TAMU - Pemex Offshore Drilling

Lesson 3 Wellheads and Casing

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Wellheads and Casing
 Drilling with a Riser  Temporary and Permanent Guide Bases  Fracture Gradients  Subsea Cementing  Casing Seals  Drilling Procedures - An Example
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Conventional Riser Drilling
FLOATER

DRILLING RISER CHOKE LINE
BOP

SEA WATER HYDROSTATIC MUD HYDROSTATIC

DEPTH

SEAFLOOR

PRESSURE

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Conventional Riser Drilling - Install 30-in Conductor FLOATER

DRILLPIPE

~200

30”

Jet 30-in Conductor to ~ 200 ft below mudline No riser - “Mud” returns to seafloor No annulus - no cementing (in GOM)
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Conventional Riser Drilling - Install 20-in Conductor
FLOATER

DRILLING RISER CHOKE LINE

D ~1,050

30” 20”

Drill 26-in hole to 1,050 ft below mudline Riser optional - Mud returns to surface or seafloor Run 20-in Conductor to ~ 1,000 ft below mudline Cement to mudline

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Conventional Riser Drilling
- Install 13 3/8-in Surface Csg.
FLOATER

DRILLING RISER CHOKE LINE

BOP
Run Riser and BOP Stack Drill 17 1/2-in hole to 4,050 ft BML Drill with Mud returns to surface Run 13 3/8-in Surface Casing to ~ 4,000 ft below mudline Cement to mudline

D

13 3/8”

Now, finally, we can close the BOP if necessary

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Wellheads and Casing A subsea wellhead. and  Must seal off between casing strings during drilling and production operations. 7 . like a land wellhead:  Must support the BOP’s while drilling  Must support the suspended casing while cementing.

Wellheads and Casing. In floating drilling. cont. casing seals and cementing heads differ from land and platform operations in the following manner: 8 . the casing hangers.

The first and second casing strings are cemented with returns to the seabed. Casing is run with the last joint madeup on a casing hanger and permanently suspended prior to cementing. 9 . 2. Mud returns flow through fluting in the hanger.Wellheads and Casing 1.

Casing seals are run and set remotely. 10 . cementing plugs are located at the wellhead and released remotely. 4.Wellheads and Casing 3. The cementing string from the vessel to the wellhead is drill pipe. Usually.

Wear bushings are essential for protecting the wellhead.Wellheads and Casing 5. 6. 11 . Special test tools are required for remotely testing the casing seals.

4-10.Fig. Typical sealing arrangement for subsea wells. 12 .

13 .

Depth BML 240 ft 1.100 ft 8.600 ft 10.100 ft 4.100 ft 14 .

15 .

Temporary Guide Base 16 .Permanent Guide Structure.

17 .

Utility Guide Frame Hole Opener Temporary Guide Base 18 .

To get the well started.Procedure for Starting a Well 1. place a heavy steel template on the seafloor. Four guidelines guide bit. Run 36” hole opener (with guide frame) and drill 36” hole to ~240 ft BML with returns to the seafloor. 19 . casing. 2. 3. etc to the right location on the seafloor. Run on drillpipe.

. Drill 26” hole to 1.Procedure for Starting a Well 4. Sometimes the 30” casing is jetted or driven in. With the 30” casing also run the permanent guide structure and the wellhead housing.050 ft below mudline. 20 . (3 & 4 alt. 5.instead of drilling). Run 30” casing and cement with returns to the seafloor.

With the 20” casing. Note the guide posts on the permanent guide structure. or with returns to the surface using the marine riser. Run 20” conductor casing.Procedure for Starting a Well 6. Cement the casing. These are for the BOP stack 21 . NOTE: The 26” hole may be drilled with returns to the seafloor. run the high pressure wellhead.

4-5. Estimated Fracture gradients at 100 ft below seabed (Santa Barbara Channel).Fig. 22 .

Why drill with returns to the seafloor? With this low fracture gradient it is difficult to drill with returns to the surface.Fracture gradient at 100 ft. No shallow gas would be expected at this depth below the mudline. below seabed (Santa Barbara Channel). 23 .

Estimated Fracture gradients at 1000 ft below seabed (Santa Barbara Channel). 24 . 4-5.Drill with Diverter to the Surface Casing Point Fig.

Shallow Gas Blowout Gas reduces buoyancy! 25 .

the rig’s primary flotation members are situated below the zones where specific gravity has been reduced the most.Gas in the Water Column Typical specific gravity variations in a blowout boil have increasing effect nearer the water’s surface. 26 . Fortunately for a semi-submersible.

