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Au.klanr! B(l~';'-Jt~ Guatemala Ira:!lbun-~' Lisbon

London ldJrl"ld ~dcyic() :~C\V L1clhi r)~itA,,-1nl{~ Paris San J~I(H1

S;i,' l"allhj Si:H;:lj)(;:'I_' Sydney Tc,kyo


Dean and Professor Fmrriru» Cot leqe of Engineering (/nruersity of ~t·'JjJnrI.CJton

Honorarv Memocr, American Socict. of C/t)(1 Enl-::,'·t,('crs


Professor EIII,"'[ILIS 0/ f:'lgfncering A1assachusells lnsniut» 0/ Technology

Fello .. ', Arner ican SOCiN.' of Cinl Engil'('l"'s

SI:::\OL urxu. SeD,

Professor of Co«! Enqinecri}lq Dukr ! . ./!lirl'n/!_i

't'f/f(~nlhcr, A mericcn 5\.1( icr» of' C:;-il EnrHr,('{'r.'"

Elementary Structural Analysis




, ._,J'~ : ...

.c :



Copyright (c) 1977

Exclusive rights by McGraw-Hill Hook Co. - Singapore

for manufacture and export. This book cannot be re-exported from the country to which it is consigned by McGraw-Hill.

5 6 7 8 9 FSP 9 4 3 2 I 0

Copyright (s) 1976, 1960 by McGraw-Hill, Inc .'\11 rights reserved, Copyright, 1948 by McGraw-Hill Inc. All rights reserved

No part of this publication may be reproduced,

stored in a retrieval system, or n ansmitred, in an) form

or by any means. electronic, mechanical, phorocopvinn, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Librarj of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Norris, Charles Head, date Elementary structural analysis,

Previous editions are entered under J _ S. Wilbur. Bibliography: p.

L Structures, Theory of. Wilbur, John

Benson, date joint author. II. Uku, Scnol

joint author. III. Title. [V_ Title: Structural analysis.

TA645W53 1976 624'_171 76-2407

ISBN 0-07--047256-4

When ordering this title use ISBN O,07·Y85534-X

Part I.


Chllpter 1.

LI L2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 LlO




xiii •
Xl' •
xix •

34 a
34 •
37 •
3-'7 •
38 •
19 ,_,jnted in Singapore

To the Reader

Uilt of Symbols N t t·

, 0 a IOn, and Measuring Units



Engineering Structures

Structural Design

Dead Loads

Live Loads-General

L~ve L.oads for, Hi$l:ty<~y_ Bfiqges.. L~ve Loads for Railroad Bridges Live Loads for Buildings


Snow and Ice Loads Lateral Loads--General

- ~ .


l,ll Wind Loads

1 12 Soil Pressures

1.13 Hydrostatic Pressures L14 Earthquake Forces 1,15 Centrifugal F orccs U6 Longitudinal Forces 1,17 Thermal Forces

1.18 Make-up of GIrders 1.19 Make-up of Trusses

1,20 Make-up of Floor Systems 1.21 Bracing Systems

1.22 Allowable Stresses

1 2, Factor of Safety

1-.24 Practical and Ideal Structures

Chapter 2. 2.1


Definitions t

C 'ntional Suppor s

2.2 General- o nve _ Tbriul11-Planar Structures

, Equations of Static Equi I

2.-, dt

2.4 Equations o.f Con I IO~ b'lit -~,Statically Determinate and "I" Static Stability and Insta I Y I I ing Equations of

s-, ~ S t es Not nvo VI

Indeterminate true ur

Condition . f Structures Involving Equa-

Stability and Detcrrmnancy 0

2.6 ,

tions of Condition

7 Free-Body Sketches ,

;'8 C"mputation of Reactions • Involving Equa-

• - , C Reactions-Structures

2,9 ComputatIOn 01

tions of Condition ,

. 1 - for ClassificatIOn ,

2.10 Examp es , f C mputation of Reactions

2 11 Illustrative Examples 0 0

. . t- of Effects

2,12 Supcrposi IOn _

2.13 Problems for Solution

be ~Shear and Bending Moment Chapter 3. Flexural Mem rs

3 1 General . B

. .' f Stresses In eams ,

3 2 DetermmatlOn 0 D fi ed : Sign Convention

. B di g Moment en,

3,3 Shear and en In . f Sh and Bending Moment

4 Method of Computation 0 :ar .~. ,

3. di M' ment Dwgrams. _

3.5 ' Shear 'and -Ben ing- ad Sh and Bending Moment

3 6 Relations between Loa , d Bendi g Moment Diagrams

' - fShearan en to-,

3 7 ConstructIOn 0 - 11 Determinate Beams

3'.8 Illustrative Examples-GS~adtLca ~ith Floor Beams

3.9 Illustrative Example- rr ers

40 41 41 41 42 42 42 42 43 43 45 45 47 4ti

49 49 50 52 55


58 59 60

62 64 67 70 71

73 73 73 75 76 77 79 81 82 g6


3.10 Illustrative Example-Statically Indeterminate Beams 3. [I Problems for Solution

Chapter 4. ~4_{ ,4.2 ·c_.A:3 , /4:4 , 4.5

Plane and Space Frameworks Introduction

General Definitions

Ideal vs. Actual Trusses Arrangement of Members of a Truss

Notation and Sign Convention Used in Truss Stress Analysis

Theory of Stress Analysis of Trusses

Application of Method of Joints and Method of Sections Discussion of Method of Joints and Method of Sections

./4:6 ,4.7 4.8

4,9 Statical Stability and Statical Determinancy of Truss Structures

4.10 Examples Illustrating the Determination of Stability and Determinancy

4,IJ Conventional Types of Bridge and Roof Trusses

4.12 Illustrative Examples of Stress Analysis of Determinate


4.13 Exceptional Cases

4.14 Two-dimensional Rigid Frames

4.15 Statical Conditions for Three-dimenSIonal Frameworks 4.16 Determination of Reactions and Bar Forces of Three-

dimensional Frameworks

4,17 Special Theorems for Three-dimensional Frameworks 4,18 Application of Special Theorems-Schwedler Dome 4.19 Towers

4.20 Tower with Straight Legs

4.21 General Theory for Three-dimensional Frameworks 4.22 Problems for Solution

Chapter 5. Influence Lines 5.1 Introduction

5.2 IUustration of Variation in Stress with Position of Load 5.3 The Influence Line-Definition

5.4 Properties of the Influence Line

5.5 Illustrative ExampleS-Influence Lines for Beams and Girders

5.6 Interpretation of J nfiuence Lines fo~ Girders ''Yitb. . Floor

-System~ . '- •

5.7 Series of Concentrated Live Loads- Use of Moment Chart

5.8 Series of Concentrated Live Loads-Computation of Maximum Moment

88 89

91 91 92 93 93

96 97 tol 108


113 116

117 121 122 125

128 131 i32 133 134 134 138

145 145 145 146 147





\A U Shear

9 Al.ft-[ute Maximum ve

• • LT>U • live Moment

,,5.10 Absolute ~axlmum russes-General

":f,"~~"'>':' 5.11 InflucrK7 Lincs.¥ _Influence Lines for Trusses 5.12 llIuslrative Examp es

. 5 13 Influc~ Tables ,~ D t rmination of influence

'. .. A roach for e e

5.14 Alternative pp

, 'Lines .

·;~,.,.'S 15 problems for soluuon

. .,' .: ". • d R ( Trusses and Long-Span Structures

. ." Oaptef ,. Bridge an 00

.. '. 6.1 Introduction

General Analysis of a R~~f T~USS 6.2 General Analysis of a Bn ge russ 6.3 Movable Bridges-Gen\!ral


6.5 Bascule Bridges

6.6 Vertical-Lift Bridges

Horizontal-Swing Bridges 6.7

6.8 Skew Bridges

6.9 Long-Span Structures

6 10 Cantilever Structures-General

6:11 Statical Condition of Cantilever Structures 612 Arches-General

6·13 Analysis of Three-hinged Trussed Arch A h

. . f Three-hinged Trussed rc

6.14 Influence Lines or d A h with Supports at Different

6.15 Three-hinged Trusse rc es


-3'6.16 Cables

617 General Cable Theorem

6:18 Application of General Cable Theorem

6 19 Suspension Bridges .. 5

-? 6:20 Statically Determin.ate Suspension Bndge

6.21 Problems for Solution

. A I . (Statically Indeterminate Structures

Approximate na YSIS 0

Introduction 'M th ds in Analyzing Static-

Importance of Approximate e 0

ally Indeterminate Structures .

Number of Assumptions Required . 1 . Each Panel

Parallel-Chord Trusses with Two Diagona s in


Mill Bents-

Towers with Straight Legs V rti 1 Loads

. B ildi Frames Due to e lea

Stresses In Ul mg t Lateral Loads-

Stresses in Building Frames Due 0



:'j"-_ -: __. ~

,,~.,," ,'c

,c,'''<f~.''.~~::. ,'.-


Chapter 7. 7.1 7.2

7.3 7.4 7.5

·7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9

, .. .'

fC .~

-"!I'7,ID The Portal Method ~7.11 The Cantilever Method 7.12 The Factor Method 7.13 Problems for Solution

Chapter 8. Deflections of Structures 8.1 Introduction

8.2 Nature of the Deflection Problem

8,3 Bernoulli's Principle of Virtual Work for Rigid Bodies 8,4 Principle of Virtual Work for Deformable Bodies

8.5 Fundamental Expressions Used in Method of Virt ua!


8.6 Deflection of Trusses, Using Method of Virtual Work

8.7 Deflection of Beams and Frames, Using Method of Virtual


8.8 Development of Moment-Area Theorems 8.9 Elastic-Load Method

8.10 Application of Moment-Area Theorems and Elastic-Load Method to Deflection of Beams and Frames

\._.A!.II Conjugate-Beam Method 8.12 Williot-Mohr Method

8.13 Application of Williot-Mohr Method 8.14 Bar-Chain Method

VS.15 Castigliano's Second Theorem vi.16 Castigliano's First Theorem

~:17 Computation of Deflections Using Castigliano's Second


8. [8 Deflection of Space Frameworks 8.19 Other Deflection Problems

8.20 Cambering of Structures

8.21 Maxwell's Law of Reciprocal Deflections; Betti's Law 8,22 Influence Lines for Deflections

8.23 Problems for Solution

Chapter 9. Stress Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures 9.1 Introduction

9.2 Use of Deflection Superposition Equations in Analysis of

Statically Indeterminate Structures. .. ~

9.3 Gerreral Discussion of U~e 'of Deflection Superposition Equations in Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures

9.4 Examples Illustrating Stress Analysis Using Deflection Superposition Equations

i~ •
202 •
2~35 •
212 •
213 •
213 •
2ii •
219 •

2'1[, •
2-13 •
241>: •
256 •
2()(i •
269 •
273 •
274 •
278 ,.
283 •
283 •
284. •
287 •
28:' 201



9.5 Additional Examples Involving Temperature, Settlement, etc.

9.6 General Remarks Concerning Selection of Redundants

9.7 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures Using Castigliano's Second Theorem; Theorem of Least Work 9.8 Example Illustrating Stress Analysis Using Castigliano's

Second Theorem

9.9 Development of the Three-Moment Equation 9.10 Application of Three-Moment Equation

9.11 Development ofthe Slope-Deflection Equation

9.12 Application of Slope-Deflection Method to Beams and


9.13 Fundamentals of the Moment-Distribution Method

9.14 Application of Moment Distribution to Beams and Frames

9.15 Moment-Distribution Method Applied to Nonprismatic


9.16 Stress Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Space Frame-


9..17 Deflection of Statically Indeterminate Structures

9.18 Secondary Stresses in Trusses

9.19 Supplementary Remarks-Symmetrical and Antisymmettrical Loads, Elastic Center, and Column Analogy

9.20 Experimental Structural Analysis

9.21 Problems for Solution

Chapter 10_ 10.1 10.2 10.3 lOA

Influence Lines for Statically Indeterminate Structures Introduction

Influence Line by Successive Positions of Unit Load Mtiller-Breslau's Principle for Obtaining Influence Lines Influence Lines Obtained by Superposition of the Effects of Fixed-End Moments

Problems for Solution


Chapter I I. Work and Energy Methods 11.1 Introduction

I 1.2 Some Basic Definitions and Concepts

1 1.3 Principle of Stationary Total Potential Energy

11.4 'Virtual-Work "'I"heorims ., -". .

1 J.5 Principle of Stationary Total Complementary Potential Energy

11.6 Complementary-Strain-Energy Theorem 11.7 References

376·, .,
380 ,




Chapter )2.

Chapter 13.

12.[ 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8

Describing Problems to a Digital Computer Basic Matrix Algebra and Notation Geometry of Structure


Deflection Boundary Conditions Force Boundary Conditions Description of Structural Response Methods for Computing the Response References

385 385 402 413 418 433 441 445 447

448 448


459 464 468 472

Chapter 14_ Stiffness and Flexibility Relations of Structural Elements

Transformation Matrices

13.1 Transformation of Descriptions of Position Vectors

13.2 Tr~nsformation of Descriptions of Displacement and Rotauon Vectors


Transformation of Descriptions of Force and Moment Vectors

Kinematically Equivalent Deflections Statically Equivalent Forces References

13.4 13.5 13.6

14.1 14.2 14.3 l4A

Fl.exibility Relations for Elements of Discrete Structures St~ffness Relations for Elements of Discrete Structures Stlff?es~ Relations for Elements of Continuum Structures Flexibility Relations for Elements of Continuum Structures

Transformations of Stiffness and Flexibility Relations References

14.5 14.6

Chapter 15. Systematic Analysis by the Displacement Method

15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6

General Remarks

Relatio?s between Deflections; Compatibility Governing Equations for Deflections

Properties and M~thod of Generation of K and Po

Methods ~or Solving the Governing Equations . .

Computation of the Complete List of Deflections, Reacnons, and Stresses

Important Parameters of the Method References

15.7 J5./!

413 473 490 511

512 512 518

519 519 521 526 532 547

556 562 564

Chapter 16. 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6

Part Ill.

Chapter 17. 17.1 17.2

Chapter 18. 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6


17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 17.8

Systematic Analysis by the Force Method

General Remarks .. .

F s : Equlhbnum

Relations between orces: ,

h d of Identifying the Redundants .

Met a ions f Forces' Completion of Analysis

Governing Equations or, M h d

. . f S ' tic Analvsis by the Force iv et .0

DIscussIOn 0 ) sterna I .



Introduction to Advanced Structural Mechanics

Introduction .' h 1'1 '

, D fi itions and Relationships Involved \TI t c leOry Basic e ru I

of Elasticity ,. P bl

Formulation of the Solution of the Elasticity ro em

Small-Deflection Theory of Flat Plates Large-Deflection Theory of Plates

Analysis of Thin Shells .

Analysis of Buckling Behavior Evaluation of Dynamic Response

565 5hil 577 5il2 59l 593

596 596

597 602 603 610 610 618 623

629 629 630 631 635 638

644 646


648 650 6S1


661 -

~ •


• • • • • • •

• • •

Since this book was first published in 1948, there have been many very important developments in all aspects of structural engineering and construction. Improved t fabrication and construction techniques have led to more efficient utilization of established structural materials such as steel, concrete, and wood. Much im- • proved steels and specially designed concrete mixes are also now available and

widely utilized by engineers and builders, The use of structural aluminum and •

plastics has expanded greatly, particularly for prefabricated elements used pri-

marily in building construction. Postelastic behavior of structures is recognized, •

and structural design procedures have been modified to utilize the most useful

characteristics of this behavior where appropriate. The use of electronic com- ..

pulers in structural analysis and design calculations has expanded tremendously

in the last twenty-five years=-most particularly during the last fifteen years of this •


In view of the much expanded use of computers since 1960, when the second •

edition of this book was published, it is imperative in this new third edition to devote much more attention to. the systematic arrangement. of, struetural-com- ". putations. Such well-organized computations are essential for the effective com- .. munications needed with a computer if we are to realize its full computational

potentialities. In order to provide a treatment of systematic structural analysis •

having the breadth and depth desired, we have added a new and separate portion, .IIi

Part H, consisting of five new chapters. To prepare Part II, the two senior ..


18.7 HL8

PI~stic Behavior of Structures Introduction

Mechanical Properties of Steel

Plastic Behavior of Simple Truss Structure . Moment-Curvature Relations for Flexural Members

Plastic Behavior of Typical Beams

B under Alternating

Plastic Behavior of Continuous cam


Stress Control of Indeterminate Structures

f S t 11 1 ndetcrminatc

Normal and Hybrid Action 0 ta lea y

Trusses b . i \. ' \)

.. f Princi I" f Normal nnd Hybru Action (

18.9 ApplicatIon 0 rmcrp 00 .

Structural Design

18.1 0 Plastic Design of Steel Structures 18.11 Problems for Solut ion

Problem Answers

Indexes" Name Index Subject Index


,.~uthors enlisted" as a new coauthor, one of their finest former doctoral students,

Professor ~nol Utku of Duke University. . . . ..

In order to gain the space needed for this new addition to our third edition, We . have deleted five chapters. One of these on graphic statics represents an area .. still having fine educational values for a student but covering computational

techniques no longer widely used in structural engineering practice. Three chapters that previously provided an introduction to the model analysis of structures have been deleted because of the fine reservoir of technical literature developed in the last four decades to provide excellent coverage of the field of experimental stress analysis. The fifth chapter deleted was devoted to an introduction to matrix analysis of structures, but, in fact, this chapter has not been deleted but expanded into the new Part II. The material from the remaining fifteen chapters of the second edition has been rewritten and reorganized and is now presented in the third edition as a Part I of eleven chapters on basic structural theory and a Part III of two chapters providing an introduction to advanced structural analysis.

This new edition, like its predecessors, emphasizes fundamentals rather than professional practice and attempts to correlate the various procedures of structural analysis with the principles of engineering mechanics on which they are based. The scope of this book is restricted to the field of structural analysis and must be supplemented and complemented by books on structural design in order to obtain a well-balanced view of the entire field of structural engineering. Herein it is emphasized and reemphasized that the junction 0/ a structural engineer is to design =-not to analyze and that analysis is a means to an end rather than the end itself. Today there are a number of truly excelient textbooks available covering various aspects of structural design, to which the reader is referred.

The authors wish to continue to acknowledge with appreciation the contributions of those who assisted in the preparation of the two previous editions: Prof. Donald R. F. Harleman, Prof. Myle J. Holley, Jr., the iate Mrs. Grace M. Powers, and Mr. Harold D. Smith. The first listed author will be forever grateful and indebted to his most valued colleague, his wife, Martha M. Norris, who has provided all kinds of tangible and intangible assistance and loyal support in nursing the preparation of three editions of this book over a period of thirty years.

Both senior authors are also deeply grateful to all those responsible for their education in structural engineering, but most particularly to the late Prof. Charles Milton Spofford and to the late Prof. Charles Church More. They likewise acknowledge with deep appreciation the generous consideration, friendship, support, and understanding that they have received for many, many years from their M.I.T. structural engineering colleagues: Prof. John M. Biggs, Prof. Robert J. Hansen, Prof. Myle J. Holley, J r., Prof. Eugene Mirabelli, and the late Profs. WalterM: Fife and JohnD. M·it~ch.



This book is focused sharply on an elementary treatment of the analysis of structural behavior, with illustrations drawn almost exclusively from the field of civil engineering structures. Admittedly analysis is a means to an end-s-not the end itself-since the primary objective of the structural engineer is to design, not to analyze. Concentration on the study of analysis to the exclusion of the larger and more important problem of design does, however. allow the structural engineering student to develop his capacity for logical, rational, analytical thinking and to cultivate his appreciation, feeling, and intuition for structural behavior. Of course, he will never benefit fully from this educational experience in analytical thinking unless he correlates his analytical studies with a parallel study of structural design. By studying design, the student develops his judgment, his perception, his imagination and his creativity-in short his ability to synthesize.

The subject-matter in this textbook is.organized i-nto three-major subdivisions:

Part I: Basic Structural Theory contains eleven chapters devoted to the fundamental concepts and the basic definitions and analytical techniques that provide the foundation for the entire field of structural analysis.

Part 11: Introduction to Systematic Structural Analysis consists of five chapters in which automatic computational procedures are developed for identifying and



1 ,




e (




and 16 procedures are developed for the systematic analysis of discrete strllctllr~,. by the displacement method and by the force method, respectively. •

Modern structural engineering has become increasingly involved not only with more complex structural forms but also with more refined design of both tilc\c complex forms and the standard conventional structural forms. It is therefore. important for the structural engineer to ?ecome fa~iliar with ~he analysis or plate • and shell structures and with the analysis of buckling, dynamic response, and the stress distribution of various more complex structures and structural elements. Chapter 17 in Part III provides a very brief introduction to the principle, or ad- • vanced structural mechanics involved in such analyses. That chapter and Chap,

18 are intended to serve as a transition from this elementary book to more a,j, • vanced books in the areas of structural mechanics, structural anaiysis, and ,o,[I'lICtural design. It is also hoped that these last two chapters will be useful to students • who are proceeding to graduate studies or to those who arc proceeding on their

own to informal self-study in those advanced areas. I

Up to Chap. 18, the emphasis is on the analysis of linear elastic structures

With the increased interest in structural design on the basis of ultimate strength, it • becomes necessary to consider postelastic behavior. Chapter 18 is therefore devoted to the plastic behavior of structures. This treatment covers only the • analysis of this behavior and not the methods and principles for the plastic design

of structures. •

Specific suggestions regarding certain features incorporated in this new edition

may be heJpful to the student reader: •

pr.l'<lniLin,l! input rnfl)j'l1l:ltie'll f"" prllcc"ing by digital CclrnpL:.tcr~ through the var io u-, stage:, ()i' till' ,()ltitio;l l>;' ,,()m~ ot th~ mo-t h;::,I(' rrnbkm, encountered in the :ul:tly,i' elf ci\ il cngillc'c:r;ng \trllcturl'Se

Pari II t: Introdtution II! A dranccd Stntctura! Analysis incl udes t \YO ch.u-rcrs ; one contain, a brief inrroduction to the principle, of advanced structural mechanics, and tile <lthel is devoted to ;ill Introduction to methods of analyzing (he plastic behavior of structures.

