MAP OF JAPAN

JAPAN SEA

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/

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) Miyazaki

i (--~ {, .... /F

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Rishiri Is.

• Sapporo

. .'Z~ugarll Strait j'::_

• Morioka

40

80

120

HOKKAIDO

HOKKAIDO

OKHOTSK SEA

Kunashiri Is.

Hubomai Iss .

PACIFIC OCEAN

160

200km

Etorofu is.

Shikotan Is.

OKINAWA

KAGOSHIMA

JAPANESE

FOR Revised 3rd Edition

BUSY PEOPL

Kana Version

Association for Japanese-Language Teaching

AJALT

KODANSHA INTERNATIONAL Tokyo • New York • London

The Association for Japanese-Language Teaching (AJALT) was recognized as a nonprofit organization by the Ministry of Education in 1977. It was established to meet the practical needs of people who are not necessarily specialists on Japan but who wish to communicate effectively in Japanese. In 1992 AJAL T was awarded the Japan Foundation Special Prize. AJALT maintains a website at www.ajalt.org, through which they can be contacted with questions regarding this book or any of their other publications.

Illustrations by Shinsaku Sumi

CD narration by Yuki Minatsuki, Aya Ogawa, Yuri Haruta, Koji Yoshida, Tatsuo Endo, Sosei Shinbori, and Howard Colefield

CD recording and editing by the English Language Education Council, Inc. PHOTO CREDITS: © Sachiyo Yasuda 1, 19,47, 87, 159 (timetable only), 177, 203, 221. e Sebun Photo, 67. © JTB Photo Communications, Inc., 69 (top). © Orion Press, 109. © Ben Simmons, 139. © iStockphoto.com/ Lawrence Karn, 159. Tokyo National Museum (Irnage: TNM Image

, Archives; Source: http://TnmArchives.jpl), 188.

Distributed in the United States by Kodansha America, Inc., and in the United Kingdom and continental Europe by Kodansha Europe Ltd.

Published by Kodansha International Ltd., 17-14 Otowa 1-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8652, and Kodansha America, Inc.

Copyright © 2006 by the Association for Japanese-Language Teaching. All rights reserved. Printed in Japan.

First published 1984

Second edition 1994

Second edition, Kana Version 1995 Third edition 2006

1 5 14 1 3 1 2 11 1 0 09 08 1 2 11 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Japanese for busy people. I, Kana version / Association for Japanese-Language Teaching.-Rev. 3rd ed.

p. cm.

Includes index.

ISBN-13: 978-4-7700-3009-2 ISBN-l0: 4-7700-3009-6

1. Japanese language-Textbooks for foreign speakers-English.

2. Japanese language-Spoken Japanese. I. Kokusai Nihongo Fukyu Kyokai (Japan). II. Title.

PL539.5.J3J3582oo6

495.6'83421-dc22

2006045244

wvvw.kodansha-intl.com

CONTENTS

PREFACE IX INTRODUCTION X

CHARACTERISTICS OF JAPANESE GRAMMAR xv USEFUL DAILY EXPRESSIONS XVI

UNIT 1 MEETING PEOPLE 1

GRAMMAR

2

• Talk about nationalities and occupations

• Introduce yourself and others, at your workplace or at a party

• Talk about a nearby object and its owner

• Ask for telephone numbers

UNIT 2 SHOPPING 19

GRAMMAR

20

• Talk about the times of meetings and

ASKING ABOUT BUSINESS HOURS

parties

• Ask the hours of services in stores and hotels

• Ask what the size, color, and country of origin of an item is, and buy the item

• Buy one or more of an item, telling the clerk how many you need

SHOPPING, PART II

QUIZ 1 (UNITS 1-2) 45

UNIT 3 GETTING AROUND 47

GRAMMAR

48

• Talk about where you will go, when, and with whom

• Talk about travel destinations, places

VISITING ANOTHER COMPANY

and people to visit, dates and times, and means of transportation

UNIT 4 A WEEKEND EXCURSION 67

GRAMMAR

68

LOOKING FOR A PARKING LOT

• Talk about tourist destinations

• Describe what is inside a building

• Talk about numbers of things or people that exist in a particular place

• Talk about the whereabouts of things and people

UNIT 5 DINING OUT 87

GRAMMAR

88

• Talk about everyday you

will do, when, and where

• State how frequently you do something and give a brief reason for why you do it

• Order food at a restaurant

QUIZ 2 (UNITS 3-5) 107

UNIT 6 VISITING A JAPANESE HOME 109

GRAMMAR

110

• Talk about the characteristics of things and people

• Use basic greetings when visiting people and receiving guests

• Talk about giving and receiving

• Praise someone's possessions

• Express your thoughts about experiences

• Express gratitude

• Make a telephone call

UNIT 7 GOING TO A FESTIVAL 139

GRAMMAR

140

PARTICIPATING IN A FESTIVAL

• Talk about events

• Invite someone/be invited to an event

• Make plans with someone

• Talk about what you own

• Offer to help someone/accept or reject someone's offer

• Give a reason for offering someone something, inviting someone to do something, or refusing someone's invitation

QUIZ 3 (UNITS 6-7) 158

UNIT 8 ON BUSINESS OUTSIDE TOKYO 159

GRAMMAR

160

MAKING A REQUEST

• Talk about weekend plans and travel plans:

state what you will do in what order

• Talk about schedules in detail

• Ask to have something delivered by a specific means from a store or office

• Ask someone to do something for you

• Give directions to a taxi driver

UNIT 9 SEEING A MUSEUM 177

GRAMMAR

178

GOING TO AN ART MUSEUM

BEING WARNED OR ADVISED

• Talk about getting on and off means of transportation, and about departure and arrival times

• Talk about lengths of stays

• Ask about travel times

• Ask permission to do something at someone's house or at a store

• Grant or refuse permission, and give a reason for doing so

• Forbid someone from doing something

• Forbid something and give a reason for doing so

• Ask someone not to do something

QUIZ 4 (UNITS 8-9) 201

UNIT 10 AT THE OFFICE 203

GRAMMAR

204

RESPONDING TO AN INQUIRY

• Talk about what you are doing now

• Talk about whether you have finished an activity

• Talk about where you live, where you work, and who your acquaintances are

• Ask where something you are looking for is sold

• Ask someone at a party or store about something you are interested in

UNIT 11 SOCIALIZING 221

GRAMMAR

222

BEING INTRODUCED TO SOMEONE

interests

• Introduce someone, giving details about where they live or work or what their interests are

• Talk about what you want to do or

where you want to live

• Exchange information about a mutual interest

AT A PARTY

QUIZ 5 (UNITS 10-11) 239

APPENDIXES 240

ANSWERS TO SELECTED EXERCISES AND QUIZZES 251 CD SCRIPT FOR EXERCISES 258

JAPANESE-ENGLISH GLOSSARY 261 ENGLISH-JAPANESE GLOSSARY 267

INDEX 272

PREFACE

TO THE REVISED 3RD EDITION

The new Japanese for Busy People is made up of three volumes: Book I (available in both romanized and kana editions), Book II, and Book III. Japanese for Busy People I was first published in 1984. It was based on materials used by AJALT teachers with more than ten years of experience teaching Japanese at every level from beginning to advanced.

The series was first revised in 1994, when Japanese for Busy People /I was divided into two volumes, Book II and Book III. Only a minimum number of modifications were made to Book I at that time. This 3rd Edition, then, constitutes the first major revision of Book I. It involves a wide variety of changes, including the adoption of a unit-based structure, notes about Japanese culture, new and expanded exercises, and updated dialogues. The authors have made every effort to apply the results of the most recent research in Japanese-language education to ensure that learners acquire a clearer understanding of the situations in which Japanese is actually used, and gain increased confidence in their communicative abilities.

It is our fervent hope that this book will inspire people to learn more about Japan and the Japanese language.

Acknowledgments for Japanese for Busy people I (1st edition, 1984) Compilation of this textbook has been a cooperative endeavor, and we deeply appreciate the collective efforts and individual contributions of Mss. Sachiko Adachi, Nori Ando, Haruko Matsui, Shigeko Miyazaki, Sachiko Okaniwa, Terumi Sawada, and Yuriko Yobuko. For English translations and editorial assistance, we wish to thank Ms. Dorothy Britton.

Acknowledgments for Japanese for Busy People I, Revised Edition (1994)

We would like to express our gratitude to the following people: Mss. Haruko Matsui, Junko Shinada, Keiko Ito, Mikiko Ochiai, and Satoko Mizoguchi.

Acknowledgments for the Kana Version of Japanese for Busy People I, Revised Edition (1995)

We would like to express our gratitude to the following people: Mss. Haruko Matsui, Junko Shinada, Mikiko Ochiai, and Satoko Mizoguchi.

Acknowledgments for Japanese for Busy People I, Revised 3rd Edition

Six AJALT teachers have written this textbook. They are Mss. Yoko Hattori, Sakae Tanabe, Izumi Sawa, Motoko Iwamoto, ShigeyoTsutsui, and Takako Kobayashi. They were assisted by Ms. Reiko Sawane.

ix

INTRODUCTION

Aims

This first volume cif Japanese for Busy People, Revised 3rd Edition has been developed to meet the needs of busy beginning learners seeking an effective method of acquiring a natural command of spoken Japanese in a limited amount of time. The book is suitable for both those studying with a teacher and those studying on their own. In order to minimize the burden on busy learners, the vocabulary and grammar items presented have been narrowed down to about a third of those introduced in a typical first-year course. However, the textbook is set up so that learners can use the material they have learned right away in conversations with speakers of Japanese. In other words, Japanese for Busy People 1 is a textbook for learning "survival Japanese."

Despite this, Japanese for Busy People 1 does not present simple, childish Japanese.

That is, we do not focus on mere grammatical correctness. Instead, we place our emphasis on conversational patterns that actually occur. Thus, by studying with this book, learners will acquire the most essential language patterns for everyday life, and be able to express their intentions in uncomplicated adult-level Japanese. They will also start to build a basis for favorable relations with the people around them by talking about themselves and their surroundings and circumstances, and asking about those of others.

This book is intended for beginners, but it can also provide a firm foundation for more advanced study. Learners can acquire a general idea of the nature of the Japanese language as they study the dialogues and notes in it. For this reason, Japanese for Busy People 1 is suitable as a review text for those who already know a certain amount of Japanese but want to confirm that they are using the language correctly.

Major features of Japanese for Busy People I, Revised 3rd Edition

In this newly revised version of Japanese for Busy People I, we have made the following modifications to ensure that those studying Japanese for the first time will have an enjoyable and effective learning experience.

Adoption of a unit structure. The content of the thirty lessons that made up the previous editions of Japanese for Busy People 1 has been reedited into eleven units, each consisting of two or three lessons linked by a single theme. The reason for this new design is that we believe learning sociocultural information, linguistic information, and communication strategies in an interrelated way is important for producing natural and appropriate Japanese.

Culture notes. We have placed culture notes at the beginning of each unit. These notes describe Japanese customs and events, as well as features of Japan itself. Here our intention is to get learners interested in the lives and customs of the Japanese people, in order to increase their desire to learn Japanese and deepen their understanding of it. We hope that as readers come into contact with the social and cultural information presented in these notes, they will gain an awareness of cultural diversity and acquire specific mental images of the themes introduced in the units.

x

Practice. In this section we have drawn on our classroom experience as well as recent thinking in Japanese-language education to reconstruct and revise the exercises to emphasize both language production and comprehension. Recognizing the importance of vocabulary acquisition at the beginning stages, for example, we have added a "Word Power" subsection that presents the major vocabulary that forms the basis for learning in the lesson. Here we have taken great pains with the presentation of the vocabulary, grouping similar items together to make them easier for learners to memorize. In addition, we have stated and highlighted in italics the intention of each exercise so that learners can understand it at a glance. The exercises themselves incorporate drawings, charts, tables, and other illustrations that we hope will make for a stimulating learning experience. Finally, we have added brief listening exercises to each lesson.

Other features. A 70-minute CD containing the Target Dialogues, Word Power sections, listening exercises, and Short Dialogues is attached to the inside back cover of this book. Additional features of this textbook include profiles of the characters who appear in it and an expanded contents page that lets learners see at a glance the goals to be achieved in each unit. We have also added quizzes every few units, so that learners can consolidate their understanding of recently introduced language.

The structure of the unit

A unit is made up of a culture note, a page on grammar, and two or three lessons. The culture notes are designed to stimulate interest in the themes of each unit and help learners construct a mental image of what they are going to learn. The grammar page, appearing right after the culture note, provides simple explanations of the basic grammatical items introduced in the unit. To the extent possible, the explanations here do not cover knowledge or information beyond that which pertains to the usage of the grammatical items in the unit.

The twenty-five lessons in Book I are each composed of the following four elements:

Target Dialogue. The Target Dialogues, which appear at the beginning of each lesson, indicate specifically what kinds of things the learner will be able to talk about after studying the lesson. We have limited these dialogues to practical expressions and grammatical items necessary for everyday conversation. Vocabulary lists, as well as notes that explain particularly difficult expressions, accompany the dialogues.

Practice. The Practice section consists of Word Power, Key Sentences, and Exercises.

Word Power introduces basic vocabulary that learners should memorize before moving on to the other exercises. The words in this section are introduced with the aid of illustrations and charts, and all are available on the CD. The Key Sentences demonstrate the grammatical items from the lesson by using them in simple sentences. Finally, the Exercises consist of five different types of practice activities:

Exercises that consist of repeating vocabulary or the conjugations

(1 )

of verbs or adjectives.

Basic sentence-pattern exercises that aim to help learners com-

(2) prehend the sentence structures of Japanese and gain an idea of

their meanings.

(3) -:ill

Substitution drills and drills in the form of dialogues that lead to conversation practice.

(4) ~t

Conversation practice created with an awareness of the situations and circumstances in which Japanese is actually used.

xi

(5)

Listening exercises in which learners listen to the CD and answer questions about what they hear.

Practicing exercise types (1), (2), and (3) allows learners to make a smooth transition to type (4), the conversation practice, and finally to move on to the Target Dialogue.

Short Dialogue(s). These are relatively short conversations that demonstrate helpful expressions, ways of getting people's attention, and ways of acknowledging what people have said. Like the Target Dialogues, they are often accompanied by notes that explain points to be aware of when using certain phrases and expressions.

Active Communication. This section, coming at the very end of the lesson, presents one or two tasks for which the learners themselves select the vocabulary, grammar, and expressions they need from the material in the lesson and use them in actual situations or classroom-based communication activities.

Using Japanese for Busy People I

We recommend the following methods of use, both for those who use Japanese for Busy People 1 as teachers and for self-taught learners. Materials should be adapted flexibly, depending on the learner's circumstances, but as a rule it should take about sixty hours to finish Japanese for Busy People I. We suggest learners proceed through the lessons as follows, with each lesson taking about two hours.

CULTURE NOTE

,

GRAMMAR

,

LESSON

, , ,

WORD POWER

,

KEY SENTENCES

,

EXERCISES

, , ,

xii

This section touches on the social and cultural background of the themes covered in the unit and is meant to expand the learner's awareness of the material to be learned.

This page is an overview of the grammatical concepts introduced in the unit. One should read it to get an idea of the kinds of grammatical items one will be learning in the unit.

The Target Dialogue demonstrates what one will be able to say after finishing the lesson. Read the text of the dialogue while listening to the CD, and then scan the text to check the meaning against the English translation. It is important that one not get bogged down in the dialogue at this stage, since one will return to it at the end of the lesson (see below), after completing the Exercises.

This is a warm-up exercise. Learners should listen to the CD and practice pronouncing the words until they have memorized them. English translations of the words appear in a gray box at the bottom of the page.

Learners can gain an understanding of the lesson's grammatical structures by memorizing these useful sentences. New vocabulary items appear in a gray box at the bottom of the page.

Here, learners absorb the lesson's grammatical structures through exercises that ask one to apply them. The exercises usually begin with vocabulary repetition or conjugation practice, then move on to tasks in which one is asked to make up sentences or dialogues and, finally, to full-fledged conversation reenactment. The last exercise, recorded on the CD, is intended to help learners hone their listening skills.

, ,

, ,

One should thoroughly practice these short dialogues that contain handy, frequently used expressions. If one practices them so thoroughly that they begin to come naturally, one will be able to use them in a variety of situations.

The Target Dialogue is the culmination of one's study of the lesson. After learners have finished the exercises, they should return to the Target Dialogue and practice it.

