AAKH~ ArrEAOr

TO KPY<I>O ~XOAEIO

Xpov~x.6 E:v6~ fJvu60u

IIEPIEXOMENA

M~xpa 1tpoAe:yOfJ.EVI1. 11-12

To Xpov~xo 13-66

'EmAEYOfJ.EVI1. 67-72

~"fJfJ.W~o"E~C; 73-78

'R xl1.'raO"'rI1.O""fj 'r~C; III1.~oe:tl1.c; O"'rtc; LmooouAEC; EM"fJVtXec; XWPEC; 79-81

T~v lavooiav 1'oij xai)' ~/Llit; lB' alwVOt; ypatpwv 1'It; bnxetpei [PYqJ ouO'xepecna1'qJ' ... 1'a eAeyeia xai oi xotvo! 1'071:01 1'wv em1'atplwv PYJ1'opwv xal 1'a ev etpYJ/LepEO'I apOpa, iv Ort; efrJp/Livov euplcncelt; utpOt; xal AOYOV, eiO'IV ~ XOp.p.W1'IX~, xaOWt; tv 1'4) ccIIwt; oei avy}'patpelv icnopEaVl) 0 2:a/LwO'a1'eut; wvo/LaO'e 1'0 p.€1'pIWt; xaE xOAaxYJOOV xal 71:p6t; Xc%plV ypatpelv.

M. I. rEIlE!lN (". 'E""AYJ<11=TIX~ .iU~1k1« 9 (1989) a. 197)

To Elxoadva. vExou/Le Wt; ~v wpa 1'~v iO'1'opEa 1'OU; c]Jobli/Lal 71:Wt; 0XI. T~ P.UOoAoyia 1'OU; c]JOblip.al 71:Wt; val.

KQl:THl: IlAAAMAl: (jilt-avTa, 10, 17)

MIKPA ITPOAErOMENA

To oox{p.co atl"1:'o dXg oAoxkfJPw(Jei, a'i p.cyaAtm:pr; lwra<TY} xai p.iaa a'i gUp(;Tgpr; CJ'UV()gTIX~ Tono()hr;<TY}, np{v ano apXgTO xalpo. Aoyoc ttepta-taataxoi -rrgp{oooe; Xo(;vTae;, xAn.- oiv ~nhpg'fav TOTg T~V or;p.oatguCJ'~ TOU. Mia ivTgAWe; CJ'uvonTlx~ ttapovaiaan Tije; XgVTplXije; ioiae; TOU dxg od TO rpwe; TO 1974 CJ'TOV 100 TOP.O Tijc; 'I(j'top[a~ 'tou 'E"N;Y]vtxOU "E6vouc; Tije; 'ExooTIXije; l1er;vwv (CJ'. 366-7) T~V ono{a p.nopee 15 avayvwCJ'Tr;e; va ava'r;T~CJ'gi Twpa CJ'TO TiAOe; TOU OOXIP.{OU.

Iloods»; lXTOTg anaCJ'xoA~CJ'gle; -xa{ xup{we; ~ navema tmuax~ xa! ~XOOT'X~ iOloTr;Ta p.ou- TO napap.ip'CJ'av, olxaIOAoyr;p.iva, aMwCJ'Tg, p.i T~V ~An{oa naVTOTg CJ'UAAOyije; xa{ aMwv CJ'Tocxdwv. 'E7r:ctO~ op.we; mCJ'Tg(;w OT' xa{ Ta 616A{a, xa()we; 15 Valery ttta-teue: y,a Ta 7rol~p.aTa, oiv TgAgIWVOUV nOTi Yla TOV or;p.wupyo, aAAa nocx{AOC ~~WTgP'XO{ napaYOVTge; Ta w()OUV npoe; T~V or;p.OCJ'IOTr;Ta, lxplva OT' oiv ()a ~Tav aCJ'xonr; CJ'~p.gpa ~ or;p.OCJ'{gUCJ'r; TOU Xup{OU xai OUCJ"aCJ'TIXOU p.ipoue; TOU TOTg CJ'Uv()ip.aToe;, yea Tpgie; xuplo»; AoyoUe;:

a. l1noTgAd T~V GAOXA~PW<TY) TWV ano'fgwv p.ou we; npoe; T~V &'ap()pW<TY} xa{ Ag'Toupy{a Tije; ~xna{&u<TY}e; xaTa T~V ngp{ooo Tije; Toupxoxpa-tiac, onwe; aUTie; lxouv &aTunw()gi avaAuTIxa CJ'TOV 110 TOP.O TOU lpyou no(; npoavirpgpa (CJ'. 306-328).

6. IIapa Ta ygvvaia 6~p.aTa no(; lxouv npayp.aTonol~a-gi xaTa T{e; TgAgUTaige; OgXagT{ge; ol VgogMr;Ylxie; CJ'nouoie;, oiv lXgl CJ'Tap.aT~CJ'gi xa()OAOU ~ xaMlipygia Tije; P.U()oAoy{ae; CJ'i nOlX{Aa ()ip.aTa lCJ'Top{ae;. T~v Taar; au~ 15 J.r;p.apae; T~V xapaxT~pICJ'g XanOTg ffi'Yj(UX, 22.3.1960) «"'E()vlx~ avaxp{6gla", p.la TaCJ'r;, Or;Aao~, va xpr;CJ'Ip.onowuv tCJ'Top,xie; avaxp{6glge; p.i npo()gCJ'r; aya()~ xa{ ~()YlX~, p.i T~V ioia, ae; noup.g, va xaTaCJ'T~CJ'ouV mo wpa{a xal yor;TgUTIX~ T~V ~()YlX~ p.ae; laxopia», T~v arpopp.~ Yla TO CJ'XgTIXO apOpo T~Y dxg Aa6g1 ano TOV AOYO no(; dXg ~xrpwv~(jgl 15 A{voe; IIoAtrr;e; CJ'TO IIavmlCJ'T~p.w (9gCJ'CJ'aAoV{Xr;e; CJ'T{e; 25 MapT{ou 1956 p.i T{TAO «NgOeMr;YlXO ~()oe;. 'H p.oprp~ TOU aywYlCJ'Tij». '0 IIoA{Tr;e; p.i 'Aoy,a CJ'TapaTa", xa()we; Ta xapaxT~pICJ'g 15 J.r;p.apae;, dXg ano-

12

TO xr reo ~XOAEIO

cpavOd": «"I(J'w~ 0 PWp.tXY't"tXO~ ipa(J''rf;~ 't"WV yAuxepwV i(J''t"optxWV cpav-ra(J'tmeWv V' (z.,roYOyrr:eu(fij o't"av p.a&r; 7rW~ 't"0 7rep{cpr;p.O "XpUcpO (J'XOAetO" -r1~ Toopxoxpasla; elva: a7rAOU(J''t"a't"a eva i(J''t"optxO r.pip.a» (A. IIoA{'t"r;~, 9£tuX'ta 'tljc; AO,,(O't€'X.vtac; (J-aC;, &u'r:€pr; (J'eepa, 'Exo~et~ Kwv(J''r:av-rtv{or;, Be(J'(J'aAoV{Xr; x.x., 17).

y. 'E7reto~ ~ 7rpw't"Yj ixdvr; (J''r:otxetWOr;~ Ota'r:u7rw(J'Yj 'r:wv t%7ror/Jewv p.oU7rpOXaAe(J'e 7rOtx{Ae~ t%v'r:topa(J'et~, p.{a p.aAt(J''r:a t%7rO 't"{~ 07rOre~ 7rOU t%cpopou(J'e (J''r:~v (J'Yjp.eptv~ iX7ra{oeu(J'Yj dxe Aabet xai opap.a'r:txo xapax't"~pa, exptva (J'xomp.o va 7rapou(J'ta(J'w 0).6- XAr;pO 't"o XPOVtXO, 07rW~ 't"o exw OAoxAy}pmet ew~ (J'~p.epa.

To Oip.a au'r:o xaOeau'r:o elvca, im(J''t"Yjp.ovtXW~, btbAwypacptxa t%vu7rapx'r:o. Lliv i~e'r:a(w 'r:ou~ A6yOU~' Oa 7r~yatva p.axpta. uO,'r:t

,,, _tr, 1" , "

(J'xe'r:tXO exet ypacpet eo»; (J'Yjp.epa etvat (J'up.7r'r:wp.a'r:tXO xat 'r:t~

7rept(J'(J'o'r:epe~ cpopi~ t%pxe'r:a or;p.o(J'toypacptxo.

'Epeuvr;(J'a 'r:a o(J'a t%cpopouv (J''r:~v iX7ra{&u(J'Yj xa{ 'r:~v btbAtOypacp{a xup{w~ -r1~ yevtx~~ t'(T'r:op{a~, xal Oewpw O'r:t 7ri'r:uxa va ota- 7rM~w evav ba(J'tXot'(J''r:O. E[p.at bibatO~ O't"I 0 lcJ"r:o~ au'r:o~ exet t%xop.r; iMdr/Jet~, i7reto~ 7rapop.ota ()ip.a'r:a OtoAt(J'Oa{vouv (J'uxva 7rPO~ evteAW~ t%7rpo(J'ooxr;'r:e~ xa'r:eu()uv(J'et~. 'H epeuva p.ou (J''r:ap.a't"aet p.e'r:a 'r:~v OAOXA~PW(J'Yj 'r:ou p.uOou xa! oiv t%vacpipe'r:at (J''r:~v p.e'r:ayevi(J''r:epy} (J'xe'r:tx~ blbAwypacp{a, 7rapa p.ovov iV'r:eAw~ 7rept(J''r:a(J'laxa.

Ol eAAdr/Jet~ oiv ~'r:av AOyO~ va p.i t%7ro'r:pir/Jouv t%7rO 'r:~v 7rpayp.a'r:eu(J'Yj. l1v~xw (J'i exeivou; 7rOU m(J''r:eUouv, o'r:t xa! 'r:a mo 7rpObAY}p.a'r:tXa t%xop.r; ()ip.a'r:a, 7rpi7ret xa7ro'r:e va ~extvouv -~ 't"eAewp.av{a 7ro'r:i oiv p.i (J'uyx{vy}(J'e, 'r:~v ()ewpw iywt(J''t"tX~ xa! t%v't"te7rt(J''t"YjP.OVtxYt p.i ~v eA7r{oa 7rav'r:o'r:e O'r:t xa7rotol rum (J'ocpo'r:epo{ p.ou t%pyo'r:epa ()a p.i (J'up.7rAY}pmouv ~ Oa p.i Otop()mouv. 11 v Oa ~OeAa, aMw(J''r:e, va P.tA~w yeYlxo'r:epa, m(J''t"eUw O't"I ol XWpOi 'r:OU~ 07ro{ou~ 7rp0(J'w7rlxa 'r:ouAaXI(J''r:ov epeuvw exouv t%vayxr;, Yla p.eyaAo ola(J''t"Yjp.a axop.r;, va e~axoAou()~(J'Ouv va ooxlp.wypacpouv't"al.

'T a-tepa a7ro o(J'a e~i()e(J'a, a7r{(w va 7rd(J'&r;xe 0 7rav't"o't"e XaA07rpoa{pe't"o~ t%vayvm't"Yj~, 7r(/J~ 'ixw xal iyw 'r:o Otxa{wp.a, 7rapa 't"ov P.lXpOV oyxo 'r:ou OOXtp.{ou p.ou, va xpY}(J'tP.07rOl~(J'W 'r:~v yvw(J''r:~v t%vacpwvY}(J'Yj 't"ou Pwp.a{ou oY}p.wupyou:

Libro completo saltat scriptor pede laeto.

AAKH~ ArrEAor

1

'H !JiA€'tlJ 'twv 6€(Jh'twv oO'a avacp€poV'tat O''to 1t€pt€XOfl-€VO xat O''t~v e#At~lJ 'tYj~ V€O€MlJVtXYj~ eX1tatoe:uO'l)~ a1t€x'tlJO'€, fl-a~t fI-€ 'tOV XUXAO 'tWV 6€(Jh'twv 'tYj~ 6plJO'xe:u'ttxYj~ ~wYj~, a1to 1tOAU evwp~ 't000 avafl-€O'a O'''OU~ "EMlJV€~ 00'0 xat avafl-€O'a O''toue; ~EVOUe; O'UMOy€te; O'X€'ttXWV (J.Ilp'tUptWV, O'acp€e; 1tpObaOtO'fl-a a1t€Vav'tt O''t~V fI-€AE'tlJ 'tWV tI1tOAOt1tWV hOlJAWa€WV 'tYje; ~wYje; 'tou 'EMlJVtO'fl-Ou xa'ta 't~v Toupxoxpa'tta. Au't~ ~ avtO'o'tlJ'ta, 1tOU ocpe:tA€'tat xat O''t~V aOUvafl-ta 'tWV 1taAatO'tEpwV fI-€A€'tlJ'tWV va avaO'uv6EO'OUV 't~v to''topta d'tt~ 1tpaYfl-a'ttXE~ 'tlJ~ OtaO''taO'€te;, ECP€P€, we; a1tO'tEA€O'fl-a va embpaouv6e:t, €W~ xat O'~fl-e:pa axofl-lJ, ~ aVa1tAaO'l) 'tOU 1tape:A- 6ov't0e; fl-E baO'l) 't~V op6~ eX'ttfl-lJO'l) 'tYje; O'uVtO''tafl-EVl)e; 'tWV 1tapayOV'tWV 'tYje; e1toxYje;· 1tpotXOOO'tlJO'e: Ofl-We; 't~V to''topta 'tYje; ve:m:AAlJVtXYj~ 1tatoe:uO'lJ~ fl-E o,'tt hptbWe; O''tEplJO'e: 'tte; a.Me:e; eXOlJAWae:te; 'tYje; Ve:oe:AAY)vtXYje; ~wYje;, OlJAao~ 't~V O'UYXEV'tPWO'y) O'xe:'ttXWV O''tOt'X,e:tWV. 'Evw, 1t.'X,., lJ OLXOVOfl-tX~ xa'taO''taO'l) 'tOU tl1tOOOUAOU EMY)VtO'fl-OU ap'X,t~€t xat 1tPOO'€AxUe:t xa'ta xa1totOV 'tP01tO 'to evotaCPEPOV 'tWV epwvlJ'tWV fl-OAte; a1tO 'ta 'tEAlJ 'tOU 180u aLwva, 'ta O''X,e:'ttxa fl-E 't~V V€OEMlJVtX~ h1tatOEuO'l) e:I'X,av ~OlJ ap'X,tO'e:t va 6lJO'aupt~oV'tat OUO atWve:e; 1tptV a1tO 'to'te:. To y€yovoe;, e~aMou, o'tt xat O''tov 't0fl-Ea au'tov ~ 1tpw'to1topta av~xe:t yta fl-la hOfl-lJ cpopa O''toue; ~EVOUe;, CPOP'tt~Et 'tic; O''X,e:'ttXEe; (J.Ilp'tupte:e; (J.i 'to O''tot'X,e:tO ex€tvo 1tOU 'tic; xa6tO''tii xa'ta. xavova aVaO'cpaA€te;, oY)Aao~ e~u1tY)PE'tOUV O'xomfl-o'tlJ'tEe;.

MEO'a AOt1tOV a1to 't~v (J.Ilxpa xat aota'tapax'ty) aMlJAou'X,ta 1tOtX1AlJe; 1tpOEAe:UO'l)e; fI-Ilp'tuptWV, 1tOU ap'X,t~ouv va a1toypacpov'tat O'uO''tlJfI-Il'ttxa fl-E 'tou Crusius 'to baO'tXO epyo Turcograecia (1584) xat 1tpo'X,wpouv fl-E apt6f1-lJ'ttx~ 1tPOOOO O'E OAOXAlJPlJ 't~v Teupxoxpa'tta, OEV O'w~e:'tat xafl-ta 1tAlJpocpopta, axofl-lJ xat Efl-fl-EO'l) , 1tOU va fl-vY)fl-ove:ue:t 't~v u1tap~Y) xpucpou O''X,0Ae:tOU, EO''tW xat yta 'ta mo· OUO'xoAa --We; 1tpOe; 'tte; O''X,EO'Et~ fl-E 'tov xa'tax'tlJ't~- yta 'tov 'EMlJVtO'fl-o x.povta, olJAao~ 't~v 1tEPlOOO a(J.iO'we; fl-e:'ta 't~v "AAW- 0'1). rt' au'to «ava(J.€O'a 0" 00'€e; Ota'tptbEe; E'tU'X,E va OtabaO'w ypafl--

14

TO KPY<I>O ~XOAEIO

fJ-Evee; ano 7t(X~oaywy~xoue; anpEe; ~ YUVaTXEe;, OEV doa xafJ-~a:v ia-'t"Op~X~ tJ-ap't"up!a, nou va: bEbauhvY) 't"~V unap~Y) XpUCPOU 17"1..0- AEWU», 6a: anOcpaV6ET, ano 't"~V crxoma: 't"OU (jucr't"y)fJ-a't"~xou €PwVY)'t"-Yj 't"OU 6EfJ-a't"0e; 0 r~a:vvY)e; BAa'X.oy~a:VVY)e; crE (j'X.E't"~XO fJ-EAE't"Y)fJ-a: -rou 't"o 1945 y~a: va: OAOXAY)PWcrE~ 't"~v o~an[(j't"w(j~ .'t"ou alh~ fJ-E 't"~v hOAou6Y) €mxupwGY): «"0fJ-we; oih' €yw fJ-Ecra cr't"ov afJ-E't"py)'t"O crwpo aVExoo't"OU UA~XOU y~a: 't"-YjC; (jxAa6~~e; 't"a: crxoAE~a:, nou €'X.w (juvaYfJ-Evo, OEV ana:v't"Y)(ja 't"[no't"E nou va: xa:vY) AOYO y~a: 't"o (jXOAE~O €~W ano 't"o 't"payouo~». Ka[ d'X.E o[Xto. Kav€vae; ano ocroue; npayfJ-a't"Eu6Y)xav 't"~v 1cr't"op[a 't"-Yje; VEOEMY)VtX-Yje; €Xna[oEUGY)e; xa't"a: 't"~v Toupxoxpa,,[a -€x't"oe; ano 't"~v nEp[n't"wGY) Xa(j~w't"Y), cr't"~v ono[a 6a: avacpEp6oufJ-E cr't"~v (juvE'X.E~a Ex't"EvEcr't"Epa- OEV fJ-Vy)fJ-OVEUE~, we; npocpop~x~ napa:oocrY) €(j't"w, 't"~v unap~Y) xpucpou (j'X.0AEWU.

~'t"o 6EfJ-a 0 BAa'X.oyta:vvy)e; 6a: havEA6E~ cr't"o fJ-Eya:AO -~fJ-t't"EAEe; ofJ-we;- €pyo 't"-Yje; ~w-Yje; 't"ou, ,,~v bwypacp[a 't"ou Kapa·~crxa:xY). 'AcpoPfJ-~ na[pvet 't"wpa "0 (j'X.E't"~XO 't"payouoa:xt:

«~' ocra 'X.wp~a: 't"o fJ-ova(j't"-Yjp~ ~'t"av na:pa noAU fJ-axpua:», ypa:cpet, «€npEnE 't"o natO! va: XtV~(jY) cruv't"pocpta: fJ-' aAAa, a~y)fJ-Epw't"a xa! va: 't"pa6a:Y) ava:fJ-E(ja 17' aypw Myyo yta: 't"o fJ-ovaG't"-Yjpt. To nEp!cpY)fJ-O nato~xo 't"payouot ExET €'X.Et 't"~v €cpapfJ-on 't"ou.

tPEyyapch" P.OU Aap.npo rpiyye p.ou ya rreprrtx'rw ya rrYlya{yw (j't"o (jxoAe,o ya p.a8tx{yw ypap.p.tUtx 'rOU Beou 'ra rrpap.tx'ra.

To a6wo at)'t"o vavouptcrfJ-tx 01 py)'t"opooacrxa:AOt 't"o xOM~(javE (j't"o avunap'X.'t"o "xpucpo crxoAE~O". Kpucpo crxoAE~O nou6Eva: OE cr't"a:- 6Y)XE crE 'X.wp~a: ~ (jE 'X.WPEC;. 01 Toupxo~ nO't"E OEV anayopEl.j;av 't"a: (jXOAE~a:. 8a: 't"' anayopEuav av ~'t"avE xpucpa, (jE 'X.WpEe; bEba~a, onou ~ou(javE fJ-a~! fJ-E Xpt(j't"taVOue; xa! T oiipxor» .

AlJ't"a: 0 BAa'X.oyta:vvY)e;. Ka! ~ YVWfJ-Y) 't"ou na!pVE~ ~E'X.WPtcr't"~ bapu't"Y)'t'a, fJ-~a: xa! (jE OAOXAY)Py) 't"~v ~w~ 't"ou aywV!(j't"Y)XE fJ-E na:6oe; va: 6EfJ-EA~W(jE~ cr't"~v ap'X.E~ax~ €pwva 't"~v npo(jcpa't'Y) 'rO'rE axofJ-Y) 1(j'rop[a· crt fJ-~a:v €no'X.~ onou au'r~ unOvOfJ-EuE'ra~ (j'ra6Epa: ano 'rov PY)'rop~crfJ-o xa! 't"~v axpt(j!a. A!ya ofJ-WC; 'X.pov~a np!v, fJ-0Ate;

TO KPYcliO ~XOAEIO

15

"0 1939, evcxl; aMol; AOYtOl;, 'rou aVCX't"oA~xOU XAt[l-CX'rOI; cxu'ro~, b MCXVOU~A reoEwv, 7tOU avaAwcrE XCXt CXU'rOI; 'r~v [l-cxxpa ~w~ -rou cr'r~v ap'X.E~cxx~ avcxotcp'Y]O"YJ [l-E 6cxu[l-cxcr'r~ 1xcxvo'r'Y]'rcx va xup~CXp'X.~crE~ cr'r~v o~acr7tcxp'r'Y] xcxt EV 7tOMOte, av'r~cpcx'r~x~ UA'Y], XCXt va cruMaf1e:~ 7tPW'rOI; cxu'roe, -xcxt 7tOAU Evwpte, yta 'r~v E7tO'1.~ 'rou- 'rov 7tCXA[l-O a7to 't~v 7tve:u[l-cx'rtX~ ~w~ -ojl; Toupxoxpcx'rtal;, YtVE'rCX~ 'to rOto xcx't'Y]yop'Y][l-cx't~xoe, we, 7tPOI; 't~v a7toucrtcx [l-CXp'tup~wv: «Mg'1.p~ cr~[l-EpOV ouocx[l-OU av€yvw EV O[l-CXAfJ xcx'rcxcr'racrEt 7tpcxYfJ-a'rwv (xcx'ta O"YJ[l-EptVY)V €xoo'1.Y)v xCXt cppacrtv) 6e:~tp'Y]v 1) ay~av'Y]v, 1) crouA'tavov €[l-7tOOtcrcxV'rCX cr'1.0Ae:tou crucr'rcxcr~v, 1) o1xooo[l-~v, 'rou6' 07te:p 1)ouvcx'to va crU[l-f1fJ xcx'tomv xcx'rcx,),,),e:AtCXI; 'X.Ptcr't~cxvou 'ttvoe" a7te:p~'rfJ- ~'rou Toupxou, xcxawl; wvo[l-cx~ov CXU'WUI;». "Ewe, EOW [l-tMe:~ 0 ap'1.E~oOttp'Y]l;· o'rcxv o[l-we, [l-E'rcxbaAAe:'rCXt crE 1cr'rop~xo 'tlie, 7t!Xtoe:tcxe" ytve:'tCXt 6e:'ttxa xcx't'Y]yoP'Y][l-cx'rtxo'te:poe,: « 'Eav 7tCXpcxoe:'1.6w[l-ev oe:xcxm:ncxxtcr'1.tAtOUe, 'touAa'1.tcr'tov VCXOUI; €V 'tfJ €vopt~ 'tOU 7tcx'tptCXP'1.e:tou Kwvcr'rcxntVOU7tOAEWI;, we, eT'1.E 7tPO 'tau 1821, 'tocrcx cr'rOt'1.E~WO'Y] cr'1.0- Ae:tCX a' a7toOe:'1.6W[l-EV U7tap'1.oV'rcx afJ-Ecrwe, [l-e:'ta 'r~v aAwmv, e:he: de, 'toue, 'rwv vcxwv vap6'Y]xcxe" e:he: de, 'r~ xe:MtOV [l-txpou 1) [l-e:yaAou [l-0vCXC"'t'Y]ptou, e:he: Ek 'tov o1xtcr[l-ov, 07tOU O~EfJ-e:Ve:V b 7tcx7tae, 'rOU 'X. WptOU» .

Kcx'ta crUV€7te:tcx: av 'rO Kpucpo L.'1.OAEtO e:T'1.e: ytVEt yta xa7totcx 7tEptOOO 7tpcxy[l-a'rtxo't'Y]'tcx, cr€ 7tEptOp~cr[l-EV'Y] EX'tCXcr'Y], OEV cruVE'tPE'1.E XCXVEVCXe, AOYOe, 1) cr'1.e:'r~x~ [l-Clp'tuptcx 1) [l-CXP'rUptEe, va €[l-e:tvcxv EaEA'Y]fJ-€VCX cr't~v acpave:tcx. Sa E7tPE7tE, aV'rt6e'tcx, evcx 'r€'rOto 'tex[l-~pto ~w'r~xo't'Y]'tcxe, 't-Y]e, tpuAli~ xCXt €6v~x-Y]e, crUVEtO'Y]O"YJ~ -au[l-cpwvcx fJ-E 'r~v ep[l-'Y]vdcx 7tOU 6a 'rOU owcrouv xcx'ra xcxvovcx 01 E7ttyovot- va E~CXpae:t [l-€ xaaE 'tP07tO, O'rcxv «1) xaxwcrte, 'rOU YEVOUe,» e:TXe: we, a7to'tEAEcr[l-CX va 6ACXcr'r~crouv «at VEe, avuopm xat 6'Y]p~woe:te,» cr'rov xwpo 'tlie, Aoytae, 7tcxpao0O"YJe, yta OAO -to o~acr't'Y][l-cx a7to 't~v "AAWO"YJ €Wl; 'ra 't€A'Y] 'tou 160u cx[wvcx, xcx'ra 'rov EUcr't0'1.O '1.cxpcxx't'Y]ptcr[l-o 'tou BOUAyCXP'Y]. 'Acpou Aomov lj a7tAY) AOytx~ [l-ac; oO'Y]YEi va a7toxAdcrou[l-e: 7tCXpO[l-OtO EVOEXO[l-evo, €xetvo 7tOU a7t0fJ-EVet va OEX60U[l-e: e:TvCXt, O'tt m6cxvov va bptcrxO[l-cxcr'te: crt fJ-~av €~cxtpe'ttx~ l.I..ovcxOtx~. !crwe,- cru[l-7t'rw[l-cx't~x~ €~cxcpavtO"YJ xaae: crxe:'ttxlie, ypCX7t'rlic; [l-cxp'tuptcxe,. T~v €cr'1.cx't'Y] OfJ-We, CXU'r~V U7tOaecr'Y] EPXe:'rcxt va avcxtp€cret ~vcx aOtcxcptAovtX'Y]'ro YEYOVOe,: lj 7tCXpoucrtcx 'tOU Kpucpou L.XOAe:toU fJ-Ecrcx cr'r~V VEOe:M'Y]V~X~ Lcr'rOptX~ cruvdo'Y]O"YJ, xcxt aXOfJ-'Y] eupU'tEpCX, fJ-Ecrcx

16

TO KPY<T10 :EXOAEIO

C1't~V E6vtX~ O'1JvetO"f)C1'1) apXt~Et va C1X"f)(.LIX't01tOtEt'tIXt (.LOAte; (.LE: 'tOV 'AyWVIX.

'H a1tOAu't"f) IXU't~ C1tW1t~ OtIXC11ta'tIXt a1tO (.Lta XIX't"f)yoptlX 1tA"f)poc:pOptWV, ~ (I1tOtIX, liv XIXt OE:V 1tEptAIX(.L6aVE'tIXt C1't~V 1tEPtOX~ 'tWV tC1'tOptXWV (.LtXp'tuptWV, OE:V (.L1topEi va (.LdVEt aOtEpEUV"f)'t"f), (.Lta XIXt, C1E: 'tEAw'tIXtIX avaAuCTY), a1to'tEAEi XIXt 'to (.LOVO PEIXAtC1'ttXO EmxdP"f)(.LtX OC1WV tI1tOC1't"f)Pt~OUV 't~V U1tIXP~"f) xpuc:pou C1XoAEtoU. IIpoxEt'tIXt yta 't~V OtIX't~P"f)C1'1), Ewe; XIXt ~(.LEPIX &x0(.L"f) , xwpwv (.LE: 't~v ovo(.LtXC1tIX 'tou «Kpuc:pou ~XoAEtOU». O! XWPOt IXU'tOt ElvIXt C1uv~6we; ErOOe; (.Ltxp~e; XIX'tIXXO(.L6"f)e;, xIX'ta XIXVOVIX xov'ta C1E: EXXA"f)C1tIX (.LOVIXC1't"f)ptOU, XIXt 'tE:'tOtot (.LIXP'tUpOUV'tIXt, 1tX., C1't~V (.Lov~ <JhAtXv6pw- 1t"f)vwv, C1'ta ftawEvIX, C1't~V (.Lov~ «I>tA0C10C:P0U, C1't~V A"f)(.L"f)'tC1avIX, C1't~V (.Lov~ 'tlje; 'AytIXe; Tptaooe;, C1't~V Tljvo, XIXt EVOEX0(.LE:VWC; aMou. "OAEe; IXU'tE:e; Ot (.LIXp'tUptEe; oc:pdAov'tlXt a't~v a'to(.LtX'ttx~ 1tIXpaooC1'1) XIXt (.Lovo. "E'tat, o(.LWC;, xIX6we; Ae:t1tEt EV'tEAwe; a1tOtIXO~1tO'tE xpovOAOytX~ EVOEt~"f) yt&: 't~v 1tpw't"f) 1tIXpouatlX 'tou 't01twvu(.LtOU, 'to m6IXvo'tEPO 1tOU (.L1tOpOU(.LE va OEX60U(.LE ETVIXt, (.L~1twe; ~ ovo(.LtX'tO- 6EatIX IXU't~ e:TVIXt a1to'tE:AEa(.LIX 'tlje; AoytlXC; 1tIXpaOoC1'1)C;. Na EXOU(.LE aUVE1tWC; 'to C:PIXtVO(.LEVO, ~ AOytIX EntopIXC1'1) va a'ta61JxE ac:pop(.L~ Wcr'tE va o"f)IJ.tOUpYlJ6Ei fLt&: AtXtx~ 1ttXpaooC1'1). Ka1tottX a'ttYfL~, O"f)A@~, O'tIXV 6a E1XE OtIX(.LOPC:PW6Ei apta'ttxa a't~v XOtV~ auve:to"f)C1'1) ~ 1tE- 1tOt61JC1'1) yta 't~v U1tIXP~"f) xpuc:pou aXOAEtOU, va uAo1tOt"f)aE xa1tOtOe; ~V 1ttXpaoOC1'1) .:X7tOOtOOV'tIXC; aE: EVIXV xIX'ta 'tEX(.L~PtO 1tpooc:popo ap(.L60to 't01t0, 'to 't01tWVU(.LtO· IXU'tO Er'tE EytVE 1tIXpaM"f)AIX yta OtIXC:POPE'ttXOUC; xwpOue;, E!'tE XUXAOC:POp"f)C1E a XIXPIXx't"f)pta(.Loc; a1tO 't01t0 aE: 't01t0.

'Av'tta'tOtXO C:PIXtvO(.LEVO EXOU(.LE, 1t.X., a'ttC; 1tIXPIXOOOEtC; yta 't~V ~W~ 'tou p~YIX. To 1879, a BAaatOe; ~XOpOE:A"f)C;, EVtXc; Euc:paV'tIXa'toe; 1tIXtOIXywyoe;, o"f)(.LOatwaE EVIX «E6vtxov Ot~YlJ(.LIX», (.LE: 'tt'tAO ot rovef~ TOU P~ra ~ rrep{ ef)ycxij~ ar(J)yij~. To 6t6A£0 lipEaE tOtlXt'tEpa XIXt yvwptaE E1taVEtA"f)(.L(.LE:VEe; EXOOOEte;. "O'tav, o(.Lwe;, AlyIX xpOVta apyO'tEpIX, a N tXOAaoe; IIOAl't"f)C; O"f)(.LoolEuaE 'to EPYO 'tou 'H veoTY}C; TOU P~ra, a1to (.LtXP'tUplEC; 'tle; a1tOiEC; aUYXE:v'tpwaE a1to 'to BIXAEa'tlvo xa'ta 1ttxpIXYYEAlIX -rou xa1totoc; oaaxaAoe; 'tljc; xW(.L01tOA"f)C;, OE:V EXIXVE 'tl1tO'tE liMO 1tIXpa va 1tIXpOuataaEt, li6EAa 'tOU, we; fLtxP'tUplEC; «xa'ta 'tae; Ot"f)~aEtC; 'twv «I>EPIXlwv 1tpEa6u'twv» 'ta 1tAaa(.La'ta 'tlje; c:pIXv'tIXalIXe; 'tou ~XOpOE:A"f), 'ta a1toia ErXaV Aa6Et xapIXx't~pa Aa'ixlje; ac:p~YlJC1'1)C;. "O'tt Aomov avaAoyoc; U1tljP~E xIXl

TO KPf<!>O :EXOAEIO

17

o fJ.Y)'X,aVtafJ.o<; 0 01tOTo<; AEt'tOUpYY)aE Xat EOW, a1tOOEtXVUE'tat a1tO 'to YEyOVO<; O'tt, xa6w<; ~ Aa't'X~ rpanaata aOtarpopET yta 'tt<; [a'toptXE<; 1tPOU1t06EaEt<; Xat AEt'tOUpyET fJ.E a1tOAU'ty) au6atpEata, 't01t0- 6E'ty)aE Xat 'to 't01tWVUfJ.tO au'to aE fJ.taV E1tO'X,~ Xat aE fJ.ta 1tEPW'X,~ 01tOU 0 Toupxo<; mX'tY)aE 'to 1tOOt 'tOU 1tOAU apya, 'X,Wpt<; xat va eyxa'taa'ta6ET, a't~v TY)vo OYJAao~ 'tov 180 atwva.

'H fJ.E'ta'tomo"y) 'tou 6EfJ.a't0<; a'tov 'X,wpov au'tov oY)fJ.wupYET 'twpa ofJ.aA~ fJ.E'ta6aO"Y) 1tp0<; 'to OEU'tEPO aXEAo<; 'tY)<; 1tapaooaY)<; yta 't~v u1tap~Y) 'tou xpurpou a'X,oAEwu, EVVOW 'to yvwa'to 'tpayouoL 'Eow ~ 1tEPt1t'tWO"Y) 1tapOUata~E'tat mo a1tA~. MEaa, OY)Aao~, a't~v ofJ.aoa 'twv 1tatotXWv oy)fJ.O'ttXWV 'tpayouotWV ye:VVtE'tat xa1tOta a'ttyfJ.~ eva xawoupw' a'to 'tpayouot au'to 1tpocrrpwve:T'tat 'to rpEyyapt, xa6w<; aE aAAa 1tpocrrpwvounat EhE OtarpopE'ttXa a'tOt'X,ETa 'tY)<; rpuO"Y)<; (6po'X,~, ~AW<;, xA1t.) e:t'te: ~wa ('X,EAtOOVt, opvt6a, 1tEAapyo<;, XA1tJ. To VEO 'tpayouot rpatvE'tat va ~'tav a1tO EXETva 1tOU aPE~aV tOtat-rEpa, yta't£ yvwptaE fJ.EyaAY) otaooO"Y)' a1tO 'tl)V "YAY) 'tou AaoyparptXOu 'Ap'X,e:tOU 'tlj<; 'AxaoY)fJ.ta<; 'A6Y)vwv, xa6w<; xat a1tO 'tt<; €V'tU1te:<; 'tomXE<; auAAOYEC, 1tapoucrta~e:'tat va XaAU1t'tEt OAOXAY)pO 'tOV E:MaOtXo 'X,WPO: 'to auvaV'tiifJ.E a't~v IIEAo1tovvYJao, cr't~V "'H1tEtpO, a't~v MaXEOOVta, a't~v 8paxY), ew<; 't~v Bapva axofJ.Y), cr't~v Mtxpa 'A.ata EW<; 't~v Bt6uvta, a'tt<; KUXMoE<;, a'ta LlWOExaV"'lcra, cr~v K67tpo, a~v Kp~'tY). 'H EupU'ta'ty) OfJ.we. au'r~ OtaOO~ 'tOU e:r'X,E we. a1tO'tEAEafUX va lJ1toa'te:T 'tOcrE<; 1tOME<; xat 'tE'tOta<; AOyY)<; aMOtWaEt<;, 'tt<; 01tOTE<; cr1tavta auvaniifJ.E cri oy)fJ.o'ttxa 'tpayouota. Kat ot1tiv'te: a'tt'X,Ot, a1to 'tou<; 01tOtou<; xa'ta 1tiiaa m6avo'tY)'ta a1tap'tta6Y)xe: ap'X,txa 'to 'tpayouot, oAm lJ1tEXU~aV ai xa6E AOyY)<; aMOtWaEt<; 'ttc, 01tOTE<; EvoE'X,E'tat va lJ7tOa'rET evac, a'tt'X,o<;, fJ.E au~ouaa 1tPOOOO a1to 'r~v ap'X,~ 1tpo<; 'to . 'tEAo<;. ~'t~v XAtfJ.axa 'twv aMOtWaEwv au'twv aa6EvEa'tEpE<; Elvat oaE<; OrpEtAov'rat aE YAwcrcrtXa ht fJ.EpOU<; a'tot'X,ETa' fJ.ta 6a6fJ.toa u~Y)A6'te:pa auvav'tiifJ.e: 't~v 1tapwota, 1t01l ap'X,{~e:t a1to 'tov 'tpt-rO a'tt'X,o, linO 'tov o1tolov ap'X,t~e:t xat ~ 'tPt'ty) xa'tY)yopta aMOtwcre:wV, 'tou 1te:pte:'X,OfJ.EVOU, yta va xopurpw6e:T xat va xAe:tae:t 0 XUXAO<; fJ.E 't~v 1tapoucrtaO"Y) E:VO<; Ev-re:AW<; ~EVOU fJ.axpoaup'tou 'tpayouowu, 'to 01toTo auvE'X,e:'tat 1tpoc, 'to 6acrtxo 'tpayouot fJ.E fJ.OvYJ 't~V 1tpocrrpwVYJO"Y) 'tWV OUO 1tpw'tWV a'tt'X,wv. To 6EfJ.a OAWV au'twv 'tWV aMOtWae:wv e:Tvat, 6i6ata, 1tOAU Ex'te:'tafJ.ivo, wcr'te: va fJ.1tope:I va E~e:'tacr'tEI a1to 't~v 6EO"Y) au't~, 'X,WPt<; va ota'tapa'X,6e:t ~ taopp01tta 'tou Ooxt-

18

TO KPYcI>O :EXOAEIO

'T' ~, ""'''' ' "" ~''I' ~

fJ-tOU. IX 1tpOOOOXWfJ-EVIX, IXIV\Wa'tE, IX1tO'tEI\Ea!4-IX't1X oEV EtVlXt oUVIX-

'tOV va E:7t"y)pEaaouv 'to 6EfJ-1X 'tou Kpucpou ~XOAe:tOU lXi)'to XIX6EIXU't0. IIEptOPt~ofLIXt Aomov EOW aE aTtA~ XlXt fJ-OVO XIX'tIXYPIXCP~ 'tou CPlXtVOfJ-EVOU.

Au't~ ~ TtotXtA0fJ-0PCP"Y) 'tU'X,"y) TtOU yvwptaE 'to 'tPIXYOUOt IXU'tO, X1X6wc; ETtto""y)C; XlXt ~ TtEVtXPO't"Y)'t1X 'tWV yvwaEWV fJ-1XC; aE Q,'tt acpopa a't~v fJ-OPCPOAoytlX XlXt a't~v otaooO""Y) 'tou O"y)fJ-O'ttXOU 'tPIXYOUOtOu, dVlXt a'totXELIX apXE'ta yta va fJ-aC; aTtO'tpE\jJOUV va aVIX~"Y)'t~aoufJ-E aE 'tEXfJ- ~PtlX EaW'tEptXa 't~V ETtO'X,~ XlXt 't~V TtEPtO'X,~ fJ-EalX a'ttC; rmOtEC; YEWtE'tlXt 'to 'tPlXyouot. To fJ-ovo 6E'ttXO QptO ante quem dVlXt, Q'tt b Fauriel (1824) 'to YVWPt~Et, aMa aE aUfJ-cpupfJ-o. 1\.nt6E't1X b Sanders (1844) 'to O"y)fJ-OatEUEt a't~v tlXatx~ fJ-opcp~ -eou. To tOtO XlXt b Passow apyo'tEplX (1860), TtOU €AlXtE tmo\jJ"Y) 'tou 't~v xlX'tIXYPIXCP~ 'tou 'tEAEU'tlXtOu, Qao XlXt 't~v aVExoo't"y) aUMo~ 'tou Urlichs. 1\.TtO EXEL XlXt €TtEt'tlX ~ o"y)fJ-oatEuo""y) TtUXVWVEt. "O,'tt a~t~Et va 0""Y)fJ-Etw6EL a'X,E'ttXa fJ-E 't~v YPIXTt't~ IXU't~ TtlXpaooO""Y) 'tou 'tPIXYouOtOu, ETvIXt TtWC; aE XIXfJ-tlX TtEptTt'twa"Y) OEV ytVE'tlXt aTto 'tOUC; aUMoYELC; b TtIXPIXfJ-tXPOC; auaXE'ttafJ-oc; 'tou 'tPIXYouOtOU TtpOC; 'to 6EfJ-1X 'tou Kpucpou ~'X,OAEtOU. 'H 'tEAW'tlXtlX IXU't~ TtIXPIX't~P"Y)O""Y) fJ-aC; OO"Y)YEL a'to aufJ-TtEplXafJ-lX, TtWC; TtPETtEt va aTtOfJ-lXxpuv60UfJ-E apXE'ta aTtO 't~V a'ttyfJ-~ QTtOU TtlXpOuata~E'tlXt 'toao ~ TtlXpaooO""Y) yta 'to aXOAEtO, Qao XlXt 'to rOtO 'to 'tPIXYOUOt aTtO 'tOUC; aUMOYEtc;, yta va aVIX~"Y)'t~aOUfJ-E TtO'tE XlXt xa'tW aTtO TtOtEC; TtPOUTt06EaEtC; TtPIXYfLIX'tOTtotEL'tlXt IXU't~ ~ auvan"Y)O""Y) . IIpo'tou QfJ-WC; cp6aaOUfJ-E a't~v XlXtptlX IXU't~ yta 'to 6EfJ-1X [LIXC; a'ttYfJ-~, TtPETtEt va OtIXVUaOUfJ-E tJ-E QalX a'totXEtlX OtIX6E'toufJ-E- 'tOV OPOfJ-O TtOU axoAou6"y)aE xext ~ TtexpaooO""Y) aTtO 't~V TtPW't"Y) 'tY)C; EfJ-cpavtO""Y) a'tov 1\.ywvex.

