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BTEC_HM_COURSEBOOK

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Published by: Rajib Kumar Jha on Nov 21, 2010
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06/05/2013

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Learning hours:60
NQF Level 5:

BTEC Higher National — H1

Description of unit

This unit will provide learners with an understanding of the global environment within which
the travel and tourism industry operates. The unit examines the historical evolution of tourism,
the current structure of the tourism industry, the external influences on tourism and the impact
tourism has on host communities and the environment.

Learners will also undertake an investigation of international and national policies and assess
their influence on the tourism industry. The effects of political change on the industry’s
operation will also be examined.

This unit is common to more than one Higher National qualification. Learners must ensure that
their evidence relates to the sector they are studying.

Summary of learning outcomes

To achieve this unit a learner must:

1Examine the history and structure of the travel and tourism industry

2Explore the influence of local and national governments and international agencies on
the travel and tourism industry

3Investigate the effects of supply and demand on the travel and tourism industry

4Investigate the positive and negative impacts of tourism.

BH016271 – Guidance and units – Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher Nationals in Hospitality Management
– Issue 1 – July 2005

340

Content

1History and structure

History: ancient times, post industrial revolution, post war, current; factors facilitating
growth eg technology, time, money, freedom of movement, infrastructure, social
conditions; possible future developments

Structure of the travel and tourism industry: tourist boards, transport providers,
accommodation providers, attractions, tour operators and travel agents, ancillary services;
relationships and links between, levels of integration; Liepers tourist system, chain of
distribution; private, public and voluntary sectors

2Influence of local and national governments and international agencies

Influence: direct, indirect; economic policy, political change, planning to minimise negative
effects of tourism

Government: levels eg local, regional, national, European Union; government sponsored
bodies eg Visit Britain, English Heritage, regional tourist boards, English Countryside;
functions, inter-relationships

International agencies: eg United Nations, World Tourism Organisation, World Travel and
Tourism Council, International Civil Aviation Organisation, International Air Transport
Association; functions, inter-relationships with governments

3Effects of supply and demand

Demand: demographics, technological, emerging economies, political stability, changing
work patterns and workforce, environmentalism, globalisation, macro-economics eg
influence of currency exchange rates, interest rates, inflation, level of disposable income

Supply: provision eg accommodation, tour operators, quality, service, types of products,
seasonality, technology intermediaries, sustainability

4Positive and negative impacts of tourism

Positive: economic eg direct and indirect income, direct and indirect employment,
multiplier effects, contribution to Gross National Product, influence on the growth of other
sectors within the economy, generation of foreign exchange and government revenues;
environmental eg conservation and enhancement of natural areas, historic and cultural sites,
infrastructure improvement, increasing environmental awareness by tourists and host
communities; social eg conservation/preservation of cultural heritage, cross cultural
exchange and education

Negative: economic eg leakage, inflation, seasonality, over-dependence; environmental eg
pollution, damage to natural and built environment, wildlife, water overuse, waste disposal;
social eg loss of amenity to host community, overcrowding, commercialisation of culture,
reinforcement of stereotypes, loss of authenticity, rise in crime

BH016271 – Guidance and units – Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher Nationals in Hospitality Management
– Issue 1 – July 2005

341

Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes

Assessment criteria for pass

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate
the ability to:

1Examine the history and
structure
of the travel and
tourism industry

• summarise key historical developments in the travel
and tourism industry

• describe the structure of the travel and tourism
industry

2Explore the influence of local
and national governments
and international agencies

on the travel and tourism
industry

• explain the function of government, government
sponsored bodies and international agencies in
travel and tourism

• explain how local and national economic policy
influences the success of the travel and tourism
industry

• explain the implications of political change on the
travel and tourism industry in two countries

3Investigate the effects of
supply and demand
on the
travel and tourism industry

• describe the main factors affecting tourism demand

• explain how supply has changed to meet the effects
of demand

4Investigate the positive and
negative effects of tourism

• identify the main economic, environmental and
social impacts of tourism

• explain strategies that can be used to minimise the
negative impacts whilst maximising the positive
impacts

• analyse the inter-relationship between these
impacts.

BH016271 – Guidance and units – Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher Nationals in Hospitality Management
– Issue 1 – July 2005

342

Guidance

Delivery

This unit forms the basis of learners’ study for the whole course. It is not a requirement of the
course to have studied travel and tourism before, so some learners may be unfamiliar with
definitions of tourism, the structure of the industry and basic functional distinctions such as that
between a travel agent and a tour operator. Tutors will need to balance the needs of both groups
of learners in their delivery strategy.