If the learner is in an environment that allows him or her to perform linguistic tasks, he or she should test himself or herself with the challenges presented here.

The Kana Version

The Kana Version is a basic textbook for students who intend to master the native hiregana and katakana scripts early on in their studies. The Kana Version assumes that the learner is thoroughly familiar with both hiragana and katakana, or is currently working through a textbook for learning kana. In any case, the learner should be able to read kana by the time he or she begins using this book.

Introducing the characters

The following characters feature in this textbook. Since they often appear in the exercises, it is a good idea to remember their names, faces, and relationships.

Mike Smith (32 years old), an American, is an attorney for ABC Foods. He is single.

Keiko Sasaki (53 years old), a Japanese, is the department manager of ABC Foods' sales department. She is married.

Mei Chan (30 years old) is from Hong Kong. She works in ABC Foods' sales department. She

is single.

Akira Kato (46 years old), a Japanese, is the section chief of ABC Foods' sales department. He is married.

'fl} -:/

Frank Green (56 years old), an American, is the president of the Tokyo branch of ABC Foods. He lives in Tokyo, with his wife.

Mayumi Nakamura (26 years old), a Japanese, works as a secretary to Ms. Sasaki. She is single.

xiii

Daisuke Suzuki (24 years old), a Japanese, is a member of ABC Foods' sales staff. He is single.

t::.1H;t L

Shingo Takahashi (48 years old),

a Japanese, works for Nozomi Department Store, where he is the division chief of the sales department. His wife's name is Junko.

Ichiro Yamamoto (45 years old), a Japanese, is the president of the Kyoto branch of ABC Foods.

In addition to the above, the following people also appear in this book: Hideo Ogawa (male, 49 years old, a friend of Mr. Green), Taro Yamada (male, a banker and a friend of Mr. Smith), and Ayako Matsui (female, the Greens' next-door neighbor).

xiv

CHARACTERISTICS OF JAPANESE GRAMMAR

The grammar in this text is derived from a natural analysis of the Japanese language, rather than being an interpretation adapted to the syntax of Western languages. We have given as few technical terms as possible, choosing ones that will make for a smooth transition from the basic level to more advanced study.

The following points are basic and in most cases reflect differences between the grammars of Japanese and English.

1. Japanese nouns have neither gender nor number. But plurals of certain words can be expressed by the use of suffixes.

2. The verb (or the copula T-t) comes at the end of the sentence or clause.

ex. hl: L (;I: ht::: L (;I:

I: (fA., L: A., T-t 0 "I am a Japanese."

~ J: -) t I: ~ \ ~ i -t 0 "I go (or will go) to Kyoto."

3. The gender, number, or person of the subject does not affect the other parts of the sentence.

4. Verb conjugation shows only two tenses, the "present form" and the "past form."

Whether use of the" present form" refers to habitual action or the future, and whether the "past form" is equivalent to the English past tense, present perfect, or past perfect can usually be determined from the context.

5. Japanese adjectives, unlike English ones, inflect for tense (present and past) and mood (for example, to show whether the word is negative).

6. The grammatical function of nouns is indicated by particles. Their role is similar to English prepositions, but since they always come after the word, they are sometimes referred to as postpositions.

ex. t -) ~ J: -) T, "at Tokyo"

1 51: -; I:, "on the 15th (of the month)"

7. Many degrees of politeness are expressible in Japanese. In this book the style is one that anyone may use without being rude.

NOTE: The following abbreviations are used in this book:

aff. affirmative
neg. negative
Aa: answer, affirmative
An: answer, negative
ex. example
- ~ \ adj. - ~ \ adjective
- -r,;: adj. - -rJ.' adjective xv

USEFUL DAILY EXPRESSIONS

1. j:.) li.J: -) .: ~ .. ~ Ii -t 0 "Good morning." Used until about 10:00 a.m.

2. : Iv I: 1; lio "Hello." A rather informal greeting used from about 10:00 a.m. until sundown.

3. : Ivlflvlio "Good evening."

4. j:.) ~-t h. -fJ.' ~ ~ 10 "Good night." Said at night before going to bed and when parting at night during late hours outside the home.

5. ~.J: -) -fJ.' Go "Good-bye." On more formal occasions one uses L -:> n ~ I L i -to

6. Tli/ L.: '<" i t::. 0 "Well then ... n Said informally when parting from relatives or friends.

7. j:.) ~ ~ I: L -:> tt.. ~ I L i -t 0 Said when leaving the office or a meeting before other people.

8. ~ I -;J l G -;J L '<" ~ 10 "So long." (lit., "Go and come back.") Said to members of a household as they leave the house. Occasionally it is used at work.

9. ~ I -;J l ~ i -t 0 "So long." (lit., "[I'm] going and coming back.") This expression forms a pair with ~ I -;J l G -;J L '<" ~ I. (See 8 above.) Occasionally it is used at work. A politer form is ~ I -;J l i ~ I I) i-t.

10. t::. t~·~ Ii 0 "I'm back." (lit., "[I have returned] just now.") Said by a person on returning home.

Occasionally it is used at work.

11. j:.) -IJ';;t I) -fJ.' ~ ~ 10 "Welcome home." This expression forms a pair with t::. t~· ~ Ii. (See 10 above.) Occasionally it is used at work.

12. ~ I t::. t~· ~ i -t 0 Said before eating a meal.

13. :- 1; -t -) ~ i T L t::. 0 Said after eating a meal.

14. j:.) I:i) T t -) :- ~ .. ~ Ii -t 0 "Congratulations."

15. t" -) t <h I) -IJf. t -) :- ~ .. ~ Ii -t 0 "Thank you very much."

16. t" -) ~ It::. L iLl 0 "You're welcome."

17. -t h. i -tt Ivo "Excuse me," "I'm sorry."

18. 1; J: -;J t i -;J l < t~' ~ ~ 10 "Wait just a moment, please."

19. t -) ~ 11; t" j:.) tl-IJf.~ I L i -t 0 "Once more, please."

20. t" -),;p' j:.) ~ ~ 1:0 "Please, go ahead."

21. ~ f-:>Itl 0 "Take care," "Be careful."

22. j:.) t~·~ I L.: 1:0 "Take care of yourself." Used toward an ill or injured person.

xvi

In Japan, people bow rather than shake hands, hug, or kiss, when they meet for the first time. A typical bow is performed with both feet together, the hands flat on the thighs (for men) or crossed in front (for women), and the torso inclined at a 15- to 45-degree angle. The eyes remain open during the bow, and the bowing person's line of sight moves with his or her torso rather than staying fixed on the other person. Generally, the deeper and slower the bow, the politer it is. Bowing properly is essential to making a good first impression, so we recommend practicing it until you become comfortable with it.

UNIT

GRAMMAR

Identifying People and Things

I noun 1 Ii noun 2 '"t-t I

ex. 7" V.{ ~ £ Ii -c £ :' L '"t-t 0 "Mr. Grey is an attorney."

• The particle Ii-the topic marker

Ii ("as for ... ") follows noun 1, singling it out as the "topic" of the sentence. Noun 2 is then identified, and the phrase is concluded with '"t-t. The topic is the person or thing that the sentence is about. The topic is often the same as the subject but not necessarily.

noun 1 Ii noun 2 '"t-t 1J'

li\ -. (noun lli) noun 2 '"t-t

\ \\ \;(., (noun 1 Ii) noun 2 '"tli S ') i -It £/ t ~ S ') i -It £

ex. 7' V.{ ~ £ Ii "- £ :' L '"t-t 1J'0 "Is Mr. Grey an attorney?" li\ -. <L : L '"t-t 0 "Yes, (he) is an attorney."

\ \ \ \;(., -c £ :' L '"tli S ') i -It £0 "No, (he) isn't an attorney."

• The particle 1J'-the question marker

It is easy to make questions in Japanese. Simply place the particle 1J' at the end of the sentence. No change in word order is required even when the question contains interrogatives like "who," "what," "when," etc.

NOTE: Intonation normally rises on 1J', i.e., ... -('-t 1J'. J

.Ii\\/\\\\;(.

Ii \ \ is virtually the same as "yes," and \ \\ \;(. is virtually the same as "no."

• Omission of the topic (noun 1)

When it is obvious to the other person what the topic is, it is generally omitted. ex. (h t: L Ii) 7' v.{ '"t-t 0 "(As for me) I'm Grey."

But when it is necessary to make clear what the topic is, it is not omitted. ex. : 1; J? Ii 7" V.{ ~ £ '"t-t 0 "This is Mr. Grey."

Often the topic is omitted in answers to questions.

ex. 7'v.{ ~ £Ii <s; : L '"t-t1J'0 "Is Mr. Grey an attorney?" li\ -. <i: : L '"t-t 0 "Yes, (he) is an attorney."

\ \\ \;(., <c : L '"tli S I) i -It £0 "No, (he) isn't an attorney."

• '"tliSI) i-lt£/t~SI) i-lt£

"('Ii S I) i -It £ or t ~ S ') i -It £ is the negative form of '"t-t. t ~ is more informal than '"tli; otherwise they are the same. The chart below summarizes the forms of "('-t.

PRESENT FORM PAST FORM
aff neg. aff neg.
"('-t "('liS I) i-lt£ '"t L t::. '"tli S I) i -It £ T L t::.
is is not was was not 2

CD

TARGET DIALOGUE

Ms. Sasaki introduces Mr. Smith to Mr. Takahashi.

~ ~ ~ . t: 17'!i L ~ s.. ::: t; G!i A ~ A ~ Iv T-t 0

A ~ A ~ Iv! i ABC 7 - A" (J) <s: ::: .. L T -t 0

A ~ A !i ttl:> i L -c 0 A ~ A T-t 0 J:;S L < ;h tl 17{\ \ L i -t 0 t: 17'!i L !i ttl:> i L -c 0 (J) -7:'h T'/ \- r (J) t: 17'!i L T-t 0

Sasaki: Mr. Takahashi, this is Mr. Smith. Mr. Smith is an attorney with ABC Foods. Smith: How do you do. My name is Smith. Pleased to meet you.

Takahashi: How do you do. I'm Takahashi from Nozomi Department Store. Pleased to meet you.

VOCABULARY

"'~Iv

::i;G

Ii

T-t ABC7-7.. .. 0)

"" Iv .: L

Ii L:: &') i L T

.J:';L< j?tl~{\\Li-t O).7(h-T·/{- I-

T'/ {- I-

Mr., Mrs., Ms., Miss (see Note 1 below)

this one (polite for "this person"; see Note 2 below) (particle that denotes the topic of a sentence)

be

ABC Foods (fictitious company name)

'5, of (particle indicating belonging; see Note 4 below) attorney, lawyer

how do you do

pleased to meet you (see Note 5 below)

Nozomi Department Store (fictitious company name) department store

1.l:71'liL~1v

~ Iv is a title of respect added to a person's name, so it cannot be used after one's own name. ~ Iv may be used with both male and female names, and with either surnames or given names.

2. : 1; Gli A ~ A ~ IvT-to

:: t; G ("this one") implies "this person here" and is a polite way of saying "this person." It is used when introducing one person to another.

3. (h t~ L Ii) A ~ A T-t 0

Especially in conversational Japanese, tJ t:::. L ("I") is hardly ever used. <i) -t,j.' t:::. ("you") is similarly avoided, especially when addressing superiors, in which case the person's surname followed by ~ /: is used.

3

I

4. (j) 7C'h. T'/ e - ~ (j) t: n' Ii L T-t 0

The particle (/) attaches to nouns, and the noun-(/) combination modifies the word that comes after it. (/) expresses belonging or affiliation. Here it shows that Mr. Takahashi belongs to, in the sense that he works for, Nozomi Department Store. Japanese customarily give their company name and position when being introduced.

5.l;;L< j:;tln{\\Li-to

A phrase used when being introduced, J: ;; L < h b77'\ \ L i -t is usually combined with Ii t.: Ii) i L T. It is also used when taking one's leave after having asked a favor. J: ;; L < means "well" and is a request for the other person's favorable consideration in the future.

WORDPOWER----------------------------------------

CD I. Countries and nationalities:

II

1. 1:ll~ 5. T ;< I) t; 9. 1:, tjJ -) =,. < L.:: ~ 13. ;f -;Z ~ -7 I) T L.:: ~
2. 1:, tjJ -) =' < 6. ;f -;Z ~ -7 I) T 10. F 1 ''/ t.: ~ 14. '71 L.::~
3. ~'1 ''/ 7. '71 11. 1 + I) ;Z L.:: ~
4. 1 .=r·I) ;Z 8. 1:ll~L.::~ 12. T ;< I) t; L.:: ~ I: 11£ Japan T_'( I) t; the United States
t,rJ>7::'< China t-Ar'7I)T Australia
F 1 "/ Germany 5'1 Thailand
4 1 +1) A the United Kingdom ~L£ -ese, -ian (person from) II. Occupations:

2. U L J:

4 . .:r.:. /:/=-7

KEYSENTENCES---------------------------------------

1. (h l: L I.t) A ~ A T-t 0

2. A ~A~,.tli ABC7-A"([) ",-,.t-:"LT-to

3. .; 1; Gli ([)-7:',7.;.7'/\- r ([) t;:?]'li L ~,.t T-to

1. I am Smith.

2. Mr. Smith is an attorney with ABC Foods.

3. This is Mr. Takahashi from Nozomi Department Store.

EXERCISES-------------------------------------------

I. Make up sentences following the patterns of the examples. Substitute the underlined words with the words in parentheses.

Mr. Smith, attorney

Ms. Hoffman, engineer

Mr. Takahashi

Ms. Brown, secretary

Ms. Lin, student

A. State someone's nationality.

1 .

2 ...

3 ...

4. '"

VOCABULARY

H ••• (7"77/~1v. 1.:f'I)Atlv)

(I) / ~ s.. 1; rp -) t: < t Iv) (f.:Jj'I;tL~Iv. 1:lllvtlv)

<i.: L attorney, lawyer *77/- Hoffman (surname)
V L.t secretary 777/- Brown (surname)
n«1±\\ student I) /- Lin (surname)
J:../-Y=-7 engineer 5 I

6

B. State someone's occupation.

1 ..

2.

3 .

(*77/,~,(" .I./':/'::"7) (7"7'7 /' ~,(" U L J:)

(I) /' ~,(" ~{< 1± ~ \)

II. Make up dialogues following the patterns of the examples. Substitute the underlined words with the words in parentheses.

A. Ask and answer what someone's nationality is.

ex. A: A 2 A ~ ,.eli 7 ~ I) tJ t.::,.e T-tfJ'o B: li\ -. 7 ~ I) tJ t.::,.e T-t 0

1. A: ....
B: ..
2. A:
B:
3. A:
B: 4. A: .

B: .

B. Ask and answer what someone's occupation is.

ex. A: A 2 A ~ ,.e Ii .I. /':/ z: 7 T-t fJ'o B: \ \ \ \ it 0 ~,.e:: L -C-t 0

1. A: .

B: .

2. A: .

B: .

(*77/,~,(" F1"IC'(') 0:'1 '/' C,(,)

(f7'7/'~,(" 1.f'I)7.C'(') (1.f'1)7.C,(,)

(I) /' ~ c. 1; tjl -) .: < C Iv) (1; tjl -) :- < C Iv)

(t: ~'I;t L ~ ,(" I: 11,(, C Iv) (I: 111v C Iv)

(7"7'7 /' ~ ,(,) (U L J:) (I)/,~Iv)

........... (~{ < 1± ~ \)

C. Ask and answer whether someone is of one nationality/occupation or another.

ex. A: A 2 A ~ ,.eli 7 ~ I) tJ t.::,.e T-tfJ', -1 ~'I) A t.::,.e T-tfJ'o B: 7 ~ I) tJ t.:: ,.e l'-t 0

1. A:

B:

\ \ \ \ it

(particle that denotes question) yes

no

(1: ~'I;t L ~ ,(" I: 11,(, C i: 1; tjl -) .: < C,(,) (I: 111v C,(,)

(I)

VOCABULARY

2. A: ..

B:

3. A: ..

B: .