2

To 1825 b re:p[J.avo<; Carl Iken o'Y)[J.o(m:ue:~ O"'to epyo -eou Leucothea 't~v axoAou6'Y) 7tA'Y)pocpopta y~a 't~v xa'taO"'taO"'Y) 'tY)<; 7tatoda<; xa'ta 't~v Toupxoxpa'tta: «01 Toupxot E[J.7tOO~~av 'ta O"xoAe:ta auO"'t'Y)po'te:pa xat a7tO 'ta<; ExxA'Y)O"ta<;· 'toi:i'to xat a,Mat O"uyXpovw<; at'ttat E~ta~av 'tou<; rpatxou<; va 6EWpOUV 't~v 6p'Y)O"xdav oUO"twow<; O"uvOe:OE[J.EV'Y)V [J.E 'ta ypa[J.[J.a'ta xat 'ta O"xoAEta, ota 'tou'tO xat d<; [J.EyaAa<; xat d<; [J.txpa<; 7tOAE~<; E:7tpoO"7ta60uO"av [J.E oOO"tv xp'Y)[J.a'twv, xat [J.E otacpopou<; 'tp07tou<; va O"UO"'tEVOUV xmva O"xoAEta xpuCPtw~, a7tou xat 'tWV 7t'tWX(;)v 'ta 'tExva aVE~OOW~ Eo~oaO"xoV'to». 'H [J-ap'tupta at)'t~ OcpEtAE'tat O"'tOV ~'t€cpavo KaVEMo, xat e:Tvat 1) 7taAatO'tEp'Y) ~O"o [J.ou e:!vat 7taV'to'tE YVWO"'tO- 7tOU [J.V'Y)[J.OVEUe:t 't~V u7tap~'Y) xpucpou O"XOAe:WU xa'ta 't~V Toupxoxpa'tta, YEv~xa xat XWPt~ XPOVtXO EV't07ttO"[J.O. To 7tpoO"W7tO 7tOU XOp'Y)yEt 't~v 7tA'Y)pocpopta a~t~Et va ~~ o"'ta[J-a't~o"Et, y~a'tt OEV e:Tva~ 'tuxato. '0 KaVEAAo~ e:Tvat a7tD 'tOU<; ExAEX'tOU<; 'tou N e:oEAA'Y)V~XOU Atacpw't~O"[J.OU, 7tOAU aya7t'Y)'to~ O"'tOV KopaY) xat, xa6w~ 6a 'tOV xapax't'Y)pto"E~ b NtxoAao<; Apayou[J.'Y)<;, «xa'ta 't~V 7ta'tptw'ttX~v €[J.7tVEUO"W o~aooxo~ 'tOU P~ya». Ze:t 't~V ve:O't'Y)'ta. 'tOU [J.E 't~V ava[J.v'Y)O"'Y) 'tY)~ 6uO"ta~ Exdvou xat [J.€O"a O"'tOV 7tUPE'tO 'tY)<; 7tpoE'tm[J.aO"ta<; 'tou 'Aywva. "EypaI.jJE, o~acpw't~o"E, x~pu~e: xat 'tEAO~ 7tOAE[J.'Y)O"e: 7tE6atvov'ta~ E7taVW O"'t~v 'E7tavaO"'taO"'Y), O"'t~v Kp~'t'Y).

Au't~ axpt6w<; dva~ 1) dxova 7tOU [J.ii<; xapt~E~ &7tO a,MO ~Y)[J.a, apxE'ta xpov~a 7tptV, b a7tapa[J.~Mo<; 7tpoo"W7toypacpo<; 'tY)<; E:7tOXY)<; (; Llpayou[J.'Y)<;: «Kat 1)[J.Et<;, [J.E~paXta e't~, EVE7tVEU0"6'Y)[J.EV 7tap' au'tou 'tov 7to60v 'tY)<; 7tatOEta<; xat 'tY)<; 7ta'tptoo<;. Ka6~[J.Evm 7tOMaXt<; E7tt 'tY)<; l.jJa[J.[J.woou<; 7tapaAta<; 'tY)<; v~O"ou XaAx'Y)<;, lJ7tO 7t'te:AataV xEAapu~ouO"av xat Eu6aAY), ~xouO"a[J.e:v au'tov l.jJaMoV'ta [J.E't' Ev60umaO"[J.ou 'tov CjltA'ta'tov au'tou 60upwv "Ti xap'te:pEt'tE;". Kat O'tE [J.E't' oAtyov &7tE6E'tO 't~v x~6apav (va o~oa~'Y) (;7totav 7ta'tptoa exo[J.Ev xat 'tt OcpdAO[J.EV 7tpo<; au't~v, b AOyO<; E~~PXe:'to ~paxu<; [J.EV aMa payoato<; xat 7tE~o"'t~XO<; EX 'twv XE~AEWV au'tou· 7tUP 7ta'tp~w'ttO"[J.ou eCjlAe:ye: 't~v xapotav au'tou, xat 'to 7tUp [J.E'tEOtOe:'tO e:t<;

,20

TO KPYcl>O ~XOAEIO

7tav'!ae; '!OUe; 7t€pt€er'!w'!ae;, IToeroue; Xat 7tOOOUe; ~xouera(J.€V AEYO\l'!ae; O'!t €Lc; '!ae; 'It(nptw'!tXae; Exdvou eru(J.~ouA&e; OcpdAOUert xat '!~v EX7tatOWerw eau'!wv, xat '!~v ~Wy)po'!Epav eruvater6Y)ertv '!ou 7tpoe; '!~v 7ta'!ptoa xa6~xo\l'!oe;»,

'0 KavEMOe; xop~YYJer€ '!te; 7tAY)pOcpOpt€e; -eou er'!ov Iken erE otaOOXtXEe; Emer'!oAEe; '!ou 7tpOe; au'!ov, ~ 7tpw'!Y) a7to '!te; a7toi'€e; EX€t ~(J.€po(J.Y)vta 4 <I>dlpouaptou 1822 (Heidelberg), m Emer'!oAEe;, oY)Aao~, ypacpov'!at erE (J.ta 7t€ptooo 07tOU EX€t cpouv'!Wcr€t ~ 'E7tavaer'!aery), Mt o'!av '!o aU~Y)(J.EvO EVOtacpEpov '!ou €upw7ta'txou XOtVOU yta '!a eMY)VtXa 7tpay(J.a'!a a7tat'!€i' 7tAa'!u'!€py) xat ~a6u'!€pY) '!~v otacpw'!ter~ '!ou yta '!a otxata '!ou eAAY)vtXou aywva, '0 ~'!EcpavOe; KavEMOe; Emer'!EAA€t er'!ov cptAEAAY)va Iken (J.E '!~v 7tp06€erY) va 'tov EVY)(J.€pWer€t -xat mo 7tEpa yta va EVY)(J.€pWer€t 'toue; eru(J.7ta'!ptw't€e; '!ou Iken- we; 7tpOe; 't~v 7tvw(J.!X'ttX~ XuptWe; xa'!aer'tMY) -rile; 7ta'tptoae; 't'ou er'!a xpovta 't'~c; Toupxoxpa'!tae;. TE't'Ot€e; 7tPOU7t06Eer€tC; E~Y)YOUV yta'!t (J.ta totat't€pa 7tAOuerta erE 6€'!tXEe; xat ouertaer'!tXEe; (J.ap'tupt€e; 7ty)~, ~'!av ava7t0cpwx'to va tl7toxuljJ€t er'!te; a7tat't~er€te; '!wv xatpwv, xat va EmOtW~€t va E~U7tY)p€'!~er€t xa7tma E(J.(J.€O"Y) erxom(J.o'!Y)'!a, 7tOU OEV (J.7tOP€i' va dvat ~ a7tA~ EVY)(J.EpWO"Y).

'0 KavEMoe;, oY)Aao~, 7tAY)pOcpOP€i' €vav Eupw7tai'o, 7tWe; €vae; AaOe; 7tOU 'tov 6€wpouerav, aOtXawAoYYJ'!a, O'!t dX€ hov~er€t 7tOAt'!txa xat 7tv€u(J.a'ttxa, (J.E a7to'!EA€er(J.a veX ~pterx€'tat a7tOxo(J.(J.Evoe; a7tO '!~v €upw7ta'tx~ xmvo'!Y)'!a, er~xwere '!eX 07tAa yteX veX otexotx~eret '!~v 6Eery) '!ou er'tov xwpo 't~e; eupw7ta'tX~e; 7tatodae;. ITapouerta~et, eruve7tWe;, er't~v xmvo'tY)'ta au'!~, 7tOU EXet acpo(J.mweret '!te; apXEe; 'tou atacpw'tter(J.ou xat dvat lOtat'!epa eueruyxtvY)'!Y) erE o,'tt acpopii er'!~v 7tatoda, '!~v 6EO"Y) '!wv 'EAA~VWV xa'tw a7to 't~v '!ouPXtX~ oeer7to'tda (J.E xpw(J.!X'ta 7toM (J.eAavo'tepa a7to he i'va 'ta a7toia 6a xpY)ert(J.o7tmouere, ern av Eypacpe (J.tav aMY) er'!ty(J.~ eh€ av 7tpaY(J.a't€uo'tav elotxa xat (J.ovo 'to 6E(J.!X au'!o. AU'toe; Aomov a o7taOOe; 'tou yaMtXOU atacpw'tter(J.ou a1cr6ave'tat 7tWe; ExdVYJ 't~v er'!ty(J.~, ~ (J.ovY) YAwerera 7tOU (J.7topei' veX Evvo~eret a a\l'!ter'!mxoe; r€p(J.!Xvoe;, xat xa'!' axoAou6tav 01 otacpw'tter(J.Evm rep(J.!Xvot cptAEAAY)vee;, er'!~v xptert(J.Y) ExdvY) wpa, ervat au'!~ 7tOU 6a '!ou od~et o'!t 01 Ewmee; 7tatoda xat E6vtx~ a7toxa'!aer'taO"Y) €rvat aAAy)AEvoe'!ee; erE erXEery) al'ttou xat al'tta'tou, (J.ta erXEO"Y) xa6we; 't~v er xe ~oY) ota'tu7tWcret E(J.cpav'!txo'tepa a oaerxaA6e; 'tou a Kopa~e; (J.E 't~v

TO KPT<I10 l:XOAEIO

21

1ttlPtl't~Pl)<TrJ, 1tw<; Ot "EAAl)VE<; «EV 'tTJ Xtl'ttlnAl)X'ttXTJ 'twv "(tlAAtXWV 01tAWV Em'tu'X,i\X ouUV E'tEPOV owpwcm Ot "EAAlJVE<; ~ 'to eX1tO'tEAEO"[J-tl 't~<; ntltodtl<;».

'AVaAO,,(tl AOmOV Ottl[J-0pCPWVE'ttlt Xtli ~ O"uvdOl)<TrJ 'tou KtlVEAAOU: 0 'A"(wVtl<; dVtlt eXnO'tEAEO"[J-tl eXp,,(oppu6[J-lJ<; eXAAa O"uO"'tl)[J-tl'ttX~<; 1ttltOdtl<;. 'R onoitl, "(ta va eXnoowO"Et eX"(AtlO'tEPOU<; Xtlpnou<; eX1ttlt'tEr, 1tEptl eX1tO 't~V ~6tX~ Xtli UAtX~ O"u[J-1ttlpaO"'ttl<TrJ, Xtli 't~V untlp~l) xanOttl<; [J-OpCP~<; eXV't'iO"'ttlO"l)<;. «'R EUtlt0"6l)O"itl [J-tl<; "(ta va Ol)[J-WUp~o"Et Xli't't» , 6a ntlptl'tlJP~o"Et "(ta 'tOV 1tOtlJ'ttXO 'X,wpo 0 LEcpeplJ<;, «€'X,Et ava"(XlJ, 01tW<; Xtli 0 eX't[J-O<;, a1tO OptO"[J-EVE<; aV'ttO"'taO"Et<;». fta va A!x.bEt, O"UVE1tW<;, ~ 1ttltodtl [J-tl<; aV'ttO"'ttlO"ttlXO 1tEptE'X,O!J£VO Wa'tE va OlJ[J-WUP~o"Et EntlVtlO"'ttl'ttXE<; o"uVEtO~o"Et<;, XP€t!x.~€'ttlt va bp€6€r aV'tt[J-E'tW1tlJ et't€ [J-E 't~V tlu6€v'titl €h€ [J-E 't~V E~ouO"itl. '0 KtlVEAAO<;, [J-rytlAW[J-EVO<; [J-EO"tl O"'tO XAt[J-tl 'tou npo€- 1ttlVtlO"'ttl'ttXOU eXVtlbPtlO"[J-OU, EVW €IVtlt a1tOAU'ttl EVl)[J-€PW[J-EVOC; W<; npo<; 'tt<; nl)"(E<; 't~<; tlu6€V't'ttl<; Xtlt 't~<; E~ouO"itl<; -'EXXAl)O"itl, ~uvaO"'tl)<; aV'ttO"'tOt'X,W<;-, xtl6w<; tlU'tE<; 1tp06aAAOV't'tlt aVtlAU'ttXa ano 'tOV O"UTIPtlCPEtl 't~<; 'EAkr;y'x~~ NOfJ.apx{a~, [J-€'ttl't01tt~€t "(ta AO"(OU<; O"xom~o'tlJ'ttl<; -anocpu~ 1tpObOA~<; 'twv OtX€twv eXOUVtl[J-twV xtli eXV.'tt6E'tW<; E~tlP<TrJ 'twv XtlXWV 'tou ouvaO"'tlJ- OAOXAlJpO 'to bapo<; npo<; 't~v xtl'tEu6uv<TrJ 'tOU Toupxou. ME 'tov''tp01tOV o[J-w<;' tlu'to 1ttlPtl[J-€Pt~€t EVtl EVO'X, Al)'ttXO EPW'tlJfJ-tl 1tOU 6a [J-nopouO"€ va U1tObaAEt O"'tov EtlU'tOV rou.

fttl'tt 0 Toupxo<; va EVO'X,Al)6€r ano 't~V untlp~l) O"'X,oAdwv; Tt dVtlt EX€rVO 1tOU 6a [J-1tOpouO"€ va 'tOV aVl)O"u'X,~o"Et, a1tO 't~v EvaO"'X,OAlJ<TrJ EVO<; [J-tXpou O"'X,€'ttxa [J-EPOU<; 'tou nAlJ6uO"[J-ou [J-E 'ta "(pa[J-fJ-tl'ttl; 'AO"cptlAW<; Uv 6a 1tPE1t€t va €Ivtlt 'to EVO€'X,O[J-EVO o'n 6a 1ttlptl[J-€Al)6€r ~ XtlAAtEP"(€tll 't~<; ~<;, O"'t~v 1t€ptOptO"[J-EVlJ €X'tIl<TrJ 1tOU [J-1tOpOUo"E va E'X,Et "(ta 't~v E:n0'X,~ ExdVlJ ~ XtlAAtEP"(€tll 'tWV ,,(Ptl[J-tJ.fx.'twv. MeO"Il, O"uvEnw<;, ano lJ.vaAo,,(o O"UAAO"(tO"'ttXO O"'X,~[J-Il 1tPE1t€t va XIl'tIlO"'ttlA!x.~Et 0 eX1tocp6€"([J-tl'ttO"[J-o<; 'tou B),tl'X,o"(tawlJ, O'tIlV anocplliv€'tllt O'tt «1tO'tE 0 Toupxo<; 0 aypa[J-[J-Il'to<; OE [J-1tOOtO"€ 'to XptO"'ttllvO "(pa[J-[J-Il't1l va [J-1l6Ilivl), Xtli [J-ovll'X,a nOAU O"1tavtll E[J-1tlltV€ O"'t~ [J-E<TrJ va 'X,wpta-n 'tou<; OtlO"xaAou<; a[J-1l mavov'ttlv ano

I ii I I I I i I I 'i i I

'ttl fJ-tll\l\tll Xilt "(tVOV't'IlV o"XtlV't'tll\O [J-€ 'til [J-E"(1l1\1l 'tOU<; O"XOI\€ttl».

"AAAWO"'t€, 'ta ,,(pa[J-fJ4'ttl eIVllt a1tllpllt'tlJ'tll "(ta EVtl [J-EPO<; 'tou 1tAlJ6uO"[J-ou, "(ta oO"ou<; Ol)AtlO~ aO"'X,OAOUV't'llt [J-E 'to E[J-1tOptO, [J-E 'to

22

TO KPYtl>O :EXOAEIO

01tOtO Uv alIXOAEt'tr.1.t b OUVa:O''tYJ~, ~ yta: OO'OU~ EXOUV O'XEO'YJ fJ-E 'tOV XA~pO. 'O~ cpucrtX~ AOmOV a1tOppO~ 6a 1tPE1tEt va 6EWP~0'0UfJ-E 'tOV O'UMoytO'fJ-O 1tOU Otr.1.'tU1tWVEt 1tpO~ avaAOYYJ Xr.1.'tEUeuVO'Yj 0 M. rEOEWV, O'tr.1.V bd)r.1.tWVEt O'tt «~ 'tOUPXtX~ XUbEPVYJO't~, aVEXOfJ-EVYJ 't~V XptO''ttr.1.VtX~ 6pYJO'xdr.1.V, Ey1vwcrXEV, O'tt d~ 'tOU~ Vr.1.0U~ aVr.1.ytvwO'XOUO't Xr.1.1 ~aMOUO'tV Ot 1tr.1.1t1taOE~ Xr.1.1 oi ~aA'tr.1.t, Xr.1.t O'tt 'ta avr.1.YtvwaxOfJ.€Vr.1. Xr.1.t ~r.1.MOfJ.€Vr.1. rnprnE va OtOr.1.x6wcrtv Eyxr.1.tpW~· Xr.1.t O'UVE1tW~ OUOE1tO'tE EV OfJ-r.1.AYJ Xr.1.'tr.1.O''taO'Et 1tpr.1.YfJ-a'twv EfJ-1tOOtO'E 't~V EV vap- 6YJ~t Xr.1.t XEMtOt~ OtOr.1.O'Xr.1.Atr.1.V».

'EXEtVO crUVE1tW~ 1tOU a1t0fJ-EvEt w~ a1tav'tYJO'YJ cr'tO EPW'tYJIL/Z, Uv dVr.1.t 'tt1tO'tE aMO 1tr.1.pa fJ-ta aVYJcruxtr.1., fJ-~1tW~ ~ 1tr.1.tOdr.1. ytVEt EVOEXOfJ-EVW~ xa1tOtr.1. O''ttYfJ-~ OYJfJ-toUpyo~ tpW'ttcrfJ-0U, Xr.1.t O''t~V O'UVEXEtr.1. acpE'tYJptr.1. wcr'tE va Xr.1.AAtEPYYJ6Et ~ E6vtX~ cruvdoYJO'YJ. fla 'tOV O'UYXPOVO EUpW1tr.1.tO 0 crUAAOytO'fJ-O~ r.1.U'tO~ ~'tr.1.V XOtvO~ 't01t0~ Xr.1.t 6EfJ-EAto 'tr.1.U'toxpOVr.1. 't~~ EUPW1tr.1.·t·X~~ 1tr.1.tOdr.1.~. L't~V E1tOX~ 'tOU Kr.1.VEMoU ~'tr.1.V axofJ-YJ ~WYJPO'tEPO~, ytr.1.'tt Otr.1.'tYJpOUO'E 1tOM~V a1tO 't~V cppEO'xaOr.1. 1tOU 'tOU dXE Xr.1.ptcrEt ~ E1tOX~ fJ-E 'ta EV'tU1tWO'tr.1.xa Em'tEUYfJ-r.1.'ta 'tYJ~. NEOX01tO, O'UVE1tW~, Xr.1.t Ar.1.fJ-1tEPO VOfJ-tcrf.1r.1. XUXAOCPOPOUO'E Euxaptcr'tr.1. Xr.1.t EUXOAr.1. O''ta XEptr.1. xa6E 1tpOOOW'ttXOU Otr.1.VOOUfJ-EVOU 't~~ E1tOX~~, O''tOV xwpo 1tav'tr.1. 't~~ EUpW1tr.1.·ix~~ 6YJ'tE1r.1.~. 'Eow OfJ-W~ 1tPE1tEt va cr'tr.1.f.1r.1.'t~crOUfJ-E· ytr.1.'t1 OU'tE axta L)1tOVotr.1.~ OEV 1tPE1tEt va 1tEpaO'Et a1tO 'tOV VOU fJ-r.1.~, 1tW~ 'tE'tOtO VOfJ-tO'fJ-r.1. 6a fJ-1tOpOUO'E va XUXAOtpOP~O'Et O''ta XEptr.1. 'tOU acrta'tYJ Toopxou a~ 1tOUfJ-E, 'tOU 160u r.1.iWvr.1., ~ 1tW~, Xt av axofJ-YJ XUXAOCPOPOUO'E, 6a fJ-1tOpOUO'E yta 'ta afJ-r.1.6r.1., O'E 'tE'totr.1. VOfJ-10'fJ-r.1.'tr.1., r.1.u'ta xEptr.1. va EXEt

, ~, 't'

01tOtr.1.oYJ1tO'tE r.1.<,tr.1..

'0 AOyO~ Aomov 'tOU Kr.1.VEMou O'xe'ttX~ Xr.1.1 fJ-OVO br.1.PU'tYJ'tr.1.

EXEt r.1.U'tO~ xr.1.6er.1.u'tov. Mv EXOUfJ-E hEVr.1.V'tt f.1r.1.~ fJ-ta f.1r.1.p'tUp1r.1., aAAeX EVr.1.V O'UMOytO''ttXO 'tP01tO, 1tPO~ 'tOV 01tOtOV, Xr.1.6W~ 'tOUAeXXtO''tOV O'uvaye'tr.1.t a1tO 'to O'XE'ttXO XWptO, Xr.1.6EVr.1.~ 6a fJ-1tOpOUO'E va OOYJYYJ6Et EV'teAw~ OfJ-r.1.AeX, apXEt va XaAU1t'te OUO 1tpOU1t06EO'Et~: va 1tlcr'tEUE O''t~V aMYJAOUx1r.1. 1tr.1.tOdr.1.-E6VtX~ a1tOXr.1.'tacr'tr.1.O'YJ Xr.1.t va Em6ufJ-ouO'e va E~U1tYJPE't~O'Et xa1totr.1. O'xomfJ-o'tYJ'tr.1.. 'A1t0 'tWPr.1. Aomov ~ aVr.1.cpopa O''tOV Kr.1.VEMo y1VE'tr.1.t a1tAW~ EVOEtX'ttX~ yta EVr.1. YEVtXO'tEPO xA1fJ-r.1. 't~~ E1tOX~~. Luvrnw~, fJ-ta 'tE'tOtr.1. «fJ-r.1.p'tup1r.1.» ~, Otr.1.cpopE'ttXa, EVr.1. 1tr.1.pOfJ-Oto O'UAAOytO''ttXO O'X~f.1r.1., dVr.1.t EVOEX0fJ-EVO va Ar.1.v6avouv Xr.1.1 O'E aMr.1. avaAoyr.1. XdfJ-EVr.1., O'UYXPOVr.1. ~ fJ-E'tr.1.yE-

TO xr-reo l:XOAEIO

23

, r r K '''I "I K'~' , '''I' r

ViO''tEpex. ex.1t0 'tOV ex.VEIV\O. ex.e aEV O'IJV'tpeXEI J:'ex.VEVex.e; I\oyoe; vex.

avex.~lJ't~O'OIJtJ-E aMlJAOE~ex.p't~O'W;, xex.t1toAU 1tEpeO'O'O'tEpO va OEWp~O'outJ-e 'to XdtJ-EVO 'tou KaVEAAouacpE'tlJpta, fJ-la xat av~xEI O'E ~EvoyAW(jO'O EPYO fJ-E €V'tEAWe; 1tepwpIO'fJ-EVlJ aX'tlvobOAta. ME 1tOIOV 'tP01tO olafJ-opcpwvE'tal YEVlxo'tEpa au't~ ~ oo~a(jta yta 't~v a1tayopEUO'l) 'tWV Toupxwv xat 't~v xpucp~ xaMIEpyeta 'tWV ypafJ-fJ-a'!wv

" '''E"'"' ~" 'Y ~ ''l' ""'

a1tO 'toue; IV\lJVEe;, esv 'to YVWpl"OUfJ-e, OU'tE xal EIVex.1 EUXOI\O -

fJ-E 'ta O'lJfJ-EptVa OEoofJ-Eva- va '!~v ava~lJ't~O'oUfJ-E. 'Eow E:mXEtpoufJ-E a1tAWe; va 't~V 1tapaXOAouO~O'OUfJ-E xpOVtxa, €7tEtO~ fJ-iie; 7tapeXE'!at 'twpa ~ ouva'to'!lJ'ta va '!~V ava~lJ't~O'OUfJ-E we; auvexeea. Au't~, aMwa'tE, axplbwe; ~ O'uvEXEta Oa fJ-iie; Od~Et, xaOwe; ~ oo~ex.ata Oa a7t0fJ-axpuve'tat OAO xat 1teptO'ao'tepo a7to 't~v 7tpex.ylUX'ttxo'!1)'ta, 7toao elval euxoAo va 'tpab~~EI €7taVW 'tlJe; 'ta a'tOIXE~a, oO'a Oa 't~V 6olJO~O'ouv va cpOaaEt ae OAoxA~pwalJ, apa va ,,((VEt 1tEla'tlxO'tEPlJ: 0 xwpoe; OlJAaO~ xat 'to 'tpayouo!. TO'tE OfJ-WC; 7tEPviitJ-E avmaIO'&Yj'twc; O''t~v 1tepIOX~ 'tou tJ-uOou. nex.'t[ fJ-OVOV o'tav at fJ-uOot, xaOwc; ~ aA~OEla, €~ap'twV'tal a7tO a7tOOd~EIC;, dfJ-IXO"'tE aO'cpaAEtc;. Q[ fJ-uOOt OfJ-WC; OEV dval xaOwc; 01 aA~OeIEC;· a7to'teAouv 'tov OptafJ-bO 't-Yjc; euma'ttac; €7tavw a't~v a7tooel~lJ.

'0 veoeMlJvlxoC; pOfJ-aV'ttafJ-oc;, 7tOU otavuet 'twpa tJ-E'ttX 'tov 'Aywva 't~v €CPlJbIX~ 'tau axofJ-lJ ~AIXta, OlJAWVE! €fJ-cpan!xli 't~v 7tapouO'ta 'tou O''t~v 7tveutJ.a'tIX~ ~w~ fJ-E 't~v xa'taxplJa'tlx~ XPlJO'!fJ-01totlJrJ1) 'tou anlOE'tlxOU O'X~tJ.a'tOC;. 'H AOyO'tEXV!X~ OlJfJ-wup,,(ta, ofJ-WC;, xaOwe; dva! ava7t0cpeux'to vii €fJ-7tVEE'tal aXEoov fJ-E a7tOXAEta'ttxo'tlJ'ta a1to 't~v 1tpoacpa'tlJ €OVIX~ ~w~ fJ-E EfJ-cparJ1) 'tov 'Aywva, ptXVEI OAOXAlJpO 'to av'ttOE'texo au 'to bapoc; O''tov a~ova 7tor) O'XlJfJ-a'tt~et ~ O'xeO'l) ouvaa'tlJ xai ouvaa'tEIJ0fJ-EVOU, 7tPOXEttJ-€VOU (.I.e 'tov 'tP07tOV au'tov \la €~apOE~ 'to ayaOo7tolo, ~pWtxo xat 7tpoooeu'tlxo O''totXE~O 'tou NeoEAAlJva, O'e antOErJ1) 7tP0C; 't~v bapbapo'tlJ'ta, 't~\I Oe!Ata xat 't~v xex.OuO''!eplJO'lJ 'tou Toupxou. '0 AO"(IOC; 't-Yjc; E:7tox-Yje; ClU't-YjC; OEV OIClO''teAAel 'to\l xOO'fJ-o 't-Yjc; cpcx.nlXO"tac; a7to 'tov xoafJ-o 'tou to''tOPIXOU 7tcx.peA60v't0c; xcx.t €mOtOE'tcx.! boou\lafJ-ex. xcx.t a'ttc; ouo opaO''tlJP!o'tlJ'tec;, 't~v ia'tOp!OO!CPIX~ XClt 't~v Aoyo'teX\llx~· olJfJ-!Oup"(e~'ta! Aomov fJ-Ia tOlai'tepa afJ-otbatcx. O''tEV~ aXEcr1J aMlJAoemoplicrEw\I avafJ-eO'Cl (j't~v AO,,(O'tEX\ltCl xat cr't~v €ma't~fJ-lJ, 7tOU oo"Y)ye~ ae evav CPClUAO xuxAO aMlJAoE~lip'tlJrJ1)c;, fJ-eaa a7to 't~v (mOtCl ~e7tlJoliel fJ-!a EWx,ta cr't~\I a6MlJtP~ 'tlJC; a7totPlJ "(ea 'tov EMlJVO'tOUPXIXO xOO'fJ-o.

24

TO KPY<I>O EXOAEIO

'R «7t:€Pt7t'tWO"Y)) OfJ-We; KIXVEMOU OEV 7t:PE7t:€t va €x<ppa~€t 'to aUvoAo. 'A7t:AWe; fJ-Ia 7t:AWpa. IIpo'tou Aomov 't~V t'X.V"f)AIX't~aOUfJ-€, acpou lXi)'t~ ETvlXI 7t:OU 8a fJ-ae; CPEP€I aacpIXAEa't€plX a't~v hoxpua'taAAwa"f) 'tou fJ-u80u, CPPOVtfJ-o ETvlXl va €7ttOIW~OUfJ-€ va axouaoufJ-€ Ea'tW xhol€e; OIIXCPOp€'tIXEe; €VO€'X.OfJ-EVWe; cpWVEe;. KlXt cpualxa 8a a'tplXcpoufJ-€ 7t:pOe; 't~v 7t:Awfla KoplX~ . To p€IXAla'tlxo 'tou 7t:V€ufJ.IX OEV ~'tIXV OUVIX'tOV va 'tOU €7t:1'tPE'f€1 va 7t:lXplXaup8€t, fJ-EalX a7t:o 'to fJ-€'YaAo 'tou 7t:a80e; 7t:OU ETvlXl ~ 7t:IXIOe:t1X 'tou E8voue;, a't~v E~IXPO"Y) €xdv"f) 7t:OU ~€<P€U'Y€I a7t:o 't~v 7t:PIX'YfJ-IX'tIXO't"f)'t1X XlXt 7t:POIXY'YEM€1 't~v daboA~ 'tou P"f)'tOpIXOU a'tol'X,dou. "Av ofJ-we; a7t:ouala~€1 a7t:o 'to

" t/' _ ; , t, "

€P'Yo -rou -oao 7t:1XV't0't€ fJ-ou e:LVIXI yvwa'to- "f) IXVIXCPOplX o-ro au'Yx€-

XPIfJ-EVO 8EfJ-IX, OEV 8a 'X,pe:llXa'te:i va a7t:0fJ-lXxpuv80UfJ-€ a7t:o 'to rceplbaMov 'tou 'Yla va OIIXXptVOUfJ-€ 7t:taw a7t:o 'tte; a7t:0'f€Ie; EVOe; fJ-1X8Yj~ -eou,' va cpe:Y'YPt~e:1 ~ OIX~ -rou aXla. To 1820, aU'YX€XplfJ-EVIX, O'tIXV b Marcellus e:7ttaXE7t:'te:'t1X1 'to rUfJ-vaalo 't~e; Xlou, ~. 8EO"Y) 7t:OU 'tou E:x<ppa~e:1 b BafJ-blXe; we; 7t:pOe; 't~v aUfJ-7t:€plcpopa 'twv Toupxwv aVlXcpoptxa fJ-E 't~v 7t:IXIOdlX, dVlXt ~€xa8IXp"f): «Eh€ a7t:o aOllXcpoptlX, €t't€, we; ap'X,~, ~ 'r'f"f)A~ IIuA"f) OEV av'tI'ta'X,8"f)x€ xIX80AOU a't~v 7t:VWfJ-IX'ttX~ aVIX'YEw"f)O"Y) ~e; 'EMaolXe;. 01 7t:PIX'YfJ-IX'ttXo't€POI €'X,8pot aE IXU't~V 't~v €u'tU'X.lafJ-Ev"f) 7t:IXAtY'Y€ve:atlX (restauration) 6ptaxoV't1X1 a'toue; XOA7t:OUe; fJ.IXe;' XlXt (Xv 01 7t:pOa7t:a8€IEe; fJ-1Xe; xlX'top8waouv va olX~aouv 'tte; 7t:pOA~'fe:Ie; Y) 't~v aOtlXcpoptlX IXU'tOU 'tou ta'X.upou XA~POU 7t:OU €tVIXI a~fJ-e:plX b 7t:pw'toe; xopfJ-oe; 'tou eM"f)vlxoU E8voue;, At'YlX 8a a7t:ofJ-dvouv va xavoufJ-e: a7t:EvlXV't1 a'toue; Toupxoue;».

~'t~v XAtfJ-IXXIX 'tWV a'X,Ea€WV 'tOU KoplX~ 7t:pOe; 'toue; rnt'Y0voue; 'tou av'tla'tol'X,e:t fJ-ta XAtfJ.IXXIX a'X.Eae:wv 'tWV 'te:AW'tlXtWV IXU'tWV 7t:poe; 't~v 1a'toptx~ 7t:PIX'YfJ-IX'tIXO't"f)'t1X 't~e; 7t:1X'tptOIXe; 'toue;. "Oeo, O"f)AIXO~, 7ttO fJ-lXxpla 8a bp€80uv a7t:o 't~v 'YPIXfJ-fJ-~ itou 'X.aplX~€ €X€tVOe;, 'toao avaAo'Y"f) 8a dV1X1 XlXt ~ hOfJ-axpuva~ 'toue; a7t:o 't~v p€IXAla'tlx~ aV'tIfJ-€'tw7ttO"Y) 'tWV 8€fJ-a'twv 7t:OU a<popouv a'to la'tOPIXO 7t:IXP€A80v, aAAa XlXt a'to 7t:IXPOV 't~e; 7t:1X'tptOIXe; 'toue;. "O'tIXV b Kwva'tlXv'ttVOe; KoufJ-lXe; a"f)fJ-w~v€t a't~v 'Ia-topia O'tl «xlXvde; LaWe; OEV €a€baa8"f) 'tou avopoe; 'tae; yvwfJ.IXe; oaov b KoufJ-IXe;», tmap'X.€t we; 't€XfJ-~PIO 'to rOtO -eou 'to EP'YO, 7t:OU CPIXV€PWV€I 7t:oao ~ 1a'toplx~ 'tou fJ-1X'tta dVlXt a7t:IXMIX'YfJ-EV"f) a7t:o 'tte; auv"f)8IafJ-EVe:e; 7t:pOA~'f€Ie; 'toao 'Yta 'toue; aUfJ-7t:IX'tpIW'te:e; 'tou oao XlXt 'Yla 'toue; Toupxoue;. "O'tIXV, E:~aMOu, 7t:pOX€I't1X1 'Yla 'tOV 8e:OXA"f)'t0 tI>IXPfJ-IXXtO"f), 'to 't€XfJ-~PIO

TO KPyq>O ~XOAEIO

25

floae; EP'XPt'lZt ano a,).);f) XIZ'tEu6uvcrt): dVlZt ~ cruvoPOflo~ 'tOU O'E EVIZ epyo yta 'to anoto 'ttflo~6'rjXE XIZ't' E~O'X.~\I E\lIXe; &Moe; flolXeY)'t~e; 'tou KOPlZlj, (; KWVO''tIZV''t't\loc; AO'W7ttoc;, Ta 1:ou'rO'€(a (1853), 'to anoto O''ta6'rjxE, xa'ta 't~\I xPtO'Y) 'tou Po"toy), «'to xuxVEtO\l &C1flolZ 'tlje; nap' ~flot\l Xpt't"txljC;». AvaAoy€c; dVlZt 01 nlZplZ't"Y)p~(mc; nou ea flonopouO'IZV va ytvou\I yta 060 &AAOUe; ano 'toue; mo EXA€X'tOUe; E7ttyO\lOUe; 'tou KOPlZlj, 'to\l A\lOPEIZ MouO''to~uoY) xat 'to\l XptO''to~opo Il>tAY)'ta. To €pyo GAW\I IXU'tW\I bpiO"xE'tat anlXAAaYfloE\lO ano GAEe; eXEt\l€e; 'tie; aouwxflot€C; GO'e:c; crt)floetWO'IZ mo na\lw' floa'tlXta a aVlXyvwO''tY)e; ea a\lIZ~Y)'t~Q"€t, Efloflo€C1€C; €O''tw, 'ttc; anl)'X.~Q"e:tC; nou 'Va cru'Voeo'V'tlZt floe 'to eEflolZ 'tou Kpu~ou ~'X.OAe:tOU.

3

1::'t'0 fLE't'CX~U ~ VEOEM"f)V~X1] XmVWVLCX EXE~ apXLcrE~ fLE't'a 't'ov 'Aywva veX 't'a~~OEUE~' 't'a~~OEUE~ fLEcra crE evcxv xocrfLo 7tOU EXE~ O"f)fLWUpy1]crE~ fL~eXv tOto't'U7t"f) 7tvEufLa't'tx1] ~w1], fLE XEV't'pO 't'0 ITcxvEmcr't'1]fLw. ZEt ofLwC; 't'wpcx fLEClCX ClE fL~eXv a't'fLoClcpcx~Pcx fLovcxo~x1] ClE 7tAOU't'O XCXL ClE E~CXpCl"f) P"f)'t'op~x1]. "O't'CXV Aomov (; P"f)'t'op~xoc; 'AOyoc; xUp~CXPXEt fLE 't'E't'mcxv Em60A1] ClE fLteX xmVWVLCX 7tOU 6PLClXE't'CX~ ClE aOteXxo7t"f) E~CX- 1jJ"f) y~eX 't'eX EOV~XeX OEfLCX't'cx, dvcxt fLcx't'CXto7tOVLCX veX avcx~"f)'t'1]ClEt xcxvdc; 't'OV ClcpuYfLo XCXL 't'o fLE't'pO 't'WV av't'tA1]IjJEWV yteX 't'eX OEfLcx't'cx 7tOU CI'XPL~OV't'CXt fLE 't'1]v tCl't'OPLCX 't'OU 7tpOE7tCXVCXCl't'CX't'~XOU E:M"f)V~ClfLou, aMou 7tCXpeX CI't'eX XdfLEVCX 't'WV AOYLWV CXtJ't'Wv. LlEv Ll7teXPXouv, ClUVE7t(OC;, 7tEptOWptCX WCI't'E veX aXOUCI't'Et ~ ClXE't'tX1] 7tCXpCXLVEO"Y) 't'OU Kopcx~, OtCX't'U7tWfLEV"f) ALYCX XPOVtCX 7tpLV. 'AVCXCPEpofLEVOC; CI't'1]V OtCXcpopeX aVeXfLEClcx (J''t'OV «yv1]CltOV P1]'t'opcx a7to 't'OV a06AEClXov xcx!

')' , ')' 'E'!1"" £I'''''

CPI\UCXpOV (J'OcptCl't'"f)V», XCX't'CXI\"f)YE~:« CXV, otCX VCX yEVY) 7t~UCXVOC;, "f)V

avayx"f) va XCXMW7tL~E't'a~ (; AOY0C;, (; xaAAwmClfLoc; ofLwc; ou't'oc; 7tPE7tE~ va EXY) fLE't'pOV, xaL va 7tEPWPL~E't'cxt dc; op~cx' 7tPE7tEt va (;fLma~Y) 't'OV ClEfLvOV xaMwmClfLov 't'~c; ClWCPpovoc; yuvcxtxoc;, XCXt oxt 't'eX Otcxcpcxv~ xa! aClEfLvcx cpopEfLa't'a 't'~c; 7tOpv"f)C;».