27 .

the plume can also cause the rig to list. the rig will be pushed off location and out of harm’s way. However.Gas in the Water Column If there is sufficient length to the mooring system cables/ chains. 28 . which reduces its freeboard and makes it more susceptible to capsizing.

Fracture Gradients in Deep Water Increasing the water depth reduces the total overburden gradient and consequently the formation fracture gradient. This can be expressed as: g f = (g ob − g p )Fσ + g p 29 .

g f = (g ob − g p )Fσ + g p Where: g f = fracture gradient. psi/ft g p = formation pressure gradient. psi/ft g ob = overburden pressure gradient. psi/ft Fσ = horizontal / vertical stress ratio 30 .

g/cm 31 .4335 ρ f f(d KB − d − d F )] p Where: d KB = depth measured from the kelly bushing.For offshore drilling: g ob = 1 d KB [ 0.44 d + 0. ft ρ f = formation bulk density. ft d = water depth. ft 3 d F = height of flowline above the water.

d . or simply the hydrostatic pressure at the seafloor.g ob = 1 d KB [ 0. (dKB . 32 .44 d is the overburden due to water.4335 ρ f f(d KB − d − d F )] p 0.dF) is merely the penetration into the seafloor.44 d + 0.

Get Fσ from this plot. 33 . horizontal to vertical stress ratios for the Santa Barbara Channel.Get ρ f from density log. Get gp Calculate gf Formation bulk density vs.

4-7.Fig. 34 . An example of onshore and offshore fracture gradients.

3 * (TVDBML )0. 1997.000)0. Cumulative average (BML) formation bulk density ρ = 5. ρ = 5. W.1356 = 15. Woods “Estimating Shallow Below Mudline Deepwater Gulf of Mexico Fracture Gradients” Presented at the 1997 Houston AADE Chapter Annual Technical Forum. D.g.J.70 lb/gal 35 .1356 e.3 * (3. April 2-3. Barker and T.

Barker and T.1356 = 13.8 * ρ o b o b = 12.3 * (TVDBML )0.J.000)0.663 psi/ft = 10. Woods cont’d At 1. ρ = 5. avg.82 lb/gal = 0.52 lb/gal gf = 0. Density.9 * ρ gp = 0.1356 gob = 5.563 psi/ft 36 NOTE: These are gradients relative to . W.000 ft below mudline.17 lb/gal = 0. D. OB.3 * (1.

82 * 1.40 lb/gal NOTE: These are gradients relative to SURFACE! 37 .J. Barker and T.052 * 12.293/2. in 1.223/2.500 + 0.48 lb/gal !! pf = 0.052 * 13.363/2.52 * 1.000 psi gob = 1.000 psi = 1.500 ft water: Total overburden = 0.052 * 10.500 +0.000 ft below mudline. W.500 psi/ft = 10.000 psi gf = 1.17 * 1.44 * 1.44 * 1.94 lb/gal gp = 0.500 psi/ft = 9. D.500 psi/ft = 9.44 *1. Woods cont’d At 1.500 + 0.

October 1997. pp. 93-100. Eaton “Fracture Gradient Prediction for the new generation” World Oil. Eaton and Travis L. Fracture gradient equation: F S p  γ  p = −   1− γ  + D  D D D   γ = Poisson’s Ratio from Text 38 g f = (g ob − g p )Fσ + g p .Ben A.

Plot of a leak-off test. 4-8. 39 .Fig.

340 ft-KB Frac.5 PPG Casing 13 inches Set to 3.6886 psi/ft = 0.Fracture Gradient Calculation Mud Weight 9. Grad.340 + 650 = 2.300 psig Frac.052 = 13. = 2.052 * 9.5 * 3.6886/0.24 ppg 40 . Grad. = ? Fracture Pressure = 0.300/3.340 = 0.

Leak-Off Test BOPs Casing Drillpipe 41 .

4-9. Sub-sea cementing system.Fig. 42 .

Fig. Typical sealing arrangement for subsea wells.4-10. 43 .

000 psi pressure integrity. even in highpressure holes  Eliminates dependence on seal materials that deteriorate or “cold flow”. 44 .  Available on systems up to 15.Metal-to-Metal Casing Annulus Seal  Assures maximum seal over extended periods.