(7' "7 '/ /' ~ ,(" -1.:f I) A L::..c, r' -1 'J L:: ,(,) (-1 ;f' I) A L::..c)

(;t77/'~..c, :L/,"/::..7, -..::..c:::::L) ( :L /' "/ z: 7)

III. Respond to a self-introduction. Make up dialogues following the pattern of the example, assuming the roles indicated in parentheses.

ex. A ~ A: (i L: ell) i L 1", ABC 7 - 7,' 0) A ~ A T -t 0 J: ~ L < j:; tln {~ \ L

i -t 0

S fJ.' t:: (i L: ell) i L 1" 0 ---(J[" I) '/ =f:-IJ - 7,'0) * 7 7' '/ T-t 0 J: ~ L < j:;

tln{~ \ L i -t 0

1. A ~ A:

2. A ~ A: ..

................... (0 /' r' /' ~ .. ,(, :::: -), 7""7 '/ /')

IV. Introduce people. Look at the illustrations and pretend you are B. Introduce A and C to each other, as in the example.

A: -..::,t" I) /'-t-7 - A", ;t77/,~,{,

C: ABC7-A', A~A~,{,

A: 0 /' F /' ~. ,(,:::: -) , -f"7,//,~,{,

C: z -) ~.J: -) t:'\\7;{<, I) /' ~ ,{,

ex. B: : t; G (i 7-7,"0)

---(J[" I) '/ =f: - IJ - 7,"0) A ~ A -?5 Iv -t-t 0

1. B: .

2. B: .

A: ~f!h.T/;;- r, t:7HiL~'{'

C: ""t"I) /'-t-7-A', ;t77/,~,{,

* 7 7' '/ -?5 Iv T-t 0 : t; G (i ABC

V. Listen to the CD and fill in the blank based on the information you hear .

A ~ A -?5 Iv (i T-t 0

if,t:l::.

.-('l.- I) /'-t::-1-;r: o/' F/'~''(':-)

o/'F/' ~.,(,: '7

you

Berlin Motors (fictitious company name) Bank of London (fictitious bank name) London

bank

I::: '7 s , '7/:\\1;« 1:::'7~.t'7

t:\\1;«

Tokyo University Tokyo

university. college

7

I

CD

8

I. At the reception desk of a company:

_A ~ _A: ABC 7 - _A" 0) _A ~ _A T-t 0 t:: i.7' (;I: L ~ ,(; ~ -) It":) It: (;I: ~ '0

Smith: I'm Smith from ABC Foods. (I'd like to see) Mr. Takahashi, please.

receptionist: All right.

VOCABULARY

~

;I?;t,J.n{\ \ L i-t -) It-::>It

(particle; see Note 1 below) please (get me ... ) reception desk, receptionist

II. The buzzer on a home security intercom system sounds.

1- -t' /: (;I: ~ " r:' f,j..' t:: T -t i.7' 0

fJ_'I},tJ G: fJ_'i.7,tJ G T-t 0

1- -t' /: (;I: ~ -. r" -) '-'Fo

Chan: Yes? Who is it?

Nakamura: It's Nakamura.

Chan: All right. Please (come in).

VOCABULARY

t" 1"J.' t: who

l;t \ \, t" -) -T' please go ahead, please feel free

1. t:: I}' (;I: L ~ ,{; ~ j:? ill} '{ ~ , L i -t 0

Use "(person) ~ });t,J. n{\ \ L i -t" when asking a receptionist to summon somebody you want to see. });t,J. n{\ \ L i -t is a very convenient phrase often used in making polite requests.

2. r"fJ_' t::

The basic word for "who" is t: it, but t"1"J.' t: is more polite.

3, (;I: v v, r" -) :r'o

This expression is used when granting a visitor permission to enter a room or an office. It can also be used when handing over something that another person has asked for.

1. Introduce yourself to a classmate. Then introduce two classmates to each other.

2. If you're in Japan, try introducing yourself to a Japanese person. State who you are and what your occupation is.

TARGET DIALOGUE

Mr. Takahashi gives Mr. Smith his business card. Mr. Smith cannot read kanji.

A ~ At" -) t ~ I) f){ t -) -::.." ~" ~ \ i -t 0 (flipping over Takahashi's business

card to examine the other side) -::.. nIl t::. f)' IlL ~ Iv (J) fJ.' i ;;t

T-t f)'o

t::. f)' IlL ;;t ;;t , -T -) T -t 0 1;: f)' IlL

A ~ A -::.. nIl?

t::. f)' I i L -IJ' ~ \ L >(> (J) fJ.' i ;;t T-t 0 (J) -T".h T'/ ~ - r T-t 0

L £ ::_"T-t 0

Takahashi: This is my business card. Here.

Smith: Thank you very much. Is this your name?

Takahashi: Yes that's right. It's Shingo Takahashi.

Smith: What about this?

Takahashi: It's the name of (my) company. It's "Nozomi Department Store."

VOCABULARY

ht: L 0) clt)\\L r· -) -to

r· -) t <f; I) ~{r -) :::'~' \ \ i -t :::tL

1".J.' i ;:t

;:t;:t

-T -) T-t :::tLli? ~'\ \ L <;"

my

business card

please; if you please thank you very much this one

name

yes (less formal than 1;1: \ \) that's right

what about this? company, the office

1. (:: n!;t) h t;: L 0) a» ~ \ L T --t 0

ht: L 0) clt)\ \ L means "my business card." The particle (J) here expresses possession.

2. t" -) t ;t') n {t -) ::" ~" ~ \ ;t --t 0

This is an expression of gratitude. There are several levels of politeness in Japanese, and r" -) t <f; I) ~{r -) :::' ~.'\ \ i -t is an example of the most polite level. More casual are, in descending order or politeness, <f; I) ~{r -) .: ~ .. \ \ i -t, roO -) t <f; I) -/;{ z -) , and <f; I) -/;{ t -) .

9

I

3. :::: hll t;:i.J'll L ~ Iv(/) i"J.' i ;t T-ti.J'o

Note that although addressing Mr. Takahashi, Mr. Smith uses his name rather than saying ;t f,t.' t::.(J), "your." (See Note 3, p. 3.)

4. -t -) T-t 0

When replying to questions that end with T-t 1;', -f -) can be used instead of repeating the noun.

5. :::: hll?

A rising intonation on the particle Ii makes this informal phrase a question without using the question marker 1;'.

WORDPOWER----------------------------------------

CD

I. Numbers:

o 1

-tto/ ~'"G tL~ ,

4 .J:1v/L

5

6 ~ <

8 Ii "G

q

~ tP -) / <

II. Business vocabulary:

Shingo Takahashi

Nozomi Department Store

® Jltff-oW?!-lR;jt/ r, 3-25-2 CD (03) 3459-9620*

® s.takahashi@nozomidpt.com

3-25-2 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo (03) 3459-9620

E-MAIL: s.takahashi@nozomidpt.com

1.&0~'L

2. f.J.' i ;t

3. L tP -) L .J:

4. T Ivhlflv::::--)

5. ;(-/"'7 F VA

*The area code for Tokyo is 03. When saying a phone number aloud, put (J) between the area code (e.g., 03) and the exchange, and between the exchange and the last four numbers. The phone

number here is pronounced -tto ~ 1v(J) ~ Iv .J: Iv ~ tP -) (J) ~ tP -) ~ <

I: -1:'0,

NOTE: The 0 used in telephone numbers is pronounced -1:'0 instead of *1.\ '.

J1'>\' L business card -C£;b telephone
f.eti name (f£:- i number
ttPiL.J: address ""-/1.-7 F VA e-mail address
10 -r- £ ;b (f £ .: i telephone number III. Personal belongings:

"tllW.i

KEySENTENCES--------------------------------------

VOCABULARY

3. 11,(,

1. :::it.li &»~\LT-to

2. ::: it. Ii &» ~ \ L Tli <f:> I) i -Ii £0

3. ::: it.li ~ ~ ~ ~ £(/) 1.7' ~ T-t 0

4. t:I.7'li L ~ £(/) T£hl:f£ ::: .. -) Ii 03-3459-9620 T-t 0

1. This is a business card.

2. This is not a business card.

3. This is Ms. Sasaki's umbrella.

4. Mr. Takahashi's telephone number is 03-3459-9620.

tt\ ,t:::\' cell/mobile phone iJ'~' key
iJ'~ umbrella ttt\ , watch, dock
11,(, book Tli;li, I) if 1:t,(, is/are not
L ,(,.;:,(, newspaper 11 I

I

EXERCISES ---------------------

I. Make up sentences following the patterns of the examples. Substitute the underlined words with the words in parentheses.

A. State what an object is.

1 .....

B. State what an object is not.

1 ...

2 ...

II. Make up dialogues following the patterns of the examples and based on the information in the illustrations.

A. Ask and answer whether an object is what it appears to be. ex. A: ::: nil L ,z, ,;:,z, T·--t 1J' 0

B: Il~\, L,z,,;:,z,T--to

1. A: .

B: ....

2. A:

B: .....

3. A: ..

B: ..

B. Negate the identity of an object. ex. A: ::: nil II,z, T--t1J'o

B: ~\~\;;t, Il,z,Tlllf:> I) i-tr,z,o

B:.

VOCABULARY

2. A: ::: nIl t: It~ 'T-t77'o
B: ..
3. A: ::: nIl 77' ~"" T-t 77' 0
B: .. III. Ask and answer what an object is. Look at the illustrations and make up dialogues following the pattern of the example.

ex. A: ::: nIl -fJ."/v T-t77'o B: L/v.;:/vT-to

1. A: ..
B: ..
2. A: ..
B: ...
3. A: ..
B: .. IV. State who the owner of an object is. Make up sentences following the pattern of the example and based on the information in the illustrations.

1 ...

2 ..

3 ....

what

13

~0~ij{jI V. Make up dialogues following the patterns of the examples and based on the information in the illustrations.

A. Ask and answer whether an object belongs to someone. ex. A: ::::: k1li ~ ~ '5: ~ i.«: iJ'~ T-tiJ'o B: li~', ~ ~ '5: ~ Iv(/)T-t 0

1. A: ..

B: ..

2. A: ..

B: ...

3. A: ....

B: .....

B. Deny that an object belongs to someone.

ex. A: ::::: k1li i"J,'iJ'L' G ~ i.o: iJ'~ T-tiJ'o

B: ~,~,;;t, i"J,'iJ'L' G ~ Iv(/)Tlii> I) i -Ii Ivo

B: ..

2. A: :::tLli 1-i'/~!v(J) n'~"T-tn'o B: ..

B: ..

C. Ask and answer who an object's owner is.

1. A: ..

B:

2. A: ..

B: ..

who

14

3. A: ..

B:

it0:;iI VI. Use the information in the table to make up sentences or dialogues as in the examples.

VOCABULARY

NAME TELEPHONE NUMBER
ex. :.z.~:.z. 03-3459-9660
1 . ~~~ 03-3298-7748
2. t: \ \ L 1)' Iv 03-3225-1116
3. .. ~··Iv;j 03-5690- 3111
4. t:1Hi L 03-3459-9620 A. State someone's phone number.

ex. A ~ A ~ /: (/) T Iv h I f Iv ::: "7 Ii -to 0 ~ Iv (/) ~ Iv J: Iv

~ t1J"7 (/) ~ t1J"7 ;S < ;S < -t'oT-9o

_,'

1 .

2 ...

3 .

4 ....

B. Ask for and provide someone's phone number.

ex. A: A ~ A ~ Iv (/) B: -t'o ~ Iv(/) -t'o T-9 0

Tlvh If Iv :., "7 Ii {J.'1v If Iv T'-9 f)'o

~Iv J:1v - ~t1J"7(/) ~t1J"7 ;<

1. A: ..
B: ..
2. A: ..
B: .. 3. A: ..

B: ..

4. A: ..

B:

t::\ I Li.I',.c 1" .. ' ,.c l;f ,.c

embassy what number

15

I

CD

II

16

VII. Talk about who an object's owner is. Make up dialogues following the pattern of the example.

Substitute the underlined words with the words in parentheses.

ex. Ms. Nakamura is cleaning up the meeting room after a meeting. Mr. Smith comes into the room.

A ~ A: ::: flli 1-,,07' t' G ~,.c0) U:,.c T-r -Q'o

1-J.'-Q't; G: (looking at the book) \ \ \ \;it, h t: L 0) Tli j) I) i -li,.co A ~ A: t:'flO) 11,.c T-r-Q'o

1-J.'-Q,t' G: 1- -r /I ~ ,.cO)T-r 0

1. A ~ A:
rJ.'1J't;G:
A ~ A:
rJ.'1J'[;G:
2. A , A:
rJ.'1J'[;G:
A , A:
rJ.'1J't' G:
3. A , A'
rJ.·1J't;G:
A ~ A:
rJ.'1J't· G: ..................................... (1J'~)

VIII. Listen to the CD and fill in the blank based on the information you hear.

................................. -C-r 0

SHORT DIALOGUES

(.D I. After Mr. Takahashi leaves the room, Mr. Smith finds a datebook on the sofa. II A ~ A: ::: ift I 1 -f"d.' tr: t' G ~ £ (/) -r 1; J: -) T -t i.J' 0

-f"d.'i.J,t' G: \ 1\ I it, hI:: L (/) TILt 'J i 1± £0

A ~ A: t:·ift(/)T-ti.J'o

Ms. Nakamura notices the name "Takahashi" on the datebook, so she runs after him.

-f"d.' i.J' t' G: ::: ift I 1 t: i.J' IlL ~ £ (/) t:i.J'11 L: it it, -T -) T-t 0 t" -) t:

-r 1; J: -) T-ti.J'o

~ 'J i.J" t -) :::> ~ .. \ I i -t 0

Smith: Ms. Nakamura, is this your datebook?

Nakamura: No, it's not mine.

Smith: Whose is it?

Nakamura: Is this your datebook, Mr. Takahashi? Takahashi: Yes, it is. Thank you very much.

VOCABULARY

datebook, small notebook, planner

II. Ms. Chan meets Mrs. Matsui at a party and asks her for her telephone number.

1- t' /': i -::>\ I ~ £(/) T£hlf£:::> -) 11 -f"d.' £If£ T-ti.J'o i -::> \ I: 0 3 - 3 4 5 q - q 6 3 0 T-t 0

(t\'t:\'11 OQO-1234-56781'·-to 1- t' .>: -t 7,.. i 1± £0 t -) \ 11; t" }; ~ i.J"\ I L i -t 0

Chan: What is your phone number, Mrs. Matsui?

Matsui: It's 03-3459-9630. My mobile phone number is 090-1234-5678.

Chan: I'm sorry, could you repeat that?

VOCABULARY

-thi1:t,c

t7 \I!?t:" ;l?tJ.7h'Li-t

t"7 \I!?t:"

t "7

\I!?t:"

I'm sorry; excuse me one more time, please one more time

more

one time

1, Ask the people around you what their phone numbers are and make a list.

2, If you're in Japan, ask an employee of a restaurant or store what the establishment's phone number is.

17

Japan is a shopper's paradise. From large and lavish department stores to small, hole-in-the-wall establishments in shopping arcades, the country abounds with shops. For the most part, price labels are attached to goods, although sometimes when the prices are not given or are written in kanji it is necessary to ask how much an item costs. Salesclerks are generally polite and helpful; upon entering a store or restaurant, a customer will almost always be greeted The greeting is irasshaimase!

speaker

• :Q)/7r;(f)/;bQ)

: Q), 7r; Q), and ;b Q) have similar

20

TARGET DIALOGUE

Mr. Smith goes to the department store, but it isn't open yet.

A~A -t.,z". i -li~, ~ \ i f,j.' ~ t T-t »-,
j:; ~ f,;.'(J) Vt q L: 5 0 .)~ ~ T-t 0
A~A -:F/ \- r Ii fJ.' ~ L:: iJ' ~ T-t iJ' 0
j:; ~ fJ.' _(1) Vt 1 0 L: iJ' ~ l'-t 0
A~A t: ~ L: i TT-tiJ'o
j:; /: fJ.' (J) Vt _ .... _ .... 8 t i TT-t 0
'- '-
A~A th I) iJ {t -5 .: ~" ~ \ i -t 0
j:; ~ fJ.' (J) Vt t" -5 ~ \ t:: L iLl 0 Smith: Excuse me. What time is it? woman: It's 9:50.

Smith: What time does the department store open? woman: It opens at 10:00.

Smith: Until what time is it open? woman: It's open till 8:00 p.m.

Smith: Thank you. woman: You're welcome .

• The department store is open from 10:00 to 8:00.

VOCABULARY

-t.z,.j;1:t~ \\j;

i',J.'~ t

""t

}; ~ i'J.' (7) U 'C.

}; Iv i'J.'

U'C.