To 1837 't'o fLEyaAo YEYOVOC;, ~ ropuCI"f) 't'ou ITcxvEmCl't'"f)fLLOU, fLac; 7tpOClCPEPE~ 't'a 7tpw't'cx odYfLa't'a WC; 7tP0C; 't'o VEO 7tVEUfLCX 't'wv XCXtpwv. 'A7t0 't'1]v ~fLEPCX 't'~c; E7tLCI"f)fL"f)c; 't'EAE't'~C; 't'wv EYXCX~V!wv Oa (J''t'CXOOUfLE ClE ouo a7to 't'ouc; p1]'t'OPEC; 7tOU Sa EfLcpaVt(J''t'ouv CI't'O 6~fLCX' (J''t'ov NEOCPU't'O BafL6a xa! CI't'OV fL"f)'t'P07tOAt't'"f) 'A8"f)vwv MtCla1]A 'A7tOCl't'OAtO"f). '0 7tpW't'OC;, ClUVE7t1]C;, aAAwCI't'E, 7tPOC; 't'1]v holjJ1] 't'OU 7tOU e:tOCXfLE mo 7taVW, Sa 7tEPWfnO"'t'Et a7tAWC; CI't'LC; OU(J'XOALEC; 't'OU NEOU 'EM"f)VtClfLOU -07tWC;, aAAWCI't'E, xat Ot LmOAomm p1]'t'OPEC; a7tO 't'1]v t(J''t'Optx1] Exdv"f) (J'UVCX~"f)- yta va 't'OVLClE~ 't'1]v OuvafL"f) 7tOU 't'ov EfLljJuXWVE CI't'a XPOVtCX 't'~c; oouAdac;. «OUO' cxu't'oc; (; ClXA"f)pO't'a't'oc; XCXL 7tOAUXPOVWC; ~uyoc; 't'~c; oouAdcxc;, OU't'E ~ 7tapaxoAou80uClCX 't'1]v oouAdcxv 7t't'wXdcx, xcxt 7tEPtCPPOV"f)CI~C;, xaL afLaeE~a, xat 7tpOA1]IjJE~C;, XCXL OE~CI~OCXtfLoVLCXt, OEV Eouv1]6Y)Clav 't'OClOU't'OUC; atwvcxc; (J'uvcxYWVt~OfLEVat va E~aAdljJw(J'tv 't'o 7tpoYOVtXOV 't'ou't'o XCXL EfLCPU't'OV

28

TO KPnO ~XOAEIO

I1tO'6YJfUX 't~~ cptAop.116dCX~». '0 OELmpO~, aV"t't6E'tW~, e:IVl1t e:u6u,,(PI1P.P.tO'P.EVO~ 1tpO~ 'to 1tVe:Up.11 't~~ av'tml1pa6e:0'1)~, XI1L tJ1tOO''t1)PL~e:t 't~V a.1tOo,Ji1) iht O[ XCX'tCXX't1)'tE~ «OEV a.cptVOV 'tOU~ "EAA1)VCX~ va O'UV't1)PWO'tv 00'11 expe:ta~ov'to eX1tl1toe:u't~xa XI1'tI1O''t~p.I1'tCX ota va CPW'tL~WV'tCXt, XCXL va 1tPOX01t'tWO'tV d~ XCXVEV e:roo~ e7ttO''t~p.1)~. Ta OE OAL"(CX 'tOtCXU'tI1, 00'11 eow XCXL exe:'r p.e:'ta 1tOAAWV a"(wvwv XI1L XtVOUVWV Ote:'t1)POUV't'O OcpdAOV'tl1t d~ 't~V CPUO'tX~V 'tWV 'EAA~VWV XI1L aVI1MOLW'tOV 1tpO~ 't~V p.a(1)O'tv XALcrtV, 't~V 01tOLI1V ou'te: 'to 1tcxpaoe:t"(p.11 'tWV tcxptapwv xl1'ta 't~V p.I1XPOxpOVtoV p.e:'t' I1U'tWV e7ttp.#cxv, ou'te: CXU't~ ~ bLCX ~ouv~(1)0'I1v va e~cxAdo,JiwO'tV ~ va p.e:'t'l1taAWO't». Mv 1te:ptoPL~e:'tCXt Op.w~ eow' e7ttxe:tpe:'r XCXL EVcx E:1t0- p.e:VO t~p.11 "(ta va cxt'ttoAo~O'e:t 't~V a.1tOo,Ji~ 'tOU, P.EO'CX a1tO 'to "(VWO''tO av'tt6e:'ttXO O'X~p.I1: «dto'tt O'uVl1t0'6cxvop.e:vot», 1tl1pl1't1)pe:'r O''t~V O'UVEXe:tCX, «O[ taptl1pot evoop.uxw~ 't~V aOtXLCXV 't~~ XI1't110UVI1O''tdcx~ 'tWV, EtAe:1tOV 1tav'to'te: P.E tAEP.P.CX U1t01t'tOV 1tiiv o,'tt O'UVe:'tEA€t d~ 't~V ava1t'tu~tv 'tWV OtCXV01)'ttXWV p.i1~ ouvap.€WV, XI1L ~ 1tCXpcxp.txpa O'XEo,Jit~ XCXL ACXt~ ~pxe:t €t~ I1U'tou~, tvcx XI1L 'to Ep,,(OV aVI1'tpEo,JiWO't, XCXL 'tOV e7ttXe:tpOUV'tCX E:~OV"t'WO'WO't».

MEO'CX 0''t0 Y€VtXO XALP.I11tOU EX€t Otl17tt0''tw6e:'r ~O1), OEV 6e:wpw O'tt €IVl1t OUO'XOAO va oe:X60Up.e: o'tt ~ a.1too,Ji1) 'tou 'A1tOO''tOA(01) 6a tp~xe: xa1totl1v a1t~X1)O'1). «rVWpL~OUP.€ o'tt xl1'ta XCXVOVI1 Y€VtXO o[ AoYOt 1td60uv exdvou~ 1tOU €lvl1t a1to 1tPLV O'up.cpWVOt P.E 'ta A€YOp.e:VI1, XI1L o'tt, O'E xa1toto 1toO'oO''to, p.1tOpOUV va 1tI1PI1O'upouv 'tou~ OtO''tcxx'ttXOU~». ~E p.ta 1tpw'te:uouO'cx Aomov, 01tOU ~ 1tve:u(J.CX'ttX~ ~W~ 1t€ptO''tPEcp€'tCXt XUPLW~ yupw a1tO 'to IICXV€7ttO''t~p.to, P.E 'tOU~ "(VWO''tOU~ 1tOt1)'ttXOU~ OtCXYWVtO'P.OU~ XCXL P.E 'tOV 1top.1tW01) 'tP01tO P.E 'tOV 07tO'rOV 'tOU~ E:6p'tCX~CXV, EVCX~ AOYO~ 1tI1V1)yuptXO~, 1tOU XUXAOCPOp1)O'€ p.aAtO''t11 XI1L CXU'tO't€AW~, 01tWO'O~1t0't€ 6a tP~X€ &n~X1)O'1). Ta 'tEO'O'€PCX, a.MWO''t€, XUptCX XCXPI1X't1)ptO''ttxa 't~1O e1tOXYj~, POP.CX-

, 6 ' , M " '!J:o'" ,

V'ttO'P.O~, xcx cxpe:uOUO'I1, P1)'tOP€tl1, €YI1A1) o€CX, €tVl1t O'UV't€A€O''tt-

xa. Mv 6a 1t€paO'ouv XCXL 1tOMa xpOVta XCXL 6a axouO''te:'r p.ta 1tOAU "(VWptp.1) CPWv~, O''t~V rOtCX CXU't~ ypcxp.p.~. To 1842 0 KwvO''tI1V't''rvo~ otxovop.o~ O''tov e7ttp.v1)p.oO'uvo AOYO 1tOU exCPWV€'r O''t~v 'A6~vl1 yta 'tou~ ZwO'tp.ao€~ 6a o1)p.toupy~O'€t P.E aO'cpaA€tCX 'to 1tpw'to O'XEAO~: «'H6EA1)0'e: XCXL 0 XI1'tCXX't1)'t~~ a1to1tv'r~CXt 1tiiv app€vw1tOV XCXL Y€VVI1'rOV cppov1)p.11 'tWV 'EM~VWV, XCXL 'tOU voo~ ep.tpt6.€~ 1t€PL 'ta~ 1tpa~€t~ XI1L avoptXOV, XI1L 'to PWP.I1AEOV XI1L XI1P'te:ptXOV XI1L CP€PE-

TO KPY<110 ~XOAEIO

29

reovOv EV 't'at.;; O'ufJ-cpopat.;;, 't'0 OreOtOv aU~aVE't'at xat 't'p€cpE't'at ureo 't'Y)';; O'WCPpOVO';; reatoda.;; xat 't'Y)';; EUO'd')ou.;; ~fJ-WV retO''t'EW';;. dta 't'OU't'O XIX't'E't'P€XOV't'O Xat al EXXAYJO'tat xat 't'a O'XOAEta 't'wv OpOO- 06~WV». Twpa fJ-reOpEt va OAOXAYJPWO'Et aVE't'a 't'0 O'XY)fJ-a: «'AM' ~ reavayciOo.;; I1povota xaOw.;; ECPW't't~E 't'a.;; fJ-/Xta.;; xat E~WOyOVEt xpucptw.;; 't'a appEva 't'wv 'E6patwv, wO'au't'w,;; Ot€'t'a~E xat tfuxa.;; EUO'E6Et.;; xat cptAOO€OU';; xat 't'au't'a.;; OthE Atyure't'ta.;; aM' 0fJ-0YEVEt.;;, xat ofJ-ocppova.;;· ahtVE';; EV 't'areEtVat.;; ExxAYJO'tat.;; xat arewxtO'fJ-€Vot.;; fJ-ovaO''t'YJptot.;;, xat EV O'xoAat.;; fJ-txpat.;; xat reEVtxpat.;; ota 't'Y)';; tEpa.;; OtOIXO'XaAta.;;, EfJ-atwov d.;; ~w~V 't'a rea't'pta 't'WV at'X,lllXAW't'wV 'EAA~VWV cppOV~fJ-a't'a».

'0 O1xov0fJ-0';;, DfJ-W';;, yv~O'tO 't'€XVO 't'OU dtacpw't'tO'fJ-OU reaAatO't'Epa, . reou EXEt reEpaO'Et ma O''t'~V O'UV't'~PYJO'Y), dXE ~~O'Et fJ-tav

"" " , e '''" ,,..,

al\l\YJv repaYfJ-a't'txo't'YJ't'a, yta 't'YJV oreotav, al\l\wO''t'E, xat EtXE Epya-

O''t'Et oYJfJ-wupytxa· O€V fJ-reOpEt 't'wpa va 't'~V apVYJOEL OthE xat va 't'~V areoO'tWre~O'Et. Sa avatpOUO'E au't'ofJ-a't'a 't'OV row 't'OV O'xoreo 't'Y)';; reavYJyuptxY).;; OfJ-tAta.;; 't'ou. "Av ~ «Sda I1povota» Aomov ECPW't'tO'E reaAatO't'Epa 't'OU';; O'ufJ-rea't'ptW't'E';; -eou, Drew.;; doafJ-E, 't'wpa dvat ~ «Sda duvafJ-t.;;» reou Oa O'ufJ-reapaO''t'aOEt xat reaAt: «'AM' ~oYJ repoO'E'Y'Yt~OUO'Y)';; 't'lj~ oExa't'YJ~ €va't'YJ~ Exa't'ov't'aE't'YJPtOO~, ~ Oda ouvafJ-t~ 't'aXEt avureEp6A~'t'~ xat acpa't'~ EA€Et, w.;; aX't't~ ~AtaXOu cpw't'o,;;, Et.;; 't'o y€vo.;; 't'o 'EAAYJVtXOV EmAafJ-tfaO'a, EV€reAYJO'E 't'o reav O'w't'YJptou C11C€pfJ-/X't'O';; cptAofJ-/XOEta.;; 0PIXO''t'txw't'b.'t'YJ';;. TO't'e xat ExXAYJO'tat AafJ-repo't'epat aVEydpoV't'o, xat 'i..xoAat 't'EAEto't'Epat ErcAYJOuvoV't'O, xat V€ot O'reouoaO''t'at fJ-E't'€CPEPOV xat aAAa~ €mO''t'~fJ-a~ €X 't'Y)~ EupwreYJC;, xat 01 "EMYJvE~ avutfouv ofJ-fJ-a't'a xat xEcpaA~v dc; 't'ov oupavov· xat au't'ot 01 OPEO't't'pOCPot ulot 't'lj~ EuO'e60u~. €AWOepta~ €reeO'xoreouv EX 't'wv 6paxwv avwOEv fJ-E't'€WPOt xat rep0O'Ex't'tXot».

'i..~fJ-Epa, uO''t'Epa areo EVafJ-tO'Y) atwvIX reEptreou afJ-E't'pO€reEta~, ouO'mO''t'oufJ-E va areooexOoufJ-E, D't't dvat ouva't'ov va AEt't'oup')'YJO'e O''t'ou~ O'uyXpovou,;; 't'ou 0 PYJ't'optO'fJ-o~ O''t'ov oreotov repoO'cpEuYEt 0 Q[XOVOfJ-o~, repOXEtfJ-€VOU va EPfJ-YJVEOOEt 't'oO'o areAa xat ~ExaOaptO'fJ-€va areo xatpo xat yta 't'~v Ercox~ 't'ou b.xofJ-YJ O€fJ-a't'a, Drewc; dvat ~ veoEMYJVtX~ avay€vvYJO'Y) O''t'~v oreotav avacp€pE't'at. Sa aotxouO'afJ-e, Aomov, 't'~v to''t'optX~ fJ-a.;; XPtO'Y) , av o€v O''t'ExofJ-/XO''t'av EmcpuAax't'tXOt O'€ D,'t't 't'ovtO''t'YJxe mo reavw, rew~ «01 AOYot redOouv X't'A.». 'Apxet, aMwO''t'E, va reapaxoAouO~O'OutJ£ repoO'ex't'txa 't'~v O'uv€xeta.

30

TO KPYiI>O :EXOAEIO

IIAlJo"leX~oufU XlXl 7teXAI 0""0 7tWlt7tt<1'rlJtJ.IIXXO 6ljtJ.lX, a7tO "0 (.mOtO tJ.ae; a7t0tJ.eXxpUVE aVlXyxlXO"'tlxeX -XIXL 7tPOO"WPIVeX 15tJ.we;- ~ 7tlXp€XXAIO"lJ 'tOU O1xovotJ.ou . To 1849, 15'tIXV 0 (ptAt7t7tOe; 'IweXvvou 7tIXPIXOLOEI O"'tov OleXOOXO 'tOU, rEWpylO MIXUpoxop0eX'to, «KIXOlJn't~ 'tou rlXMIXOU KwolJxoe;», 't~v 7tpU'tIXVELIX 'tou IIIXVE7ttO"'!lJtJ.Lou, IXU'tOe; Uv EXEI AOYO veX tJ.~v t)7tEpOEtJ.IX'tlO"Et, O"€ 't€'t01O bIXOtJ.O tJ.eXAIO"'tIX, WO"'tE veX OWO"EI 't~v EV'tU7tWO"lJ 15'tt aOllXcpopEt EV'tEAWe; 0"1.1 a7tAWe; YleX 'to beXpoe; 'twv A€~EWV 7tOU XPlJO"ItJ.07totEr, aAAa xlXl Yla IXU't~ XIXOEIXU't~V 't~v O"lJtJ.IXO"LIXV 'tOUe;, apXEt 0 Myoe; 'tou veX O"'tlJptXOEt --7tOU aMou;- 7tIXPeX O"'to 7tPOO"cptA€e; yteX 't~v E7tOX~ aV'ttOE'tIXO O"xljtJ.lX: «'H tJ.€v 7tPO utJ.wv VEOAIXLIX EOtOeXO"XE'tO AIXOpIXLWe; EV U7tOydote; xlXl EV 'tlXre; 07tlXte; 'tlje; ylje; 'tov 'tUPIXVVOV OtIXCPEUYOUO"IX' utJ.Ete; o€ OtOeXO"XEO"OE EV tJ.EAeXOpote; XIXAWe; E~EtpyCXO"tJ.€vote; XIXL 7tEptxpuO"ote; 6plXbErlX, 7tlXpeX cptAOtJ.OUO"ou 'A.vcxx'toe; a7tEXOEx0tJ.EVot».

Twpcx 'to E7tOtJ.EVO bljtJ.1X EIvcxt 7tta yvwO"'to' 0 XEV'tptXOe; 7tUp~VCXe; 'twv AOYWV 7tOU dVlXt O"'tCXOEPeX 7tteX EOVIXOe;, EAXEI a6llX0"'tcx O"€ E'tOttJ.1X cppcxO"'ttxeX O"X~tJ.IX'tIX, 7tOU EXOUV XIXL EXEr vo: 7tA€OV apXLO"EI veX 7tlXytwvov'tlXt' 0 PlJ'toptxoe; Aoyoe;, axouO"'ttX~ ~oov~ 7tA€OV, oYjtJ.lOupyEr 't~v 7tCXpeXooO"~ 'tou XIXL 157tWe; O"WPEUE'tCXt tJ.€ 'to 7t€pcxO"tJ.cx 'tou xpovou tJ.E'tCXbeXME'tCXt O"€ a7tOOEtJ.cx'tIXO XECPeXAcxlO a7to 'to 07tOrO aV'tAEr XWpLe; oIO"'tcxytJ.o 0 p~'toplXe;, oXt 'teX cpplXO"'ttXeX O"X~tJ.CX't1X tJ.0vov, aMa XCXL 'tLe; [O€Ee; -rou. "O'tcxv 'to 1863 Q KwvO"'tcxV'tlvoe; cI>pEcxphlJe;, xcxOlJn't~e; 'tou PwtJ.cx·t"xou dtXCXLOU O"'to IIcxVE7ttO"'t~tJ.IO, ExcpWVEr AOYO «IIEpL 'twv 'tuxwv XCXL 'tlje; cpuo"EWe; 'tlje; EMlJVtXlje; E7ttO"'t~tJ.lJe;» o€v OeX OUO"XOAWOEr veX avcxxOEJ ML o"'t~v XIX'teXO"'tCXo"y) 'tlje; 7tcxtodcxe; XIX'teX 'teX E7tIXVCXO"'tCX'ttxeX XPOVtcx: «A.M' U7tO 'tou IXttJ.ObOpOU 'tuPeXwou 't~v aVEAE~tJ.OVIX tJ.eXO"'ttycx, Q 't1X7tEtVOe; 1e:pEue; XCXL o 7tEVtxpoe; 'EMlJVOOtOMXCXAOe;, Ev'tPOtJ.Ot, aM' aXIXtJ.7t'tot XIXL a7t'tolJ'tot O"uvljyov de; acplXvlj xcx'tlXywytlX 'toue; 'tpUcpEpOUe; cxu'twv VEOO"O"OUe;, TvlX tJ.u~O"wO"tV cxu'toue; EV XpU7t'tiiJ de; 'tlje; 'EMlJVtxlje; opOOOO~LCXe; 'teX OOYtJ.CX'tIX, XIXL 'tlje; 'EMlJVtxlje; E7ttO"'t~tJ.lJe; 'teXe; EV'tOAeXe;. 'Ex 'twv O"XO'tEtVWV o€ 'tou'twv XpU7t'twv E~ljAOOV ot 7tOAU7tAlJOEre; EXEtVOt CPW'tEtVOL 'tlje; 7tLO"'tEWe; XIXL 7t1X'tpLOOe; tJ.EYCXA0tJ.eXp'tUpEe;, Ot hl 't€O"O"lXpcxe; cx[wvcxe; OteX 'tou 7tOAU'tLtJ.0U cxTtJ.IX'toe; IXU'tWV xlX't1X6p€~cxV'tEe; 'tov xcx'teX~lJPov 'tlje; EAEUOEpLIXe; xOPtJ.0V».

To XdtJ.EVO 'tOU cI>PECXphlJ a7t€XEt a7to 'to XdtJ.EVO 'tOU GlxovotJ.ou dxoO"t XpOVtlX. l:'to OteXO"'tlJtJ.1X IXU'tO, EVW, a7to 't~v tJ.teX tJ.EpteX,

TO KPr'110 :EXOAEIO

31

~ yvWcr-rj 'tWV av6pwnwv 'tlie; Eno'X,lie; cr~ 6~tJ-Ct'tCt 'tou npOt:nCtvCtcr'tCt't~xou EM'Y)vtcrtJ-OU d'X,e: npo'X,wp~cre:t tJ-~ blitJ-Ct (I'Y)tJ-e:~w'tov, ano 't~v IiM'Y) e:T 'X,e: ap'X,tcre:t v~ nCt'Ytwve:'tCt~ tJ-t~ xCt'tacr'ta(I'Y) nou 6a O'Y)tJ-toup~cre:~ 'toue; ne:ptql'Y)tJ-oue; xmvoue; 'tonoue; 'tlje; VWe:AA'Y)Vtxlje; nve:utJ-a'ttxlje; ~wlje; tJ-Ecra (nov 190 CtlwvCt. AiJ't~ e:Tva~ ~ oe:u'te:p'Y) crnouoata cr't~'YtJ-~ 'Yt~ 't~v e#A~~'Y) 'tou tJ-u60u 'tou Kpuqlou "i'X,0- Ae:WU. '0 potJ-CtV't~crp.oe; npocr~qle:pe: 'to 'Ye:VtXO XAtp.a 'tlie; e:~apl1'Y)e; XCtt 'X,apCt~e: mo aopop.e:pe:te; 'tte; 'Ypap.p.Ee; 'Yta 'to cr'X,lip.a· 0 p'Y)'toptcrp.oe;, ~ axupoAe:~ta xat ~ na'tpCt'Ya6ta otap.0pqlwcrCtv. 'to 6~p.a xat 'to na'Ytwcrav. 'H cp~p.'Y) 'tou npw'tou (I'Y)p.etV'ttXOU 'tou qlOPECt, 'tou otxovop.ou, 'to xa6~~pwcre:. 1\.no kow XCtt nEpCt, xat liv axop.'Y) OEV E'X,OUP.e: 't~v OUVCt'to't'Y)'tCt v~ nCtpaxoAou6~l1oup.e: 't~v aM'Y)Aou'X,ta 'twv xe:~p.~vwv 'Y~a 't~v ho'X,~ au't~, yvwPt~e:'te: nA~ov p.Ecra cre nato 'Ye:VtXO crxljp.Ct e~ avCt~'Y)'t~croup.e: 'tov p'ueo 'tau Kpuqlou "iXOAe:wu.

Au't~ op.we; 't~ IiAArx., 't~ onoTrx. 0 cruv't~x't'Y)e; 'tou ap6pou ee:wpe:t e:he: yvwcr't~ the: aU'tovo'Y)'ta, ae; p.~ p.iie; anr:xcr'X,oA~crouv ne:ptcrero'te:po, 'Y~a'tt At'YCt XpOV~Ct ap'Yo'te:pCt Eva 11'Y)p.aV'ttxo 'Ye:'Yovoe; Ep'X,e:'tCtt va nAou'ttere:t 't~v napaooer'Y) p.~ xatvoupw atp.a. To 1870, b o~X'Y)'Yopoe; 1\. voperx.e; ~aAACtnop'tae; 'tunwve:t l1e qluMaow p.~~ bp.~Ata p.e 'tt'tAO «Ilspi 'tYje; 'EAA'Y)VtXYje; 'Emer't~tJ-y)C; ... », &'vaAo'Yo, o'Y)Aao~, npoe; 'tov 'tt'tAO 'tYjc; EP'Yaertae; 'tou <I>pe:Ctpt't'Y). 'H eru'Y'Yeve:~rx. op.we; oev ne:pwpt~e:'tat p.ovo er'tov 'tt'tAO' b ~aManop'tae; P.EVe:t noM xoV'ta er'tov <I>pe:apt't'Y) xat er'to tOtO 'to xdp.e:vo: «'Ev 'tYJ na'tp0a Eer'tta», 'Ypacpe:t, «0 'tan moe; te:pe:ue; xat 0 ne:v~'X,poe; EAA'Y)VOOtOaerxaAOe; p.e:'ta 'tpop.ou, EvtO'te: xat o~ ',lUX 'toe; , cruvY)'Y0v 'toue; 'tpucpe:poue; au'twv ve:oereroue; nap~ 't~v ExxA'Y)ertaV adno'te:, Tvrx. o~a 'twv Ctlwvwv p.u~erwertv au'toue; dc; 'tlje; EM'Y)VtXYje; nrx.~oe:tCte; 't~e; EV'tOA~C; xat 'tlie; bpeooo~trx.c; 't~ £AA'Y)v~xw'tMa oO'Yp.a'ta». 'H aU'Yxpt(I'Y) av~p.e:errx. er't~ OUO xdp.e:wx tJ.ii.e; ne:t6e:~ o't~ 0 ~rx.AArx.nop'tac; OEV npoern~6'Y)ere: v~ anop.axpuvee:t ana 'to xdp.e:vo -tou <I> pe:apt't'Y), aAAa o't~ Emxdp'Y)aE va nEpwptere:~ 't~v e:~ap(I'Y) 'tou OCtve:tou xe:~p.~vou, EhE 'Y~a va 'to npoaapp.6ae:t a'tov 'tovo 'tou npoawmxou uqloue; e:he: 'Yt~ v~ ano'tpe~e:t 't~v ap.e:(I'Y) avayvwpt(I'Y). 'E~~Mou, npoae6e:ere: OUO xatvoupta l1'tOt'X,e:tCt: 'tonpw'to, o't~ 't~ a'X,oAe:ta Ae:t'toup'Y0uaav n~v'to'tE ere 'X,wpouc; kxxA'Y)ertaa'ttxoue;, taWe; v~ 'to oavder't'Y)xE ana 'tov Olxovop.o, evw 'to OEU'tEPO, nwe; AE~'toup'Y0uaav «EVtO'tE» 't~v vUX'ta, X~VEt 'twpa 'Yt~ npw't'Y) cpopa 't~v €p.cpavta~ -rou oe:p.evo P.€ 't~v napaoo(I'Y).

32

TO KPY<I>O ~XOAEJO

Kt (; XOPOe, XaAa xpa'te:t. MOAte, 'tOV btOfLe:VO XPOVO (; ~tAm- 1tOe, 'Iwavvou, xa6l]"(f)'t~e, cr'tO IIave:mcr't~fLW, 6a 6pe:6e:t Xat au'tOe" 01tWe, ~'tav cpucrtXO, tX1tO Xa1tma tXCPOPfL~ cr'tO t~fLa. To 6efLa 1tpocrcpepe:'tat: «IIe:pt 't~e, 1tve:ufLa'ttx~e, 1tpOOOOU 'tOU EMl]VtXOU yevoue, tX1t' tXpXae, 'tOU u1tep 1tOAt'ttX~e, au'tou tXve:~ap'tl]crtae, tXywvoe, EWe, 't~v cr~fLe:POV». ~'toye:Vtxo'te:po Aomov xAt[LrJ. 't~e, E1tOX~e, xat 'tou €Tooue, fLecra tX1tO 'to (moto €xcppa~e:'tat au'to, ol]Aao~ (; Pl]'toptxoe, AOY0e" ~ cruvexe:ta e:Ivw ~ tXVafLe:vofLe:Vl]: «~xoAe:ta 'ta1te:tva, a1tota cruve:x wpouv at oe:tvat 1te:ptcr'tacre:te, 'tou €6voue" fLtxpa xat AU1t"Y]pa 'twv ypa~'twv cpu'twpta tXvacpatvoV't'at btaxou ~e, EMl]vtX~e, xwpae" xat fLe:'ta 't~v 1top6l]crtv au't~e, xat EP~fLwcrtV, XPU1t'tofLe:va 1tOAAaXte, tX1tO 'twv bcp6aAfLwv 'twv xpa'touV't'wv de, 't01toue, oucrta'toue" de, Epl]fLtxa fLovacr't~pta, 1tapafLu60uV't'a 't~v 1tve:ufLa'ttx~v 1te:t vo» xat ot~av 'twv oucr'tuxwv tX1toyovwv 'tou 'Hpo06'tou, 'tou ITAa'twvoe, ... »

4

'R 7tapaOOO"l) "(ta '!o Kpucpo "'i:..XOA€tO, 07tw<; '!~v 7tapaxoAou8~O'a[J.€ va ota[J.opcpwv€'!at itw<; '!wpa, o',!~v E~€AtX'!tX~ '!'Y)<; Evap[J.oVtO"l) ~po<; '!a O''!OLX€ta EX€tVa oO'a, O'uv8E'!OUV '!o 7tv€U[J.a'!txo XAt~ '!lj<; e7t0xlj<;, EX€t O'u"(X€V'!pwO'€t ~0'Y) '!t<; 7tPOU7t08EO'€t<; "(ta [J.ta 7tpw'!'Y) Enpacp~ O''!OU<; XOLVOU<; '!07tOu<; '!lj<; vEa<; EM'Y)Vtxlj<; [O''!Optxlj<; O'UVeto'Y)O"l)<;, 'R EmfltwO'~ '!'Y)<; o[J.w<; [J.EO'a O''!o O'uvoV8UA€u~ '!WV tiAA'Y)AoO'u"(Xpouo[J.€VWV, 7tOME<; CPOPE<;, XOLVWV au'!wv '!07tWV -'"'OU<; 7teptO'O'o'!€POu<; a7to '!OU<; rmOtOu<; o'Y)[J.toUp"('YJO'€ ~ EO'7t€UO'[J.EV'Y) 7ta"(twO''Y) '!ou O'X~[J.a'!o<; "(ta '!o a[J.€O'o icr'!optxo 7tap€A80v- xa8w<; xat ~ E~EAt~~ '!'Y)<; 8a E~ap'!'Y)80uv EV'!€AW<;, €h€ a7to '!t<; ouva'!o'!'Y),!E<; '!'Y)<; va acpo[J.OLw8€t a7tO '!O 7t€ptflaMov 7tOU '!~v E~E8p€~€ €h€ a7tO '!t<; aV'!tOpaO'€t<; '!'Y)<; va tmoO''!€t XWpt<; Xtvouvou<; tiva'!po7tlj<; '!~v Ooxt[J.aO'ta [J.ta<; EVO€XO[J.€v'Y)<; xpmxlj<; E7t€~€p"(aO'ta<;, T~v acpo[J.OtWO'Y) €UVO€t au'!~ ~ rOta ~ ucp~ xat ~ O'uv8€0"l) '!wv O''!OLXdwv '!lj<; 7tapaooO''Y)<;, E7t€tO~ '!lj<; Em'!pbtouv va otox€'!€U8€t XWpt<; ouO'xoAte<; xat XWpt<; aMOtWcr€t<; O''!ou<; xwpou<; €h€ '!lj<; o'Y)[J.toUp"(txlj<; Ao,,(o'!€xvta<; €h€ '!lj<; '!EXV'Y)<;. Au'!~ axpt6w<; ~ otdO'ouO"l) 00'0 '!axu'!€pa 7tpa"([J.a'!07tOL'Y)8et, '!ooo av€'!o'!€pa 8a a7tO'!PE~€t '!~v Ooxt[J.aO'ta '!lj<; xpmxlj<;, ~ XaMtEp,,(€ta '!lj<; o7tota<; eYvat cpuO'tXO va ouva[J.wv€t [J.E '!o 7tEpacr[J.a '!ou xatpou, acpou itva<; a7tO '!ou<; XUptou<; 7tapa"(oV'!€<; 7tOU O'uV€'!EA€O'av O''!~v 7tapax[J.~ '!ou pO[J.aV'!tXOu Xtv~[J.a'!o<; d vat ~ ava7t'!u~'Y) '!lj<; XPt'!txlj<; 7tpo<; OA€<; '!t<; xa'!€U- 8uvO'€t<;.

"'i:..'!0 [J.€'!~u, '!O O'UV€Xw<; au~avo[J.€vo EVOtaCPEPOV "(ta '!~v O'uMo~ Aao,,(pacptxou UAtXOU CPEPV€t O''!~v EmcpaV€ta a7tO otacpop€'!tXE<; 7t'Y)"(E<; '!O '!pa"(ouot "(ta '!O «cp€'Y"(apaxt». "Eva Xpovo [J.€'!a '!~v O'UAAo"(~ '!ou Passow (1860), "(ta '!~v o7tota [J.tA~O'a[J.€ ~o'Y), 0 BAaO'to<; "'i:..XOpOEA'Y)<; O''!o 7t€ptoOtXO IIavowpa, 7tOU [J.€pt[J.va "(ta '!~v O'U"(XEv'!pwO''Y) xat 7tapouO'taO''Y) '!wv O''!OLXdwv '!lj<; Aatxlj<; 7tapaooO''Y)<;, o'Y)[J.oO't€U€t '!O '!pa"(ouot &no '!ov "'i:..'!€vt[J.axo (7t€PtoX~ «PtAt7t7tOU7tOA'Y)<;) O''!~v "(\IwO''!~ '!ou [J.opCp~, [J.E OUO [J.tXpE<; 7tapaAAa,,(E<; AE~€WV, 07tOU O''!ov 5 O''!tXO ~ AE~'Y) «O'7touoaO'[J.a'!a» EX€t aV'!txa'!aO''!~O'€t

34

TO KPY~O ~XOAEIO

,!;~V AE~1) «!UX&Y]!UX'!;Ot» XOtt O',!;ov 6 ~ AE~1) «6eX(Jo(JocnOt» ,!;~v AE~1) «1tot~(JocnOt». '0 EUrpeXV,!;OtO''!;oc; o(JoWC; ~XOpOEA1)C;, 1t0l) o1)(JoWUpyr)O'E, 01tWC; dOOt(JoE, OAOXA1)P1) €xdv1) ,!;~v (JoU601tAOtO'tOt yteX ,!;~v VEO'!;1)'!;Ot '!;OU P~Ot, o,!;OtV ytVE'!;Ott O'UMEX'!;1)C; AOtOypOtrptXOU uAtXOu XOtt (Jo0vov, (JoEVEt eXVE1t1)PEOtO''!;OC; li1to 01tOtEO'O~1t0,!;E tiMEC; rptAOAoytXEC; €mpPOEC;, XOtt 1tEPVeXEt, 6eX €AEYE XOtvdc;, liw1to'ftOtO''!;oC; Ot1tAOt li1to EVOt ,!;POtyoUOt, 1tOU 6eX €1tPE1tE veX '!;ov (01)~O'Et Otu'!;o(JoOt'!;Ot veX '!;O O'UO''X,E'!;to'Et (JoE ,!;~v 1tOtpeXooO'1) yteX '!;O Kpurpo ~'X,OAEtO. "E'!;O't, '!;O O''X,OAtO 1tOU O'UVOOEUEt ,!;~v o1)(JooO'twO'1) '!;ou 'tPOtyouowu hrppeX~Et lixpt6wc; '!;ov ,!;P01tO (JoE '!;ov 01tOtO 6eX '!;O EP(Jo1)VEUOt(JoE €(JoEtC; O'~(JoEPOt: «"O'!;OtV

. dc; '!;O AOt(Jo1tpOV rpWC; '!;ljc; O'EA~VlJC; 1tOtt~ouO't ,!;eX 1tOttOtOt dc; ,!;eXc; otXtOtC; '!;wv ~ dc; ,!;eXC; OOOUC; ,!;wv, IiTIw6uvouO't 1tpOC; Otu,!;~v ,!;~v E~ljC;

WpOttOtV WO~V». .

Au'!;~ ~ O''X,EOOV '!;Otu'!;o'X,pov1) 1tOtpouO'tOtO'1) '!;ou ,!;pOtyouOtou li1to 060 OtOtrpOPE'!;tXOUC; O'UMEX'!;EC; OEV 6eX (JoEtvEt 'X,wptc; liv'!;Ot1toxptO'1), O'E (JoteXv €1t0'X,~ 01tOU '!;O XAt!UX 1tOU €'X,Et 01)(JotOUpyr)6Et dvOtt €V'!;EAWC; 1tpoorpopo, 01tWC; dOOt(JoE, yteX ,!;~v XOtMtEPYEtOt '!;ou (Jou60u. 'E~eXAAOU, ~ 1tEPWPtO'(JoEV1) lix'ttv060AtOt '!;OU €v'!;U1tOU, XOtt ~AtO''!;Ot O',!;~v 1tpOxEt(JoEV1) 1tEpt1t'!;WO'1), ouo €v'!;U1tWV 1tpw'!;1)C; O'1)!UXO'tOtC; yteX '!;ouc; €VOtOtrpEPO(JoEVOUC;, €AOt,!;,!;WVEt '!;tC; €mrpuAeX~EtC; 1tOU 1tPE1tEt veX €'X,Et 1teX'J'T;O,!;E 0 (JoEAE'!;1)'!;~C; '!;ljc; iO''!;optOtC; '!;OU VEW'!;EPOU 'EM1)vtO'(Joou, tiv, (1)AOtO~, €'X,Et €~Ot'J'T;A~O'Et 6t6AtoypOtrptxeX '!;O 6E!UX. MOAtC; EVOt 'X,povo lipYO,!;EPOt O',!;O 1tEpWOtXO il)e)..{O'''(;wp XeXVEt ,!;~v 1tpw'T;1) ~EtA~ 6eX ,!;~v 'X,OtpOtx'T;1)Pt~Ot(JoE- €(JorpeXVtO'~ '!;OU '!;O ,!;POtYOUOt o'X,t meX (Joovo -eou, liAAeX O'E AOtv6eXvouO'Ot O''X,EO'1) 1tPOC; '!;ov (Jou60. '0 livww(Jooc;, 01)AOtO~, O'uneXx'!;1)C; '!;ou O''X,E'!;tXOU (JoEAE,!;~!UX,!;OC; (JoE '!;hAo «IIEpt 6(1)O'xw'!;txljc; liywyY")c; '!;wv 1tOttOWV», O'E (JoteXv u1toO'1)(JodwO'1) yteX ,!;~v 6upOt6EV 1tOttodOt, O'UVOOEUEt ,!;~v (1)(JooO'twO'1) '!;ou ,!;pOtYOUOtOU (JoE ,!;~v lixoAOU61J 1tOtpOt'!;~(1)O'1): «Kzf '!;O o1)(Joo'!;txov '!;OU'!;O liO'(JoeX'!;toV U1tE(JorpOttvEt, 6E6OttOt, €x'!;OC; tiMWV XOtt '!;O 1tOO'OV (JoE '!;ex "(pex(Jo!ux'!;Ot O'UVEOEE,!;O 1teX'J'T;O,!;E ~ '!;OU 6EOU €WOtOt dc; '!;exc; ¥u'X,exc; '!;wv v1)1ttWV». "00'1) lioptO''!;tOt (Jo1tOpEt veX XPU6Et ~ liv'!;ww(JotOt, OEV u1toAd1to'J'T;Ott XOtt 1tOAAeX €VOE'X,O(JoEVOt yteX veX oE'X,60u(JoE O'!;t ~'!;Otv 0 yvwO',!;OC;: '!;O Kpurpo ~'X,OAEtO.

'H ,!;EAW'!;OttOt Otu'!;~ 1tpo0'6~x1) OEV ElvOtt OU,!;E liO'~!UXv'T;1) oun '!;u'X,OttOt· 0 dOtAAOt1tOP'!;OtC;, li1tO ,!;~v (JoteX (JoEpteX, ~OtVOtOtVEt O',!;O Xd(JoEVO ,!;~v 1tpw'!;OtP'X,tX~ douAAtOtX~ '!;ou a1tAo'!;1)'!;Ot, €TIEtO~ '!;O li1tOtAAeXO'O'Et

TO KPr<I>O 1:XOAEIO

35

tX1tO 'r~V tXxriAtvw'tTj ~paO"'ttx~ xed mxpao"'ra'ttx~ tXvEOa~tXo'tYJ'ta 'rOU 4>pEapkrJ, 1tOU axoUEt 'tou~ ~'twxooaO"xaAou~ va (J.uouv (J.EO"a O"E XpU1t'tE~ 'ta p.EtpaXta o"'rlj~ «E:MYJvtxlj~ E:7ttO"'t~p.YJ~ 'ra~ EV'tOAa~», xat bAE1tEt va ~E1tYJOOUV p.EO"a tX1tO 'rt~ XpU1t'rE~ aU'rE~ «<pw'tEtVOt 'rlj~ 1ttO''rEW~ p.E'YaAop.ap'tup€~, Ot a7tOLOt E7tt 'tEO"O"apa~ atwva~, xArt.»· tX7tO 't~v aXAYJ (J.Epta, (J.E 't~v <ppaO"Y) -rou «EVtO'tE ota vux't6~» oXt p.6vo 1tP00'6E'tEt €va xatvoupw cr'totXELO, aMa P.E 'to O''tOtXELO au'to O"UP.7tAYJPWVEt 'r~v dxova xat 'tlj~ OtvEt ~EXWPtO"'to XpW(J.a. T~v 1tYJn a1to 't~v a1tota tXV'tAEL 'to ',lEO au'to cr'tOtXELO OEV 7tapaAet7tEt va 't~v P.VYJP.OVEUO"Et" cre (J.ta u7toO'YJ(J.dwo"y) 7tOU 7tapa- 7tEP.1tEt O"'to 'tEAO~ 'tlj~ 7tapa'Ypa~ou, tXva<pEpEt: «'EV'tEU6€v xat 'to oYJp.o'ttXOV 'tWV 1tatowv aO"p.a'ttOV"

d>qyapaXI fJ-OU "AafJ-7rp6 q;eyyg p.g va 7rgp7ra'rw

va p.a()a{vw ypaP.P.aTa 'rOU ()gOU 'ra 7rpaP.p.a'ra».

Bptcrxop.aO"U, oYJAao~, 'twpa p.1tpocr'ta crE Eva cruVYJ6tO'(J.EVO 'Y€'Y0vo~, 01tOU ~ (7UV€tPP.tX~ b.MYJAoux,La, b.V€~EA€j'X'tlJ, 7tOAt'to,,(pa-

<pEL vEa O'x~p.a'ta. .

ME 't~v 1tapa't~PlJcrYJ au't~ E1taVEpxo(J.acr'tE cr't~v bacrtX~ 6Eo"y), 1J''t~v 01tota IJ''L"YJptX&r]XE xat tX7tO 't~v o7tola ~EXtVYJO'E 'to OOXtp.w au'to: a EAE'YXO~ 'tWV E1tt P.EpOU~ 7tEpm'tWaEwv 'to't€ P.OVO p.a~ EVOta~EpEt, o'tav p.a~ Em'rpe1tEt va avax60up.E O'E 'YEVtXO'tEPE~ xa'taO''ta(m~. ME 't~v 1tEpt1t'tWO"YJ oYJAao~ daAAa1tOp'ta, (J.7tOpOUP.E va EXOUP.E p.ta EmbEbatwO'lJ 'tou xavova 'tWV crUP.1t'tWcrEWV, O''t~V a7tAoucr'tEPYJ Ota'tu- 7twcr~ 'tOU, cru(J.<pwva (J.E 'tov a7tOLO, O(J.otE~ 1tpOU1t06EcrEt~ (J.7tOpOUv va p.ii~ <pepouv crE o(J.ota cr't~v crXE'ttxo'tYJ'ta 'tou~ OC7tO'tEAEcrp.a'ta. "O'tIlV Aomov, a7to (J.ta cr'tt'Yp.~ xat EnEt'ra, apXt~ouv ma xal ouvu7tapxouv xpovtxa 'L"a ouo aO"XE'ra o"'r~v 7tpOEAWO"Y) xal o"'r~v O"ucr'tacr~ 'tou~ 6Ep.a'L"a, ~ 1tapaooO'lJ xat 'to 'L"pa'Youot, dvat cpucrtXO xal EVOEX0p.gVO, ~ 1tpw'tl) p.E 't~v 1tpObOA~ 'tl)~ 'Yta'tou~ "(Vwcr'tou~ A6'Y0u~, xal 'to OEU'tEPO p.e 'L"~V 1tapoucrla rcu O''tl~ IJ'UMO'YE~ 'twv olJ(J.o'ttxwv 'tpa'YouotWV xat tXMOU -07tW~ 6a 100u(J.E a(J.ecrw~ mo xa'tw- va aOlJnO"ouv 1tEPtcrcrO'L"EPOU~ tX1tO €vav a1to ocrou~ b.(7XOA~&r]xav p.e 'to Kpu~o

~ "\ " Y 't t. s « r' , '" ';" Do" "\'

~xo"etO ',Ill crU",eUIo0\N 'til ouo. t au'to, 07tWC; oev va a7tox"etaoutJ£

36

TO KPY<IlO l:XOAEIO

't~v U1tap~1) xat rt.MOU XEt(LEVOU (LECTa CT'tO 01toio va 1tpa')1UX'!01tOt~- 01)XE ~ cru~W~1) au't~ -xat 'to 01toto EVOEXO(LEVW~, yta (LEva -eouAaXtcr'tov, AavOaVEt- xa'ta 'tOV rOtO 'tP01tO OEV Oa OEWp~crOU(LE o'tt (Lta (LE'taYEvEcr'tEP1) CTU~W~1) 'tou OE(La'tOe; Oa €XEt Aa()Et avayxacr'ttxa U1tO~1) 't1)e;, d'tE 'to XEt(LEVO 'tou flaMa1tOp'ta d'tE b.x0(L1) 'to Xd(LEVO ~ 'ta xd(LEva 1tOU EVOEXO(LEVWe; AavOavouv.

