ayerst International Inc. Toronto. 2 h UO4 1 UO4 237 mL 29 180 180 45 42 12 20 32 46 67 57 ± 11 77 ± 18 97 Healthy. Mt Waverley. 2 h 8 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 237 mL 40 250 mL 34 38 20 237 mL 47 113 26 237 mL 23 237 mL 36 237 mL 23 19 16 8 19 9 7 17 8 23 67 77 57 44 ± 6 47 ± 6 38 ± 4 55 ± 16 64 ± 8 111 Healthy. French vanilla (Novartis Nutrition Corp. vanilla (Abbott Australasia) 505 Ensure bar. Canada) 520 Corn pasta. US) 503 Ensure (Abbott Australasia. 6 Type 2. 2 h Glucose. 2 h UO4 250 47 13 40 45 78 ± 10 32 ± 4 47 ± 6 40 ± 8 54 68 ± 9 Healthy. Ashland. peach flavor (Novartis. Australia) 55 62 51 67 59 ± 8 23 ± 4 61 ± 13 50 ± 8 48 ± 3 43 ± 3 40 ± 4 36 ± 4 31 ± 2 48 ± 3 34 ± 3 16 ± 4 47 ± 9 54 ± 7 40 ± 8 31 ± 4 33 ± 4 27 ± 3 Type 2. 7–10 Healthy. boiled 8 min (UK) 523 Gnocchi. 11 Healthy. USA) 508 Glucerna. 2 h Bread. 11 Healthy. honey consistency (Novartis. 10 Healthy. 6 — Healthy. MN. 14 — Healthy. 10 Healthy. 10 Healthy. 10 Bread. Australia) 516 Sustagen Hospital with extra fiber. Madison. 2 h Bread. 8 Type 1 and 2. 2 h Glucose.

6 Healthy. 2 h 19 92 180 180 180 41 41 45 45 18 22 23 12 Type 1 and 2. 2 h Glucose. gluten-free. 0. 2 h UO4 220 27 19 27 38 ± 4 45 ± 6 Type 1 and 2. Catelli Ltd. 2 h 73 — 93 32 — 1 91 180 — 180 180 180 180 180 45 — 49 49 48 51 38 18 — 22 23 23 32 15 87 ± 9 57 ± 6 131 109 83 ± 5 Healthy. type 1. 6 Glucose. durum wheat flour. 8 Healthy. boiled 3 min (Sweden) Thin. fresh. plain. 2 h Bread. 1. 2 h — 19 92 180 180 180 48 48 48 22 23 29 45 53 52 ± 3 26 Healthy. freshly made. Qingdao and Guangdong. Maggi (Nestlé. 3 h Glucose. 3 h 93 180 48 15 (Continued) . boiled 7 min (Catelli Plus. rice and split pea. boiled 5 min (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd. fresh. durum wheat flour. boiled 16 min (Rice Grower’s Co-op. brown. Oils and Foodstuffs. 15 Type 1 and 2. protein enriched. plain. 12 Healthy. (Sweden) Thin. Vancouver. 1. Kongmoon (National Cereals. durum wheat flour.6% (by wt) monoglycerides. fresh. 10 Glucose. 9 — Bread. 12 Healthy. New Zealand) Instant noodles (Mr Noodle. 10 Healthy. Bangkok. 2 h Bread. 3 h Glucose. 9 Glucose.6% (by wt) monoglycerides. durum wheat. 13 Bread. 0. 3 h 73 73 48 UO4 1 180 180 180 180 180 39 39 38 49 39 23 15 35 37 22 68 ± 9 97 Healthy. boiled (Yantai cereals. fresh (Sweden) Thick. 3 h 1 180 39 ± 9 33 ± 7 45 48 47 ± 2 64 39 ± 1 61 ± 6 40 ± 4 92 ± 8 76 ± 6 58 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. Canada) Mean of 3 studies 525 Linguine Thick. boiled 5 min Boiled 5 min (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd. durum wheat (Sweden) Thin. Don Mills. 3 h — Bread. with 0. 2 h 13 25 1 — 19 92 — — — 180 180 180 46 ± 3 49 61 — Healthy. boiled (Turkey) Mean of 2 studies Macaroni and cheese. Oils and Foodstuffs. boiled 8 min (Sweden) Mean of 2 studies Thin. 31 — Type 1 and 2. boiled (Australia) Rice pasta. China) Mean of 2 studies 527 Macaroni Macaroni. boiled (Thai World. white. Australia) Instant two-minute noodles. Montreal. 2 h — Bread. Ris’O’Mais (Orgran Foods. 9 Healthy. Canada) Macaroni. Australia) Rice vermicelli. 1. 10 Healthy. 9 Bread. boxed (Kraft General Foods Canada Inc.38 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving — — — 40 48 48 — — — 19 21 23 524 Instant noodles Instant two-minute noodles.6% (by wt) monoglycerides and 30% (by wt) egg. 2 h — Bread. Australia) 531 Spaghetti. boiled (Australia) 529 Rice noodles and pasta Rice noodles. 13 Type 2. Maggi (Nestlé. 12 — Type 1 and 2. 2 h Glucose. gluten-free. 9 Bread. boiled 3 min (Sweden) Mean of 4 studies 526 Mung bean noodles Lungkow bean-thread noodles (National Cereals.5 h Bread. China) Mung bean noodles (Longkou bean thread). Australia) Rice and maize pasta. 52. 9 Type 1 and 2.5 h Bread. dried. dried. meat-filled. 10 Healthy. China) Spaghetti 530 Spaghetti. 13 Bread. Thailand) Rice noodles. white. 2 h Bread.5 h Bread. Canada) 46 ± 5 48 ± 8 47 47 ± 1 43 48 66 69 67 ± 8 67 ± 2 62 ± 11 68 ± 13 65 ± 3 70 ± 9 87 ± 13 64 ± 11 76 ± 13 74 ± 5 37 ± 6 56 ± 13 47 ± 10 64 ± 8 69 67 ± 3 92 ± 5 56 Healthy. 10 — Healthy. durum wheat with 39% (by wt) egg. Canada) 532 Spaghetti. canned in tomato sauce (Orgran Foods. Canada) 528 Ravioli. 9 Bread. 3 h 93 180 52 14 32 Type 1 and 2. fresh.

7 Glucose. 9 Type 1 and 2. Montreal Canada) White (Australia) White (Canada) White (Canada) White (Vetta. boiled 20 min (USA) Mean of 2 studies 535 Spaghetti. 3 h Bread. France) Boiled in 0. 3 h Bread. durum wheat semolina (Panzani. 12 — Type 2. durum wheat flour. 3 h Glucose. boiled 5 min (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd. Canada) Boiled 15 min (Canada) White. boiled (Australia) 34 40 44 38 ± 3 Type 2.7% salted water for 16. 2 h Glucose.5 min Boiled in 0. durum wheat. durum wheat. boiled 10–15 min White. boiled 20 min (Australia) Durum wheat. 3 h Bread. number NS Healthy. 6 — Bread. Glendenning. 3 h Bread. 3 h Bread. 4 Healthy. 10 Bread. 3 h Glucose. 12 Healthy. boiled 15 min in salted water (Unico. 12 Healthy. 9 Type 2. 6 Type 2. boiled Whole meal (USA) Whole meal (Canada) Mean of 2 studies 538 Spirali. 2 h — 92 93 22 22 UO4 — 48 9 — 94 38 41 30 20 UO4 3 — 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 48 48 48 48 48 48 44 43 44 48 48 44 48 48 44 48 47 25 15 17 20 21 21 26 27 27 16 16 17 20 23 22 24 20 84 93 66 81 ± 8 46 ± 7 60 53 ± 7 61 41 54 ± 6 71 ± 5 43 50 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. Nestlé. 10 Healthy. Parma. 3 h Glucose. Kungsörnen AB. boiled to al denté texture (Australia) 539 Split pea and soya pasta shells. 13 Type 2. Canada) 542 Udon noodles. 2 h Bread. 6 — Healthy. Australia) 540 Star Pastina. Marseilles. white. 13 Type 1 and 2. 3 h Bread. 3 h — Bread.INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) 49 ± 7 57 ± 8 63 ± 9 54 ± 4 83 ± 16 67 ± 10 76 ± 12 46 ± 5 52 ± 7 59 ± 11 63 64 ± 5 83 91 87 ± 4 47 ± 9 48 ± 5 54 ± 13 60 ± 9 68 70 ± 10 71 60 ± 4 Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference 39 Food number and item Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 48 48 48 48 16 19 21 18 Boiled 5 min (Canada) Boiled 5 min (Canada) Boiled 5 min (Middle East) Mean of 4 studies 533 Spaghetti. 2 h Glucose. white or type NS. Canada) 541 Tortellini.6% (by wt) monoglycerides. boiled 12 min (Sweden) Boiled 15 min (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd. white. 7 — Bread. Greens Foods. durum wheat flour. Sweden) White. 3 h Bread. 2 h Glucose. reheated 5 min (Fantastic. Don Mills. 8 Healthy. Australia) White (Canada) Mean of 7 studies 536 Spaghetti. Järna. time NS Bread. plain. 7 Type 1. Italy)12 White. 3 — Type 2. 6 Diabetic. 3 h Glucose. durum wheat (Catelli Ltd. 9 Type 1 and 2. 2 h — Glucose. boiled 10 min in salty water (Barilla. Australia)6 543 Vermicelli. 12 Healthy. white. 2. 2 h — Bread. white or type NS. 2 h 37 19 180 180 48 48 28 23 53 32 36 41 44 ± 3 44 ± 3 58 ± 7 64 ± 15 61 ± 3 33 34 38 42 48 49 ± 7 50 ± 8 42 ± 3 59 ± 15 65 ± 15 46 ± 10 57 ± 6 32 42 ± 4 37 ± 5 43 ± 10 29 ± 6 38 50 62 ± 8 35 ± 7 Healthy. 11 Type 1. boiled White (Denmark) White. Windsor Gardens. 10 — Healthy. gluten-free (Orgran Foods. boiled 12 min (Starhushålls. 3 h Bread. 3 h Glucose. Canada) Mean of 7 studies 534 Spaghetti. white. boiled 20 min White. 3 h Glucose. Concord. 10 Healthy. 2 h Bread.7% salted water for 22 min Mean of 3 cooking times 537 Spaghetti. cheese (Stouffer. 10 Type 2. 2 h 95 95 95 — 41 3 — 91 UO4 93 1 UO4 91 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 48 48 48 48 44 40 42 44 31 48 21 48 44 28 31 22 27 14 17 16 19 9 18 10 30 16 (Continued) . 6 Type 1. 3 h — Bread. 3 h — 22 93 22 — 180 180 180 180 58 47 Healthy.8 h Bread. whole meal. durum wheat.7% salted water for 11 min Boiled in 0. white. 8 Healthy. Canada) Boiled 15 min (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd. 0. 8 Healthy. 6 Type 2.