Casing hanger Upper Metal Seal Lips Resilient Compression Element Lower Metal Seal Lips 45 . forcing the 3. Resilient compression element which expands. Actuating force is transferred to the 2. Metal seal lips into contact with the surface of the 4.1. Wellhead housing and the 5.

installing the casing hanger. 46 . cementing the casing string and actuating and testing the pack-off seal are performed in a single trip of the running string.Casing Hanger and Pack-off Assembly Single trip installation The pack-off seal assembly is run simultaneously with the casing hanger body. All operations .

Large Flow-By Areas Large flow-by areas can handle most drilling fluid applications with a minimal drop in pressure. provide clear passage for cuttings and mudcake without plugging. Deep 2" wide flow-by slots in the casing hanger body. 47 . and ample porting through the pack-off nut assembly.

Liquid Compressibility The volume required to compress a liquid is defined by the equation: ∆ V = Vi * Cp * ∆ P Where: Vi = volume of system. psi 48 . bbl Cp = compressibility = 3 * 10-6 per psi for water = 6 * 10-6 per psi for mud ∆ P = test pressure.

Seal Test . J-55.000 psi Test fluid = water Previous casing string = 20”. 94.0 lb/ft Previous casing seat = 1.Example Water depth = 500 ft (all depths are KB) Casing string = 13 3/8” OD Volume of system above the seal = 11 bbl Test pressure = 3.500 ft KB Cement top = 996 ft 49 .

Seal Test .Example V = 11 bbl 500 ‘ KB 996’ 1.500’ Mud Line 20” 13 3/8” 4.000 ft 50 .

000 = 0. the system will require ∆ V = 3 * 10-6 * 11 * 3. but how much more? 51 . the volume will be more.1 bbl water to reach test pressure.With no leak. If the seal leaks.

4 * 10-4 + 3.3*10-5 ) ∆ P bbl = ( 5.500) ft * 0.1 bbl would be difficult to measure. The annular volume between the seal and the cement is (996 .73 * 10-4 ) ∆ P bbl What should the maximum pressure be? -6 -6 52 .1815 bbl/ft = 90 bbl of mud Now.Obviously. 0. ? ∆ V = 6*10 * 90 ∆ P + 3*10 * 11 ∆ P bbl = ( 5.

Pressure in the annulus must always be less than the collapse pressure of the inner casing. the internal yield of the 20-inch casing is reached at 2. Table 4-2 shows the relationship for four grades of casing. and less than the internal yield of the outer casing.24 bbl. Also.110 psi when V = 1. 53 . This will depend on both volume and pressure.

54 .

55 .Plug for testing casing seal to full working pressure.

Set seal 2. sealing off below the seal 3. Land test plug in wellhead.Test Procedure 1. Displace mud with water for test 4. Pump slowly down the choke line. preferably in stages. to protect the casing in case of leaks 56 . Close pipe rams 5.

if the wellhead system being tested will not sustain test pressure. several possible causes should be considered: 1. Leak in the surface manifold 2. Leak in the test plug (detected by returns through the drillpipe) 57 .Test Evaluation During the test.

Test Evaluation. cont. Leak in the BOPs 5. Leak in the casing seal 4. 3. Leak in the hydraulic wellhead connector 58 .

59 .Test Evaluation. cont. When the well does not sustain pressure. just as we have discussed. There is also a problem if the well takes too much fluid to reach test pressure. it is obvious that there is a problem.

Drilling Procedures from a floater  Install 30” Structural Csg. 60 .  Install 20” Conductor  Install 13 3/8” Surface Casing  etc.

Drilling Procedures Tentative Hole and Casing Sizes  8 1/2” Pilot Hole to 180’ BML  26”x36” Hole Opener to 180’ BML Install 30” Structural Csg.  8 1/2” Pilot Hole to 1040’ BML  17 1/2” Pilot Hole to 1040’ BML  17 1/2”x26” Under reamer to 1040’ Install 20” Conductor 61 .

830’ BML  12 1/4”x17 1/2” Hole Opener to 3.Drilling Procedures Tentative Hole and Casing Sizes  12 1/4” Pilot Hole to 3.  8 1/2” Hole if Required7” Contingency Liner 62 .530’ BML) Install 9 5/8” Production Csg.830’ BML Install 13 3/8” Surface Csg.  12 1/4” Hole to TD (8.

3. Do not change the tension on the anchor lines until the 30” casing has been run and cemented. 2. There will be an SLM prior to any logging or coring run. Have all the 30” casing and all of the wellhead equipment on board prior to spudding.General Rules 1. 63 .