T~v 1ttOavo'tE(1) o(Lwe; a1tOOEt~1) yta 't~v CTU~W~1) 'tlje; 1tapaoOCT1je; (LE 'to 'tpayouot (Lae; 't~v OtVEt ~ (Lap'tupta 1tASOV EVOe; ~svou. IIpoxmat yta 'tov 1tpw'to :A(LEptXaVo 1tpO~EVO cr't~v :AO~va (1867- 1874) Charles Tuckennann, 1tOU pae; acp1)CTE 't"te; EV't"U1twcrEte; a1to 't"~v 1tapa(Lov~ 't"ou CT't"~V 'EMaoa crs Eva a~tOAoyo €pyo, O! "E)').r;y~c; '!"~c; CT~(.J.~POy (EM1)VtX~ (LE't"acppaCT1j 't"ou :Anwvtou Zuyo(LIXAii, 'AO~va 1877). To crXE't"tXO (Ls 't"~v 1tatoda xEcpaAato 't"ou €pyou apXt~Et we; E~lje;:

« tPqyczpaxl (.J.OU ).cz(.J.7rPO, q:;i~~ (.J.ou ya 7r~P7rcz,!"(jj,

ya 7rr;ycz[yW CT'!"O CTXO).~lO, ya (.J.czOcz[yW ypa(.J.(.J.cz'!"cz '!"ou e~ou '!"a 7rpa(.J.(.J.cz'!"cz.

Totou't"ov 1tEPt1tOU ~'t"o 't"o ~CT(La, 01tEP hpaywoouv Ot EM1)VO- 1tatOEe;, 1tOPWO(LEVOt EV xatpi;) vux't"oe; de; 't"6 crXOAEtOV Ent Toupxoxpa't"tae;. To &cr(La 't"ou't"o EIvat YVWCT't"OV de; 7tana "EM1)va vuv we; xat 7tpO't"EPOV xat Ot 7ta't"spEe;, OEtXvUOV't"Ee; de; 't"a 'tsxva 'twv 't~v crEA ~v1)v, EnaVaAa(L()avoucrt 'toue; cr'ttXOUe; 'tou't"oue;, a<p1)you(LEvot aU't"ote; 7tOOOV 't"Ote; EXP1)crt(LWcrEV au'tl) xa't"a 'toue; CTXO'tEtVOUe; xpovoue; 'tlje; bOw(Lavtxlje; xuptapxtae;. M~ EmOU(LOUV'tEe;, €cr'tw xat xa't' EAa.Xtcr't"ov, va. epEOtcrwcrt 't"oue; oEcr7to't"ae; au't"wv ouva(Lsvoue; va 7tapaxwAUcrwCTt 't"ae; 7tpOe; lotav 7tatOwcrtv 7tpOO7taOdae; 't"wv, Ot 7tatOEe;, OUXt os cr7tavtwe; xat aU't"ot ot 7ta'tspEe;, ecpot-r:wv ota Vux't"oe; xat xpucpa de; 't~v olxtav 'tou otOacrxaAou, 07tWe; e~axoAouO~CTwcrt 'tae; cr7touoa~ 'twv. Totou't4> 't"p07t4> ~ (LEV 't"lje; XW(L1)e; crxoA~ XaOtCT't"a't"o dooe; (Lucr't"txlje; E'ratptae;, CTX07tOUCT1je; OUXt E7tavacr't"a't"txae; paotoupytae;, aMa 't"~v a(Lot()atav ()EA't"tWCTtV, ~ os crEA~V1), we; 't"0 7tEv't"aCT't"tXOV (Liie; OtOacrxEt, ECPW't"t~EV aU't"ote; 't"~v o06v xat oU't"W ~ vu~ 7tapEtXEv aU't"ote; o,'t"t 't"ote; ~PVEt't"O ~ ~(Lspa».

TO KPYIJ!O ~XOAEIO

37

ETva~ 7tpOcpaVEe; o'n 0 'A[J.€p~xav6e; 7tp6~€VOe; [J.E 't6 xd[J.€V6 'tou

, ,~, , , "i.i. " '"

IXU't'O, oev xav€~ 'tmo't€ (1.J\I\O 7tapa v« xa'taypacp€~ 'tlJV 'tp€xouO"a

y~a 't~V e7toX~ 'tou O'UV€tOlJO"lJ y~a [J.ta 7tIXytW[J.EVlJ 7tA€OV dx6va. na va OAOXAlJpw6€t O[J.we; 't6 6E[J.a, €Tvat cpp6v~[J.0 va [J.€'tacpEpw EOW xat [J.La 7tPOXWplJ[J.EVlJ YEVLXO'tEPlJ O''X,E'ttXa xptO"lJ 'tou: «Ai 'toupx~xat tXPXat OEV 7tap€XWAUOV tX7toAthwe; 't~v 7tatowO"~v 't'WV 'EM~VWV, tXAAcX xat oev eVE6appuvov 'tau'tlJv, e7tEtO~ 0' €(JA€7tOV

. 't~V 7tatodav 7taplJ[J.eAlJ[J.€VlJV 7tapa 'tOte; Toupxme;, ouoe[J.tav bebatwe; eVE7totouv aU'tate; EuxaptO"'tlJO"LV 01 7tp6e; totav o~avolJ't~x~v tXva7t'tu~~v tXywvee; 'tOt) [J.€yaAou 7tAlJ6uO"[J.0t) 'twv €ucpuwv, 7tA~V oUO"lJP€O"'tlJ[J.€vwv u7tlJx6wv 'twv».

'Eow o[J.we; 7tPE7t€t va xAdO"e~ xat ~ 7tapEv6eO"lJ Tuekermann. "07twe; tXV't'~Aa[J.baV€'ta~ gI;XOAIX 0 tXvayvwO"'tlJe;, [J.La EpEUva 7tOU 7tpoxwpe"t EV'teAWe; 7tpOO"€x'tLxa [J.E baO"lJ 'tte; €:AAlJvLxEe; 7tlJYEe;, OEV €Tva~ ouva't6v va 7tpoO"cpuyet O"E [J.ap'tupt€e; 7tOU 7tpo€pxoV't'aL tX7t6 o€u'tepo ~ xat 'tPt'tO tXx6[J.lJ X€pt. ''AMwO"'te, 00"0 7tepva€~ 0 xatp6e; 't60"0 7tep~O"O"6-tepo ecp€x'ttXOt 0"'t€x6[J.IXO"'te [J.7tpoO"'ta O"'tte; [J.ap'tupt€e; 7tOU ~e; 7tpoO"cp€pouv yev~x6't€pa 01 ~Evm. 'R [J.ap'tuptIX 7tOU 7tPOO"CPEP€~, 7t.X., EV't€AWe; O"'t~v 'tuXlJ evae; tX7t6 aU'toue;, Exe~ 't60"0 otacpavlJ 7tPOEAEUO"lJ, wO"'te oihe 6a a~t~€ xav va tXvacp€p6er. rpacpet Aom6v 0 Lucien Lelue, y~a 't6v 07totoV 7tp6x€~'tat: «Ka'tw tX7t6 't~v 'toupx~x~ xa't0X~, 7ta7taoee; xpucpa, xat [J.ep~XEe; cpop€e; XW[J.EVO~ xa'tw tX7t6 't~V yYj, xaewe; 01 7tpw'tot xp~O"'t~avot, otoaO"xav O"'ta 7tatOtIX 'tIX O''t'ot'X,€ta 't~e; €XAlJv~x~e; ypa(J.[J.a't~x~e;, wO"'te. va [J.~ xa8et ~ YAwO"O"a 'tOt) ·O[J.~pou. Au't~ ~ oLoaO"xaAta, 8u[J.t~OU[J.E, av 't~v tXVEXaAU7t'tav E7t€O"UpE 't~v 7tOLV~ 'tOt) 6ava'tou».

5

'R a(J-Otblltll IlU't~ lo"x.up01tOLYjal] 'tWV ouo O''tot'X,dwv 1tOU O'UVIl1tIlP'tt~OUV 'tOV (J-uSO 'tOU Kpucpou ~'X,OAe:tOu (J-ae; EVOtIlCPEpe:t 10tIlL'te:PIl, E1te:tO~ 1tPIl"((J-Il't01tOte:t'tllt O'E XPtO't(J-Yj 1te:ptOOo. Elvilt ~ E1tO'X,~ XIl't1X 't~V 01tOtll X1XVe:t 't~V E(J-CP1XVtO'~ 'tYje;, o'X,t 1tAEOV O'1t0PIlOtX1X, aM1X O'uO''tYj(J-ll'ttX1X, ~ (J-e:AE'tYj 'tWV Se:~'tWV OO'Il aVllcpEpOV'tllt O''t~V Ve:Oe:AA'Y)Vtx~ 1tlltodll. To EVIlUO'(J-1l EOWO'e: 0 Poooxava>woc; q>iAOAOYlx6c; f1ywv. To 1865, O'E (J-t1XV avcx"(xaO''ttX~ aV1X1tCXUACX a1to 'tov a1toXAe:tO''ttXO EWe; 'to'te: xe:v'tptXO 1tUp~VCX 'tou Otcx,,(WVtO'(J-ou --"t'a o(J-Yjptxa ~'Y)'t~(J-cx'tcx- 1tpoXYjPUO'O'E'tCXt we; aV'ttxd(J-e:vo O'u"("(pcxcplje; ~ «'!O''tOPtll 'tlje; E:MYjVtXlje; 1tcxtodlle; 1tCXp' "EMYjO'tV a1to 'tlje; AAWO'e:we; 'tlje; KwvO''tcxv'ttVOU1tOAe:WC; (J-E'X.('t 'tou 1821», O''t~v 01tOtCX hPE1te: va 1tpCX"((J-CX'tEUSOUV OL U1tO~~CPtot o'X,t (J-ovo 'ta O''X,e:'ttX1X (J-E 't1X O''X,OAe:tCX (apt6(J-0e; avcxAu'ttXWe;, UAYj, (J-ESOOOe;), aMa XCXt (J-E 'toue; 'X,opYjyoue; 'tlje; 1tatodcxe;, 'toue; Aoyloue; XCXt 'ta gpya 'toue;, 'tLe; yAWO'O'tXEe; 'toue; av'ttA~~e:te;, xcxSwe; E1ttal]e; XCXt 't~v LO''toptll 'twv 'tU1toypcxcpdwv XCXt 'tou Tu1tou O''t~v 'EMaocx. Kcxt 'tEAOe; 't~v O'U(J-bOA~ OAWV cxu'twv 'tWV 1tCXpcx"(ov'twv O''t~v avcx"(EwYjal] 'tlje; 'EM1Xoae; xcxl O''t~v 'E1tcxvaO''tcxal] 'tou 1821.

O] E~CXtpe:'ttxa u~YjAEe; a1tcxt't~O'e:te; 'tou Otcx,,(WVtO'(J-ou --"t't'tAOe; 'tt(J-lje; "(t1X 'toue; op"(cxvw'tEe; 1tOU O'UVEACXbCXV 'to SE(J-CX (J-E 'toO'Yj 1tAYjpo'tYj'tcx XCXL Se:'ttXtO'(J-O- ~'tcxv X1XSe: aMo 1tcxpa EVSCXPPUV'ttXEe; "(t1X O'u(J-(J-e:'to'X,~, 1tPOXe:t(J-EVOU ot U1tO~~CPtOt va aVIlAWSoUV O'E [J-t1XV Epe:Uvo: [J-E a1tpoO'OtOptO''t'Y) EX'tCXal] , E1t1XVW O'E EVCX av'ttxd[J-e:vo 'to 01tOtO, xcx'ta O[J-OAOytll 'tWV aywvOotXWv, OEV e:I'X,e: va 1tcxpouO'taO'e:t EWe; 'to'te: XCXVEVCX a1tOAU'tWe; O'uO''tYj[J-cx'ttXO 1tpoYj"(ou(J-e:vo. T1X a1to'te:AEO'[J-CX'tCX, aMwO''te:, be:bCXLWO'CXV cxu't~v 't~v 1tpcxy(J-ll'ttxo't'Y)'tcx. 'Y1tObA~SYjXCXV OUO [J-ove:e; Ep,,(CXO'te:e;, 'tou IIcxvcxytw'tYj 'ApCXbCXV'ttVOu XCXL 'tou KwvO''tcxv'ttVOU ~1XSCX' bPllbe:U6'Y)Xe: ~ EPyCXO'LCX 'tOU OEU'tEPOU, XCXt IlU't~ [J-ovov xcx'ta 'to [J-Epoe; 1tOU acpopouO'e: O''toue; AoytOUe; Xilt O''to "(AWO'O'tXO ~~'tYj[J-cx, E1te:tO~ Se:wp~SYjxe: o'tt [J-E 'to 1Jxe:o{a(J'p.a 'tou 0 M. IIllpllv(xlle; "(t1X 't1X O''X,OAe:tll, 1tOU e:I'X,e: oe:t 'to cpwe; 'to 1867 a't~v KwvO''tcxV'ttVOU1tOAYj, XIlL Jd 't~v Ep"(il(J'LIl -eou 0 IIcxuAoe; A1X[J-1tpOe;

40

TO KPY<I>O LXOAEIO

j'~a 'Oa 'OU1tOj'Ptl~Ettl, 1tOU EIXE 0'Y)!J.oO'tEu6Et '00 1860 O''O~vXpuO'a)..)"{8a, Et XtlV E1tE~EPj'1l.0'6Et tXll.vo1tm'Y)'O~xa 'Oa anfcr'Omxll. 6E!J.tl'Otl. 'H xp(cr'Y) 'Olj~ bmpo1tlj~ 1tOU O'Y)!J.Ocr~EUO'Y)XE Ucr'OEPIl. a1to ouo XpoV~tl, '00 1867, !J.E 'O~v !J.opcp~ 1tOU €Atl6E -cru~~'O'Y)cr'Y) XIl.( crU!J.7tA~pWO"'Y) 'Owv Em!J.Epou~- a7to'OEAEcrE XIl.( Il.tn~ O'U!J.60A~ cr'O~v 7tPIl.j'!J.a'OwO"'Y) 'Oou OE!J.tl'OO~, acpou, (xAAWO''OE, 7tPOEPX0'OIl.V a7to 7tpoO'W7ttl a7toM'Ow~ &p!J.6o~1l. j'~a 'Oov crxo7t6 tlu'06. ME '06v 'OP01tOV Il.u'tov 6AE7tOU!J.E va xaVE~ b!J.ll.o~xa 'O~v E!J.cpav~cr~ 'O'Y)~, !J.Ecrll. crE cruv'00!J.6- 'OMO 'XPov~xo o~acr"'Y)!J.tl, ~ VEOj'EW'Y)'O'Y) E1t~cr'O~!J.'Y) 'Olj~ VEW'OEP'Y)~ 7t1l.~odll.~ !J.1l.~ Xll.( va li7tOOE~XVUE~ o'O~ ~ €PWVIl., o'OIl.V !J.EVE~ aVE7t'Y)pEtlcr'O'Y) a7to 'O(~ E!J.7tVEucrE~~ b7tmtlcro~7to'OE crxom!J.o'O'Y)'Otl~, !J.7t0PEt va cr'OtlOEt !J.tlxp~a a7to xaOE Aorli~ !J.UOO7tAll.cr(E~. ~E XIl.!J.(1l. a7toM'Ow~ a7t6 'O(~ crXE'O~XE~ EPj'll.cr(E~ OcrE~ !J.V'Y)!J.0VEU0'Y)XIl.V EW~ '0 WPIl. , OEV €XtlVE crE Xtl!J.(1l. cr'O~j'!J. ~, !J.E b7tOWO~7tO'OE 'OP07tO 'O~v E!J.cpav~cr~ -rou '00 OE!J.1l. 'OOU Kpu~ou ~XOAEWU. 'H b!J.6~wv'Y) o!J.w~ ll.u'O~ O'~W7t~, 7tOU tcrooUVIl.!J.OUcrE !J.E li7topp~t}'Y) 'OOU !J.uOou, 6ptO'XE~ 'OEA~xa 'Oov 'OP07tO va a7tOOOOEt Xtlt OE'O~xa, o'OtlV, O''O~v livll.~~'O'Y)cr'Y) 'OWV to''Oop~xwv AOj'WV j'~a 'O~v ava7t'Ou~'Y) 'Olj~ 7ttl~odtl~, Ot aj'wvootxE~ 7tIl.PIl.'O'Y)pouv j'~a '06v 'ApIl.6Il.n~v6, o'O~ «Eucr'OOXW~ 7tEp~'YPacpE~ 'O~v 'OWV Xtl'Oll.x"'Y)'twv Toupxwv aVIl.~cr6'Y)O'ttlV Xll.( ao~tlcpopttlV EV 'On tOpOOE~ Xll.t crun'Y)p~crE~ 'OWV E:M'Y)V~XWV EX7tIl.~OW'O'Y)p(wv XIl.( EV 'Oou'04> 'Olj~ O~OtlcrXtlAtll.~ 'OWV 'EM~VWV 7ttl(OWV».

Au'O~ ~ cru!J.7tUXVW!J.EV1) E!J.cpav~O"'Y) 'OOU eE!J.tl'OO~ 'Olj~ VEW'OEP'Y)~ 1ttl~odtl~ !J.1l.~, Oa 7tEp(!J.EVE Xtlvd~, (Xv 0X~ va aVIl.XIl.~'O(crE~ 'O~v cpopa 'Oou !J.u6ou, 'OouMx~cr'Oov va 7tPOXIl.AEO'Et !J.~a b7tmll.cro~7to'OE !J.opcplj~ av'O(opIl.O"'Y). Q(J'OE '06 EVil. o!J.w~ €j'~VE O(J'OE '00 (xAAO, crav va ~OEAE va Od~E~, j'~a !J.(tl lix6!J.'Y) ~opa, ~ VEOEM'Y)V~X~ cruvdo'Y)O"'Y), O'O~ OEV 'O~v €OEAl'E ~ €PWVIl.. "Q'OtlV o!J.w~ tlu'Oa cru!J.61l.(vouv !J.Ecrll. cr'Oov 7tEPWp~cr!J.EVO xwpo 'Olj~ VEOEAA'Y)V~Xlj~ 7tVEU!J.tl'OtXlj~ xmvwv(Il.~, O'tIl.V 'O~v ro~1l. Il.u't~v E7tOX~, E~aAAou, '00 EUpU'Otl'to 7tVEU!J.1l. 'tOU Po·to'Y) !J.EVE~ a!J.E't0Xo crE 7tvw!J.tl'O~xa ~'Y)'O~!J.Il.'01l. 7tOU Oa €7tPE1tE, xll.'Oa 'OEX!J.~PW, va '06v EtXIl.V li7tll.crxoA~crE~, !J.EO'Il., €cr'tw, cr'Oov XUXAO 'OWV EVO~ll.cpEponwv 'OOU, d!J.tlO''OE l)7tOXPEW!J.EVO~ va OEXOOU!J.E, o'O~ u7tapxouv cr't~v E1tOX~ Il.u't~ d'OE (X'tO!J.tl d'OE XIl.( b!J.aoE~ 7tOU 7tEP~XIl.PIl.XWVOUV ll.ucr't'Y)pa 'Oa EVO~ll.cpEpona 'Oou~. ME 'Oov 'OP01tO tlu'Oov E!J.cpll.v(~ontlt va !J.EvOUV ~OEA'Y)!J.EVIl. ao~acpoptl d'OE 7tE~cr!J.tl'O~xa !J.tlxap~1l. cr't~V OpOooo~(1l. 'tWV a7t6t}EWV 'tou~, E7tE~O~ OEV €XOUV 't~V 1xll.vo-

TO KPT4)O ~XOAEIO

41

'tY)'t"a va aV't"~AY)cp60uv, 1tW~ 't"O't"E fJ-OVO 't"0 [cr't"op~XO 1tapEA60v fJ-1topd' va o~afJ-opcpwcrEt OY)fJ-wupytxa 't"~v VEOEAAY)V~X~ cruvdoY)crY), o't"av o~EpwVY)6E'r XWPt~ aMO aV't"~xE~fJ-EVtXO crX01tO 1tapa fJ-OVO 't"~v ava~~'t"Y)0"y) 't"~~ aA~6Eta~.

T~v 6eO"Y) 0fLW~ au't"~ fJ-OVOv ~ 1tAE~aOa 't"wv EPWVY)'twv 't"~~ VEOEMY)VtX~~ 1ta~oda~ fJ-1tOPE'r va 't"~v ExcppacrEL To 't"~fJ-y)fJ-evo ovofJ-a 't"ou 'Acrwmou, 1tOU av xat 1tapafJ-Ep~crfJ-evo~ E~axoAou6E'r axofJ-Y) va anO'rEAE'r 't"~v fJ-EyaAY) fJ-OpCp~ 't"wv VEOEMY)VtXWv ypafJ-fJ-a't"wv, tJ4~ oevE~ fJ-e 't"~v yv~cr~a 1tapaooO"Y) 't"OU 1tVEufJ-a't"o~ 't"OU Kopa~. ~t1tAa cr'ta QvofJ-a'ta aU't"a, fJ-1tOpOUfJ-E cre At yo va 1tpocr6ecroufJ-E xat 060 aMou~ 1tOU fJ-E't"exouv cr't"~v ro~a oY)fJ-oxpa't"ta tOEWV. '0 1tpw't"o~ ETva~ 0 ~y)fJ-~'t"pw~ BtXeAa~. XwPt~ va ETva~ 0 row~ EPWVY)'t"~~, cre Eva OOXtfJ-to 't"ou «IIEpt VEOEAAY)vtX~~ cp~AoAoyta~», 1tOU Oy)fJ-Ocr~Eu- 6Y)XE 't"o 1871, 6ptcrxE't"at EV't"EAW~ Eu6uypafJ-fJ-~crfJ-evo~ cr't"a 6efJ-a't"a 't"~~ 1ta~oda~ 1tPO~ 't"ov «E~atcrw pEaA~crfJ-O» 't"ou xopa'ixou 'Y7rop.v~pavo«. '0 OEU't"EPO~, 0 'A6avacrw~ IIoAu~wtoY)~, 't"ou 01totou OAOXAY)pO 't"o epyo w~ 1tpa~Y) xat w~ cru'Y'Ypacp~ Excppa~E~ ~ EAW6EpocppocruvY) 't"ov row au't"o pEaA~crfJ-O' cr't"O crXE't"tXO xEcpaAaw yta 't"~v 1tatoe:ta, 't"ou epyou -eou T& Ne:Oe:Akr;vod (1873), oev a1tofJ-axpuVE't"at a1to 't"~v xa6ap~ ypafJ-fJ-~ 't"~~ epwva~. Kat o[ 060 Aomov fJ-evouv afJ-e't"oxot a1to 't"~v fJ-u601tAacrta 'tou Kpucpou ~XOAEtOU. TeAo~, y~a va OAOXAY)pw6E'r 0 XUXAO~, 6a ETXE va 1tpocr6ecrE~ xavd~ xat 't"a QvofJ-a't"a 060 ~evwv lcr't"op~xwv, 'tou Finlay xat 't"ou MendelsohnBartholdy (1861 xat 1873 aV't"tcr't"otXW~ 't"a €pya 't"ou~), ot o1to'rm, fJ-axpta a1to 1tOAmXe~ ~ aME~ crxomfJ-o't"Y)'t"e:~, doav 't"a lcr't"op~xa 1tp06A~~'t"a 't"ou Neou 'EMY)V~crfJ-ou fJ-e 't"~v OtauyE~a 1tOU xapt~Et ~ XaA01tpOatpe:'t"Y) O~eX6EcrY) 'tou ~evou 'tpt'tou.

~e fJ-tav E1tOX~ ofJ-w~ 01tOU oAa fJ-O~eX~ouv 't"wpa veX o~afJ-opcpwvov'ta~, xa6E a1to1te:tpa xat y~eX crXE't"~X~ ecr't"w crXy)fJ-a't"01totY)O"Y), Cppov~fJ-O dva~ va 1tpaYfJ-a't"01totE'r'tat fJ-e 1tOAU 1tpocrEx't~xe~ XtV~crEt~. "01tW~ ~oY) €XW 'tOVtcrEt, fJ-e 't"t~ yvwcr't"e~ 6~6Awypacptxe~ oucrxepE~E~ 1tOU cruvaV't"eXEt cre XeX6E 6~~ 0 Epe:UVY)'t~~, OEV e:Tvat ECP~X'tO veX €xe:~ 1tav't"o'tE cr't~v oteX6e:cr~ 'tou E1tapxE'r~ fJ-ap'tuptE~. Au'to a1tO'te:Ae:'r a1tA~ tJ1t0fJ-vy)o"y), Wcr't"E veX fJ-~ 6e:wp~cre:t 0 avayvwcr'tY)~ fJ-ou 1tW~ Emxe:~pw va E~aV't"A~crw 6t6Awypacp~xa 'to 6efJ-a 'twv fJ-ap'tuptwv. 'AMeX Xt av axofJ-Y) 'tt~ eXEt, OEV ETvat 1teXV'tO't"e: ouva'tov veX 'tt~ EV'teX~e:t. 'H fJ-tXP~ au't~ 1tapev6e:0"Y) ytVE'tat avayxata 'twpa,

42

TO KPY<lJO l:XOAEIO

01tOU ~ XpOVtX~ pO~ 'tWV 1tP(Xy~'tWV ~e; €cp€pe p.1tPOO'ta: aE OUO fUXp'!UpL€e;, ot 01tOt€C; fJ-iiMOV afJ-'YJX(xVL(x 1tpO~€vouv.

To 1873, 0 MtX(x~A OhwvofJ-ou, d'YJfJ-'YJ'ta(xvL't'YJe;, 1tOU a1touo(xa€ a't~v axoA~ 't~C; 1t(X'!pto(Xe; 'tOU, O'YJA(xO~ 't~v Mov~ <I>tAOaocpou, aAAa: apyo't€p(X X(xL a't~v 'i:,xoA~ 't~C; XLOU, o'YJfJ-Oat€U€t 'ta: 'A1to!J-v'YJfJ-OV€U~'ta: 'tou. KdfJ-€vO t(Xatxo 'Yta: 'tov 'A'Ywv(X, acpou €IX€ XP'YJfJ-(X'tta€t YP(XfJ-~'ttXOC; 'tou KOAOXO'tpwv'YJ' 'i:,'to €Pyo (xu'to OEV ota'tli~€t vii a1tocp(Xv6€t o'tt x(x'tii '!~v ToupxoxP(x'tt(X «~ A(x'tpd(X 'twv XfM'tt(Xvwv E~'YJaX€t'to EAW6EPWC; X(xL o'YJ!J-oat~ x(xt E1-CPOO''t(X't€U€'to !J-liAtO''t(x X(xL a1to 'toue; Toupxouc;... E1tpOO''t(x't€U€'to U X(xL EAW6EPWC; EV'YJP'Y€t'to x(Xt ~ EX1t(XtO€uO'te;». 'H afJ-'YJx(Xvt(X Y€VVtE't(Xt o't(xv A&:tOUfJ-€ lJ1tO'f'YJ o'tt, d'YJ!J-'YJ'tO'(xVL't'YJe; (Xu'toe;, 6a €TX€ xa6€ AOYO va fJ-V'YJ!J-OV€UO'€t €O''tW 'to !J-u60 'tou Kpucpou 'i:,XOA€WU, acpou EV(X a1tO 'ta to'xupo't€P(X EmX€tp~fJ-(X't(x O''t~V X(XMtEP'Y€t(X 'tou !J-u60u U1t~P~€ 'to 6PUAOUfJ-€VO Kpucpo 'i:,XOA€tO 't~C; Mov~c; <I>tAOaocpou. 'AvaAOY'YJ afJ-'YJx(xvL(x 1tpO~€vet X(Xt ~ 1t€pt1t'twa'YJ 'tou Eu6ufJ-wu K(XO''topX'YJ, 1tOU €T V(Xt YVWO''tOC; 1t€ptO'O'o't€PO we; x(X6'YjY'YJ't~e; 'twv A(x'ttVtXWV O''to II(Xv€ma't~fJ-w. d'YJfJ-'YJ'tO'(Xvt'!'YJe; X(xt (Xu'toe; O'YJ!J-OO't€U€t 'to 1847 EV(X 'to!J-LOtO fJ-E '!ov axoAou60 'tL'tAO: «II€pL 't~e; EV d'YJfJ-'YJ'tO'livn E:M'YJVtX~C; O'XOA~C; X(xL 1t€PL 'twv x(X6topu'twv x(Xt 1tPW'twv (xu't~C; oto(XO'xaAWV». 'i:,'ta O'X€'ttxa IIpoA€'Yo!J-€v(X, o't(Xv av(XCPEP€'t(Xt O''t~v x(x'taO''t(xO''Y) 't~C; EX1t(XtOWO"Y)C; Y€Vtxo't€P(X x(X'ta 't~v ToupxoxP(X'tL(X tJ-E fJ-E'tpt(X o!J-WC; yvWO"Yj 'twv 1tP(XYfJ-a'twv- EVW €IX€ xa6€ EvOOOtfJ-O va av(Xcp€p6€t O''ta: O'X€'ttxa fJ-E 'to Kpucpo 'i:,XOA€to fJ-E 01t0~OVO~1to't€ 'tP01tO, 'to 6EfJ-(X a1touO'ta~€t EV'!€AWe;, X(xL 1t€PWPL~€'t(Xt anAWe; a't~v hOAou6'YJ 1t(XP(X't~P'YJO"Y): «To fJ-ovov tEt(XWV €Iv(xt, o'tt 'ta fJ-ov(xO''t~Pt(X, X(xL 1taAtV OXt 1taV'!(X 't(xu't(x, ~O'(xv x(Xt O'XOA€t(X 'twv YP(XfJ-~'twv x(xt x(x't(Xcpuytov 'twv 'to't€ AoytwV».

:AV'!t6hwc;, EV(xC; AO'YWC; 1tOU avopwv€'t(xt fJ-EO'(x O''tov :Aywv(X fJ-E 'tLe; X(xAU't€p€e; 1tPOU1t06EO'€tC;, 0 NtXOA(XOC; dp(XyoufJ-'YJC;, O''ta :A1to!J-v'YJfJ-0V€ufJ-(X'ta: 'tou 1tOU EXOtO€t 'tov hOfJ-€vO axpttwe; Xpovo, CPEPV€t a1tpoO'oox'YJ't(x O''t~v EmcpaV€t(X 'tov !J-u6o. 'H 1t€Pt1t'twO'~ -eou ofJ-we; a~L~€t va fJ-iie; a1t(xO'XOA~O'€t EX't€VEO''t€P(X' OEV dV(Xt 't00'0 a1tA~.

'0 dp(XyoufJ-'YJe; EpyaO''!'YjX€ a't'(xOt(Xxa: a't~v E1t€~€py(XO't(X 'tou EPYOU 'tou. '0 'tP01tOC; OfJ-WC; (Xu'tOC; 't~C; EP'Y(xO'L(xC; aMOtWa€ Ot(XOOxtxa X(xL 't~v apXtX~ fJ-OPCp~ ~C; O'uY'YP(XCP~C;. "ApXta€ apX€'ta EVWptC;,

TO KPYfllO ~XOAEIO

43

~orJ eX1tO 'tov 30 't0fl-0 'tlie; IIavowpa~, 'to 1852, veX 0rJfl-0CTt£U£t, eX1toO'1taO'fl-a'ttxa xal 'X.Wple; 'X.pOVtX~ eXAArJAou'X.la, x£cpaAata eX1tO 'to EP'Y0 1tOU 6a O£t 'to cpwe; 'tlie; 0rJfl-0O'to'trJ'tae; fl-0Ate; 'to 1874. ~'tov 130 't0fl-0 'tou 1t£ptoOtxou 'tou (1863), eX1t0'Ypacpov'tae; 'ta O''X.£'ttx<X !Jl 't~v xa'taO''taCTY) xa[ 't~v oP'Y<xvwCTY) 'tlie; 1tatodae; 0''t<X 'X.povta 'tou Ka1tooIO''tpta, 1t£ptopI~£'tat O''X.£oov eX1tOXAWmXa O''t~v Ex6£CTY) 'tou raAAou Dutrone, 'tov (motov d'X.£ O''tdA£t 0 Ku()£pv~'trJe; va 1t£ptrJ'YrJ6£t otacpopa fI-€prJ 'tlie; 'EAAaoae; 'Yta va E~£'taO'£t 't~v xa't<XO''taCTY) 'twv O''X.0Adwv xal va £to'rJ'YrJ6£t 'ta fI-€O'a 'Yta 't~v oP'Yavw~ 'toue;. ~Exa 'X.povta eXp'Yo'rEpa, 0 ~pa'Youfl-rJe;, O'€ fl-tav ofl-tAla -eou O''tov «IIapvaO'O'o» fI-€ 6EfI-tx «~txawO'uvrJ, 1tatoda, ExxArJO'[a Ev 'EAAaot (1821-1831)>>, 1tOU 0rJfl-0O't£u6rJx£ O'E totah£po 't£u'X.0e; 'tov tOto 'X.povo, ~avamav£t 'to 6Efl-a 'tOU, 01tWe; 'to d'X.£ 1tpa'YfI-tx't£u- 6£t O''to O''X.£'ttXO OrJfl-OO'I£U~ 'tou O''t~v IIavowpa.

Tov E:1t0fl-£vo ofl-we; eXxpt()we; 'X.povo, o'tav orJAao~ XUXAOCPOp£t o 10e; 't0fl-0e; 'twv 'j(FrOp,xiJv f1val-'v~O"ewv, 'to x£cpaAaw 'tlie; 1tatodae; ()pIO'x£'tat ~acpvtxa 1tAOU'ttO'fI-€VO fl-E Eva VEO 'tfl-lifl-a. IIalpvov'tae;, orJAao~, eXcpoPfl-~ cX7t0 't~v O'u~~'trJO'rJ 'Yta 't~v fl-opCPwO'rJ 'twv XOpt'tO'tWV xa'taA~'Y£t: «'E1t£to~ OE 0 'toO'ou'toe; EpWe; 'tlie; EX1tato£uO'£we; 'tou 'Yuvatxdou CPUAOU dO'~AaO'£ 'tpo1tawu'X.0e; xal de; 't~v OOUArJV 'EAAaoa, eXvrJ'YEp6rJO'av 'Yuvatxwv cppoV'rtO''t~pta xal xa'ta 'tae; eXO'ta'ttoae; E'tt 'X.wpae;, 01tOU 1tPO atwvwv oev d'X.e:v eXxou0'6li ~ 'YAuxe:ta 'tou IIAa'twvoe; ~ 'tou XpuO'oO''t0fl-0U cpwv~, 01tOU ota 'tov cpo()ov 'twv xpa'touv'twv EA<X'X.ta'tOe; eXpt6f1-oe; fl-tx6rJ'twv fI-£'tE()(ltVOV ota vux'toe; de; O''X.0A£tov xdfl-e:vov EV 1tapa6uO''tC!l 'ttVI 'YWV1\X, &00- vrec, we; d E1tAavwv'to 'X.aptV e:u6ufl-Iae; de; 'tae; oooue;, 'to E1thrJoe:e; 1totrJ6iv 'tou'to ~afl-a:

Werrapax, I-'OU Aal-'7rPO Werre I-'e va 7rep7ra'riJ, Na 7rr;ya{vw O"'ro O"xoAelo, N a I-'a(}a{vw ypal-'I-'a'ra, rpal-'I-'a'ra l-'a(}~l-'a'ra

T ou Beou 7rOl~l-'a'ra».

'R 1tpo0'6~xrJ a1.)'r~ 'tOU ~pa'Youfl-rJ O''t~v 'te:AtX~ fl-opCp~ 'tou X£tfl-EVOU 'twv 11 vap: v~O"ewv, E't"at eX1tpoa06xrJ'ta 1tOU 1tapouat<x~e:'tat,

44

TO KPY~O ~XOAEIO

Ev'!ont~oV't'ae; (J-aA~(na '!6 cpa~v6(J-€Vo· '!07ttXa a'!~v M~xpa 'Aata - En€AWe; v€6xony) ExOOx~- "(€Wa€~ o~acpopa EpW'!Y)(J-a'!~xa, '!6 anouoa~6'!€po an6 '!a ()'Tto-ra dva~, aE nma auvap'!Y)~ t)p(ax€'!a~ ~ nAy)pocpopta '!ou Llpa"(ou(J-Y) np6e; '!~v EWe; '!6'!€ ')'Vwa'!~ E#A~~Y) '!ou (J-u60u. 'H anav'!Y)~ a'!a EPW'!Y)(J-(X'!~xa au'!a '6x~ (J-6vo OEV dva~ €UXOAy), aMa aE '!€Aw'!ata avaAu~ ou'!€ xat ax67tt(J-Y), "(~a'!t 6a Ll7toxp€w6€-r xavde; ava"(xaa'!~xa, an6 '!~v eM€~\jJY) a'!Otxdwv, va avax6€-r aE a(J-cptt)OAy)e; a~tae;, xat xa6€ a.Mo napa auV't'€A€a'!~XEe; "(~a '!~v npow6Y)aY) "-fie; ep€uvae;, dxaat€e;. 'Exeivo Aom6v nou tXnO(J-EV€t np6e; a'!t"((J-~v an6 '!~v aM6xo'!y) au't~ napouata, dvaL va aY)(J-€Lw6€-r O'!L xat haL &X6(J-Y), XWpte; oY)Aao~ '!~v E~axptt)w~ npa"((J-a'!txwv o€a(J-wv np6e; '!~v napaoo~ '!-fie; (J-u60nAMtae;, ~ nAy)pocpopta '!ou Llpa"(ou(J-Y) (J-aMov npEn€t va ano(J-ovw6€-r an6 '!6 p€u(J-a nou ota(J-6pcpwa€ ~ EPWVY)'!tX~ ota6€~ '!wv CPOPEWV '!-fie; E7tta'!~(J-Y)e; '!-fie; V€w'!€py)e; na~odae; (J-ae;, "(ta '!6v npw'!apx~x6 A6"(0 o'!~ OEV d va~ xap7t6e; '!-fie; epwvae;.

'An6 ,,~v a'!~"((J-~ Aom6v onou auv'!€A€-r'!at ~ aAoxA~pW~ '!ou 6E(J-a'!0e; (J-E '!~v au~w~Y) '!-fie; napaooay)e; np6e; '!6 '!pa"(ouot, '!6 nEpaa(J-a '!ou Xp6vou (J-6vo XEPOY) (J-7tOP€-r va npoacpEp€~ "(ta '!~v taXup07toty)ay) xat a'!a6€po7toty)~ '!OU (J-u60u. "O'!av noAU auV't'o(J-(X -rawe; xat a(J-EaWe; (J-€'!a an6 '!wpa- 6a Ad\jJ€t a7t6 '!~v XOtV~ auvdoY)~ xat ~ afJ.uop~ ax6fJ.Y) xpOVOAO"(~X~ otacpoponoty)~ '!wv OUO a'!otxdwv, napaooay)e; xat '!pa"(ouo~ou, a auv€tPfJ.~x6e; aU'!0(J-a'!tafJ.6e; 6a na"(~wa€~ Eva ax-fifJ.a, aUfJ.cpwva np6e; '!6 a7to-ro, ~ (J-vda '!-fie; napaooay)e; 6a 7tpOXaA€-r au'!6fJ.(X'!a '!~v EA~Y) '!ou '!pa"(ouotoU, xat av"ta"pocpa. 'An6 '!~v afJ.0tt)ata au'!~ EA~Y) 6a EvtaXU€'!a~ ~ 6E~ xat '!wv OUO a'!~v xOtV~ auvdoY)~ "(ta '!~v un6a'!aaY) '!ou

'0. >fA'" "\ ' " ,~'"\

fJ.Uvou. v Y)'!av, 1\0t7tOV, a€ xanotD 7toaoa'!o, ouaxol\o 7tpoy),,(ou-

fJ.EVWe; va afJ.tptcrt)Y)'!Y)6€-r fJ.€fJ.ovwfJ.Eva ~ aA~6€ta "(ta ,,6 Eva !f) 't6 a.AAO, '!wpa 01 ouaXoAt€e; 7tOAAanAMta~OnaL ouaavaAo"(a, npox€t(J-EVOU va afJ.cptat)Y)'!Y)6€-r '!6 6EfJ.a a'!~v €v6'!Y)'!a napaooay)e; xat '!pa"(ouotou. "Av, '!EAOe;, npoa6EaoufJ.€ o'!~ '!6 'lEO a'!Otx€-ro, '!6 '!pa"(ouOt, npOEpx€'!a~ an6 fJ.ta V€O"(EWY)'!Y) E7tta'!~fJ.y), '!~v Aaoypacpta, "(~a '!~v anota auv€XWe; fJ.€,,(aAWV€t ~ un6AY)\jJY), €pfJ.Y)V€UOUfJ.€ '!6'!€ "(~a'!t au'!~ ~ au~w~Y) a'!a6y)x€ '!6ao anocpaa~a'!tx~ "(ta '!~v fJ.€'!a,,(€VEa'!€py) '!uXY) '!ou fJ.u60u.