10 Healthy. milk (Cadbury’s Confectionery. 8 Healthy. New Zealand) Heinz Kidz Fruit Fingers. 10–12 Healthy. milk (Nestlé. 8 Healthy. Canada) Mean of 3 studies 548 Fruit bars Apricot filled fruit bar (puréed dried apricot filling in whole-meal pastry) (Mother Earth. vitamin. milk (Dove. milk. Smith’s Snack Food Co. peanut (Mars Confectionery. 2 h — Bread. 1985) Nachips (Old El Paso Foods Co. Nestlé. 2 h — Bread. Mars Confectionery. 10 Glucose. low-sugar with maltitol (Belgium)6 546 Chocolate. Sydney. 12 — Healthy. 10–12 Healthy. milk. Grocery Holdings. Australia) 547 Corn chips Corn chips. 10 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 10–12 Healthy. 10 Healthy. strawberry (Uncle Toby’s. apricot (Blackmores Ltd. plain Chocolate. Australia. fruit leather-type snack (Uncle Toby’s. milk. assorted colors (Savings. 2 h 96 2 17 UO4 — 96 UO4 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 22 30 30 31 28 22 29 7 14 13 13 12 8 13 60 ± 5 103 Healthy. 7 Bread. plain. salted (Doritos original. 10 Glucose. 2 h 17 3 — 2 60 60 60 30 40 40 40 21 25 27 26 13 (Continued) . berry (Blackmores Ltd. 10 Healthy. Australia) Mean of 4 studies Chocolate. Ballarat. 2 h Glucose. Hackettstown. assorted colors (Allen’s. 3 h Glucose. barbeque-flavored (Smith’s Snack Food Co. plain. banana (HJ Heinz. 2 h Glucose. 1998) Corn chips. 10 Bread. 8 Healthy. 6 Type 1 and 2. Australia) 554 Mars Bar Mars Bar (Mars Confectionery. Tooronga. Nestlé. 2 h UO4 UO4 UO4 30 30 30 20 26 25 12 23 24 99 ± 12 142 ± 18 42 ± 3 35 ± 4 41 ± 3 39 ± 2 80 ± 8 76 ± 6 78 ± 2 62 ± 8 70 ± 6 33 ± 3 62 ± 8 68 ± 12 65 ± 3 61 ± 7 61 50 58 56 ± 3 114 109 112 ± 3 89 100 47 Healthy. Australia) 549 Fruity Bitz. 10 — Healthy. Australia) Jelly beans. 2 h Glucose. 6 — Healthy. salted (Doritos original. tropical (Blackmores Ltd. 10–12 Glucose. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Glucose. USA) 552 Life Savers. 2 h Bread. 2 h — Glucose. Australia) 553 M & M’s. 2 h Bread. 8 Healthy. 9 — Healthy. 2 h Bread. Australia. 2 h UO4 50 49 70 64 60 61 ± 4 50 63 Healthy. 3 h Bread. 2 h — Bread. Chatswood.40 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 31 28 SNACK FOODS AND CONFECTIONERY 544 Burger Rings. 8 Healthy. Wahgunyah. white (Milky Bar. Australia) Chocolate. plain. 2 h Bread. chocolate chip (M & M/Mars. Australia) 545 Chocolate. 2 h Glucose. NJ.and mineral-enriched dried fruit snacks Fruity Bitz. 2 h — Glucose. 10 Glucose. Australia) Chocolate. Australia) Fruity Bitz. Ringwood. Australia) 90 ± 16 34 ± 5 49 ± 6 45 ± 8 42 ± 8 43 ± 3 35 ± 16 44 ± 6 42 ± 4 72 129 Healthy. peppermint candy (Nestlé. Australia) Roll-Ups. 2 h UO4 47 1 — 25 50 50 50 50 50 25 25 29 26 34 11 18 21 17 17 74 106 ± 8 63 ± 10 90 ± 15 50 ± 8 61 ± 11 90 ± 12 71 87 129 Healthy. Smith’s Snack Food Co. 2 h UO4 UO4 UO4 — 2 UO4 — 17 2 17 15 15 15 15 — — 30 50 30 30 12 12 11 12 — — 28 32 30 17 5 4 5 4 — — 22 20 21 6 89 97 93 ± 4 87 Healthy. Australia) Mars Bar (M & M/Mars. 10 Healthy. Australia) Mean of 2 studies 551 Kudos Whole-Grain Bars. Australia) Fruity Bitz. USA) Mean of 2 studies 555 Muesli bar containing dried fruit (Uncle Toby’s. 10 — Healthy. 2 h Glucose. Australia) Real Fruit Bars. Australia) Mean of 3 flavors 550 Jelly beans Jelly beans. plain with sucrose (Belgium)6 Chocolate.

plain. Australia) Potato crisps. cheese-flavored. 2 h Bread. 10 Type 1 and 2. 21. 3 h — Bread. CA. 2 h Bread. 12 — Healthy. rice and corn (Smith’s Snackfood Co. 6 Healthy.INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference 41 Food number and item Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 12 12 4 4 556 Nougat. 3 h Bread. apple cinnamon (Con Agra Inc. 2 h Bread. Spain) 557 Nutella. Berkeley. 2 h 29 3 98 — 13 UO4 — UO4 50 50 50 50 20 20 20 50 4 7 7 6 11 11 11 35 0 1 2 1 6 10 8 24 72 ± 17 103 ± 24 70 ± 2 100 57 51 ± 7 54 ± 3 83 ± 9 70 ± 5 40 ± 8 37 ± 6 41 ± 5 68 55 ± 14 74 ± 5 44 ± 6 81 73 77 ± 4 119 Healthy. 3 h 1 1 1 250 mL 27 250 mL 41 250 mL 21 17 27 9 (Continued) . 2 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. 2 h 17 60 39 17 58 ± 5 53 56 ± 3 39 83 ± 7 75 79 ± 4 55 Healthy. USA) Snack bar. type 2. 2 h Glucose. 10–12 Healthy. 2 h 97 17 30 20 22 ± 5 7±4 13 ± 6 23 14 ± 8 55 ± 7 89 31 Healthy. plain. oven-baked. 12 Healthy. 6 Type 1 and 2. caramel (M & M/Mars. Smith’s Snack Food Co. 10 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. salted (Coles Supermarkets. Canada) 32 33 ± 4 46 47 Healthy. Australia)6 559 Peanuts Peanuts. 2 h Bread. 10–12 Bread. 5 Healthy. Australia) Snickers Bar (M & M/Mars. 8 Glucose. San Diego. Australia) 562 Potato crisps Potato crisps. 10 Bread. 10–12 Healthy. 12 Bread. cooked in microwave oven (Green’s Foods. CA. 2 h Bread. traditional wheat flavor (Parker’s. 2 h — Glucose. 9 Bread. 10 Glucose. 2 h UO4 50 13 3 10 19 33 ± 17 21 ± 12 79 127 Healthy. canned (Campbell Soup Co Ltd. Homebush. Milson’s Point. USA) 566 Snickers Bar Snickers Bar (Mars Confectionery. plain. extruded snack. 6 Healthy. Australia) 564 Skittles (Mars Confectionery. Toronto. 10 Bread. plain. USA) SPORTS BARS 569 Power Bar (Powerfood Inc. salted (Canada) Mean of 2 studies 563 Pretzels. 27 — Healthy. USA) 572 Green pea. 3 h Bread. Australia) 568 Twix Cookie Bar. peanut butter and choc-chip (Con Agra Inc. salted (Arnott’s. USA) SOUPS 571 Black bean (Wil-Pack Foods. chocolate Power Bar. 7 Healthy. Australia) Popcorn. San Pedro. Australia) Mean of 2 studies 561 Pop Tarts. double chocolate (Kellogg’s. USA) Power Bar. 2 h 17 UO4 UO4 50 50 50 45 29 27 32 12 10 59 97 78 ± 19 106 Healthy. 10–12 Bread. chocolate Mean of 2 studies 570 Ironman PR bar. chocolate hazelnut spread (Ferrero Australia. 10 Glucose. 2 h 17 99 99 — — 65 65 — — 42 26 — — 24 10 64 66 44 92 ± 9 94 ± 7 63 ± 6 Type 1 and 2. chocolate (PR Nutrition. 10 Healthy. CA. Jijona (La Fama. Canada) 573 Lentil. Australia) Nuts 558 Cashew nuts. 8 Healthy. 7 Healthy. Australia) 565 Snack bars Snack bar. 2 h 47 3 13 50 50 50 30 18 24 21 20 10 12 11 16 100 57 ± 11 53 ± 9 Healthy. crushed (South Africa)6 Peanuts (Canada)6 Peanuts (Mexico)6 Mean of 3 studies 560 Popcorn Popcorn. 2 h Bread. cooked in microwave oven (Uncle Toby’s. canned (Unico. 2 h Bread. 12 Healthy. 2 h 17 99 UO4 60 60 60 50 36 34 35 29 15 23 19 22 63 Healthy. 2 h Bread. USA) Mean of 2 studies 567 Twisties.