Cement densities will be monitored with a mud balance. 6.General Rules 4. 64 . All casing strings will be strapped and drifted prior to running. 5. Casing will not be run until the hole is in the best possible condition and a trouble free wiper trip can be made.

9. No smoking or open flames are permitted on deck whenever the riser is connected to the well. 65 . 8. The rig will be moved 50’ off location whenever the riser is being run or pulled. Welding permits (authorized by the drilling supervisor and tool pusher) will be required at all times.General Rules 7.

11. All information concerning the well will be kept strictly confidential. but only after approval from the task force Manager and the Exploration Coordinator. Coring will be at the the discretion of the well site geologist. Any discussions will be held in a secure area in the quarters or on the rig. 66 .General Rules 10.

cont’d. 67 . All personnel on board and all visitors will be instructed with the necessary environmental and safety films and instructions. 12. Only contractors with “a need to know” will be allowed access to well information. Confidentiality .General Rules 11.

14. 68 . The rotary table must be positioned within a 200 foot radius of the proposed location. work boats. No one will be allowed on the helicopters. or drilling vessel without the proper authorization or identification.General Rules 13.

Place anchors on sea floor 5800’ from the desired final location.General Rules Anchoring 1. 69 . Anchor lines should be equally deployed around the rig with an angular spacing of 45 degrees between adjacent lines. 2.

An indicated line tension of 125 kips is necessary for the anchor to receive any load.General Rules Anchoring 3. A tension level of 440-460 kips should be reached before 600’ of line is taken in with the rig remaining stationary. Pull in opposing lines to set anchors. 70 . 4.

If a line tension of 440-460 kips has not been reached before 800’1000’ of line has been retrieved.General Rules Anchoring 5. The following Western KDC plan outlines the mooring procedure. 6. then it may be necessary to use piggy-back anchors. 71 .

72 .

Shallow Gas Plan After the rig is properly anchored the following steps will be followed as there is a potential for shallow gas in this area: 73 .

Shallow Gas Plan 1. Mooring winches will be manned while the 8 1/2” pilot holes for the 30” and 20” casings are being drilled. 2. Leave mooring line pawls or stoppels unset until the 20” casing has been set and cemented. 74 .

4. The moonpool and seafloor will be observed for gas bubbles until the 20” casing is set and cemented. 75 . Mooring winches will be manned while the 8 1/2” pilot holes for the 30” and 20” casings are being opened up or under-reamed.Shallow Gas Plan 3.

6 jts of 5” Hevi-Wate drill pipe. 2. Premix 600 barrels of 11.36” Hole Plan 1.5 ppg kill mud prior to spudding the well. PU and TIH with an 8 1/2” bit.6 1/2” drill collars. and sufficient 5” drill pipe. 6 . 76 .

Time of day (tide allowance) 77 . RKB to water level b.36” Hole Plan 3. and note and report the following: a. Water depth d. RKB to mud line c. Tag bottom with the pilot bit.

36” Hole Plan 4. 5. space out drill string with pup joints so that it will not be necessary to pull the bit above the guide base to make the first connection. 78 . Lower TV camera. and observe bit entering guide base. Retrieve universal guide frame back to surface. Upon spudding.

Drill an 8 1/2” hole to +/. 79 . and monitor returns with the TV camera.36” Hole Plan 6.30’ below the setting depth of the 30” casing (estimated at 180’ BML). Circulate returns to the sea floor.

and sufficient 5” DP. Drill 36” hole to set 150’ (4 joints) of 30” OD structural casing. 6-9 1/2” DC’s.36” Hole Plan 7. 80 . pull out of hole. PU 26” bit and 36” hole opener. If there are no problems with shallow gas. 6 jts 5” Hevi-Wate DP.

81 . displace hole to the mud line with viscous mud. Circulate viscous sweeps as required to clean the hole. 60’. and 150’ BML. c. Survey hole at 30’. b.36” Hole Plan Drill with sea water as follows: a. At TD of 36” hole.

36” Hole Plan
Drill with sea water cont.: d. Make a wiper trip. e. Circulate the hole to the mud line with viscous mud. f. Penetration rate should not exceed 100 ft/hr overall.
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36” Hole Plan
8. Run 30” structural casing per procedure. 9. If there are problems with shallow gas, displace the 8 1/2” hole with kill mud until the gas stops or the hole is full of kill mud. Monitor returns with the TV camera for evidence of gas or flow, and if after one hour the hole is stable, proceed as in steps 7 and 8.
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36” Hole Plan
10. If the kill mud in step 9 does not stabilize the well and it appears that heavier mud will not stabilize the well or will break down the formation, then prepare to cement. Mix and pump, sufficient 15.8 ppg cement slurry to circulate cement to the mud line, and monitor returns for gas with the TV camera.
84

36” Hole Plan 10. Make sure that the hole is stable POH with BHA Retrieve TGB Move rig as required 85 .

9 jts of 5” Hevi-Wate DP. PU and TIH with an 8 1/2” bit. 86 .5 ppg kill mud prior to drilling out below the 30” casing. 2. Have 600 barrels of 11.26” Hole Plan 1. and sufficient 5” DP. 9-6 1/2” DC’s.

Circulate returns to the rig shakers. and monitor returns for indications of gas or flow.40’ below the setting depth of the 20” casing (estimated at 1040’ BML). 87 .26” Hole Plan 3. Drill an 8 1/2” hole to +/.

88 . displace the hole with viscous spud mud. and log well as required. make a wiper trip. POH. Displace the hole with viscous spud mud.26” Hole Plan 4.

If there are no problems with shallow gas. qand sufficient 5” DP. 26” hole opener. PU & TIH with a 17 1/2” bit. pull the riser. 9 jts 5” Hevi-Wate DP. Drill a 26” hole to set 1040’ of 20” OD conductor casing as follows: 89 .26” Hole Plan 5. 6-8” DC’s. 26” stabilizer at 60’. monel DC. 6-9 1/2” DC’s.

c. Spot viscous mud at TD of 26” hole. Maintain inclination at less than three degrees. Circulate viscous pills as required to clean the hole. d. Circulate returns to the sea floor with sea water. 90 . b.26” Hole Plan a.

26” Hole Plan e. f. 91 . g. Spot viscous mud as required. 6. Make a wiper trip. Drop multishot and POH. Run 20” OD conductor casing and cement per procedure.

26” Hole Plan 7. pump the kill mud at the maximum rate until the active system is depleted. If there are problems with shallow gas in Step 5. circulate the hole with viscous spud mud and slowly increase the weight until the flow has stopped or until the active system is depleted. If the flow continues. 92 .

) Then pump sea water at the maximum rate until the hole bridges.8 ppg cement. and pull the TGB and PGB. and the hole will not bridge. If the flow rate is significant. Move rig as required. Cut or shoot the 30” casing. prepare to move the rig. 93 . POH with the BHA. (Cont. Cement the hole to just below the sea floor with 15.26” Hole Plan 7. 8.

94 .40’ below the setting depth of the 20” casing (estimated at 1040’ BML).26” Hole Plan 9. Drill 8 1/2” hole to +/. If the gas in step 7 depletes or the density is sufficient to control the well. then casing can be run or the well can be drilled ahead. 10.

and log well per procedure. PU & TIH with 17 1/2” bit. 12. 6-8” DC’s. Pull out of hole. 9 jts 5” Hevi-Wate DP.26” Hole Plan 11. 95 . 6-9 1/2” DC’s. jars. Circulate and condition for logs. Monel DC. stabilizers at 60’ amd 90’.

96 . Drop multishot.26” Hole Plan 13. and 26” stabilizer at 60’. PU & TIH with 17 1/2” bit and 26” underreamer. Drill a 17 1/2” hole to sufficient depth to set 1040’ of 20” conductor casing. and POH. 9 jts 5” Hevi-Wate DP. 6-9 1/2” drill collars. 68” drill collars. 14.

16. Care must be taken to have a balanced mud weight all the way around with no heavy slugs.26” Hole Plan 15. Circulate and condition the hole for casing. 97 . Underream to sufficient depth to set 1040’ of 20” conductor casing.

98 . Displace hole from TD to the sea floor with sufficient weight mud to balance the hydrostatic when the riser is removed. Again.26” Hole Plan 17. and the riser may have to be voided with sea water as the heavier mud is circulated. care must be taken to have a balanced mud weight while displacing.

000 psi wellhead housing. If there is evidence that the hole cannot be drilled deeper safely in step 9. run the 20” casing and 18 3/4” 10. 99 . 19. and cement per procedure. the well will be underreamed at the depth reached in step 9 and 20” casing will be set.26” Hole Plan 18. POH.

etc. 100 . etc. It will then be determined whether future casing settings need to be changed.26” Hole Plan 20. etc.

101 .

102 .