6

Kat OEV Elvat xa60Aou 'tu'X,ato, O"UVE7tW<:;, o'tt 'to 6€IJ-a 'tau Kpucpou ~'X,OAEWU 7tEpV&Et xuptw<:; IJ-€O"a &no 'tov PY]'toptXO AO,,(O, evw O€V m:pv&Et 7tap& At"(O ~ O"'X,EOOV xa60Aou a7to 'tov cpuO"tXO 'tau 'X,wpo, 7tOU Elvat ~ to"'topta 'tlj<:; ex7tatowo"y]<:;. Au'to o"y]IJ-atVEt, 7tw<:; O€V ota61hEt O"'tot'X,Eta WO"'tE '1& 'to xpa't~O"ouv O"'tov 'X,wpov au'tov, evw ota6€nt &Ma, 7tOU 'tou E:7tt'tPE7tOUV '1& OtOAtO"O~o"Et O"'tov 7tpw'to. Toii Ad7touv, oY]Aao~, 07tw<:; dOaIJ-E, Ot to"'toptX€<:; !J.I:Xp'tUptE<:;, evw, aV'ttOE'ta IJ-7t0PEt '1& CPOp'ttO"Et 7tAouO"ta 'tov O"uvatO"Oy]IJ-a'ttxo xOO"IJ-0. M€ 7totOV 'tp07tO oIJ-w<:;; 'H u7tap~Y] Kpucpou ~'X,OAEWU dOaIJ-E 7tw<:; E[vat IJ-t& xaA~ EuXatpta IJ-E't& 'tov 'A"(wva "(t& '1& e~ap60uv Ot apE't€<:; 'tau e6vou<:;. 'H 'EM&oa, VEOCPEP'"l O"'t~v EUpw7ta·ix~ xorvwvta 'tWV eAw6€pwv xpa'twv, e'X,Et apxtO"Et &no 7tOAU evwpt<:;, EUOU<:; IJ-E't& 'tov 'A "(wva, '1& apaIJ-a'tt~E'tat O"€ Eupu'ta'tY] 7tpOO7t'ttX~ 't~v !J.EAAOV'ttX~ '"l<:; O€O"Y] O"'t~v EUpw7ta·ix~ OtXo"(€VEta, 't~v a7tota xat ota'tU7tWVEt OAOXAYJPWIJ-€VYJ 'to 1844 a7to 't"o e7t!o"y]IJ-o f)ljIJ-a 't"lj<:; 'E6voO"UV€AEUo"y]<:; a 'Iw&vvY]<:; KWA€'t"'tYJ<:;: «~t& 't"~v "(Ew"(pacptx~v 'tY]<:; 6EO"tV ~ 'EM&<:; Elvat 'to XEV'tPOV 'tlj<:; EUpw7tYJ<:;· la't"aIJ-Evy], xat e'X,ouO"a ex IJ-€V OE~tWV 't~V 'Ava't"oA~V, e~ aptO"'t"EpWV OE 't~V ~UO"tV, 7tpowptO"'tat, wO"n Ot& IJ-€V 'tlj<:; 7t't"WaE:w<:; au't"lj<:; vu. cpw't!O""f] 't~V ~UO"tV, Otu. O€ 'tlj<:; ava"(Evv~o"EW<:; 't"~V 'Ava't"oA~v. To IJ-€V 7tpw'!ov €~E7tA~pwO"av Ot 7tp07ta't0pE<:; ~IJ-WV, 'to O€ OEU'tEPOV dvat d<:; ~~<:; ava'!EOEtIJ-€Vov· ev '!4> 7tVEuIJ-a't"t '!ou opxou 'tou,!ou xat '!lj<:; IJ-E,,(aAYJ<:; '!au'tYJ<:; to€a<:; E[OOV 7tav'!o'!E '!ou<:; 7tAy]PE~OUO"tou<:; '!ou eOvou<:; va O"UV€p'X,wv'!at ota va a7tocpaO"tawO"tV oU'X,! 7tA€OV nEpt 'tlj<:; 'tU'X,y]<:; '!lj<:; 'EMaoo<:;, aAAa 't"lj<:; E:MY]VtXlj<:; CPUAlj<:;».

ETvat TtoM (jlU(JtXO 'to'tE va emOtWXEt (J'taEk(Ja va €:xV-E:'taAAEUE'tat o,'!t 0& IJ-7t0POUO"E va e~&pEt '!1<:; apE,!€<:; '!ou e6vou<:;. Ka! IJ-ta &no au't€<:;, exdvY] axptf)w<:; nov aVOt"(Et 7tpoon'!tx€<:; "(ta '!O IJ-€MOV, Elvat ~ ovvalJ-YJ 'tlj<:; CPUAlj<:; xat ~ av'to'X,~ '!YJ<:; IJ-€O"a O"'tt<:; ooxtlJ-aO"tE<:;. "O'tav Aomov xaVEt 't~v.EIJ-cpaVtO"~ 'tou x&nma o"'!t,,(IJ-~, IJ-€ '!ov 'tpono 7tOV doalJ-E ~w<:; '!wpa, '!O 6€IJ-a '!ou Kpucpou ~'X,OAEWU, ,,(ta'tt '1& IJ-~ 6EWP~o"OU!J.E, 7tw<:; 7tPOO"€<pEPE IJ-ta xaA~ Euxatpia "(t& va

46

TO xr reo ~XOAEIO

E~ap60uv aU'tEe; axp~6we; o~ apE't€e;; 'H aV't~O~aO''tOA~, E~aMOU, 1tpOe; 'T:OV Toupxo, aAOXA'Y)pWVE~ 'T:~V dxova fJ.€ 't~V a1totav 6€AE~ va 'tpoCPOOO't~O'E~ a N €Oe; 'EM 'Y)v~O'fJ.oe; 'T:~V Eupw1ta'ix ~ O'uvdo'Y)Cl"Y). Kat dva~ au'T:ovo'Y)'to va 't~v O'U"{XW~O'E~: "Evae; Arx.Oe; 1tOU E~'Y)O'E "(~a atWVEe; xa'T:W a1to 'tte; 1tt0 O'XA'Y)p€e; O'UV6rjXEe;, xrx.'T:Op6WVE~ va 'tte; ~E1tEpaO'E~ p.€ 'T:~V bo~6E~a 't"Yje; 1trx.~odae;, xat va ~avrx.bPEi" ~v EAW6EPta -rou. "Av, fJ.aA~O''T:rx., rx.u't~ ~ 1trx.tOELrx. O'uvodlEL fJ.€ 'T:~V 1trx.paooCl"Y) 'T:lie; xArx.O'txlie; apxrx.to't'Y)'T:rx.e;, fJ.€O'a O''T:6v -rowv rx.U'T:6v xwpo 't6v (mOLOV 1tEPt'Y)"{Ei"'T:rx.t a1t6 xrx.~p6 ~ EUO'U"{Xtv'Y)'t'Y) P0fJ.av'ttxa Eupw1ta'ix~ elite fJ.€ 6rx.O'tx6 O''t6xo 'T:~V avrx.~~'T:'Y)Cl"Y) 'tlie; E1tt6twCl"Y)e; 'tlie; apxat6't'Y)'tae; 0''t6v Neov 'EAA'Y)V~O'fJ.6, 't6'tE, ae; fJ.~v afJ.cpt6aMOUfJ.E i5'tt a O''t6xoe; EXEt E1tt'tWX6Ei". T6 O'xlifJ.rx., aMWO''tE, 1tOU o'Y)fJ.tOUP"{Ei" a A6"{0e; 'tou KWA€'t't'Y), EO''T:W xrx.t "(~a EO'W'tEP~X~ xa'trx.vaAwCl"Y), O~a6€'tE~ 1tE~O'''tx~ 1tA'Y)p6'T:'Y)"rx.: «1tpOWp~O'"rx.~», «'Awx"oA~-aUO''Y)), «1tpo1ta"opee;~fJ.eLe;» .

M€ 6aCl"Y), "Wprx., "a OE00fJ.€vrx. rx.u"a, fJ.1t0poufJ.e va U1tOO''T:'Y)pt~OUfJ.E o,,~ apxt~Et va OtafJ.0pcpWVE"rx.t fJ.ta omA~ 1tpa"{fJ.I.X"tx6"'Y),,a 0',,6 6€fJ.a 'T:OU Kpu<pou ~XOAEWU, "lie; to'"optae; xrx.t 'T:OU P'Y)"Optxou A6"{ou. 'H a1tan'Y)Cl"Y) "(tve"a~ xrx."rx.cPrx.'T:~X~, xrx.t xa'T:rx.1te~O''T:~x~ 'T:rx.u,,6Xpovrx., apxEi" ,,~v 1tprx."{fJ.a,,WO''Y) rx.U'T:~ va 'T:~V O'uvrx.\I'T:~O'OUfJ.E 0',,6 ro~o 1tp6O'w1to. Au,,~ axp~6we; ErVrx.~ ~ 1tEPt1t"WCl"Y) "ou 'R1tE~PW"'Yl AO"{tou rEwp"{iou Xp. Xrx.a~W"'Yl. <P~A6Ao"{0e;, «Ka6Y)"('Y)'T:~e; xai tOpU~e; "ou 'EM'Y)V~XOU Auxdou» O'''~V KWVO'''rx.v''~VOU1tOA'Y), EXE~ a~~6Ao"{0 O'u'Y'Yprx.cp~x6 EP,,{O, 'T:6 (moi"o OAOXA'Y)pWVE"rx.~ ,,6 1881 fJ.€ Eva o"{xwOEe; O'u,,{'YPrx.fJ.fJ.rx. O'"a "{rx.AAtXa, L'instruction publique chez les Grecs depuis la prise de Constantinople par les Turcs jusqu'a nos jours. (IIrx.piO'~, 1881). 'R EvaO'x6A'Y)O'~ "ou 0fJ.we; fJ.€ ,,6 6€fJ.I.X ErVrx.~ 1taAa~6'T:Ep'Y), xrx.i ~Ex~vaE~ fJ.€ fJ.~a fJ.Ep~x6"EP'Y) ofJ.tAta -eou O''T:6v «'Ev Kwvcr'T:rx.v,,~vou1t6Aet <P~AOAO"{~x6v L.UMO"{OV», 'T:6v 'Iavouapw 'T:OU 1~1~, \it 'th""lJ, 'R 1tap' ~f1t\l oy)f1o't~x-i) 1t1.X(ot:uO'~e; a1to 'T:1)e; i\."waeox; Kwv(j''r:lZv'r:lvoun6).£wc; p.iXpI (j'~p.gpov. ~'T:~V to''T:Op~X~ 1tpa"{fJ.a'T:wCl"Y) "ou 6€fJ.rx.,,0e; aXoAoueEi" 1ttO''T:a "ie; "(Vwcr"ic; fJ.rx.p"upiEe; "ou Crusius xrx.i 'T:OU Elladius, EXfJ.E"rx.MEuE"a~ ,,~v Ep,,{acrirx. "ou IIapavixa, xat 1tpOO'<PEU"{E~ ax6fJ.'Y) xat 0',,6 0'Y)fJ.0crtWfJ.rx. 'T:OU ~IA{(j''r:OplZ. «Ta EXaO''T:axou 1ta~ow'T:~p~rx.», ea 1trx.prx."'Y)p~crE~, «~O'rx.v fJ.~xpa xat "rx.1tE~Va EV fJ.€V 'T:ai"e; fJ.E"{rx.A01t6AEO'~ 1tapa 'T:ai"e; E1ttO'X01trx.i"c;, EV O€ "ai"e; fJ.~xpai"e; 1tapa 'T:OLe; vaoLC;, EO'e' O"E xai 1tapa "rx.LC; 1taprx.XE~-

TO KPnO ~XOAEIO

47

P.EVCX~C; P.OVCXtc; tntO ~e:pe:wv ~ P.OVCXXWV o~w6uvop.e:vCX». KCXt C1't~V C1UVEXE~CX 'YtVE'tCX~ axop.Y) C1CXCPEC1UpOC; XCXt PECXALC1'tLXOUP0C;: «To 'i.xoAEtOV 't~c; xmvo'tY)'toc; ~ 't~c; xwpcxc; ~v 'tCX1tE~VOC; 't~e; 1tpOVCXOe; ~ acpcxVEe; orxY)p.cx xcxt e:U'te:AEe;, 1te:p~oe:we; XAe:LOP.e:VOV XCXt avm'Yop.e:'10'1, Ev6cx ot p.cx6Y)'tcxt E:1tt ~La6wv xcx6~p.e:vm oXAa E:O~OaC1xoV'to 'ta )(OAuboypafLfLCX7:CX. at 'YpcxP.P.cx'tooLoaC1xcxAm oO'tot ~C1CXV 'to 1tOAU te:(JE'te;, XCX'loy)ACX'la1t'tcxL, (Ja1t'tcxL, imoo"fj\J.cx't01tOLO(, ot U \J.cx6"fj'tcx( OLCXCPOpOU ~ALXtCXC; XCXt ouvap.e:we; avcxp.t~».

'Eow op.we; xpELa~e:'tcxL va C1'tcx60up.e: 'YLa At'YO. Au't~ ~ E:XOOx~, O'tL OY)ACXO~ P.1t0POUC1e: 0 XCX6EVCXC; 1tOU oLE6En At'YCX C1xe:'t~xa E:CPOOLCX, va xave:L 'tov oaC1xcxAo, OEV 1tPE1te:L XCX60AOU va p.ae; ~e:vt~e:L. To 1tCXLOt YLCX'tt 6a xpe:LCXC1'te:t 't~v tO~6e:LCX 'tOU ocxC1xaAou; 'AC1CPCXAWC; YLa va p,a6e:L, 1tPW'ttC1'tWC;, va oLCXta~e:L, va xave:L xa1tme:e; apL6p.Y)'tLXEe; 1tpa~e:Le;, XCXt, OW'te:pe:uoV'twe;, va ypacpe:L. "OACX, ~ p.e:pLxa a1to cxu'ta, p.1tOpe:i" o 01tm0C10~1t0'te: va 'tOU 'ta «OLO&~e:L». M1tope:t, E:VOe:xop.EVWe;, 0 1tCX'tEpCXe; -cou, p.1tOpe:t 0 yd'tovcxe;, X.O.K., ave:~ap'tY)'tcx a1to 'to E:1ta'Yye:Ap,a -rou, KCXt OEV OY)P.LOUpye:t 'tuxov E:P.1tAOKEC;, p.La KCXt OEV EXe:L a.p.e:C1Y) C1XEC1Y) P.E 't~v OLOCXC1KCXAtCX. ME60ooe;, cpuC1LKa, OEV tntapxe:L, aMa Kcx6EVCXC; aC1Ke:t 'to EPYO cxu'to P.E OLKO 'tou 'tp01tO, Acxp.tavov'tcxe; rC1We; tnto~Y) KCXt 'tov OLOCXC1KOP.e:VO. AU'toe; p.1tope:t va e:TVCXL xcxt p.ovoe; 'tou, aMa OEV a1tOKAe:te:'tCXL va C1UYKe:V'tPWVOV'tCXL KCXt a.Mcx 1tCXLOLa. "Av 0 OLoaC1Kwv e:lvCXL XELPWVCX~ E:P'YCXC1'tY)ptou, p.1tOpe:t va aC1Ke:t 'to epyo ~OU, E:K'te:AWV'tCXe; 'tCXU'toxpOVCX KCXt 'to p.a6Y)p.a -rou. Xwpoe; OEV tntapxe:L [OLcxt'te:pOe;, KCXt OEV hOKAe:te:'tCXL va XPy)C1LP.O- 1tme:t'tcxL E:VOe:X0p.EVWe; 'to row 'to E:pyCXC1't~PL 'tou KCX't' e:UCP"Y]P.LC1P.OV ocxC1KaAou. BoY)6~p.cx'tcx XPy)C1Lp.01tme:t 'ta 'tpe:xoup.e:vcx, 'OK'tW"y]XOe;, "If CXA't~PL, KA1t. IIpotA"Y]p.cx we; 1tpOe; 'to 1te:PLe:X0\J.e:vo OEV lntapxe:t, acpou C1K01tOe; OEV e:lvcxt 'to 1te:pte:xop.e:vo. AU'toe; ~'tcxv, a.AAWC1'te:, 0 KavoVCXe; 1tOU rC1XUC1e: KCXt apyo'te:pcx -ot E:AaC1C10Ve:e; a1tCXt't~C1e:Le;OY)ACXO~ 0 'tU1tOe;, Kcxt mo C1UYKe:KP'~P.EVCX ~ a1t0C1't~6~C1Y). '0 KCXVOVCXe; cxu'toe; [C1XUe:L aKop."y] KCXt o'tcxv 6a apxtC1e:L va YEVLKe:Ue:'tCXL 0 6e:C1p.oe; 'twv Kmvo'ttKwV C1XOAe:tWV KCXt ~ OLOCXC1KCXAtcx 6a tpe:6e:t C1E mo KCX'taM"y]ACX, lnto'tt6e:'tCXL, XEpLCX. 'i.uve:1tWe;, KCXt 'ta )"IwC1'ta C1UP.tOAcxtCX, 1tOU acpopouv C1't~V LOpUC1Y) KCXt Ae:L'tOUP'YtCX 'tWV C1XOAe:tWV CXU'tWV,

I , , , -, " , - T ,

'tumKO KCXL P.OVO XCXpCXK't"Y]pCX p.1tOpOUV VCX e:xouv, cxcpou e:LVCXL yvWC1't"Y]

~ aouvcx'to'ty)'tCX E:AEyXOU. 'i.E E:C1xa't"Y], a.MWC1'te:, avaAuC1"y], cxu'toe; ~'tcxv 0 ye:vtKoC; KCXVOVCXC; KCXt o'tcxv cix.op.Y) apyonpcx 'ta C1xoAe:i"a 6a

48

TO KPr<I>O ~XOAEIO

op,),!lvw60uv. ~'t0 xa'tw xa'tw, O€V 7tp6tE:t X!lt va a7topou(J£: 'to 7t!l~yvtO~ cr't~v 7tpw'toga6!J-~!l E:X1t!ltoe:uCTt) 1t!l~~O't!lV !J-E 't0l)e; rowue; axp~gwe; X!lVove:e; crE aAOXAY)pY) 't~v EUpW1tY).

IlpogAy)!J-!l we; 7tpOe; 'to EP,),O !lU'tO O€V (map'X,e:t X!lV€V!l, acpou X!lt cr~!J-e:P!l axo!J-Y), !lu'toe; a 'tp01toe; cr'tot'X,e:tWOoue; tOtw't~x~e; O~O!lcrX!lAt!le; O€V 6a OY)!J-Wup,),oucre:. '0 6e:wpou!J-e:voe; o~oacrx!lAOe;, aMWcr'te:, a!J-dge:'t!lt, X!l'ta X!lVOV!l, !J-€ 'tOV 'tP01tO 'tOU, X!lt O€V E'X,e:t X!lV€V!l AO')'O va apvY)6e:'i". "O't~ a cruMo')'~cr!J-Oe; !lu'toe; ~e; CP€pve:~ cr€ !J-~a cr't!l6e:p~ 1tE7t!l'tY)!J-€VY), E:mge:g!l~wve:'t!l~ X!lt a1to 't~ crUV€'X,e:~!l 7tOU an!lv'ta!J-e: XlXt !J-€cr!l cr'tov 180 axo!J-Y) !ltWV!l, cr€ cru')")'e:v~ rcepW'X,~. 'Av!lpw'tY)6~x!l!J-e:, OY)A!lO~, 1t0't€ E:We; 'twP!l !J-€ 1tmov 'tp07tO o~oacrxov't!lV ~€ve:e; ')'Awcrcre:e; 01 Ne:O€My)Ve:e;, e:xe:'i"vm, cruyxe:xP~!J-€V!l, 1tOU O€V e:I'X,!lV 't~v OUV!l'tO'tY)'t!l va a7tooy)!J-~crouv; 'A7t0 'tov 1tpw'to ~€VO 'tu'X,oo~wx'ty), 'tov a1to'i"ov axou')'!lv va !J-tAae:~ 't~V ,),AWcrcr!l. Mv U1t~p'X,e: XlXV€V!le; AO')'Oe; va avY)cru'X,Y)crouv, av ~'t!lV 'to X!l'taAAY)Ao 1tpocrW1to: OA!l 'ta pu6!J-t~e: ~ ava')'xY)· acpou ~€pe:t 't~V ')'Awcrcr!l, acrcp!lAWe; !J-1tope:i va 't~V !J-e:'t!lowcre:~ X!lt cr€ xa1towv aMov. '0

"ll' '. '1:' ll" D.' T " ll' ' , 'll"

wwe;, 'te:AOe;, 0 "e:voe; oev v!l e:tXe: xaveva» e:voOt!lcr!J-o, !J-t!l X!lt oev

7tpocr€cpe:pe: 'tte; U7tY)pe:crte:e; 'tou owpe:av.

M€ 't~v 'te:Ae:U't!lt!l Aomov 7t!lP!l't~PY)crY) 'tou a X!lcrtW'ty)e; 7tPOcr!lv!l'tOAtcre: 't~V lcr'top~xy) Epe:uV!l E:v'te:AWe; 7tpOe; 't~v 7tP!l,),!J-!l'ttXO'tY)'t!l. I1p!l,),!J-!l'ttxo'tY)'t!l -Yj a7tot!l o~!l6€'te:t 'to !J-e:,),aAo 7tAe:OV€X'tY)!J-!l va e:IV!lt xmvoe; 't07tOe; ')'~a aAOXAY)pY) 'ty)v EUpW7ty). "07tWe; a7tEoe:t~e: 7tpocrCP!l't!l (1988) a "A')")'AOe; lcr'top~xoe; Rab Houston cr'to g~tAtO 'tou Literacy in Early Modem Europe, Culture and Education 1500- 1800, 'to EP,),O 'tou O!lcrxaAou cr€ !lu'ta 'ta U7to'tU7twoy) crxoAe:i!l !J-7tOpoucre: va 'to acrxY)cre:~ a7towcro~7to'te: ot€8e:'te: cr'totXe:twoe:~e; yvwcre:te;. Au'to a7tooe:~xvue:t ~ E:mcrxo7tY)CTt) 7tOU 7tP!l,),!J-!l't07tOtY)cre: a Houston cr'tov e:upu'te:po e:uPW7t!l·~xo 'X,wpo, ')'ta va X!l't!lA~~e:t E:Voe:tx'ttxa, 7tWe; cr'tO Aovotvo oacrx!lAOe; !J-7tOpoucre: va e:IV!lt E:V!le; ,),P!lcptae;, E:V!le; !J-7t!lAW!J-!l't~e;, E:V!le; pacp'tY)e;, E:V!le; t¥!lpae;, E:V!le; cr!lpacpY)e;.

'AvaAo')'YJ e:IV!lt X!lt ~ dXOV!l 7tOU !J-ac; 7t!lpoucrta~e:t a raAAoe; 1cr'top~xoe; 't~e; e:upw7t!l·ix~e; 7t!l~oe:t!le; Georges Gusdorf ')'~a 't~v hoX~ 'tou ~~!l<pw't~cr!J-ou: «To !J-e:')'!lAU'te:po !J-EpOe; 'tou E:')'pa!J-!J-!l'tou 7tAY)- 6ucr!J-ou a7to'te:Ae:t't!lt a7to av8pw7toue; 7tOU o€X6Y)x!lv cr'ta !J-txpa cr'X,OAe:t!l 't~e; u7t!lt6pou X!lt 't~<; 7tOAY)<; xa7tot!l cr'tot'X,e:i!l, 7tOU 'ta !J-e:'t€OWcrIXV le:pe:'i"c; ~ (f)(Ativ8pw7tot, ~ bm!ltoe:u't~xo{ xwp{c; E:7tIX,),,),e:A-

TO KPr4110 l:XOAEIO

49

!J.CXit"tX~ xa"rap'naT), E:VtOn 7tAavOOtm, 7tOU 7tOuAouO"aV O"E xafJ.:Y)A~ "rt!J.~ !J.ta !J.E"rpta Xat U7t07t"r'Y] yvWO"'Y]». Au"ro ~"rav Xat "r0 mo CPUO"tXO. 'H fJ.E'taOOaT) Xa7totWV O"'totXEtWOWV YVWo"EWV ypacp-Y)e; Xat avaYVWO"'Y]e; va 6EwpEI'tat a7tA~ xa60o~yr)0"'Y] yta 'tOV XEtptO"fJ.O xa- 7tOWU E:pyaAdou. Ka6we; Aomov a XaO"tW't'Y]e;, yta 7tPW't'Y] cpopa aU'toe; -00"0 'tOUAaXtO"'tOv !J.OU dvat YVWO"'to- a7tOOEO"!J.EUEt 'tte; 7tPW'toYEVEIe; YVWo-Ete; a7to 'to xa6apa 6p'Y]o"XEU'ttXO 7tEptypa!J.!J.a, O"'to a7toIo 'tte; dXE 7tEptxapaxWO"Et !J.ta !J.axpatwv'Y] 7tapaooO"'Y], xaVEt Eva !J.EyaAo o-Y)!J.a -.a6EAa "rou;- WO"'tE va aV'ttxptO"OU!J.E !J.tav a.M'Y] 7tpaY!J.tX'ttxo't'Y]'ta, OtacpopE'ttX~ a7to E:xdv'Y]v O"'t~v a7tOtav dxafJ.E aUVYJ6tO"Et Ewe; 'twpa xat -Y] a7tota E:xcppa~E'tat !J.E 'to ~EuY!J.a xA'Y]ptxoe;-E:x7tatowO"'Y]. 'H !J.ov'Y] otacpuy~ 7tOU 7tpayfJ-tX'to7totEI 7tpOe; 'to 6E!J.a 'tou Kpucpou ~XOAEWU eTvat -Y] 7tapa't~p'Y]O"'Y] !J.E 't~v a7tota a7to'tEAEtWVEt 'ta O"XE'ttXa !J.E 't~v a'tmXEtWo'Y] E:X7tatOEUO"'Y]: «Ti OE OEV U7tE!J.cpatvEt 'to 0'Y]!J.0"rtXOV 'tou'tO aO"!J.a'ttov, 'to !J.EXpt xat O"~!J.Epov 7tEpta06!J.Evov Ete; 'ta O"'to!J.a'ta -Y]!J.wv;» To O"X-Y)!J.a !J.EVEt E:OW avav'ta7tooo'tov, m6avwe; yta va Eu6uypa!J.!J.t0"6EI 7tpoe; 't~v O"XE'ttX~ 7tapa't~p'Y]O"'Y] 'tou q>'}..{(7'ropa, 7tOU doa!J.E: «To o'Y]!J.o'ttXOV 'tou'tO aO"!J.a'twv U7tE!J.cpatVEt oEOata, bCT6.; aMwv, xat 'to 7toO"ov !J.E 'ta ypa!J.!J.a'ta O"UVEOEE'tO 7tav'to'tE -Y] 'tOU BEOU evvOla de; 'tae; ljiuxae; 'tWV v'Y]7ttwv».

'0 Xao"tw't'Y]e; 6a !J.dVEt 0"'ta6EpOe; xat 0"'t0 !J.EyaAo epyo 'tou, o"'t~v rota au't~ ypafJ.fJ.Y) 7tOU eIXE apxtO"Et va xapa~Et 1)o'Y] &no 'to 1874. "07tWe; 'to row 0"'ta6Epoe; 6a a7tooEtx6EI xat o'tav 6a O"UYXEV'tPWo"Et, apxE'ta apyonpa (1909), O"E ~EXWPtO"'to "ro!J.o, OtaAE~Ete; 7tOt) eowaE O"'tov <lltAOAoytXo"i:,uMOYO KwvO"'taV'ttVOU7tOAEWe;, fJ.E YEVtXO 'tt'tAO 'H y}..w(J'(J'a TOU "EMr;VO';, '0 IlTwxonp6apop..o.; xai 0/ DnaaO{ aUTou. :A7tOptEe; o!J.we; YEvvaEt -Y] O"'taO"'Y] -eou, o'tav ~ECPEUyEt a7to 'tY)V aua't'Y]p~ au't~ ypa!J.!J.~ !J.Eaa O"'to !J.EyaAo -eou epyo, O'Y]AaoY) 'tY)v Instruction. '0 to""roptXOe; 't-Y)e; 7tatoElae;, 7tOU ava7t'tuO"O"Et O"'to xuptO O"w!J.a O"uO"'t'Y]!J.tX'ttxa xat OtE~OOtXa "rY)v o'Y]!J.wupyta xat 'tY)v E:~EAt~'Y] 'twv avw'tEpw O"XOAwV O"'tov €MaOtxo xwpo, O"'tov IIpoAoyo 'tou !OtOU au'tou epyou, a[cpVtOta"Et xat 7tEpVaEt O"'tov p'Y]'toptXO AOYO, yta 'to row aU'to 6E!J.a 't-Y)e; O"'tmXEtWOOue; E:X7tatOEUO"'Y]e;: «"Av xa[ OEV EXOU!J.E we; 7tpbe; au'tf)v 'tf)v 1i7t0~'Y] O"uyxExpt!J.EVEe; 7tA"'f)pOcpoptEe;, !J.7tOpEI xavdc; va 7tEt, XWpte; 7tOAu va 7tapaXtVOUVEUO"Et: rta !J.ta !J.axpa 7tEptOOO -Y] EX7tatOEUO"'Y] ~'tav aXEOOV aaY)!J.tXV't'Y]. IIpay-

50

TO KPr<110 :EXOAEIO

!LIX'ttXIX, 7tW<; VIX 7tIX€t XIXVe:t<; a'X.OA€tO; IIw<; VIX Ottxaxta€t "COu<; OpO!J.OU<;; MOAto; e6ytxtvtxV a7tO 't"0 7ttx't"PtXo 't"ouo; a7ti't"t 't"IX 7ttxtOtIX, aAAOt!J.OVO!, 't"IX ap7ttx~txv ot re:vt't"atxpm, !J.tIX bpo~ oao !J.t01')'t"~, «bao Xtxt cp06e:p~! T~v VU'X.'t"tx, !J.E 't"0 CPW<; 't"~<; ae:A~V'Y)O;, AE€t EVtx Atx°,_XO 't"ptxYOUOt, 't"IX 'EM'Y)V07tOUAtx, a\jJ'Y)cpwV't"tx<; 't"~V 't"OUPXtX~ aXA'Y)pO't"'Y)'t"tx, hpe:'X.txV a't"IX a'X.OA€ttx ytlX VIX 7tIXPOUV a7tO e:Xe:t !J.€ptXIX PIXX'Y) 't"OU 7ttxAtxWU 7tOA('t"ta!J.OU 't"~o; 7ttx't"ptOtxo; 't"OUo;» ° Ktxt ~ Xtx't"IXA'Y)~'Y): «Ktxt aU'X.VIX, !J.Eatx a't"a. axo't"IXOttx 't"~o; VU'X.'t"txo;, axouyo't"txv b 7tVtY!J.EVOo; ~'X.0<; EVO<; acpuptOU 7tOU OOUA€U€ ytlX VIX 'X.'t"ta€t EVtx a'X.OAe:tO» °

To epyo XUXAocpop'Y)a€, e:tOtxfJ-e:, ytxMtXIXO a7te:uOuv€'t"txt aptx xuptw<; aE EVtx xmvo OttxcpoP€'t"txo a7to 't"o EM'Y)VtXOo Au't"o 't"o ~EVO XOtvO e:mOufJ-e:t VIX auyxtv~ae:t Xtxt VIX Ottxcpw't"tae:t, a't"ot'X.e:to 7tOU 7tPE7te:t VIX M60ufJ-e: tJ7to\jJ'Y) fJ-tx<;, o't"txV 6ptaxo!LIXa't"€ fJ-7tpoa't"IX aE 7ttxpofJ-me:<; aV't"tOEa€to;, a.v o'X.t, aV't"tcpIXae:to;o Touo; a't"o'X.ou<; 't"ou, aMwa't"€, 0 auyyptxcpEtxo;, 't"ouo; O'Y)AWVe:t a7tO fJ-tao; ap'X.~o;o e:rVtxt e:uOuyptxfJ-fJ-tafJ-E'lot fJ-Eatx a't"o €Upu't"e:po ye:vtXO 7tAtxtaW 7tOU OttxYPIX\jJtxfJ-e: ~o'Y): «Oi aUfJ-7ttx't"ptw't"€o; (J-OU OEV e:a't"tx~'t'Y)atxv 7tO'tE VIX fJ-opcpwvov't"txt Xtxt VIX €Tvtxt a~wt 't"WV aUfJ-7ttxOe:tWV 't"~<; fJ-e:YIXA'Y)<; 'X.pta't"ttxvtx~<; o'Y)(J-OXptx't"ttxo; fJ-E 't"~v aYIX7t'Y) 't"ou<; ytlX 't"~v e:ma't"~(J-'Y) Xtxt 't"~v aA~Oe:ttx» ° To ye:Vtxo't"€PO OfJ-Wo; aUfJ-7tEptxafJ-tx, 7tOU X(Xt fJ-ao; acpopa e:ow, e:TVtxt o't"t o Xtxatw't"'Y)o; fJ-ao; e:vta'X.ua€ t1-E 't"ov 't"p07tO -eou, aacptxAWO;- a't"~v 6txatx~ Oi01') 7tOU e:XCPPIX~€t 't"o 7ttxpOV OOXtfJ-w: 0 p'Y)'t"optXOo; AOYOo; ~o; oO'Y)ye:t a't"txOe:pIX a't"ov fJ-uOoo

7

'R m:pbt'twcr'Y) 'tou XIXO"tW't"Y), Ile 'tov 07tOtOV cpSaO"lXlle O"'t~v 01..0- XA~pWcr'Y) E:VOe; XUXAOU, 1tOU dXe avot~et, 01tWe; dOIXlle, IlE 'to xdllevo 'tou N. ~IXPt1tOAOU 'to 1853, E7tt€le€llXlwO"e 't~v €lIXO"tX~ apx~ a1to 't~v 01tOtlX ~extv~o"lXlle: ~ to"'tOptlX O'tIXV lle'tlX€laMe'tlXt O"E oprlX'.10 ESVtXWV otexotx~O"ewv, O"E 1tetO"flIX XlXt 7tpoe; 't~v aA"Y)SocpavetlX 'twv yerovo'twv, a1toO"'tpecpe'tlXt 't~v 1tplXrlllX'ttXo't"Y)'tIX. 'R Ellcpavtcr'Y)

. 0IlWe; xl'Z't'a 't~v LOtlX IXU't~ XpOVtX~ 1teptooo 't~e; VWrEW"Y)'t"Y)e; e7tt- 0"'t~fJ."Y)e; 't~e; VE:OeAA"Y)V~x~e; 1t1X~odlXe;, 1tOU (J.E 't~v O"tW1t~ 't"Y)e; XIX'tlXotxlX~e O"'t~v oAo't"y)'ta 't"Y)e; 'tov lluSo 'tou Kpu<pou ~xoAetOu, 0"Y)Iltoup"("Y)O"e (J.tav avexo~Aw't"Y) aV't'tOtxtlX 1tpOe; 't~v ESVtX~ O"x07ttllo't"Y)'tIX. 'R aXIl~ 'tTje; MeraA"y)e; 'IoEIXe; OEV a<p~ve~ xlXlltlX allqn€loAtlX 1tWe; 'to 1tpo€laotO"lla 'to Exe~ ~ oeu'tep"Y). 'AAAa ~ 0lloYVWIl"Y) 1tapouO"ta 't~e; 1tpw't"Y)e; Ilap'tupet 'tOUAaX~O"'tov 't~v u1tap~"Y) E:VOe; to"Xupou pelJ(J.a'toc;, apxe:'ta avu1to'tax'tou xed a1tocpaO"tO"'ttxoi), 1tOU (J.ota~E:t O"av va 1tpoO"ooxa xaAU'tE:pOUe; xatpoue; rta va 1tapouO"taO"'tet xat 1ta'At. Xpov~xa 0llwe; €lptO"xollaO"'te: XtoAae; xoV't'a O"'to avave:w't~xo xtv"Y)lla 't~e; re:vtae; 'tou 1880, a1to 'to 01tOtO xat Sa 1tPE1te:t aO"<paAwe; va 1tEptIlEVOUIlE va ~avaxouO"'t'Et 'to LOtO Ill)vulla.

To E'tOe; 1873 O""Y)(J.E:twvE:'tat, 01tWC; E:Tvat yvwO"'to, 'to 1tpw'to O""Y)(J.aV't'~xo p~rlla O"'to 0Xupo 'tou pOllav't~xou 1tE:vStO"(J.ou. ~E Evav 1tave:7ttO"'t"Y)lltaxo 1tOt"Y)'ttXO o~arWVtO"IlO IlE dO""Y)"("Y)'t~ 'tov re:wprtO MtO"'tptw't"Y) bpabe:ue'tat ~ O"UMO~ E:VOe; VEOU AortOu, 'tou d"Y)fJ.~'tptou rp. Kall1tOUpOrAOU 'H ~WY~ "ij~ xapOtii~ uou, 't~e; o1totae; 'ta ouo xupta XIXPlXx't"Y)ptO"'ttxa ~o"IXV ~ o"Y)(J.o'ttX~ rAWO"O"IX xat ~ aV't'tpofllXV't'tX~ otaSE:O""Y). Tev E:1to(J.e:vo x.povo Ilta VEa 1tOt"Y)'ttXl) O"UAAor~ 'tou totou O"u"("(pa<pEa, '0 i;6plCT'ro~ OUZbOAO~, av XlXt OEV bPlXb€:U€:'tlXt, rtv€:'tat aV't"~xdll€:vO ll€:raAwv O"u~"Y)'tl)O"€:wv' ~ e7tt'tpo1tl) 1tOU 'tl)v EXPtv€: ao"XOA~9rJXE 1tOAU flIX~t 't"y)e;, XlXt 1tapES€:O"€: ex't€:'ta(J.Eva a1toO"1taO"(J.a'ta a1to 'ttc; 1tapwotEe; 'twv pOIlIXV't"tXWV 1tOt"Y)'twv 'toue; ()1toloue; o"lX'tlpt~e: 0 O"U,,(,,(plX<pEIXe;. TEAoe;, 'to 1882, 0 rOlOe; 1tOt"f)'t~c; O"'to 1teplOotxo -eou Elx6ye~ OAOXA"y)PWV€:t 't~v E1tl6e:0"l) 'tou xat O"a'ttpt~et Iltav aM"Y) e7ttxtvouv"y) exo~AwO""Y) 't~e; POlllXv't~x~e;

52

TO KPTC»O ~XOAEIO

uO''te:p(ae;, 't~v (J.e:'tacpplXCTT) (1't~V xa6ape:uouO'a 'tou U1tO'tt6E(J.E:VOU. OlJ(J.O'ttXOU 'tpa"(ouowu «Tou Kt'tO'ou ~ !1-ava».

'0 Ka!1-1tOUpO"(AOU, 0!1-we;, E:X'toe; a1tO alhEe; 'ttc; 1tOtlJ'ttXEe; E:mooO'e:te;, e:IXe: apxtciE:t apxe:'ta E:VWpte; va aO'XOAe:t'tat xat !1-E 't~v to''topta ~, aXpt6EO''te:pa, !1-E 't~v to''topwotcpta. MEO'a O''tov XAaOO atJ'tov e:IXe: 1te:PWPtO'e:t aXO!1-lJ 1te:ptO'O'O'te:po 'ta E:VOtacpEpOV'ta 'tou O''t~v !1-e:AE'tlJ xuptWe; 'tlie; 10''toptae; 'tlie; 'A6~vae; O''ta xpovta 'tlie; Toupxoxpa'ttae;. Kap7toe; 'twv O'Xe:'ttXWV E:pe:uvwv 'tou U7tlip~e: ~ EXOOO'lJ !1-tiie; 'tpt'to!1-lJe; 'Io-iopla« TWV 110r;va{wv a7tO 'to 1889 gWe; TO 1896. '0 Ka(J.7tOUpo"(AOU O'TO gp"(o aUTO, 'to O'7tOUoato'te:po 'tlie; !J-lXxpiie; xat ,,(ovt!1-lJe; O'urrpa<ptX"Yje; rou opaO''tlJpto'tlJ'tae;, 7tOU e:Ivat 7te:ptO'O'o'te:po O'U"(XEV'tPWO'lJ xat O'XOAtaO'!1-oe; E:xOO!1-EVOU xat aVExoo-eou UAtXOU, 7tapa «O'uO''tlJ!1-a'ttx~ acp~'YlJO'te; xat ava7t'tu~te; 'tou olJ!1-oO'tou, XOIVWVtXOU xat lotw'ttxOU 6tou» 'twv 'A6lJvatwv· xa'ta 't~v Toupxoxpa'tta, avacpe:po!1-e:voe; O''t~v aO'!J-lX'ttx~ AatX~ 7tapaooO'l) xat e:tOtxo'te:pa O''ta 7tatotxa a.O'!J-lX'ta (7tpoO'cpwv~O'e:te;) ota'tumove:t xat 't~v ')'Vw!1-lJ 'tou "(ta 'to Kpucpo 'f.XOAe:to: «IIapaoo~we;, "(pacpe:t, de; 't~v 7tpw'tlJv E:~ au'twv hwv 7tpoO'cpwv~O'e:wv), 'to 7taO'trvwO''tov tPerrapaxI {J.OI) Aa{J.7rpO XA7t. a7te:066lJ U7tO 'ttvWV -xat xa'ta 'to O'uvlJ6e:e; E:~axoAou6e:t 'tou'to a6aO'avtO''twe; xat axpt'twe; E:7taVaAa!1-- 6avo!1-e:vov- O'l)!1-aO'ta, ~v OUo' e:IXe:v ouo' ~ouva'to va EXY)' o'tt, OlJAao~, 7tape:!1-7toot~ov'twv 'twv Toupxwv 't~v E:x7tatoe:uO'tV, ~va"(xa~oV'to 'ta 7tatoaxta 't~v vux'ta !1-E 'to cpe:rrapt va 7tope:uwV'tat e:le; otOaO'xaAOV 7tpoe; E:x7tatoe:uO'tV».