The presentations in Part- II and [11 build on the fundamental, presented in Part l. Considerations in Pan I arc based almost entirely on fundamental conccpi- previously introduced to a student in physics, mathematics, engineering mechanics, materials science, and strength of materials. It ix presumed that a student has acquired previou sly a good sound understanding of mechanics (statics and dynamics) and that he is familiar with the differential and integral calculus and the basics of dealing with both ordinary and partial differentia! equations. Although vector notation is seldom used in Parts [ and [jJ. it is used extensively in Part I L It is assumed therefore (hat the reader is acquainted with vector notation and with the algebraic operations of addition and multiplication of vectors. If the reader's knowledge of vector notation is a bit rusty, he shoulJ review his old calculus and engineering mechanics textbooks or refer perhaps to one of the fine current mechanics texts that emphasizes both scalar and vector notations. Many readers will also be familiar with the essentials of matrix notation and matrix algebra. These essentials are, however, reviewed and summarized at the beginning of Chap. 12 in Part 11.

Chapters 1 to 6 are devoted almost exclusively to a consideration of statically determinate structures. Here fundamental principles of static mechanics arc reviewed and reemphasized as they apply to problems of structural auaiysis. Since this material is in the nature of a restatement and review, the student will progress through this portion quite rapidly, depending of course on how thoroughly Ill' has assimilated these fundamentals in earlier courses.

Chapters 7 to I I are devoted to the computation of deflections and the sues, analysis of statically indeterminate structures. This will be substantially new material to most student>, although they may have been introduced to these ideas earlier in mechanics and strength of materials courses, Although thi, is an elementary treatment, the reader will find it quite rigorous and comprehensive. so that. having mastered this subject matter, he should have no difficulty studying more advanced books on statically indeterminate structural analysis,

In Part II. systematic analysis and automatic computation an, introduced in Chap. 12 by the consideration of techniques for describing structural problems to digital computers, In Chap. 13 the procedures for transforming physical data and various structural quantities [rom one coordinate system to' another, Or frum one form to another, are discussed in considerable detail. In Chap. 14, stiffness and flexibility relations are developed for structural elements of discrete structures, i.e., structures composed of relatively long slender elements connected together at joints located at a certui 11 number or discrete points, A nd in Ch ap«. 15

l . The foreword which precedes the detailed technical presentation is designed to assist the reader in establishing a broad perspective of the entire field of structural engineering before he focuses his attention on the highly analytical subfield designated as structural analysis. Please read this foreword carefully before starring Chap. I. Since it is expected that your appreciation of the foreword will grow with your mastery of structural analysis, please reread the foreword as you develop your capabilily [or analyzing and understanding structural behavior.

2. In many of the chapters of Part I, there are numerous illustrative examples, These are intended to assist the reader to develop a full understanding of the appl i~ cation of the structural theories involved and also to assist him to develop good habits for organizing and carrying out his calculations. In addition, however, each of these examples has been carefully chosen to supplement and extend (he i.Ieas and concepts presented in the textual portions. T () emphasize the supplementary ideas involved in these examples. discussions are appended after the calculations for most of these illustrations. Please consider carefully the discussions appelJded to these illustrative examples.

3_ In Part If, the problems appended to the end of each section are designed both to serve some of the functions of illustrative examples and also to allow a student to test his understanding of the subject matter he has just studied. Please do these problems so that YOIi broaden and deepen your understanding or the tcxtuu! material.

• • • I

• ". • •



4. Answers arc supplied for approximately half the pr~}blcms (the prohl~m num-

L.._ f t oblerns are preceded bv an asterisk), 1 hese answers are intended

..... 0' 0 sue I pr . - . .. ...

to help make your studying more efficient. by enabling you to Identify quickly

whether you have made a careless computational error or perhaps a fundamental error in the solution of the problem. Please do no/ use these answers as a crutch, if you do so and do not start developing your capability to check yourself, you will not develop into a responsible professional engineer as soon as you should.

A good structural engineer continually makes approximate calculations to check himself. Get in the habit of making all estimate of the answer 10 a problem before you start your detailed calculations. You will find such mental exercise invaluable in developing your judgment and your intuition for structural behavior.





Symbols are defined where they appear. The principal symbols are kited here for convenience. Note that some symbols have several definitions depending on the context in which they are being used.

, .

A C D DF E F;,


) -'

y; FEM


cross-sectional area of member

carry-over factor in moment distribution method

flexural rigidity of plates and shell" Eh3n2(I _ \,2) distribution factor in moment-distribution method Young's modulus of elasticity (in tension or compression)

tangent modulus of.elasticity. •

force in general; axial force or axial resisting force acting on a cross section of a member

form factor of cross-sectional area, XI!/'

fixed-end moment of member used in slope-deflection method a -d in moment-distribution method

modulus of elasticity in shear


.. »:

horizontal component afforce; total shear acting on story of buildi!l!1 frame; horizontal component of cable tension

moment of inertia of cross-sectional area

sidesway factor used in moment-distribution method

stiffness factor for flexural member, I/L for prismatic I1li.?Jlthl'h reduced stiffness factor for flexural member

true stiffness factor for flexural member

true reduced stiffness factor for flexural member effective stiffness factor for flexural member length of member; span length

moment of force (or couple); bending moment; reSIstIng morncnt ; end moment of member; bending or twisting stress couples in pla tc and shell theory

resisting moment of cross section corresponding to stress condition Where bending stress in extreme fiber has just reached the yield stresv, Myp = SI' (Jyp

resisting moment for a cross section which is fully plasticized in pure bending, Mpl = ::z (Jyp

membrane stress resultants used in plate and shell theory external load

critical load (for buckling)

load which produces yield-point stress in most highly stressed tiber ultimate load (in plastic-behavior considerations, load at which excessive deflections impend)

total potential energy

total complementary potential energy

imaginary external load used in application of method of virtual work; transverse shear-stress resultant used in plate and shell theory reactive force; resultant

shear force (shear) in member; shear resisting force section modulus of cross-sectional area

cable tension

strain energy

complementary strain energy

potential energy (or potential) of a force

complementary potential energy (or potential) of a force vertical component of force

weight of body

internal virtual work of deformation external virtual work done by reactions

external virtual work done by external force syst~m' (loads and reactions)

external work done by external force system

elastic load (or weight) at joint m used in bar-chain method of Computing truss deflections

X, } /
X, r,/:
X. l, }'
II a f.o



f' q


U,V, 11.'



• •

r'~(hnda:ll ;",n·,·" (or c'(l!i;lk) used ,i1 diJaly,i, o!' .\lalicaliy ;nc.k:er_

r:! i :l~f ie :-;tr Ui,_'1 u 1''':.-'';

ulordinak (')I:111"nel1" or a fnrl'c .

c'oordlTlalc component, or bnd} f()r,~'" U\cd in t!WOIY 0" e:~bt:l;lY •

C(lOrJinall' cornpom-nr , of SlIrl,k'C I"rcc., used in theory 01 ciastlclly pia<;(IC modulus of crOos-scetionni ared which i., fully piasticc;tcd in • pure bending

dimension of length: radius of curvature of shell •

dimension of length: width of eTOSS section: number of !llclllkh III a

frame Of fra meworj, •

dimension oflengLh. di,tance frum centroid to c\treme po.nt ,,' CI"',)SS

section dimension of length; depth of cros-, sccuon: deilection of puint on cla stic Curve from Langent at a n other poi nt

lineal strain of a longitudinal element of !llc-mb.:r

lineal strain of longitudinal element of cl'lllroidal axis of member acceleration of gra lity

cable sag at mid-span of cable curve: s lory height of building; til ick .. ness of plate or .,hell

sulfncs« of a linear spring (force required to produce unit change of length of spring)

dimension of length

number of joints of a flame or framework

intensity per unit length of distributed loading on beam

intensity per unit area of di,tributed load applied to a plate or shell number of independent reaction elements of a frame or framework; principal radius uf curvature of shell: radius of gyration of crosssectional area, V;A) 1f2

dimension of axial length of member uniform change of temperature; time intensily of uniformly distributed loading

displacement COmponents corresponding teo -v s y, and :: coordinate directions, respectively

orthogonal coordinates

• 41

• •

I • • • 41


• • • I


angle; rotationa I d;splacclllcnt: C~ ntral a;lgle subknded by iine element of middle surface of shell

coefficient of thermal expa nsion

shearing strain

'deflection: increment of a quantity

deflection; unit deflection used in ,;uperposition equation method for analyzing statically i lldetermtnate structures

variation symbol

lineal strain

coordinate components of lineal strain



S Y M n 0 L S, 1\ (I TAT ION, AND lH E A S [J IU N GUN ITS



angle: rotation of tangent elastic curve wit h n»l"lccl to nri_e;n;..l dir(~\_·tion of axis of member _ sag ratio of cabk, li.],

Poisson's ratio

normal stress

yield point stress in tension

shear stress; rotation of tangent to clastic curve Vi ith rcvpcct to chord

of elastic curve

angle; curvature of flexural member

change in curvature or twist of middle surface of she!'

angle; rotation of chord of an elastic curve with respect to origillal direction of axis of a member

natural frequency of vibration

U'c], <ii" nll':hurHig units mu st become more and more facile in converting fr om ,'11C 'Y'\CIll In ti',c oth,c. lve ntually such users must truly become bilingual with the,.: sY·,[c:nh The adequacy of his bilingualism will be apparent to a user when '.'11e day .. he hnds 1,( is equally capable of expressing his intuition for the .. physical tuncss 01 thiugs " in one system or the other. Engineering students and teachers must join in working toward such a goal.



Table oC Conversions

-- ------

-- ----------------------~-------------.

English unit Abbrcviat ion Factor Sl unit
__ ,------.
Pound force 110 ;-; 4.448 ~flb :::; newton
Slug mass slug 14,59 kg/slug :::: kilogram
Second sec 1.0 second
FOol ft O.304S m/ft :::: meter
Inch In 00254 rn/m :::; meier
Statute mile m: 1,609 m/m. z meter Abbreviation

i\ kg


In this book both scalar notation and vector notation arc used to dcscr ibc VeCtorial quantities such as force, moment of a force, small displacements and rotations, and position vectors. With only a few exceptions, only scalar nutation is used throughout Parts I and 111. In Part l l, however, vector notation is used almost exclusively.

Suitable combinations of light- or boldface type of roman or italic letters are used to distinguish scalar from vector quantities and to separate vector quantities from matrices. Th us, the notations used are as follows:

Lightface italics such as P, p designate scalars, Boldface italics such as P,p designate vectors. Boldface roman letters such as P, p designate matrices.

The specialized and unique symbols utilized for each of various metl-ods of computation and analysis presented in this book are defined and describer where each of these methods is first introduced.

Measuring Units

Both English and metric units are used in this new third edition. In Parts I and IiI, the English system of measuring units is u~ed exclusively. 'In Part'II, metric units are used wherever units are specified,

In the United States of America, the movement to replace the customary English system with the Systeme International d'Unites (SI) is under way, Obviously such an extensive conversion will not occur on a particular" Sl Day." It will occur over a considerable transition period of time, During this transition, heavy






Doubtless the planning, design, and construction of structures is essentially as old as man himself since nature provides on this planet an acceptable environment for man, but seldom are the detailed natural forms of this environment exactly suitable to his needs, convenience, and desires. Early man could probably find a natural cave or a hollow tree which would give him partial shelter from the elements, but it most likely would not be situated properly with respect to his source of food and water. So man started to supplement nature to meet his needs--and thereby built his first structure. Was his first structure a crude shelter, or may it have been a bridge made of a log beam or a stone slab or a vine?

Historical records tracing the evolution of structural engineering from its very early beginnings to the present are much poorer than those documenting the spiritual, philosophical, political, economic, and artistic development of man. On the other hand, archeological exploration has given us some limited physical evidence of the structures produced by early engineering even though the concepts and ideas behind their construction are lost and can only be inferred.

Man's basic needs for food and shelter of course are unchanging with time, but the standards which he accepts for the fulfillment of these needs continually change with the capabilities of his civilization. Man's ambitions and desires tend to exceed his achievements. Sometimes the differential between these two is so great that his ambitions drive him to try to accomplish his objective before he can really define what his objective is, or why he desires it, or what techniques or methods he should use to achieve it. The highlights of man's history are the record of his most d!riflg efforts-sometimes the record of a sensational advance or breakthrough, other times the record of a catastrophic failure.

Down through the centuries, master builders and structural engineers have practiced their art assisted by, but not completely dependent upon, the mathematical and scientific knowledge available to them. Mathematics and science when available are convenient tools which the designer uses to determine the detailed




. d dimensions of his structures. When theoretical knowledge has

proportions an .. .

t et been developed to satisfy his needs, the designer must rely on his expene~cc, field and/or laboratory tests, or his intuition and feeling for structural behavior. The accomplishments of a successful builder are reall~ bounded by only fo.ur limitations: the functional requirements and needs of hIS civilizauon ; the proper~les of the materials available to him; the constructional techniques WhICh are.practlcal and economical for him to employ; and the creativity and imagination WIth which

he applies his talents, knowledge, experience, and intuition. . .'

The nineteenth and twentieth centuries have produced very impressive mathematical, scientific, material, and mechanical advances in the field of structural engineering. So impressive is the store of knowledge which has be~n accumul~te? during this period that far too many structural engineers have been inclined to limit their designs to those which are encompassed by codes, standard practices, and available mathematical formulations. In such a professional atmosphere, the truly outstanding efforts of modern master builders such as Maillart, Freyssinet, Torroja, and Nervi seem even more impressive in comparison with the work of their contemporaries.' All these outstanding engineers have possessed creativity, imagination, and intuition to a very unusual degree, but it is noteworthy that all of them have likewise supplemented their mathematical and scientific knowledge generously with the intelligent and extensive use of not only their own and others' experience but also field and laboratory testing.

The careers of these outstanding men reveal the same lesson that can be drawn from such historical records as are available regarding the development of structural engineering and mechanics, namely, that the mathematical and scientific evaluation of a structural behavior or phenomena almost invariably antedates, rather than precedes, the initial application of such ideas in actual design and con-


Historical Review. The earliest construction forms of which we have any real knowledge are the lake dwellings at the bottom of some of the Swiss lakes: 2 These were very primitive houses erected on piles and date back to the Paleolithic Age. There arc earlier megalithic remains in Europe and Asia, but these show almost no evidences of a true structural art. Archeological exploration and restoration have given us considerable evidence of Egyptian, Greek, and Roman con-

, For descriptions of work of these outstanding engineers see Eduardo Torroja, "Philosophy of Struclures" (English version by J. J. Polivka and Milos Polivka). University of California Press, Berkeley, 1958; Eduardo Torroja, ,. The Structures of Eduardo Torroja," F. W. Dodge Corporation, New York, 1958; Pier Luigi Nervi, "Structures" (translated by Giuseppina and Mario Salvadori), F. W. Dodge Corporation, New York. 1956; Leonard Michaels, ·'Contemporary Structure in Architecture," Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1950.

, _2 There {Ire a number of excelient books rraci .. g the history and development of structural' mechanics and structural engineering, among which are Stephen P. Timoshenko, "History of Strength of Materials," McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1953; H. M. Westergaard, "Theory of Elasticity and Plasticity," Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York), 1952; David B. Steinman and Sara Ruth Watson, "Bridges and Their Builders," Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1957. See also R. S. Kirby, S. Withington, A. R. Darling, am! F. G. Kilgour, .. Engineering in History," McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1956.

r 4
II •

• .. •

Figure F.I Pont du Gard iBertman Archive)

struction as well as that of the numerous ancient civilizations of Asia and Asia Minor ..

Perhaps the structural forms used by early builders which are of greatest interest to structural engineers of today are the following: the post and lintel constructions of the classic Greek architecture, dating from about 500 B.C.; the Roman contributions to the development of the arch, the vault, the dome, the wood truss and concrete; the groined vault and vault rib devel~ped by Romanesque builders between A.D. 500 and 1000; and the pointed arches and flying buttresses used by the Gothic builders in the magnificent cathedrals constructed in Europe during the Middle Ages between A.D. 1000 and 1500. Even in comparison with modern structures, a Roman aqueduct or bridge such as the famous Pont du Gard or the dome roof of the Santa Sophia cathedral in Istanbul (built about A.D. 540) is an impressive and inspiring sight. All the more is this so when one realizes the "state of the art" when such structures were designed and built.

No doubt the Egyptians and other ancient builders had formulated empirical rules based on their previous experience to guide them in planning a new structure, but there is no evidence that they had developed even the beginnings of a theory of structural behavior. The Gree~s further advanced the art of building, but their contribution to structural theory was limited to that of certain of their philosophers such as Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) and Archimedes (287-212 s.c.), who laid the basis of structural mechanics by formulating certain fundamental principles of statics. The Romans were primarily builders and became very competent in developing and using certain structural forms. However, they apparently had little knowledge of the stress analysis of these forms. For example, they apparently did not know

I •

• • t

t • •

• • •


Figure F.2 Santa Sophia dome (Bettman Archive)

how to establish the proper shape of their arches and usually used semicircular

short-span arches. . ."

Most of the knowledge that the Greeks and Romans accumulated concerning structural engineering was lost during (he Middle Ages and has been recovered only since the Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) was not only the leading artist of his time but was also a great scientist and engineer. From his notebooks, it is clearly evident that he was very perceptive and understood quite well certain fundamentals of the behavior of structural materials. This work of'-da Vinci appears to be the real beginning of the development of structural theory, but it was not widely publicized by being published in book form. As a result; Galileo (1564-1642) is properly acknowledged to be not only the founder of modern science but also the originator of the mechanics of materials. For, in his last publication, "Two New Sciences," completed in 1636 and published in 1638, he was the first to discuss the strength of certain structural members, including the failure of a cantilever beam.

Galileo investigated the failure of a beam cantilevered from a wall by rupture in the cross section of the beam adjacent to the wall. He considered the material to

'be rigid" aiid assumed: that: at fail lire, the compression was: concentrated at the' lower edge of the ruptured section and the tensile resistance was uniformly distributed over the depth of the section. Such a stress distribution would not be valid in the elastic range of a material following Hooke's law but could be true under some assumed law for a plastic range of a material. Whereas Galilee's analysis would not lead to a close absolute value of the strength of a cantilever


beam, it is interesting (0 note that it die! give him the correct ratio for the strengths of two beams of similar cross sections. Even more interesting to us today is the fact that Galilee and also da Vinci were interested in predicting strenqths of members rather than stresses and strains developed in the members at loads less than the failure load. If all investigators over the last three hundred years had continued to have an interest in strength comparable to their interest in elastic behavior of structures, perhaps today the knowledge of structural mechanics would be better balanced between elastic behavior and strength of structures and structural members.

Subsequent investigators such as Hooke (1635-1703), Mariotte (1620--1684), Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705), John Bernoulli (1667-1748), Daniel Bernoulli (1700--1782), Euler (1707-1783), Lagrange (1736-1813), Parent (1666-1716), and Coulomb (1736-1806) made important contributions to the development of this new field of knowledge. Of these, Coulomb's contributions were particularly outstanding, and his memoir written in 1773 was particularly significant though it did not attract the attention ana exert the influence that it deserved. In this paper was presented for the first time a completely adequate elastic analysis for the flexure of beams. He also noted that, under certain conditions at rupture, the neutral axis could have shifted from its elastic position and thereby demonstrated an appreciation for plastic behavior.

It was not until I &26, when the first printed edition of Navier's (1785-1836) book on strength of materials was published, that some of the misconceptions corrected by Coulomb were Widely publicized and the modern theory of mechanics of materials was established.. Thus, Coulomb and Navier should be considered as two of the principal founders of this important field which is so basic to structural analysis, Whereas his predecessors in the eighteenth century had measured and calculated ultimate loads for structural members, Navier stated at the very beginning of his presentation that it is very important to know the limit up to which structures behave elastically, and he therefore concentrated on a consideration of the elastic behavior of.structures, He suggested that formulas derived for elastic behavior should be applied to existing structures which were behaving satisfactorily in order to establish safe stresses which could be used in design, In retrospect, it is unfortunate that, in this very important and influential treatise, Navier had not also retained a proper interest in postelastic behavior and ultimate strengths of structures.

The remainder of the nineteenth century after the publication of Navier's book could be considered the" golden age" as far as the development of what is now considered to be the classical theory of structures is concerned. Some important contributors in this era were lame (1795-1870), Saint-Venant (1797-1886), Clapeyron'(r799-I864), Clebsch (1833-1872), Rankine (1820-1872), 'Airy (I801_-: 1892), Maxwell (1831-1879), Castigliano (1847-1884), Culmann (1821-1881), Mohr (1835-1918), Mliller-Breslau (1851-1925), Engesser (1848-1931), Wohler (1819-1914), A. Foppl (1854--1924), Jourawski (1821-1891), Bauschinger (1833- . 1893), von Tetrnajer (1850-1905), and Jasinsky (1856-1899). These men and their contemporaries did a tremendous job of compiling, developing, and presenting the



Figure F.3 Sagucnay River aluminum bridge (From (he files oj Enqineerina ,ve'n-Record)

theories of the mechanics of materials and of structural analysis into substa ntially the same form as we know them today. Later in this book, as methods which were developed in this era are presented, the names of these men will be identified with some of their important contributions. One of the classical methods discussed later, the slope-deflection method. was actually developed in the early nineteen hundreds, Bendixen, Maney, and Ostenfeld being the major contributors to this development.