9 t « t)

5 O'l~1v (:: t tP "J';~Iv) 50 (::ttP7) "",l'~/'l~~

iJ'~

excuse me

now

what time o'clock (counter)

woman

female, woman

person

nine o'clock fifty minutes fifty

minute

from (particle)

21

I

1 0 t iT

ten o'clock until (particle)

p.m., in the afternoon eight o'clock

you're welcome; don't mention it

8 t

t" -) \ \ t: L i L l'

ImIiD

1. (7'/\-" Ii) 1 0 ti.l'GTi"o / (7'/\-" Ii)

8 t i TTi" 0

When stating the hours that a business is open, use the" noun 1 Ii noun 2 T-t" pattern, However, if the topic of the sentence is clear from the context, it may be omitted, as it has been here. (See "Omission of the topic (noun 1)" in Unit 1 Grammar, p, 2,) The time the business opens is followed by -/J' G, and the time that it closes is followed by iT,

WORDPOWER---------------------------------------

CD I. Services and activities:

II

c:J 0 CJ c:J c:J 0 Cl 0 c:J

2. A-/\'-

T:/~- r department store «s.: '5 bank U7,;, noon
A-'~- supermarket L :'(:: work, job .>('-th. break, rest
[...·A r -7:'- restaurant i.!'\ l"!c" meeting, conference '~-T -I - party
22 t1>'5rflv"!c.J:< post office ,[}7,;,.>('-th. lunch break ;;(\ Ii.!" movie I!f}1.g.,

II. Numbers:
10 C:rjJ7 20 I: r rjJ 7 30 ~'{'C:rjJ7
11 C:rjJ7\1-t; 21 1:C:rjJ7\1-t; 40 J:,{,C:rjJ7
12 c: rjJ 7 I: 22 1:C:rjJ71: 50 .: c: rjJ 7
13 C:rjJ7~,{, 23 1:C:rjJ7~,{, 60 .t;< C:rjJ7
14 C:rjJ7J:,{,/C:rjJ7L 24 1:C:rjJ 7 J:,{,/I:C:rjJ 7 L 70 -rJ.' -rJ.' c: rjJ 7
15 C:rjJ7::: 25 I: c: rjJ 7 :" 80 Ii -t; c: rjJ 7
16 C:rjJ 7.t; < 26 1:C:rjJ7.t;< 90 ~rjJ7C:rjJ7
17 c: rjJ 7 -rJ.' -rJ.' / c: rjJ 7 L -t; 27 I: c: rjJ 7 ij_'ij_'/I: c: rjJ 7 L -t;
18 C:rjJ7Ii-t; 28 I: c: rjJ 71i-t; 100 U"\'<
19 C:rjJ7 </C:rjJ7~rjJ7 29 I: c: rjJ 7 < /1: c: rjJ 7 ~ rjJ 7 III. Times:
1 :00 \I-t;c: 3:05 ~,{,c:
2:00 I: c: 3:15 ~,{,c:
3:00 ~,{,c: 3:25 ~,{,c:
4:00 J:C: 3:35 ~,{,c:
5:00 :"C: 3:45 ~,{,c:
6:00 .t; < c: 3:55 ~,{,c:
7:00 L-t;c:
8:00 Ii -t; c:
9:00 < c:
10:00 C:rjJ7C:
11 :00 C:rjJ7\1-t;c:
12:00 C:rjJ71:C: .: ,;,,{, 3:10 ~,{,c: c: rjJ ~ ,;:,{,
c: rjJ 7 :",;,,{, 3:20 ~,{,c: I: c: rjJ ~ ,;:,{,
I: c: rjJ 7 :',;,,{, 3:30 ~,{,c: ~ ,{, c rjJ ~ ,;:'{'/Ii'{'
~ ,{, t rjJ 7 :' ,;,,{, 3:40 ~,{,c: J:'{' c: rjJ ~ ,;:,{,
J: ,{, c: rjJ 7 :' ,;,,{, 3:50 ~,{,c: .: c: rjJ ~ ,;:,{,
:' c: rjJ 7 .: ,;,,{, 4:00 a.m. .: -If ,{, J: c:

9:00 p.m. < c

NOTE: Hours and minutes are written in hiragana here, but throughout the rest of the book they are written with numerals, e.g., 1 c: for" 1 :00," 1 0 c: 2 0 ,;:,{, for" 1 0:20," etc.

KEySENTENCES--------------------------------------

VOCABULARY

1. ~ \ i 3 t T-t 0

2. L :'c:: Ii q ti.7'0 5 t: i TT"-to

1. It's 3:00.

2. Work is from 9:00 to 5:00.

I:t .{, half past (of time)

:::: -If .{, a.m., in the morning

23

I

EXERCISES ---------------------

I. State the time. Practice telling the times indicated below.

ex.

1 .

2.

19:0ol~ 0000' 0

ex. 3 L:

1 2 .

3 ...

4 ...

5 ...

II. Ask and give the time. Make up dialogues following the pattern of the example. Substitute the underlined word with the times indicated in exercise I.

ex. A: ~ \ i -t,J..' Iv L:: T-t -b' 0 B: 3 L:: T-t 0

1. A:
B: "''''
2. A: ..
B:
3. A:
B:
4. A: ..
B: .... 5. A:

B:

24

"f}i.!@-

III. Make up sentences following the patterns of the examples. Substitute the underlined word(s) with the alternatives given.

A. State a department store's opening time.

ex.T'/~-~11 10L7;'GT-to

1 ....

(9: 00) (11:00)

2....... ...

B. State what time work will finish. ex. L:: til 5 L i TT-t 0

1 .....

(7 : 00) (6 : 30)

2.

C. State what work hours are, from what time until what time.

1 .

(9:30,6:00) (10:00,7:00)

2.

IV. Make up dialogues following the patterns of the examples. Substitute the underlined words with the alternatives given.

A. Ask and answer what time a business will open.

ex. A: ~"Iv:' -) 11 -fJ.' Iv L 7;' G T-t 7;'0 B: 9 L 7;' G T-t 0

1. A: ..

B: .

(11:00)

(tP -) UIv"7! .l: <) (9 : 00)

2. A: .

B: ....

B. Ask and answer what time something will end or close. ex. A: / ~-j- l' -11 -fJ.' Iv L i TT-t7;'o

B: :,":." 9 L i TT-to

B:

(v;z. r 7' :/)

(=' =' 1 1 30)

1. A: .

2. A: .

B:

(10:30)

25

I

C. Ask and answer what an event's hours are.

ex. A: 1J'~ \ ~"Ii B: 1 t 1J' G

-f.;.' Iv t 1J' G -f.;.' Iv t i T-C-t1J'o 3 t i TT-t 0

B: ..

30)

2. A: ....

B:

(4 : 1 5, 6 30)

V. Find out when a service will begin or when a facility will open. Make up dialogues following the pattern of the example. Substitute the underlined words with the alternatives given.

ex. Mr. Smith is at a resort hotel. He asks the front desk when meals are served and when the hotel's facilities open.

A ~ A: -t ,J,.. i 1± Iv 0 ih ~ : .. l;t Iv I i -f.;.' Iv t 1J' G T -t 1J' 0 70 /' l-: 7 t 1J' G T-t 0

A~A: t"7t ih')1J{t7o

1. A ~ A: (If A., :::::'I.t 1(,)

7o/'~:.. (6:00)

70 /' l-: .H.... ...................................•.

(7'-/v)

(8 : 00 arn.)

2. A ~ A:

(;) t-)

(9 : 00 a.m.)

3. A ~ A:

(D

VI. Listen to the CD and fill in the blank based on the information you hear .

1, :: .: I.t ,(, breakfast 70/1- the front desk (of a hotel) 7'-/[,- pool
if>:: morning t'7 t if> I) ;?<l::: 7 thank you :)/.-. gym
::'Ii,(, meal It,(, ::'Ii,(, dinner
26 It£. evening I!f}l·]~·'

SHORT DIALOGUE

(D Ms. Sasaki wants to call the London branch of her company .

• ~~~: 7"J.'77't'G~~, \\j: 7"J.'~LTi"77'o 7"J.'77't' G: 4 L li~ Ti" 0

~ ~ ~: 0 /' ~' /' Ii \ \ j: 7"J.' ~ L T i" 77' 0 7"J.' 77' t; G: ;:"{f ~ 8 L Ii ~ Ti" 0

~ ~~: -t -) ["i"77'0 t"-) t <t I) 77{t -) 0

Sasaki: Ms. Nakamura, what time is it?

Nakamura It's 4:30.

Sasaki: What time is it in London?

Nakamura: It's 8:30 in the morning.

Sasaki: Is that so? Thank you very much.

VOCABULARY

-f -) T·-t IJ' I see

1. -t -) Ti"77'o

This expression, meaning "I see" or "is that so?" is used as a comment on what someone else has said. It is spoken with falling intonation,

1. Ask someone for the time.

2. If you're in Japan, try asking for the business hours of a restaurant or other facilities you are interested in.

27

TARGET DIALOGUE

Mr. Smith is shopping in a department store.

c41±O) o r . \'G-J L-\"\'i1±o

;( ~ ;z. : (pointing) 1.- n f c41± l < t:.' ~ \ '0 c41±O) U t_ li\', t_"-) .2f'0

;z. ~;z. ~ 'J 77{t_ -) 0 :::: nIl \' < G T-f77'o

c41±O) U t_ 3, 0 0 0 ;z ~ T-f 0

;z. ~ ;z. : (pointing) 1.- nIl \' < G T-f -I)' 0

c41±O) U t_ :::: nt 3,00 o;Z~ T-fo

;z. ~;z. L:: -\", 1.- n f < t3.' ~ \ '0

c41±O) U t_ li\', ~ 'J 77{t_ -) ::::"~"\' i -f 0

salesperson: May I help you?

Smith: Please show me that one. salesperson: Yes, here it is.

Smith: Thank you. How much is this? salesperson: It's 3,000 yen.

Smith: How much is that one? salesperson: This is also 3,000 yen.

Smith: I'll take that one, then. salesperson: All right. Thank you.

28

VOCABULARY

h-tt

\\G"? L'I'"'\\;t-tt Ttl

s; -tt 1" < t: ~ \ \ \ \ < G

3,OOO)_/v (~/v-l:f/v)_"{_')

",)_/v

t

L'I'"'

< t:· ~ \ \

shop, store, restaurant may I help you?; welcome that one

please show me how much

3,000 yen

yen

also, too, either (particle) well then

please give me

mmJ

1.-ftL~ "z".1±T<t-: .. ~~\o

When you want to take a closer look at an item in a store, use "(something)f ;".1±T < f::-':5. \ \" ("please show me ... "),

2. s : -tf" ,.c it ,.c

The system of counting large numbers is different in Japanese and English. The chart below shows how to count from a thousand to a trillion.

.. . ;. ............."J,QQ() 1± Iv

to,OOO \ \ i? i Iv

100,000 t tP 7 i Iv

• 1,000,000 U <:' < i Iv

.. ........1Q,Q(),()(Q()() 1± Iv i Iv

ioo.ooo.ooo \ \ i? t? <

1,000,000,000 t tP 7 t? <

. 10,000,000,000 U <:' < t? < .

........... 1 ~9!9.9~,.q9.9!9.q9 :It ~.~.~ .

1,000,0!00,000,000 \ \ -? i? .J: 7

i?.J:7.t?< .. ilv

: : :

. .

2,222,222,222,222

1::i?.J: 7 1::1±IvI::U<:, < l::ttP 71::t?< 1::1±IvI::U<:, < l::ttP 71::ilv

1::1±IvI::U<:, < I:: t tP 71::

Decimals. (The word for "decimal point" is T iv.)

° ttl \

0.7 tt\\TIv1"J.'1"J.'

0.29 ttl \T Iv I:: ~ tP 7

0.538 tt\\TIv::'-':5.lvlii?

Fractions. (,;: Iv means" part. ")

1/2 1/4

1::,;:Iv(7) \\i?

.t Iv.;: Iv (7) \ \ i?

2/3

3. :: tL t 3,0 0 0 it,.c T-t 0

The particle t means "too," "also," "either," etc. It is used in both affirmative and negative sentences.

ex. -T ttli -':5.1v-tf Iv;t Iv T-t 0 .; tt t -':5.1v-tf Iv;t Iv T-t 0

"That one is 3,000 yen. This one is 3,000 yen, too."

::ttli ~t~L(7) 1.I'-':5.Tli;t:,'Ji1±lvo -Tttt ~t~L(7)Tli;t:,'Ji1±lvo "This is not my umbrella. That's not mine either."

t <:' and Tli correspond to "well" or "well then," interjections that express conclusion or resignation. :: tt f < f:: -':5. \ \ means "I'll take this one" and is the phrase to use when you have decided what you want to buy.

29

I

WORDPOWER---------------------------------------

CD

iii

I. Electronic appliances:

CD

@

II. Numbers:
100 U'\'< 1,000 -ttA.- 10,000 \11;itC
200 I=U,\, < 2,000 1= -tt A.- 20,000 1= i tC
300 :'5tC,/'\' < 3,000 :'5A.-{fA.- 30,000 :'5tCitC
400 l.tCU,\,< 4,000 l.A.--tttC 40,000 l.tCitC
500 ::_··U'\' < 5,000 ::_ .. -tt tC 50,000 ::_'i tC
600 7:>"?U°,\, < 6,000 7:><-ttA.- 60,000 7:><itC
700 fJ.'fJ.'U'\'< 7,000 fJ.' fJ.' -tt tC 70,000 fJ.' fJ.' i tC
800 Ii"? if'\'< 8,000 li"?-ttA.- 80,000 Ii 1; i tC
900 ~rp-)U'\'< 9,000 ~tP-)-tttC 90,000 ~tP-)itC Intermediate numbers are made by combining the numbers composing them.

ex. 135 U '\' < :'5 tC L rp -) .: 1,829 -tt A.- Ii"? if '\' < 1= L rp -) ~ rp -)

NOTE: Large numbers are written in hiragana here, but throughout the rest of the book, numerals are used to write them, e.g., 3,00 0 ~tC for "3,000 yen."

T vt' television t' T'T t; ~ -7 video camera C D7'v--\"'- CD player
-7::/t radio t' T·t video CD (-/-T'1 -) CD
/ \ '_) ::1 .> (personal) computer t;~-7 camera
:J() lJ I dlqltill (amPI d III. Japanese currency:

o

1.1;z~

2. 5 ;z ~

3. 1 o x ~ 4. 50 ;z ~

6. 50 o x z.

5. 1 0 o x x.

8.2,00 O;z~

10. 1 O,OOO;Z ~

KEYSENTENCES---------------------------------------

VOCABULARY

7. 1,000;z~

9.5,00 o x z.

1. -"CtUx

2. .t tUx

3. .; tUx

T t- t::'T-t 0 1::"/ "::J /' T-t 0

3,000 ;tA"T-to .tnt

1. That is a television set.

2. That over there is a personal computer.

3. This is 3,000 yen. That, too, is 3,000 yen.

;f, ;ft. that one over there

31

I

EXERCISES---------------------

I. State an item's price. Look at the illustrations and state the price of each item.

ex~

~¥50

2.

1'~.80 ~

¥BO

6.

MAGAziNE

¥1,200

ex. .: t tP -) -ft... Iv 1.

2 ...

3.

3... .

4 .

5 .

4. 5.

~~ ~~

¥300

¥17,OOO

6 .

7 .

B .

¥B60

10.

¥39,000

9 .

10 .

II. Ask and give an item's price. Make up dialogues following the pattern of the example and based on the information in the illustrations.

¥120
7. B. 9.
~

¥4,BOO ex.

2.

ex. A: :::: rU.t ~ \ < G T-t 1;\0 B: 5 0 0 ;t ,(, T-t 0

32

1 .

3.

'Ge

VOCABULARY

1. A: ..

B:

2. A: ..

B:

3. A: ..

B:.

III. Identify objects in different locations. Look at the illustration and make up sentences like the examples. Substitute the underlined words with the alternatives given.

ex. 1. A: :::: iL(.i ex. 2. A: -f iLII ex. 3. A: ;tiLII

T';) 7J~ T-t 0

t' T';t 7J ~ 7" T-t 0 I t ~ \ t~ ~ \ T-t 0

1 . A: ..
2. A: ..
3. A: .... (L'{_',)~,{_,) (~" -:> L)

(Il'{_')

IV. Ask and give an item's price. Use the information in the illustrations to make appropriate questions for each of the answers given.