'0 Ka!1-7tOUpo"(AOU g6Ae:7te: 7tOAU mo !1-axpta a7to 't~v avatpe:O'l) E:VOe; !1-u60u 'tlie; Toupxoxpa'ttae;. 'H E:~e:tOtxe:uO'lJ 7tOU e:Ixe: owO'e:t 0''t0 to''topwOtcptXO 'tou gp,,(o, xa6opt~0V'tae; !1-E O'acp~ve:ta 'ta xpovtxa xat 'tomxa opta 'twv E:pe:uvwv 'tou -6EO'l) 7tpw'to7toptax~ "(ta 't~v E:7t0x-f) TOU, o'tav Ot o!1-o'te:xvo( 'tou xaAAtep"(ouv xa'ta xavova 't-f)v ,,(EVtX-f) tcr'topta- 'tou E:7tE'tpe:7te: va OtamO''twO'e:t !1-E e:upu'tlJ'ta 'tte; E:nt7t'twO'e:te; a7tO 't~v xaAAtEp,,(e:ta 'tlie; !1-U607tAaO'tae; we; 7tpOC; 't~v E:~EAt~lJ 'tlie; to''toptxlie; E:mO''t~!1-lJe; O''t-f)v 7ta'tptoa -cou. 'H XPtO'l) 'tou 'twpa ~e:7te:pvae:t 't-f)v xa'tlJ,,(oPlJ!1-a'ttXo'tlJ'ta: «at ')'pacpov'te:e; 'tou'to, a')'VoouO't OAWe; 'tov U7tO 't~v Toupxtav 6tov 'twv 'EAA-f)VWV» a7tOcpatve:'tat, xat !1-E gva 07tAO, 7tOU ')'VwPt~ou!1-e: 7t00'0 xaAa ~~e:pe: va 'to XPlJO't!1-07t0le:t --r:~v e:tpwvda- xat O'E !1-ta E:V'te:AWe; pe:aAtO''ttX~ aV'tt!1-e:'twmO'l) 'twv 7tpa,,(!1-a'twv, 7tOU OEV OExe:'tat xa!1-ta a!1-CPt0'6-f)-

TO KPr<)O ~XOAEIO

53

't'Y)0"'Y) xcm~A~yc:t: «q'lPOVOUfl-C: O'tt oev ~'Y)fl-tOu'tat 7tOO"We; ~ tX~ta 'tou 'tpucpc:pw'ta'tou 'tOU'tOU 7tot~fl-a'tOe;, EaV cpav'ta0"6wfl-C:v 'to 7tatOaXt EV'tOe; 't~e; 01xtae; 'tou -EV 'tfl tXO"cpaAdt;t- hC:Vt~OV 7tpOe; 't~V O"C:A~v'y)v xat ~OOV ~O"fI-CX, 07tC:P E7tot~6'Y) fl-OVOV 07tWe; Efl-7tVC:UO'T) de; 'to 7tatotov 't~v toeav O'Tt 'Ta ypafl-fl-CX'Ta dvat 7tpaYfI-CX'Ta 'TOU 8c:ou, xat ouXt we; Efl-ta't~ptov 'tWV de; vux'tc:ptva O'xoAc:'ra 7t0pw0fl-evwv».

'H O''taO''Y) au't~ 'tOU Kafl-7tOUpoyAou, o'tav tXvaotcpc:'r 't~v VC:OC:AA'Y)VtX~ b't"opta, odxvc:t o'tt Efl-7tVec:'tat tX7tO 't"~v rOta 7tpaYfl-a't"tO''t"tx~ ota6c:0"Y) 7tOU xapax't'Y)pt~c:t xat 'toy 7tot'Y)'t"tXO -rou Myo, fl-e 't~v otacpopa o'n, EVW EXC:'r 't"a pc:aAtO''t"tXa O''totxc:'ra dvat, c:hc: 't"o 6efl-a xa6c:au't"0 c:hc: ~ Ae~'Y) 7tOU dO'aYC:'tat fl-e cpatvofl-c:vtxa tXcpC:A~ au60pfI-'Y)'t"tO'fl-o, EOW dvat ~ tX7t0fl-0vwO"Y) 't"~e; epwvae; tX7tO 't"~v E~U7t'Y)pe't"'Y)0''Y) 07tOt(X(J'O~7t0't"E O'X07tt[Lo't"'Y)'t"ae;. Ll'Y)[LWUPYEt Aomov .fl-ta 't"ofl-~ xat fl-ta O''t"pocp~ O'uvafI-CX O''t"~v VEOEM'Y)vtX~ epe:uva, 't"wv 07tOtWV ofl-we; ~ O'7touoato't'Y)'t"a oihE 't"O't"E OiJ'"t"E O'~fl-Epa tXxofl-'Y) eXEt E7ttO"'Y)fl-av6Et. '0 !owe;, aMWO"'t"E, 7tpoO'cpepEt O''tov 7tPOAOYO 'tou xat 't~v 6EWP'Y)'t"tx~ 't"wv tX7tOY;EWV 't"ou, o'tav, E~'Y)ywv't"ae; yta't"t XP'Y)O'tfl-O- 1tOt'Y)O'E 't"ov 't"('t"AO 'J0"1:0p{a, 1:WY l1tJ17Ya,{WY xat OXt 'twv l1tJ17YWY, 't"OVt~C:t -O'e [Ltav E1tOX~ 07tOU ~ epwva xat ~ fl-EAe't"'Y) 't"~e; to''toptae; xuptapxe'r't"at tX1tO 't"~v ~pwoA(X't'pda- 'T~V (j7touoato't'Y)'ta 7tOU 7tatpVEt yta 't"~v tXXPtt~ yvwO"'Y) 't"ou 7tapEA60V't"0e; EVOe; e6voue; ~ fl-C:Ae't"'Y) 't"wv 7totXtAWv EXO'Y)AWcrEwv 'tou Aaou xa6Eau'tou. T~v bp60't'Y)'ta 't"wv tX7t0Y;EWV 't"ou au't"wv E7tttEtatWVEt fl-e eva E7ttxdp'Y)fl-a 1tOU 'tou 7tpoO'cpepEt au't"~ ~ rOta ~ to"'t"opta 1:lie; i\.6~vae;: i\.cpou 7tpoxc:t't"at yta 't~v ~w~ fl-tae; 7tOAt't"ELae;, 'tlie; o7totae; ~ to''toptX~ opaO"'Y) oev tyatVEt O'uv~6we; e~w tX7tO 't"ov XUXAO 't"lie; 't"oupxtXlie; x(X't'ax't"'Y)O"'Y)e;, 't"O'tE «tXXpttwc; cpatVE't"at 1tOOOV Etvat bp60v va fI-~ a7toppocpa't"at U7tO 't"lic; to''t"optac; 'tWV ouvaO''t"wv 0 tLOC; 't"wv ouvaO''t"w0fl-EVWV, xat o't"av ~AtO''ta Ot ouvaO''t"EU0fl-Evot e:Tvat "EM'Y)vec;, xat o~ i\.6'Y)vatot».

'H 7tVEufl-a't"tX~ au't"~ Evo't'Y)'ta O''to epyo 'tou Kafl-7tOUpoYAOU ~e; oO'Y)'YEt 0"'t"0 O'ufl-7tepaO"fl-a o'tt, tXcpou ~ 7tot'Y)'t"tX~ 't"ou O''taO"'Y) a7to't"EAE'r evav O[LOXEV't"pO XUXAO 7tPOC; 't"~v E7ttO''t"'Y)fl-OVtX~ -rou, xat acpou [Le 't~v 7tpw't"'Y) eAate b't"optxa 't~v 6eO"Y) avafl-EO'a O'E hdvouc; 1tOll O''Y)[LaoEy;av 't"~v tX7tO~XpuvO''Y) a7to 't"ov pOfl-av't"tO'fl-o, 6a 7tpe7tEt va tXva~'Y)'t"~O'oUfl-E 't"~v ev't"a~'Y) 't"wv XUXAWV au't"wv O'e aAAOUC; [LEyaAU't"c:pouc; O[LOXEV't"pOUC; xllxAouc; ~ O'E fl-tav aM'Y) 'YEVtXO't"EP'Y) O'u[L7teptcpopa, 7tOll va [L~v 7tEptopt~e't"at a7tAWC; O"'t~v 7tEPWX~ EXe:tV'Y)

54

TO KPY<I>O ~XOAEIO

7tOU a7tOXaAOU(J-e: ypa(J-(J-CX't'a, aMa va 7tatpve:t xat aMe:~ 7tpoe:x'taewe; 7tp6~ e:upu'te:pa XotVwvtxa xat 7tOAt'ttXa cpatv6(J-e:va. ME 'tk 7tpOU7t06EO"e:t~ o(J-w~ au'tE~ (J-ane:ue:t 0 avayvwO"'tl)~, o'tt ~ xa'taAl)~l) OEV (J-7tOpe:t va (J-a~ oOl)yf)O"e:t 7tou6e:va aMou, 7tapa 7tp6e; 't6 xtvl)(J-a 'tl]~ ye:vta~ 'tou 1880 >tat 't~v 7tOAt'ttX~ (J-e:'ta60A~ 7tOU 7tpaY(J-a'to7tote:t'tat (J-E 't~v 7tapouO"ta 'tou XaptAaOu Tptxou7tl).

L't6 O"1)(J-e:tO o(J-w~ 07tOU 6ptO"xe:'tat xat ~(J-e:pa ax6(J-l) ~ O"Xe:'ttX~ Epe:uva, xat w<; 7tp6~ 't6 6E(J-CX au't6, 6a otamO"'tWcrou(J-e: o'tt 0 (J-e:Ae:'tl)'t~~ Ev6<; e:lOtXOU 6E(J-a't0<; 7tOU O"Xe:'tt~e:'tat (J-E 't~v 7tve:u(J-a'tex~ 10"'topta, o'tav 6e:A~0"e:t va 'to oee:pe:uv~O"e:t O"'tt<; O"XEO"e:e<; 'tou 7tp6<; 't~v ye:vtx6'te:pl) 7tOAt'ttX~ xat XotVWVtX~ tcr'topta 'tou 't67tOU O"'ta "/...P6vta 7tOU ye:vvtE'tat 't6 xtvl)(J-a 'tl]<; ye:vta<; 'tou '80, 6a (J-dve:t (J-aMov a60~8l)'t0~. '0 hoxAe:tO"'ttx6<;, ol)Aao~, 'tp67t0e; (J-E 't6v 07tOtOV (J-e:Ae:'t~6l)xe: €W<; 'twpa 't6 xtVl)(J-a -a7t6 xa6apa AoYO'te:xvtx~ cX7tot.¥l)- OEV E7tE'tpe:t.¥e: oXt (J-6vo 't~v avtxve:uO""YJ 'twv to"'toptXWV oe:O"(J-wv (J-E 't6 7tape:A66v, aMa oihe: xav 't~v Ena~~ 'tou 0"'t6 ye:vtx6'te:po XAt(J-a 'tl]e; E7tOXl]~. O! O"UVE7te:te:<; a7to 't~v EMe:tt.¥l) au't~ ytvov'tat a(J-Eo"w<; atcr8l)'tk M7tope:t, 6E6ata, va e:lvat Em'tux~<; 0 xapax'tl)ptO"(J-6<; O'tt (J-E 't~v ye:vta 'tou 1880 apXt~e:t €va<; VEO<; otacpw'ttO"(J-o<;, wO"'t60"0 Ot A6yot yta 'tou<; 07tOtou<; Uv xap7tocp6p"YJ0"e: ~ OEV xap7tocp6pl)0"e: 'tooo 00"0 6a 7te:pt(J-e:ve: xavd<;, 7tapa(J-Evouv ave:p(J-~ve:u'tOt, av OEV O"uO"Xe:'tt0"60uv (J-E 't6 7tape:A66v, aMa xat (J-E 't~v XotVWVtX~ xat 7tOAt'ttX~ xa'taO"'taO"1) 'tl]<; E7t o Xl] <; .

Kat O"'t~v O"uyxe:xPt(J-EV"YJ au't~ 7te:pt7t'twO"1) EXOU(J-e: 't~v 0"'ta6e:p~ E7taVaA"YJt.¥l) Ev6<; xat 'tOU au'tou cpatVo(J-EvOU 7tOU xapax'tl)pt~e:t 't~v ve:oe:Ml)vtX~ Xotvwvta, 'tOUAaXtO"'tov h6 't~v E7tOX~ 07tOU aPXtO"e: va ota(J-opcpwve:'tat (J-EO"a 0"'t6v 180 alwva, O"'tl)ptY(J-EVl) o"'t~v aO"'ttx~ 'ta~l): 01 ouva(J-e:t<; 7tp06oou 'tOU 't07tOU cpw'tt~onat xat o"'t"YJPt~ov'tat a7tO 'to ou'ttXO O"'totXe:to· xa6e: cpopa 7tOU Ot ouva(J-e:t<; 'tl]<; aV'rtopa- 0"1)<; oOl)Youv (J-E 't~v (J-tO"aAAoOo~ta 'tou<; 'ta 7tpay(J-CX'ta O"E aOtE~OoO, 01 7tPOOOe:u'ttXE<; ouva(J-e:t<; EXOUV 't~v ouva't6'tl)'ta va 7tP06A"YJ60uv, E7te:tO~ >ta'ta xav6va a7to'te:AoUV 't~v (J-e:tot.¥l)cpta. T6'te: 7tapouO"ta~e:'tat ~ (J-e:'ta60A~ oXt (J-6vov w~ wPt(J-"YJ, aMa ax6(J-l) xat w~ ava- 7to'tpe:7t'tl). "O'tav o(J-w~ 'te:AtXa 7tpay(J-CX'to7totl)6e:t, apXt~e:t xat ytve:'tat 7tp06Al)(J-a'ttX~ ~ Em60A~ 'tl)<;, yta'tt a7tat'te:t va EXe:t O"'t~v ota6e:0"~ 'tl)~ 't6v 7tapayov'ta 'tou Xpovou, 0 07tOtO~ Epya~e:'tat o(J-w<; a7tOxAe:tO"'ttXa yta 'ti<; ouva(J-e:t<; 'tl]<; O"un~pl)O""YJ<; e:he: 'tl]<; av'ttopa-

TO KPYIflO l:XOAEIO

55

CTY)~. "'E'tO't Xat eow: "O'tav 'to 1874 a XaptAaO~ TptXOU7t"f]~, Ota(J-opcpwvona~ 'tt~ eVOta6E'tE~ 'taO'Et~ 'tlj~ aVEpXO(J-EV"f]~ aO''ttxlj~ 'ta~"f]~, ~~'t"f]O'E va xa6apEt 't~v 7tOAt'ttX~ ~W~ 'tOU 't07tOU, ~ em'tU'1..ta 't~v a7tOta O'"f](J-dWO'E, av 0''ta6"f]XE a7tpoO'OOX"f]'t"f], xapax't"f]Pt~Et wO''tOO'O 't~v cp60pa 'tOU 7tOAt'ttXOU XOO'(J-OU 'tOU 7tapEA60v't0~. ~UVE7tW~ excppa~Et 't~v WPt(J-"f] yta (J-E'tabOA~ O''tty(J-~. '0 7tapayov'ra~ O(J-W~ 'tOU XPOVOU oev O'UVE'ti'AEO'E xat eow WO''tE va eopatw6e'i eva EPYO 7tOU, av O'UVEXt~o'rav p.i 'tt~ 7tpoo7t'ttxee; (J-e 'tt~ a7tOiE~ dXE apXtaEt, ea dXE (J-E'tabaAEt pt~txa xat aptO''rtxa 'r~v VEOEM"f]VtX~ xotvwvta.

'R O'xeCTY) ava(J-EO'a O''t~v 7tpoO'7ta6Eta 'rou XaptAaOu Tptxou7t"f] xat O''to xtv"f](J-a 'tlje; YEvtiie; 'rou '80, w~ 7tPO~ 'ta YEVEO'wupya ar'tta, O€V E:mOeXE'tat a(J-cptO'b~'t"f]CTY). '0 pEaAtO'(J-o~ xat a bpeoAoytO'(J-O~ 'rlj~ E:O'W'tEPtXlj~ XlXt E:~W'tEPtXlj~ 7tOAt'ttXlj~ 'rou TptxOU7t"f], 7tOU ~"f]'raEt va ava(J-opcpwO'Et 'ro 7tOAmXO XAt(J-a 'tlj~ 'EMaoa~ EhE (J-e 'tY)v a7to(J-axpuvCTY) a7tO 'to cpeop07totO O'xlj(J-a 'tlj~ MEyaA"f]e; 'Ioea~ et'tE (J-e 't~v E:x(J-E'raMWCTY) 'twv 7tAOU'r07tapaywytxwV 7t"f]yWV 'rOU 't07tOU, ana7tOXptVE'tat a7tOAU'ta 7tPO~ 'ta ai't~(J-a'ra 'rlj~ yEVtii~ 'tou '80. Kat au't~ ~"f]'taEt aV't'ta'rotxa 't~v E:opatwCTY) (J-tii~ VEOEM"f]VtXlj~ 7tatoda~ (J-eO'a a7to 't~v uytlj Ex(J-E'taMwO''Y] 'tlj~ 7tAouO'ta~ 7tvw(J-a'ttxlj~ 7tapaooCTY)~ 'tOU 't07tOU, 7tOU ETvat d'tE 01 Aa'ixe~ ouva(J-Et~, w~ YAwO'O'a xat w~ Aa'ixo~ 7tOAt'ttO'(J-O~, d'rE 01 ouva(J-Et~ aU'te~ 07tW~ 'tt~ E:x(J-E'taAAEu6Y]xE (J-a~t (J-e 'r~v OtX~ 't"f]~ 7tpoO'cpopa ~ AOyta 7tapaooO'"f], 07tW~ 7t.x. (J-E 'r0 EPYO 'tOU Kopalj, 'tOU ~OAW(J-OU xat 'tOU KaAbou. "07tW~ o(J-w~ a 7tpw'to~ 7te'tuXE 'rY)v (J-E'taboA~, aMa OXt xat 't~v E:opatwCTY) 'tlj~ (J-E'taboAlj~ aU'tlje;, 'to row xat ~ YEVta 'tou '80 7te'tuXE we; 7tpO~ 't~v (J-E'taboA~, aMa 01') xat w~ 7tpO~ 't~v emboA~ 'r"f]~. OLm 'ro YAWO'O'tXO ~~'t"f](J-a AUe"f]XE, oihE ~ 7tapaooO'"f] EytVE O'UVEtO"f]CTY) yta va O''t"f]Pt~Et 'r~v VWEAA"f]VtX~ 7tatoda.

"'E'tO't 7tPE7tEt va E:~E'taO'ou(J-E 'to 6e(J-a 'tOU Kpucpou ~XOAEWU xat O''t~v 7tEPt7t'tWCTY) 'tou Ka(J-7tOUpoYAOU, 7tpOXEt(J-EVOU va E:~"f]yY)O'OU(J-E, 7tW~ au't~ ~ 'r00'0 O'uyxEXpt(J-eV"f] xat aOtacptAOVtX"f]'r"f] eECTY), OXt (J-OVO OEV &Ma~E 'rt7tO'rE, aMa 7tEpaO'E xwpte; xav va 7tpOO'ExeE'i. 'E7tEtO~ OEV 7tpe7tEt va A'Y]O'(J-OVOU(J-E 7tW~ OAEe; (J-a~ 01 7tapa't"f]p~O'Et~ 7tOU avacpEpOnat O''r~V O''Y](J-aO'ta 'tlje; yEVtii~ 'tou '80 yta 'r~V VEOEAA"f]VtX~ 7tatoda EXOUV 10''toptxo xapax't~pa. Oun, O"f]Aao~, a IIaAa~, 7tOU O''ra6Y]xE EUeUC; a7to (J-tii~ apxljc; a 7tpay(J-a'ttxo~

56

TO KPnO l:XOAEIO

cXPXT)yO~ 't"~~ yEVt(i~, O"uv"t'ovl~ov"t'a~ 'OXt fJ-OVO "t'a 1tOtT)"t'tXa 1tpayfJ-a't"a cXAM Xat a1tOXaStO"'t"wv"t'a~ 't"OV tCJ"'t"OptXO OEO"fJ-O 't"~~ E:AAT)VtX~~ 1t01T)0"T)~ 1tEPtO"O"O"t'EPO fJ-E 't"OV KaMo --rcOU d XE "t'~V fJ-EyaAu"t'EpT) cXvayxT)- xat AtyO"t'EpO fJ-E 't"OV 1:.0AWfJ-0 --rcOU OEV 1tOAU"t'atpta~E O""t'~V 1totT)'t"tX~ "t'OU [OtoO"uyxpaO"la- cXX"t'tVObOAT)O"E O""t'~V E1tOX~ "t'ou 0"'t"0 fJ-EyaAo xotvO 00"0 Sa VOfJ-t~E xavd~, Xptvov't"a~ cX1tO 't"~V SEO"T) 1tOU EfJ-Ei~ 't"OU owO"afJ-E fJ-E't"a 't"OV SavfX't"O 't"ou O""t'aSfJ-t~ov"t'a~ 't"OV POAO "t'ou to"'t"optxa, O(hE E~aMOU 't"a XT)puYfJ-a't"a 't"~~ yEVt(i~ bP~xav, 'OXt ma 0""t'0 fJ-EyaAo XotVO, aMa xat O""t'OU~ AOytOU~ cXXOfJ-T), 't"~V cXV"t'a1tOxptO"T) 1tOU Sa 1tEptfJ-EVE xavd~ XPT)O"tfJ-01totwv't"a~ cXvaAoya Xpt"t'~pta. Elvat ~ 1tEPt1t't"WO"T) 01tOU "t'o 1897 Eva~ to""t'optXO~ "t'~~ xaSOAtX~~ VEOEMT)VtX~~ 1a't"6ptx~~ EmO""t'~fJ-T)~, b 1:.1tUptOWV AafJ-1tpo~, 1tOU OEV S~PWo"E fJ-E 't"~v EmO"'t"~fJ-T) 't"ou OU"t'E "t'ov cppovT)fJ-fX't"tO"[lo OU"t'E 't"t~ ESVtXE~ OtEXOtX~o"Et~, 1tEpvwV"t'a~ a1to 't"o SE[lfX "t'ou Kpucpou 1:.xoAEIOU xat au"t'o~, OEV Sa OtO"'t"aO"Et va ota"t'U1tWaEt "t'~v axoAouEtrJ 1tapfX't"~pT)O"T): «'A[lcptbaMW &'1 1tA~V "t'ou 1tEv't"aO"'t"IXOU 't"ou't"ou cXO"[lfX't"tou "t'ou O"UVOEO[lEVOU a[lEo"w~ 1tPO~ "t'~v "t'uXT)v 't"ou U1tOOOUAOU E:MT)VtO"[lou, ~ 't"oupxoxpa"t'ou[lEvT) 'EMa~ EXEt va Emod~Et &AAO O"XOAtXOV &O"[la».

8

fta avaAoYOUe; A6youe;, E~aMOu, O€V 1tpbw va fJ-ae; ~i::Vto"i::t fJ-ta O"ufJ-1ti::fnqlOpa a1t6 'tov xOO"fJ-O 't~e; 't€xV'y)e;, xat O"uYXi::xptfJ-€va 't~e; ~wypacptX~e;, 1tOU 1tapa'tl)pEt'tat 0"'ta6Epa O"€ OAOV 1tEpt1tOU 't6v 190 a1wva: Evae; 1tml)'t1je; xa6we; 0 ~oAwfJ-6e;, 1tOU EfJ-1tV€E'tat 0"'ta6Epa a1t6 't6v 'Aywva, O€V EV€1tVi::UO"E av'ttO"'totxwe; 't1jv VEOEAAl)Vtx1j ~wypacptx1j 1tapa EAaXtO"'ta. «Mou €V€1tVEUO"E fJ-€V 't1jv "M~av" 0 oatfJ-6vwe; ~oAwfJ-6e;», 6a ofJ-OAoy1jO"Et 0 rU~l)e; -xat 't6 E1ti6E'tO 1tOU XPl)O"t(J.01tOtEt Elvat 1tp6c; 'tt(J.1jv 'tou- yta va OAOXAl)PWcrEt (J.€ 't1jv ax6Aou6l) a~ta yta 't6v XaMt'tEXVY) 1tapa't1jpl)O""Y): «"EXEt Q(J.we; 't6 1tVEU!J.a (J.OU, 't1jv xapotav (J.OU, xat EV (J.€POC; 't~e; ~w-Yje; fJ-OU (J.a~{ 't'"Y)C;». A\J't'6 ~'tav OAO. 'AO"cpaAWe; Q(J.we; OEV ~'tav ao"XE'tl) ~ O"'tao""y) 'tOU alJ't'1j xat 1tp6c; 't1jv aV'ta1toxpto""y) 1tOU 6p~XE a1t6 't6 Xotv6 't'-Yje; 1ta'tptoac; 'tOU: «"O'tav EO"'tEtAE 't6 1899 't1jv J6';a IJ"t'1j'v 'A61jva yta va h'tE6-Yj, 0 1ttvaxac; 'tou o€v ayopa0"6l)xE a1t6 xav€vav, 1tap' OAO 1tOU EIXE xa'tE6aO"Et 't1jv 'tt(J.~ O"'ta (J.tO"a. ZoupAoxap:;repw 't1jv xapax't1jptO"av xat mxpa6l)xE». To row 6a O"U(J.6Et xat fJ-E'ta 't1jv a1toxa'taO"1:ao""y) 't1jv o1tota 1tpaY!J.a't01tmEt, 1:000 yt' a1.J't'6v 150"0 xat yta 1:0V KaA60, b IIaAa(J.ae;. Kat ~ 1tpaY(J.a1:II]"'ttx1j 1tOtl)O""Y) 'tOU KaA60u OEV 6a O"uYXW1jO"Et, O€V 6a EfJ-1tVEUI]"Et. fta'tt o€v 1tP€1tEt va Al)O"fJ-OVOU(J.E, 1tWe; av xat ~ VEOEMY)VtX1j 't€xvl), (J.€ 'toue; m6 a~wue; EX1tP0I]"W1toue; 'ty)e;, 01tWC; ~1:av Yla 1:1jv €1tOx1j 0 Ntx6AaOe; rU~l)e; xat 0 Ntxl)cp6poe; AU'tpae;, EXEt 'tte; 1tl)y€e; 'tl)C; xat O"'tY)pt~E'tat xa'ta 6aO""Y) 0"'t6v YEp(J.aVtXo vEoxAaO"tXtO"(J.o, EmOtW~E wO"'t61]"0 va O"uvoE6Et (J.€ 't1j'V 'VEOEMl)vtx1j 1tapaooO""Y). '0 Ntx6Aaoc; rU~l)e;, 1t.X., av xat €~l)o"E 'ta 1tEpto"I]"6'tEpa xp6vta 't~e; ~w~e; 1:0U 1]"1:1jv rEpfJ-aVta, O€'V a1tO~E'Vw6l)XE an6 1:1jv 1ta1:ptoa 1:OU· a1tO 1:1jv fJ-axpa aAAl)Aoypacp{a 1tOU ota't1jpl)I]"E (J.€ 'toue; EOW I]"UYYE'Ve:te; 'tou cpat'Ve:'tat 1t000 l]"'ta6e:p6e; ~'ta'V 0 1t66oc; 't~e; EmO"'tpOcp~e;.

'0 XaMt't€XVl)e;, 'V€0e; ax6(J.l) , Ot€'tPE~E Evav XtVOU'VO 1tOU xat aMm OfJ-6'tEXVOt -eou, ~ xat O"uyypacpEte;, 't6v e:Ixav E1ttO""Y)e; Ota't"P€~e:t. KtVOUVEUO"E, ol)Aao1j, va Ota1:l)p"YJ6Et 1:6 ovofJ-a 'tou O"'t1jv ta'topta 't~e; 't€X'Vl)C; 't~e; 1ta'tptoac; 'tou I]"UVOe:(J.E'VO !J.€. Eva EPYo, 1tOU OEV 't6v

58

TO KPr<l)O :EXOAEIO

EX7tP0O'W7tOUO'E, aMa "0 e:Txa\l CP€PEt 0'''0 7tpOO'X~\lto -nje; fJ-e:ya).;y)e; O'Y)P.Ot:no"'Y)"ae; 7tapa"(O\l"Ee; E:V'te:AWe; E:~W'tEPtXOt xat crup.7t'twp.a'ttxoi. To P.HaAO xOt\lO, o'Y)Aao~, o'tav axou"(E 'to O\l0fJ-IX 'tOU ru~'Y) 7tapa't'Y)poucrE: «"A! \lat, 'H bdcrxE:cfYJ 'rwv crxuAWV». "A\I op.we; (; XaMt't€X\I'Y)e; AU'tPW6YJXe: E:"(XatpWe; a7to 't6\1 EqnaA't'Y) au'to\l, 07tWe; 'to\l a7tOXaAouO'E (; tOtoe;, 'tEAtXa 'to O\lop.a 'tou Ep.e:t\lE crU\loe:p.€\lO, 07tWe; crup.6al\le:t xa'ta xavova P.€ 'toue; ava)'Vwptcrp.Evoue; o'Y)p.toup,,(oue; -nPOXE:tp.tvou "(ta 'to E:UpU XOIVO 1tav'to'tE:- fJ-E eva ep"(o iotae-rE:pa:

To Kpuq;o l:XOAE:tO. Ka'ta 7tOOOV 'twpa ~ Xa'taA'Y)~'Y) au't~ a7to'tEAoucrE xal OtX~ 'tou E\lo6p.uX'Y) Em6up.la, ~ p.~7tWe; 'tuX6v 611. ~6e:AE va Em~~cre:t we; (; ~w"(pacpoe; 7toucruvE6EO'e: 't~\I i11toOiwO'YJ ~~ Bauapia«, au'to dvat aMo 6EfJ-IX, 7tOU OEV p.ae; acpopa ap.Ecra. 'Exe:tvo 7tOU p.ae; acpopa e:lvat oi cruv6ljxE:e; U7tO 'tIe; (;7tOte:e; o'Y)P.toUp"(Et'tat (; 7t(vaxae; aU'toe;· ~ dxovo"(pacp'Y)cr'Y) 'tOU 6Ep.a'toe; 'tOU Kpucpou '£,xoAE:toU, a7to E\laV ava)'Vwptcrp.EVO P.aAtcr'tlX ~w"(pacpo, OEV p.7t0PE:t va ep.E:tve: XWple; Em7t'tWcrE:te; cr't~v E~EAt~'Y) 'tou p.u60u "(ta 'to Kpucpo '£,XOAEt6, 01tWC; au 'toe; EXE:t Otap.opcpw6Et 'twpa cr'ta 'tEA'Y) 'tou aiwva.

'0 ru~'Y)<;, a\l xal 7tEPIXO'e: 't6 p.e:"(aAU'tE:pO p.Epoe; 'tli<; ~wlie; -eou, 07tWe; d7tIXP.E:, cr't~v re:pp.aV!IX, OEV a7t0~E:vw6'Y)xe: wcr'tocro a7to 't~v 6EfJ-IX't0"(pacpllX 'tlie; 7t1X'tpIOIXe; 'tou xat ~o'Y) a7t6 'to 1873 dXE XIX'tlXypat.jJe:t cr'to 7tpocrwmxo 'tou ~fJ.E:poA6"(to EM'Y)VtXa o'Y)p.o'ttXa 'tPa"(OUOtlX 7tOU ~6EAe: VtX a7tEtXO\llcre:t. "Evae; 6to,,(ptXcpoe; -eou, 7tOU p.ae; oi\le:t 't~v 7tA'Y)pOCPOpllX au't~, 7tpOcr6E'tE:t, 7tWe; a7to 'ta 'tPIX,,(OUOtlX lXu'ta ~w"(PtXCPtcre: 'tEAtXtX p.6\1ov Eva, 't~vL1o,;a "WV lJI"apwv, EVW evae; aAAo<; doe: m6 7tEPIX, 7tWe; ~ 'EMaOIX ~'tIXV (; P.IXXptVOe; crx07to<; 'tlie; 'tEXV'Y)e; "ou. IIlXp' OAO, crUVE:7tWe;, 7tOU 't6 0'Y)p.0'ttx6 'tpa"(ouot OEV e:u'tux'Y)cre: va p.opcpo7tot'Y)6e:t a7tO 'ta XEpta 'tOU XIXMt'tEXV'Y), Ai"(a Xp6vtIX ap,,(6'tE:PIX, €7t'Y)pE:acrp.EVOe; a7to "Ie; 'taO'E:te; "lie; '£,xoAlie; 'tou MovtXXoU --a7t0 'to 7tVe:UP.1X 'tlie; (;7tOIIXe; 7tO'tE OEV a7to~E:Vw6'Y)XE- xa'tlXmtXVE'tlXt P.E 't~v O'uv6e:cr'Y) p.tXpwv ep"(wv p.t ~6o,,(plXcptx6 XlXpax't~plX. '£,' IXU't~ 't~\I op.aolX av~xe:t XlXt To Kpuq;o l:XOAE:tO, P.IX~I P.E To 1tatoop.a'wp.a, To 'rap.a, x.a. To ep"(o )'Vwpt~oup.e: 7tWe; e:tXe: 7tEpa'tw6Et 'to\l 'A7tpIAto 'tou 1886. 'H cruv6e:~ "ou OEV P.Ota~e:t \111. 'to\l a7tacrx6A'Y)crE: 7tOAUV xatp6, "(tlX'tl 'tov 'Iavouapto 'tou tOtou Xp6vou e,,(plXcpe: 7tWe; xa'ta,,(lve:'tlXt P.E p.ta dxovlX 7tOU 't6\1 7tatOEUEt, xa! 'tli<; o7to!ae; EOtve: 't~v 7te:ptypacp~: «Ek "(wv!av E:\i't6e; crxo'te:tVOU u7to"(dou ExxA'Y)crlae; fJ-1tapwp.tv"Y)e; 'tlie; 6upac; xal ~p.txAdcr'tou 'tou 1tapa6upou, xtX'tw6E:v

TO KPr~O F.XOAEIO

59

Idxovtap.cX'toe; xat xavoYjAiou, xa8YlfJ.e:VOe; ytpwv xaA6YYJpoe; bd '!wv yova'!wv au'!ou ~:XWV 6t6AtOV Xat 1te:pt au'!ov 5 1tatota Ecp~60u ~Atxtae;, '!a Otoaaxe:t. 'OAtyov 1tpOe; '!o 6a80e;, VEOe; xa8~fJ.e:voe; xat xpa'!wv 01tAOV OtxYjv CPUAaxo<;, 1tPOOEXe:t xaL au'!Oc; de; '!ov AOYOV '!01) ae:6aafJ.tou xaAO~pOU» .

'H 1te:ptypacp~ '!01) 1ttvaxa, 01tWe; '!~v Otve:t a XaMt'!EXVYje; a'!~v E:mO''toAy] '!ou au'!y], av'!a1toxpive:'tat O''ty]v O'uv6e:tTrj 01tW~ fJ.ii~ e'X,e:t otaO'w8e:r O'~fJ.e:pa. "ExoufJ.e:, O'uVE1tWe;, otafJ.opcpwfJ.EVO Eva epyo O'ufJ.cpwva fJ.E '!~v 6aO'tx~ Em8ufJ.ta '!ou oYjfJ.toupyou '!ou xat €1tOfJ.Evwe; 1tPE1te:t va oe:X60ufJ.e:, XWpte; xafJ.ta E:mcpuAa~Yj, '!te; a1to~e:te; '!ou ru~Yj, 1tPOXe:tfJ.EVOU yta '!ov O'UfJ.60AtO'fJ.0 '!ou epyou, 01tWe; aU'!Ee; 1tapouO'ta~ov'!at O''!~v O'uvExe:ta '!rje; totae; au'!rje; E:mO''!OArje;: «dta '!01) \)1toydou, '!rje; XAe:tO''!rje; 8upae; xat 1tapa8upou xat ota '!01) C:mAtO'fJ.EvOU VEOU EO'x6:p8YJv va 1tapaO''!~O'w '!~v E1tOX~V ExdvYjv '!rje; 'EMaoOe;, on E1tt Toupxoxpa'!tae; ~O'av auO''!Yjpwe; &nYjyope:ufJ.Eva '!a O'xoAe:-ra xat fJ.ovov EV XpU1t'!4> E:Ae:t'!oupyouv. 'H dxwv au'!~ e:Tvat fJ.txpa, we; ExdvYj '!ou 1tapafJ.u8tou, '!~v a1totav 1tEpuO'tV e:te; '!~v au'!~v ex8e:O'tv e:toa'!e:. ME ouaxoAe:ue:t ~ apfJ.ovta '!Yje;, xa80'!t ~8EAYjO'a va 1tapaO''!~O'w fJ.ua'!YjptwoYj 1tpii~tv de; axo'!e:tvOV Lmoye:tOv fJ.ovov ota fJ.tiie; aX'!tVOe; ~AtOU e:tO'e:PXOfJ.EVYje; E:V'!0e; XIXt ota '!rje; av'!avaxMae:we; au'!rje; '!~v cpw'!oaxtaatv '!wv 1tpoO'W1tWV xat Aomwv av'!txe:tfJ.EVWV» .

Map'!upia a1to '!ov tOtO '!ov ru~Yj yta '!~v 1tYj~ '!rje; efJ.1tve:uO'~e; -rou Uv exoufJ.e:, 00'0 yvwPt~W, aAAa oihe: xat EXe:t tOtat'!e:pYj O'YjfJ.aO'ta va '!~v yvwpt~oufJ.e:, (iv 1tpoxe:t'!at va xa'!acpuyoufJ.e: O''!te; O'uvYj8tafJ.Eve:e; ytf;. ~v 1te:pt1t,!waYJ ap.cpt60Ae:e; dxaate:e;. '0 XaMt'!EXVYJe;, (iMwO''!e:, E:fJ.1tVEe:'!at O'uxva, a1to a1tpoO'06xYj'!e:e; yta '!ov fJ.e:Ae:'!Yj'!~ 1tYjYEe;, xat E:m1tAEOV OEV EXe:t xafJ.ta \mOXPEWtTrj va E:~axpt6wve:t '!Y]v aA~8e:ta '!wv 1tpaYfJ.a'!wv. 'H a1taMa~ ofJ.we; '!OU oYjfJ.toupyou &no '!Y]v l)1t0XPEWtTrj au'!~ Uv tTrjfJ.IXtve:t xa! '!au'!o'X,PovYj a1taMa~ a1to aV'!tO''!Otxe:e; LI1tOxpe:wO'e:te; '!wv fJ.e:Ae:'!Yj'!WV '!ou epyou -eou, o'!av a O'XOAtaO'fJ.Oe; '!ou epyou a1t06AE1te:t va otacpw'!tO'e:t '!O fJ.e:yaAo XOtvo. ~'!~v 1te:pi1t'!wO'Yj, Aomov, au'!~, Evae; 1ttvaxae; fJ.E to''!optxo 1te:pte:xOfJ.e:vo oYjfJ.toupye:t 1tOMa1tAEe; E:m1t,!Wcre:te;: a1to '!~v fJ.ta fJ.e:pta e:Tvat a XUXAOe; '!wv O"'X,0AtWV xat a1to '!~v (iMYj ~ 1tapouO'ta au'!ou xa8e:au'!01) '!ou epyou we; to''!optXO 1tAEOV ye:yovo~. IIpoxe:tfJ.Evou yta '!o O'uyxe:XptfJ.EVO au'!o epyo 't01) ru~Yj, xat '!a ouo L)1trjp~av 1tOAU a1tocpaO'ta'!txa a'!a xptatfJ.IX aU'ta rta '!~v Ve:Oe:MYjVtX~ ia'toptx~ auvdoYjtTrj

60

TO KPYflJO l::XOAEIO

Xp6wJ., WI:; 1tp61:; 'r~V E~EAt~'Y) -rijl:; f.l-U601tAcxatCXI:; 'rOU Kpucpou ~XoAe:WU. Tt dvcxt EXe:tVO 1tOU ~apuve: 0f.l-WI:; 1te:ptaa6're:po; "'AI:; acp~aouf.l-e: 'ra rOtCX 'ra 1tpayf.l-cx'rcx va f.l-tA~aouv.

"Evcxl:; ~wypacpol:; 'rou ru~'Y) f.l-al:; 1tA'Y)POCPOpe:t o'rt 0 ~wypacpol:; Ef.l-1tve:ua6l)xe: 'r~v dx6vcx a1t6 'r~v 1tCX'rPIOCX 'rOU. 'AvcxcpEpe:t, O'Y)ACXO~, o'rt a'r~v T~vo, xona a'r~v 1toAt'rdcx, tl1tapxe:t EVCX f.l-txp6 f.l-ovcxa'r~pt, 'r~1:; 'Ayicxl:; Tptaocxl:;, 1tOU 1tPIV a1t6 'r~v 'E1tcxvaa'rcxO"Y) ovof.I-CX~6'rcxv «T6 Kpucp6 ~xoAe:(6), «Ot6'rt EV 'ryJ f.l-0vYJ CXU'rYJ EOtOaaxov'ro xpucpiwl:; 'ra ypaf.l-f.l-cx'rCX XCXI 'r~v 6p'Y)axdcxv 'ra 1tCXtOICX 'rwv T'Y)vlwv tm6 OWoe:XCX XCXAO~PWV ohtve:1:; OtEf.l-e:vov €V CXU'rYJ». dEv unapxe:t XCXV€VCXt; A6yot; va af.l-cpta~'Y)'r~ae:t xcxve:k 'r6ao 'r~v U1tCXp~'Y) 'r~1:; ncxpaooO"Y)I:; cxu'r~1:; xcx6e:cxu'r~I:;, 00'0 XCXI 'r~v f.l-CXp'rUpICX 'rou ~wypacpou WI:; 1tp61:; 'r6v xcxAAt'r€XV'Y). 'AnAwl:; ~ ia'roptx~ npcxyf.I-CX'rtx6't"'Y)'t"cx, 1tOU epxe:'t"cxt ae 't"eAe:tCX anI6e:a'Y) f.l-E 'r~v ncxpaooO"Y), 6a f.l-al:; e:UXOAuve:t va E:pf.l-'Y)ve:uaouf.l-e: 't"~v otaooO"Y) 'r~1:; ncxpaooO"Y)I:;. T6 v'Y)al, O'Y)ACXO~, onWI:; dvcxt yvwa'r6, E:ne:ae: a't"a xEptCX 't"wv Toupxwv f.l-6Atl:; 't"6 1718. 'H f.l-e:'rCX~OA~ 0f.l-WI:; cxu'r~ oev aAAolwae: xcx't"a 't"11tO're: anoAU't"WI:; 'tIl:; EWI:; 't6'te: auv6~xe:1:; ~W~I:; 'twv xcx't"OtXWV u1t6 'toul:; XCXtvouPWUI:; xuptapxoul:;. 'Antee:'tcx, 6a dvcxt a'r6 E:~~I:; f.l-ta an6 'rll:; m6 locxvtxel:; yta 'roupxoxpcx'rouf.l-e:vcx f.l-Ep'Y). 'H VECX xcx'roX~, f.l-E 't"~v XCX60Atx~ anoualcx Toupxwv an6 't"6 v'Y)al, 't"6 avcx~woy6v'Y)ae:, f.l-E a1to't"eAe:af.l-CX va apXlaouv va auppEouv he:t xa'rotxot an6 tXAAe:1:; ne:pWXEI:; XCXI va OY)f.l-toupye:t'rCXt ae AlYO 0 auvotxtaf.l-61:; 't"~1:; veCXI:; 1tCXpCXAtCXX~1:; n6A'Y)I:;.