Since 1900, the modern era of structural engineering has been characterized by the following major developments:

I. The publication of a number of excellent books] dealing with the theories of elasticity, plasticity, buckling, plates and shells, and vibrations

, Among the fundamental theoretical books which have had a very important influence on the development of structural raechanics, analysis," and design in America in the las! fifty . years are A. E. H. Love, .. The Mathematical Theory of Elasticity," Cambridge University Press, London, 1892, 4th ed., 1927; A. Foppl and L. Foppl, "Drang und Zwang," R. Oldenburg-Verlag, Munich, 1920, 2d ed., 1928; H. Lorenz, "Tecbnische Elastizitatslehre," R. Oldenburg-Verlag, Munich, 1913; A. Nadal, "Plasticity," McGraw-Hili Book Company, New York, 1931; S. P. Timoshenko, "Theory of Elasticity," McGraw-Hili Book Company, New York, 1934, 3d ed. with J. N. Goodier, 1970; S. P. Timoshenko, "Theory of Elastic Stability," McGraw-Hill Book Company,


• •


2: The dcv~lopmcnt of impr oved machines, instrumentation, and techniques for testrng materials and structures and the increased use of experimental structural analysis ill research

3. The developmcnt of the moment-distribution method and the related but

generalized, relaxation procedure '

4. The renewed interest in ultimate strength and plastic behavior of structures and structural elements and the incorporation of these ideas into structural design procedures

5. The application of the probability theory and statistical methods to a reevaluation of the probability of failure or the probability of inserviceability, and a comparison of these ideas with conventional factors of safety

6. The advent of the analog and digital electronic computers and the application of modern computational methods and procedures to structural analysis and design, these development, being accompanied since the late 1950s by a tremendous surge of publication of books and periodical literature dealing with matrix methods and methods of machine computation pertaining particularly to structural analysis and design

7. The improved understanding of reinforced-concrete behavior, the development of precast and prestressed concrete, and the application of these ideas to design

8. The shell, panel, and stressed-skin construction developed primarily by the aeronautical structural engineers and the increased incorporation of these ideas into civil engineering structural design of not only metal structures but also concrete structures

9. The development of improved structural materials-steels aluminum plastics concretes, processed woods, laminates, sandwiches, ceramics, 'and fiber-r~inforced composites

10. Lasl·-but far from lcast-the continued and rapid development of new and improved construction equipment, and new methods and techniques pertaining to the fabrication, transportation, erection, and maintenance of structures

The most important contributions to structural theory in the last sixty years are no doubt the moment-distribution method, presented originally by the late Professor I-Iardy Cross, and the more general relaxation procedures, proposed by Professor R. V. Southwell. These analytical procedures contributed much to a better understanding of structural behavior by providing a means of converging (to the degree desired) on precise solutions for the stressed condition of frameworks,

• •

• •

• I

• • I

• • • • •

t • •

New York, 1936; S. Timoshcnko, "Theory of Plates and Shells," McGraw-Hill Book Company,

. N~w York, 1940, 2d ed. with. S. WoinQwSkY-K rieger, 196ft; R.- V. Southwell, "An Introductioh _ to the Theory of Elasticity for Engineers and Physicists," Oxford University Press, London, 1936;

I. S. Sokolnikoff, "Mathematical Theory of Elasticity," 2d ed., McGraw-Hili Book Company, New York, 1956; F. Bleich, "Buckling Strength of Metal Structures," McGraw.HiIl Book Company, New York, 1952; W. Flilggc, "Statik und Dynamik der Schalen," Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1934; K. Girkmann, " Flachcntragwerkc,' Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 194fi, 4th ed., 1956; W. Fliigge, "Stresses in Shells," Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 196(l.

t • t

• • • •

• •

• • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • •

• • • •



vc ()/ ~~c

¥-\<'/.j~0 ~ (.e)J

~~vi>cJ~ \" ,(I_.,Q <,tA U\ FOREWORD 11

;\ ~ '<" <\., Cv- tv'" .

of a comparison of allowable stress intensities with thoseproducedbythe service loadings and other(rcsig~JltlOm. --ThlS-tradltlQ_~!l=b~!Sh Iordcsign is called C1astJC(ksign since the allowable stress inlen~ chosen in accordance with the concept tMtthestrc~-;:;;:-~-;;Tncc;;c~~sp~d1l1g to li1-eYlcldp;;i~t-;;f Hie material ~anOn)e ex~~cded-;-iCCthe I~ost highlystressed points of the structure. Of CIJID"St; the sdectlon-ofth~ allowablestresses may also be modified by a consideration of the possibility of failure due to fatigue, buckling, or brittle fracture or by consideration of the permissible deflections of the structure.

Depending on the type of structure and the conditions involved, the stress intensities computed in the analytical model of the actual structure for the assumed design conditions mayor may not be in close agreement with the stress intensities produced in the actual structure by the actual conditions to which it is exposed. The degree of correspondence is not important, provided that the computed stress intensities can be interpreted in terms of previous experience. By the selection of the service conditions and the allowable stress intensities, a margin of safety against failure is provided. The selection of the magnitude of this margin depends on the degree of uncertainty regarding loadi ng, analysis, design, materials. and construction and on the consequences of faii ure. For example, if an allowable tensile stress of 20,000 psi is selected for structural steel with a yield stress of 33,000 psi, the margin of jifety (or ~actor of safety) provided against tensile yielding is I c65, that is, 33,000/)1),000.

The allowable-stress approach has an important disadvantage i~Li!d()_"5_!1_ot provide a ~~form ovcr(Qad caQaci~~J()r '!II parts and all types o.f structures .. As a result, there IS today a rapidly growing tendency to base the design on the _ul~n:'ate strength and the serviceability of the structure, with [he older-aJ!uwable-stress i!ppTtmch serving as an alternate basis for design. The newer approach currently goes under the name of strength design in reinforced-concrete-design literature and plastic design in steel-deSIgn Iltera1Ure. When proportioning is done on the strength baSIS, the anticipated service loading is first multiplied by a suitable load factor (greater than I), the magnitude of which depends uponu~certainty of the lOading, the possitihty of its changing during the life of the structure, and, for a combination of loadings, the likelihood, frequency, and duration of the particular combination. In this approach for reinforced-concrete design, the theoretical capacity of a structural element is reduced by a capacity-reduction factor to provide for small adverse variations in material strengths, \\;-clfbn~ and dimensions. The structure is then proportioned <;0 that, depending on the governing conditions, the increased load would (I) cause a fatigue or a buckling or a brittle-fracture failure or (2) just produce yielding at one internal section (or simultaneous yielding at several sections) or (3) cause elastic-plastic displacement of the structure or (4) cause the entire structure to. be"on the point of collapse. .

Proponents of this latter approach argue that it results in a more realistic design with a more accurately provided margin of strength over the anticipated service conditions. These improvements result from the fact that nonelastic and nonlinear effects which become significant in the vicinity of ultimate behavior of the structure may be accounted for.

A structural engineering project may be divided into three phases: planning, design, and construction.

The planning phase involves a consideration of the various requirements and factors which affect the general layout and dimensions of the structure and leads 10 the choice of one or perhaps several alternati ve types of structures, which offers the best general solution. The primary consideration is the function of the structure whether it is to enclose or house, to convey, or to support in space. Many secondary considerations are also involved, including aesthetic, sociological, legal, financial, economic, environmental, or resource-conservation factors. In addition, there are structural and constructional requirements and limitations which also may affect the structural type selected.

The design phase involves a detailed consideration of the alternative solutions evolved in the planning phase and leads to the most suitable proportions, dimensions, and details of the structural elements and connections for constructing each alternative structural arrangement being considered. Usually before the final design stage is reached the best solution has been identified, and final construction plans arc prepared for this selection. Occasionally, the choice is dependent on economic and constructional features which cannot be accurately evaluated except by competitive bidding; so final bid plans have to be prepared for the competitive alternatives.

The construction phase involves procurement of materials, equipment, and personnel; shop fabrication of the members and subassemblies; transportation of them to the site; and the actual field construction and erection. During this phase, of course, some redesign may be required if unforseen foundation difficulties develop, or if specified materials cannot be procured, or for any number of other reasons.

Philosophy of Structural Design. As defined above, structural design involves determining the most suitable proportions of a structure and dimensioning the structural elements and details of which it is composed. This is the most higbly technical and mathematical pbase of a structural engineering project, but it cannot -or certainly should not-be conducted without being fully coordinated with the planning and construction phases of the project. The successful designer is at all times fully conscious of the various considerations which were involved in the preliminary planning for the structure and, likewise, of the various problems which may later be involved in its construction.

Specifically the structural design of any structure first involves the establishment of the loading and other design conditions which must be resisted by the structure and therefore must be considered in its design; then comes the analysis (or computation) of the internal gross forces (thrust, shears, bending moments, and twisting moments), stress intensities, strains, deflections, and reactions produced by the loads, temperature, shrinkage, creep, or other design conditions; finally comes the proportioning and selection of materials of-the members and connections.so as to, resist adequately the effects produced by the design conditions. The criteria used to judge whether particular proportions will result in the desired behavior reflect accumulated knowledge (theory, field and model tests, and practical experience), intuition, and judgment. For most common civil engineering structures such as bridges, buildings, etc., the usual practice in the past has been to design on the basis




slrllctunl i:li!lIl"l" :Ind :1;,:, WiI';j Ilc:~d r,,:1 :)V'Te reliable material. Steel \-vas thet

i:H1S\Vl..'r to thi~ d\_·nEin{J. rh;_~ mvrntion \Ir- tilt..' Bc~sl'nH_'r '_~()nV(Tr("r in 185() and (he

subscqucut devdupln:l1t 01 the Siel1ll'rl'.-M:lrI!!1 open-hearth pr,'ces,; for rnahngl steel made it pos-ible t» produce strucUILti :,tcc! at c:cllnpclitivc p~icl's and trigi~l:rcJ the tremendous dcvc'oprncnts "nil ;I('compli,hrn,,'nt, ill the use of ,truelur;~i~'~teel. during the last hundred years.

Ordinary structural carbon stcd is almost a perfect structural material. It can be. manufactured reliably and economically and rolled Into a large variety of suitable shapes an~ si~,es, It can be f<!bri~a!cd and erected by a number or techniques and. procedure, without changmg IL physical properties appreciably, It has essenriallv the same strength in tension Of compression, Up to over half ,'f its streneth, i·t. behaves in a linearly elastic manner, and over this range it exhibits a high m;dulus

of elasticity At the end of ,lhis initial range of high stiffness. the steel will yield.

at constant stress for a strarn of 1!2 to 2 per' cent, thereby allowing stresses to equalize themselves at IOGi1tons\\i11cie'I0;IJmg-;~ fabrication or erection has

caused high stress concentrations Following this yield range, the material regains.

so.nc of its original s tilflle,>s--a small fraction, true, bu t enough to arrest sufficiently the rate of increase in dellection in many Cases, Before actual fracture occurs in a. tensile test, the specimen will have stretched 15 to 25 per cent of its original length.

Refer to Fig, F.5 for the stress-strain diagrams of various materias, ,

The most serious disadvantage of steel is that it oxidizes easily and must be protected by paint or by some other suitable coating. When steel is used in an • enclosure 'where a tire could occur, the steel members must be encased by a suitable fire-resistant enclosure such as masonry, concrete, vermiculite concrete, etc. t Normally, steel members will not fail in a brittle manner unless an unfortunate combination of metallurgical composition, low temperature, and bi- or triaxial t stresses exists."

Structural aluminum is still not widely used in civil engineering structures, t though its use is steadily increasing, By a proper selection of the aluminum alloy and its heat treatment, a wide variety of strength characteristics mav be obtained .• Some or the alloys exhibit stress-strain characteristics similar to structural steel, except uiat the modulus of elasticity for the initial linearly elastic portion is about , 10,000,000 psi, or about one-third that of steel. Lightness and resistance to oxidation are of course two of the major advantages of aluminum. Because its t properties are very sensitive to its heat treatment, care must be used when riveting or welding aluminum. In recent years, several techniques have been developed for • prefabricating aluminum subassemblies which can be readily erected and bolted together in the field Lo form .1 number of beaunful and well-designed shell structures. This general procedure of prefabrication and field assembly by bolting seem:'; to he • the most promising Way of utilizing structural aluminum. . . , " t

t •

I Brittle fracture of steel is a question which is not fu lly solved even though its mechanics are fairly well outlined. See M, E. Shank (ed.), "Control of Steel Construction to Avoid Brittle F2ilure," Plasticity Committee of\Velc:ling Research Council, New York, 1957; R. V. Phillips and S. '\1. Marvnick, Briltlc Fracture of Sled Pipeline And) zed, Cil'. Eng, ASCE, pp. 70-74. July 1972; S. T. Rolfe, Fracture Mechanics in Bridge Design, Ciu. Eng. ASCE, pp, 37--41, August 1972.

t -'

th e has been a growin" L'();]CCrn .uuo.u; 111~'.tl\· t'I', .n .i 11':11 [

In recent years, er . "', ~'. " '

ineers that not only is the term fac~or ,of_safelY 111]I'r,-'p<:1 a!ld Uill ,:'1 I· ;1" hut engi 'II t uctural design phirbSopny b:lSCU on 1111\ c'OI1ClCj)l lc.rcl- ::1 Ilie"1 worse sti a sr. .' .. I I.' I '. " dul conservative and therefore unecononuca l,c,I)"l, .m.: II :'(.'dL

cases to an un y . I 'I' t' I' 'I Thcv

nservative design with 100 11Igh a pro rabi J\V c) .u urc. 1")

cases to an unco ~ - , . .. .

ar e that there is no such thing as certainty, either 01 fa.lure 0: of safety of a

structure but only a probability of failure or a probability of safety, [hey feel

h s: that the variations of the load effects and the varrauons of the structural

t ererore '1' C 'I

' t hould be studied in a statistical manner and the probabi ltv 0' surviva Of

reSIS ance s . -

the robability of serviceability of a structure estimated.' It may not yet be

practical to apply this approach to the design of each individual ,I ructurc, However it is believed to be practical to do so in framing design rules and regulations. It is 'highly desirable that building codes and specifications plainly state the f:lCwr,

and corresponding probabilities that they imply. .

Structural Materials_ Of course, the availability of suitable structut al materials is one of the principal limitations on the accomplishments of an experienced structural engineer. Early builders depended almost exclusively on wood. stone, brick, and concrete. Although iron had been used by man .u lcast since the buildin2', of the Egyptian pyramids, use of it as a structural materia! V> as limited becalls~ of the difficulties of smelting it in large quantities. With the industrial revolution, however, came both the need for iron as a structural material and the capability of smelting it in quantity,

John Smeaton, the English civil engineer, was the first to LIS.:' cast I ron extensively as a structural engineer in the mid-eighteenth century; but another Englishman. Abraham Darby, constructed the first cast-iron bridge in 1776-1779, t he Coal, brookdale arch bridge WIth semicircular cast-iron arches, Cast-iron g.rdcr-, were unreliable, and a number of fatigue and brittle failures occurred under hcavv moving loads. Malleable iron was developed as a more reliable rnaterial and was widely used after 1841, Iron-plate girders were very commonly used for short-span bridges, Since suspension bridges were too flexible for long-span railroad bridges. it was necessary to develop a more rigid type or structure, and the mallcablc-ircr tubular design was evolved for the famous Britannia and Conway tubular bridgebuilt in England just prior to 1850, At about this same lime, the dcvelopmc:u of iron-truss construction started in the l 'nircd State- Englnnd, and FiIl'Opt' Incidentally, the first iron-chain suspension bridge had been built in England in 1741.

Whereas malleable iron Was superior to cast iron, there were still too many

1 A. L. Johnson, Strength, Safety and Economical Dimensions ,If Struct urcs, R. Inst. Trcbnoi., DiD, SIal. Struct. Ena. Stockh. Bull, 12, 1953; A. 1\1. Freudenthal, The Safely of Stru~:ures. Tram, ASCI;, vol. 111, p. 125, ·1947; A. M. Freudenthal, Refleclions .on Standard. Specifications lor Structural Design, Trans. ASCE, vol, 113, p. 269, 1948 ~ A. M. Freudenthal, Safety a."d Probability of Structural Failure, Trans. ASCE, vol, 121, p. 1337, 1956, O. G. Julian, Synopsi 01 ",rsl Progress Report of Committee on Factors of Safety, f. Srruct . Dip" Fr.",', ASCE, vel. 83, no, ST4, pap, 1316, July 1957; A. M, Freudenthal, J. M, Garrelts, and M. Shmozuka, The Safety of Structure:" Proc. AS(,E, J. Struct . DiL'., vol, 92, no, STI, February 1966; Structural Safety: A Lircruture Review, Proc, ASCE, vol. 98, no, S1'4, pp, 845-884, April 1972.

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Unlcs-, proper care is used in the selection of aggregates and in the mixing and placing of cuncroto, fro,t action can cause serious damage to concrete masonry. Concrete creeps undcrlrlng-krm loading to a degree which must be considered carefully in selecting the design stress conditions. During the curing process and its early life, concrete ,hrinks it significant amount, which to a degree can be controlled by properly proportioning the mix and utilizing suitable construction tech niq ues_

With all these potentially serious disadvantages, engineers have learned to design and build beautiful, durable, and economical reinforced-concrete structures for practically all kinds of structural requirements, This has been accomplished by careful selection of the design dimensions and the arrangement of the steel reinforcerncnt, development of proper cements, selection of proper aggregates and mix proportions, careful control of mixing, placing, and curing techniques, and imaginative development of construction methods, equipment, and procedures .

The versatilitv of concrete, the wide availability of its component materials, the unique case of shaping its form to meet the strength and functional requirements involved, together with the exciting potential of further improvements and developments of not only tile new prestressed and precast concrete construction but also the conventional reinforced-concrete construction, combine to make concrete a strong competitor of other materials in a very large fraction of structures contemplated for the future. The use of precast-concrete elements which can be produced under carefully controlled plant conditions and then assembled in the field using prestressing techniques is bound to expand tremendously, particularly in this country with its high ratio of labor to material costs.

Wood, of course, was the only material used by early builders which had more or less equal tensile and compressive strength. Wood is characterized by its nonhomogeneity, due (0 its grain, knots, and other defects; by its anisotropic strength properties parallel and perpendicular to its grain; and by its poor durability due largely to_jt<;_susc~p(ibility to variations in humidity and moisture and to attack by bactcria.Jungi, and insects. While Its tensile and compressive strength is much less perpendicular than parallel to the grain, the most serious aspect of its anisotropic strength characteristic, is its much smaller shear resistance parallel to the fibers than transverse to them. Wood abo exhibits considerably lower strength under long-duration loading'. Wood deforms con-ide-ably under load, exhibiting essentially linear strcss-str.nn characteristics at low stresses with a modulus of elasticity of about half that of concrete (and about £l- twentieth that of steel). Compression failures are 110t abrupt, but tension failures'-nre':=:_less so than concrete, however. The design of wood structures must allow properly for dimensional changes caused by temperature and moisture variations. The major design. problem, however, is .providi ng adequate, dependable,' and praetieai connections.

In modern times, with the increased me of steel and reinforced-concrete construction, wood was relegated largely to accessory use during construction, to use in temporary and secondary structures, and to use for secondary members of perrnanent construction. Modern technology in the last forty-odd years has revitalized wood as a structural material, however, by developing vastly improved timber

Figure F.S Stress-strain diagrams for various materials

Reinforced and prestressed concrete sl.a rc "itb srrucrural steel the posi ti on of the most important civil engineering structural material. Natural cement concretes have been used for centuries. Modern concrete construction dates from the middle of the nineteenth century, though artificial portland cement was patented by Aspidin, an Englishman, about 1825. A!th ough several builders and engineers experimented with the use of steel-reinforced concrete in the last half of the nineteenth century, its dominant use as a buildinc matcria l dates from the carly decades of this present century The last fnr(y year, have seen the rapid and vigorous development of prestressed-concrete design and construction. founded largely on early work by Freyssinet in France and M agnel in Belgium.

Plain (unreinforccd) concrete not only is a heterogeneous material but has one very serious defect as a structural material, namely, its very limited tensile strength, which is only of the order of one-tenth its_ compressive strength: Not onl{is: tensile failure 'in concrete' of a brittle type, bu~."jse C;;~pression failure Occurs in a relatively brittle fashion without being preceded by the forewarning of large deformations, (Of course, in reinforced-concrete construction, ductile behavior can be obtained by proper selection and arrangement of the reinforcement.)



• 17'

connectors, various treatments to increase the durability of wood, and laminated wood made of thin layers bonded together with synthetic glues using revolutionary gluing techniques. Plywood with essentially nondirectional strength properties is the most widely used laminated wood, but techniques have also been developed for building large laminated- wood members which for certain structures are competitive with concrete and steel.

Materials with future possibilities are the engineering plastics and the exotic metals and their alloys, such as beryllium, tungsten, tantalum, titanium, molybdenum, chromium, vanadium, and niobium. There are many different plastics available, and the mechanical properties exhibited by this group of materials vary over a wide range which encompasses the range of properties available among the more commonly used structural materials. Thus in many specific design applications it is possible to select a suitable plastic material for an alternative design. Experience with the usc of plastics outdoors is limited. Generally speaking, however, plastics must be protected from the weather. This aspect of design is therefore a major consideration in the use of plastics for primary structural clements, One of the most promising potential uses of plastics is for panel and shell-type structures. Laminated or sandwich panels have been used in such structures with encouraging results which indicate an increased use in this type of construction in the future.

Another materials development with interesting possibilities is that of composites consisting of a matrix reinforced by fibers or fiberlike particles. Although glassfiber-reinforced composites with a glass or plastic matrix have been used for years, they appear to have much broader possibilities for a large variety of secondary structural components. Fiber-reinforced concrete is another composite being actively studied and developed. Several experimental applications are being observed under service conditions. Experiments have been conducted with both steel and glass fibers, but most of the service experience has been with steel fibers.

Modes of Structural Failure and Inadequacy. 1 The inadequacy of a structure may be revealed in one of several ways. The inost dramatic, even when no human casualties are involved, is the collapse of a structure. The collapse may be total and involving the entire structure, or localized and confined to one portion. Often collapse occurs during construction and is usually caused either by poor construction planning and scheduling 0:: by inadequate support or bracing for the partially complete structure. Sometimes the collapse of a completed structure may result from a natural disnster, an explosion, a collision, or a severe fire; but often the failure may occur under the imposition of what appears to be a routine loading condition,

A less dramatic form of inadequacy occurs when a structure becomes unseruice.. able due to some vstructural -defioiency.' II: structure- becoming -inadequate- to fulfill its intended function may not be dramatic, but this situation may still result

J J. Feld, Structural Success or Failure?, Proc. ASCE, sep. 632, 1955; J. Feld, Lessons from Failures of Concrete Structures, Ar! Monoar. 1,1964; Structural Failures: Modes, Causes, Responsibilities, ASCr Res. Counc. Perform. Struct., 1973: FA Randall.Tr., Historical Notes on Structural Safety, J. ACI, pp. 6W-679, October J973.


in a very severe eCOT10rnic loss for its owner. For example, a <t ructurc rn.iv bc- • come unserviceable because of it, stiffness and Vibrational chnracrr-rivtirs I i l 'UliJ

a case:'astruci~re may be ,;0 flexible thai sensitive cqurprnent and macilillcTY t supported by it cannot operate satisfactorily, so that un,iglltly crack-, dcvch,p i:l plaster or other superficial finishes, or that many people tl:-.ing the structure ,II', 411 disturbed by its movement or by the visual appearance of ih deflected shape On the other hand, the structure may have vibrational characteristic, that arc i'()url~ matched to the frequency of the dynamic loads acting on it. Such a circum-t ancc could result in poor response characteristics for a buildmp in an earthquakc-r-r. .ru: • zone or in the aerodynamic instn hilit y ora structure under a modest steady \\1:)(1. ,10 illustrated by the famous ! acoma N~:-:_s Sllspen.~~~._~!}.dg~ failure III I <J·n. I

Many failures other than the inadequacy of a main structural clement llIay ClC the primary cause of the collapse of a structure. A faulty sprinkler system may allow a , fire to get out of control. resulting in temperatures so high that deformation and

loss of strength of steel truss members lead to the collapse of the entire roof syste.» • of a storage warehouse. Poor inspection may have allowed the applicat ion of much less than the specified fireproofing for the flourbearns above a laboratory in • which an explosion caused a very intense and localized tire. Poor construction

may have provided inadequate seals and paint protection for an important structur- • al connection, resulting in corrosion and a major collapse triggered by corrosion • fatigue in a key member leading into this joint. In another case, a design error led to a joint's being designed without taking into account some of the forces acting on it; the structure failed, partially assembled during construction. Another common design error is failure to provide adequate anchorage and bearing for steel beams framing into masonry walls. (J_o_I!!..t__sjr;.Jj_g!J.. is JfrriblyJIlj.wrtGnt; perhaps all structural engineers and buildersshould .. repeat regularly to themselves a warning • ~ paraphra;~~"theord pa~~-bk:" For want ofa nail the shoe was lost; for want Ofa-s"h"<ie1nen-orsewa's'fo~t; ... ".) Just plain poor judgment in using an old t srru-cturem'-iTI-c01werting an'old strlict~rc to a new use may result in a collapse due

to its being overloaded or subjected to a loading condition for which it was never designed. Finally structural failure or inadequacy may he caused by movement or settlement of poorly designed or constructed foundations.

Collapse of a structure may be triggered by any of the following modes offailure of one of its elements: plastic deformation or rupture of the material 111 a ductile manner, rupture of the material in a brittle manner, buckling, or fatigue or the material.

Seldom is the collapse of a structure triggered by rupture of the material in a ductile manner, since such rupture is preceded by such large strains that excessive deflections would become apparent. Under normal types of loading, there would therefore be opportunities to relieve the 'structure either by -unloading it partially t or by shoring it or strengthening it temporarily. Of course, in catastrophic situations-such as earthquakes, windstorms, floods, fires, and. bomb blasts-v-there • is no opportunity to relieve the structure, and collapse C0i11d be triggered by ductile rupture or excessive plastic deflection. Many collapsed structures show evidence .. of ductile rupture or excessive plastic deformation at a number of points, but these •


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uwrul have developed during thecollapsingpnl(:c:i.' i1lhllLd IltJl,.tllg!,c' 11!, ,\',1 rc·.

Bri~e fracture is much more likely to trigger lh~ C,'[LqH' :'1 ;J ,tlL._:U:,· Le.11 ductile fracture, Certain steels (and perhap, other al'uycd Illc'\;th), dCI'l"lidI11'.! ,lJ,,11: their metallurgical composition and manufacture and UP(lll the 111lr1:r1ll111l ',I:lI1['C"I'of their. environment, may be suxccptible to thi-. type vi l.uiur,' I lu-, I' . true if'the member is designed and detailed so t h.i t atlhe i,)Catl()1l ('I' failure a pronounced bi- or triaxial stress condition cXhh. tllCrd)l

'inhibiting plastic flow and permitting a cleavage type of fracture to occur In

reinforced-concrete structures, a brittle behavior can occur when port uiu-, are overreinforced and the compressive strength of the concrete i, reached before ,i)!llilicant yielding occurs in the tensile steel. In such cases if the compre"I()l1 ,Ieel and stirrups are not detailed so as to prevent cracking off of large chunk , of the compression zone, the member may fail in a precipitous br.ulc manner. Such »cl.avi.» may also occur if the diagonal tension reinforcement IS inadequa:c.

In civil engineering structures where the dominant loading is usually oub,Ll!1l1:d!v static, the most common cause of collapse is a buckling failu rc. Buckling lll;IY occur locally in a manner that mayor may not trigger collapse of the entire ,tl ucture, such as in outstanding flanges, in flange or web plates (II' «()111J1r~",il)11 mcrnhers, or in the web or compression flange of girders. etc. Coruprc-e.ion ilil'rl1b(T'; or beams may buckle a, individual members, or structures a, a whole m'l)" buck!«. Occasionally in civil engineering structures, the buckling is all elasti .. , buckling, wherein the portion recovers its original shape if unloaded. Such buckling rcsrstancedepends on the elastic flexural rigidity and the unsupported length (or ;()!IlC times the-w~dth) of' theportion but not on the stress intensities involved More often, however, because of the slenderness ratios commonly used, plastic budding is involved, wherein the member or portions of it are stressed beyond the propertional limit of the material. Then, the stress intensities are a signi ncmi raCl'-'I' in the behavior, because the strain and fiexura: rigidity beyond the pr oportioual limit depend upon the value of the stress. Sometimes, when clastic buckling occurs. the load on the portion is relieved as a result of the buckling displacements. In other cases, however, such relief does not occur, and under continued action of the load additional deflections are developed which may involve substantial plastic deformation and subsequent collapse of the structure.

Fatigue failures occur infrequently in conventional civil engiECer!!:;; s!rt"!!.!:"~';, although unfortunately [he frequency of such failures seems to be increasing. Such failures result in a brittle-type fracture, and sometimes it is difficult tn classify the cause of the fracture properly, A case in point was the tragic collapse of the Point Pleasant Suspension Bridge in West Virginia Dec. 15, 1967. The Point Pleasant Bridge was an eye bar suspension bridge which had been in service more than fifty years' when it collapsed with. the loss of more. thaH twenty lives., -Thc failure was traced to a cleavage fracture in one of the eye bar heads caused by a very small crack radiating from a corrosion pit on the surface of the hole in the eye. Experts cannot agree on the mechanism by which the crack grew. Some believe stress corrosion; some corrosion fatigue. This issue was not resolved in the official final report.

\\,il~1l i.c';:") dY11d'1l1C I"ad, Pi" ,c:\~r~ vibrations arc involved, the po"ibility 0 ;'~\ti;cuC Iarh.rc mus: he" l"lhi,;crl'cL lJaqic i'atiglJe failures are of a brittle type ,\Cml'i(Jllh c,r \\I1' .... h Gill be cictcc'l<;,j (lllly by relined inspection techniques. So ,:!Iled plastic faligue ciln abc' ()n:ur, though it is rare. This is the phcnornenor It~\,'hLd Will'I1 oru: breaks it wire Ill" nail by bending it into the plastic region, first In one direction and then ihc other. Obviously, it is seldom that a civil engineering Slructure i, subjected (0 large reversible loadings which could cause this type of Lilurc. Such pOSSIbilities should he recognized arid considered, however.

The structural cnjnnecr must therefore design his structures so as to obtain a suitable improbability that they \,,)1 collapse or become unserviceable, He must he' prepared to analyze the behavior of the various structural forms which he uses ,,' :1' to est uuatc the pos sibilitir • of collapse or poor performance under the io:!dlllg and environment to which they are subjected. If the theory is inadequate for sucl: predictions, he must make his evaluations and design decisions on the ba,h of hi, cxper.cncc and model and/or ticlJ tests,

Siruel!lral rot'IIl,. The most important dc::'.ign decision made by a structural engineer i, the <election of the 11l0',[ suitable structural form to satisfy the various r,'quin:mC],IS and l)i:1Fctive, of:\ particular project. Most often, he is [lot able to 'lkn I if\,· immediately Ihe best solution, and he must continue to consider several altcrnat.vc structural types throughout the planning and design phases of the pt"jed until hc is able to identify the best of the alternatives Tile most suitable "'.ructural form is the one which satisfies the functional, economic, sociological, ~lc';lhelic, and other requirements to the highest degree and which may be economically and reliably built u,ing the xtructural materials and construction methods \1 hich arc the 1Il0<,l appropria tc or those which are available Of can be devised,

Structural rnrms may be da"ilied as being of onc of the two following types ;lcCllrcilll['. ttl the d()1ninant Slre" condition developed under their most important c1c'SI['.11 loads and conditions: uniform-stress forms, in which the ,tt"CSS is essentially uniform over the depth of a member or over the thickness of a panel e.g. cables, arches, truss members, membranes, shells: and varying-stress forms, in which the qre" va ric, over thc depth or thickness, usually from a maximum tensile stress at one surface to a maximum compressive stress at the other, e.g., beams, rigid frames, ,Ia bs. plates.

Obviously uniform-stress forms utiliz, the :~\'2Li!.:lb!c strength of i1jat~jj~d more efficient! y than the varvi ng-strc" forms, in wh ich under cia stic conditions the material between the outs-de faces is undcrvtrcsscd except in region, where there are high shear stresses. whcrc functiona' requirements permit, therefore, the structural designer tries to use a uniform-SIre" form. Of course, sometimes the fabrication and/or construction difficulties involved in achieving the desired shape for the structure cost more than the rnnterinl saved through its more €Incient use; so that overall economy cannot be realized.

Steel-cable structures illustrate a very efficient structural form. Cables are almost perfectly flexible, i.e., they may be assumed to have no flexural strength and therefore must carry their loads by simple tension. AS a result, they must adjust their shape to conform to the equilibrium polygon of the loads applied to



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them Isce CI1:1I). Ii). Th i , ~1dilht:nenl in shape i~ a ,jgnifica:d ~e"Jll::;:i:al C";'"i''' ill shape, not simply the ")lal! dcl'cctions fl·sulting from the strc,~-\trclill clu[";,ckrj,tics of deformable b()di,·~. As ,ilown by the solid-Ii IlC PO,ilio(1 ill Fig. 1:.6tl. a cable has the shape of a catenary under ib own dead weight. If a large load P (compared with its own weight) i, nnw imposed on the cable, it shirts its share markedly to the dashcd-line position, which is substantially two straight line segments. On the other hand, as shown in Fig. F.6b, a load P small compared with the weight of the cable would require only a very small change in shape of the cable if it were applied. The principle is clear, however, from a consideration of the equilibrium of a small portion of the cable: the only two ways a cable can maintain simultaneously both vertical and horizontal equilibrium are (I) to change its tension and (2) to adjust it> slope. i.e., its shape. In other words, OIlC unknown (the cable tension) cannot in general satisfy 111.'0 equations simultaneously--two unknowns (the cable tension and cable slope) are required to do so. If for func-



Figure F.6 Cable structures


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Figure F.7 Cylindricai membrane

tional reasons substantial changes in shape of cable structures cannot be tolerated, a stiffening truss, as illustrated in Fig. F.6d, must be connected to the cable to distribute large concentrated loadings.

A flexible membrane such as shown in Fig. F.7a at first glance seems to be the same as a large number of cables side by side, and it would be essentially this situation if the curved edges of this cylindrical membrane were unsupported. However, the genera {ion of _shea.L..s.tressf:s ... between.adjacent cable, .elements _ consiffi.iTei-a-~~r..Yimp~tantdiffcrencebet~ve(':n_t.he __ cable and.rhe .me_rnb_rE.n~~ which becornesa·pparent from a co ns ideration of the equilibrium of a differential element of the membrane shown in Fig. F. 7b. In the case of the differential element of the membrane, there are three equilibrium conditions which must be satisfied-surnm;lli0n of forces in the longitudinal, the circumferential, and the radial directions JIl1l3t each equal zero-s-compared with only two conditions in the case of the cable. Note. however, that there are three forces :VI' Sop, and Nop! in the case of the membrane which by incremental changes in their values can satisfy these three equilibrium equations for the element without the necessity of changing its shape beyond the small strains or deformations associated with its stresses. This characteristic of the. three-drmcnsionnl membrane surface 'makes it' essentially different structurally from the two-dimensional cable. Such surfaces are true uniformstress structural forms which are structurally stable and adequate, and capable of supporting distributed loadings with no changes of shape except the small deflections associated with the deformation of the material. Of course, concentrated loadings on a flexible membrane-being discontinuities in the loading-can be

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which is used to define the shape of the arch. For this loading, the arch acts substantially as a uniform-stress structural form; for other loadings which mil}" be relatively less important and infrequently applied, the arch acts sat"ractorily_ out less efficiently, as a varying-stress structural form.

The shell is to the membrane as the arch is to the cable. Fhat IS, a shell is a membrane which has flexural stiffness and strength, just as an arch is related in the same way to a cable. Most often, civil engineering shells are the inverts of shapes such as shown in Fig. F.7a so that they carry their loads primarily by compressive rather than tensile stresses and are often made of reinforced concrete as a result. A shell which was the invert of the membrane shown in Fig. F7a would act distinctly differently from a series of arches side by side for exactly the same reason that a membrane would act differently from a series of cables, as discussed above.

Even though it may have flexural stiffness and strength, the shell possesses the basic structural stability and adequacy of its corresponding mem brane <hape as far as satisfying equilibrium requirements is concerned. That is, the three membrane forces available in the shell, N1, N,p, and /\'<1>/' can satisfy the three equations of equilibrium without the assistance of bending stresses. As a result, as long as the loading is distributed, it carries the loading primarily by a membrane type of stress condition even though the shape of the shell may not correspond to the shape of the equilibrium surface for the loading involved. Because of the slight tendency of the membrane surface to deform and, hence, change shape, some slight secondary bending is induced. Only adjacent to the supports, however, where it is usually impossible to supply exactly the supporting forces required by the membrane stresses, do significant flexural stresses develop. Of course, if concentrated loadings or abruptly varying distributed loadings are applied to the shell. large localized flexural stresses arc developed in the shell just as violent changes in shape occur in membranes under such conditions. Bending also occurs adjacent to abjdp: changes in shell thickness or shape.

VAnother very important uniform-stress structural form is the planar truss (or planar framework). Of course, a single concentrated load P could bc supported by the two-member arch form shown in Fig. F9a, the axis of which conforms to the shape of the equilibrium polygon for such a load. If, however. the foundations were 'not suitable to provide the necessary horizontal reaction> H, this resistance could-be provided at both a and c by a tensile force H in the third member ac added as shown in Fig. F.9b to form, with the other two, a simple triangular truss. Additional concentrated loads at d and e could be supported as shown in Fig. F.9c by using two bars to connect each of these joints in turn to the framework already formed. It is quite apparent that such an arrangement permits the members to support a system of joint loads by uniform-stress conditions in each of the members =-equivalent to tensile fo)"GCS in some members -and to' compressive forces in others .. "If the load system to be supported does not lie in a plane but is threedimensional in character, a suitable space framework can be arranged to connect the points of loading by starting with a tetrahedronal nucleus consisting of four Joints and six bars, as shown by the heavy lines in Fig. F.9d. Three bars are used to connect each additional joint to the framework.

((J J Snape 01 OC(>, cx s selected to coincide with srlCfJ€ of equj'lJrlum ~oJyy~n for cpplied j09di~g

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i !;;) /_'\rcI1 cf SClI'lE shape o s ( c : but subisClej 10 dlff~lenr Ioudr.q , ',,",,1Ich causes orch o~i'S to bend .r+o shope scmethlng like exoggerot1or shewn by dashed lire

Figure F.R Two-hi nged arch

supported only by violent localized changes of shape of the membrane similar to those changes required of a cable.

An arch, such as shown in Fig. F.Sa. is somewhat like an inverted cable provided that its shape conforms to the equilibrium polygon for the loading imposed on it. Even though the arch, unlike the flexible cable, possesses flexural stiffness and strength, it would carry such a loading essentially with a uniform stress condition over each cross section and no flexure. Now, as shown in Fig. P.Sh, If a completely different loading is applied to this arch, the arch tries to change its shapejust as a cable-e-tc that of the equilibrium polygon for 11K new system of loading. Because of its flexural stiffness, however, it cannot change it, shape without bending. As a result, therefore. it bends and changes its shape slightly--sufficiently, in fact, for a varying-stress condition to be developed in the arch whereby the arch carries the load partly by flexural stresses and partly by thrust. That is, the arch thrust cannot in general satisfy both horizontal and vertical equilibrium without the assistance of bending stresses and the .rransversa shear stresses' assoclatedwith them. Of course, the one case where an arch does not bend materially is for the loading with an equilibrium polygon of the same shape as the arch.

From a design standpoint, the arch form may be an economical solution for cases where there is one predominant loading condition, the equilibrium polygon of

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It is ink"'-:;,, ';.' ",;,. :[1;1 ,c:n".: rl~·)·,;··.:\):!lkd frallleworks ar,' vcrv c!o<.dy

rdated w ,k·ii ·"li,·iUi.",. lh,il,d1y lil<·.y \\";1l]t III h,:iong to Ill<' uiliforlll-,frc:,s falllily :!I;d try :,i ad ih pin- l'r ball-jo.ntcd Ir.uncworks but I.·'.:causc of their deformatioJl lhey l'alllhJt d._) so (>;;adly and the re by induce some nominal amount oftlcxurc. Rhiu,II). ,ht;lj, want to act as membranes, but because of I. heir flexural stifl'l1ess and rne support arrangement along their boundaries they cannot deform as membranes and thereby induce flexural action which is usually of secondarv importance except ill the region adjacent to the edges. . "

It should also he notrri that Jramcwor k s cannot be loaded di"el,tly 011 their members between joints without developing large flexural stresses in the members so loaded and in other nearby members connecrcd to them. 1,1 other words trusses prefer concentrated joint loadings, not distributed loadings: but conversely: shells and membranes prefer distributed loadings, not conccntrated loadings.

Very often for reasons based 011 consideration, of function, economy, or construction, varying-stress structural f('rms such :b beams, frames, plates, and slabs ;11"<: used, particularly III bridge and buildi ng de,ign The relative inctlicicncv of such form" in the utilization or rhe potential strength of ail the material may be minimized bv the selection of proper proportions for the cross sections of such members. For example, ill the hypothetical case of pure bending shown in Fig. F.IOa, all the material could be divided between the two flanges since, there

• • •

p P

~b~ -4d

I • • •

o~.~ ~CL- ~ ~.e

~ Ie:



", 2 ,


• • • • • • • • • • • • • •


I ,



Figure F.9 Planar and space frameworks

In Fig. F.9, the encircled joints indicate frictionless pin joints for the planar truss (or planar framework) and ball joints for the space framework. Such joints are all that are needed for structural adequacy. Actually it is convenient and economical in modern truss fabrication and erection to use essentially rigid Joint connections, using rivets. bolts. or welds. Doing so actually prevents the framework from carrying its loads by purely axial forces in its members. This is apparent when one considers that the members of an idealized pin- or ball-jointed framework change their lengths slightly in developing their axial forces. As a result, the angles between the members change slightly as there is displacement of the joints consistent with these changes of length in the members. If the members are rigidly connected together, however, at-the joints, the angle changes' cannot occur' ~ and slight bending of the members is necessary to accommodate the joint displacements. In a well-designed truss, the stresses associated with this flexure of the members are small compared with the uniform axial stresses and are therefore, in fact, referred to as secondary stresses.



T -~/f




.,.,~ '" >>z 1 I c)

Figure 1'.10 Flexural members


• '(:1
• . ~,,' .,

• 26


bciuu no ,,)lCdI. rh' \\eh i, rc'qlIircd. III .iciual ,itiJ:tli"lh. or ('.Illr'l" b(ltIJ herding: and ~\hC:Ir 'Ire iIlVll:-,l'd aI:d \Icn m.ucri.vl I' Ilt:cdcd a, ,lr"\\Il in Fig F.II:'!, As a result. munufucu.rcrs of rl1Ikd-,tcl'l and aill!llinurll bearn, have dc\·,'luped ,I number ofscrie, \)fsl:lllc!:lI',ll and \\ I: (\"Jli~ 11.111;'(1 beam \l'CtiCll1<; vl.ich 111 m.m , :'t'actinl situations re,;uil III qu.tc Cll!CiL'Ilt U,( of m:tlCri:ti .u lca-.t at tile li/(/.\! c riticu] eros. sections. In recent vcar-, C\)lhidcrabk aucntion has he,-'!] givell 'to-t'ile -,-;Ct' that 6cC~'US; of the ineJTicicnt u-,e of Il1;!kri,ll III flexural mcmber" lIl,my beam and frame structures possess corisidcra hie luad-carrying capacity beyond the loading which develops the yield >Ire" at the most highly qrc:"d p,)inL Ductile ,--"ruc~ lures made (If structural steel or reinforced concrete may be sublected l~~~rih('r IO:1a:;;g-:--wll';~11'-';_i;1-11)1Y pr,·;jt_iccs pbsticckf()[nldtion ~;t ]ocntI(;n, where yield stresses 11avc already been reached while mobilizing the full strength or lcs critical locations, cOlisideiation~ utiri7,ilions- of such bchavio~ arc variously labeled 'strcligth dco.ign or plastic dcsigu, a, mentioned previously.

or course. many heavily loaded long-span beams exceed the capacity or the standard rolled-metal sccticn-. In .uch "(SfS, the required llcxural strengths are obtained by designing special built-up sections out of plat c :;. angles, and other standard shape" these ,klll~[lb being connected togethn h~ r;\ch. hnih, ur wc:IJ,. Much more co n-ideration could. and perhaps should, be grvcn t\l the cvolut iou r,f beam section; of reinforced concrete. wood, and other materials. Sp:KC l!lnih the present discus-.iou. and till: rcaricr i, referred to standard textbooks on structural design for such iuformatiou.

Sornctimcs beams arc cu.u ilevcrcd or end-supported, as shown in Fig. F.I()(I and h, More often in modern co nstruction. however, they are continuous over- several intermediate supports or are connected to other members to form so-called framed structures. l-vervone sees daily numerous cxurnplcs of the almost infinite variety of configuration, used ill frame construction, some e,f which are indl'~ated by the line diagrams in Fig. F. )(le. Almost alway» these framed ,UUCIUieo. <lIC threedimensional assemblages of members. lll\1Ugh often planar ['orliOils may he isolated, as depicted in the figure, for purposes of design and analysis. Sometime" the joints of these frames are detailed using rivets. holts, and welds so as to be substantially rigid so that the end, of all members connected must not only translate but also rotate essentially identical amounts. Sometimes lighter connections ur:

provided which J~:: only semi r iqid. Rarely are the members act!..:.:!t!y pinned

together at the joints, but sometimes the riveted or bolted joint details are so flexible that they transmit only negligible moments through the connection. In such cases, it may be necessary to add knee braces or diagonal bracing. as shown in the top story of the frame in Fig. F.10c, in order 10 stabilize the frame.

The members of framed structures are primarily flexural members subjected principally to bending moment and shear. In addition;the members are subjected to axial forces though these are not large except in members such as the vertical columns of these frames.

The last varying-stress form to be considered is the slab or plate clement. The structural behavior of a plate may be visualized as being similar to that of two layers of be3111 st ri ps, each layer consisting of strips which arc cemented together side by side. The layers are then oriented so that the directions of the strips are



Figure F.ll Plate behavior

perpendicular as the layers arc placed one on top of the other, as shown in Fig. F.I L If the edges of such a plate are supported and it is then subjected to a transverse (i.e., vertical) loading, both layers will collaborate in resisting the load, each layer bending and transmitting the load into the pair of edge supports at the ends of Its beam strips. (It should be noted that for the visualized behavior to be correct, the thickness of each layer should be considered to be equal to the full thicknes~ of the platc.) It is of interest 10 consider the behavior of a relatively long and narrow plate in terms of the beam-strip-layer analogy. In such a case, the layer with the long beam strips will be much Jess stiff than the layer with the short beam strips spanning in the narrow direction. As a result, most of the load is carried by the short beam strips, with practically no two-way plate action involved. In other words, to benefit significantly from two-way plate action, the length-width ratio of the plate should be 2 or less.

Analy",;" of Structural Behavior. One of the important assets of a structural cngi necr is his ability to analyze mathematically the behavior of a proposed structure for the specified design conditions. lfhe has available a theory which is correlated with and corroborated by laboratory and field experimentation, and by observed performance of existing structures. he then has a logical and rational basis for extrapolating his current knowledge and previous experience to new situations. Of course, when no theory is availa ble, the successful engineer is prepared to use a combination of model and field experimentation, previous experience, judgment, and intuition to guide him in arriving at his design,

The structural engineer should be able to analyze! three basic aspects of structu-

rill behavior: . • . _' ~. . .' .

L . Stress, strain, and deflection characteristics under static or quasi-static loading or deformation conditions

2. Response and vibrational characteristics under dynamic loading conditions

I The analysis of the stress, strain, and deflection characteristics of structural behavior is referred to as structural analysis. The analysis of simply the internal force and stress condition in a structure is referred to as stress analysis.



d 1 ti loading conditions, hut occa-

J, Buckling characteristics usually, un .cr s a IC

sionally under dynamic loading conditions

h t ompare the limiting capahilities of the structure

In each of these respect,s'l e mdlls ~f failure which obtain, with the corrc'llOndil1g

for each of the potentia rna es, ' ,

bch 'or of the structure for the design conditions. ". .

aVI. .. these aspects of structural behavior In this manner IS

Obviously categonzIng . . iali d

h 'b' However analvsis of aspects 2 and 3 requires sp. ecra rze

somew at ar itrary. ~ , J . •

h . b nd those used for I' so it seems desirable to consider the,.e aspects

tee mques eyo '. ' . . . ,. > 1 .

t I Moreover civil engmecrmg structures must usually be designer so

separa e y. , "1 fail . t d ith the

that there is sufficient improbability of brittle or ducti e ai ure associa e WI

behavioral characteristics categorized under I and so that there I;' an (,1'01 gn:aref im robability of fatigue or unsuitable vibrational properties or of buckling failure ass~ciated with the behavioral characteristics categorized under 2 and 3, respectively.

Analysis of buckling and vibrational characteristics i.s beyond the scope of the present discussion, which will be focused on the analysl: of the stress: stram, an? deflection characteristics of a structure when It IS subjected to static or quas~static loading or deformation conditions. To solve such a problem completely It is necessary to obtain the unknown stresses and displacements throughout the structure so as to satisfy the governing equations and the known force ~nd displacement conditions on the boundaries. These un.knowns. may be o.~tall1cd by formulating a suitable number of independent equations which are obtal~ed from the three following types of relations or conditions which govern the behavior of the structure:

I. Conditions for static equilibrium of the internal and external forces (and

couples) acting on the structure . .

2, Relations between stress and strain of the material Involved .

3. Geometrical relations between strains and displacements of POI11ts on the structure

Of course it is easy to combine relations 2 and 3 so as to eliminate the strains and obtain thereby direct relations between the stresses (or internal forces} and the displacements. Some analysts may therefore prefer to say that there are only two types of relations involved, namely:

l. Conditions for static equilibrium .

2 3 Relations between stresses (or internal forces) and displacements

It really makes no difference which point of view is preferred since in either case one of two basic approaches may be used to formulate the solutio~ of the problem.

; The 'two 'basic approaches are the forceitmethod and the displ~cem~ne method, which may be described as follows. These approaches ~re described In a generalized fashion as they would apply to a member structure.

, Tn these instances, [he terms force and displacement are used in a generalized ~cnsc. Force may be interpreted to refer to either a force or a couple. Displacement may be Interpreted to refer to either a lineal or a rotational displacement.


29 ("

J. Force method

a. First, the l1umber orllldep<:ndenlllllkn(j\\'1 f,ir(:l"' Ih()lil external ,111d iiC!,~rf1al) is established and compared With tile n urn hc r of illdl'p'~ndell\ cUlutions of static equilibrium which may be written in\'()lving till':;, llIlkf]'l\\·"o. If the number of unknown forces is identical to the 11 UI1l ber of eq u.librium cqumiom, the problem is said to be statically determinate since the unknown Iorce , c.rn be determined directly from these equilibrium equations If, however. the number of unknown forces exceeds the number of equilibrium cqu.n.on-. till' problem is said to be statically indeterminate to a degree equal To th h nee." . In such a case, a number of the unknown forces equal to the deur-c of indcu-rminanCY,are designated as redundant forces and imagined to be rClllO\l'd .h restraints on the actual structure to obtain a statically determinate land stable) residual structure, called the primary structure. One CqU;l[;l)1l may he written for each redundant force in which the displacen;~nt of it , point of application on the primary structure is expressed in terms of the known forces and the unknown redundant forc~";_ These eqlullidn\ mily then he solved simultaneously for the unknown redundants.

b. Once all the forces acting on the primary structure have been deter mined, the stresses can be computed throughout. Then the structural analysis can be cas ily completed by computing the strums from the stress- strain relations and the displacements using either the stress-displacement relations or the straindisplacement relations.

2. Displacement method

a. First, the independent unknown displacement components involved in the structure are identified and considered as the basic unknowns involved in the problem. The internal forces in the <tructure may then be expressed in terms of these unknown displacements, using the :;tress-displacement telations. For each unknown displacement component, a corresponding equilibrium equation may be written in term, of known external forces and the

• • • •

• • • I


41 •

2 For purposes of analysis, a structure may usually be classified as bcrna either a member structure Or a panel structure, though occasionally it is a mi:':llll·'_: of the -; c tworypc«. A member structure consists of one or more members which are connected ill S0~T:e Q1t=lllP-cr ,~t tn!..":J' ~~nd.::;.

and then the whole assemblage is supported in some fa,hioll at certain di,CI'ctc IllC'lliur" t:,lCh

member of such a structure is relatively long compared with its cross-,ecri,)nal di:llc';,ion, The

equijjbnum or displacement conditions of a member structure may be defined by a certai 11 number of algebraic equations involving the loads and reactions, the independent force CO':1pOI1Cnh i~ the members, and/or the independent displacement component., of the joints. In Part II, member Structures are referred to as discrete structures. A panel structure con' ist s of one or more p"ncis which are connected together continuo[:sly along their edge~ or si."abie porlilll)s.thercof., The asscl'I1blage may be supported"either at discrete points, or continuouslv Over sizable ar ea s or along lines of considerable length. Each panel of such a structure me, Y ··DC either 'nat Or curved but of a thickness which is small compared with the length of its edges. The equilibrium ()~ displacement conditions of a panel structure may be defined by a certain number of partial differential equations which involve ~ontinuous functions defining rhe internal stresses and the ,!isplacements throughout the structure. The solutior~ (]r;l~c;c equations must "\ti;fy any prescribed condition regarding the external forces or displacement, on (he boundaries of the structure. III Part II, panel structures are referred to as continuum structures.

• • •

• •

, ..

• • ~

• • • •

• • • • • • • ~


• • • • • • • •



i ·'1

unknown internal forces which have been npr':'.<ci in IcTI~1, ol i h.: Ji,pi<1ccments Thc«: cqu.nion-. cqua] in r.umbcr t c (he nnkuown di,placcmcn1s. may then be solved simultaneously Io r their val lies,

h. Once the displacen1t.'llh have been determined. the internal force", may be' back-figured. Thus all the forces will have been computed except the unk now n external forces. and these may easily be computed hy using the remaining equilibrium e4~ations which were not used initially in scttiug up the equations for the solution of the unknown displacement components.

Most or the methods of structural analysis that have evolved over the year, are classified as force method" The ,;Iopc-delkction method and Castigliano's first theorem, to be discussed later ill Chap-. ~ and 9, are both displacement methods.


Whether a force method or a di,placemenl method is the more efficient method

depends on several consideratilllls, Up to the present time. force me th ods have been much more widelv used in the field of civil engineering: structures for a number

of reasons. First it ~hould be noted that in 111O,t case» a complete structural analvsis of stresses and abo di<;pi:tcements oC ;',11 !,oints of the ,truclure h.[', nul been necessary for design purpo-ses. A complete picture of the stresses has been needed, but only a few representative: deflections have been computed. I n addition, many civil engineering structures arc substantially statically deterl11lIlate; of If thcv are statically indeterminate, the degree of indcter minancy is considerably less tha-n the number of unknown displacement components. There arc of course certain structures such as many rigid frames where there arc fewer unknown dis-

placement components than the degree of <tatical indctcrrninancy. . .

There is one more very important truism which should be n:cognlZ(:d regarcilllg analysis of structural behavior. The majority of tilt: actual strucu.r:« \\hIChmllst he designed by the structural engineer arc not ,usceptiblc to precise ~\[dy:,is, '1 hi, is particularly true of structures involving complicated sp;lCe frames :lild i'r:! Tl1'':WU rks, slabs, shear walls , and sheik ln such cases , an idealized and simplitkd al1alytical mod~1 of the actual structure is ;lnalyLcd rather extensively to furnish a basis [or designing the actual prototype. Where there is a backlog of experience with. a particular type or structure, such ,i1l1plific<1tions arc: ju,lilied and provide a satisfactory basis for a new dCJign \..,hcn tcnlt~C-lcd 1Llj the j'Jd£Ll1C1'.~ and intuition of an intelligent and experienced engineer.

I It'lI('1I appraising the rCIlI/ts of his analvsis. th-: cllqinca must J/CT('r foroct that the ! '", results must >atis/l' the cquifihrilllll requirements, To be -, exact," the results must 1 also satixfv the stress-displacement rcla t io n c. A structure designed on the basis of ~ an analysis which satisfies statics but only approximately satisfies the stress-strain relations' will seldom be in- seriorrs trouble provided that -the -designer has been· conservative with respect to satisfying buckling and vibrational requirements and has detailed the structure so that it is not susceptible to brittle failure. A structure

so designed may defl~;;t somewhat more and in a different manner than really desired, It rnav even crack or develop plastic deformattons at lower loads than anticipated froll~ the analysis, But, if an avenue is provided with sufficient strength



h) s:,ti"ry ,tatie cqui;ibrlum fUI' tll(' ultimate loading, given sufficient ductility and Quckling rc,lq;IIlCC the structure will mobilize the strength provided before it collapses.

ClwllcIlW'"' 01'I)(lI·tuniti<·';, "",I Responsibilities, Primarily, this foreword has been devoted to -'rircscrit ing a pcr spcct ivc of the entire field of structural engineering, "jth some attention being given to a brief summary of the historical background on which this branch of engineering is based. At this point, however, it is likewise important to acknowledge. at least briefly, some of the challenges that must be faced today in professional practice--not only by structural engineers but also by their fellow practitioners in all other fields of engineering and in all other professions. All of these professional, practice today in a highly dynamic world. In one sense, the basic problems and responsibilities they must face do not change greatly with time, But in another sense, however, rapidly expanding knowledge in each of their professional fields provides them with the capabilities to attack rr,lblcms that they cm:ld not even consider handling in the past Moreover, the changing needs of society create new problems and require more refined solutions lel most all of the traditional problems. Perhaps the key characteristic of most of t he more complex contemporary problems is that they are intcrdisciplinary probiems. The solution of such a problem requires the combined talents and experiences of all members of the interdisciplinary professional group involved.

Modern society is faced with tremendous interdisciplinary problems involving technological. sociological, political, philosophical, legal, economic, and other factors. Currently, society is particularly concerned with world population growth, environmental pollution, energy shortages, and the waste and overutilization of many of its natural resources, both replaceable and non-replaceable, Vcry gradually tile public is becoming conscious of the likelihood that society must ,hilt from an ccononiv of plenty to an eC01,,)l1!V oj scarcity; i,e., a shift from a "'\\ iriden " to a "xawah "approach.' This transition from one mode of operating ,oedy" activities to the diametrically opposite mode cannot be achieved without all "f the principal professions counseling the public every step along the way.

In order to contribute such services, the combined engineering professions need to develop active counseling programs to replace the passive assistance the profes.I1O!b have been prone to offer society in the past, MOst often when issues have developed, the engineering s()c~c.ti~s h3.V':2 offered their assistance to zovcrnmenral and community leaders, But usually these leaders have had little appreciation or understanding of tile potential value of the assistance being offered them. Even more unfortunately, the leaders seldom have had the technological vocabulary necessary to phrase their requests for assistance. Engineers therefore have sat in the corner wanl~~g to be helpful, but usually no one called on them for help. As a re,sult,.commUlll{lcs:and governments have often made their decisions without the benefit of badly needed inputs from engineering.

Perhaps what is needed is for the engineering professions to establish Better Engineering Bureaus in each major community, Such bureaus operating according

1 Gerald Garvey, From" Swidden ' to "Saw,,!l": The Cri,is in U.S, Resource Tra Jiti.m, M.l.T, Technol . Reu., pp , 24-31, March/April 1974.



(,) Pt-Or~S,iDljal <ta ndards :ltld ill a nonpol.i.cal and nuuudvocatorv mrmncr could providc intorrnation scrvicc-, from which individuals and the public could obtain hard facts and documented evidence regarding issues. The bureaus acting as amirus Il1In!CIl1i qcncris could provide technological evaluations and pro and con "I--gume-li-ts regarding legitimate alternate solutions available to society.

In addition to services to the public, the proposed bureaus could develop very valuable services to assist both public and private clients who wish to engage engineering services. In the end, such bureaus could very possibly prove themselves a tremendous boon both to the public and to the engineering profession-

In order (0 serve effectively and efficiently the ever increasing and more complex needs of his client and/or employer, the civil engineering practitioner must today (and even more so in the future) appreciate and utilize the new developments of science and engineering, which are evolving at a steadily increasing rate. To keep pace with these developments will require a practitioner to commit himse1flo a

ncver=en-dingTnYeslt';:;~~li-r'1hTs - [\\'n- ~~ntinuin-g-~d~~,~tio;;. - - --

Afso~pi""actilione~s -are to practi~~~-a-t-n;iy-~;~fCssional manner, they must recognize that their planning and design efforts must blend the engineering and technologica I aspects with the ,ocio-economic-political-environmcntal considerations involved. Fur most practitioners, this challenge will require them to invest in further continuing education aimed at broadening their backgrounds in these noritechnological areas so that they can communicate and work effectively with their fellow professional, from economics, political science, and other social sciences and humanities.

t • • • Co.

• •

Part I •

Basic Structural Theory:

. r" " I



techniques 4 The fundamental concepts and the basic definitions and analytical that provide the foundation for the entire field of structural analysis.

• • ~

• .,

• •

• • ".

• • • • • ..

• •

• •

• • • •


,. ,
r ~
. ~'
f' Introduction

1.1 Engineering Structures, The design of bridges, buildings «Wiers and other fixed structures is very important to the civil engineer, Such structures arc composed of interconnected members and are supported in such a manner that they are capable of holding applied external forces in static equilibrium. /\ struc- ; ture must also hold in equilibrium the gravity forces that are applied as a consc- ~ quence of its own weight. A'trausmission tower, for example. is acted upon by

its own weight, by wind and ice loads applied directly to the tower, and by the forces applied to the tower by the cables that it supports. The members of the tower must be so arranged and designed that they will hold these forces in static equilibrium and thus transfer their effects to the foundations of the tower.

There are many kinds of structures in addition to those mentioned above.

Dams, piers, pavement slabs for airports and highways, penstocks, pipelines, standpipes, viaducts, and tanks are all typical civil engineering structures, Nor arc s~ruct~r~s ?f importance honly to the cit' engineer'h The structural f;~me of an l aircra t IS Important to t e aeronautica engineer; t e structure of a S lip receives ~ particular attention from the naval architect; the chemical engineer is concerned I with the structural design of high-pressure vessels and other industrial equipment; ~ the mechanical engineer must design machine parts and supports with due consideration of structural strength; and the electrical engineer is similarly concerned with electrical equipment and its housing.

The analysis of all these structures is based, however, on the same fundamental principles. In this book the illustrations used to demonstrate the application of , ~th~se principles are. drawn largely from civil engineering structures, but the methods of analysis described can be used for structures that are important in other branches of engineering.

Structural theory and the experimental evidence from laboratory and field tests provide an invaluable basis for structural analysis and design. However, mathematical theory and experimental evidence, no matter how extensive in depth and





~ope, can never 11<: expected to provide a basis for developing II III th em at icall ; [(ccise design procedure"

fJrst, III order tel make it lhcorcti.:al ,lrUC'!ll,a! analysis mathematically P(hSlble, the geometry and configuration or the <t r uct urc 1111J:i( he idealized and simriified 10 obtain an analytical m{Nle! PI' the actua. structure for computational purposes. As a result, the internal forces, stresses, STrains, and displacements computed can only be approximations of 1hose quantities for the actual structure,

Second, actual structures cannot be constructed exactly to dimension, nor can .ltructural materials be manufactured precisely to specification, As a result, the resistance of a ,tructurc to imposed loads and deformations can be predicted only approximately. And third, actual structurc-, are subjected to natural forces and service conditions that cannot be predicted exactly.

Although an cngincer's experience and intuition are extremely valuable to him as he reaches his design decisions. they do not provide an adequate base for pushing much beyond the boundnrics of previous engineering experience. Design engineers therefore value most highly srructural theory, experimental evidence, and a deep knowledge of structural behavior as they extrapolate into new design areas.

1.2 Structural Desig"_ A slructure is designed to perform a certain function, To perform this funct:on sali,factonly it must have sufficient strength and rigidity. Economy and good appearance are further objectives of major importance in structural design.

The complete design or a structure is likely to involve the following five stages:

I. Establishing the general layout to fit the functional requirements of the st ructure

2. ,Consideration of the several possible solutions that may satisfy the functional requirements

3, Preliminary structural design of the various possible solutions

4. Selection of the most satisfactory solution, considering an economic, functional, auchestheric comparison of the various possible solutions

5. Detailed structural design of the most satisfactory solution

Both (h.e _preliminary designs of stage 3 and the final detailed design of stage 5 may be dlvl?ed rnto three broad phases, although in practice Lhese three phases <'.f~ usually interrelated. First, the loads acting on the structure must be determined. Next, the maximum stresses in the members and connections of the structure must be analyzed. Finally, the mem bers and connections of the structure must be dimensioned, i.e., the make-up of each part of the structure must be determined.

.. That these three steps, are interrelated may be seen from considerations such 'as' the following: the weight of the structure itself is one of the loads that a structure ~u~t carr~, and t.his w~ight is ~ot definitely known until the structure is fully d_slgne~; III a statically indeterminate structure, the stresses depend on the elastic properties of the members, which are not known until the main members are designed. Thus, III a sense, the design of any structure proceeds by successive



--. '11 ~ \' (-·;'~h,_-:· .]' l~l'·ln:;:.:r..;

.' For example. it j~ nc-cc,,;lry t o ;lssumc L '- "'., • .'.. •

approxlInahons, _ i' t \fl'rth',truclmC:;"!c-'i2iL".i,"'c'

• rder that thcv may be propcrrv ,.t"[gnCl. .. c c, _ -.

true weights m:l); be computed: arid UII ie'S! he 1 rue II eight, c,'r; 1." .. ']': , I -'c':" it"

th d the process must he repeated.

ose assume, I' t' 't C~tcl: ~';lJ t l::~>": ! .r.;

d ' . . .t ciurc it i, important to rea rzc 11" .

In esigrung u s ru , . , . _ .. _, ,t- ,., .,

ffi . t th to withstand the maximum -trcss to which rt c.u: ·c "]"Il"",

SU icient s rcng , . , , '1 _I v., i ' r 1 '1"

h ' n .tressc» It IS neCt'S,:lry to know no or,::- , .. 1<1, o: ,,'

To compute SUi; maXlmUl , c.,. .. • "

may act but the exact position of == load, on the structure that wil cau-,« i hc

t under consideration (0 have Its maXI11Hlm value. '"

s ress b ' I ' '[ '1 f '1." br idue

Th when a railroad locomotive crosses a ru ge, a gIven PC') H! n t t u, .' t'

US, , . '1', "I , briduc

receives its maximum stress with the locomotive at a given po" !p[ <),1 L,K ~ c.

A second part of the structure may he subjected to its muximum ,[:c,;, With the

locomotive in another position. , ,

In this book, the emphasis is placed on structural analY'h, BIP!n order to discuss structural analysis satisfuctorily, it i, l1",irablc to firsl gin: ,one ~nt~i1tlOn to the loads acting on a structure .md to the de,i."n of membcr , ;lnd C.'fll1l'c",.'n" In the Foreword, it was noted that the traditional hasis fm ,tru-:'ur:11 de<i!!_nh:,o> been elastic design, in which st resse s produced in the structure n\' ~IT,ic'c: ~Il:!dlng,

, I . I 'I bl t c" ~~)r ~t;_(_. m.u cri:rl

and other design conditions arc comparee wu 1 :L owa , e s r~-;,o ',' , .

involved. However, it was also noted that there is a rapidly pOWll1i'- r.nccncv In building codes and standard design specification- to base tht de~ig'l O:i ;h(' ullimal~ strength and the serviceability of the structure, with the older allowable-srress approach serving as an alternate basis for dcsicn. The !',c\\er upproacl: goes under the name of strenqtlt design or plastic desiqn. depcndins ('11 C\hClh~;- :'[' In , forced concrete or structural steel is involved,

Some of the building codes and design specifications commonlv ,~nC()1;;11~;;:,d by civil engineers are the following:

" .

AASHTO Standard Specifications for Hli'hwGy Bridges. American /,,,'.:>cia· tion of State Highway and Transportation Off cials. Washington, D,C., ! 9:J

ACI Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (Ae! ~l:-; 71), American Concrete Institute, De-troit. 1971

AISC Specification for the Design, Fabr ication. and Erection 0,' St:'u~ll1ral Steel for Buildings, American Institute of Steel Construction, \lew Y or k , 1911 AISI Specification for rile I;e"ign of Ligtlt Gage Cold-formed Steel Structural Members. American Iron and Sicc-! Institute, ::\ew York, 1962

AREA Specifications fo.: Steel Railway Bridges, American R:lil'.\:ay Engineering Association, Chicago, 1965

ASTM Standards. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1967

. NBS American Standard Building Code, 'National Bureau of Standards,

Washington, D,C. . . ,

UBC Uniform Building Code, International Conference of Building Officials (subsidiary of Pacific Coast Conference of Building Officials), Pasadena, Calif., 1967






I.~ ))",,,1 L" .. k The I lcu.l lo::.j acting Oil a structure consists of the weigbt ,.f the structure I~"_;!f' and or u nv uihel imIllovabl<? loads that are COnstant in Jlldgrlltudc and IK[[n:'[H.'tlliy· atiachcJ 10 the structure. Thus, for a highway (1rio!_'c, the ,!Lad Indd ,-tJ]l,i,l\ or the main supporting trusses or girders, the floor beam, :Ind ,tringer, of (11" !Jour sy;tclll. the roadway slabs, the curbs, sidewalks, knees or railings. lampposts, and other miscellaneous equipment.

Since the dead load acting OJ] a member must be assumed before the member i, designed, one should design the members of a structure in such a sequence that 10 ;t: gl cat an extent as practicable the weight of each member being designed is :I rortion of' the dead load carned by the next member to be designed, Thus, for :i highway bridge, one would first design the road slab, then the stringers that rarry the ~lab load, to the floor beams, then the floor beams that carry the stringer IO:J(i; to the main girder" or trusses, and finally the main girders or trusses,

In designing a member such as a fl'Jor slab, stresses due to dead loads are likely in be only a small percentage of the total stress in a membe-r, so that even if dead lo:[ds are not very accurately estimated. the total stress can be predicted with fair accuracy and hence the first design can be quite satisfactory. For main trusses and girders, however, the dead loads constitute a greater portion of the total load In be carried, so lhat it is more important to make a reasonably accurate first estimate of dead weigh!'>, It sbould be emphasized, however, that the original dead-weight estimate is tentative. After a structure is designed, its actual dead weight should be accurately computed and the stress analysis and design revised .r, necessary. This is necessary for safety and desirable for economy,

1.4- Lin- L .. atls--Ceneral. As contrasted to dead loads, which remain fixed in both magnitude and location. it is usually necessary to consider Jive loads, i.e., I<)aeh that vary in position. It is sometimes convenient to classifv live loads into nl(~~le iqflds and _t::l_o__l'J~g~, M ovable loads are those which may be moved frur.: nne position to another on a 51 ructure, such as the contents of a storage hlllk!ing, They are usually applied gradually and without impact. Moving loads :!r'e those which move under their Own power, such as a railroad train or a series of trucks. They are usually applied rather rapidly and therefore exert an impact effect on the structure,

When live loads are involved. attention must be given to the placing of such loads on a structure so that the stress in the structural member or connection under con,ideration will have its maximum possible value. Thus, while we speak of dead stresses due to dead loads. we refer to maximum live stresses due to live loads.

1.:; Live Loads for Highway Bridges. The live load for highwav bridecs con. sisls or the weight of the applied moving load of vehicles and pedestrians, Actually, the traffic over a highway bridge will consist of a multitude of ditferent types of v:hicl.es,. It is designed, however, for a train of standard trucks, so chosen- th~l the bridge will prove safe and economical in its actual performance. The live load for each lane of the roadway consists of a train of heavy trucks following each other closely. The weight and weight distri bution of each truck vary with the specification under which one designs, but a typical example is afforded bv the

H-serie,; trucks specified by the AASH'ro. .

• • I

• • I

4 1 t

• • 41


• I


• • ..

• •

• • • • • • • ...

• •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •







f.1Q'-o~ecrcrcec n'l

I lane width


Table 1.1

Minimum live load, Ib per sq it

Human occupancy:

Private dwellings, apartment houses, etc. 40

Rooms of offices, schools, etc. 50

Aisles, corridors, lobbies, etc., of public buildings 100

Industrial or commercial OCcupancy;

Storage purposes (general) 250

Manufacturing (light) 75

Printing plants 100

Wholesale. stores (light merchandise) 100

Retail salesrooms (light merchandise) 75


All types of vehicles 100

Passenger cars only 80

Sidewalks 250 Ib per sq ft or R,OOO lb concentrated, which-

ever gives the larger moment or shear

112C -44 - B,DCC 'b

HI:' - 4"1· 6,000 'b ""10 roccs

rll0 - 4'::: - 4,':}:JO ro

32,000 I:> 24,0001b 16,0001b

2'-0" 6'-0" 2'-0"

, , -,

14 0'

In addition +o this rl-serfes, there :S Giso specified 01

H S-series which simulates trcctor- trailer units



Figure 1.1 AASHTO H-series (ruck

Thesc If-series trucks arc illustrated in Fig.!.!. They are designated H, followed by a number inciicating the gross weight in tons for the standar? truck. The choice as to which of the H-series trucks shall be used [or the design Of a given structure depends on circumstances such as the importance of the hridge and the

expected traffic, .

It is seen that the loading per lane of roadway consists of a serres of concentrated wheel loads. The stress analysis involved in computing maximum live stresses due to ;3 series of concentrated live loads may become rather complicated. Under. some conditions it is permissible to substitute for purposes of stress analysis an equivalent loading consisting of a uniform load per fo~t of lane, plus a sl~gle concentrated load. Thus, for the H-20 loading, the equivalent live load consists of a uniform load of 640lb per lin ft of lane plus a concentrated load of ~ither 18,000 lb or 26,000 lb, depending on whether live moments or shear~, respectively, arc being computed. This equivalent live load is not exactly cqulv.alent to th.e series of concentrated wheel loads, but it permits a simpler cornputauon of maximum stresses that correspond closely enough to those which would be computed from the actual loads to be used for design purposes,

1.6 Live Loads for Ha ilroad Bridges. The live load for railroad bridges co~sists of the locomotives and cars that cross them. The live load for each tr~ck IS usually taken as that corresponding to two locomotive~ followed by a uni load which represents the weight 9f the cars, ,Ear details of the design, refer to the AREA specifications,

1.7 Live Loads for Buildings, Live loads for buildings are usually consmereo as movable distributed loads of uniform intensity. The intensity of the loads to be used depends on the purpose for which the building is designed, indicated in Ta ble 1.1.

1.8 Impact. Unless live load is applied gradually, the deformation of the structure to which the live load is applied is greater than it would be if the live load.were·considered as a static load. Since the deformation is greater, the stresses in tJie-siructure are higher. The increase in stress due to live load over and above ~·:#l~e that this stress would have if the live load were applied gradually is known as impact stress. Impact stresses are usually associated with moving live loads.' For purposes of structural design, impact stresses are usually obtained by multiplying the live-load stresses by a fraction called the impact fraction, which is specified rather empirically. The determination of a wholly rational fraction for this purpose would be very complicated, since it depends on the time function with which the live load is applied, the portion of the structure over which the live load is applied, and the elastic and inertia properties of the structure itself.

For highway bridges, the impact fraction I is given in the specifications of the AASHTO by

50 1=--L + 125

but not to exceed 0.300

CLl )

iQ which L is the length in feet of the portion of the span loaded to produce the Illaxiruum stress in the member considered.

1.9 Snow and Ice Loads. Snow loads are often of importance, p3J:licI11~rly in

'. ~ ~csigR of roofs. Snow should be co-nsidered as a movable Ioad, for it will nor necesSarily cover the entire roof and some of the members supporting the roof may receive maximum stresses with the snow covering only a portion of the roof. The density of snow, of course, will vary greatly, as will the fall of snow to be C1pected in different regions. I n a given locality. the depth of snow that Wlil P1ber on a given roof will depend on the slope of the wof and on the roughness of

. -




Ji' in ~~hich," t-; lhe· \,··i:h! '.<-,i',h·lly ITl 1111\" per h"'clr, I'll" pn>".:n~ rq~re,elll, the

~ ",mbincd net C!\:d 01 th,' nn"'lIrc '.1;~ . i:,' '.'. ,::<1". ,I1'd "Irie and ,11-: ,lxti,lIl (In the

k "e\~ard ,ide,

~~, LIt Soill"n·:-i~;I!l'{·;';. LO~l'J l,'r r~"~;:~111:1.~ \\ .ll- \,11 \\-~l:i,. ,y- bU~lding~. and PH

"'\ tJtllCf stnJclun:') ... luc to (:1(, prc...,;-.,ure l)j' -.;~_)d 'IHt,( l-r("q~h.~i1tly l.c con-i dcrcd OV the structural engiucer. The lateral pre-c-ure cau-cd hy sod on a \Vall varic» W!:C;l Ihe • wall yield,>. After it ,mall movement of the \\:;11. (ill' ",,11 prcs-.urc rcuch..-. a minimum value known a, the active prc-vur e. If, on the other hand. the" all is forced into the backfill, the prc sxur c between the wall and the backfill increases ttl a maximum value known as the pa,',lvc pre\,urc, Under usual coudition«. the active pressure at any depth is about ~L~ urne , the vertical pressure, and the ;'u,sivc pre'-urc b about 0.\ times the: vertical presxurc. Since the lateral pressure would equal the vertical pressure if the material wcrc


41 •

the roof surface. On flat roofs in area, subjected to h(';)\) slll)\\falk ,llc1\\ load may be as large as 60 or even 90 Ib per sq It. Whether or not SI1O\'.' and \\ Jllll I (lads should be assumed to act simultaneously on a roof is problcm.uical. Sif1lY II high wind is likely to remove much of the snow.

Ice loads may also be of importance, as. for example. in dc Jgnir.g cl lU\\C:1' bui!t up of relatively small members which have proportionately large a rcas on which ice may gather. Icc having a density equal approximately t o that of' water may build up to a thickness of 2 in. or more on such members. It may also build up to much greater thicknesses, but when it does, it is apt to contain snow or rime and hence have a lower density. When ice builds up on a member, it alters the shape and the projected area of the member. This should be cDnsidered in computing wind loads acting on members covere_ci wiih_lg;.

l:Io Lateral Loads-General. The loadings previously discussed usually act vertically, although it is not necessary that live loads and their associated impact loads shall act in that direction. In addition, there arc certain loads that arc almost always applied horizontally, and these must often be considered in structural design. Such loads are called lateral loads. We shall now consider some of the more irn-

portant kinds of lateral loads.

Wind loads, soil pressures, hydrostatic pressures. forces due to earthquakes. ~

centrifugal forces, and longitudinal forces usually come under this classification. ~

l.ll Wind Loads. Wind loads are of importance, particularly in the design of ~, large structures, such as tall buildings, radio towers, and long-span bridges. and r for structures, such as mill buildings and hangars, having large open interiors and r walls in which large openings may occur. The wind velocity that should be con- ~ sidered in the design of a structure depends on the geographical locution and on r the exposure of the structure. For most locations in the United States, a design to withstand a wind velocity of 100 mph is satisfactory.

Design loads for wind recommended in various specifications, like design loads ' for live load, should not be considered as attempts to represent actual wind loadings. Experience has shown that use of the recommended values generally results in a design of adequate strength and also of adequate rigidity,

The AASHTO specifies that the wind force on the superstructure of highway bridges shall be assumed as a movable horizontal load equal to 75 lb per sq ft for trusses and arches and 50 Ib per sq ft for girders and beams. These forces are for a wind velocity of 100 mph. The exposed area is the sum of the area, of all members, including floor system and railing, as seen in elevation at 90' to the longitudinal axis of the structure.

The task Committee on Wind Forces of the Structural Division of the American f.

Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) compiled an excellent report on the wind force ~ acting on various typesof structures.' Fortail'buildings, the committee recom·1 mended the following approximate formula for the pressure p in pounds per ~ square foot on exposed vertical surfaces normal to the wind: Ii

& (1.2) t

- ~ .

p = O.0033V2

1 The final report of the committee, entitled Wind Forces on Structures, was published in the ASCE Transactions, vol. 5, no. 126. pt. 2, pp , 1124-1198, 1961.

,~; -_-.r "'r--" .-

.' '\

,\ , '

, . ::'<\\;'~

t •

Figure 1.2 Retaining wall

a fluid. the approximate values of !'4 and

4 arc sometimes called hydrostatic-pressure ratios for the active and plb',ivc GbC" lespcctlvely.

According to the above discussion, any wall that may yield without detrimental result> may he designed on the basis of active p1'e>SUIT, although the pressure that will actually act on the \\2111 will in general be somewhat above this value. Further the distribution of pre-xure over such a wall may be: assumed to be triangular: although this assumption is not strictly correct. ~ .

For a more cornplet« treatment of soil pressure" the student is referred to books

on SOli mechanics. .

1.13 Hydrostatic Pres"ure" Darns, tanks, etc .. are subjected to hydrostatic

loads. that a:~ a rule may he easily computed in accordance with the elementary principles ot hydraulics, Hydrostanc loads should in general be considered as movable loads, inasmuch a, critical "tresses in a structure do not neccssarilv occur when the liquid involved h at Its highest pos-sible level. III some stI'LJC1U;'CS, the presence of certain hvdrosuuic pressures actually relieves ,tre,s(', in a st ruct ure. T~us an underground lank might be more likely to col]apsc whcu empty than \,hen full, or a tank hurlt above the ground might undergo a critical-st rc-, con.Ii ti on when It LS only partly fillcd,

1.14 Earthquake Forces.' 1 m ponant structures located in regions s ubject to s~vcre earthquakes arc often designed to resist earthquake effects. During an . _ earthquake, structural damage JTIa)! result from the fact that the foundation of the structure undergoes accelerations. Such accelerations arc largely horizontal, and

• • •

t • t

• t

• •

, For a detailed discussion, refer to the uniform Building Code and the Recommended Lateral F0:'Ce- Requirements of the Structural Engineer» Avsociatior, of California San Fran ~IC'C) In!-7 Refer I t R - L V' • ..,.c,> '. ,,'. ~~J., t9~~, 0 obert .v icgel, "Earthquake Engineering." Prentice-Hail, Inc" Englewood CUlfs,

• ,

• I ,I
• ;

• 42



vertical CDlllpUilcnh of a..:,clcra\,Ul1 .uc us ua l!y !1c'giCCl('Li. 111 «ctivc earthquake zones, the maximum rate ,)1' bOf[1L1"Lai accclcr.u ion of the fnulldati,)n, may reach values having it magnitude bd\\~Cll l).:' ,wei 1.0 tiille:, 9, the acceler.uon due to gravity: that i, between 16 and 32 ft per scc'. If the vtructurc is assumed to act as a rigid body it will accelerate horrz.ont.rlly at the same rate as its foundations. Hence each part of the structure will be acted upon by a horizontal inertia force equal to it> mass multiplied by its horiz ontai acceleration, or, for example


Lateral force = --- x O.5g = one-ha If of its weight


Structures are sometimes designed to resist earthquakes on the foregoing basis, although it is quite approximate, inasmuch as the assumption that the entire structure accelerates as a rigid body is usually not particularly valid.

The horizontal acceleration of a structure such as a dam will produce not only horizontal inertia forces due to the mass of the dam but also hydrodynamic forces as the darn moves rapidly into the water that it retains.

L1S Centrifugal Forces, In designing a bridge on which the tracks or roadway arc curved, vehicles crossiug the structure exert centrifugal force that may be of sufficient magnitude to require consideration in design. Such centrifugal forces are lateral loads and should be considered as moving loads.

1.16 Longitudinal Forces. For a bridge, horizontal forces acting in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the structure, i.e., in the direction of the roadway, arc called longitudinal forces. Such forces are applied whenever the vehicles crossing the structure increase or decrease their speed. Since they arc inertia forces resulting from the acceleration or deceleration of vehicles, they act through the centers of gravities of the vehicles. The magnitude of such forces is limited by the frictional forces that can be developed between the contact surfaces of the wheels of the vehicles applying these forces to the roadway or track and the surface of t hc roadway or track.

1_17 Thermal Forces, Changes in temperature cause strains in the members of a structure and hence produce deformations in the structure as a whole. l f the changes in shape due to temperature encounter restraint, as is often the case in a statically indeterminate structure, stresses will be set up within the structure. The forces set up in a structure as a result of temperature changes are often called thermal forces. In addition to considering the forces set up by changes in temperature, it is important to take into consideration the expansion and contraction of a structure, particularly in connection with support details.

In a moderate climate, one should consider a variation in temperature of 0 to 120°F. In cold climates, this range should be extended to from -30 to 120cF.

.. 'l.lS Make-up of Gi~ders. I n a structure built of structural steel, rolled sections such as standard I beams or wide-flanged beams are commonly used to support loads across a span, When rolled sections can be used, they are economical because they require less fabrication than built-up girders. For longer spans and for heavier loadings, however, the bending moments and shears will be found to be too large to be carried safely by rolled sections, and built-up girders must be



A~ 1 I

- Cover plofes

'i' 'i' • G • ~ .. o1t 4> .• - '. 1--'---'-


lntcr nediote ~

s.iiffer,er '---+-.

u~,gles +

Ilie- a ~ -I) rjl. •


o ~

.. ~

.. .


.. bd sl:ftene. ..

<>1- ... -. t / angles .,

<> Q 6

g.-,m;n" I" -4~1 ~

plc+e ~"~l.tf-<I>C---~-<t~.-.-¢- .. -'i'...{-~ 'H


'J1o')onr y suopo-t

Cover plate

Sec- A-A

Figure 1.3 Plate girder components

used. The most important parts of a typical built-up plate girder, as shown in FIg. 1.3, are the web plate, the top flange, which is composed of flange angles and cover plates, and the bottom flange, which is similarly composed. Over the end bearing plates are vertical angles called end stiffeners, while at other points along the span it is usually necessary to have further vertical angles, which are called intermediate stiffeners. The component parts of the girder shown in Fig. 1.3 are riveted together. Welding is often used instead of riveting, in which case the details of the girder differ somewhat, but the essential component parts, namely, the web, top and bottom flange, and web stiffeners, must still be provided.

1.19 Make-up of Trusses. Fabrication, shipping, and erection considerations usually limit the depth of built-up girders to about 10 ft. When bending moments and shears arc ,0 large that they cannot be carried by a girder of that depth, it becomes necessary to employ a truss. The layout of a typical truss is shown in Fig, l.4a. Members Lo LI, L1L2, ..• , L5 L6 are called bottom chords; members U\ U1, U 2 U 3' ' . " U4- Us arc called top chords; members LOU] and USL6 are called end posts and arc often included as top-chord members' members U L L t r

, 1 2, 2 u 3 l

... , L4 Us arc called diagonals; members U1Ll, U2L2, ... , U5L5 are called

verticals, Figure 1.4h shows a typical connection detail for the members of a riveted truss and the make-up of typical truss members, The p1ates to which the members intersecting at a joint are connected are called gusset plates. For loner-span trusses members are sometimes connected at a joint by a pin passing through the webs of the members themselves or through pin plates connected to these webs. Trusses may be welded rather than riveted.

.1.20 Make-up of Ploor Systems. For a plate-girder railroad bridge, if the girders are 1.1Ot t90 farapart, and if (he track ~s locatedat t~e top of the girders, it 15 econo.mical to have t~e ties rest directly on the cover plates of the top flanges of the girders. Such bndges are called deck structures, As the distance between girders becomes larger, such construction becomes uneconomical. It is moreover obvious that it cannot be followed if the tracks are to be located below the tops of the girders, Under either of the foregoing circumstances, it becomes necessary to

, .


Figure 1.4 Riveted truss components

build up a floor system composed of stringers and floor beams, as shown in Fig. 1.5. If such a built-up floor system is at the top of the girders or trusses, the bridge is still called a deck structure; if it is at the bottom of the girders or trusses, the bridge is called a through structure; if it is at an intermediate elevation, it is called a half-through structure. Figures 1.5a and b illustrate a half-through single-track railroad bridge and show the make-up of floor systems for such bridges. The ties




~--~~~~~~~~ __ =-~ E

TRANSVERSE SECTION (Railroad bridge:




Flgure L'S Girder bridge cross sections




'5. rest directly on members called stringers, which are paralh l (0 the main g,r.j~r, .• These stringers frame into members called f\c1(lf beams, which arc lrarl\Vl:,"~ to.

snd frame into, the main girders. Thus a load applied to the rail, i, transferred by • the ties to the stringers, which carry the load to t hc floor beam. Fhc floor b-arns carry the load to the girders, which in turn transfer the load to the foundatio"s of • the structure.

Figure I.Se shows a transverse section through a typical highway bridge with J I floor system. Such a floor system is similar to that described tor a railroad bridge,

with the floor slab of the bridge resting on ,tringers that •

frame into floor beams, which in turn frame into the main l~~c'-"n -J--

girders. i I .

Similar framing may be used for the floor of a building, ~ j__:-::n2'.! :'e]" .

as shown in Fig. 1.6, In this case the floor slab would rest ~j o. _ :

on the floor beams and girders as well as on the stringers, .r. !_C~~~~_j

but loads applied to the floor slab directly over a stringer ;' I I

would be carried by the stringer to the floor beams, thence ,i! i !i ! •

~:u~;a~~::.rs, thence to the columns, and finally to the :-: Tr!-~ i

For bridges in which the main load-carrying elements I_L.J._~ __ . L;

are trusses rather than girders, floor systems are always used.

The floor beams are located at the panel points (joints) of the Figure 1.6 Floor tramloaded chord, so that the members of the truss will not be subjected to transverse loads and thus undergo primary bending.

1.21 Bracing Systems. Trusses, girders, floor beams, stringers, column" etc., which are designed primarily to carry vertical loads, are often referred to as the • main members of a structure. In addition to the main members, most structures require bracing systems, which serve a number of purposes, the most important being those of resisting lateral loads and preventing buckling. The most important bracing syStemsoTa~typicarlnrougfl-truss bridge are sfiown in Fig. 17. The top-chord lateral system lies in the plane of the top chords and consists of a cross strut at each top-chord panel point and diagonals connecting the ends of these cross struts. The bottom-chord lateral system lies in the plane of the botton> chords and consists of the floor beams, which GCCur at each bottom-chord p:mel point and which serve as cross struts, and diagonal, connecting the ends or the floor beams. In the planes of the end posts b the so-called portal bracing, \\i',i..:h stiffens the end posts laterally.

1.22 Allowahle St".esses. When a structure is being designed by the elastic- • design method, the structural analyses are performed for the various design loading conditions ~o obtain the bending moments,' the twistingrriornenis, the shear forces,' • and the axial forces at various cross sections throughout the structure. From this information, it is possible to compute the intensities of the normal and shear stresses on these cross sections. In order that the structure shali perform satisfactorily, it is necessary that these stresses which have been developt::d by tli;; .j(;,;gn load shall not exceed certain allowable limits which have been specified for the


I •

ing of building

• •

t •

• • •

• •

• •

• •

• • •

• • •

• • •

• •

• •

• • •

• • • •

• •



0'090001 of top chord loteral system

Cross strut of top cno-d Icterol systwc




SE(:TION PLAr~ A~A Floor becml servin.] us Cross strut of octlorn (.hor,j lote rul system

Figure l. 7 Lateral bracing systems of through truss

material being used. These limiting values which have been specified are called allowable stresses. I

In any practical problem there are always certain ambiguities regarding the physical dimensions which should be used in the calculations. The various assumptions which may be made in order to rationalize such difficulties can, of course, have a marked effect on the values computed. Specifications such as those of AASHTO, ACI, AlSC, and AREA therefore not only state value, for allowable stresses, but also define certain aspects of the basis on which they should be compared with the stresses developed by the design loads. For example, a transverse section through a structural member is likely to pass through rivets. Since a well-driven rivet is tight and substantially fills the rivet hole, it is customary to assume that in transferring compressive stresses the member j, WIt weakened by rivet holes. The area of a transverse section, with no deduction made for rivet holes, is called the gross area. Even though the rivet is well driven, however. it is not customary to assume that tensile stresses can be transferred across the rivet hole. The area of a transverse section, reduced by the area of those rivet holes located wherdne section is in tension, is calied the net area. In defining alIow~ble stresses, itisnecessary t.o define whether they.are appiTcable. to the net or. "gross area '(orsection) .'

I As used here, stress (or stress Intensity) denotes force per unit area, such as pounds per square inch. Usage of this term is not uniform in structural engineering literature. Sometimes, for example, the total tensile or compressive force acting on the cross sections of a truss member is referred to as the stress in the member. Herein, the term stress denotes force per unit area, and the term force denotes the total of the stresses integrated over the area of a cross section.




1.2.1 Factor of Saf{'ly. ! n 1:1<: )",)(cllurci, it is noted that the values of the 311(\\1'301-: <tresses used in tile l'LlSlic-dc:sign method arc chosen so as to provide an adequate lIiLlr.tJin of .'W/(' I) , ag:i1!l'[ exceeding [he stress or strain corresponding to the Yield of the material being used. Of course, the selection of the allowable ,tresses. design loads, and other design restrictions may also be modified by consideration of the possibility of failure due to fatigue, buckling, or brittle fracture or by consideration of the permissi ble deilections:--Tf for th-e-"{jesign conditions a structure has been designed to utilize exactly the allowable tensile stress of 20,000 psi for structural steel, with a specified yield stress of 33,000 psi, the margin ~f safety (or factor of safety) provided against tensile yielding is 1.65, that is, 33,000/20,000.

It should he obvIOUS that III actuality this margin of safety cannot be defined this precisely. The actual loads On a structure, particularly those of certain types, ,~,wnot be predicted or ~efi~ed with much precision. Certain simplifying assumpnons are always made In the stress analysis, so that even for the assumed design loads the computed stresses are not precise. Even though care is used in manufacturing and Iabncaung the structural materials employed, some variations in the properties of these materials exist, even when the materials are new. With the passage of time, partial disintegration must be expected. There are always therefore certain vanatrons III the estimates of the actual stress in the structure and of the s~res~ at which _it starts to yield. 1 rhus, ideally, the margin of safety should bes.tudH~d III a _statlst~cal man~er to ascertain if there is a satisfactorily small probablh~y that. th.e p~sslble varranon in the calculated design stress overlaps the possible vanation III the Yield stress.

Conventionally, the factor of safety is defined as above. That is the factor of safrt~ against yielding is the ratio of the yieJd stress of the materia] employed to the allowable design stress.. Admittedly this is a rather crude way of handling this matter. It must be ke~t ll1 mind, however. that the factors of safety implied in current standard spccincations reflect years of experience during which design procedures nave been correlated with the actual behavior of structures, usually successful behaviors but occasionally unsuccessful.j

The magnitudes of th~ load factors used in the plastic-design methods depend upon considerations similar to those noted above for the factor of safety.

Yr'~~lJe ~O,s~~h variations, the inflated value F + jj.F of (he actual internal force F should net e., __ d t~_ deflated value R - !::..R ol (he resistance of the material R. Thus,






~ ~



The minimum factor of safety (FS) is then

FS = ~ ~.I +M~IF F I -tJ..R/R

If ea~h v~riation !J.F and !J.R is 25 per cent of For R, respectively, the minimum factor of safety required IS

> See discussion on p. 11 of Foreword.


___ 2 __ "";

Figure 1.8 Idealized structure

1.24 Practical and Ideal Structures. Rarely if ever docs an actual structure correspond to the idealized structure that is considered in its analysis. The materials of which the structure is built do not have the exact properties assumed, nor do the dimensions correspond exactly with their theoretical values. Structural details such as lacing bars and gusset plates introduce effects that might make an analysis very complicated indeed; but because they have little actual effect, they are usually neglected in the analysis of stresses in main members. Because of the width of members, considerable difference may exist between clear spans and center-to-center spans which are ordinarily used in analyses. Support details may vary considerably from the idealized type assumed for purposes of analysis. A member may not actually be prismat~, and yet it may be assumed to be, to simplify computations.

The practicaJ structure of Fig. L8a, for example. might be analyzed on the basis of the idealized structure of Fig. I.8b, in which the footing has been assumed to be perfectly fixed, although it could not be so in nature; the extra column area of the anchorage detail and the material of the gusset plate have been ignored; the gusset plate has been assumed as a truly rigid connection, whereas it will actually permit some rotational yielding between the column and the horizontal girder; the effective height of the column has been taken as the distance from the top of the bed plate to the center line of the girder; and the effective span ofthc girder has been measured from the center line of the column to the center of the applied load.

It is necessary to idealize a structure in order to carry out a practical analysis.

Experience and judgment are necessary in determining the idealized structure, i.e., the analvtical model that should be used- in a given case: In important structures, where d~ubt exists as to the most logical assumptions to be made in ideaJizing a structure, it is sometimes desirable to compute stresses on the basis of more than one possible analytical model, and to design the structure to resist the stresses corresponding to all the analyses.



. ~_'c

''H, ~-_'



• •

• •

• • • • • • •





2.1 Definitions. Practically all structures are arranged in three-dimensional • configurations of structural elements. However, und::_ ma_~~~u_1Jl design loading • conditions, many of these configurations behave ~_ll.._ sucn a manner that c~~tam portions· of the s~r~~t~~. ~resubstanti~lI:( i~ ~!wo-.dimensional .stress_c()lldl!IQn. • KS--a-result the structural analyst is justified III isolating such portions and treatmg

them as two-dimensional structures having the simp:: _ _'~~~rnetry associated with

planar systems. _ . . •

Since two-dimensional behavior is so common, the major portion of this book

will be devoted to the analysis or so-called planar structures, i.e., structures that may •

be considered to lie in a plane that also contains the lines of action of all the forces

acting on the structure. The analysis of three-dimensional, or space, structures •

involves no new fundamental principles beyond those required for planar structures,

but the numerical computations are greatly complicated by the additional geometry •

introduced by the third dimension.

The discussion in this chapter will be limited to planar structures, and so all the •

force systems will be so-called coplanar force systems, i.e., systems consisting of

several forces the lines of action of which all lie in one plane. Some of these •

systems have special characteristics, and it will be found convenient to classify

them accordingly a'[]dtoidentlrythem by special names. •

A concurrent coplanar force system is shown in Fig. 2.la. This system consists

of several forces the line-s of action of w~i~h all intersect at a common point A •

parallel -Copl~nar'for~_e: system consists of several forces the lines of action of

which are all parallel, as shown in Fig. 2.lb A general coplanar force system •

consists of several forces the lines of action of which are in various directions and

do not intersect in a common point, as shown in Fig. 2.lc. Another important

System a couple, is shown in Fig. 2.1d. A couple consists of two equal and •

opposite parallel forces that do not have a common line of action.




• • •

• • • • • • •

• • • • • •

• • • • • • • •




'''",-0-,,'' REACTIONS

F,\ tFl ';L,._[3 F.I

resistances they thus develop (0 counteract the action of the bar UPOil them arc called reactions. The cllect of the su pport s may t hcrcfore be rcpla,'cc': b·; i hi:

reactions that they supply to the structure. .

In future discussions, it will be necessary to deal continually with the reactions that different types of supports supply, and it therefore will be convenient to use a conventional symbol for describing these different types. A hinge support, as shown in Fig. 2.2e, is represented by the symbol l}", In such a support, if it is assumed that the pin of the hinge is frictionless in the pinhole, the contact pressures between the pin and its hole must remain normal to the circular contact surface and must therefore be directed through the center of the pin. The reaction R that the support supplies 10 the structure must completely counteract the action of the force P', and therefore Rand P' must be collinear and numerically equal but must act opposite to one another. It is therefore evident that a hinge support supplies a re~1iye force the line of action of which is known to pass through the center of the hinge pin but the magnitude and directionof which are unknown.' These two 'unknown elements 'of such a reaction could also be represented by the unknown magnitudes of its horizontal and vertical components, R, and Ry, respectively. both acting through the center of the hinge pin.

A roller support, as shown in Fig. 2.2f, is represented by either the symbol ~ or g . In the same manner as above. it may be reasoned that the reactive force of a roller support must be directed through the center of the pin. In addition, however, if the rollers are frictionless, they can transmit only a pressure which is normal to the surface on which they roll. Hence, a roller support supplies a resultant reactive force which acts normal to the surface on which the rollers roll and is directed through the center of the hinge pin. It is therefore evident (hat a roller support supplies a reactive force which is applied at a known point and acts in a known direction but the magnitude of which is unknown. Roller supports are usually detailed so that theycan supply a reaction acting either away from or toward .the supporting s~rfaceA

Consideration of the Imk support Be shown in Fig. 2.2d shows that for small movements it effectively reproduces the action of the roller support shown at Bin Fig.2.2c. By the same approach as used above, it may be reasoned that if the pins at the ends of this link are frictionless, the force transmitted by the link must act through the centers of the pins at each end, Therefore, a iink support also supplies a reaction of a known direction and a known point of application but of an unknow~ magnitude. A link support is denoted by the symbol ,A.

One other common type of support used for planar structures is that slJown at A in Fig. 2.2g and called a fixed support. Such a support encases the member so that both translation and rotation ?f the end of the~ member are prevented .. A . fixed'-support therefore supplies a reaction, the magnitude, point of application and direction of which are al! unknown. These three unknown elements may also

. 1 According to this terminology, the direction of a force is intended to define the slope of its line of action, while the magnitude indicates not only its numerical size but also the sense in which the force acts along this line of action, i.e., whether toward or away from a body.





Figure 2.1 Coplanar force systems

Since, in a planar structure, the lines of action of all the forces lie in the plane of the structure, each of the forces F can be resolved into two components F" and Fy, where the .x and y reference axes may be taken in any direction as tong as they do not coincide. It is almost always desirable to select.x and y axes that are mutually perpendicular, in which case F~ and F), are called rectangular components. Further, it is usually most convenient to take the x axis horizontally and the)' axis vertically.

2.2 f'.elleral-ConventionaI Supports, Most structures are either partly or completely restrained so that they cannot move freely in space. Such restrictions on the free motion ofa body an: called restraints and are supplied by supports that connect the structure (0 some stationary body. For example, consider a planar structure such as the bar A B shown in Fig. 2.2. If this bar were a free body and were acted upon by a force P, it would move freely in space with some combined translatory and rotational motion. If, however, a restraint were introduced in the form of a hinge that connected the bar to some stationary body at point A, then the motion of the bar would be partly restrict- [0'1 ed and could consist only of a rotational movement about the hinge. During such i. 'J I a rotation, point B would move along an

arc with point A as the center. Instantan- I C I eously, point B could be considered to move normal to the line AB, or. in this

case, vertically. If', therefore, another restraint were introduced that would not allow point B to move instantaneously in a vertical direction, the rotation about the hinge at point A would be prevented and thus the free motion of the bar would be completely restricted. It is evident that this type of restraint would be supplied by the supports shown at B in either c or d of Fig; 2.2.'

The supports at A and B, in restricting the free motion of the bar, are called upon to resist the action that the force P imposes upon them through the bar. The

IP B A====~I



r. Rcy
(I'; ~~
. ~ - . hAx~A /p
~1.t t
hAy Figure 2.2 Support reactions




be considered 10 be a force, which :IC(~ through a specific poin' [>'.': l::i •. ~I' 1I1,c,'h'·.'~" magnitude and direction, and a couple of unknown rn:tgni'\i(k. 'or 'cX'H'lDk, ~


the three unknown elements could be selected as a couple a;ld .' ;hl;I/(':ll,ticn,.' a.,.

vertical force, the two latter acting through the center of gr:11 it. uf 1 he ,'lid Cf{h, pi section. A fixed support is designated by the symbol ~ i;

The external forces acting on a body therefore consist' of two di'>lmct Lyp~s the I applied loads P (shown thus --» and the reactions R (shown t hu« .c-» A reactive I force at support a will be designated as Ra, while its x and y component, wi!l be t called R"~ and Ray. A reactive couple at support a will he callr d M". If

2.3 Equatiolls of Static Equilihrium-Plana~ Struetures. rf the -upports nf ~I r· planar structure are considered to bc replaced by the rc.icno.is they su pplv. the ~, structure will be acted upon by a general coplanar force systctr lono.i,ting of the. known applied loads and the unknown reactions. In gencr~1. t"1e resultant effect t of a general coplanar force system could be either a result an: force. acting ai some c. point and in some direction in the plane, or a resultant coup.c.

A body that is initially at rest and remains at rest when acted UjXl!1 by" system

of forces is said to be in a state of static equilibrium. For such a state TO ('X;", it is \'. neccessary that the combined resultant effect of 111(' system offorres shall he neither

a force nor a couple; otherwise, there will be a tendencyfor motion of tire bod)'.

If the combined resultant effect of a general system of forces acting on a planar ~ structure is not to be equivalent to a resultant force. the algebraic sum of all the F; components must be equal to zero and the algebraic sum of 'II! the F) cornponeut, must be equal to zero, If the combined resultant effect is not to be equivalent

to a couple, the algebraic sum of the moments M, of all the forces about any axis parallel to the z reference axis and normal to the plane of thestructure must also be equal to zero. The three following conditions must therefore be fulfilled simulraneously by the loads and reactions of a planar structure for the: structure to remain ' in a state of static equilibrium:

(2.1 )

These equations are called the equations of static equilibrium of a planar structure subjected to a general system of forces,

In the special case where a planar structure is acted upon by a concurrentsystem of IO~ldl an,1 reactions, it is impossible for the resultant effect of the system to be a couple. for the lines CI action of all the forces of" concurrent system intersect ill a common rDinl. Therefore, fOT the structure to remain in static equilibriurr; in such a case. it is necessary n!~ly ib.lt tbr; tw o following conditions be satisfied:


These equations are the equations of static equilibrium for the spccrul ca;~ ell a plan~r structur,subjected to a concurrent system of forces.


Quite often in the discussions that follow, structural ~embers will be r~f~rred [

to as being rigid bodies. In an exact sense, a rigid body is one in which there is nQ relative movement between any two particles of the body. Of course, any ~.


structural element is never absolutely rigid since it is made of materials that deform ~

slightly under the loads imposed on them. However, such deforrn.uion is so slight



lh,tl the chan2e\ of d::nC'hi·"'. Ill .. <li!Ci:1~ ,'1' t hc lines of action of forces. ctc., .. ,j\ l"Il:llly be' n<ckclL'd dU:'ill,,! Iii .. ' dl\c'\II_l::J;iol1 ,)f;h(' condition ofcquilibr iurn ,,;,;k bO(lv. Thth, iii i:E'·.! i'h)hicllh. 1,1 :'I'pi) ill,>! the equations of static equilibriunl to struclural .'knwll!', l[ \\Jii he l[,:;U!lleJ i h.u thc y are ngid bodies for all nr;)c(fcal purpo-cs ;:nd hr nrc th.u i!lc' geomelry al'lcr application of the loads is ~,,;(:n!iJlly the sa me a.~ before.

• •

\',..('tor N.,'.ation. 7\1n"t ..,t:lt[I...~'i problc.ux can be hall,Hcd ..:asily by a direct scalar-notation ,Irpmach. whicl: also lIlake') it easy co observe and app:-t,"ci~.ltc the concepts and the :-,uLictural hchl.l.vJOf involved. Ho .... .evcr, dy numics problems, complex derivations, and the: sy..;tc:m~1~jc or- 0!.lflin.1ion of COIllPUD,ll<1n"i arc ~11 f,\Ciht'ltcd hy LJliiiling vector notation with it'-i. f(l!'I:):llizcd rllic::j!!il CI,,)!l\·cnt;on::i. \~hth one or '\-\0 ru u.or evccntions. scalar notation Is u-cd throughout Part') i .Jfl\llIi. In Part II. however. vector flOtati011 j) ffeq:"h:i~tly uxed ,

• •

The esscruials of vector notntior: and vc.ror f.dgcbra .rre xurnmar izcd here for ready reference h(~e rig, 2.1).

Let P be :'1".y I,.·, .: ctor (f~)r('e, moment, or posuion veetor ): kt Px! Pr. and P:: be the .r, y, and 2 components, rcspecrively. of this vector: let .», ,B, and ( be the angles I:;" direction of this vector makes with the x, y, and z

axis, respectively; and let I, m, and tt be the direction cosines corresponding, respectively, [0 ex, p, and (. Let i, j, and k be unit vectors on the direction of the positive x, y, and z axes, respectively; and Ie! p be a unit vector in i he direction of P.

Then typically, the following relationships exist between vectors and their corresponding scalar values

• •

• •

P~ [Pip


• tI



p ~ r; +P, + P,

~ P,i i- P,j - P,k

~. PI i -'- Pm j -'. Pnk


Figun- 1.J Vector noratior-

Spccifieal!)', for :J. force, moment, or position vc ... 'tor

F ~ FA .- F) r,A .. FIi .. F--nU" I- Fnk.
;"1 .. \.{.J ,- M,} - ,\I,k ::; . .:. lUi .~ \fmj .1- ,14nk
r =- r .• J .- r}) +- r,le _- rli -' r.1~d , rnk • •

V('ctOt Alg~bra" A few of the essential operation" of v-: .: [,.11· :;isc-bra for dealjng m~llh\.'1T';:\1i-c.;dh

"ilh vectors arc the following: '

Addition or subtraction of vectors is commutative:

• 4


A - B ~ A -r (- OJ c"' B .L A

2. Addition or subtraction of vectors is associativc :

A -i- (8 + C)'~ (4 . R) .. C

A -. (B':'_ C) ~ .. (8., C; - A

• • •

• • e

• • •

• • •

• • • • •


• • •


3. Multiplication of a "ector by 3 scalar i~ commutative, associative, and drstributivc:

InA == Am

:n(nA) ~. !I(mA) milA (m+n)A .. mA +"A meA + B) -- filA .i. mB

4. The scalar. or dot, product of two vectors is a scalar quantity.


L fJ. A.B-fA rBjeasB

where (J is the srna ller angle between vectors A and B placed tail to tail. Note that scalar products are commutative "nd distributive:


A • (B + J)) = A • B t· A • f)

Note that for orthogonal unit vectors the following scalar-product relations exist:

i » j --- .j .i :::: 1

i-] k·k=l

j.k=k';=O ].k=k.j-O

5. The vector, or cross, product of two vectors is a vector quantity.


B !