B

ex. A: :::: iLII ~ \ < G T-tfJ'o B: 20,0001:..£ --C-to

1. A: .

B: 1 6.0 0 0 ;t'{_' -t-t 0

:!'.., l

magazine

B

33

I

2. A: .

B: 1 9,0 0 0 it Iv T-t 0

3. A: ..

B: 28,000 it Iv T-t 0

4. A: .....

B: 33,000 it Iv T-t 0

5. A: ..

B: 2 9,8 0 0 it Iv T-t 0

~ V. State that two things cost the same or are the same thing. Make up sentences following the pattern of the example. Substitute the underlined words with the alternatives given.

ex. :::: tLl;t 8 0 0 .i Iv T-t 0 ~ tL t 8 0 0 .i Iv T-t 0

1.

. i.s o o x z» (t:!t~l)

(A ~ A ~ Iv 0) '11v)

2.

3 ...

VI. Ask the price of more than one item. Make up dialogues following the pattern of the example.

Substitute the underlined words with the alternatives given.

ex. A ~ A: h--ti"(7) A ~ A: h--ti"(7)

:::: tLl;t \ I < G T-tfJ'o U z 8,0 0 0 .i Iv T-t 0

ihtLt s.o o o s x.r-r e-, Ut:\I\I.i, 8,OOO.ilvTI;t

ih 'J i-ti"lvo 7,500 .ilvT-to

1. A ~ A:
.z".1±0) V t:: ... (7,000itlv)
A ~ A: (7,000it'(')
.z".1±0) V t:: .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (7,000it,(,)
2. A ~ A:
.z".1±0) V t:: .... (9,000itlv)
A ~ A: (9,000 it,(,)
.z".1±0) V t:: .. (9,000it'(')
3. A~A
.z".1±0) V t:: .. (6,500itlv)
A ~ A: «s.s o o s x»
.z"..t:t0) V t:: .... (6,500itlv)
34 VOCABULARY

VII. Confirm what an item is. Make up dialogues following the pattern of the example. Substitute the underlined words with the alternatives given.

ex. Mr. Smith comes to a store.

A ~ A: ;"'1±(7)

A ~ A: ;"'1±(7)

1. A ~ A:

~iL(i DVDT-tn'o V t:: ~ \ ~ \ ;t, C 0 T-t 0

-t iLli 0 V 0 T-tn'o V t:: Ii ~ -. 0 V 0 T-t 0

h.1:±(J) ut: .

2. A ~ A:

C:..-- 1"' _7°",,- /' :..--/[.,) C:"-- 1"' _7°",,- /' :"--/[.,)

C 7 "5' /' A .: (J) L L .J: ) C ;( \ \ .: (J) L L .J:)

(7 "5' /' A ::_- <l) L L .J: ) C 7 "5' /' A .: <l) L L .J: )

VIII. Buy something at a store. Make up dialogues following the pattern of the example. Substitute the underlined words with the alternatives given.

ex. A ~ A: ;"'1±(7)

A ~ A: ;".1±(7)

A ~ A: ;"'1±(7)

A ~ A:

1. A ~ A:

-t;". i 1±,.co ~iLli t:'-T';t 7J _;("7 T-tn'o V t:: ~ \ ~ \ ;t, T':; 7J _;( T-t 0

-t iLli t" T";t 7J _;( "7 T-tn'o V z ; I i ~ -. -t -) T-t 0

~ \ < GT-tn'o

V t:: 5 O. 0 0 0 ;t ,.c (--t 0 t"\",-tiLf <t:~~\o

o V 0 (T 1 -7"1 T 1 -) DVD

~ + - 7·" /' ~ ,I" mechanical pencil

if- -'k""~ /' ballpoint pen

(C D 7° v--r-) ("5's/:t)

(C D 7· v--r-)

(15.000;ZA_,)

French (language) France

language dictionary

English (language)

35

I

CD

II

CD

2. A , A:
""ito) u c.
A , A:
""ito) o «.
A , A:
""ito) o c, .....................
A , A: (7'- vI::')

(180,OOO;{_'{')

IX. Listen to the CD and fill in the blank based on the information you hear.

Mr. Smith is at a store, shopping .

.... it Iv -C-t 0

A ~ A: . h. -\:t (7)

A ~ A: h.-\:t(7)

- .J/I -1-_ < t..:' ->< I

"_IfL(!" __ \ 0

U z: 4, 3 0 0 it Iv T-t 0 17-F-r-t \'\'T-t1J'o U z 1;1\ I, It -:> ::: -) T-t 0

Smith:

I'll take this.

salesperson: It's 4,300 yen.

Smith: Is it all right to use a credit card?

salesperson: Yes, it's fine.

1. 17- ~'Tt \ 1\ 'T-t1J'o

The phrase -ct \ 1\ 'Ti"iJ' is used to ask if something is permissible. It means "is ... all right?"

36

VOCABULARY

t; - F (credit) card

~T .. t \1\IT'i"iJ' is ... allright?

1;t\I,lt-?:=:-5T'i" yes,it'sfine

If you're in Japan, try asking the prices of items at vendors where prices are not listed or are written in kanji.

CD

TARGET DIALOGUE

Mr. Smith buys a T-shirt.

A~A -t h. i 1i ,,(,0 ~O) T "/ 1"' '/' Ii \ \ < G 1'"-t17'o
h.1i0) (j'C 'C""tt T-t 17'0
A~A ~O) ~t.;\ \ T "/ 1"' '/' T-t 0
h.1i0) (j'C ~ttli 1 , 5 0 0 it ,,(, T-t 0
A~A 7c0) ~ 17'\ \ T "/1"' '/' Ii \ \ < G T-t17'o
h.1i0) (j'C 1 , 0 0 0 it ,,(, T-t 0
A~A L:: -\" , 7cttf 2 i \ \ <f::"~\\
_ '- 0 Smith: Excuse me. How much is that T-shirt over there? salesperson: Which one?

Smith: That blue T-shirt. salesperson: That's 1,500 yen.

Smith: How much is that red T-shirt? salesperson: It's 1,000 yen.

Smith: Well then, give me two of those .

• The red T-shirt is 1,000 yen.

VOCABULARY

;h0) T:/,.. .. / r";f!_

;h 1? \ \ TO) ;hiJ'\\

2 i\ \

that over there (used before a noun) T-shirt

which one

blue

that (used before a noun) red

two (shirts or other flat objects) (counter for flat objects)

i \ \ is a unit for counting thin, flat objects like shirts and pieces of paper. Japanese has two numerical systems: the U t: "'J, ,;-I:.:"'J, h. -:; "'J system and the abstract \ \ 1?, I:, :: Iv system. Counting things can be done in two ways: (1) using the U r -:J, ,;,1::: -:J, h. -:; -:J system independently (see Word Power

37

I

II, p. 39), or (2) using the ~ \ i?, I:, :; Iv system combined with a counter such as i ~ \ or (1,.(, ((f lv, ([Iv), the latter for long, slender objects like pencils and bottles.

ex. 1)1v='~ ,),t::."'") < f~":;~\o "Pleasegivemetwoapples."

The U t ">, ')' t::. "'"), h. -:> "'") system, however, only goes as far as t i? (10), after which the ~ \ i?, I:, :; Iv system is used: L rp "7 ~ \ i?, L rp "7 I:, L rp "7 :; ,.(" etc.

Note the word order here: thing + ~ + number (or number and counter) + < f:_:; ~ \.

WORDPOWER---------------------------------------

I. Items for sale:

---

red blue black

1. IH{~

2. ~ -:> T

3. T / -r ''/

4. ;hi.J'~ \ 5.;hi?~\ 6. < J) ~ \

7. t'-/[,-

8. 1),.(, ='

9. i? i? ~ ~ \

1~,II:IIII~il jH{~ postcard S1?\ \ blue 1?1?~\\ large, big
~""J( stamp < 7, \ \ black t, \ \ ~ \ \ small, little
T/-r"/ T-shirt C'-I[,- beer
38 S-Q'\ \ red 1)/...,::: apple II. Numbers and counters:
EJ 11 etc. ~ T etc. 0 ~ etc.
~'t;,i~' ~ I""".) (1',,(, ut'J
2 I: i ~ I I: (1,.(, s-t::»
.... _-_ ........... -_ ...
3 ~"('i~1 ~ £(1'''(' .J.;.""".)'J
4 J:,.(, i ~ I J: £(1,,(, J:""".)"')
5 :-i ~ I :-(1£ ~ I"')'J
6 ';<i~' .;""".) (1',.(, t;""".)"') KEySENTENCES--------------------------------------

VOCABULARY

11 12

Lt1>-)~'t;,i~' Lt1>-)I:i~'

Lt1>-)~'""".)(1',.(, Lt1>-)I:(l,.(,

Lt1>-)~'t;, L t1> -) I:

1. : (J) T ~ ~ '/ !;t 2,0 0 0 it ,,(, T-t 0

2. ct (J) i? \ \ ~ \ \ 7J ~ 7' !;t 5,0 0 0 it ,,(, -C-t 0

3. :tu;t ;(1;((J) t!t\\T-to

4. +» I),,(,:""f s.t.:» < t:"~\\o

1. This T-shirt is 2,000 yen.

2. That little camera over there is 5,000 yen.

3. This is a Swiss watch.

4. Give me two of those apples.

this (used before a noun) Switzerland

39

I

EXERCISES ---------------------

I. Single out a specific item and state its price. Look at the illustration and state how much the umbrellas cost, following the pattern of the example.

A

B

ex. 1. A: ::: (J) ex. 2. A: .:if" (J) ex. 3. A: S (J)

T::/-\""':;!.t T ::/ -\"' '':; !.t T ::/ -\"' '.:;!.t

2,0 0 0 ;Z Iv T·-t 0 1 ,5 0 0 ;Z Iv T-t 0 1 ,0 0 0 ;Z Iv T-t 0

1. A:

2. A:

3. A:

II. Ask and give a specific item's price. Make up dialogues following the pattern of the example and based on the information in the illustration.

3.

A

B

1.BD

black. ""

¥20,OOO small

¥30,OOO

40

VOCABULARY

ex. A: <to) <tiJ'~ \ iJ ~ -7 l;t ~ \ < G T'-tiJ'o B: 1 5.0 0 0 ;z~ T-t 0

1. A: ..

2. A: ..

B:

3. A: ..

B: ..

4. A: ..

S": .

III. Make up dialogues following the patterns of the examples. Substitute the underlined parts with the alternatives given.

A. Ask and answer whether an item is from a given country.

ex. A: :::ttl;t A1;Z0) t(t~\T-tiJ'o

B:~\~\;Z, A1 ;Zo)TI;t<t'J i1±~o 7-7/'AO)T-to

1. A: ..

B: ..

2. A: ..

B: ..

B. Ask and answer what an item's country of origin is. ex. A: ::: ttl;t t"::: 0) / ~'J '::J /' T-tiJ'o B: iJ' ~::: < 0) T'-t 0

( l' ·:.r I) 7.. (1) < 6 1)

(1' ·:.r I) 7.. (1), l' ,/1) 7(1)) (1:!1£<1) 17;(7)

(I: !1£(1), j-:'1' "/(1))

B: ....

1. A:..... (-J':;;17;()

2. A: ..

B:

(I: !1£(1)) (c·_ Jt,,)

( F l' '/ (1))

<6i car
1 'II) 7 Italy
t': where, which place
1)'£:< South Korea 41 I

42

,

IV. Ask an item's price and whetheritis a product of Japan. Make up dialogues following the pattern of the example. Substitute the underlined parts with the alternatives given.

ex. Mr. Smith has gone to a store to shop.

A~A: SO) 7'7..;(7Ii \\<GT-f"n'o

;,..1±0) o c. 20,OOO;t£T-f"o

A~A: SfLli 1:::11£0) 7'7";(7T-tn'o

;,..1±0) o r: li\\, 1:::11£O)T-f"o

1. 7- ~ 7-:
.z,..{f(1) Ut: .....
7- ~ 7-:
.z,..{f(1) Ut: .... (~<1) t It\ \) (15,OOO;z'(') (~;ft., tlt\\)

2. 7- ~ 7-:

( == (1) j- v to) (43,000 ;z,(,) ( ==;ft., j- l> t,)

.z,..{f(1) Ut: H •••

7- ~ 7-:
.z,..{f(1) ut: ..
3. 7- ~ A:
.z,..{f(1) Ut: .. < ~ i)

(1,500,000 ;{_,(,) (==;ft., < ~ i)

V. Ask for more than one of an item at a store. Make up sentences following the pattern of the example and based on the information in the illustration.

tangerine kilogram

CD

II

VOCABULARY

1. A ~ A: .

2. A ~ A: ..

3. A ~ A: .

4. A ~ A: ....

VI. Talk about an item's price and country of origin. Make up dialogues following the pattern of the example. Substitute the underlined words with the words in parentheses.

ex. A ~ A:
.z".-tr0')
A ~ A:
.z".-tr0')
A ~ A.:
1 . A ~ A: -t.z".i-trA-o +o: 71 /IIi ~\< GT-tiJ'o U t:: 1. 2 0 0 ;z A- T-t 0

f:tLli t:":::O) 71/1T-tiJ'o U z 7"7 /' A 0) T-t 0

t.:: '1", f: tL ~ 2 11 A- < f:' ~ ~ \ 0

.z".1±(7) Ut: .

( ::J - t - 7'J "/ 7") (-1 '1 I) 7) (;t;-::>-:J)

2. A ~ A:

.z".1±0) U t: .....................H ...

('1:t ,I--) (-1;f'I)7.) (4 ;J: \ I)

.z".1±0) Ut: .

VII. Listen to the CD and choose the correct answers.

1. Where is the beer from?

b) 7 ,J I) 7'J

c) ~'-1 "/

2. How much does the beer cost?

a) 3 0 0 ;{_ Iv

c) 1 OO;{_ Iv

b) 2 0 0 ;{_ Iv

'71:'-- wine 7' ;;t It" towel
-::J- t-fJ ''j"/ coffee cup
-::J-t- coffee
fJ ''j 7' cup 43 I

CD

III

44

At a confectionary:

o i: \\G-:> L -\"\\i-tL

~ ::1.. - /) I) - Z: f h -:>-J o i: (1\\, e a o xx.r-r.

salesperson: May I help you?

Chan: I'd like three cream puffs, please.

salesperson: All right. That will be 630 yen.

VOCABULARY

cream puff

1. Ask your classmates or colleagues where an item they own is from (i.e., what its country of origin is).

2. If you're in Japan, go shopping and buy more than one of an item. Be sure to use the pattern "number of items + < f:_' ~ ~ -."

o Fill in the blank(s) in each sentence with the appropriate particle. Where a particle is not needed, write in an X.

1 . .; ~ G ( ) ~ ~ ~ ~ Iv T-t 0

2. A ~ A ~ Iv!.i ABC 7-A" (

3. 7"-7 '7 / ~ Iv Ii .I. /:;.::. 7 T-t ( .I. / :; z: 7 T-t 0

4. :::ttli :hl::L(

) '" Iv :::'. L T-t 0

), <i.: L T-t (

) 11 Iv Tlich I) 1 -tt i.. )T-t 0

5. fJ,~\~"1i 9 t ( ) 11 r ( .r-r.

6. -ftt ( ) ~ \ < G T-tfJ'o

3 ,0 0 0 ~ Iv T-t 0

chtt( )3,OOO~IvT-tfJ'0

~\~I~, 3,OOO~IvT"lichl)1-ttlvo 3,800~IvT-to

7. -f0) t'-/!,; ( ) 5111v ( ) < t: .. ~ ~ 10

8. -f ttli z; ( ) iJ ~ -7 T-tfJ'o

~. l' "/ ( ) T-t 0

CIt Complete each sentence by filling in the blank(s) with the appropriate word.

1. ;t77/~lvli( )T-tfJ'o

I i ~ I, ~'1' "/ t Iv T-t 0

2. -f ttli ( rc-tfJ'o

t(t~'T-to

3. ::: ttli (

~ I~ \~, l:fJ'li L ~ 1v00Tlich I) 1-ttlvo

( ) (])T-tfJ'o

A ~ A ~ Iv(]) T-t 0

4. A~A~Iv(]) -5~0) TIv:hIf'Iv:::"-5li( )T-tfJ'o

o 3 - 3 4 5 9 - 9 6 6 0 T-t 0

5. U6~-t;"'li( )fJ'G( )11"1"-tfJ'o

1 2 t fJ' G 1 t s r T-t 0

6. -f(]) chfJ'~' T:/-\,,';lli( )T-tfJ'o

2,3 0 0 ~ Iv T-t 0

7. ch (]) / \ 'J :J / Ii ( ) (]) T-t fJ'o

I::: 111v(]) T-t 0

45

Japan boasts one of the most convenient transportation systems in the world. All major cities from Fukuoka in southern Japan to Tokyo in the east and Hachinohe in the north are connected by bullet train. Other train systems connect towns and outlying suburbs of cities. In large metropolitan areas such as Tokyo, Nagoya, and Osaka, there are also extensive subway systems. To an astounding degree of accuracy, these modes of transportation depart and arrive as scheduled.