Ta a'rotxe:tCX cxu'ra apxouv yta va Em~e:~CXtwaouv, yta f.l-ICX cpopa ax6f.1-'Y), f.l-ta ncxAcxt6're:p'Y) otcx1tla't"wa'Y): ~ 1tcxpaooa'Y) nOAt'roypCXcpe:t't"CXt e:UXOACX xcxi tXXpt't"cx apxe:t va unap~e:t 'ronwvuf.l-tx~ 'rcxu'rta'Y). ~'r~v T~vo EXOUf.l-e: 'r~v nAEOV anpoa06x'Y)'r'Y), XCXI, auve:nwl:;, XCXI 'r~v nAeov axpcxicx ne:pln'rwO"Y). ME 'r~v rOtCX 0f.l-WI:; cxu't"~v axptaicx 0 nlvcxxcxl:; o{ve:t acpopf.l-~ wa're: va nOAt't0ypcxcp'Y)6e:t 0 f.l-u60e;, acpou A{ycx x.p6vtcx apy6't"e:pcx, xcxi auyxe:xptf.l-EVCX 't6 1901, Evcxe; tXMoe; ~wypaCP01:; 't"ou ru~'Y), 0 Ll'Y)f.I-~'rptoe; KcxxAcxf.l-avOe;, OEV 6a ouaxoAe:u6e:t va XCX't"CXA~~e:t a't"{1:; ax6Aou6e:1:; 1tCXp!X't"'Y)p~ae:tl:; aXOAta~ov't"at; ,,:6v ntvcxXCX: «EIVCXt 'r6 1tOI'Y)f.I-CX ,,:~e; f.l-ua":tx~e; EA1tIOOI:; -rijl:; avcxa'raae:WI:; ":ou E6voul:; XCXt 'r~t; EAW6e:ptcxt; ,,:~e; ncx,,:ptOOI:;, ,,:~v 01tOtCXV cxla6cxv6f.1-e:6cx (ht 0 yepwv otoaaxe:t de; 'ra 1tCXto{cx f.I-CX~u f.l-E 't"6 aAcpa~'Y)":ov, ncxpcxaxwa~wv ":OUI:; EXOtx'Y),,:ae; XCXI 'roue; EAe:u6e:pw":ae;, xcxt dl:; 'r6 ~a60e; ":~I:; ono{cxe;, we; de; E,vaapXWatv npocp'Y)":tX~V, Otcxcpcxtve:'tCXt

TO KPr~O l:XOAEIO

61

EV01tAOe; crX01tOe;, xup.a(Vop.€VOe; p.€'ra~u ll1tapX'rOu Xat 1tpa,,(p.a'r(XOU». Tov E1tOP.€VO, E:~aMOU, XPOVO, Evae; aAAOe; crXOA(acr'r~e; 'rou EP,,(OU, Eupw1tatOe; aU'roe;, a raMOe; Marcel Montandon Oa xa'raA~~€t: «Elvat Eva &1tO 'ra crotapo'r€pa xaAEcrp.a'ra 'r~e; cpav'racrtae; xat Oa E1tP€1t€ va tp€t 'r~v OEO"Y) 'rou crE xaO€ crXOAtX~ 'ra~"Y). 'H 'EMaoa p.1tOP€t va dvat u1t€p~cpav"Y) 'rocro "(ta 'rov au'roup,,(o ocro xat ,,((a 'ro 1t€pt€XoP.€VO au'rou 'rOU EP,,(OU, 1tOU p.1tOpoup.€ va 'ro ovop.acroup.€ cr'r~v 1tA~P"Y) cr"Y)p.acrta 'r~e; AE~"Y)e; H)v(xo».

'H &xptcrla p.E 'r~v a1tola E:mX€tfl#Ty)X€ va EPP."Y)VWO€t ~ EP.1tVWO"Y) 'rOU ~w"(pacpou OEV p'ae; E:VOtacpEp€( au'r~ xae€au'r~v, ,,((a'rt tapuv€t &1tOXA€tcr'rtXa xat p.ovo 'r~v Xptcr"Y) p.ae; ,,((a 'roue; tw"(pacpoue;. IIapap.Ev€( Aomov &VotX'ro 'ro OEp.a 1tOta ~'rav ~ 1t"Y)"(~ 'r~e; EP.1tVWcr"Y)e; 'rOU ru~"Y), OXt ,,((a xavEvav aAAo AO,,(O, &Ma "(ta va otamcr'rwOeL av u1tapX€t &M"y)AoUXta cr'r~v 1tapaooO"Y) 'rOU p.uOou 'rOU Kpucpou ~XOA€tOU. "Av, crup.cpwva P.E 'r~v 1tapa'r~p"Y)O"Y) 1tOU ota'ru1twO"y)X€ mo 1tavw, &vacpop(xa P.E 'r~v &1toucrta 'rwv p.€"(aAwv 'r~e; V€O€M"y)VtX~e; 1tOt"y)o"y)e; &1t0 'r~v V€O€M"Y)VtX~ ~w"(pacptx~, 'rpa1toup.€ 1tpoe; 'r~v xa'r€uOuvo"y) au'r~ do(xa "(ta 'rov ru~"Y), ea o(amcr'rwcroup.€ 1tWe; a XUXAOe; 'rwv O€p.a'rwv 'rou 'ra a1tOta &vacpEpOV'rat cr'r~v V€O€M"Y)V(X~ ~w~ EXOUV Aa'~x~ 1tpOEA€UO"Y) Y€Vtxo'r€pa xai 1tPOEPXOv'rat €h€ &1t0 'rte; 1tatO(XEe; &vap.v~cr€te; -eou €h€ &1t0 cr'rotX€ta 1tOU 'rOU 1tpocrCPEP€( ~ Aa'~x~ 1tapaooO"Y). To XAtp.a au'ro 'r~e; Aa'~xo'r"Y)'rae; OEV 1tPE1t€t va p.ae; ~€Vt~€( ,,((a aAoxA"Y)po crX€OOV 'rov 190 alwva, av 0'1.( xat "(ta Eva p.EpOe; 'rOU 200u' ~ ~w~ cr'ra 'J..Povta 'r~e; Toupxoxpa'riae; OEV vo€t'rat, 1tapa we; ExcppaO"Y) 'rOU Aa·(x.ou cr'rotXdou. 'H 1tpocrcpa'r"Y), E:~aMOU, "(ta 'r~v E:1tOX~ &vaxaAu'-J;"Y) 'r~e; Aao,,(pacptae; ~vouvap.wcr€ 'r~v 'rao"y) au'r~, P.E&1tO'rEA€crp.a va xaOucr'r€p~cr€t &xop."Y) 1t€ptcrcro'r€PO "(ta 'r~V V€O€M"Y)V(X~ tcr'ropia ~ &vaxaAu'-J;"Y) - yta'rt y(a &vaxaAu'-J;"Y) 1tpox€t'rat- xai 'r~e; &cr'r(X~e; ~w~e; 'rOU EAA"Y)VtcrP.OU 'r~e; Toupxoxpa'rtae;.

'H cpucr"Y) wcr'rocro xat ~ 'rUX"y) 'rWV crXOAtWV au'rwv, P.E 'r~v E:V'r€AWe; E:v'romcrp.Ev"y) &x'rtVotoAta 'roue;, odxvouv O'rt P.aAAOV rtsPWptcrP.EV"Y) Oa 1tPE1t€t va ~'rav ~ crUP.toA~ 'roue; cr'r~v E:mttwO"Y) EVOe; p.uOou, a a1tOtOe; 1tapoucrta~€'rat &px€'ra lcrXupo1tot"Y)p.Evoe; E:xdv"Y) 'r~v E:1tOX~. :Acpou ~ o~u'ra'r"Y) XP('r(X~ 'rOU Kap.1tOUpoyAOU OEV o"Y)p.wup)'"Y)cr€ xap.ta &vacr'roA~, ,,((a 'roue; Aoyoue; 1tOU doap.€, ~ E:~€txovto"y) 'rOU p.uOou &1tO'r€A€t oucrtacr'rtX~ xa'rax'r"Y)cr~ rou cr'rov

62

TO KPYcJiO :EXOAEIO

xwpO XtX&tXU't'O 't'lje; CG''t'OpttXe;. 01 ~UXOAOytXOt, OY)AtXO~, 1ttXpa:yoV't'€e; 1tOU E1t€V€pyouv WG''t'€ 't'O epyo 't'lje; 't'EXVy)e;, 't'lje; ~wyptXtptXlje; eiotxo't'€pa, Va: atp~V€t EV't'OVO't'€PY) 't'~V bdOptXG'~ 't'OU G'E Exdvoue; 1tOU OEXOV't'tXt 't'~V ax't'tVO~OA[a 't'OU, (J"'t'~V 1t€p[1t't'WG'Y) 't'OU Kputpou ~XOA€tou 1ttXpOU(J"ta:~OV't'tXt pi tXU~y)fJ-EVY) a1tOooG'Y), atpou tXU't'ot €IVtXt tx€tVOt 1tOU pu6fJ-t~ouv XUptWe; 't'~V OtafJ-optpwG'Y) 't'lje; [(J"'t'OptXlje; (J"UvdoY)G'Y)~ (J"'t'~V 'EMa:Oa (J"E aAOXAY)pO 't'ov 190 aiwvtX. To epyo au't'o 't'ou ru~Y), fJ-tX~t fJ-E 't'a: &AAa (J"X€'t'txa 't'lje; totae; (J"€tpiie;, 1tOU €Ixav yta 6EfJ-a 'r~v 1ta't'ptoa 't'ou ~wypatpou, eytvav 1tOAU yp~yopa yvw(J"'t'a, fJ-ta xtXt a XaMt't'EXVY)e; EVOtatpEp6Y)x€ va: EX't'€6ouv (J"'t'~v 'EAAaOtX. 'H ex6€G'Y) 1tpaYfJ-tX't'o1tot~6r,X€ 't'o 1900, Eva x.povo oY)Aao~ 1tptv a1to 't'ov 6avtX't'o 't'ou XaMt't'EXvY), XtXt xa6we; a ru~Y)e; ~'t'av 1tta tpY)fJ-t(J"fJ-EVOe; 't'o(J"o (J"'t'o E~W't'€PtXO o(J"o xat (J"'t'~v 1ttX't'ptoa 't'ou, G'Y)fJ-dw(J"€ fJ-€yaAY) E1tt't'uxta.

'H E1tt't'uxta ofJ-we; au't'~ 6a efJ-€v€ xwpte; iOtat't'€p€e; 1tpo€x't'a(J"€te;, &v 't'ooo au't'oe; 0 1ttvtXxae; O(J"O xat EVtXe; &MOe; 't'OU iotou ~wypa:tpou, To napap.u(), '!"~~ r,ar,a~, OEV 't'potpooo't'ou(J"av 't'~v efJ-1tv€uG'Y) EVOe; 1tOtY)'t'lj. To 1900, 0 'Iwavv"Y)e; IIoAEfJ-"y)e; ~AE1t€t 't'ov 1ttvaxtX xat EfJ-1tVE€'t'at 't'o aV't't(J"'t'otXO 1to["y)fJ-a 't'ou, 1tOU 1tpw't'oo"y)fJ-o(J"t€u6"y)x€ (J"'t'~v (J"UAAOy~ 't'ou .i1M6aO"'!"pa (1900). To 1tOt"y)fJ-a au't'o xa6€tXu't'o EfJ-€tV€ (J"'t'~v tOta ypafJ-fJ-~ 't'OU 1ttvaxa: Tovt(J"€ 't'a rOta av't't6€'t'txa G''t'OtX€ttX 't'OU, (J"'t'a a1tota, onwe; doafJ-€ ano 't'~v E1tt(J"'t'OA~ 't'OU ru~"Y), 6EA"Y)(J"€ xup[we; va (J"'t'"Y)ptx6€t a ~w'Ypatpoe;. '0 IIoAEfJ-"y)e;, o"Y)Aao~, we; yv~(J"we; 't'U1ttXOe; Exnp0(J"W1tOe; 't'ou a(J"'t'txou pOfJ-av'rtO"fJ-OU, EAXUO"6r,X€ a1to 't'ov 1t[vaxa 't'OU ~wypatpou, axpt~We; E1t€tO~ OtEXptV€ (J"'t'ov 1ttvaxa 't'a (J"'t'otX€ta tx€tva 1tOU 't'potpooo't'ou(J"av xa[ 't'~v OtX~ 't'ou EfJ-1tV€UG'Y). 'H (J"ufJ-1t't'wG'Y) ofJ-we; au't'~, xa't'a xa1towv 't'P01tO ~'t'av ava1totpwx't'Y) yta 't'~v 1t€pt1t't'w(J""y) dotxa 't'ou IIoAEfJ-"Y). "Av O€X6oufJ-€, o"Y)Aao~, 1tWe; 6a fJ-1tOpouO"€ au't'o va (J"ufJ-~€t 'Yta 't'ov IIaAafJ-ii, OEV 6a dX€ 't'[e; E1tt1t't'W(J"€te; yta 't'~v E~a1tAwG'Y) xat 't'~v Eopa[wG'Y) 't'ou fJ-u6ou 't'ou Kputpou ~XOA€WU, 1tOU dx€ 1tPOX€tfJ-EVOU yta: 't'ov IIoAEfJ-"Y). 'H 1to["y)G'Y) 't'OU 't'€Aw'ratOu, xa6we; aV't'tX1toxp[v€'t'at a1toAU't'We; (J"'t'~v vo"Y)'t'txo'n)'t'a 't'ou fJ-E(J"ou avayvw(J"'t'"y), ~'t'av b xa'taAA"Y)AO't'€pOe; aywyoe; yta va: owxe't'€u6€t (J"'t'o fJ-€yaAo XotVO fJ-E(J"a a1to 't'~v 't'EXV"Y) Evae; fJ-u6oe;, b 01tOtOe; atpou €rX€ otavuO"€t 'ta 1tpo"Y)youfJ-€va G''taota 'tou fJ-E(J"a a1tO 'tte; &M€~ txtppacmxEe; fJ-OptpEe;, E1ttOtWX€ 't'wpa va OAOXA"y)PWa€t 't~v E1tt~OA~ 'tou fJ-E(J"a a1to 't'~v Yo"Y)'rda 'tlje; 'tExV"Y)e;.

9

M~a "(oprYl bto7t"tx~ fMX"ta a,,~v ta"opttX "ou fl-u6ou "ou Kpucpou ~XOAEWU fI-€atX a"ov 190 tX[WVtX, €"at D7tW~ (;AOXAYJPWVE"tXt "WPtX (J-E "0 xAEta~(J-o "ou tX[WVtX (J-€ ,,~v t;o~eEttX "ou ru~YJ XtXt "ou IToAE(J-YJ, EfvtXt apxE"~ "(ta va (J-ii~ 7tdaEt 7tW~ EXOUfl-E (J-7tpoa"a (J-tX~ ILta (J-OVtXOtX~ raw~ 7tEpt7t"WC1YJ (J-u607tAtXattX~, a,,~v OttX(J-6pcpwC1YJ ,,~C; 07tOLtXC; auv~p')"YlatXv ,,6atX 7tmXtAtX, aAAa II.tXt a7t0cptXata"txa "(ta ,,~v avtXv-riPPYJ"YJ EOptX{WC1YJ "ou (J-u60u a"OtXEttX. Ma"tXttX, OYJAtXO~, o (J-EAE"YJ"~C; ea avtX~ YJ't~aEt fI-€atX a"ov tXtwva tXu,,6v, 7tOU xa'ttXAUEt XtXt avaaUV6€'tEt 'ta naV'ta, avaAo"(o7tA-r)pEa'tEpo cpatvo(J-Evo. ITou ocpdAE"tXt ~ (J-ovaOtx6"YJ"a; N o(J-t~w O"t tXt"wAo"(~6YJxE txavo7tmYJ"txa &'7t0 ,,~v €~EAt~YJ 'twv OttXOOXtXWV cpaaEwv 7tOV EAtXtlE (; (J-u8o~. "O'''t &.7tO(J-EVEt auvE7tw~ va "(tVEt "(~a 'ta E7tO(J-EvtX xpovta a7to 't~v 7tAWpa 'tou €AE"(XOU, OEv e:TVtX~ "{7tO"E aMO &'7t0 (J-{tX &'XO(J-lJ OOXt(J-~ "(ta va &'7tOOEtx6Et ~ ouVtXfl-lJ ,,~~ E7tt60A~~ 'tou fl-u8ou a,,~v VEOEAAlJVtX~ ta'toptX~ auvdoYJC1YJ, xa'ta 'ttC; apx€c; xtXt (J-ovo 'tou :lOou aiwva, Dao OYJAa.O~ xpEla~e:"a.t "(ta va "e:xfl-YJptw!}et xa.t (J-€ a7tooe:tx"txa a'tmXettX ~ alw7t~ ,,~v 07tottX €7t€6tXAtXV a't~v EPWVtX tXu'ta "a tOttX 'ta 7tpa"((J-tX'ttX. To tOttXt'tEPO XtXPtXx'tYJpta"txo 7tOU &'7toX'tii

, .. ' , '6 ..." l".... ' I l' ..

'twptX 7tAWV 0 (J-u OC; EtVtXt O"t fl-E"tXOtXAAE"a.t ee aU(J-OOAO.

'H 7ttXPtX"~P"YjC1YJ, 6E6ata, 7tOU ea fl-7tOpouaE O~XtXWAO')"Yl(J-EVtX va e:TXE OttX"U7tW6Et ~oYJ, iht xtX'ttXv'taEt OYJAtXO~ (J-ov6'toVl] ~ auvex~c; axe:06v avacpopa aE xdfl-Eva 7tOU €XOUV oAtyY) ~ xtX66AOU aXEC1YJ fI-€ ,,~v xa6tXu,,6 ta'top{tX, (J-e:ptX~ a~ttX (J-7tOpEt va €XEt. 'H EPWVtX a't~v ~~'tYJ~ "YJ~ &'OLtXCPOPEt "(La 't~V a~toAO')"YlC1YJ 'twv XEL(J-EVWV 7tPOXEt(J-EVOU va. OLtX7tta'tWaEt 't~V Ot<X.(J-Opq>wC1YJ 't~C; to""optX~C; O"uvdo"YjO""Yjc;. rta 'tov 1..0"(0 10mov au"ov XtXt OEV (J-7tOpEt va aOtacpop~aEL, ,5'rtXV (J-EatX a,,~v 7tpw't"Yj OEXtXE"ttX 'tou tXtWVtX aV"Lfl-E'tW7tt~EL 7t<X.,,(tWfl-EVYJ ,,~v 6EC1YJ "(La ,,~v LI7tOa't<X.C1YJ 'tou Kpucpou ~xoAetou (J-€atX a7tO 't"t~ a't~AE~ EVOC; opyavou, 'tOU 07tOtou ~ ax€C1YJ (J-€ 't~V €pe:uVtX xtXt 't~v av<X.~ ~'tYJC1YJ 't~C; ta'toptx~C; aA ~eELtXC; 6p(axE't"tXL ae 6eaYJ av't"la"'Cp6- cpw~ avaAo')"Yl 7tpOC; 't~v ax'tLvo6oALtX "'Cwv a7tO~EWV "OU. M€aa, O"YjAtXO~, a7tO 'to 7tEPWOtXO 'tOU NEOXA~ KtX~a~YJ, '0 'EMr;Vlap.6~,

64

TO KPY<110 :EXOAEIO

o EnOVOC; 7taAfJ-OC; 7tOU ~W'Y)PEUEt xat 7tCXAt yt(X 'ttC; E6vtx€c; OtEXOtx~CWC;, 6p(O"XEt E7taVEtA'Y)fJ-fJ-€VWC; 7tOtX(AOUC; 'tp07tOUC; va ayxaAtaO"Et 'to 7tOAU7tAayx'!o O€fJ-a O"€ fJ-ta OtXatOAOY'Y)fJ-€va avan(pp'Y)'!'Y) 7tA€OV O€O"'Y), 7tOU '!~v dXE EvtO"XUO"Et, Xwp(c; va cpa(vE'!at 6€6ata, ~ ewc; '!O'!E aOta'!apax'!'Y) 7topda '!ou fJ-uOou, 'Eow ~ E~U7t'Y)p€'!'Y)O"'Y) '!wv EOVtXWV o"'!oxwv yta va hOOEtXOEt 0 ouvafJ-tO"fJ-oc; '!~c; CPUA~C; a7tat'!Et E7ttfJ-ova '!~v 7tp060A~ '!ou O"UfJ-60AOU.

To 1905, 0 Ka~tX~'Y)C;, O"€ apOpo '!ou fJ-€ '!hAo «'R 'EMac; xat o 'EM'Y)VtO"fJ-OC;», O"UfJ-7tUXWDVEt '!O OEfJ-a fJ-€ '!ov axoAouOO '!p07to: «Ta '!€xva '!wv 'EAA~VWV '!~C; oouAdac; a-rtfJ-wp'Y)'!d o€v ~ouvav'!o va otoaO"xwnat xa( va EXfJ-avOavwO"t 'ta ypafJ-fJ-a'!a EV fJ-€a-n ~fJ-€P<X 7tPO '!wv xaXU7t07t'!Wv b~'!wv ~C; '!OUpXtx~C; E~OUO"iaC; xa( rnpanov '!ou'!o EV xatpi;) vux'!oc;, "I' 7tapXEt EV '!n O'Y)fJ-WOEt 7tOt~o"Et '!wv OAt6EPWV Exdvwv Xpovwv '!O hOfJ-EVOV E~ao"'!tXOV, 07tEP ~oov 01 u10( EM'Y)v07tatOEC; li7tO 'tOV EM'Y)VtXOV OtwYfJ-OV xa( '!~v '!ouPXtX~V '!po-

I ET ""1 I I "I I ~ I "'~

fJ-oxpa'!tav, tvat E7ttXI\'Y)O"tC; 7tpOC; '!'Y)V o"EI\'Y)V'Y)V», ~'!o totO 7tEPtO-

Otxo 'tov fJ-EOmOfJ-EvO x.povo Oa E7tav€AOEt '!O O€~ O"'!~v rOta fJ-opCp~ xa( 7taAt, fJ-€ acpoPfJ-~ '!~v OtaAE~'Y) 7tOU dXE OWcrEt O"'!o IIap(O"t 0 Charles Diehl, «'R EM'Y)VtX~ €xxA'Y)O"(a xa( 0 EM'Y)vtcrfJ-oC;», Ka- 7tOtOC; Gaston t::.EO"XtaV 7ta(pVEt '!~v O"xu'!aA'Y) xa( O"€ fJ-ta OtaAE~~ '!ou O"'!o IIap(O"t avacp€pE'!at xa'!' apxac; O"'!ov Diehl: «'0 x. t::.t~A EO"'Y)fJ-dou 7tPOC; ~fJ-iic; 7tPO ~fJ-EPWV Aa'ixov aO"fJ-a'!tOV, 07tEP 01 fJ-aOY)'!a( '!Wv O"xoAdwv '!~C; Mtxpiic; 'AO"(ac; aoouO"tv ~ noov aMo'!E, O'!E fJ-E'!€6atvov dc; '!O O"XOAEtOV», Ka( O"'t~ O"uv€XEta: «/).€v EUp(O"XEtC; o'!t U7tapXEt '!t '!O O"uYXtv'Y)'!tXOV, afJ-a o€ xa( '!O ,!paytxov EV '!i;) OEafJ-a'tt '!Wv 7tatotwv au'!wv, a'!tva fJ-E'!a6a(vouO"t dc; '!O O"XOAEtOv U7tO '!O cp€YYoc; ,!~c; o"EA~V'Y)C;, fJ-E'!a6a(vov'!a o€ EXEt EV xatpi;} vux'!oc; xa( XPU7t'!ofJ-Eva ota va otoaxOwO"t, xaOoO"ov a7tO fJ-axpouc; aiwvac; ~'!O aouva'!ov dc; au'!a va EXWO"t O"XOAEta avotx'!tX EV xatpi;} ~fJ-€pac;;»

~€ 7tOta ai'!tax~ O"X€O"'Y) 6picrxE'!at 0 fJ-uOOC; '!ou Kpucpou ~XOAEtOU, 07tWC; '!oV OptO"'!tX07tOtEt xa( 'tov OtaO(OEt 0 NEOXA~C; Ka~a~'Y)C;, 7tPOC; '!(C; YEVtXO'tEPEC; 10"'toptx€C; '!ou antA~~EtC; yta '!~v EAA'Y)vtx~ EOvO'!'Y)'!a xa( '!~v O€O"'Y) '!'Y)C; O"'!~v 7tayxOOfJ-ta 10"'!op(a, o€v Oa OUO"XOAEU'!OUfJ-E va '!~v ava~'Y)'t~O"OUfJ-E' 0 rOtoC; fJ-iiC; Ota'!U7tWVEt ~ExaOapa '!(C; aV'!tA~~EtC; '!OU au'!€c; O"€ eva O'Y)fJ-OO"(EUfJ-tl: '!ou fJ-€ '!('!AO 'E()YlX~ K(X'r~Xr;(m;, 7tOU dOE '!O CPWC; '!~C; o'Y)fJ-oO"to't'Y)'!ac; '!O'

TO KPY<I>O ~XOAEIO

65

1901. «n~ptG"G"O't"~pOV», ypO:ql~t, «axo(J-1J ~ ouva(J-t~ 't"OU 'EAA1JVtG"(J-OU, (J-OAOVO't"t eTX~ G"uv't"pet;~ 1tOAe't"eXW~ €V~Xa 1tOAAWV ai't"{wv, xa'raoeexvue'rat xa'rc% 'rOu~ aiwva~ 'r~~ AeyO(J-eV1J~ 'A vayevv~G"ew~ 'rWV ypa(J-(J-O:'rwv, 'rwv 'rexvwv xat E7ttG"'r1J(J-WV EV 'rf) O'J'rtxf) EupW1ty/. Aiwva 1tPO 'r~~ 'AAWG"ew~ xat (J-e'ra 'r~v "AAWG"ev 'rc% EM1Jvexo: ypa(J-(J-a'ra xat ol·"EAA1Jve~ A6yeot €~e1tOAt'r1JG"av 'rou~ bapbapO'J~ &XO(J-1J Aaou~ 'r~~ EUpW1t1J~». Mv &pxet't"at O(J-W~ G"'rov Xapax'r1JptG"(J-O 't"li~ bapbap1J~ 'AvayewllG"1J~, &M& 1tpoG"qleuyet yt& VO:

G"'t"1JPtX6~t G"'t"~V €6Vtx~ 1tA1J~ 't"wv &v't"t6eG"ewv, o't"av A(YO 7ttO x&'t"w OEV 60: otG"'t"O:G"et v& &vaqlwv(G"et 1tW~ «0 EM1JVtXO~ Aao~ i~atpet'tat 'tou vO(J-o'J 'tli~ &x(J-li~ xat 'tli~ 1tapax(J-lic;»·

EIIIAErOMENA

"O't'a.v yta. 1tpw't''Y) rpOPIl 'XP'Y)ertfJ-01tOt'Y)era. 'EmAey0fJ-Eva. we; tOta.t't'EPO 't'fJ-~fJ-a. fJ-tae; epya.erta.e; fJ-OU Xa.t 1tpOer1tll&rjera. €x 't'WV uer't'epwv Vll e~'Y)yfjerw er't'ov e:a.u'tOv fJ-0U, 1tWe; dXa. OO'Y)Y'Y)6E'i' 1tpOe; 't~v fJ-oprp~ a.i)'t"~, evw dXa. er'tEp~erEt 't~V epya.eria. fJ-OU a1to IIpoAoyo, ~ fJ-ov'Y) e:pfJ-'Y)vda. er't~v 01tOta. 1te'tuxa. va. rp61lerw dva.t, O't't 'to erX~fJ-a. a.u'to aV'ta.1toxptVo't'a.v 1tpa.y(J-(X't'tXIl ere fJ-ta. fJ-e6ooo 1tOU 't~v dxa. 'XP'Y)ertfJ-01tot~eret xa.'ta. xa.VOva. ere OAEe; fJ-OU 'tte; epya.ertEe;, fJ-e fJ-OV'Y) 't'~v Ota.rpOpll O'tt ~ ex'ta.O"'Y) 't~e; 'tEAeU'ta.ta.e;, er't~v 01tota. ava.rpep6'Y)xa., ETXE em~a.AEt 'tOV Ota.xwpterfJ-O 'twv IlpoAEY0fJ-Evwv ere tOta.t'tEpO XErpa.Aa.tO. 'H fJ-e6oooe; a.u't~ ETva.t, rpuertXa, ~ e1ta.ywyfj. Ba.ert~ofJ-ouv, O'Y)Aa.O~, er't~v apx~ O'tt ~'ta.v 1tpoerrpopO'tEpOytll 'to evOta.rpepov a.u'tO xa.6ea.u't'0 't'ou ava.yvwer't'Y) va. fJ-dVEt a1to fJ-tae; apx~e; a1tpo·t"Oea.er'toe; we; 1tpOe; 'to yeVtXO'tEPO erx~(J-(X fJ-eera. er'to 01to'i'o eV'tllererE'ta.t 'to e:Xller'tO'tE 6efJ-a. fJ-OU xa.t VIl ep6Et va. 1ta.pa.xoAou6~erEt fJ-a.~t fJ-0U, a1ta.Ma.YfJ-eVOe; ofJ-we; a.lJ't"Oe; a1tO 'toue; 'tPt~OAoue; 'twv ava.~'Y)'t'~erewv fJ-0U, 't~v 1tpOOO€U'ttX~ 'tOU aVeAt~'Y), Ewe; 't~v er'ttYfJ-~ 01tOU 61l rp6ava.fJ-e, rpuertoAoytxa. 1tAeOV, ere o,'tt a1tOxa.AEera. 1tpo'Y)youfJ-evwe; YEVtXO'tEPO erX~fJ-a..

'0 Aoyoe; 't~e; erUV01t'ttX~e; a.u't~e; a1tOAoyta.e; fJ-E60oou dva.t ytll Vll Xa.'ta.A#W ere Eva.v rx.AAO erXE't'tXO Xa.pa.x't'Y)pterfJ-o 'tWV epya.ertwv fJ-OU. Xp'Y)ertfJ-01totW, OlJAa.O~, eruxva. 'tov opo ooxtfJ-tO, 1tpOXEtfJ-evou VIl 1tpoerotOpicrw 't~v urp~ fJ-tae; epya.erta.e; fJ-0U, evw Xa.'t'll 't'~v e~w'teptx~ 't''Y)e; efJ-rpa.vtcr'Y), O'Y)Aa.O~ 'tov emer't'Y)fJ-ovtXo 01tAterfJ-0 xa.t 't~v fJ-e6ooo, O€v fJ-1tope'i' va. oex6E'i' 'tov Xa.pa.x't'Y)pterfJ-o a.u'tov. "Exw e~'Y)yfjerEt e1ta.vEtA'Y)fJ-fJ-eVWe; yta.'tt 'to xlivw. Me 't'~V 1ta.pouera. epya.erta. EXW va ava.rpepw Eva.v 1tpOer6E'to A6yo: o'ta.v emxe:tpw vii e:pfJ-'Y)ve:uerw EVa. rpa.tvofJ-e:vo, xa.t oO'Y)youfJ-a.t va. 'to 'to1to6e:'t~erw fJ-eera. er'to YEVtXO'tEPO 1tAa.icrto 't'~e; e1tox~e; 't'ou, dfJ-a.t U1t0XPEWfJ-eVoe;, 01tWe; e:Tva.t rpuertxo, va. 1tpoerrpuyw ere epya.ertEe; EhE mo etotxee; d'te rx.AAEe; 1tOU oev dva.t 't~e; apfJ-OOto't'Y)'tae; fJ-OU. ea 1tEptOpter'tw ere EVa. 1ta.paOEtYfJ-a.· IIpoXEtfJ-evou va fJ-tA~erw yta. 't'~v 6eO"'Y) 't~e; YEVtae; 'tou '80 er't'~v Ler't'opta. ,,~e; veoeM'Y)VtX~e; 1ta.tOe:ta.e; ava.~~'tlJera. ~O~6Eta.

68

TO KPnO ~XOAEIO

a7tO (J.La O''X.E'tLX~ "(EVLXOnp"Y) Ep,,(aO'ta· AU7tii(J.aL va avacpEpw O'tL Ot ava~"Y)'t~O'w; (J.OU 0''ta6"Y)xav ~'taLE~. "O'tav, O''t~v O'uvE'X.ELa, 7tPOO'7ta&rjO'a va O'UO''X.E'ttO'w 't~v VEOEM"Y)VLX~ ava"(EVV"Y)O'"Y) 'tlj~ E7tO'X.lj~ al)'tlj~ (J.EO'a am) 'to EP,,(O 'tou XaptAaou TpLXOU7t"y) O'E O'uvap't"Y)O'"Y) 7tPO~ 't~V 7tVW(J.a'tLX~ ava"(EVV"Y)O'"Y), xat 7taAL ava~~'t"Y)O'a 't~v ~EV"Y) 60~6ELa· dvaL VO(J.t~w 7tEPL't'tOAO"(ta va avacpEpw 7t({)~ UO''tEpa a7tO 't~v 7tPW't"Y) (J.OU OOXL(J.aO'ta, Ot ava~"Y)'t~O'EL~ (J.OU 7tPO~ 't~v xa'tEU- 6uvO'"Y) au't~ tJ7ta"(opEu6"Y)xav (J.ovov a7tO AO"(OU~ EUO'UVELO"Y)O'ta~, xat O'X.L a7tO 't~v EA7ttOa iJ'tL 6a (J.7topouO'a EVOE'X.0(J.EVW~ va xa'taA~~W O'E xa7tOto EU'tU'X.LO'(J.EVO a7tO'tEAEO'(J.a.

'H ava"(x"Y), Aomov, va (J.~ OLa'tapa~w 't~v OO(J.~ 'tlj~ Ep"(aO'ta~, (J.E imo'X.pEWO'E va 7tEptopLO''tW O'u'X.va O'E a7tAE~ OLamO''tWO'EL~ xal (J.ovov, "(La 6E(J.a'ta 7tOU 6a E7tPE7tE au'ta xa6Eau'ta va a7tO'tEAEO'OUV aV'tLxd(J.EVO tOLat'tEp"y)~ (J.EAE't"Y)~. 'E~aMOU, xa6w~ (J.E 't~v Ep,,(aO'ta (J.OU au't~ ~p6a va 7tapw 'to (J.€PO~ 'tlj~ a&xou(J.EV"Y)~ 1cr'topta~, xat 6pE&rjxa, xa'ta O'uVE7tELa, O'E aV'tteEO'"Y) 7tpO~ xa'taO''taO'EL~ xat 7tE- 7tOL6~O'EL~ 'tk (l7tOtE~ o"Y)(J.toUp'YYJO'E 0 O'XA"y)pO'tEPO~ E'X.6po~ 'tlj~ to-'topLXlj~ EmO''t~(J."Y)~, ~ Aa·~x~ 7tapaooO'"Y), ~ avaLpE'tLx~ xat aV'tLppy)'tLX~ oLa6EO'"Y) ~ o7tota t.jJU'X.oAo,,(Lxa (J.ou o"Y)(J.toup"(~6"Y)XE E7t"y)pEaO'E 't~v O''taO'"Y) (J.OU. 'E~aMou, ~ E~aLpE'tLxa (J.E"(aA"Y) 7tOLXLAta 'twv EV'tU7tWV 'tou 190u a[wva, O'E O'U')'XPLO'"Y) 7tpO~ 'tov 7tpO"Y)"(OU(J.EVO, OEV (J.ou Em'tpE7tOUV va tJ7toO''t"Y)Pt~w iJ'tL ~ (J.EAE't"Y) E'X.EL E~aV'tA~O'EL 6L- 6Ato"(pacpLxa 'ta a7tOOELx'tLxa 't"Y)~ O''tOL'X.Eta. 'Y7t' au'tE~ 'tt~ 7tpOU- 7t06€O'EL~, 07tOU 7tOME~ CPOPE~ xa'tav'taEL va ETvaL a7tAW~ ~~'t"Y)(J.a 'tu'X."y)~ ~ aVEupEO'"Y) (J.Lii~ 7tA"Y)pocpopta~, dvaL O''tOL'X.ELWOE~ (J.E'tpO 7tpovota~ va 7tapaOE'X.E'taL xavd~ O'tL aO'cpaAw~ ~ Ep,,(aO'ta au't~ 6a OWO'EL acpop(J.~ va Ep60uv O''t~v EmcpavELa (J.ap'tuptE~ 7tOU OEV EAa6E tl7tot.jJ"y) -rou xat O'tL, O'UVE7tW~, (J.EO'a O''tt~ "(EVLXE~ au'tE~ 7tPOU7t06EO'EL~ OEV 7tPOO'CPEPEL xavd~ OPLO''tLX07tOL"Y)(J.€VE~ a7tot.jJEL~ O'E 6a6(J.0 7tOU va (J.~v EmoE'X.ov'taL Em(J.Epou~ a(J.cpL0'6"Y)'t~O'EL~.

AU'tE~ Q(J.w~ OEV ~O'av ot (J.OVE~ OUO'xoAtE~· tJ7tljp'X.av xat &ME~, 7tOU acpopouO'av O''to 6E(J.a au'to xa6Eau't0. To 1935, 07tW~ EtOa(J.E, o rLavv"Y)~ BAa'X.o"(Lavv"Y)~, Eva~ ho 'tou~ ap(J.ooLo'tEPOU~ EPWV"Y)'tE~ "(La va (J.LA~O'EL u7tEu6uva "(La 6E(J.a'ta a7to 't~v ~w~ 'tou EM"Y)VLO'(J.OU 'tlj~ Toupxoxpa'tta~, xa'tamaO''t"y)xE [J-E 'tov (J.u60 'tou Kpucpou 'i:.'X.0- AEtoU. '0 'tp07tO~ o(J.w~ (J.E 'tov 07tOtO 'tov aV'tL(J.E'twmO'E, 'X.wpt~ tcr'tOPLX~ OLEPEUV"Y)O'"Y), aMa (J.E O''tOL'X.Eta xa6apa 7tpa"((J.a'tLO''tLxa

·

TO KPY<liO l:XOAEIO

69

XrJ.t bttXEtP~(JorJ.'t'rJ. AoytXIi, €VW otv acpl)o"E xrJ.(Joia a(Jocpt~oAia ytli 't'~V op60't'l)'t'rJ. 't'wv a7tot¥EWV -cou, OEV 't"ou €7tE't'PEt¥E vii 't"0 XAdO"Et' XAl)po06't"l)o"E O"'t'OV €PEUVl)'t"~ 't'0 (Joapli~t 't"wv a7tOOEtX't'txWv c-toiXdwv. 'H aA(Joa't'tx~, €~liMOU, 7tpOOOO<; a7tO 't~V €7tOX~ €Xdvl) Xat 7tEprJ. 0"'t"1i O"XE't'txli (JoE 't'~v VEOEMl)VtX~ 7tatoda, xat EtOtXO'tEPrJ. (JoE 't'~v €X7trJ.tOEUO"l), €vW 7tpoo"XO(Jot~E (Joap't"uptE<; €~ aV't"t6E't'OU ytli vii O"'tl)Pt~Et 't"~v a1t0t¥l) o't't 't"0 Kpucpo L.XOAEtO ~'t"av (Jou60<;, 't"au'tox.povo: a1to(JolixpUVE 't'~v 10"'t'optx~ epwva a1tO EVrJ. (Jou60, ~ a1tOOEt~l) 't"1)<; avaA~6Etae. 't'OU 01totou oev 1tapOUata~E xrJ.vEva €VOtrJ.cpEpOV ytli exdVl)v. KrJ.'t'1i O"uVE7tEta, 0 BAaxoytlivvl)<;, EVW 't"0 EToE xrJ.'t'1i ~liO"l) O"wO"'t'Ii, E(JoEtvE xat rJ.u't'o<; O"'to rOto €1tt1tEOO (JoE 't"ou<; U7toO"'t'l)ptX't"€<; 't'Yj<; av't't6€'t'l)<; a1tot¥l)<;, xat 1t€PWPtO"'t"l)XE vii €~E'tlio"Et 't"0 Kpucpo L.XOA€tO w<; (Jo~ 7tpay(J.rJ.'t'txo't'l)'t'a. To 't'EAO<; o(Jow<; 1tA€OV E(JoEtVE (JoE't'EWpo' E't'O"t OEV dX€ 't'~v ouva't'o't"l)'t'rJ. vii Od~Et 7tOU 't"uxov 61i (Jo7t0pOUo"E vii OOl)~O"€t, av e:TXE epEuvl)6E'f ia't"optxli, OXt 1tA€OV w<; av't'tXd(JoEVO (JoEA€'t"l)<; au't"o XrJ.6ErJ.U't"0, aMIi w<; €mYEVVl)(Joa xli7totrJ.<; €1tOXYj<;. 'H la'toPtX~, Ol)ArJ.O~, OtEPEUVl)O"~ 't"ou a1to xli6E a1t0t¥l) 1tAEOV dXE yiVEt amxt't'l)O"l), yta't't evw a1to 't'~v (Jotli (JoEptli (Jotli €~OVUXto"'ttx~ EpEUva 61i 't'o EXAEtvE ytli 't"~v emO"'t'~(Jol) Al)~trJ.pXtxli, a1tO 't~v aMl) (JoEptli 61i emavE 't'au't'oxpova 't'ov (Jot't'o yta va aVOt~Et Eva wpato, 1tAOUO"W, €~atpE't"tXa €VOtrJ.cpEpOV XrJ.t totat't'Epa x.p~O"t(Joo X€cpliAato 't"Yj<; V€O€Ml)VtX1)<; xotVWVtx1)<; lO"'topia<; 't'OU 190u atWva. 'H ota1tiO"'t'WO"l) Ol)ArJ.O~ (JoE 't"~v o7toia EXA€tO"€ 'to 't'EAw't'atO xEcpliArJ.tO, 1tw<; o (Jou60<; 't'OU Kpucpou L.XOAEtoU acpou 1t€PrJ.O"E (Jota (Joaxpli xat ArJ.(Jo1tP~, xa't'w a1to OtrJ.OOXtXE<; (JoE't"a(JoopcpWaEt<;, O"'t"aotoopo(Jota, xopuCPW6l)XE O"'t"o 't'EAO<; 't"ou atwva yta vii XAl)pooo't"l)6Et O"'tov €:1to(Jo€VO xa6tEpw(JoEVO<; ma, we. O"uv6l)(J.rJ. xai crU(Jo~OAO 't'1)<; ouva(Jotxo't"'Y)'t"a<; 't'Yj<; CPUAYje. (J.rJ.<;, au't'~ xat (JoOVl) vO(Jot~W 1tw<; ~'t'rJ.v apxE't"~ vii Ol)AwcrEt 't'~v O'1touorJ.to't'l)'t'rJ. 'tou ~l)'t"~(Joa't'oe.. 'Eow ~ €:p(Jol)vdrJ. 't'Yj<; 10''t"opta<; w<; aAAl)AoE~lip't'l)O"l) 1tOtxiAWV CPrJ.tvo(Jo€VWV oOl)yOUo"E O"E (Jotli xatvoupta xat aVEx(JoE't"aAAw't"l) 7tEPWX~' eXEt 1tOU vO(Jot~a(JoE Iht EXAEtVE Eva 6E(Joa, 't"0 07t0'f0 a7tO 't'li rOta 't"1i 7tpliY(Joa't"a dXE apxtO'Et vii hOVE'f cpucrtoAoytxli, (Jotli 1tOU ~ 't'p01t~ 't'WV xatpwv etXE CPEPEt O''t'~v emcpaVEta a.Ma 1tAEOV O'uv6~(J.rJ.'t'a ytli va €~ap60uv ol ap€'t'E<; 't'Yj<; cpUA1)<;, avotYE O''t'~v 1tpay(JoMtXo't'l)'t'a Eva aMo, (JoE 7toM (JoEyaAu't'Epo evOtacpEpov.