Learners should be encouraged to keep up to date with current issues that may influence the
industry. It should be strongly recommended to learners that they engage in regular research
through a variety of sources eg reading quality newspapers, trade journals, and watching news
and current affairs programmes on television.

Centres could help learners with this research by inviting guest speakers on such topics as
politics, the inter-relationship between sectors, chains of distribution, impacts of tourism
development, and local and national economic policies.

This unit may be delivered through the use of group discussions, lectures, seminars, site visits,
audio/visual aids, case studies, external speakers and individual projects.

Assessment

This unit is internally assessed and should involve learners in an examination of the
environment within which the travel and tourism industry operates. It should incorporate all the
criteria set but should also reflect current issues that influence the travel and tourism
environment.

There are various ways for learners to present their evidence including case studies, oral
presentations, class discussions, formal reports, etc. Learners can work either individually or in
groups but tutors will need to be able to assess each team member’s contribution.

The assessment strategy should be designed to suit the needs of the individual learners and the
local work environment. Assessment should encourage learners to apply and reflect on their
studies within and across units.

Links

As the environment within which the travel and tourism industry operates is crucial to the
overall study of the industry, this unit could link generally to all other units studied within the
travel and tourism pathway.

This unit maps to the following Management NVQ unit:

• B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements.

BH016271 – Guidance and units – Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher Nationals in Hospitality Management
– Issue 1 – July 2005

343

Resources

Learners must have access to library and research facilities, including the worldwide web,
travel and tourism publications and information on the organisations involved in the industry.
Media coverage of the industry is high profile and learners should have access to newspaper,
magazine and journal articles, television/videos, and the travel trade press. It could be
beneficial for learners to visit travel and tourism organisations. A range of guest speakers
would also be beneficial.

Support materials

Books

Bray R and Raitz V — Flight to the Sun: The Story of the Holiday Revolution
(Thomson Learning, 2001) ISBN 0826457622

Brendon P — Thomas Cook: 50 Years of Popular Tourism (Secker and Warburg, 1991)
ISBN 0436199939

Holloway J C — The Business of Tourism (FT Prentice Hall, 2001) ISBN 0273655639

Inglis K — The Delicious History of the Holiday (Routledge, 2000) ISBN 041513305X

Lickorish L and Jenkins C — An Introduction to Tourism (Heinemann Educational, 1997)
ISBN 0750619562

Pimlott J A R — Englishman’s Holiday: A Social History (Harvester, 1976) ISBN 0855272295

Sharpley R (editor) — The Tourism Business: An Introduction (Sunderland Business Education
Publishers, 2002) ISBN 1901888231

Sharpley R — Tourism, Tourists and Society (Elm, 1999) ISBN 1854504177

Tribe J — The Economics of Recreation, Leisure and Tourism (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999)
ISBN 0750661801

Van Harssel J — Tourism: An Exploration (Prentice Hall, 1995) ISBN 0139233431

Walton J — The British Seaside: Holidays and Resorts in the Twentieth Century
(Manchester University Press, 2000) ISBN 0719051703

Withey L — Grand Tours and Cook’s Tours: A History of Leisure Travel 1750–1915
(Aurum Press, 1998) ISBN 1854105485

Further reading

Insights

Journals eg Tourism Intelligence Quarterly, Journal of Tourism Management

Quality newspapers

Tourist board reports

Trade magazines eg Travel Trade Gazette, Travel Weekly

TV programmes

Current affairs programmes eg Newsnight, Question Time

Travel programmes eg Wish You Were Here, Holidays from Hell

BH016271 – Guidance and units – Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher Nationals in Hospitality Management
– Issue 1 – July 2005

344

Websites

www.keynote.co.uk

Key Note — market information

www.mintel.com

Mintel — provides media, product and
consumer information

www.staruk.com

English tourism statistics

www.statistics.gov.uk

National Statistics Online — official UK
statistics

www.travelmole.com

Travel and tourism news

www.visitbritain.com

Visit Britain — travel guide to Britain

www.wttc.org

World Travel and Tourism Council

Learners should be encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the
evidence they develop for this unit. Websites often make reference to other internet information
sources. These resources should be used with caution.

BH016271 – Guidance and units – Edexcel Level 5 BTEC Higher Nationals in Hospitality Management
– Issue 1 – July 2005

345

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