UNIT

GRAMMAR

Motion Verbs

I noun Ii place I: \' ~ 1 -t I

ex. 7" t- -1 ~ ,(,Ii ;f, L t: ~.t 1 t I: \' ~ 1 -t 0 "Mr. Grey will go to Kyoto tomorrow."

• Verbs

Japanese sentences end with a verb (or some other element followed by 1"-t, which behaves like a verb). The endings of verbs show the tense and whether the verb is affirmative or negative.

Tenses of Japanese verbs can be divided roughly into two large categories:

(1) The present form. The present, or - 1 -t form-so called because verbs in this tense end in - 1 -t -encompasses both the simple present (used for expressing habitual action) and future tenses.

ex.7"v-1~'('li 1\'1:1; i.I'\'L""I: \'~1-to "Mr. Grey goes to the office tlit., 'company') every day." (ht::. l.tr) ;f, L t::. 77';t 'J 1 -t 0

"(I) return/am returning/will return tomorrow."

(2) The past form. The past, or - 1 L t::. form, on the other hand, includes not only the simple past tense but also the present perfect.

ex, (ht::. Ltz) 1:t'(' L rp 1 ~.t 1 t I: \' ~ 1 L t::.o "Last week (I) went to Kyoto." 7- t- -1 ~ ,(,Ii t 1 11;1: 77';t 'J 1 L t::.o "Mr. Grey has already gone home."

The chart below summarizes the tenses of Japanese verbs and shows the endings-affirmative and negative-that correspond to each.

PRESENT FORM PAST FORM
aft. neg. aft. neg.
-1-t -11:t'(' ._ 1 L t::. - 1 1:t ,(, 1" L t::. • The particle I:

The role of the preposition "to" in English is played by the particle I: in Japanese. I: is placed after a noun that denotes a place. It indicates the direction of movement with motion verbs such as \ ,~ 1-t ("go"), ~ 1 -t C'corne"), and 77';t 'J 1 -t ("return"),

ex. t 1 ~ .t 11: \' ~ 1 -t 0 "I am going to Tokyo." (lit., "Tokyo-ward' I am going. ") In this pattern, the particle" can also be used in place of I:,

noun Ii place I: \' ~ 1 -t77' li\', (noun l;;t place I:) \'~ 1-t

\ '\ ,;t, (noun Ii place I:) \ , ~ 1 1:t'('

ex. 7- v -1 ~ ,(,I;;t ;f, L t::. ~.t 1 t I: \' ~ 1 -t 77'0 "Mr. Grey, will you go to Kyoto tomorrow?" l;;t\" \' ~ 1 -t 0 "Yes, (I) will go."

\ ,\,;t, \' ~ 1 1:t Ivo "No, (I) will not go."

• Questions that contain verbs

To ask a question like "will you go?" that contains a verb, simply add i.I' to the verb. Answers to such questions can be brief, as in the examples above.

48

TARGET DIALOGUE

Mr. Smith phones Mr. Takahashi of Nozomi Department Store to confirm the time of Friday's meeting.

A ~ A t. L t L, ABC (J) A ~ A T-t 0 t: n'li L t: 7]'li L T-t 0 j:) Ii l -) ::_" ~"\ \ i -t 0

A ~ A if:, L t: -f -; G I: \ \ ~ i -t 0 7]'\ \ ~" Ii 3 L: 7]' G T-t bo t: 7]' Ii L Ii \ -. 3 L: 7]' G T -t 0 U 't:.. I) T ~ i -t 7]' 0

t:n'li L -f -) T-t7]'0 Tli, if:, L t:o A~A L~;ft\\Li-to

• A ~ A ~ ,{; I i if:, L t: n' \ \ L J(> (J) U 't:.. 't:.. (J) :r' h. -r' / ,,- r I:

\\~i-to

Smith: Hello, this is Smith from ABC.

Takahashi: This is Takahashi. Good morning.

Smith: I'll go to your company (lit., "there") tomorrow. The meeting is from 3:00, right?

Takahashi: Yes, it starts at 3:00. Are you coming alone?

Smith: No, I'll go with someone from the company.

Takahashi: Is that so? Well then, till tomorrow ...

Smith: Good-bye .

• Mr. Smith is going to Nozomi Department Store with a colleague tomorrow.

VOCABULARY

tLtL

t?tiJ: -) :'~'\Ii-t S Lt:

-tt;~

I:

\I~i-t

tl

tn; I) T

~i-t

"t:.

Tti L-?ft_\ILi-t

hello (on the telephone) good morning tomorrow

there (where your listener is)

to ( particle; see Unit 3 Grammar at left) go

right?; isn't it? (particle) alone (lit., "by one person")

come

with, together with (particle)

well then, in any case (formal way of saying l: ~ ) good-bye tlit., "I'm going to be rude. ")

49

I

1. t L t L

This is the conventional beginning of a telephone conversation and may be repeated during the call to confirm whether the other party is still on the line.

2. ~ L t: :?r: 1; G I:: ~ \ "5 i -t 0

Relative time expressions like tf:> L t: ("tomorrow"), ~ \ \ L t1>"7 ("next week"), :::: ,.(,If-:> ("this month"), and ~ .t tJ.,.(, ("last year") generally do not take particles.

3. 17'~ \ "5'(;1: 3 t 17' G T·-t tlo

The particle bcomes at the end of a sentence or phrase and, like "isn't it?" in English, seeks confirmation and agreement from the other person. It is spoken with rising intonation.

4. U'C. I) T "5 i -t17'o

~\~\;t, 17'~\L-\'>O) U'C.'C. ~\"5i-to

The phrase 1J'\ \ L ~ (J) U t t \ \ ~ i 1" means "I'll go with someone from the company." The Japanese verbs \ \ ~ i 1" and ~ i 1" are always used from the point of view of the speaker. \ \ ~ i 1" expresses the idea of moving from where the speaker is now to some other place. ~ i 1", on the other hand, expresses the idea of moving toward the place where the speaker is now. Therefore, unlike in English, a speaker talking about going to the place where the listener is located; as in the above exchange, uses \ \ ~ i 1" rather than ~ i 1" .

The particle t ("with") in 1J'\ \ L ~ (J) U t t \ \.~ i 1" is used to indicate accompaniment.

5. L-"")n~\Li-to

This expression is used as a form of "good-bye" when hanging up the phone or leaving a house or room. It is also used when entering a house or room, passing in front of someone, leaving in the middle of a gathering, and so on to mean" excuse me."

WORDPOWER----------------------------------------

CD

I'JI

I. Destinations:

~-----~
- - - --
- - - --
Ii -....; - --
-, ~~
1. < "7 :::: "7

2. ;Z ~

3. L L ~

4. .; "7 ;Z,.(,

1~'II:llllil < -) : -) airport z t t=1; friend
;:t~ station -)1; house
LL<." branch office
50 :-);:t;(' park VOCABULARY

II. Verbs:

2. ~ i-9

3. -Q';;{ I) i-9

III. Time expressions:

LAST THIS NEXT
day ~(7)i ~ .t i of:, Lt:::
week -I±'{'LrlJi :::'{'LrlJi G\'LrlJi
month -I±'{'lf"') ::: '('If"') G\ '(f"')
year ~.ttJ.,{, :::c::L G\';fl,{, KEySENTENCES--------------------------------------

1 . A~A~,(,(;t
2. A~A~'('(;t
3. 1- t' /' ~ ,(,I;t
4. 1-t'/'~'('(;t
5. A~A~'('(;t ~ L t: ~" ,(,:::: -) I:: ~ \ ~ i -t 0

-tt /: L tP -) it .> ':::I /' I :: ~ \ ~ i L t: 0

~ (/) -) t: t r: 1; t: V A r -7 /' I:: ~ \ ~ i L t: 0

~ .t tJ.,.(, I:: 11 ,.(, I :: ~ i L t: 0

G~\tJ."(' 7~IJtJl:: 7]';z'Ji-to

1. Mr. Smith is going to the bank tomorrow,

2. Mr. Smith went to Hong Kong last week.

3. Ms. Chan went to a restaurant with a friend yesterday.

4. Ms. Chan came to Japan last year.

5. Mr. Smith will return to the United States next year.

\1'5i1' go '5.t'7 today G \ I L tP 7 next week '5.t:fl,{, last year
'5i1' come ~ Lt: tomorrow -t!: ,(,(f-:> last month ::tL this year
-Q';;(. I) i1' return, go home -t!:,{, L tP '7 last week :: ,{,(f-:> this month G \ l:fl,{, next year
'50:>7 yesterday ::,{,LtP'7 this week G\llf-:> next month ;1;/:7/ Hong Kong 51 I

52

EXERCISES ---------------------

I. Practice conjugating verbs. Repeat the verbs below and memorize their forms-present and past, affirmative and negative.

PRESENT FORM PAST FORM
aft. neg. aft. neg.
go \\~ i-t \\~ i-tt,(, \ \ ~ i L t: \ \ ~ i -tt ,(, -r' L t::.
... __ ._-_ .......
come ~i-t ~ i -tt ,(, ~ i Lt::. ~ i -tt ,(, l"' L t.
return, go home 1J' ~ I) i-t 1J' ~ I) i -tt ,(, 1J' ~ I) i L t: 1J' ~ I) i -tt ,(, T L T: II. Make up sentences following the patterns of the examples. Substitute the underlined words with the alternatives given.

A. State where someone will go.

ex. A ~ A ~ £ (;t -'!5" £: -) I: ~ \ -'!5 i -t 0

1 .

2 .....

. (t:7~.l:7~~)

. (j:;j:;~fJ'LL-\")

3.

4 .

B. State when someone will go to Kyoto.

ex. A ~ A ~ £ (;t ;f, L t: -'!5.l: -) t: I: ~ \ -'!5 i -t 0

1 . .H.. H .

(~\\Lt1J7) (~\ \ If-=» (~~ -:> "T)

2 .

3 ...

C. State when someone went to Hong Kong.

ex. A ~ A ~ £ (;t -'!5 (J) -) It / :J / I: \ \ -'!5 i L t: 0

1.

(-tt'('Lt1J7) (-tt ,(,If--J) (~ .l: il,(,)

2 ...

3 ....

t7~J:-J;t~ j:J j:J ~ li' L L 'i'

Tokyo Station ~ .J: -) t

Osaka (branch) office :Ji> ~ .., T

Kyoto

the day after tomorrow

Ginza (famous shopping district in Tokyo)

III. Make up dialogues following the patterns of the examples. Substitute the underlined words with the alternatives given.

A. Ask and answer whether someone will go to a particular place.

ex. A: A ~ A ~ ,(,! 1 ~ L t: ~.l: -) t I:: \ \ ~ i -t iJ' 0 B:!1\\, \\~i-to

1. A:

B: .

2. A:

B: .

B. Ask and answer whether someone will go to a particular place.

ex. A: A ~ A ~ ,(,! 1 ~ L t: ~ .. ,(,:. -) I:: \ \ ~ i -t iJ' 0 B:\\\\;;t, \\~i-l±'('o

1. A:

........... (j?j? ~ 1;' L L e-)

B: .

2. A: .

B: .....

C. Ask and answer whether someone went to a particular place.

ex. A: A ~ A ~ ,(,! 1 ~ (f) -) * /' ::7 :/ I:: \ \ ~ i L t: iJ' 0 B: ! 1 \ -. \ \ ~ i L t: 0

1. A: .

(=7~,(,)

B: .

2. A: .

B: .

D. Ask and answer whether someone went to a particular place.

ex. A: A ~ A ~ ,(,! 1 ~ (f) -) t: \ \ L iJ''(' I :: \ \ ~ i L t: iJ' 0 B: \ \ \ \ ;;t, \ \ ~ i -I± ,(, -c L t: 0

1. A: ..

B: .

2. A: ..

B: .

53

I

54

IV. Make up dialogues following the patterns of the examples. Substitute the underlined words with the alternatives given.

A. Ask and answer where someone will go.

ex.A:A~A~,{,Lt ~Lt:: t"::I:: \\~;f-t~'o

1. A: ..

B: .

(~J:7t)

2. A:

B:

B. Ask and answer when someone will go to a particular place. ex.A:~'t:-)~'{'I::t \\-') t;t;~~'LL-\"I:: \\~;f-t~'o

B: G \ \ L t1J -) \ \ ~ ;f -t 0

1. A:
B: ..
2. A: ..
B: (~ L t:)

V. State whom someone will go somewhere with. Make up sentences following the pattern of the example. Substitute the underlined word with the alternatives given .

1 ...

........ (fJ.'n'tl G ~ ,(,) (-t-r~ ~,(,) (A ~ A ~ z»

2 ....

3 ....

VI. Ask and answer whom someone will go somewhere with. Make up dialogues following the pattern of the example. Substitute the underlined word with the alternatives given.

ex.A:A~A~,{,L:t ~Lt:: t:'~t (f)f'h..:r'/{-rl:: \\~;f-t~'o B: ~,t: -) ~ ,{, t \ \ ~ ;f -t 0

1. A:.

B: .

2. A: .

B: .

\ \-:>

when

VII. Make up sentences following the patterns of the examples. Substitute the underlined words with the alternatives given.

A. State who came to Japan.

1 .....

(1--r /~,(,) utl)-/~,.(,)

2.

B. State who will return to America.

1.

(~tl) -/~,(,)

(A ~ A ~,(,<1) t t t:·-;)

2 ...

VIII. State when, where, and with whom someone will travel. Make up sentences following the pattern of the example and based on the information in the illustration.

Ginza department store

Osaka branch office

t t t:-;

1.

eo

1.

2.

3.

4 ...

5.

55

I

IX. Talk about a plan. Make up dialogues following the pattern of the example. Substitute the underlined words with the words in parentheses.

ex. Mr. Smith is talking on the phone with a person from the Yokohama branch office.

l :: Ii iLL '('0) U z: A ~ A ~ Iv Ii \ \ -') l:: Ii iLL '(' I:

~ i i"n'o

A~A: .:hLt;: \\~ii"o l::liiLL'('O) Ut:f:'nt ~ii"n'o

A~A: 1--t'/~lvt \\~ii"o

l :: Ii iLL '('0) U z: -t -) Ti"n'o

1. .J:::: Ii iLL '(> (J) U t : ..

.J: ::: Ii iLL '(> (J) U t : ..

.J: ::: Ii iLL '(> (J) U t : ...

2. .J:::: Ii iLL '<' (J) U z : ..

.J: .; Ii iLL '(> (J) U t : ......

.J: ::: Ii iLL '(> (J) U t : .

X. Listen to the CD and fill in the blanks based on the information you hear .

A~A~lvli \\~ii"o

.:h~'"')T ..

............ t .

..... .......... I:

56

Yokohama (branch) office

Yokohama (port city southwest of Tokyo)

I. Ms. Chan sees Mr. Suzuki in front of ABC Foods carrying a large piece of luggage,

-7--to/,:;P), -t-f'5~1v, LtP--:Ji;.J: -5T'-tn'o

-t-9'5: ;tit, j:-)j:-)~n'LL-f>I:: \\5i-to ;t~--:JT (::-55.J:-51::

n'it I) i -t 0

-7- -to /': -t- -5 T-tn'o \ \ --:J T G --:J L -f> \ \0

Chan: Oh, Mr. Suzuki, are you going on a business trip?

Suzuki: Yes, I'm going to the Osaka branch office, I'll come back to Tokyo the day after tomorrow,

Chan: Really? Have a good trip,

VOCABULARY

;h

LtP-:>i;.t-3 ~'-:>TG-:>L'I"~'

oh (interjection used to get someone's attention) business trip

good-bye, have a nice trip

II. At a bus stop, Mr. Smith asks the driver a question before boarding,

_A ~ _A: /{_A(/)

_A ~ _A: / \'_A (/)

_A ~ _A:

Smith:

bus driver:

Smith:

bus driver:

Smith:

VOCABULARY / {_A

L .;:-\" -3£T£LtP r:(J)

-t7.<i-t±lvo z o: /{_A!i L.;:~I::

-5 Iv T Iv L tP: \ \ \ \ ;t, \ \ 5 i -t± Ivo

'(_"(/) / {_A i)"{ \ \ 5 i -tn'o

-5 Iv T Iv L tP: 88!flv(/) /{_An{ \ \5 i-to ;t I) 7] {(:: -5 .: ~" \ \ i -t 0

Excuse me, Does this bus go to Shibuya? No, it doesn't.

Which bus goes there?

The number 88 bus goes there, Thank you,

bus

Shibuya (district in Tokyo) driver

which (used before a noun)

(particle that marks the subject of a sentence; see Note 2 below) number, , , (counter; used as a suffix after a number)

57

I

1. '(_.'(/) /\"7..

r"fL is used alone to mean "which," but if "which" is to be followed by a noun, then r"O) is used. ex. r"fL, "which one"

r"O) / \"A, "which bus"

2. '(_"(/) / \"7.. iJ{ ~ \"5- i -tiJ'o

88I:L'{.I(/) /\"AiJ{ ~\"5-i-to

The particle fJ{ is used instead of the topic marker Ii after interrogatives like r"fL and r"O). In the case of r" 0), it follows the noun: r" 0) / \" A fJ{. fJ{ is repeated in replies to questions of the r" fL fJ{ or r"O) ... I;{ pattern, as in the exchange here.

Ask someone where they are going tomorrow, next week, next month, and so on.

58

TARGET DIALOGUE

Mr. Smith goes to Nozomi Department Store on business with Ms. Chan on Friday.

t:: n' Ii L A ~ A ~ lv, 1- t' / ~ lv, r" -)~. t? Ii \ , I) < t:_· ~ \ '0 A ~ A L -J *t \ '. L i -r 0

1-t'/ L-J*t\'Li-ro

t. n .. ' I i L r" -)~. := 7; G ........ 0

A ~ A, 1- t' / ~ I) n q:: -) := .. ~ .. \ \ i -r 0

• A ~ A ~ Ivli ~ Ivel: -) U"I:. 1-t' /~ x.z 7;n'l-JT (J)~'h.

T'/ \ - ~ I:. \' ~ i L t: 0

Takahashi: Mr. Smith, Ms. Chan, please come in.

Smith: Excuse me. Chan: Excuse me.

Takahashi: Come right this way.

Smith, Chan: Thank you.

Takahashi: Did you come by car?

Smith: No, we came by subway .

• On Friday, Mr. Smith went with Ms. Chan to Nozomi Department Store by subway.

VOCABULARY

;!?Ii~ \ I) < t:·~ ~ \ r'7-t" =i?G" T

i?i:J'T~ ~£J:7U

I:

please come in come right this way

by means of (particle indicating means) subway

Friday

at, on, in (particle indicating time; see Note 2 below)

59

I

1. < 6 i T ~ i L t:: .,;' 0

The function of the particle T ("by means of"), which follows nouns, is to express means of conveyance.

ex. / {A T, "by bus"

5' 7 '/ - T, "by taxi"

But to say "by foot," use ;:f:>6\\-C e.g., ;:f:>6\ IT ~ i Lt:, "(I) walked here." To ask the means by which someone will go somewhere, use fJ.' Iv T:

ex. fJ.' Iv T' \ \ ~ i -tiJ'o "How will you go?"

/{AT \I~ i-to "I'll go by bus."

~/J:- ,._ \~-I-Lt

2. ~ /'v I Uk ... \ ~ J. :: 0

Unlike relative time expressions (see Note 2, p. 50), specific time expressions take the particle I:.

ex. 5 t I:, "at 5:00"

r·.J: -) [ll:, "on Saturday"

1 2 I: 1; I:, "on the twelfth" 2006 tllvl:, "in 2006"

WORDPOWER---------------------------------------

I. Dates:

YEARS
1998tllv -I±1v ~tj)-)Ul(>< ~tj)-)ttj)-) Ii 1; tllv .... ~~~x~~~J~~~
2006tJ.1v 1:-I±1v .; < tllv the year 2006 r- ~O~ ~

rrrr

SUN HaN TUE WED THU PRI SAT

1
2 3 4- 5 6 7 8
'I 1O " 12 13 14 15
16 17 18 I" 20 21 22
23 24 25 26 27 28 21
30 31 year (counter) day (of the week)

60

DAYS OF THE WEEK

I: 1;.J: -) if H.?~r1~~X

If -:>.J: -) if f'v1()r1d.~y .

iJ'.J: -) if T~~~~~y

-t \ \.J: -) ifH..yy~~t:l~~~~y.

t ~ .. J.:j(f Thursday .

~ 1v.J: -) if ..... .. .... . ..~~id.~L

r··.J: -) if Satu rday

MONTHS

\ \ 1; 1) k) }~~~~ry

I:: 1){~ ~~~~':l~~y

~ AA{~ March

L 1){~ ~pril

.: 1){~ ~~y

"S < 1){~ L 1; 1){~ Ii 1; 1){~ < 1){~

C tP 7 1){~ CtP7\\1;1){~ C tP 71::1){~

June ... }~Iy

... ~~9~~~.

... ?~P~~rl:1~~~

October

November December

DAYS OF THE MONTH
~\\t::1; 1 st ttP7 L1;I::1; 17th
,),~1)' 2nd t t1J 7Ii1;l:: 1; 18th
h. -:; 1)' 3rd ttP7<1::1; 19th
J: -:; 1)' 4th Ii ~ 1)' 20th
\ \~ 1)' 5th l::ttP 7\\1;1::1; 21 st
t;\ \1)' 6th I:: C tP 7 I:: I:: 1; 22nd
fJ.' (7) 1)' 7th I:: t tP 7 ~ ,(,I:: 1; 23rd
J: 7 1)' 8th I:: t tP 7 J: -:;1)' 24th
:::: .; (7)1)' 9th l::ttP7::::"I::1; 25th
t: j:; 1)' 10th I:: t tP 7 "S < I:: 1; 26th
tt1J7\\1;I::1; 11 th I:: t tP 7 1; I:: 1; 27th
..... --._ •.... . .. ...
ttP71::1::1; 12th I:: C tP 7Ii1;l:: 1; 28th
ttP7~,{,I::1; 13th I:: t tP 7 < I:: 1; 29th
t 7J:-:;1)' 14th ~,{,CtP71::1; 30th
........
tt1J7::::'I::1; 15th ~,(,CtP7\\1;I::1; 31 st
tt1J7"S<I::1; 16th NOTE: Months and dates are written in hiragana here, but elsewhere in the book numerals are used to write them, e.q., 1 1){~ for" January," 1 1 I:: 1; for "the eleventh," etc.

II. Means of transportation:

1. T,{,L '<'

3. < 6 i

4. '17:/-

KEySENTENCES--------------------------------------

VOCABULARY

1. iJ'\ \ ~ e- Ii -t \ \.J: "7 UT-t 0

2. 7" -7 7 /' ~ A.- I i 3 iJ {-:) 2 6 I:: 1; I ::: -1;F I) A iJ' G I::: 11 A.-I :: ~ i L t: 0

3. :/3/"J/'~A.-li G\\Lt1J"7(7) ~A.-.J:"7UI::: I::IIA.-I::: s r r ,

4. A~A~A.-li LA.-iJ'A.--l±A.-T 1?1?~iJ'l:: \\~i-to

1. The meeting is Wednesday.

2. Ms. Brown came to Japan from the United Kingdom on March 26.

3. Mr. Johnson will come to Japan next Friday.

4. Mr. Smith is going to Osaka on the Shinkansen.

~f.J<"? month <~i car V--~ airplane
~ 7 ~
"'-'I: 1; day (of the month) '77:';- taxi f.J'C:, from (particle indicating origin
(counter) Lx., -6' £-tt £ the Shinkansen or point of departure)
T£L"" train (Japan's bullet train) :/3/'// Johnson (surname)
1; iJ'l"? subway 61 I

EXERCISES ----------------------

I. State when a meeting will be held. Make up sentences following the pattern of the example.

Substitute the underlined word with the alternatives given.

1 .

(lf~J: 7 U) (4n{~ l;;t~n')

2.

II. Make up dialogues following the patterns of the examples. Substitute the underlined parts with the alternatives given.

A. Ask and answer when a festival will be held. ex. A: j:) i -:> I) ! i -rJ..' £ 1;" -:> T -t 1;' 0 B: 91;"-:> T-t 0

B: .

U'J_',z,I:i?) (171:i?) U'J_' ,z, J: 7 U) (n'J: 7 U)

2. A:

B: . .H.H,

B. Ask and answer when an event will take place. ex. A: 1::.£ t.J: -) U!i \ \-:>T-tl;'o B: 81;"-:> 191::::tT-to

B: .

(n'\ \ ~.')

(7n{~ ~\\t::.i?)

1. A: ..

B: .

C. Ask and answer when an event will take place, from when until when.

ex. A: -rJ.'-:>~-t h!i \ \-:>1;' G \ \-:> i -r"T-tI;'o

B: 81;"-:> h -:> 1;'1;' G 2 8 I:::: t i TT-t 0

B: ..

(LrP-:>i?J: 7)

(lf~J: 7 U, t < J: 7 U) (I) J: :::. 7 )

(4n{~ 291:i?, 5n{~ \\~n')

1. A: ....

2. A: ..

B: .....

1~,~I;llllil 1;;J: -:> I) festival 1,.',(, I:: 1; what day (of the month) 1,.' -:> '(> -t h. summer vacation
1;~ (polite prefix) 'fj: ,(,.J: -) if what day (of the week) 1,.'-:> summer
1,.' Iv I; {-:> what month t~ ,(, L .t -) if birthday I) .t : -) trip, travel
62 VOCABULARY

III. State when someone came to a place. Make up sentences following the pattern of the example.

Substitute the underlined word with the alternatives given.

1 ....

2 ..

3.

(2004tJ."(')

IV. Ask and answer when someone will come to Japan. Make up dialogues following the pattern of the example. Substitute the underlined word with the alternatives given.

ex. A: :; "3 './ 'J './ ~ "c I i \ V) I:: Ii "c I :: ~ i -9 ~ , 0 B:-9\\J::7 ril:: s r r ,

1. A... .

B: .

2. A: , .

B:

V. State how someone got home. Make up sentences following the pattern of the example. Substitute the underlined part with the alternatives given.

1.

2.

3.

(77:/-1") (1",.(, L 'I" 1") (S6\ 'T)

VI. Ask and answer how someone will get to Osaka. Make up dialogues following the pattern of the example. Substitute the underlined word with the words in parentheses.

ex. A: A ~ A ~ "cli 1'.).'"c-c };};~~'I:: \ \~ i-9~'o B: < 6 i -c \ \ ~ i -90

1. A: ,......., .

B: ... ,.

2. A ......

B: "

by foot, by walking by what means

(U=7~)

63

I

VII. State when and how someone will reach his destination. Look at the illustration and make up sentences following the pattern of the example.

ex~

Osaka branch office

department store

3.

1 .

2.

3 .

4 H ••••

64

VOCABULARY

VIII. Describe a schedule. Look at the page from Mr. Smith's weekly planner and make up sentences following the pattern of the example and based on the information provided .

... , , " .

• J 2: 00 .G()t()T()ky()H()t~l(tJytCl)(i,\f\IithMr.Suzu ki)

ex. Mon.
Tue.
1 Wed.
Thu .
2. Fri.
. Sat.
3. Sun. .. ..(jot()QsCl~Cll:lrClr1c:h.()ffic:~(l:lyairplane!al()ne) ....

. - .

• 12: 00 .. (jot()thert:'stClLlrarlt(\f\Iithmy~ecretary)

'4:00 .......................•. G()t()y()~()bamCltJra.nch()ffict:'(\f\Iithfy1S,?ClSa~j) .....

• 6: 00 ....G()t()th~,L\mt:'ricClr1EmI:lClssy .

.... .. 9: 00 a. m. ...G()toth~PClr~(lt\Iitbfrigr1gs)

. ... 7:QQp,m·G()t()ClJri~rlcJ'~h()LJ~t:'(lt\Iitbl\j1r,?Ll2:Ll~i)

ex. A ~ A ~ tC I ;t I l' -J.J: -7 '()' 0) 1 2 L:: I:: -t 1" '5 ~ tC t 7 7 :/ - T

t-7'5.t-7It-rI!,.-I:: ~\'5i-to

1 ...

2 .

3 .

IX. Talk about a plan. Make up dialogues following the pattern of the example. Substitute the underlined words with the words in parentheses.

ex. t; t; ~ f.I' L L '(> 0) o c. G\\Lt1J-7O) If' -J.J: -7 U' I :: 1:i;Gl::
\\'5i-to
A ~ A: t: tC L:: I:: '5i-tf.l'o
t; t; ~ f.I' L L '(> 0) o «. 10 L::l:: ~\'5i-to
A ~ A: fJ.' tC T '5 i -tf.l'o
t; t; ~ f.I' L L '(> 0) o c. L tCf.I'tC1± tC T \\'5i-to
A ~ A: 1: -7 T-tf.l'o 1 . j:-) j:-) ~ i.J' L L "\' <l) o r.
A ~ A:
j:-) j:-) ~ i.J' L L "\' <l) o «,
A ~ A:
j:-) j:-) ~ i.J' L L "\' <l) lj'(_: ...
A ~ A: (9 L:)

(lj .; -) ~)

1::: -7 ~ .t -7 * 7 II-- Tokyo Hotel (fictitious hotel name)

*7/1-- hotel

65

I

2. };};~i.I'L L >('<1) Ut: ..
A.~A.:
};}; ~ i.I' L L >(' (1) ire.
A.~A.:
};}; ~ i.I' L L >('<1) ut: ......
A.~A.: (1 1 t)

(D X. Listen to the CD and choose the correct answers to the questions asked.

iii

1. a) !t'~ J:: -5 rl b) t < J:: -5 rJ c) -t \ \ J:: -5 rJ
2. a) b) c)
~ ~ ~~


(D A conversation while drinking tea at Nozomi Department Store:

II t~n'liL:+-\"'/'~£li \\~ 1:11£1: ~iLt~n'o

+-\"'/': ~.ttJ.£(7) 10n{~I: */'::7/'n'0 ~iLt~o t~n'liL: ""C-5T-tn'o -fJ.'~~-t,J,.I: */'::7/'1: n'j:_'J i-tn'o

+ -\"' .>: \ \ \ \ j:_ , n' j:_ 'J i -l± £ 0 t t t:_' t t ;b ~ -fJ.' hI: \ \ ~ i -t 0

Takahashi: Ms. Chan, when did you come to Japan?

Chan: I came in October of last year, from Hong Kong.

Takahashi: Really? Will you go back to Hong Kong for summer vacation?

Chan: No, I won't. I'm going to Okinawa with a friend.

VOCABULARY

Okinawa (islands on the southwestern tip of Japan)

1. Ask people when their birthdays are.

2. Ask people when their summer vacations are.

66

In the vicinity of Tokyo lie a number of places to visit for pleasure. From the historical sites of Nikko in the north to the gorgeous lakes surrounding Mt. Fuji in the southwest, these locations are only about two hours away from the city. Other popular places include Kamakura, a historical town that dates back to the twelfth century; Okutama, a region abound with rivers, gorges, and mountains; and Hakone, an attractive place to enjoy onsen. Onsen are Japanese spas, and to visit one is a small luxury that the Japanese enjoy tremendously.

nrn<>,,,n<> exists-use 11 "the restaurant is the topic of the on the first floor" for the first sentence,

68

Mr. Kato and Ms. Chan are talking about Nikko.

~ ') i -ti)'o

i), t / , h h ~ \ \ h T G ~ L:: Iv L:: \" i)< ~ ') i -t 0 h Iv-tt Iv t ~ ') i -t 0

1- 1-' / h Iv-tt Iv -:J T -rd.'1v T-ti)'o

The Toshogu Shrine (Nikko)

i), t -5 : (shows her a pamphlet and points) :::::. n T-t 0 I:::: Illv (7) A/\' T-t J: 0

1-1-'/ \\\\T-ttJ.o

II i)' t -5 ~ Iv!i t·'J: -5 V'I:::: i)'-f:' < t 1::::-:J:::::.-5I:::: \\~i-to 1::::-:J:::::.-5I::::

h h ~ \ \ h T G ~ L:: Iv L:: \" i)< ~ ') i -t 0

Kato: On Saturday I'm going to Nikko with my family.