IIot€<; axpt(}w<; xrJ.tVOUptE<; 1tpOO1t't"tXEe. avoty€t 't"wpa ~ (Jo€'t'rJ.-

70

TO KPY<I>O ~XOAEIO

't01tt0'l] 'tOU 6E(J.a't0e; 'tOU Kpucpou ~XOAe:tou a7to 'tOV XWpO nje; to''toptx1je; Epe:UVae; O''t~V 7te:ptoX~ 'tWV O'U(J.60AWV 7t0l) Ota(J.opcpWVOUV 't~V to''tOpO<~ O'uve:tOY)O'l], OXt (J.OVO O''tOV AaO, aA'Aa xat O''tOUe; AOytOue;, OEV e:Ixa 't~V 7tp06e:0'l] oihe: xat 'tte; ouva'to'ty)'te:e; va 'to 7tpay(J.IX't07tOt~O'w (J.E 'to Om<L(J.tO (J.ou a1ho. IIapeX 't~v xa'tacpeXve:pY) O'7tOUoato'ty)'ta 7tOU (J.oteX~e:t veX 7tatpve:t 'to 6E(J.IX, 157tWe; 'tOUAcXxtO''tov 'to e:!oa(J.e: veX OAOXAy)pwve:'tat O''teX 'tEAY) 'tou 7te:paO'(J.Evou alwva, O€v (J.7tOpW veX ~EPW EO''tW xat O'E xeX7tota ye:VtXo'tY)'ta 7tOteX 6EO'l] (J.7tOpe:L veX AcX6e:t O'E 15,'tt (J.E xeX7tota O'u(J.6a'ttxo'tY)'ta -xat anAWe; yteX veX O'uve:woou(J.e:6a au't~v 't~v O''tty(J.~- 6eX (J.7topouO'a(J.E: veX a7tOXaAEO'ou(J.e: (J.E 'tov 15PO «N e:oe:A'AY)vtX~ Mu60Aoyta». ~'t~v EpyaO'ta (J.ou e:txa 't~v e:uxatpta veX 6t~W O'u(J.7t'tW(J.IX'ttxeX (J.e:ptxeX aA'Aa 6E(J.a'ta 7tOU 6eX (J.7topouO'av EVOe:XO(J.EVWe; veX 'tPOCPOOO't~O'ouv au't~ 't~v (J.U60Aoyta. "Av xat au'teX OEV Ote:pe:uvY)6ouv xa'teX aVeXAOyo (J.E 'to Kpucpo ~XOAe:tO 'tP07tO, av oev ava~Y)'t~O'ou(J.e: 'tte; O'uO'xe:'ttO'e:te; 7tpoe; (J.teXv antO''totxY) (J.U6oAoyta 7tOU 7tpOxaAe:L'tat 6e:AY)(J.Eva a7tO 'tOue; AoytOUe; (J.EO'a O''tov 180 alwva xat a7to6'AE7te:t veX 7tpoe:'tOttJ.cXO'e:t 't~v Aa'ix~ ~ux~ yteX 'tov 'Aywva, OEV 6eX (J.7tOpou(J.E: veX ax60u(J.e: O'E 6e:wpY)0'l] O'uvOAWV. "OAa 15(J.we; e:Ivat yteX (J.Eva a.7tAEe; t)7tood~e:te;, 7tOU ~e:7te:pvouv 'tte; CPtAOOO~te:e; (J.ou.

'R 7toM O'uyxe:XPt(J.EVY) CPtAOOO~ta (J.ou, 7tOU EA7tt~W veX otacpeXvY)xe: a7to 'tov ye:VtXO 'tp07tO (J.E 'tov 07tOLO xe:tptO'6YJxa 'to 6E(J.a, e:Ivat veX avot~w Eva xatvouptO 6E(J.IX EXe:L 07tOU 6e:wpw 1ht 7tPE7te:t veX EXe:t XAe:tO'e:t Eva aMo. ME aA'Aoue; Aoyoue;, ~ CPtAOOO~ta au't~ OEV xeXve:t 'tt7tO'te: aA'Ao 7tapeX veX 7tpOO'7ta6e:L veX EV'tax6e:L O''tte; O'l](J.e:ptVEe; E1ttOtW~e:te; 't1je; E1ttO''tY)(J.OVtx1je; Epe:uvae;. ZY)'teXe:t tJ.€O'a a7tO 'tte; xatVOupte:e; 7tpOO7t'ttXEe; 7tOU 7tPOO'CPEpe:t (J.teX O'UVe:7tEO''te:py) O'~(J.e:pa 6e:wpY)0'l] 't1je; to''toptx1je; E1ttO''t~(J.Y)e; veX (J.e:Ae:'t~O'e:t 'teX 6E(J.IX'ta (J.E 'tp07tO wO''te: oXt (J.OVO veX 7tpOXwp~O'e:t ~ YVWa1J (J.IXe; O'E 6eX6oe;, aA'AeX xat 1tt0 7tEpa, veX O'uA'AeX6e:t 'toue; 7taA(J.OUe; 'twv aV'ttopeXO'e:wv 'twv XotVWVtxwv O'UVOAWV. "Av ~ EpyaO'ta au't~ (J.7tOpEO'e:t veX 7tPOO'CPEpe:t 7tpOe; 't~v xa'te:u6uvO'l] au't~ 't~v (J.tXP~ 't"Y)e; O'U(J.60A~, 'to'te: xat (J.ovY) ~ O'uvaxOAOu6YJ Ota7ttO''tWO'l] O'tt O'uv~PYYJO'a veX ~e:cpuyou(J.e: a7tO 'tov XAOtO (J.tiie; ~e:7te:paO'(J.EVY)e; 1tteX E1ttO''t~(J.Y)e;, 6eX e:Ivat apxe:'t~ tXlXVO- 7totY)O'l] yteX (J.Eva.

'0 (J.u6oe; 'tou Kpucpou ~XOAe:tOU (J.7tOpe:L, O1JVe:7tWe;, veX Ev'taX6e:L ave:'ta O''tov a7tocp6e:y(J.a'ttO'(J.0 O''tov 07tOLOV xa'taA~ye:t 0 "Ay-

TO KPYtJlO ~XOAEIO

71

yAOe, xPt'ttxoe, Ian Watt O''to 1tpoO'cpa't"o EPYO 't"ou Myths of modern Individualism: «'R O'u'Yxu<TY] aV&;fJ-eO'a O''t"te, pOfJ-aV't"tXEe, €m6ufJ-tee, xat O''t"~v 10''t"optx~ aA~6eta a1to't"eAet 1tayxoofJ-ta 't"a<TY]». T~v O'Uyxu<TY] au't~ OEV fJ-1topoufJ-e va 't"~v a1to't"pbj;oUfJ-e' 'XPeta~e't"at ofJ-we, v&; 't"~v epfJ-"Y)veuaoufJ-e, fJ-ta xat ota't"apaO'O'et 't"~v XOtv~ AO'YtX~. Mta AO'YtX~

. 1tOU fJ-1topet va Aet't"oup'Y~O'et 't"o rOtO a1to't"eAeO'fJ-a't"txa fJ-E 't"~v EPeuva, o'tav au't"~ aouva'tEt va ~e, 1tpoO'cpEpet 't"exfJ-~pta. 'R 1tPW't"Y) 1tept1t'twa"Y) acpopa O''t"o EP'YO 't"OU 4>. KOUXouAE. MeAe't"wV't"ae, 't"o 6EfJ-!X 't"rje, €x1tatoeu<TY]e, O''t"o Bu~av't"to, xat dotx&; O''t"o xecpaAatO «'R otapxeta 't"wv fJ-!X6"Y)fJ-a't"wv xat 'ta otaAdfJ-fJ-a't"a», xa't"aA~'Yet:

«'Ev aytoAoytXOte, xetfJ-EvOte, avaytvwO'xofJ-ev o't"t Ot&;cpopOt 1epot avopee, xa't"a 't~v 1tatotx~v au't"wv ~AtXtaV ~'Ydpov'to "'t"rje, O'eA~v"Y)e, ~o"Y) 1tA"y)peO''ta'tCJ) cpw't"t 't"~v yrjv tl1tOAeuxatVou<TY]e," ~ "1tpoe, 't"rje, ew xat vux't"oe, E't"t 6a6dae," xat, acp' OU 1tPO<TY]UXOV't"O, E1teOtOoV't"o de, 't"~v fJ-eAE't"Y)v. !:lEv ~'t"o apa aO'uv"Y)6ee, va fJ-e't"a6atvwO't vux't"wp de, 't"~v ExxA"Y)O'taV, ~'t"te, EXP"y)atfJ-01tOtet't"o 1tOMaXte, xat we, O'xoAetov, xal Exet v&; lj;aMWO't xat xa't"omv va EmOtOwv't"at de, 't"~v fJ-eAE't""Y)V, O'uv~6eta 't~v 01tOtav Emtetatot xat 'to 'tEWe, lj;aM0fJ-evov O'XOAtXOV ~a~'t"tov'

(jjeyyapaxI P.OU Aap.7rpO, q;tyye p.ou va 7rep7ra,,(J,

, I , ")"

va 7r7Jyalvlt) trto axoseio,

va p.a()a{vlt) ypap.p.a"a, "ou Beou "a 7rpap.a"a,

X' ~~tq;ut "ou "0 xep{ x ' ~xarfe "0 Xap"{ "ou ... ... 6aa,,~ eixova xa{ Xap,.{, xep! xal xaAap.apI.

E~ wv EfJ-cpatVe'tat o't"t 01 fJ-tXPOt 1tatoee, EfJ-eAE'twv xat O'xo'ttae, ht OU<TY]e, .»

'R oeu'tep"y) acpopa O''to 1toAUfJ-oX60 EP'YO 1tOU e:mxdp"Y)O'e 0 xa6"Y)'Y"Y)'t"~e, 'tou IIavemO''t""Y)fJ-toU 'Yta'tpoe, d"y)fJ-~'tp"Y)e, KafJ-apOuAtae" va xa't"a'Ypalj;et, o"Y)Aao~, xat 1tept'Ypalj;et «T&; fJ-ovaa't"~pta 't"rje, 'R1tetpou». 'R Ev't"€AWe, 1tpoocpa't""Y) (1996) o"Y)fJ-oateu<TY] 't"ou Ot't"ofJ-ou

7'2

TO KPnO l:XOAEIO

EPYOU a1tOXaAU~E '204 €VEpya-OtIXAU(LEVlX XlXt 70 X(l.'t'IXO''tPIX(L(LEVIX, 'te:Adw~ e~IX~IXVtO'(LEVIX (LOVIXO''t~PtlX O''t~v N O'ttlX "H 1te:tpO XIX{ 100 (LOVIXO''t~PtlX O''t~v BOPEtlX. 'H EPWVIX IXU't~, xlX6w~ XIX{ (Lta dotxo'tEpY) Od)'tEPy), 'tov OO~i'YJO'IXV va XIX'tIXA~~Et O''to axoAou60 O'U(L1tEPIXO'fLIX: «'H AEt'toupytlX 24 O''X,oAdwv O'E (LoVIXO''t~PtlX 'tlj~ No'ttlX~ 'H1tdpou XlXt 14 O'E (LOVIXO''t~PtlX 'tlje; BOpEtlXe; 'H1tdpou, xlX6we; XlXt Tj tOpuCTY) Yj O'uV't~PlJCTY) O''X,oAdwv O'E 1tOMa. 'X,wpta. a1ta 'ta. (LOVIXO''t~PtlX 'tlje; 1te:ptO'X,lj~ 'toue; a1tOOEtXVUouv 't~ (LEya.AlJ 1tVWfLIX'ttX~ 1tpoO'~opa 'tWV (LOVIXO''tlJptwV IXU'tWV XlXt 'to aO'uO''tIX'to 'tou to''X,uptO'(Lou 'tlje; U1tlXp~lJe; "Kpu~wv 'f,'X,OAEtwV" O''t~v "H1tEtpO, E1tt ToucXOXplX'ttlXe;» .

~HMEHl~EI~

at 't"PEt~ 1tp(;'}'t"E~ €VOd~Et~ xa6E CTY)fJ.EtWCTY)~ OYjAWVOUV, antO''t"Ot'X:l. 't"~V O'EAtO!1., 't"OV O''t"tXO X!1.t 't"~V AE~Yj ~ 't"~V cppaCTY) cr't"~V (moh ytVE't"!1.t ~ 1t!1.P!1.1tOfJ.1t~.

13 32 l1vcl(-t€<7a <7' O<7€~. Nea 'Eaiia, 't. AH' (1945), 678.

14 6 "Ouo»; ou't"' tyw. AU't.

14 18 1;' D<7a XWPlcl. Kapai'o-xclxYj~. Bloypatpla bya'Ap.ivYj a7r6 avb,8o't"€~ 7rYjye~, blbAloypatpla xa! <7't"o(-ta't"lxi~ 7rapa86<7€I~. ME 7tPOAOY(XO O'Y)!J.e:tWfUl 'tou VAyy. N. I1cmaxwO''ta. 'Eo-ita, ''1':1..., 152.

15 8 Mexpl <7~(-t€pov. 'Ia-topla 't"wv 't"OU XPl<7't"OU rr€v~'t"wv, 1939, 180. 15 15 'Eciv rrapa8€x8w(-t€v. Au't. 179. 'A~t~E( o!J.we; va 7tapaXOAOUe~O'Ou!J.E €OW 7tAEOV 'to ava!J.CP(O'b~'tY)'tO O'U!J.7tEpaO'!J.a O''to (mOtO 'tov OOY)ye:t ~ bpe~ O'UMOY(O''ttX~ O'uvE'1..e:(a xat O'uvacpE(a: «To '1..wptOV e:T'1..e: vaov Eva, 1] ouo xat 'tpe:tc;, €V n 7tEpt7t'tW<:TE( e:t'1..E 7tOMOUe; xa'totXOUe;. To '1..WptOV e:T'1..e:v avayxY)v tEPEWC;, 1] tEPEWV, ohtve:c; E7tpE7tE 'v' avay(vW<:TxwO'tV E:My)V(O''tt 'ta b(bAta 'twv tEPWV 'te:AE'tWV 1] bOUAyap(O''tt, 1] Etc; 't~v bAa'1..tX~V xat 't~v !J.oAoaui:x~v. To '1..WptOV e:I'1..e:v iJ.vayx'Y)v E:VOC; 'touAa'1..tO''tov Ot' €va vaov le:po>.¥aA'tou, 1] m:ptO"O"o'tEpwv, dm:p e:t'1..E vaoue; 7tEP(O'O'O'tEpoue; 'tou EVOC;. To '1..wptOV e:t'1..EV iJ.vayxY)v xat xavovap'1..0u, 'touAa'1..(O''tov EVOe; Ot' ExaO''tov vaov. 'IEpEUC;, >.¥aA't"'Y)c;, xat xavovap'1..y)C; E7tpE7tE'V' avay(vwO'xwO'(V, E7tPE7tE xat 'va otoaO'xwv-ca( 'ta AEYO!J.Eva tEpa ypa!J.fUl'ta, XotVO'tEPOV XOAAuboypa!J.!J.a'ta, 1] U7tO 'tOU tEpo>.¥aA'tOU, 1] U7tO 'tOU 7ta7tii 't~C; XW!J.07tOAEWC; 1] 'tOU '1..wptou- o(a 'tOU'tO dc; 'ta '1..wpta -rYjC; 7tapaAtac; 8paxY)c; 1]xouO'a 7tpO E~~V'ta xat EboO!J.~V'ta €'twv 'tOV tEpEa xpa~O!J.EVOV "oaaxaAov". 'H 'tOUPX(X~ XUbEPVy)O'(C;, aVE'1..o!J.EVY) 't~V 'X,P(a't(av(x~v epY)O'xe:tav, E:ytVWO'XEV, O'tt Etc; 'toue; vaoue; avaYt'lwO'xoUO't xat >.¥aMouO'(V Ot 7ta7taOEC; xat Ot >.¥aA'tat, xat O'tt 'ta iJ.vay(vwO'xO!J.Eva xa! >.¥aMO!J.e:va EnpEnE 'va 0(oax6wO'tv €yxa!pwc;' xa! O'uvEnwc; OUOE7tO'tE tv o(-takij xa-iaavaae: rrpanuX't"wv E:!J.7tOO(O'E 't~V €V Vap- 6Yj~t xat Xe:AAtO(C; otOaO'xaAtaV».

15 27 'H xaxoxr«; TOU yivou~. 'H AOyl)'~, AE(\jita 1766, 40.

16 34 Ka't"ci 't"ci~ 8tYj~<7€l~. BA. 'ta O''1..E't(xa O''to P~ya~, Epe:uva, O'uvayw~ xat !J.EAE'ty) A. I. BpavouO"Y), BaO'(x~ B(bAtoe~xY), 1953, 13.

19 3 Oi TOUPXOI t(-t7r68t,av. BA. 'AvoPOV!XOU .:lY)!J.Y)'tpaX07tOUAOU 'Ena-

YOp()W(I€l~ utpaA(-tciTwv tv Ti; N€O€MYjYIXT; f}>IAoAoyfa K. 1;ci8a, (-t€'t"ci xed 't"lVWV rrpouOYjxwv, TEpYEO''ty) 1872, 47.

19 17 Ka't"ci 't"~v rra't"plw't"IX~Y. 'Iaiooixai l1ya(-tv~<7€l~, 't. 1~2, EPMH~ NEB, €7tt!J.EAEta vAAx'Y)c; 'AYYEAOU, 1973, i, 83.

76

TO xr-reo ~XOAEIO

19 24 Kat ~p.gf,. IIayowpa 3 (1852-53), 571.

21 'Ev 'rfj xa'rarrkl)x'rlx.fj. BA. Memoire (1803) -rYjv p.€'riXqlptxaY) 'rou ~. 8€P€LtxVOU, (nov 30 'r0iJ-0 'r1jc; bwyPtxqlttxC; 'rou ~oap.ay'rIO' Kopa'ij" T€PYEcr'rYJ 1890, cr. 06' 'rwv IIapapTY)p.a'rwy.

21 8 'H dJau7&r]crEa pac; r. ~€tpEPYJC; £1ox'I.J.i, 1, 19743, 275.

21 32 IIo'ri 0 Toioxo; 0 aypap.p.a'ro,. Nia 'E(J"'rEa, ta., 679.

22 4 'H 'rOUpX.IX~ xu6ipYy)(J"I,. 'Ia-topla 'rWY 'rou Xp"nou rrgy~'rwY, ta.,

179.

24 17 E{'rg arro aOca<pop[a. Souvenirs de l'Orient, IItxptcrL 1839, 'r. 1,

114-5.

24

25

27 27

28 28 28

28

28 35

29 30

30 26

31 23

32 8

33 34 34 35 36 37 37

40 41

Kavel; Iaio«, 'Io-topia: 'rWY ay(}pwrr[ywy rrpa~gwy, BLEVVYj 1832, 'r. 12, 587.

To XUXyglOY ~(J"p.a. 'Ep.. Po"f0YJ l1rraY'ra, qlLAoAoyr)(~ e7tLp.EA€Ltx NAAxYJc; 'AYYEAou, 'r. 2 (1978), 301.

rY~(J"IOY P~'ropa. I;uMo~ IIpoAgyop.iywy 1, IItxptcrL 1833, 224-5. Ouo' au'ro, 0 (J"xAy)po'ra'ro,. BA. K. 8. ~YJiJ-txpii, 'Ey ~(}~yal, 'rfj 3 Marou 1837, 'E6vLXO XtxL Ktx7tOOLCJ't"P(txXO IItxv€7tLCJ't"~iJ-W 'A6YJvwv, CJ€LpiX 'Icr't"0PLtxC; 'rou IItxv€7tLCJ't"YJiJ-Lou 1 (1987), 103.

£1iy a<plYoy 'rou, vEMy)Ya,. Au't"., 112.

£110'rl ouvcaaiiavouevot. Au'r.

rYWp{'oup.g 15'rl. K. 8. ~YJp.txpiic;, NgogMy)Ylxo, Pwp.aY'rI(J"p.o" 1985, 412.

Pwp.aY'rI(J"p.o" xa(}apeuou(J"a. BA. CJX€'rLxiX K. 8. ~1)fJ-txPiic;, IIOIy)'raE 'rou te aicava, B.B. 12, 1954, (tx'.

'H(}iAy)(J"g xa[ 0 x.a'rax.'rY)'r~" BA. Keov. Olxovouo» 'rou i~ Olxoyop.ou, 'rop.o, A' Aoyol, e7tLiJ-EA€Ltx 8wo. K. ~7t€pav't"~txc;, 1971,379. ~M' ~oY) rrp0(J"gYYI'ouG"Yj" AU'r. 381.

'H p.iy rrpo ~P.WY veosala. Aoyol eX<pwYy)(}iY'rg, 'r~Y:< 'Ox'rw6pEou 1849 ... 1849, 25.

~AA' urro 'rou at'p.060pou. Aoyo, ygyg(}AlaXOt; ... , 1863, 54. 'Bv 'rfi rra'rpw~ e(J"'r[a. ~. 41.

I;XOAgfa 'rarrglya. Aoyo, 'OAup.maXOt; ... ey 'rfi 6' eop'rfi 'rWY t'opu(}iy'rWY 'OAup.rr[WY urro 'rou aelp.Y~(J"'rou EuayyiAou Zarrrra, 13-4. 28 I;'ro rrgplOolXO IIayowpa. T0iJ-0C; 10 (1859-60), 423-5.

11 "Oiav ei; 'ro Aap.rrpOy <pw,. Au'r.

29 Kal 'ro OY)P.O'rlXOy 'rou'ro. 'A6~vtx 1861. 'EY'rgu(}gy xal 'ro OY)P.O'rIXOy. "E.a., 41. (lkyyapaxl p.ou Aap.rrpo. ~. 144.

At' 'roupxlxa[ apxaE. ~. 146.

Ka'rw arro 'r~Y 'rOUPXIX~ xa'rox~. Notes d'un voyage en Grece, IItxpLcr( X.X., 21.

EU(J"'roxwt; rrgplypa<pel. PoooXayaXelOt;, ta., 31.

Ilep! ygogMY)YIX.~' <pIAoAoyEat;. Twptx CJ't"ov 50 'r0iJ-0 'rwv ~rray'rwY

32

5

13 28

3 13

21

29

19 11

11 16 5 22

13 13

TO KPnO ~XOAEIO

i7

't"OU Ll. BtXeAcc, (cr. 87 E.) qnAoAoytX~ btt{.t.eAe:tCC "AAxYje; 'A~. 1997.

'H Aa'fpefa 'fWV xpl(J"'flavwv. 'j(J"'foplxi TIlt; eAkr;VlX~t; 1t"aA1rrnaala«, 1873, 30.

To p.ovov 6ibalOv dval. "E.a., y'.

'E1t"elO~ oi /; 'fO(J"OU'fOV epwt;. '[(J"'foplXaE ~vap.v~(J"elt;, i:m{Jiut.2 "AAxYje; 'AyyeAou, EPMH~ N.E.B.,. 1-2 (1973), 't". 1, 167.

Lllci 'f~V yewyparplx~v 'r"f}t; (Ji(J"lV. K. 8. LlYjfUlpiie;, 1:.a., 405. ts exa(J"'faxou 7ralOet)'f~pla. "E.a., 95-7.

Lla(J"xaAOt; p.7ropou(J"e. Aovoivo 1990, 71.

To p.eyaAU'fepO p.ipot;. L'avenement des sciences humaines au siecle des Lumieres, Payot, IIccpiO"t 1973, 111.

TE oi oev u7rep.rpaEvel. "E.a., 96.

To or;p.O'flXOV 'fOU'fO Mp.a'flOv. BA. 6. 11',1 xa! oiv exoup.e. "E.a., 3.

0; (J"up.7ra'fplW'fet; p.ou. "E.a., IX. Tou Klsaou ~ p.ava. "E.iX., 17-8. ((IIapaoo~wt;)), yparpel. "E.a., 259. 0; yparpov'fet; 'fOU'fo. Al.)'t".

~XPlbwt; rpa{ve'fal. "E.a., 11.

Mi 'f~V yewa 'fOU 1880. K. 8. LlYjfUlpiie;, 'Ia-topla TIlt; NeoeMr;VIX~t; Aoyo'fexvEat;, 19831, 352.

~p.rplbaMw av 7rA~V. IIpw't"ooYjfJ-oO"te:u6Yjxe: O"'t"ov NeoAoyo KrovO"'t"ccV't"tvOU7tOAYje; ('Ae~vcc) O"'t"ie; 19.10.1987 xcci hOAOU6we; O"'t"oue; Aoyot)t; xal 11p(Jpa, 1902, 0". 662.

Mou evi7rvet)(J"e p.iv. Aeuxwp.a T-Y)v{wv xaMl'fexVWV, 1925, 78. "Osav e(J"'felAe. 'Eop'fa(J"p.ot; Yla'fa 7rev~v'faxpowa TIlt; eAeu(Jepr;t; ee(J"(J"aAov6cr;t;. TtfJ-Yj't"tx~ aVlXfJ-VYjC1"Yj yta 'tov NtXOACCO ru~Yj. 'R

'Eevtx~ IItvccxoe~xYj i:xei't"e:t epycc 't"ou xccMt't"€.XYYj (J"'t"o 'APXCCWAOytXO MOU(J"e:LO. 'Ox'tw6pwe; 1962, 4 (7tPOAoytXO O"YjfJ-E:tWfUl 7tOU li7toypacpe:t 0 't"o't"e: Ote:ueuv't"~e; 't'ije; E.II. Mccpivoe; KCCMtyiie;).

57 26 ~7rO ~v p.axpa aMr;AoyparpEa. 'Em(J"'fOAaE 'fOU NlxoAaot) ru'r;. 'EmfJ-eAe:Lcc re:wpyiou LlpoaivYj xcct Aafl-7tpou r. KOPOfl-YjAii, 1953.

58 4 111 val. BA. Zccxccpicce; IIcc7tccv'twVtou (J"'t"o A'ijfl-fUl rU'r;t; (J"'ta M.E.E.,

-e. 4.

58 22 "Ev«; blOyparpOt; 'fOU. Aeuxwp.a, ta., 21. 58 36 Elt; ywv{av. 'Em(J"'fOAa{, e.a., 138-9.

59 12 Llla 'fOU U1t"oyefou. Au't".

60 4 "Eva« bloyparpOt; 'fOU ru'r;, Aeuxwp.a, e.a., 27.

60 32 E[val 'fO 7roEr;p.a. NlxoAaOt; rU'r;t;, 1901, 20.

61 3 Elva: eva a7rO 'fa (J"obapO'fepa. Marcel Montandon, Gysis, Bielefeld

und Leipzig, 1902, 83.

62 16 "Oao xa! [vat; aMot;. 'Kcc't"a 't"~v cruvwvufJ-Yj e:txovcc 't"ou ru~' ea

42 8
42 26
43 19
45 16
46 35
48 30
48 34
49 14
49 18
43 35
50 18
52 2
52 17
52 33
53 27
54 19
56 16
57 6
57 13 78

TO KPT<l)O ~XOAEIO

7tapa'tT}pTjO'et 0 7totl)'tTjc; O''tTjv O'UAAOyfj 'tou To TCt%AIO OIOA{ (1909).

64 10 Ta 'rixva 'rwv 'EM~VWV. TIep. 'EMr;VI17p.or;, 1905, 169.

64 21 '0 x. LlI~A. Au,,:. 1907, 131.

65 1 «IIepl1717o'repov», yparpel. ~. 18.

71 2 'H 17uyXUI7Y} tZvap.e17a. Cambridge University Press (Canto) 1997,65.

71 11 'Bv aYIOAoYlxoi'r; xelp.ivolr;. Bu'av'rlvwv BEor; xaE IIoAI'rI17p.or;, A

i, 1978, 73-4.

72 5 'H Aet'roupyla, 2, 653.

H KATA~TA~H TH~ IIAI6.EIA~ ~TI~ rII06.0rAE~ EAAHNIKE~ XOPE~

'H «xelxwcn<;» '!ou r€Vou<;, xa6w<; EUa'!Oxa 6el xapax'!l)p£CTr) 0 Euy€vto<; BouAyapt<; '!~v xa'!ela'!aCTr) '!ou 'EMl)VtafJ.Ou afJ.€aw<; fJ.E'!el '!~V '1\.AWCTr) , O€V a1tO'!EAEt a1tAW<; '!U1ttXO XPOVtXO opto ytel '!~V a1tapx~ '!~<; fJ.EAE-rl)<; '!~<; €x1tatOEuaEW<;. 'H 1tatoda Ol)AaO~ '!ou e6vou<; O€V ~'!av fJ.€ xav€va '!P01tO ouva'!o vel aUVEXta~ aOta'!elpax'!l), oao xa£ av OExOp.aa'!E 1tW<; Ot E1tt1t'!WaEt<; fJ.tii<; 1tOAt'!tX~<; fJ.E'!atoA~<; O€V dvat afJ.EaE<; ~ afJ.€aw<; EfJ.c:paVEt<; a'!ov 1tVEUfJ.a'!tXo XWpO. M1tOPEt ~ YEVtXW'!EPl) 1tVEUfJ.a'!tX~ ~W~ vel c:patVE'!at 1tW<; aUVEXt~E'!at 0fJ.aAel· a'!~v 1tpaYfJ.a'!tXo'!l)'!a 1tpOXEt'!at ytel E1ttttWaEt<; 1tOU 1J EfJ.b€AELa. '!OU<; dVaL IJ.LXP~, 01tW<; 6elOOUIJ.E 1tapaxa.'!w.

~'!~v 1t€ptOOO au'!~ '!wv E1ttbtWaEWV, yta. vel xaAuc:p6~ '!o XEVO W<; '!~V E1tOX~ 1tOU a.pxt~eL 1J aVaV€wCTr) '!~<; VeOEMl)VtX~<; 1tIXLoda<;, a'!el ,!€Al) 1tEpt1tOU '!ou 160u aL, '!01t06E'!~6l)xe 0 IJ.u60<; ytel '!o Kpuc:po "f..XOAEtO. "O'!t 1tpOXEt'!at yta. fJ.u60 a1tOO€tXvUE'!at baatXel a1tO '!O YEYOVO<; O'!t O€V ll1telPXe:t «XafJ.IJ.tel ta'!optX~ IJ.ap'!upta 1tOU vel tEtatWVl) '!~V U1tap~l) Kpuc:pou "f..XOA€tOU», 01tW<; U1tOa'!~pt~e: 0 nelVVl)<; BAaxoytelvvl)<;. To rOto u1toa'!~pt~e: xat 0 Mavou~A T'eOEWV 1tt0 xa'!l)yopl)IJ.a'!txel: «M€Xpt a~IJ.e:pov ouOafJ.ou av€yvwv EV Op.aATJ xa'!aa'!a.aEt 1tpaYIJ.el'!wv bE~tPl)V ~ aytelvl)v ~ aouA'!elVOV EIJ.7tOotaav'!a axoAdou aua'!aatV, ~ otxooofJ.~v, '!ou6' 01tEP ~ouva'!o vel aUfJ.bTJ xa'!o1ttv xa'!aYYEAta<; Xpta'!tavou '!tVOC;, cX7tEpt'tIJ.~'!ou Toupxou, xa6w<; wvop.a~ov au'tou<;».

"Av '!O Kpuc:po "f..XOAe:tO dXe: ytVEt ytel xel1tota 1tEptOOO 1tpayp.a'!txo'!l)'!a, a€ 1tEptoptaIJ.€vl) ea'!w ex'!aCTr) , O€V aUV€,!pEXe: xav€va<; 'Aoyo<; 1J axe:'!tx~ fJ.ap'!upta ~ IJ.ap'!uptE<; vel IJ.e:tvouv axo1ttIJ.a a'!~v cXc:pelVEta. eel e1tpe1te:, av'!teE'!a, Eva '!€'!Oto '!e:xfJ.~Pto ~w'!txo'tl)'tO<; '!~<; C:PUA~<; xat '!~<; E6vtx~<; aUVEtO~aEw<; -aufJ.c:pwva fJ.€ '!~v E:pIJ.l)vda 1tOU 6el '!ou oWaouv xa'!el xavova Ot IJ.E'tayeV€a'!Epm- vel E~ap~ IJ.€ xel6e: '!p07to. 'Ac:pou Aomov ~ a7tA~ AoytX~ IJ.ii<; OOl)ye:t vel cX1tOXAEtaouIJ.E 1tapofJ.oto EVOEX0IJ.EVO, EXEtVO 7tOU cX1t0IJ.€VEt vel

80

TO KPr<l>O :EXOAEIO

OEX60u[J-E €TWXt O'tt 7tt6avov va: 6ptO"XO[J-aO"'tE O"€ [J-ta: E~atpE'ttX~ - [J-ovaOtX~ (O"W<;- O"u[J-7t'tw[J-a'ttX~ e~acpa:VtGi'J Xa:6E O"XE'nXlj<; ypa- 7t't"lje; [J-ap't"upta<;. T~v EO"xa't"Y) O[J-W<; au't~ tm06EO"Y) EpXE't"at va: avatp€Gi'J [J-ta: CiMY) aOtacptAovtXY)'tY) AOytX~ 7tapa't"~py)Gi'J: rta: 7tOtO A6yo a Toupxo<; va: EVOXAY)&Yj a7to 't"~v u7tap~Y) O"xoAdwv; Tt €Tvat EXErVO 7tOU 6a: [J-7tOpOUo"E va: 'tov avY)O"ux~Gi'J a7tO 't~v EvaO"XOAy)Gi'J E:VOe; [J-tXpOU O"XE'ttXa: [J-€pOU<; 't"OU 7tAY)6uO"[J-ou [J-€ 'ta: ypa:[J-[J-a'ta; 'AO"cpaAW<; ~ 7tEptoptO"[J-€vY) Ex'taGi'J 7tOU [J-7tOpOUo"E va: EXY) 't~v hoX~ ExdvY) ~ XaMt€pYEta 't"wv ypa[J-[J-a:'twv O€v 6a: 7tp€7tEt va: ETXE w<; EVOEX0[J-EVO 't~v 7tapa[J-O.Y)Gi'J 'tlj<; XaMt€pYEtae; 'tlj<; ylj<;. "'AAAWO"'t"E 'ta: ypa:[J-[J-a't"a ~'tav a7tapat't"Y)'ta yta: Eva [J-ovo [J-€po<; 'tOU 7tAY)6uO"[J-ou, yta: oO"ou<; oY)Aao~ aO"xoAouV'tav [J-€ 't"o E[J-7tOPto, [J-€ 't"o a7toto o€v aO"xoAEt'tO O"uO"'tY)[J-IX'ttxa: a ouva:O"'t"Y)<;, ~ yta: oO"oue; dxav O"X€Gi'J [J-€ 't"ov xAljpO. IIp€7tEt Aomov va: 6EWpY)6lj w<; cpuO"txo<; a O"UAAoytO"[J-O<; 7tOU ota'tU7tWVE'tat a7tO 't"ov M. rEOEWV, o't"t oY)Aao~ «~ 'touPXtX~ xu6€pvY)O"te;, aVExo[J-€VY) 't"~v Xpto"'t"tavtx~v 6pY)O"xdav, EytVWO"XEV, o'tt d<; 'tou<; vaou<; avaytvwO"xouO"t xat ~a:MOUO"tV Ot 7ta7t7ta:OEe; xat ot ~a:A't"at, xat o't"t 'ta: avaytVwO"xo[J-Eva xat ~aAA6- [J-Eva, E7tPE7tE va: otoax6wO"tv Eyxatpw<;' xat O"UVE7tW<; OUO€7tO'tE EV a[J-aATJ xa't"aO"'t"a:O"Et 7tpay[J-6:'twv E[J-7tOOto"E 't~v EV va:p6Y)~t xat XEAAtOt<; OtOaO"xaAtaV».

'EXEtVO O"UVE7tW<; 7tOU a7to[J-€vEt we; a7ta:v'ty)Gi'J €Ivat O'tt ot Toupxot avY)O"uxouO"av [J-~7tw<; ~ 7tatoda ytvY) xa:7tota O"'tty[J-~ oY)[J-toupyo<; cpw'ttO"[J-ou xat O"'t"~ O"uv€XEta acpE't"Y)pta, WO"'t"E va: XaMtEpyY]6lj ~ E6vtx~ O"uvdoY)O"Yj. Mv tma:pXEt o[J-w<; otm O"Xta: tl7tovota<; o'tt 6a: ~'tav ouva'tov a 'AO"ta:'ty)e; Toupxo<; 'tou 150u aL va: aoY)YYJ&Yj O"€ [J-ta: 7tapo[J-ota O"x€~Y). rta: va: avax60u[J-E Aomov O"'t~v E7tOX~ 07tOU YEW~6Y)XE a [J-u60e;,7tp€7tEt va: [J-E't"acpEp60u[J-E O"'ta: x.povta 07tOU ~ aMY)AoUxta 7tatOda-E6vtx~ a7toxa'ta:O"'t"aO"Yj dxav ytVEt XotV~

'<:0 " P 6 ,., 'T <:0 " 6 '

O"UVEtoy)O"Yj O"E 'tE'tOtO oa [J-o, WO"'t"E vo: EtVat ouva't"Y) Y) 7tap EVOYE-

VEGi'J 't"ou 6€[J-a't"0e; EL't"E a7to 7tapE~~YYJGi'J EL't"E a7to O"xo7tt[J-o'tYj'ta. Au't"~ ~ hoX~ €Tvat a 'Aywvae;, xa't"a: 't"ov a7toto 7tapouO"ta:~E'tat O"€ [J-ta: 7tPW't"OyEVlj [J-opCp~ a [J-u60e;. 'H E6vtx~ o"X07tt[J-o'tY)'t"a 7tat~Et EOW 'tov 7tpw't"o POAO' ~ O"uv€XEta €Tvat EUXOAY). 'A7to 't~ O"'t"ty[J-~ 07tOU 't"o YEVtXO au'to XAr[J-a oY)[J-toupYEt 't"~v xa'ta:AAy)Ay) 7tPOU7tO- 6EO"Yj, WO"'t"E va: 7tpOXU~ouv a7to ava:AoYEC; ~uXoAoytx€e; 7tpou7t06€o"Ete; O[J-otE<; [J-IXp't"UptEe; --'7tpiiy[J-a 7tOU 6E6atwVEt 't"~v 7tap6EvoygVEGi'J

TO KPfoJ10 I:XOAEIO

81

'tOU tJ-u60u-, veX 7tpoO''tE60uv r£AAa O'UyyEV~ O''totXEta, xa6we; 'to YVWO''tO 'tpayouoeXXt yteX 'to cpEyyapeXXt, ~ cpav'taO'tWCme; iO''toptXWV 't~e; 7tatoEtac; 01 07tOtOl, aOtag:lOpwv'tae; yteX 't~v aA1')60cpavEta'twv 7tpaytJ-eX'twv, ~ouvov'tat eX7tO dOuMtax€e; ava7tapaO''teXO'E:te;, xa6we; ~ 7tE:Pt7t'twO"Y) 'tou r. XaO'tw't1'), veX ~mO''tE''(aa60uv 't€AOe; 'teX er'totXE:ta au'teX tJ-t 't-!Jv i.)7tO~OA-!J 't"lje; 'ttxv"f)C; 'tOU AOYOU, xaewe; 'to 7to("f)p.a 'tou IIoA€tJ-"f), ~ 'twv dxaO''ttxwv 'tEXVWV, xa6we; 0 7taO'tyvwO''toe; 7ttvaxae; 'tOU rU~"f), ~ Xwvocr'tt6eXoa meX EXEt O"f)tJ-toup'Y"f)6~ xat dvat E:UXOAO veX 7tapaO'up"f) xat 'roue; EucpeXv'taO''toue; XaA07tpoatpE'touC; tcr'toptxoue; 't~e; e6vtx-Yje; crxomtJ-o't"f)'tae;.

"Evae; atwvae; xat 7tA€OV tJ-E'teX 't~v '1\.Awer"f) d vat 'to OteXO''t"f)tJ-a 7tOU xaAU-lt't'E:'tat At yo 7tOAU a7to 'toue; li7t€ptJ-axoue; 't~e; tJ-u60Aoytac; 'tou Kpucpou ~XOAEtoU. To Xpovtx6 otJ-we; au't6 otaO''ty)p.a p.1topet va OtXawAoy-fJO"Y), tJ-€ 'tov apyo pu6tJ-6 7tOU Exet ~ ~w~ EXEtV"f) 't~v e7tox~ xat tJ-€ 't~v em6paouvcrY) 't~v 07tota 7tpOXaAecrE: ~ 'touPXtX~ xa'teXx't"f)crY], 'to YEVtXO tJ-ouotacrtJ-a 7tOU EXEt xa'taA&tEt oAEe; 'tic; OUVeXtJ-EtC; 'tou E6vouc;. "A v u7t~p~av crxopmEC; a7t07tEtpec; yteX xeX7tota EX7tatoeu'ttx~ X[V1')O'Y), 01 a7t07tEtpEe; au't€e; 6eX ~'tav 'toero aouvatJ-E:C;, w(J"te o€v acpY)O'av 7tapeX EAeXXtcr'ta tXV1') 't~e; 1tapoucrtae; 'toue;. Mv e:xoufJ.E: Aomov xav€va A6"(0 va p.~v oex60utJ-E (J'tt acpe'tY)pta "(ta 't~v EX7tatoWttx~ acpu7tvtO"Y) 'tou 'EM1')Vtcr(J-ou 'elvat 'to 't€AOe; 'tou 160u aL, yta't[ 'to'tE fJ.0AtC; apXt~ouv Ot XEtpoypacpec; xat E7ttO"Y)fJ.€C; p.ap'tup(e:C; .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful