Introduction: The textile industry is becoming an increasingly competitive sector. Differentiating products by quality is particularly important.

Testing can be performed both to improve product quality and achieve compliance to international, regional or retailer specific standards. Fabric testing provides a Comprehensive review of the tests available for fabrics.

Object: Testing is done to assure quality in products. In testing following things are being considered.      Whither the garment has met the buyers recommendation. The construction is same as the buyer want. To measure color fastness and color depth. To measure yarn quality and strength. Selection of raw material to assure perfect production.

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Elements of testing: Various tests are included in textile testing. The names of the tests are listed below according to the purposes they are used for. Durability/Performance Testing Physical Testing
y y y y y y y y y

Tensile Strength Tear Strength Abrasion Seam Slippage Pilling Resistance Wrinkle Recovery Shrinkage Appearance after laundry Comparative Testing for Flammability, Moisture Vapor Transmission

Fabric Analysis
y y y y

Yarn count, twist Fabric weight, Fabric Count Fiber Content Bow, Skew

Color Fastness
y y y y y

Light (Carbon Arc, Xenon) Crocking Laundering Perspiration Sea Water, Chlorinated Pool Water

Color Measurement
y y

Color difference, 555 sorting Dye strength (reflectance, transmission)

Other tests:
y y y

Color matching, Trial finish application Dye calibration for match prediction

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Some testing methods: Nature of the Test Fibre (Cotton) Testing Fibre length Effective length short fibres Fibre fineness Fibre maturity Bundle strength (a) either zero or 3mm gauge (b) both zero and 3mm gauge Trash content% Seed coat analysis Moisture content PACKAGE TESTING FOR COTTON FIBRE CHARACTERISATION Man made fibre/filament Testing Mean length Over length fibre% Fibre denier Single fibre strength & elongation - Dry, wet Fibre diameter Denier of filament yarn No. of filaments Arcs/cm PACKAGE TESTING FOR MANMADE FIBRE/FILAMENT CHARACTERISATION Yarn Testing Lea count and strength Lea count/strength alone Yarn twist - Single Single thread strength & elongation Evenness tests of sliver / roving yarn with imperfections (normal setting) or baby cones CV%, spectrogram & various information Yarn hairiness Coefficient of yarn friction (against metal, yarn or other) Yarn appearance grade Test Method / Instrument

Shirley comb Sorter Uster Stapler method Wira fineness meter Caustic soda method IS 236 Stelometer / Pressely IS 3675

Trash analyser IS 4871 Trash analyser Oven dry method

Oil plate method Manual Cut & weigh method IS 10014 Instron Microscopic method Wrapping machine Manual Microscopic

Direct count balance & Lea tester " Twist-Tester (Untwist - Retwist method) Instron / Statimat Uster tester

Yarn Structure Tester( Zweigle with Oasys software ) Shirley friction tester ASTM board

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PACKAGE FOR YARN TESTING Fabric Testing Fabric Width Fabric thickness Stitch length Fabric analysis (warp & weft wise) - weave analysis - weight per unit area - yarn count - with size matter - after desizing EPI / PPI Crimp TPI weight per unit running length wales x Course/inch in knitted fabric PACKAGE FOR FABRIC ANALYSIS & TESTING Crease Recovery angle Pilling test Fabric abrasion Strength properties Tensile strength Tear strength Bursting strength Seam slippage Seam strength Air permeability Compression & Recovery Thermal Insulation Fabric Simulation Test ‡ yarn characteristics ‡ weaving/knitting pattern ‡ pattern overview CHEMICAL & ANALYTICAL TESTING Fabric Testing Water repellency test Wettability of fabrics Water penetration Flammability (before & after washing / dry cleaning) Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) Fastness tests Color fastness to light Color fastness to perspiration

IS 1954 SDL Thickness Tester Scale Pick Counter IS 1964 IS 3442 IS 1963 IS 3442 IS 1964 Pick Counter