USA) 25-g portion fed with oats28 Mean of 6 studies 581 Glucose 50-g portion (dextrose) 25-g portion. 9 Healthy. Canada)6 103 50-g portion (dextrose) 111 100-g portion (Bio-Health.42 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) 39 ± 3 1 60 20 38 ± 9 11 ± 1 10 ± 1 GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference 4 Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 7 0 16 574 Minestrone. fed with oats28 50-g portion 50-g portion (dextrose) 50-g portion 56 1 86 ± 12 29 54 Healthy.5 g oat gum (78% oat 57 -glucan) 112 Type 2. 102 ± 9 Boots. 97% fructose (Western Commerce Corp. 610 Healthy. 3 h Bread. 2 h Bread.5 h — Glucose. 10 — Healthy. 7 Glucose. Traditional.5 g guar gum 62 50 g Glucose + 14. 2 h 101 10 10 8 115 109 112 ± 3 113 Type 2. 2 h Bread. 5 h23 Type 2. Canada) 50-g portion 50-g portion 50-g portion (Sigma Chemical Company. 2 h Glucose. high-fructose Organic agave cactus nectar. time NS Type 2. USA) 577 Tarhana soup (traditional Turkish soup with wheat flour. Australia) (total carbohydrate content of drink = 50 g) 50 g Glucose + 14. 2 h Bread. 8 Healthy. tomato. North Ryde. 9 Bread. 2 h UO 250 mL 18 250 mL 9 32 1 32 3 250 mL 27 250 mL 17 6 16 ± 1 14 ± 1 16 ± 5 16 ± 6 29 30 34 35 ± 12 27 ± 4 121 131 ± 13 132 137 137 137 ± 22 143 146 147 ± 18 158 163 ± 28 141 ± 4 Healthy. 9 Glucose. City of Industry. 2 h Glucose. IGT. 8 — Bread. 2 h Glucose. 5 Glucose. Canada)6 50-g portion (Sweeten Less. 3 h Glucose. 2 h UO4 10 8 1 11 12 20 ± 5 21 24 25 19 ± 2 85 92 93 96 96 Healthy. type 2. 52 Healthy. Toronto. MO. 2 h 101 101 — UO4 — — 10 10 — — 10 8 — — 8 6 88 82 Healthy. 7 Healthy. 2 h UO4 10 8 1 Healthy. Australia)6 575 Noodle soup (traditional Turkish soup with stock and noodles) 576 Split pea (Wil-Pak Foods. 10 Healthy. 6 Healthy. Rougier 78 Inc. 2 h 100 100 3 23 6 49 — 52 49 28 51 20 100 3 2 100 54 100 — — — — — — — 10 — — — — — — — — — — — 10 — — — — — — 10 — — — — — — — — — — — 10 — — — — — — 2 — — — — — — — — — — — 10 Healthy. 2 h Bread. Quebec) with 3 g dried ginseng8 583 Glucodex 25 g glucose (Glucodex) 40 min after 3 g 80 dried ginseng8 25 g glucose (Glucodex) 40 min before 76 3 g dried ginseng8 Mean of 2 groups of subjects 78 ± 2 584 Glucose consumed with gum fiber 46 g Glucose + 15 g apple and orange 79 ± 3 fiber extract (FITA. 8 Bread. Canada) 50-g portion 100 50-g portion (Glucodin glucose tablets. 8 Healthy. 20 Type 2. number NS Healthy. 31. 5 Healthy. Australia) 25-g portion (Bio-Health. 10 Glucose. 3 h Bread. Toronto. light. St Louis. 2 h Bread. time NS Bread. light. Maximum Nutrition Inc.) 582 25 g glucose (Glucodex solution. 1. 8 Healthy. 5. Dawson 96 Traders Ltd. 16 Diabetic. 2 h 102 102 10 10 10 10 6 6 (Continued) . 2 h Glucose. number NS Glucose. Maximum Nutrition Inc. yogurt. Homebush. 90% fructose (Western Commerce Corp. 3 h Bread. Chambly. Canada)12 114 Mean of 11 studies 99 ± 3 Glucose consumed with American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L. 2 h Type 2. 52 Type 1 and 2. 6 — Type 2. 3 h Glucose. and peppers) 578 Tomato soup (Canada) SUGARS AND SUGAR ALCOHOLS 579 Blue agave cactus nectar. USA)6 Organic agave cactus nectar. type 2. Country Ladle (Campbell’s Soups. 35 Healthy. 10 Healthy. 6 Type 2. 2 h Wheat. CA. Chatswood. 3 h — Bread. 2 h — 50-g portion (Bio-Health. 9 Bread. USA)6 580 Fructose 25-g portion (Sweeten Less. 31. 5 Glucose. 9 Glucose. 2 h Glucose.

10 Healthy. 3 h — 6 72 49 3 6 100 3 23 100 49 29 99 70 96 — 59 ± 10 84 60 86 60 86 ± 9 64 91 ± 18 65 ± 9 93 65 94 ± 14 82 117 ± 22 110 ± 21 157 68 ± 5 97 ± 7 — — — — — — — — 10 — — — — — — — — 10 — — — — — — — — 7 1±7 3±1 2±3 7±2 4±2 1 4 3±4 5 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 9 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 3 h Glucose. 3 h14 103 53 10 — 57 81 Glucose. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Bread.5 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. 3 h14 53 — — — 56 ± 1 32 35 ± 4 44 ± 4 46 ± 3 48 ± 3 52 ± 5 58 ± 6 62 ± 3 64 ± 5 72 ± 6 87 ± 8 55 ± 5 43 48 48 46 ± 2 105 ± 12 58 58 80 ± 1 46 50 63 66 69 74 83 89 91 103 124 78 ± 7 61 68 ± 8 69 ± 10 66 ± 3 150 83 83 ± 15 — Glucose. 5 h23 Bread. 8 Healthy. 5 h23 Bread. 2 h — Glucose. 8 — Glucose. 2 h Glucose. Australia) Commercial blend.INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) 7 43 Food number and item GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period 12 Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 10 — 9 — 100 g Glucose + 20 g acacia gum 585 Glucose consumed with a mixed meal 30 g glucose with 150 g grilled beefburger. and 10 g butter (total meal contained 50 g carbohydrate) (France) 30 g glucose with 150 g grilled beefburger. Vilvoorde. 2 h Bread. 6 Healthy. 10 Healthy. Canada)6 25 g sucrose6. 12 Type 2. 3 h Glucose. USA) 25 g lactose (BDH. 9 Healthy. 42% fructose (Australia)6 Pure (Capilano Honey Ltd. UK)30 Mean of 2 studies 591 Litesse 25 g Litesse II. Canada)12 30 g sucrose29 25 g sucrose6 Mean of 10 studies Sugar alcohols and sugar-replacement compounds 590 Lactitol 25 g lactitol30 25 g lactitol MC (Danisco Sweeteners. bulking agent with polydextrose and sorbitol (Danisco Sweeteners. 52% fructose (Australia)6 Red gum. 6 Healthy. Richlands. 34% fructose (Australia)6 Yapunya. Poole. 7 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 38% fructose (WA blend. 2 h Glucose. Canada) 50 g sucrose 50 g sucrose 25 g sucrose (Redpath Sugars. 2 h Bread. 28% fructose (NSW blend. 10 Glucose. Australia)6 Honey. 2 h Glucose. 3 h Glucose. 10 Type 2. 7 Healthy. 32 Healthy. bulking agent with polydextrose and sorbitol (Danisco Sweeteners. 2 h 105 UO4 — UO4 — — 10 10 — — 10 10 — — 0 1 6 Healthy. 10 — Healthy. 46% fructose (Australia)6 Stringy bark. 8 Type 2. 8 Type 2. 10 Glucose. 6 Glucose. 9 Healthy. 8 Healthy. NS (Canada)6 Mean of 11 types of honey 587 Lactose 50 g lactose (Sigma Chemical Co. UK)6 25 g lactose28 Mean of 3 studies 588 50 g maltose 589 Sucrose 50 g sucrose (Sigma Chemical Co. 7 Healthy. Capilano Honey Ltd. number NS Healthy. UK)30 25 g Litesse III ultra. 2 h Glucose. 14 (sulfonylureas taken) — Type 2. time NS Bread. 9 Healthy. 35% fructose (Australia)6 Iron bark. Australia)6 Salvation Jane. 5 Type 2. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Glucose. Belgium)30 85 55 121 79 Healthy. USA)8 50 g sucrose (Redpath Sugars. 32% fructose (Australia)6 Commercial blend. 14 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 16 (sulfonylureas not taken) Type 2. 2 h Glucose. Capilano Honey Ltd. 2 h — 104 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 UO4 3 250 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 — — — 10 10 — 35 21 18 21 18 15 17 21 18 15 13 21 18 — — — 10 10 — 20 7 6 9 8 7 9 12 11 10 9 18 10 — — — 5 11 — Type 2. 9 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. and 10 g butter (total meal contained 50 g carbohydrate) (France) Mean of 2 groups of subjects 586 Honey Locust honey (Romania)6 Yellow box. Redhill. 6 Type 2. 2. 2 h UO4 10 10 0 (Continued) . 2 h Glucose. 10 Healthy. Toronto. 30 g cheese. 30 g cheese. 8 Healthy. UK)30 592 Maltitol-based sweeteners or bulking agents (Cerestar. Surrey.28 50 g sucrose 100 g sucrose (Redpath Sugars.