Chan: Really) What is there in Nikko?

Kato: There are large temples and shrines. There are also onsen.

Chan: What are onsen?

Kato: These. Japanese spas.

Chan: That's nice .

.. Mr. Kato will go to Nikko with his family on Saturday. There are large temples and shrines (and other such things) in Nikko.

Nikko

VOCABULARY

iJ'-i::· <

I::: -:> =: -5 -rd.' I::: chl)i-t" B1"G \" L'{'L'I'"' B'{'-1±'{'

~ -:> 1" -rd.''(' T-t" 7)'

family

Nikko (scenic area north of Tokyo) what

be, exist Buddhist temple

and, and so on (particle; see Note 1 below) Shinto shrine

hot spring (resort) what is a/an ... ?

spa

(particle; see Note 2 below) that's nice

69

I

1. (1:::--:>: 71:::) };T ~-\'" L:~ L: ,(>1J{ <f> 'J i-to

The particle J.(> is used for" and" when listing two or more things or people and implying the existence of others. Another particle, t, also means" and," but it does not imply the existence of other people or things.

ex.1~'\\I:: ,,!:'~="3t ~/t:'..::..~{ <f>').i-t'o

"There is a bank and a convenience store on the first floor (and nothing else}."

Note that unlike" and" in English, both J.(> and t are used only to connect nouns. They cannot be used to connect verbs or clauses.

2.1:::'1~0) A/\T-tJ:o

The particle J: is added to the end of a sentence to call attention to information the speaker thinks the other person does not know.

WORDPOWER---------------------------------------

I. Parts of a building:

® 6F

® SF

G) 4F

@ 3F

CD 2F

CD 1F

CD 81 F

o 0

I EMBAssY I

3. :5 ~~{\ \

4. J: ~~'\ \

5. .: ~'\ \

6. ;; ") ~'\ \

7. 1;~' \ \ ") ~'\ \

8. "3 tt~tt

9. };"'( <f> G\ \

10. 1; tjl "3 L '\" l J: "3

\ \ "? iI'\ \ first floor, ground floor 7lt--:>lt reception desk
~iI'\ \/iI<\ \ floor, story <counter) j:;"[<f,~\\ restroom, lavatory
1; ii' \\"?iI'\ \ first basement floor (of several) 1;r»7L-I"LJ:7 parking lot
70 1; ii' basement -

T

o

VOCABULARY

NOTE: Floors are written in hiragana here, but elsewhere in the book they are written with numerals, e.g., 1 1.l'\ \ for "first floor," 31.l'\ \ for "third floor," etc.

II. Things in a hotel room:

3. 'J 7 T - 4. T-7",[" 5. \ \-T

6.1:IJ,f

7. 1.l'11"(_'

2. '""/ ~.

III. Positions:

6

-

-

o

c» .::::>

1. -) ;t

2. L l:.

4. -) L';

6. t f,f I)

tL \ \ i'" i :: refrigerator Ii 1".1.' flower iL~ back, behind
""'::'YF bed n'i! ,(, briefcase, tote bag 1".1.' 1)' inside, middle
'177- sofa i;t top, above z 1j_"j
T-.711- table L bottom, below, under 1:, 1)'
\ '1" chair 1 before I

KEYSENTENCES--------------------------------------

1. 1fJ'~I(::: -'!:'"Iv:-5fJ<: ~I)ii"a

2. -5 (t -::> ( t ( ::: 1:; Iv -1".1.' 0) V t fJ <: ~ \ i i" a

3. T -7''''-/0) -5;{_ (::: L Iv.): Iv t IjJJ.'fJ<: ~ I) i i" a

4. fJ'l:flvO) -I"J.'fJ'(::: fJ'-,!:"J(? IllvfJ<: ~ I) i i" a

5. T - 7" J [." 0) -5;{_ (::: -1".1.' (::: t ~ I) i -t± Iv a

6. 2 fJ'~ \ (::: t:'*t t ~ \ i -t± Iva

1. There is a bank on the first floor.

2. There is a woman at the reception desk.

3. There is a newspaper and some flowers on the table.

4. Inside the briefcase there are keys and books and so on.

5. There is nothing on the table.

6. There is no one on the second floor.

EXERCISES-------------------------------------------

I. Practice conjugating verbs. Repeat the verbs below and memorize their forms-present and past, affirmative and negative.

PRESENT FORM PAST FORM
aff. neg. aff. neg.
be <fJ I) 1"t" <fJ I) 11±"(' <fJ I) 1 L t: <fJ I) 11±"(' T L t:
I ...... ........................... - ......... - ........ ...... ..... .... . . ...
be \\1"t" \ I 11±"(' \ '1 L t: \ I 11± ,.(, T L t: II. Make up sentences following the patterns of the examples. Substitute the underlined words with the words in the parentheses.

A. State what is in or at a particular place.

1 .

(t"(' t "'\") (.7,.-(7.4)

2 ...

B. State who is at a particular place.

ex. -5 t+ -::> (t ( ::: 1:; Iv -1".1.' 0) V t fJ <: ~ \ i i" a

1 ...

(};t:(J) vt) (t: i.I'li L ~ ,.(,)

2 ...

\ 'i1' be, exist (only of animate objects) ;"1'7;" lake
t and (particle; see Note 1, p. 70) j:;t:q) (}t man
-f",J.'!::t ... -i-tt,(, nothing j:;t: male, man
72 f: fL t ... - i 1± ,(, no one i{,:11 III. Make up dialogues following the patterns of the examples. Substitute the underlined words with the words in parentheses.

A. Ask and answer what is at a particular place.

ex. A: 1 1) '\ \ 1 ::

B: -'!:"Iv::: -) 1){

-td.' I:: f;{ <.h I) i -t1)'0 <.h I) i -t 0

1 . A: ..
B: ...
2. A: ..
B: .. (2 i.1'\ \)

(t"j) -5 Ulv~ J: <) (3 i.1{\ \)

(f: \ \ L i.1' Iv)

B. Ask and answer who is at a particular place.

ex. A: -)It"':)ltl:: t:'nf;{ \\i-t1)'o

B: to: 1)'! i L ~ Iv f; <". \ \ i -t 0

1 A: ...
B: ..
2. A: ..
B: .. (t;,tP-5L-\"LJ:-5) (i?t::(/) Un (3 i.1{\ »

(A ~ A ~,.{_,)

IV. State where a thing is located. Make up sentences following the pattern of the example. Substitute the underlined part with the alternatives given.

1 .

(i.1' 1;[ Iv(/) fJ.' i.1') (L Iv,;: Iv(/) L t:)

V. Make up dialogues following the patterns of the examples. Substitute the underlined part(s) with the alternatives given.

A. Ask and answer what is inside another thing.

ex. A: 1)'!;f /: (7) -td.' 1)' I :: -t,).' 1 :: f; { <.h I) i -t 1)' 0

B: "'/1){ <.h I) i-to

1. A: ..

B: .

2. A: ..

B:

VOCABULARY

wallet pen

73

I

3. A: .

B: .

4. A:

B: ..

B. Ask and answer what is on, in, or nearby another thing.

ex. A: T -7"/[.,0) B: L,.c,;:,.ct:

-) It I:::

Ii 1",oj{

1".J.' I::: iJ{ ;:h I) i -tiJ'o

;:h I) i -t 0

1 . A: ..
B:
2. A:
B: ..
3. A: ..
B: C. Ask and answer what is in or on another thing.

ex. A: U ~ t: .. L 0) 1".J.'iJ'l::: 1".J.' I::: iJ{ ;:h I) i -tiJ'o

B: 1".J.' I::: t ;:h I) i -li,.co

1. A: .

B: ..

2. A: .

B: .

D. Ask and answer who is at a particular place.

ex. A: 2 iJ'~ \ I::: t:"niJ{ ~ \ i -tiJ'o

B: t:"n t ~ \ i -li,.co

1. A: ...

B:

2. A: ..

B: ..

".!@:!iiiJid I: IH;:'

1:-7- h-r

Japanese (language) sweater

U"5 t~ L if-"r':; ~

drawer pocket

(cold) water

74

('J 77 -()) -);i) (11£ t -t-7-)

(h.-r~ c'-/[,,) (..-.(.:; r' ()) 1; iJ' <) et£h)

(7lt-:>lt)

VOCABULARY

VI. State or ask where someone or something is located. Make up sentences following the pattern of the example and based on the information in the illustrations.

4F

restaruant

3.

?

3F

2F

1 F

B1F

?

.

2 .J.. I ~ .. / :- 7' .J.. « -f: I) -l- _,}- 0

ex. IJ' \ \:::: _ /'v _ IJ d') s: 9

1 .

2.

3 ...

5 ...

6 ...

7.

8.

VII. Talk about a tourist destination. Make up dialogues following the pattern of the example. Substitute the underlined parts with the alternatives given.

ex. fJ' t: 7: I:::: i; J: 7 U I ::: < 6 i T Ii: ~ I:::: \ \ ~ i -t 0

A ~ A: f-7 T-tfJ'o Ii: ~I:::: f"J.'I::::fJ-{ <h I) i-tfJ'o

fJ't: 7: h-f'7 hJ(> };/V-t±/VfJ-{ <h I) i-to

A ~ A: \ \\ \-t-t~o

1. iJ't -) : .

iJ't -) : .

Ii : tl Hakone (national park southwest of Tokyo)

1J'i < G Kamakura (historic town southwest of Tokyo)

(iJ'i < G)

(iJ'i < G) (L:"('L:-\"J(> J?TG)

75

I

2.1]'1:::7: .

(}; I:·, I If) (};/:·"lf)

(*TJ[.,~ };,(,{t,(,)

VIII. Listen to the CD and fill in the blanks based on the information you hear.

1. 1 f.J' \ \ t ::: f.Jo{ ~ I) i -t 0
2. 2 f.J'\ \ t::: ... f.Jo{ ~ I) i -t 0
3. 3 f.Jo{\ \ t::: .. . .................................... f.Jo{ ~ I) i -t 0 Mr. Kato stays at a famous inn in Nikko.

I) J: f.J'Ivif) t.»: < t:::

I) J: f.J'1v if) z -f"J.' I) t::: t;\\~\\ ::: -) -j_1vf.Jo{

;b;b~\\ -'CI;f-\'?f.Jo{ ~ I) i -t 0

h -g- -) h -\'? t: ~ f.Jo{ ~ I) i -t 0

~ I) i -t 0 I) J: f.J'Ivif) i -j_ t:::

Near the inn are things like a large lake and waterfalls. Next to the inn is a buckwheat noodle shop. In front of the inn is a small park.

VOCABULARY

I) ..t 1]''(' t::.~ -tlf~

""'~

traditional Japanese inn waterfall

buckwheat noodle shop shop (suffix)

Using the vocabulary you have learned so far, ask someone what is in his or her hometown or nearby his or her house.

76

Odaiba (new town with a shopping center, built on reclaimed land in Tokyo Bay)

CD

'fARGET DIALOGUE

Mr. Kato has come to Nikko. He asks a salesperson at a store where to find a parking lot.

n't: 7 : -t.,z". i -t±,.co -:. (f) ty n' < I: ty til 7 L ~ L: J: 7 n{ ~ 'J i + e-,

.,z".-t±(f) ot: it it, ~ 'J i -t l 0
17,t: 7 r" -:. T-tn'o
.,z".-t±(f) ot: ~2(--:'I: ':J /' t'..::. n { ~ 'J i -ttlo
ty til 7 L ~ L: J: 7 Ii ~(f) ':J /' t'..::. (f) t: -rd.' 'J T-t 0
n't: 7 r"7 t ~ 'J n{ r 7 0 Kato: Excuse me. Is there a parking lot in the vicinity? salesperson: Yes, there is.

Kato: Where is it?

salesperson: There's a convenience store over there, right? The parking lot is next to the convenience store.

Kato: Thank you .

• The parking lot is next to the convenience store.

[ It;

VOCABULARY

over there

convenience store

1. t; rp -) L >(' t J: -) Ii :J /' t' .z: (7) t i"J.' 'J T-t 0

When the verb is understood, T-t sometimes takes its place at the end of the sentence. eX.Tvt·(i t":::I: GhI)i-tiJ'o "Where is the TV set?"

T-7",I,,(7) -) tt -C-t (instead of T-7",I,,(7) -) tt I: Gh I) i -t)o "It's on the table."

If it is uncertain whether there is a TV set, T-t cannot be substituted, and Gh I) i -t must be repeated to make the meaning clear.

ex. T-7',I,,(7) -) ttl: T vt'iJ{ Gh I) i-tiJ'o "Is there a TV set on the table?"

(i \ -. Gh I) i -t 0 / (i \ \, T I> t' iJ{ Gh I) i -t 0 "Yes, there is./Yes, there is a TV set."

77

I

WORDPOWER--------------------------------------

CD I. Things near a train station:

II

STATION

1. 'l7~-(7)I)li'

2. ,\"7..(7) I) If

3. :::-5lfA.-

4. U J:. -5 \ 'A.-

II. Office supplies:

DO

1. It L zri,

2. -j_ A.- U°--:>

3. ;j";.y 1-:t7..

4. li~.z,..

5. -toj--7°

6. 771 J[.,

1~,I!~:llllil '1 :; "./-(J) I) It taxi stand / {/ 'I" bakery It L ~"L." eraser 7 71 J[., file
/ ,""7,. (J) I) It bus terminal _; \/ bread iA.,r.J--; pencil
: -) If..C police box :: i)''I'' liquor store ;j-;')I-f:f-"7,. stapler
(/1. -)\\A., hospital, clinic < -t I) 'I" drugstore Ii:: .z,. scissors
78 11 A., 'I" bookstore < -t I) medicine -tor-7° Scotch tape III. Numbers of people:

v Uti)
VV .s. t: I)
VVV ::~I:~
VVVV J: I:~
VVVVV ='I:~ NOTE: Other than U 1:::: I) and .i- t: I), numbers of people from now on will be expressed with numerals: 31:~, 41:~, etc.

KEySENTENCES--------------------------------------

1. T-7";t,,(T) -) ~ I::::

2. :J /' C'''::'(T) i ~ I::::

3. -7 /} ~-(T) 'J Lfli

4. t1J -) rJJv:: J: < Ii

C'-/t,,77{ 211Jv ~ 'J i -to

;h c:: = (T) V c:: 77 { ')' t: 'J \ \ i -t 0

~::(T) t;77'<I:::: ~'Ji-to

~ (T) c' It" (T) fJ.' 77' T-t 0

1. There are two bottles of beer on the table.

2. There are two men in front of the convenience store.

3. The taxi stand is in the vicinity of the station.

4. The post office is inside that building over there.

VOCABULARY

U'!::. I) ,;.f:::. I)

:: ,.(_, I:,.(_, ~I:,.(_,

one person

two people three people person (counter)

7"J.' ,.(_, I: ,.(_, how many people

79

I

EXERCISES-------------------------------------------

I. Make up sentences following the patterns of the examples. Substitute the underlined words with the words in parentheses.

A. State how many of a certain object are in a drawer.

1 ...

2.

(It L -::fL., .;.t:-:» (7 7 l' ;[,-, t: < ~ Iv)

3 .

B. State how many people are in front of a building.

ex. ~ /' t'..::. (7) i;:t !::: }; t = (7) V t ir;; ')' t:: I) \ \ i -t 0

1 .

2.

~, tr»: 'J) ~, t: < ~ Iv)

3 .

II. Make up dialogues following the patterns of the examples. Substitute the underlined words with the words in parentheses.

A. Ask and answer how many of a certain object are on a table.

ex. A: T - 7" J t- (7) -);:t !::: I) Iv =" iJ { \ \ < -:> j;) I) i -t iJ' 0

B: h. -:> -:> j;) I) i -t 0

1 . A: ..
B:
2. A: .. B: .

(5 i \ I)

(c'-;k 1",J.'IvLflv) (2(11v)

B: .

(::1-I::.-iJ';;7', \1<-:» (.J: '? -:»

3. A: ..

t::. < -:5 Iv a lot, many, much p(-:> how many (small objects)
};t:(J) - boy f,t Iv i \ I how many (flat objects)
~
- child -r,1." Iv!! Iv how many (long, thin objects)
~
80 }; Iv f,t: (J) - girl
~

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