IS 4681 (Crease Recovery Tester) IS 10971 (Martiandale / Tumble Type) IS 12673 ( Nu -Martindale Abrasion Tester (Model : SDL 235 ) IS 1969 (Instron) IS 6489 (Tear Tester) IS 1966 (Pneumatic Bursting Strength Tester) IS 11056 (Shirley Air Permeability Tester) SDL Thickness Tester

Yarn Structure Tester Zweigle with Oasys Software

IS 390 IS 391 IS 11871 IS 13501 IS 2454 IS 971 IS 687, 764,765

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Color fastness to washing Color fastness to scrubbing Color fastness to Hot pressing Color fastness to bleaching Color fastness to rubbing (dry & wet) Color fastness to dry cleaning

IS 11098, IS 689 IS 762, 763, 987 IS 766 IS 4802

PACKAGE TESTING FOR COLOUR FASTNESS Computer Color Matching Color difference Whiteness/Yellowness/Brightness Recipe formulation (Data base/matching) Dimensional stability tests Dimensional stability of fabric to Washing - one wash Each addition wash Appearance after actual laundering Dimensional stability of fabric to Dry cleaning - One cycle Each additional cycle Appearance after dry-cleaning Shrinkage on heating Dyes Testing (a) Identification of dyes (b) Strength evaluation Testing of textile auxiliaries and specialty chemicals (characterization & purity) Eco-Testing of Textiles

CCM

Hot Air Oven

UV-VIS Spectrophotometer

Extraction & Cleavage of Dye as per German Method ( Section 35- LMBG, B-82.02) Carcinogenic aromatic amines released from Analysis on GC-MS banned azo dyes Extraction with perspiration as per DIN 54020 (Solution 2) Heavy metals For baby wear extraction with saliva as per DIN 53160 Analysis on ICP Extraction as per OKO Tex Standard 100, GC-ECD / NPD Analysis Residual pesticides Extraction, Analysis by GC/ECD Halogen Carriers Acetyl acetone method

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1S0 14184-1 Free formaldehyde Extraction, GC-ECD or GC-MS Analysis Detection of Pentachlorophenol (PCP) pH of aqueous extract Residual Chlorine DIN54274, DIN54276, ISO 03071 IS 971

THERMAL CHARACTERISATION OF POLYMERS Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) (i) Normal (Dynamic) (ii )Programmed (Isothermal) Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) TGA 7 (i) Tensile Elongation Mode (ii) 3-Point Bending Mode DMA 7e

Perkin Elmer DSC ( Pyris 1)

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Test for yarn identifications: There are so many tests for yarn identification. Among them burn test is the mostly used and easy method. Here the yarns are burned to identify the yarn. Burning properties of some manmade and natural fibers are described as below. Natural Fibers Cotton is a plant fiber. When ignited it burns with a steady flame and smells like burning leaves. The ash left is easily crumbled. Small samples of burning cotton can be blown out as you would a candle. Linen is also a plant fiber but different from cotton in that the individual plant fibers which make up the yarn are long where cotton fibers are short. Linen takes longer to ignite. The fabric closest to the ash is very brittle. Linen is easily extinguished by blowing on it as you would a candle. Silk is a protein fiber and usually burns readily, not necessarily with a steady flame, and smells like burning hair. The ash is easily crumbled. Silk samples are not as easily extinguished as cotton or linen. Wool is also a protein fiber but is harder to ignite than silk as the individual "hair" fibers are shorter than silk and the weave of the fabrics is generally looser than with silk. The flame is steady but more difficult to keep burning. The smell of burning wool is like burning hair.

Man Made Fibers Acetate is made from cellulose (wood fibers), technically cellulose acetate. Acetate burns readily with a flickering flame that cannot be easily extinguished. The burning cellulose drips and leaves a hard ash. The smell is similar to burning wood chips. Acrylic technically acrylonitrile is made from natural gas and petroleum. Acrylics burn readily due to the fiber content and the lofty, air filled pockets. A match or cigarette dropped on an acrylic blanket can ignite the fabric which will burn rapidly unless extinguished. The ash is hard. The smell is acrid or harsh. Nylon is a polyamide made from petroleum. Nylon melts and then burns rapidly if the flame remains on the melted fiber. If you can keep the flame on the melting nylon, it smells like burning plastic. Polyester is a polymer produced from coal, air, water, and petroleum products. Polyester melts and burns at the same time, the melting, burning ash can bond quickly to any surface it drips on including skin. The smoke from polyester is black with a sweetish smell. The extinguished ash is hard.

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Rayon is a regenerated cellulose fiber which is almost pure cellulose. Rayon burns rapidly and leaves only a slight ash. The burning smell is close to burning leaves. Blends consist of two or more fibers and, ideally, are supposed to take on the characteristics of each fiber in the blend. The burning test can be used but the fabric content will be an assumption.

The ignition temperature of some fibres is as below:

Fiber Cotton Rayon Nylon Polyester Wool Zipro Wool (Treated with Zirconium, a heavy metal)

Heat (Kcal/g) 3.9 3.9 7.9 5.7 4.9 -

of

Combustion Ignition (°C) 255 420 575 560 600 -

Temperature

Fiber Burn Test Fiber Fiber Type Flame Reaction Bead After-Flame Odor

Cotton

Cellulose Fiber

Linen

Rayon

May flair None Continues to when lit, glow burns Cellulose May flair None Continues to Fiber when lit, glow burns Manufactured Burns None unless May glow cellulose without there is a longer than fiber flame or fabric finish cotton

Burning paper Burning paper Burning paper

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Silk

Protein Fiber

Wool

Protein Fiber

Acetate

Manufactured Fiber

Nylon

Manufactured Fiber

Polyester

Manufactured Fiber

Acrylic

Manufactured Fiber

melting Burns slowly, curls away from flame Burns slowly, curls away from flame Burns quickly, can flare even after flame is removed Quick burning due to fabric finish,shrinks to flame Quick burning, shrinks away from flame, may flare Flares at match-touch, shrinks away from flame, burnsrapidly, hotsputtering flame, Drip Danger

Dark bead Selfeasily extinguishing crushed Brittle dark, Selfeasily extinguishing crushed

Burned hair or charred meat Strong odor of hair or feathers

Hard, brittle, Melts into a Hot vinegar uncrushable very hot bead, or burning Drip Danger pepper

Hard, grayish, uncrushable

Burns slowly and melts, selfextinguishing, Drip Danger Hard dark Burns slowly, round bead not always selfextinguishing

Celery

Slightly sweet, chemical

Hard dark Continues to Strong acrid irregular melt after fishy odor shape flame is removed

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Some testing machineries: Single End Yarn Strength Tester: It is used to determine the breaking load and extension of single yarns up to 5000 centi-grams force. Electronically operated with mechanical action, provided with scales 0-500cg force and 05000cg force, extension scale graduated in mm and percentage of standard test length (500mm) .

SPECIFICITION (1) Load Range: 0-50000cN (2) Load Resolution: 1 / 50000 (3) Load Accuracy: (<=) (+ -) 0. 05% F-S (4) Accuracy: 1% -100% Capacity of Load Cell (+ -) 0. 5% 0. 5% -1% Capacity of Load Cell (+ -) 1. 0% (5) Frequency of data sampling: (>=) 800Hz (6) Speed Range: 10-1200mm / min (7) Return Speed: 10-1200mm / min (8) Elongation Resolution: 0. 01mm (9) Max Vertical test space: 900mm (10) Available Length of sample: 0-500mm (11) Presetting Force: 0-150cN

Fabric Strength Testing Machine: It is designed for a wide range of applications including: Bending, Compression, Tensile Testing, Peeling, Lamination etc. The Fabric Strength Testing Machine offers excellent accuracy and ease of use. It is strong and durable enough to withstand many years of use, yet it has a compact load frame that provides greater flexibility of placement. Whether you choose the base unit or add the optional advanced software package, the Fabric Strength Testing Machine, the standard in Universal Tensile Testing. The load cells used offer one-touch zero adjustment and load cell capacity discrimination guarantees accuracy, and speeds the setup process. This is particularly important when multiple tests are being performed. We can tailor make machines and programs to our customer's requirements. Suit following tests: (1) Tensile tests (2) Tearing tests (3) Compression test

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(4) Adhesion tests (5) Bending tests (6) Pull-out tests (7) Burst tests (8) Stress-relaxation tests (9) Peeling tests (10) Shearing tests

Figure 1:fabric strength testing machines

SPECIFICITION (1) Load Range: 500N-50000N (Optional) (2) Load Resolution: 1/50000 (Full capacity) (3) Load Accuracy: (>=) (+ -) 0. 05% F-S 2% -120% applied load (+ -) 0. 5% 0. 5% -1% applied load (+ -) 1. 0% (4) Maximum crosshead travel 900mm (5) Elongation Resolution: 0. 01mm (6) Effective width 420mm (7) Frequency of data sampling (>=) 800Hz (8) Storage capacity (>=) 4000 sets of test report

AIR-COOLED WEATHER CONDITIONS METER: It reproduces the effects of sunlight, rain and dew. Tests materials by exposing them to alternating cycles of light and moisture and controlled, elevated temperatures. Simulates the effect of sunlight with fluorescent ultra violet lamps, simulating rain and dew with condensing humidity. 8 UV lamp positions and 11 specimen holders 75 x 300mm (3 x 12in) and 46 alum panels 75 x 150mm (3 x 6in). Touch screen display and control panel, irradiance control, calibration devices and lamps extra. SPECIFICITION (1) Air-cooled Xenon Lamp Power 220V 50HZ 15A 3000W

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(2) Turntable speed 5r/min (3) Diameter of sample rack 350mm (4) Max exposure area of specimen 100 x 45mm (5) Number of specimen holders fastness to light: 10 pcs fastness to light and perspiration: 2pcs (5) BST 30 degree-110degree (+ -) 1degree (6) BPT 30degree-100degree (+ -) 2degree (7) Chamber temperature 25degree-85degree (+ -) 2degree (8) Humidity range 15%RH - 85%RH (+ -)5% (9) Irradiance range (25 ~ 55) (+ -) 1W/m2 @300 ~ 400nm (Wide bandwidth measurement) (0.550 ~ 1.500) (+ -) 0.02W/m2 @420nm (Narrow bandwidth measurement) (10) Xenon lamp power adjustment Automatic compensating system (patent) (11) Humidity control use close loop control

Pilling and Snagging Tester: Orbiter Pilling and Snagging Tester can be used to test both woven and knitted materials. It complies in full with the requirements of EN ISO Textiles- testing. It is done for determination of fabric propensity to surface fussing and to pilling.

SPECIFICITION ( 1) Number of pilling drums 3pcs ( 2) Volume of drum 235 x 235 x 235mm (L x W x H) ( 3) Rotational speed 60 (-) 2r / min ( 4) Number of rotation 2-99999 (user defined interval) ( 5) Weight and size of specimen tube Diameter 30 x 140 mm 50g

SDL Atlas Moisture Management Tester (MMT): A new test method for measuring the moisture handling properties of performance fabrics for active wear and other apparel has earned approval from the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) after a lengthy review. The SDL Atlas Moisture Management Tester (MMT) plays a key role in the new protocol. Recent studies have revealed that for most active wear

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purchasers, the comfort of their apparel¶s fabric is closely linked to its ability to handle moisture such as perspiration. Researchers have been seeking to develop a means for objectively measuring and documenting comfort levels and moisture handling. The unit dynamically measures liquid transfer behavior in knitted, woven and non-woven textile fabrics using upper and lower concentric moisture sensors. It generates six key indexes and a quantifiable one-way moisture movement index value. This new dynamic unit can demonstrate the ability of a fabric to improve apparel comfort

Burst tester: Burst Testers are used as a multi-directional tensile test to identify failure in the direction of least resistance for evaluating physical strength and fiber bond. Models are available to test a variety of materials. These models can also be fitted with a device to measure the deflection of the sample prior to burst. The Burst tester is designed to meet international standards for tests on paper, foils, paper boards, corrugated board, textiles etc.

OPERATION The Burst Tester is designed for measuring the bursting strength of fabric materials subjected to an increasing hydrostatic pressure. This pressure is applied to a circular region of the specimen via an elastic diaphragm. The specimen is firmly held round the edge of this circular region by a pneumatic clamping device. When the pressure is applied, the specimen deforms together with the diaphragm. The bursting strength corresponds to the maximum pressure supported by the specimen before failure. Identical, in the principle to the multidirectional tensile test, Ball Burst Method for Fabrics, this measurement is independent from the cutting direction of the sample (machine or cross) since the failure naturally occurs in the least resistance direction.The rubber diaphragms with specific thickness and shore hardness must have a bulge versus pressure pattern within the tolerance of the standards related to the type of material tested. APPLICATIONS Textiles, Fibers, Non-woven¶s, Polyester, Fabrics, Felts etc. Strength, stiffness, dye ability, resilience, fatigue elasticity, orientation and crystallinity.

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Pressure System The hydrostatic pressure is transmitted to the diaphragm by a hydraulic jack associated with a frictionless ball-screw driven by a precision DC motor. The rotational speed and the position of the motor are servo-controlled by means of an optical encoder ensuring a perfect control of the fluid flow rate together with the determination of the displaced volume of fluid. Sample tightening system: A large pneumatic jack enables an accurate and reproducible tightening. The tightening surfaces have an adequate profile to minimize the slippage even for difficult materials like textiles for high volume bags. The tightening pressure is measured with a precision manometer and may be displayed in metric or imperial units. The gripping strength is recalculated according to the geometry of the tightening surfaces, and displayed in newtons. Bursting pressure measurement: The pressure is measure by a metallic gages pressure transducer (0 to 100 bars) Accuracy: +/-1% of read value +/-1 digit between 5% and 100% of the FSD. Resolution: 2 mbars (50,000 points)

Programmable Test Stand:

The Programmable Force Tester is a highly configurable motorized test stand for tension and compression testing applications up to 1.5kN (300 lb). The stand can be controlled from the front panel or via a computer and is fully compatible with NexygenŒ TCD software. The Programmable Force Tester is engineered on a unique modular platform, allowing for ³build-your-own´ configurability. Integrated travel indication, overload protection, and a host of programmable parameters makes the tester quite sophisticated, while its intuitive menu structure allows for quick, simple setup and operation. A password can be programmed to prevent unauthorized changes. With a rugged and modular design, the Programmable Force Tester is a compelling solution for

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applications in laboratory and production environments.Simple Automated Testeing When used in production, the Model 84-76 Tensile Tester automatically displays Peak Force and Peak % Elongation after each measurement. Additional results displayed are Tensile Strength, TEA, Tensile Index and Breaking Length.

APPLICATIONS Paper, Board, Tissue Paper, Adhesives, Peel Testing, Seal Strength, 180° Peel Strength, Bond Strength Tensile Tester: The instrument has a small footprint just over 0.20 square meters (2.3 square feet). It provides a large 5.7 inch color display, intuitive operator interface, software control, integrated printer & serial port for data collection. This unit is designed to test strength of sheet materials including Paper, Board, Tissue Paper, Film Packaging Seals, Adhesives, Pressure Sensitive Tapes and a variety of low force tensile applications up to 1330 N (136 Kg, 300 lbs). The Model 84-76 Tensile Tester is a robust, precision, tensile strength instrument suitable for rugged production environments yet designed to provide highly accurate measurements for research applications.

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Total fibre tester: It is the most advanced instrument for testing of fibre properties. It measures 2.5% and 50% span length, strength, elongation, micronaire, maturity ratio, percentage of maturity, Fineness, UV-Status and colour Rd;+b.It also provides uniformity ratio, Short fibre percentage, mean length, upper half mean length, uniformity index and fibrogram. Statex - HVI consists of automatic brushing unit, auto comb transport mechanism, Fibre length and strength measuring module and micronaire module. The fibre length and strength is measured with the same fibre sample prepared by the comb. A self diagnosis software for immediate identification of mechanical and electronic faults. Test Modules Length Strength Micronaire & Maturity Rd;+b Colour UV - Status UV - Light Reflection Principles Optic Constant rate of extension Double compression air flow Halogen Light Reflection

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Some other mschines for testing: M/c name Circular cutters M/c M/c name Light fastness Tester M/c

Swatch cutter

Seam Slippage tester

Crockmeter: used for testing the transference of color from the surface of one material to another by either wet or dry rubbing. Arc Tester :It is used to determine the colorfastness of textiles against sunlight.

Button Snap Tester: It is used for testing the snap strength of buttons/rivets/joints

Crease Recovery Tester: determines the property of textiles to recover from creases by measurement of the recovery angle.

Beasley balance: It is used for determining count by an accurate determination of sample length and an accurate determination of its width as per cotton/metric/woolen & worsted systems The perspiration test unit: It is used to determine color fastness to water and perspiration in textiles

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Flammability Tester: The test is done to determine the flammability and Flame resistance of Textiles.

Tearing Tester: used for testing tearing strength of woven fabric, lightweight non woven fabric and coated fabric.

Yarn Durometers for testing the winding density of textile cones, bobines, quills and package dyeing tubes.

Washing Fastness Tester Tester is used to determine the colour fastness to washing of dry cleaning as per ISO / BS / European as well as AATCC standards

Yarn Twist Tester measurement TPM/TPI twisted yarn

Lea Strength Tester of of

Lea Strength Tester Bursting strength tester is used to test bursting strength of any material such as fabric, leather, etc

Finemat - Maturity Tester : Its test contains maturity ratio, percentage of maturity, Fineness.

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Application of Textile testing:

The application of testing in textile sector is huge. In every stage of garments preparation testing is essential. Quality assurance is the most important necessity of testing. As garments preparation is a continuous process, so it requires proper testing at every step. If there remain any faults, all the consecutive processes will be faulty. That will lead to faulty garments, which is not expected. So that testing should done carefully. Applications of testing are as below;

a) Fibre preparation:It is the primary stage of yarn preparation. Fiber should tested properly to check its characteristics. The effect of fiber characteristics on yarn is as below;

Quality Evaluation 1. Staple Length 2. Fiber Strength 3. Fineness 4. Maturity 5. Non-Lint. content (Trash) 6, Uniformity Ratio 7. Elongation 8. Friction 9. Class 10.Stickiness 11. Grey Value 12. Yellowness 13.Neppiness 14. Moisture Content

Characteristics Co-Relation to Yarn Spinning Potential Yarn strength, less Breakages Finer Spinning Potential Yarn Strength and evenness, better dyeing Reduced Waste Better productivity and Evenness Less end Breakages Cohesiveness Yarn Appearance Spinning problem by lapping & Dyeing quality Yarn luster Yarn Appearance Yarn Neppiness 8.5% moisture content optimum for spinning at 65%

b) Yarn preparation:As it is the most initial stage of garments preparation, it requires so many tests. Strength test, tensile test, twist test, count determination etc. testing is done on yarn to have a perfect yarn.

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c) Fabric preparation:After having a perfect yarn, then it is time for making fabric. Fabric also required some tests. On all types of fabric strength test is done. The TPI and PPI are also being counted for woven fabric. For knitted fabric GSM is counted. This counting are done for quality assurance. d) Dying and printing: Before dying or printing is done, the dyes are checked if they are suitable for doing the job. After doing the job, tests are done to determine if the process is successful. e) Garments preparation:Garments generally need no tests, as all are tested before. All is done on is the quality checking. The joining of various parts, seam classes, faults, accessories attachment etc. are checked on garments.

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Conclusion: With the increase of time textile field is becoming more challenging. To keep oneself in the race every industry should assure quality. Testing is the only way to assure quality. Testing should do sincerely to assure highest quality to the garments. In this assignment we have tried to Discuss about some testing machineries and testing methods. Our task will be successful if this assignment helps anyone to know about testing.

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References: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. http://www.statexengg.com/high_volume_products.html http://www.sewanee.edu/Chem/Chem&Art/Main/chem8.htm http://paniit.iitd.ac.in/textile/public/images/blank.gif http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adiabatic_flame_temperature "http://quilting.about.com/bio/Janet-Wickell-18651.htm" _Janet About.com

Wickell_,

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