heated in microwave (Green Giant. Pillsbury Canada Ltd. diet-pack. heated (USA) Sweet corn. 16 Diabetic. 3 h — — Healthy. 9 Bread. IGT. 3 h 1 106 52 28 51 — 107 25 1 47 150 — — — — 150 150 150 150 150 30 — — — — 30 17 25 27 26 18 — — — — 26 17 18 16 14 94 134 111 158 85 ± 12 121 ± 16 101 ± 15 144 ± 22 70 ± 17 100 58 83 ± 5 56 80 Type 2. 2 h Glucose. 3 h Glucose. drained. 8 Healthy. 6 Type 2. baked without fat (USA) Mean of 4 studies 604 Boiled potato Desiree. 5 Type 2. boiled 20 min (Australia) Sweet corn (Canada) Sweet corn. 5 Glucose. 2 h Bread. white. frozen. 2 h Bread. boiled. peeled. 9 Healthy. peeled. 12–15 — Healthy. 2 h — Bread. 3 h 1 80 15 7 64 ± 16 16 32 ± 5 49 ± 2 92 ± 20 47 ± 16 46 97 ± 19 91 23 46 70 131 68 ± 23 65 ± 12 139 Healthy. UK)30 25 g Xylitol 25 g Xylitol C Mean of 2 studies VEGETABLES 594 Broad beans (Canada)6 595 Green peas Pea. boiled (Sydney. canned. 2 h — Bread. 20 Glucose.8 Carrots. 3 h Glucose. Australia)6 Carrots. 16 Healthy. 8 Healthy. 3 h Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 30 Healthy. time NS Bread. 5 Healthy. NS (Canada)6 Mean of 4 studies 600 Cassava. 8 Type 1 and 2. IGT. 8 Healthy. boiled 35 min (Australia) Nardine (New Zealand) Ontario. 45–60 min (USA) Russet. 2 h Glucose. 3 h Glucose. 7 Healthy. boiled (Canada)6 Pea. 20 Bread. 7 — Type 2. 8 Healthy. 5. Toronto. frozen. whole-kernel. 6 Healthy. 16 Type 2. white. boiled (Canada)6 Pea. 16 Bread. baked without fat (Canada) Russet. 3 h Glucose. baked in skin (Canada) 603 Baked. 3 h Glucose. 2 h Glucose. with salt (Kenya. number NS Healthy. 5. 8 Healthy. 610 Bread. 7 Type 2. 3 h Bread. cut into cubes. 2 h (Continued) .5 h Glucose. honey and pearl variety (New Zealand) Sweet corn on the cob. 2 h Glucose. 6 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 2 h 3 104 UO4 85 3 — 40 3 80 80 80 80 80 80 100 80 7 8 5 5 6 6 27 12 5 1 1 2 5 3 12 12 60 56 78 85 ± 4 80 ± 5 112 Type 1 and 2. 2. russet Burbank potatoes Russet. 2 h Glucose. boiled (Australia)6 Carrots. 6 Bread. 3 h 96 96 96 96 105 UO4 — 3 20 3 65 — 29 25 47 3 51 28 29 — 52 10 10 10 10 — — 10 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 47 67 ± 4 Type 1 and 2. 10 — Healthy. boiled whole for 30 min (Australia) 43 63 104 127 10 12 11 ± 1 113 55 73 77 68 ± 7 107 53 69 84 86 85 89 78 ± 6 66 Healthy. raw (Romania)6. 6 Healthy. Canada) Root vegetables 598 Beetroot (Canada)6 599 Carrots Carrots. frozen. baked without fat (USA) Russet. 3 h Glucose. 5 — Type 2. baked without fat. 2 h — Glucose. boiled in salted water 15 min (Canada) Pontiac. 2 h Glucose. 8 Healthy. 610 Healthy. 3 h22 — Glucose. 14 Healthy. peeled. 2 h Glucose.44 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) 30 ± 12 44 ± 11 73 ± 29 89 ± 28 7±7 8±2 8±1 79 ± 16 39 51 ± 6 54 ± 14 48 ± 5 75 ± 9 37 ± 12 48 59 ± 11 60 60 62 ± 5 54 ± 4 46 GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 10 10 10 10 — — 10 11 7 7 7 7 4 16 16 18 18 18 18 17 14 3 4 7 9 — 1 9 3 4 4 3 3 6 8 11 11 11 11 9 7 25 g Malbit CR (87% maltitol) 25 g Maltidex 100 (>72% maltitol) 25 g Malbit CH (99% maltitol) 25 g Maltidex 200 (50% maltitol) 593 Xylitol (Danisco Sweeteners. 3 h Glucose. boiled (USA) Sweet corn (South Africa) Mean of 6 studies Sweet corn. 10 Healthy. peeled. 3 h Bread. green (Pisum sativum) (India)11 Mean of 3 studies 596 Pumpkin (South Africa) 597 Sweet corn Sweet corn. boiled (USA) Sweet corn. peeled. Featherweight. time NS Glucose. 2 h Glucose. Africa) 601 Parsnips (Canada)6 Potato 602 Baked potato Ontario.

3 h22 White bread. reheated (India) 606 Canned potatoes Prince Edward Island. boiled in salted water (Italy) Healthy. 10 Bread. steamed 1 h (Solanum tuberosum) (India)11 Potato dumplings (white-wheat flour. 2 h Glucose. 3 Healthy.INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) 88 ± 9 63 87 ± 7 24 41 54 56 76 50 ± 9 23 GI2 (Bread = 100) 125 ± 13 90 ± 7 124 ± 10 34 ± 9 59 77 ± 8 80 ± 9 108 72 ± 12 33 Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference 45 Food number and item Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 18 18 17 28 30 27 19 34 28 34 16 11 14 7 12 15 11 26 14 8 Pontiac. Lewisville. 3 h — Bread. 10 — Diabetic. time NS Bread. 8 Diabetic. Canada) New. Canada) 608 Instant mashed potato Instant (France) Instant (Canada) Instant (Edgell’s Potato Whip. 2 h Bread. 6 Healthy. 9 Bread. Australia) Mean of 2 studies 607 French fries French fries. reheated in microwave (Cavendish Farms. boiled in salted water (India) Mean of 5 studies Type NS. boiled 35 min (Australia) 605 Boiled or cooked. 2 h — Bread. peeled and microwave on high for 6–7. cubed. mashed (Australia) 610 Microwaved potato Pontiac. 3 h — Bread. 3 h 107 1 107 40 104 106 108 57 — 57 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 61 87 ± 8 93 ± 13 90 ± 3 107 ± 6 Type 1 and 2. 7 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. number NS Type 2. boiled (Australia) Type NS. heated in microwave 3 min (Mint Tiny Taters. USA) Mean of 6 studies 609 Mashed potato Type NS (Canada) Type NS (South Africa) Type NS (France) Mean of 3 studies Prince Edward Island. Manitoba. boiled 15 min. Cheltenham. 6 Healthy. peeled. white potatoes. 30 Diabetic NS. cubed. 10 Type 1 and 2. 2 h Bread. 14 Type 2. white or type NS Type NS (Kenya. 6 Type 1 and 2. 3 h Glucose. 3 h Bread. 17 Glucose. 10 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 2 h — Bread. unpeeled and boiled 20 min (Australia) 612 Steamed potato Potato. boiled 35 min (Australia) Prince Edward Island. time NS Glucose. 8 Healthy. 7 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 7 Healthy. ID. time NS Bread. canned. Port Williams. boiled in salted water 15 min (Canada) Sebago. 3 h Glucose. cooked (Romania)6 White. 12 Healthy. 10 Type 2. 3 h 9 3 47 1 106 UO4 — 106 29 55 — 1 107 — 107 4 20 30 3 — 107 65 31 — — — — — — 150 — — — 150 150 150 150 150 150 — — — — — — 20 — — — 20 18 20 21 18 33 — — — — — — 17 — — — 15 13 18 12 14 27 67 96 ± 7 71 ± 10 101 83 118 ± 12 74 ± 5 105 ± 7 73 104 ± 4 91 ± 9 — 79 ± 9 82 47 130 ± 13 — 112 ± 13 117 67 54 77 ± 11 70 ± 8 100 57 ± 7 81 ± 10 78 ± 12 112 ± 17 65 ± 11 52 93 74 ± 12 — — 150 150 150 150 — — 21 21 27 45 — — 12 16 18 24 (Continued) . 2 h 107 150 18 12 — Type 1 and 2. Edgell’s. 2 h — Bread. Edgell’s. 16 Diabetic NS. mashed (Canada) Pontiac. 3 h 1 150 18 11 65 ± 9 63 ± 2 75 Healthy. time NS Glucose. 12–15 Type 2. 2. peeled. 6 — Bread. 3 h Bread. 14 Healthy. peeled. 3 h6 Glucose. 12 — Type 1 and 2. 9 Bread. New Annan.5 h Glucose. heated in microwave (Avon. 3 h — 1 150 150 18 29 11 22 74 ± 12 80 ± 13 86 86 88 97 ± 6 85 ± 3 106 114 123 123 ± 5 126 ± 6 139 122 ± 5 Type 2. 10 — Healthy. refrigerated. 2 h Bread. Australia) Instant (Carnation Foods Co Ltd. 3 h Bread. microwaved (USA) 611 New potato New (Canada) New (Canada) New (Canada) Mean of 3 studies New. boiled in salted water. 7 Type 2.5 min (Australia) Type NS. cubed. boiled 15 min. peeled. 3 h Bread. Cobi Foods Inc. 2 h Glucose. peeled. Africa) White. boiled (Canada) Type NS. 8 — Healthy. 9 — Healthy. peeled. 10 Type 2. Canada) Instant (Canada) Instant mashed potato (Idahoan Foods. canned. frozen.

13 Healthy. 3 h Glucose. 2 h32 Glucose.5 h Glucose. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. 5 Type 1 and 2. 9 Type 2. kumara (New Zealand) Mean of 5 studies 614 Swede Swede (rutabaga) (Canada)6 615 Tapioca Tapioca boiled with milk (General Mills Canada Inc. 2. 5 Type 1 and 2. healthy. 9. falafel and tabbouleh 631 Majadra (Syrian. 3 h22 79 3 1 25 25 — 3 1 65 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 250 250 54 56 ± 12 55 ± 1 25 ± 4 35 ± 5 51 ± 12 37 ± 8 77 80 79 ± 2 36 50 73 53 ± 11 Healthy. 13 Healthy. peeled. 12 Healthy. 2 h32 Glucose. 10 Healthy. with salt (Kenya) 623 Millet flour porridge or gruel (Kenya) 624 Ga kenkey. 13 Healthy. 7 Healthy. boiled. NS (Canada) Sweet potato. 5 — Potato. 3 h14 29 29 29 29 40 29 40 40 109 109 109 109 42 42 82 88 88 50 (dry) 50 (dry) 50 (dry) 50 (dry) 50 (dry) 120 100 — 150 100 120 (raw) 150 30 120 120 250 250 25 29 36 40 38 50 27 — 13 27 34 36 5 15 45 41 29 6 1 25 30 41 34 12 — 7 15 13 23 0 9 39 10 17 (Continued) . kumara (New Zealand) Sweet potato. peeled. maize-meal:water (1:3) (South Africa) Maize meal porridge or gruel (Kenya) 621 M’fino or Morogo.5 h Bread. 2 h Bread. 6 Type 2. Etobicoke. 8 Type 2. 12–15 Potato. 10 Healthy. 2 h — Glucose. hummus. 2 h32 Glucose. 2 h Glucose. 3 h25 Glucose. 8 Glucose. 2 h — Glucose. 9 Type 2. unrefined. 2 h — 79 25 — 25 25 3 — — — 150 — — — 150 — — 8 — — — 36 — — 4 — — — 13 24 ± 8 5±3 71 ± 6 74 ± 7 109 68 ± 8 46 107 12 ± 1 56 ± 3 40 ± 4 66 6±4 61 ± 16 86 ± 12 24 ± 5 58 ± 9 34 7 101 106 156 ± 15 97 65 ± 12 153 ± 14 17 80 57 94 9 87 123 34 83 Healthy. 10 Healthy.46 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 25 34 30 25 25 28 10 18 18 11 16 18 19 20 17 7 14 12 613 Sweet potato Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) (Australia) Sweet potato. 7 Healthy. Canada) Tapioca (Manihot utilissima). 8 Healthy. 7 Healthy. 2 h32 Glucose. 2 h Glucose. 8 Type 2. 10 Healthy. 12 Healthy. cubed. 9 — Type 2. boiled in salted water 15 min (Canada) Sweet potato. 14 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. prepared from fermented cornmeal (Zea mays) (Ghana)31 625 Gari. 2 h Glucose. and vegetables) 44 48 ± 6 59 77 ± 12 78 ± 6 61 ± 7 72 ± 8 81 70 ± 10 63 69 84 ± 5 110 111 87 ± 10 103 115 ± 9 100 Healthy. wild greens (South Africa) 622 Cassava. healthy. refined. 2 h Bread. 2. 10 Healthy. 3 h14 Glucose. boiled (Australia) Taro. maize meal:water (1:3) (South Africa) Maize meal porridge. boiled (New Zealand) Yam. 3 h Glucose. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Glucose. steamed 1 h (India)11 616 Taro Taro (Colocasia esculenta) peeled. roasted cassava dough (Manihot utilissima) (Ghana)31 626 Unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) (Ghana)31 627 Yam (Dyscoria) (Ghana)31 Arabic and Turkish 628 Hummus (chickpea salad dip) 629 Kibbeh saynieh (made with lamb and burghul) 630 Lebanese bread (white.5 h Glucose. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Glucose. 2 h Bread. boiled (New Zealand) Mean of 2 studies 617 Yam Yam. peeled. 2. 14 Type 2. 14 — Healthy. 8. 3 h25 Glucose. lentils and rice) 632 Moroccan couscous (stew of semolina. boiled (New Zealand) Yam (Canada) Mean of 3 studies INDIGENOUS OR TRADITIONAL FOODS OF DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS African 618 Brown beans (South Africa) 619 Gram dhal (South Africa) 620 Maize meal porridge. 13 Healthy. chickpeas. unleaved). 7 Healthy. peeled.

2 h26 Bread. 10 Healthy. 2 h26 Rice. 26 37 ± 6 Oils and Foodstuffs. fresh. 9 Healthy. 31 Healthy. 2 h Rice. reheated in hot 46 66 water. plain (Sakada. 2 h26 Glucose. 2 h Rice. 10 Type 1 and 2. 2 h Glucose. canned in syrup. white. 2 h26 Glucose. 10 Healthy. healthy. warm white rice and butter 79 113 (Japan) 640 Curry rice (Japan) 67 96 641 Curry rice with cheese (Japan) 55 79 642 Glutinous rice Glutinous rice. Thailand) Glutinous rice NS (Esubi Shokuhin. white. 8 Healthy. 9 Healthy. 52. 2 h Glucose. whole wheat 637 Turkish noodle soup 43 29 124 70 1 Healthy. 12 Healthy. 2 h Rice. 12 Type 1 and 2. 10 Healthy. China) 649 Lychee. boiled (Australia) 40 ± 4 57 656 Rice vermicelli. chicken and rice. Bangkok. 61 ± 6 87 Bangkok. 3 h Glucose. Japan) 652 Rice cracker. 2 h Rice. cooked in rice 98 ± 7 140 cooker (Bangsue Chia Meng Rice Co. 2 h26 Rice. 2 h Glucose. 12 Healthy. cooked in rice cooker 86 ± 10 123 (Lion Foods. served warm 68 97 with drink (Yamato Nousan. dried. 12 Healthy. dried. 31 Type 2. 2 h 73 89 89 89 73 150 150 150 150 150 43 51 61 49 32 37 40 41 27 31 Healthy. 10 Healthy. roasted sea algae. and green pepper) 635 Turkish bread. 9 Healthy. 9 — Glucose. Australia)6 Sushi. served 65 93 warm with roasted ground soybean (Japan) 646 Jasmine rice. 3 h Rice. 12 Type 2. 2 h Glucose.INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) 30 ± 11 20 87 49 1 GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference 47 Food number and item Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 15 — 17 16 9 5 — 15 8 0 633 Stuffed grapevine leaves (rice and lamb stuffing with tomato sauce) 634 Tarhana soup (wheat flour. instant. Thailand) 647 Low-protein white rice with dried sea 70 100 algae (Japan) 648 Lungkow bean thread (National Cereals. 2 h26 Rice. Japan) 86 123 Mean of 2 studies 92 ± 6 132 ± 9 643 Glutinous rice ball with cut glutinous 48 69 cake (mochi) (Japan) 644 Glutinous rice cake with dried sea algae 83 119 (Japan) 645 Glutaminous rice flour. China) 650 Mung bean noodles. 52. 9 Healthy. 52. Japan) 91 130 653 Rice gruel with dried algae (Satou Co 81 116 Ltd. healthy. 2 h26 Rice. instant. 31 Type 2. Thailand) 655 Rice noodles. drained 79 ± 8 113 (Narcissus brand. yogurt. vinegar and rice 55 79 (Japan) Mean of 2 studies 52 ± 4 74 ± 5 Glucose. 12 Healthy. 7 Healthy. healthy. 2 h26 Rice. 2 h 42 32 32 32 32 100 — 30 30 250 mL Asian 638 Broken rice. 2 h 89 — 89 89 89 73 89 1 73 73 89 89 89 73 73 1 89 89 89 87 150 150 75 75 100 150 150 180 120 180 100 30 250 180 180 180 75 75 180 360 65 48 28 39 41 42 60 45 20 45 50 25 19 39 39 39 27 26 49 75 55 44 14 32 27 46 42 12 16 18 34 23 15 23 15 22 21 20 22 55 Healthy. 2 h26 — Rice. 2 h26 Rice. Japan) 654 Rice noodles. Japan) 77 110 658 Salted rice ball (Satou Co Ltd. Thailand) 639 Butter rice. 12 Glucose. Japan) 80 114 659 Soba noodles. 52. boiled (China) 39 ± 9 56 651 Nonglutaminous rice flour. Bangkok. 2 h Glucose. salmon (I Love Sushi. white-wheat flour 636 Turkish bread. white. 8 Rice. healthy. boiled (Thai World. 31 Type 2. 2 h26 — UO4 89 — 100 100 100 36 37 37 17 20 19 (Continued) . 6 — Healthy. 10 Healthy. 73 ± 17 104 homemade (Australia) 661 Sushi 48 ± 8 69 Sushi. tomato. served with soup (Japan) 660 Stir-fried vegetables. Kongmoon (National 58 83 ± 5 Cereals. 2 h Bread. 2 h26 Glucose. 8 Healthy. cooked in rice cooker 109 ± 10 156 (Golden World Foods. 9 Healthy. 2 h26 Rice. 2 h Glucose. China) 657 Roasted rice ball (Satou Co Ltd. 2 h26 Rice. 9 Healthy. 10 Healthy. 2 h26 Glucose. 12 Healthy.

eaten with milk and nonnutritive sweetener 675 Bajra Bajra (Penniseteum typhoideum). 6 — — Healthy. 10 Healthy. dried sea algae and milk White rice. 2 h26 Rice. 2 h26 Rice. 2 h26 Rice. 2 h26 Rice. 6 Healthy. 6 Healthy. dried sea algae and milk (milk eaten before rice) (Japan) White rice. instant. 2 h26 89 — — — 61 87 Healthy. 7 Healthy. steamed 1 h11 677 Barley Barley (Hordeum vulgare) 62 ± 8 48 55 ± 7 57 56 55 56 ± 1 79 56 61 69 59 58 59 ± 1 89 69 79 ± 10 81 80 79 80 ± 1 113 80 87 99 84 83 84 ± 1 Healthy. 10 Healthy. 2 h Rice. 3 h22 43 30 19 18 55 ± 13 49 67 57 ± 5 70 ± 11 79 70 96 82 ± 8 100 Type 2. 2 h Bread. 3 h Bread. 6 Healthy. 3 h22 110 50 50 — — 65 — — — 75 (dry) 120 — — — 50 45 — — — 29 31 48 69 Healthy. 11 Rice. 9 Rice. Japan) Mean of 2 studies 663 White rice. 9 Healthy. 3 h 50 — — — (Continued) . dried sea algae and milk (milk eaten after rice) (Japan) Mean of 3 types 664 White rice with dried fish strip (okaka) (Japan) 665 White rice with fermented soybean (natto) (Japan) 666 White rice with instant miso soup (soybean paste soup) (Japan) 667 White rice with low-fat milk (Japan) 668 White rice and nonsugar yogurt White rice and nonsugar yogurt eaten before rice (Japan) White rice and nonsugar yogurt eaten together (Japan) Mean of 2 types 669 White rice with pickled vinegar and cucumber White rice with pickled vinegar and cucumber (pickled food eaten before rice) (Japan) White rice with pickled vinegar and cucumber (pickled food eaten with rice) (Japan) Mean of 2 types 670 White rice topped with raw egg and soy sauce (Japan) 671 White rice with roasted ground soybean (Japan) 672 White rice with salted dried plum (umeboshi) (Japan) 673 White rice with sea algae rolled in sheet of toasted sea algae (Japan) Asian Indian 674 Amaranth (Amaranthus esculentum). 2 h26 Rice. Nendra variety. 9 — Healthy. eaten together (Japan) White rice. 2 h26 — Rice. unripe. 6 Glucose. 9 — Healthy. dried sea algae and milk. 10 — Glucose. popped. 18 Type 2. 12–15 Glucose. Australia)6 Udon noodles. 9 Healthy. 2 h26 Rice. 2 h26 Rice. 3 h — — Glucose. 2 h26 Rice. 2 h26 — 89 89 89 89 150 150 150 150 150 43 36 51 49 51 27 26 29 39 39 97 ± 19 139 Type 2. 8 Bread. 10 Healthy. 7 — Rice. 10 Healthy. eaten as roasted bread made from bajra flour Bajra (Penniseteum typhoideum) Bajra (Penniseteum typhoideum) Mean of 3 studies 676 Banana (Musa sapientum). fresh. 2 h26 Rice. Windsor Gardens. 10 Healthy. 2 h26 Rice. reheated (Fantastic. 9 Healthy. 2 h26 — UO4 89 — 89 89 89 — 89 89 89 89 89 89 — 180 180 180 — — — 300 150 150 150 300 — — 150 63 90 Healthy. 2 h26 — Rice. 2 h26 89 — — — 62 ± 1 72 56 80 77 89 ± 2 103 80 114 110 — Healthy. with sauce and fried bean curd (Nishin Shokuhin.48 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 48 47 48 — — — 47 50 43 47 47 — — 32 30 23 26 — — — 26 40 24 29 32 — — 19 662 Udon noodles Udon noodles.

barley Chapatti. steamed 1 h11 Chapatti 680 Chapatti. 18 — Type 2. served with bottle gourd and tomato curry 681 Chapatti. flour from malted wheat. wheat flour. 3 h — Glucose. and fried) with chutney Dosai (parboiled and raw rice. 15 Healthy. dehusked chickpea and wheat semolina Dhokla. 6 Bread. 7 Glucose. 3 h22 Glucose. 2 h32 113 113 113 113 150 150 150 150 28 28 26 26 12 10 12 10 50 44 47 ± 3 110 79 95 ± 16 Healthy. green gram (Phaseolus aureus) Cheela. ground. flour from roller dried wheat. served with bottle gourd and tomato curry 687 Chapatti. 2 h — 112 112 — 200 200 200 50 50 50 41 22 32 60 51 64 54 Healthy. fermented. served with bottle gourd and tomato curry 682 Chapatti. 14 Healthy. fermented. baisen 683 Chapatti. 11 Type 2. 6 Healthy. bajra Chapatti. 18 — Type 2. 3 h — Bread. 6 Glucose. amaranth-wheat (50:50) composite flour. flour made from popped wheat. 3 h Bread. 15 Healthy. amaranth-wheat (25:75) composite flour. moth bean and bengal gram 689 Chapatti. 2 h 111 111 60 60 36 38 14 23 116 63 90 ± 27 Type 2. wheat. bajra Mean of 2 groups of subjects 684 Chapatti. leavened. 3 h — Glucose. soaked. moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolius) and bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) 688 Chapatti. 18 — Type 2. 5 Type 2. with green gram (Phaseolus aureus) dhal Chapatti. 14 Healthy. 14 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. wheat flour. 6 — Glucose. soaked. 2 h — Glucose. 5 — Type 2. soaked 12 h. leavened. 2 h Glucose. ground. 15 Glucose. fermented. 7 Wheat chapatti. green gram (Phaseolus aureus). fermented batter 693 Dhokla Dhokla. 8 Healthy. thin. 2 h 56 50 50 — 50 50 — 50 50 — 43 111 — — — — — — — — — — 60 60 — — — — — — — — — — 32 38 — — — — — — — — — — 21 25 58 85 Healthy. thin. 2 h — 114 114 — 112 112 — — — 100 150 150 150 — — 20 39 39 39 — — 6 30 22 26 (Continued) . bengal gram (Cicer arietinum). with green gram (Phaseolus aureus) dhal Mean of 2 groups of subjects Cheela (thin savory pancake made from legume flour batter) 691 Cheela. dehusked chickpea and wheat semolina Mean of 2 groups of subjects 694 Dosai Dosai (parboiled and raw rice. 3 h Bread. 3 h Bread. 2 h Glucose. 6 Healthy. 3 h22 Glucose.INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period Reference 49 Food number and item Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving — 37 36 18 30 — 16 4 8 20 Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mean of 2 groups of subjects 678 Bengal gram dhal. chickpea 679 Black gram (Phaseolus mungo). steamed cake. 3 h — Bread. and fried) with chutney Mean of 2 groups of subjects 37 43 ± 6 11 43 ± 10 66 ± 10 76 ± 20 53 61 ± 8 16 61 94 Type 2. 15 Healthy. 2 h32 Glucose. 3 h22 50 — 54 65 43 — 150 150 150 60 108 Type 2. steamed cake. 2 h32 Glucose. 7 Healthy. 2 h32 Glucose. 9 Healthy. fermented batter 692 Cheela. moth bean and bengal gram 690 Chapatti Chapatti. stored moist 24 h. fermented. barley Mean of 2 groups of subjects 685 Chapatti maize (Zea mays) Chapatti maize (Zea mays) Chapatti maize (Zea mays) Mean of 2 groups of subjects 686 Chapatti. 3 h22 43 60 30 23 27 67 49 58 ± 9 37 48 42 ± 5 64 59 62 ± 3 66 ± 9 66 ± 9 40 ± 8 60 ± 9 81 ± 4 44 ± 3 63 ± 19 42 ± 1 36 ± 1 45 ± 1 38 ± 1 35 ± 4 31 ± 6 33 ± 2 77 ± 3 55 ± 2 66 ± 11 39 96 70 83 ± 13 53 69 61 ± 8 92 85 89 ± 4 94 94 Type 2. 3 h17 Bread. bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) Cheela. 11 — Glucose. 2 h Glucose. 6 — Healthy. 12–15 Type 2. 2 h Glucose. barley Chapatti.

steamed 1 h11 696 Green gram. and fenugreek seeds) in hot sweet syrup Laddu (popped amaranth. roasted legume powder. 5 males Glucose. fermented. steamed 1 h11 703 Millet/Ragi Millet/Ragi (Eleucine coracana)11 Millet/Ragi (Eleucine coracana) flour eaten as roasted bread Mean of 2 studies 705 Pongal Pongal (rice and roasted green gram dhal. stored moist 24 h. 10 Healthy. 11 Glucose. 2 h Glucose. and steamed) with chutney Idli (parboiled and raw rice + black dhal. 12–15 — Glucose. 2 h — Glucose. soaked. 12–15 Type 2. 20 Type 2. 3 h22 — 87 65 50 360 150 31 51 34 8 31 23 84 104 ± 13 120 149 Type 2. 8 — Healthy. foxtail millet. 6 — Type 2. stored moist 24 h. 2 h — 110 250 70 (dry) — 52 50 36 39 34 Healthy. 2 h — Glucose. 3 h22 68 110 — 112 112 — 112 112 — 54 43 94 ± 10 135 ± 15 90 ± 3 45 ± 2 68 ± 23 82 ± 2 57 ± 1 70 ± 13 19 69 ± 15 55 ± 9 76 ± 6 46 ± 12 129 64 97 ± 33 117 81 99 ± 18 27 99 70 (dry) 70 (dry) — — — 250 — — 150 150 150 50 50 — — — 52 — — 41 30 38 42 52 — — — 35 — — 28 6 26 79 109 66 Type 2. 6 Glucose. 2 h — Glucose. foxtail millet. 3 h 65 110 110 65 150 80 (dry) 78 (dry) 150 Glucose. stored moist 24 h. pressure cooked) Pongal (rice and roasted green gram dhal. roasted bread made from Jowar flour (Sorghum vulgare) 701 Laddu Laddu (popped amaranth. 2 h 114 — — — 38 ± 4 86 97 — Healthy. ground. 8 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 12–15 Glucose. ground. roasted legume powder. preroasted Semolina (Triticum aestivum) with fermented black gram dhal (Phaseolus mungo) 54 81 111 73 Healthy. 2 h Glucose. 2 h32 Glucose. pressure cooked) Mean of 2 groups of subjects 706 Poori Poori (deep-fried wheat-flour dough) with potato palya (mashed potato) Poori (deep-fried wheat-flour dough) with potato palya (mashed potato) Mean of 2 groups of subjects 707 Rajmah (Phaseolus vulgaris) 708 Rice (Oryza sativa) boiled served with bottle gourd and tomato curry 709 Semolina Semolina (Triticum aestivum). and fenugreek seeds) in hot sweet syrup Mean of 2 groups of subjects 702 Lentil and cauliflower curry with rice (Australia) 703 Millet/Ragi (Eleucine coracana). and steamed) with chutney Mean of 2 groups of subjects 700 Jowar. 2 h 112 250 52 40 86 Healthy. 6 Type 2. 2 h Glucose.50 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) 38 ± 14 57 ± 6 78 ± 12 51 ± 11 77 ± 2 60 ± 2 69 ± 9 77 ± 8 24 ± 4 29 ± 4 27 ± 3 60 ± 10 68 ± 10 GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period 22 Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 17 50 50 29 6 29 39 15 695 Green gram (Phaseolus aureus). 5 females Glucose. steamed Semolina (Triticum aestivum). 10 Glucose. pressure cooked 698 Horse gram (Dolichos biflorus) soaked 12 h. whole with varagu (Paspalum scorbiculatum). 2 h32 69 69 69 67 (dry) 67 (dry) 71 (dry) 50 50 50 28 38 23 (Continued) . 8 — Type 2. 2 h 112 250 52 31 98 ± 12 110 — Type 2. 6 — Glucose. 6 Type 2. pressure cooked 697 Green gram dhal with varagu (Paspalum scorbiculatum). 2 h32 Glucose. dehusked. 2 h Glucose. 30 Glucose. soaked. 8 Healthy. 6 Healthy. 30 Type 2. soaked 12 h. 2 h Glucose. fermented. 2 h Glucose. 30 Type 2. 3 h22 110 Type 2. 2 h 114 — — 41 Type 2. steamed 1 h11 699 Idli Idli (parboiled and raw rice + black dhal. soaked 12 h.

3 h25 Glucose. 6 Healthy. baked6 Pacific Islanders 721 Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) (Australia)6 722 Banana/plantain. 12 Healthy. peeled. steamed 1 h11 711 Varagu (Paspalum scorbiculatum). 2 h Potato. 13 Healthy. 3 h14 88 115 — 115 — — 115 130 — — 53 53 — — 35 16 (Continued) . 5 Glucose. kumara (New Zealand) Sweet potato. roasted and cooked in water) Uppuma kedgeree (millet. sliced. 2 h 112 112 — 114 — — 42 — — — 28 — 28 27 ± 2 11 66 67 61 11 49 57 Type 2. 14 — Potato. boiled (New Zealand) Mean of 2 studies 725 Yam Yam. sliced. peeled.INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD TABLE 1 (Continued) GI2 (Glucose = 100) 62 ± 20 54 ± 7 70 ± 10 68 ± 8 67 ± 3 69 ± 4 68 ± 1 18 ± 3 19 ± 3 18 ± 1 8 46 47 43 8 34 40 ± 2 GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period 32 51 Food number and item Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 50 50 18 50 31 27 12 34 Semolina (Triticum aestivum) with fermented green gram dhal (Phaseolus aureus) Semolina (Triticum aestivum) with fermented bengal gram dhal (Cicer arietum) 710 Tapioca (Manihot utilissima). peeled. boiled (Australia) Taro. pounded. 3 h25 Glucose. healthy. 7 Healthy. cooked in water) Upittu (roasted semolina and onions. fried) Melawach Melawach Mean of 2 studies 727 Melawach + 15 g locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua) fiber (soluble) 89 77 100 97 Type 2. 3 h25 Potato. 9. 2 h 114 — — — — Healthy. 9 Type 2. 5 Glucose. 3 h25 Glucose. 7 Healthy. 3 h25 Glucose. 2 h Glucose. 3 h14 Glucose. boiled (New Zealand) Yam. sliced. cycad palm seed. 8 Healthy. blackbean seed. 30 Type 2. baked 15 min6 720 Macrozamia communis. 14 — Type 2. 6 Glucose. green Green banana. 9 Type 2. sugar bag6 718 Castanospermum australe. 3 h25 Bread. 2 h — 79 79 79 79 79 79 85 150 50 75 50 30 50 150 50 33 17 24 16 25 9 36 25 6 1 11 7 11 1 12 10 68 38 ± 10 44 77 ± 12 78 ± 6 66 ± 11 54 56 ± 12 55 ± 1 25 ± 4 35 ± 5 30 ± 5 97 54 63 110 111 95 ± 16 77 80 79 ± 2 36 50 43 ± 7 Healthy. 7 Healthy. 2 h — Glucose. 14 — Healthy. boiled (New Zealand) Mean of 2 groups of subjects Israeli 726 Melawach (dough made from white-wheat flour and butter. soaked 2 d. roasted. 2 h — Potato. 7 Healthy. cooked in water) Mean of 2 groups of subjects 713 Uppuma kedgeree Uppuma kedgeree (millet. cheeky yam. 7 Healthy. 7 — Potato. bunya tree nut. 7 Healthy. legumes. peeled. mulga seed. 2 h Glucose. 2 h 69 69 65 110 Glucose. 2 h — 79 25 79 25 25 — 79 25 — 25 25 — 120 120 150 150 150 150 — — 150 — — 150 27 21 25 25 25 28 — — 8 — — 36 18 8 11 19 20 17 — — 4 — — 13 61 ± 10 71 ± 7 66 ± 5 31 ± 6 87 101 94 ± 7 44 Type 2. soaked 1 wk. 3 h22 Glucose. roasted and cooked in water) Mean of 2 groups of subjects Australian aboriginal 714 Acacia aneura. wet ground to paste6 715 Acacia coriacea. 3 h14 — Glucose. 2 h — Glucose. 9 Glucose. 2 h Glucose. fenugreek seeds. fenugreek seeds. 3 h25 Potato. pounded and baked6 719 Dioscorea bulbifera. baked 10 min6 717 Bush honey. seed bread6 716 Araucaria bidwillii. 2 h 71 (dry) 71 (dry) 250 76 (dry) — — 150 — 96 99 98 ± 2 25 Type 2. 2 h32 Glucose. 7 Healthy. 3 h Potato. boiled (New Zealand) 723 Sweet potato Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) (Australia) Sweet potato. 3 h25 Potato. 12–15 Type 2. 30 Healthy. 9 — Type 2. 11 — Healthy. pressure cooked 15 lb 12–15 min 712 Upittu Upittu (roasted semolina and onions. soaked 1 wk. legumes. kumara (New Zealand) Mean of 3 studies 724 Taro Taro (Colocasia esculenta) peeled. 7 Healthy. desert oak.

8 Healthy.5 h Bread. 1996–2001. not specified. type 1 and type 2. 9 Type 2. 2 h Bread. 2 h35 Arepa. Poland). 1996–2000.52 TABLE 1 (Continued) FOSTER-POWELL ET AL Food number and item GI2 (Glucose = 100) 59 ± 10 72 ± 10 16 ± 1 91 40 ± 5 70 36 ± 3 25 ± 3 38 31 ± 3 29 ± 3 GI2 (Bread = 100) Subjects Reference food and (Type and number) time period 14 Reference Available GL3 Serving carbo(per size hydrate serving) g g/serving 53 53 31 38 728 Melawach + 15 g maize cob fiber (insoluble) 729 Melawach + 15 g lupin (Lupinus albus) fiber Pima Indian 730 Acorns. Le Plessis-Robinson. 2 h Glucose. 9 Type 2. 8 Healthy. Two GI vlaues are shown for each food—one in which glucose sugar was used as the reference food and one in which white bread was used as the reference food. AUC. 27. made from dehulled high-amylose (70%) corn flour9. 2 h Glucose. 8 GI calculated from the AUC for glucose. 4 h33 Arepa. 27. 15 GI corrected for added milk and adjusted to represent a 50-g carbohydrate portion size. x ± SEM.5 g carbohydrate/kg body wt. 10 Glucose. 8 Healthy. 19 J Dzieniszewski. healthy. healthy. France).34 741 Arepa. 8 Healthy. 2 h Bread. 21 Healthy. 60. 3. 2 h Glucose. 2 h 116 117 116 117 116 116 117 116 116 100 30 150 30 250 mL 60 60 250 mL 6 20 30 24 32 4 25 32 1 18 12 17 12 1 9 10 8 250 mL 26 72 81 44 30 38 52 39 78 7 14 30 28 102 116 63 43 ± 17 54 ± 15 74 ± 7 56 ± 8 111 ± 12 10 ± 17 19 ± 3 43 ± 7 40 ± 13 Healthy. The AUC value was calculated over 3 h for 5 time points only. J Ciok (National Food and Nutrition Institute. 2 h Glucose. 3 h14 23 130 ± 19 57 100 ± 19 51 36 54 ± 9 44 41 Healthy. 12 Both the test food and the reference food contained 100 g carbohydrate. boiled in salted water 749 Wheat tortilla (Mexican) 750 Wheat tortilla served with refried pinto beans and tomato sauce (Mexican) 1 2– 84 103 Type 2. unpublished observations. 8 Type 2. 10 Impaired glucose tolerance. 3 h 115 115 130 130 Glucose. made with corn flour (Mexico) 740 Arepa. The GI of the test food was measured by expressing the glucose AUC value for the test food as a percentage of the AUC value for wheat chapatti. 11 Both the test food and the reference food contained 75 g carbohydrate. fresh tomato and lettuce (Mexican) 747 Nopal (prickly pear cactus) 748 Pinto beans. 4 Human Nutrition Unit (Sydney University. 9 GI calculated by using a mathematical formula based on results from an in vitro starch hydrolysis assay.5 h Bread. 8 Healthy. 14 AUC measured over 3 h for only 5 time points (0. 21 Healthy. 3 h Bread. stewed with venison (Quercus emoryi)6 731 Cactus jam (Stenocereus thurberi) 732 Corn hominy (Zea mays)6 733 Fruit Leather (Stenocereus thurberi) 734 Lima beans broth (Phaseolus lunatus)6 735 Mesquite cakes (Prosopis velutina)6 736 Tortilla (Zea mays and Olneya tesota) 737 White teparies broth (Phaseolus acutifolius)6 738 Yellow teparies broth (Phaseolus acutifolius)6 South American 739 Arepa.34 742 Black beans 743 Brown beans 744 Corn tortilla (Mexican) 745 Corn tortilla. fried. 120. 8 Glucose. Australia). unpublished observations. 8 Healthy. 8 Healthy. 8 Healthy. healthy. 27. 8 Healthy. corn bread cake. 7 V Lang (Danone Vitapole Company. made from ordinary dehulled dent corn flour (25% amylose)9. unpublished observations. 8 Glucose. 6 Portions of the test food and the reference food contained 25 g carbohydrate. 3. 13 Values based on 0. 3 h Bread. 8 Healthy. 1995–2002. 16 Made from raw oats that were cooked for 20 min. 3 Estimated by multiplying the food’s listed GI value with glucose as the reference food by the listed g carbohydrate per serving and dividing by 100. 9 Healthy. 2 h Glucose.5 h Bread. 21 Type 2.5 h 118 119 119 98 98 120 120 120 98 120 120 120 100 100 100 150 150 50 100 100 100 150 50 100 43 43 25 23 25 24 23 15 6 25 26 18 31 35 11 7 9 12 9 11 0 4 8 5 NS. 2 h35 Bread. 3.5 h Bread.5 h Bread. area under the curve. 8 Healthy. 17 Used as reference food and given a GI of 100. . 3. Serving sizes in grams unless specified otherwise. 3 h Bread. served with refried mashed pinto beans and tomato sauce (Mexican) 746 Corn tortilla. and 180 min). 5 The low GI may be explained by the inclusion of rolled oats in the recipe. 6 Healthy. 3. 3. 18 GI calculated from AUC food/AUC glucose formula. 2 h Bread. subjects with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. 30. 4 Healthy. with mashed potato.

31 Eaten as part of a mixed meal with fish. Products based on a high fiber barley genotype. Brinck UC. 15. Wolever TMS. Gannon MC. Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. unpublished observations.12:395–404. Packer SC. Wolever TMS. Diabetes Care 1988. Liljeberg HG. 12. Mann J. The glycaemic index of a range of gluten-free foods. Kalmusky J. Am J Clin Nutr 1981. et al.45:604–17. Jenkins AL. 30. 23. Insulin and glucose responses to various starch-containing foods in type II diabetic subjects. Perry T. Manson JE. Bell L. et al. Glycaemic index of New Zealand foods.46:649–60. Browne D. but not on common barley or oats. 3. Frost GS. 8. Björck IME. Jenkins DJA. Truswell AS. France) and V Lang (Danone Vitapole Company. lower postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans. Metabolic responses to starch in bread containing intact kernels versus milled flour. 30. et al. J Agric Food Chem 2001. Brand-Miller JC. 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