JCI = IAi IBi sin8

where () is the smaller angle between the two vectors placed tail 10 tail and C is a vector acting normal to the plane containing .of and B and with its positive sense defined by the advancement of a right-handed screw revolving from .of to B through the angle 8.

Note that vector products arc distributive bui noncornrnutative :


A X (B + D) = A X B I A X J)

Note that for orthogonal unit vectors the following cross-product relations exist:


i x/= I. =-} Xi

;;..-: ~ - - j -- !; X i


j X I. = i = --k Xj

Equilibrium Condi!joo!li Exprcsr.ed in Veetor Notation. For equilibrium of a three-dimensional system of forces F and couples C, the following two vectorial equations must be satisfied:

2:J=o Z>'XF+I:C=O

'When the vectors are expressed in terms of their scalar equivalents, these equations become

L (F.; + F,j + F_k) = 0

I: [(xi + yj + zk) X (F,i -t- F,jl- F,h)] + L (C) I· C,j" C,k) = 0


..... ' or' 't


(2.5) (2.5a)

(2.6) (2.7) •



WbeIl the indicated operations are performed, the cq uations expand to the following:

j '2.Fx + l'i:J. + k I: F. = 0

i[ L:(F,y- F,.zH L C.) + j( L (f-:'z- f~x) + I: C,) + k [L (Fyx -- FxY)~ L Cl = 0

Si~e the unit vectors I.], and k arc each equal to unity, the only way that these equations can be satisfied is for the coefficients of the unit vectors to be eq ual to zero, or



L (F.y - F,z) --L L c. = L Mx = 0 I: (P"z- f~x) + L C, = I: .l\-1y=O I: (f> - F,y) + L C = I: A1, = 0


EquatiOilS (2.8) and (2.9) are immediately recognized as the six scalar equations of static equilibrium that must be satisfied if a three-dimensional force system is to be in equilibrium.'

2.4 Equations of Condition. Many structures consist of simply one rigid body-a truss, frame, or beam-restrained in space by a certain number of supports. Sometimes, however, the structure may be built up out of several rigid bodies partly connected together in some manner, the whole assemblage then being mounted on a certain number of supports. In either type of structure, the force system consisting of the loads and reactions must satisfy the equations of static equilibrium if the structure is to remain at rest. In the latter type of structure, however, the details of the method of construction used to connect the separate bodies together may enforce further restrictions on the force system acting on the structure. The separate parts may be connected together by hinges, links, or rollers in some way, and in each case these details can transmit only a certain type of force from one part of the structure 10 the other.

Figure 2A illustrates the latter type of structure. It is composed of two rigid

members ab and be connected together by a frictionless hinge at point b and supported by hinge supports at points a and e. Since a frictionless hinge cannot transmit a couple, its insertion imposes the condition that the action of one portion of the structure on the other portion connected by the hinge can

C consist only of a force acting through the center of the hinge Figu<e 2.4 Three- pin. Therefore. the algebraic sum of the moments of the loads

hinged arch and reactions applied to anyone such portion of the structure

taken about an axis through the center of the hinge pin must be equal to zero. Such conditions introduced by the method of construction (other than the manner in which the supports are detailed) result in so-called equations of construction or condition.

2.5 Static Stability. and Instab_ility-;--StaticaUy Determinate and Indeternriaate Structures Not Invol~g·Eq~atioDf' ~f Condition. Consider first a planar structure which is acted upon by a general system of loads and into which no equations of construction have been introduced. If the supports are replaced by the reactions

t 7



I For a planar structure loaded in its plane xy by a planar load system, note that Eqs, (2.8) and (2.9) reduce to Eqs, (2.1).

t !_: ...



that they supply to the structure, the structure will be acted upon. bv a general

ff ' " of the known loads and the unknow n rCal1.lolh. If the

system 0 orees conSIsting . .

" t ti q ilibrium under these forces, the three equauon-. of .,tatle

structure IS In S a IC e u .

ilib ' ay be written in terms of the known load, and f he un known clements

equI I num m . , "

defining the reactions. The simultaneous solution of these three cquauons will In

certain cases determine the magnitude of the unknown reaction elements. Whether or not these three equations are sufficient for the complete dctermi nation of the reactions, they must be satisfied for the structure to be in static equilibrium and therefore they form a partial basis for the solution to obtain the reactions of any structure that is in static equilibrium,

If there are fewer than three unknown independent reaction elements, Iii ere are /10/ enough unknowns to satisfy the three equations of static equilibrium si.nultancously. Fewer than three unknown reaction elemenTS are therefore insufficient 10 k~ planar-structure in equilibrium wll1~.tUt is_qcuxL_upon by a'g;;;;;~7 s)';tem of lo(!!/.§, Uiiae-'sw5h-iicOna{iro;;~ ;;ii;:;I~'ure is said 10 be staticaHy-ilnSt~hle~~ --_. __ ._-

Under certain special conditions: a pla·iiafsfrt.ictllre~having fewer than three unknown independent reaction elements may be in static equilibrium, Of course, if the system cf applied loads acting on the structure is in equilibrium itself, no reactions are required; also, if the loads and reaction.£!l_<!y~ . .cgt..<i.il1_.~utUjlL£.l).'!!Qcteristics fewer than three reaction elements may be sufficient for equilibriU_!!l,_ For exa~pi~~c~;;sid';;~i;gth~'b~r shown in Fig, 2,2b, Iftneresultani efrect- of the applied loads is a force whose line of action goes through the center of the hinge pin at point A, the forces acting on the structure are concurrent and [he horizontal and vertical components of the reaction at A will be capable of maintaining static equilibrium. Moreover, if the bar were supported at both points A and B by rollers on horizontal surfaces, the reactions supplied by such supports could maintain in a state of static equilibrium any system of applied loads of which the resultant effect is either a couple or a vertical force. Such structures, although stable under special types of loading but unstable under the general case of loading, arc said to he in a state of unstable equilibrium and are still classed as unstable structures,

Since three unknowns can be obtained from the solution of three independent simultaneous equations. the reactions of a stable planar structure having exactly three unknown reaction elements may be obtained from the simultaneous solution of 111e three equations a/static equilibrium, In such a case, the reactions of the structure

~: arc said to be statically determinate. However, if there are more than three un- f

known independent reaction elements supplied to a stable planar structure, the i'

. t

three equations of static equilibrium are not sufficient to determine the unknown

reactions. This i, evident since all bUJtb~e of the unknowns could be assigned arbitrary values and then the remaining three determined from the simultaneous solution of the three equations of static equilibrium. In such cases, there ace .an

, -infinite ilUmber of related \ets' of values' 'for the unknown reactions that could satisfv the conditions of static equilibrium. The correct values for the reactions cannot therefore be determined simply from these three equations but must also satisfv certain deformation conditions of the structure, as will be discussed later in this book. If the unknown reaction clements cannot he determined simply by the


57 ..


unlions 0,( static equi/i/J(;Ui!!. thl' rt'(/criOIlS (~f ih.: strucu.r« are said to he st3ticaU,

III.... '. ' I ! 'I' )

ladttcrminatc.. The Srnfcfur(' is rllt'n \(_uu In '( if/,I('fer!JJlJlo/e to a (Jf}/jrei' (·/.'u/]/ tfJ

Itt number by which th« UII/(II<",1'/I\ ".\"<'<'("1/ iii,' 1Ji'"liab/,' cq uat ian» otsiati;»

I from the above discus-ion il 1l\~I\' he cnnc·I'.I(h'd 111:11 al kas[ Ihn.T indt'pL'Il~;"jJi reaction elements are tlCU',I"SUi"_l' in ':III.,fy the rt"ldIlIOJI.' of 'dalic cquitibr iun: for d planar structure acted upon by any general :-;Y"('1l1 of loads, It may easily be demonstrated, however, that r hr ee or more clements are not always SU(jI('lt'Ii/, and therefore a planar structure having three or mort independent reaction eiement, may still be unstable. This is the reason why a srable planar <truct U[C w:" 'pc>ci:j,:d in the discussion of the previous paragraph.

The question of sufficiency of the reactions fur ,fabdllY m.r, hi: dhcu,.'ed 1)\' an extension of the approach used ill the early parr of ArL 2.2. lor example, the bar" shown in Figs. 2.2c an d dare stable 1'( hen su ppor .cd by I he hor i zont ,d all d vertical components of the reaction at A and the vcrrcai rcu cuon at B. These structure, are equivalcnt to that shown in Fig, 2.5, whc:« lll·~ hinge support ha,; been ;q11;iC,>d

• • I

• 41



Figure 2,5 Stable structure

Figure 2,6 Geometrically unstable structure

by two links attached to the hinge pin at point A, These two link:; may be in any directions as long as they are not collinear. This structure would be stable as long as the line of action of the link at Bdid not also pass through the center of the hinge pin at A, If this line of acrion .did pass through A, the structure would be only partly restrained and therefore unstable un-<fer-'tfie-generul system of loads because fnere-w(Hildoe-iiorhing to prevent the instantaneous rotation of the structure about the hinge at point A. In .>/1('11 cases, where there are nominallv .I'~{(jiciellt reaction elements but the geometrical arranqement is sucl: that tlu: structure is unstable. tile' structure is said to be geometrically unstable.

One other C8SC where three ii:i:d.:pcndt.:"lli n.:"L .. 'linn eiemenrs are T1()t ~-;U:tk'l('l~~ for stability should be discussed. Con-ider a hal' -upporu-d by three p<!;:l!kl 1!'1l' as shown in Fig. 2.6. It is apparent thai there ;.; no rc,lrainl to nreven [ :1 snnll translation of the structure normal to the dirccu.m of the link<; Hcnc>. if ihc resultant effect of the applied loads has a component in this direction. motion v, ill be produced and such a structure must be classed as geometric!!ly unsra ble. These and similarconsiderations lead .to tht!' following concluvion: If fh~ reactions arc equivalent to those supplied by a system of three or more link supports that arc either concurrent or parallel, they arc not sufficient to maintain static equilibrium of a planar structure subjected to a qenerc] system of foods ercn if there are three or more in/known reaction elements. In other words, 11i(,1'!aN!ill' rJl' a structure t, JC[('(:!:,:::: not only by the number ofreaction elements hili aiso hy their arrangement.

tI • • • • • • •



• "/~

,! t


• I'"

.. __ ._--- •





"'~ , I

' " ble slructun:" having three or more ,!mkpcll( ent

I h uld be noted that Ullst,] , .-", , II . " ("

t S 0 --I-I--I'--b'~ chsscd as ,Ialll::a V muetcr nu.i.uc. on,

a I ments usually cou ( a ,o_c .. , "". .' ' , " , t. ,

reae Ion e e ' __ , --- '~-"-'i"(i· \Vhilc II I, unstable and ;;tar" :,) ,t.Lh"l\e

.... ture~<ihown III hg. ~, 1.

SIder me struc . load P it is not cnmplctcl-, unrestrained. In,u;ltancou,ly

h rizontally under the Oel . . ',' . .J

o h " r allv and the three link, rotan. abour pOint,,! . B .• ino

the bar translates orrzonr: "'. '. .' • h, .

. I \ftcr a finite rot aunn of t hc links, pornts A. B. and (_ \\,111 a\c

C', respectIve y. / . . ' ..

moved vertically as well as horizontally. A vertical movement Oflilc"e POl11lS can

be accomplished only by making the bar AC bend and by stre\ehlng. the link s. The final equilibrium povition is determined not only by the t'comeli'\ ot ,he st r ucture but also hy its elastic deformai ion due to the stresses developed In the links and the bar. In this final position, the links will have moved through <urh nnuc roralions that the algebraic sum of thc bor izorr a l componcru-, of the internal force, 111 (~e links is equal to the horizontal component of the load, Hence, the arWly:m of this structure in its final equilibrium posir ion involves not only the cquauons of stat rc equilibrium but also its deformation properties, and thc structure may Th~rcfor~ be classed as statically indeterminate. The structure shown In Fig, 2,) 3J,0 falls Into this same category if the line of aCl!(}l1__of the link at B pa,;ses through the hlnge<t_L:~.

Ifthc structure shownin Fii~ 2.6 were acted upon by a system of vcrt ica ' loads. there would be no tendency for it to move hor.zomally, i.e., the suucrur e would be in unstable equilibrium, 'Tn such a case, nOk_t~at_the_rca_c::tio_n~,-\\'ould_?lsQ be

statically indeterminate, , ..

2.6 Stability and Ueterminancy of Structures Involving Equations of (ondlhon.

So far the discussion has been restricted to structures in which no special construction conditions have been introduced. If however, such conditions arc introduced into a planar structure, a I ike number of equations of condition are added to the three equations of statics. It is then necessary for the loads and rcacuons actrng

on the structure to satisfy simultaneously both the equations of siauc equilibrium and the equations of condition. If the number of unknown react.on clements IS fewer than the total number of equations, the structure is statically un-nablc or pos- t sibly in unstable equilibrium for certain special conditions oflo:lding, If the num- r bcr of reaction elements is more than the total number of equauons, the structure IS t' classed as statically indeterminate. If. however, there are the same number of reac- ~ tion elements as there arc cquat ions, I he structure is statically determinate unless , the reactions are so located and arranged that geometrical instabilitv is possible,

Such a condition of instability lllay be simply illustrated by a consideration of a structure of the type shown In Fig. 2.4, Thc structure shown there i-, of course, , stable: but if the hinge at h lay on the line joining points a and r, there would be no restraint \0 the instantaneous rotauon of members ab and be about pornts a and c, t: respectively. After a certain finite rotation of both members, tensile forces will ~e developed in members aband he jhat in view ofthe.new slopes.of the members ,:"tll, have vertical components 'keeping the load P in equilibrium. The computation

of the equilibrium position of joint b and the resulting tensile forces that are developed involves a consideration of the deformation ~roper1!es_ of the structu~e. Therefore, this structure is not only unstable in its or iginal pOSItIOn but also statically indeterminate.

Geome(ricdl instahilu. similar to that iust illustrated is most likely to occur heoC\'er cqua t ion' of consu uct Ion arc i nt roduced into an originally stable structure ;; is therefore evident that care must he used in introducing construction hinges,

" <,0 that gcorncrrical ill,tability is not produced. Such a condition will always

~~'~pparent, for solution of lhe. comb~ned eqtiati.ons of static equilibrium and c<jllations of condition wili YIeld inconsrstcnt, infinite, or indeterminate values for the unknown reaction clements. I

2.7 Fn-e-bod}' Sketches, In the previous discussion, it is shown that the unknown reaction elements of a statically determinate and stable structure may be computed from the simultaneous solution of the equations of static equilibrium, augmented, in certain cases by equations of condition. All the equations involve some or all of the forces acting on the structure, including both the applied loads and the reactions supplied by the supports. To assist in formulating these equalions, it is desirable to draw free-body sketches of either the entire structure or some portions of it. The imporlance of drawing an adequate number of these free-body sketches cannot he overemphasized to the student. Such sketches are the basis of the successful stress analysis of structures. The student should be admonished t hat it is impossible to draw (00 /1/()}I_)' free-body sketches and that time spent in so

doing is never wasted, .

A free-body sketch of the entire structure is drawn by isolating the structure from its supports and showing it acted upon by the applied loads and all the possible reaction components thar the supports may supply to the structure. Such a sketch i, illustrated in Pig, 2,8h. In this manner, any portion of the structure can be isolated by passing any desired section through the structure and a free-body sketch drawn showing this portion acted upon by the applied loads and reactions, together with ~ny forces that may act on the faces of the members cut by the l,oIJt!n~ seer ion A ny force the magnitude of which is unknown may be assumed 10 act in either sense along it, line of action. The assumed sense is used in writing 'lily equation involving such a force. When the magnitude of such a force is determined from the solution, if the sign is positive, the force is then known to act in the assumed sense; if negative, in the opposite sense .

Sometimes it becomes desirable to isolate several portions of the structure and 10 draw free-body sketches of these portions. In such cases, it is necessary to show the internal forces acting on the internal face, that have been exposed by the isolating section. If free-body sketches are drawn for two adjacent portions of the structure and the internal forces have been assumed to act iii certain S(;IlSeS on an internal face of one portion, the corresponding forces must be assumed to act with the same numerical values but in OPPOSite senses on the matching face of the adjacent portion." This is evident since the action. and re~\cti91).of one bod" on

.' . - - .

, fur a discussion of this SUbject, see W. M. Fife and J. B. Wilbur, "Theory of Statically Indeterminate Structures," art. 8, p. 9, McGraw-Hili Book Company. New York, t937,

2 Note that this convention is required when the internal forces are represented a, scalars, as is done throughout Part I of this book. If, however, the interacting forces are represented 3:; l1eclors, the vectors on one face are represented as the negative of the corresponding vectors on the matching face. This is a very important difference between using scalars and vectors.

Figure 2.7 Free-body sketches

IF~=o,r-'IMc = 0, +)


h r nust be numerically equal but opposite in

anot e 1 " , ,

Such free-body sketches are shown In Fig.

~nx. ,

2.7, Jf this practice is not followed, equauons of static equilibrium written using two such free-body sketches will nOI be consistent with one another and it will be impossible to obtain a correct solu. tion from them. It is of course obvious that any particular reaction which is assumed to act ~n a certain sense on one sketch must be shown III the same sense on all other sketches in which it

Figure 2.8

Computation of reactions

RAx - 36 = 0

RAy + RDy - 60 - 48 = 0 12RAy - 6RDy - (60)(6) = 0

While such a solution is always possible, it is not very ingenious and it is ineffi~;, cient. particularly in a complicated structure. Consider the advantages of pro·; ceedi'ng as follows. By taking the summatio~ of n:oments about ,an aXI,s thro~gh if point A, the only unknow n entering the equation will be Rf)y, and a direct solution ~ for it will be possible: . . 4'




appears, .

2.8 Computation of Reactions. If no equations of conditi~m have been lIl.tro. duced into a statically determinate structure, the cornputatron o~ the re.actlons involves only a straightforward application of the equations of static equilibrium. Such computations may bc illustrated by considering the Simple end-supported beam shown in Fig, 2.8a, The unknown reaction elements may be takcn as the vertical

and horizontal components of the reaction at

( a~ A and the vertical component of the reaction

of D. These may be assumed to act as shown in the free-body sketch, Fig. 2.8b.1

To obtain these three unknowns there are available the three equations of static equili- (tl brium If" = 0, IFy = 0, and LM, = 0, and therefore such a structure is statically determinate. It is possible to write the follow-

f . ilib . d solve them simultaneously for tbe

ing three equations 0 stauc equi I rrum an

three unknowns RAx• RAJ' and Rf)y: ~.

t, e


RDy = 93YI8 = 52 kips r

(60)(6) + (48)(12) ~ (RDy){l8) = 0

II ' . nj'tc of kips kin being equal to.

( To facilitate ccmputaticns, loads 2P .. " US'..la y grvcr In I~ •• , _. •

l,OOO lb.

I Important Questions:

I. If two moment equations were obtained, first from 2.:,\[, = 0 and then from 2.:1I!, _.C 0, vould a third independent equation be obtained by summing up the force components perpendicular to the linc AB and setting this sum equal to zero? Why? Would summing up the force components in any direction other than parallel to AS result in a satisfactory independent equation?

, 2. It has been shown, that- it is often desirable to replace a force equilibrium equation with a moment equilibrium equation in the case of a planar structure subjected to a general system of forces, Is the following statement valid in the case of a planar structure subjected to a concurrent force system?

The two conventional equations of equilibrium Lfx = 0 and LF, = 0 may be replaced by the ;"'0 moment equations LMA = 0 and :EM" = 0 if the point of concurrency does not lie on the '':It through points A and B.



In the same manner, RAy may be found directly from

IMD = 0, +) (RAy)(l8) - (60)(12) - (48)(6) = 0

RAy = l,OO~8 = 56 kips f

Of course, these values should satisfy the equation LFJ = 0, and the following dleCk: is obtained:

LFy = 0, 1+ 56 + 52 - 60 - 48 = 0 O.K,

From I.F~ = 0, RA.< is obtained directly,

LFx = 0, ±. RAx - 36 = 0 .'. RAx = 36 kips ++

rhus, by ingenuity in applying the equations of static equilibrium, the solution for the reactions is facilitated.

To enlarge on this discussion, it should be noted that the three conventional ('£/ualiolls of static equilibrium IF:' = 0, IFy = 0, and IMz = 0 may always be replaced by the independent moment equations Iii_,[ A. = 0, IMs = 0. and LAic = 0, when paints A. B, and C are three poinls \lJh~ch do not lie on a srraiJJ!!!.!ine. This caIlDevcriiiOOli1ih-e-foifowing manner. If a system of forces satisfies anyone of these moment equations, such as LMA = 0, then the resultant effect of the system cannot be a couple but may be a resultant force acting through point A. ]f the system also satisfies the equation IM B = 0, then the resultant effect of the system may still be a resultant force; but, if so, such a force can act only along the line joining points A and B, If in addition, however, the system also satisfies the equation LMc = ° (where C does not lie on a line going through A and B), this eliminates the possibility of the resultant force existing and acting along the line AB, Therefore, if the system satisfies all three moment equations, its resultant effect can be neither a couple nor a resultant force and the system must be in a condition of static equilibrium.'

This principle may often be used to advantage in writing equations of static

equilibrium, for it is often possible to select a moment axis so that only one un. known reaction element is involved in the summation of moments about that axis, thus leading to a direct solution for that one unknown, The student should study (he illustrative examples in Art. 2,11 in conjunction with this article, since methods

• • • • ....

• • • 5

• t ':; f
., I

• C01ml!>UILlHIOI1S and applying the above general approach will be

'clillClllltlCC1-with a view to facilitating the numerical computation~_ ..

~ or Reactrons-Struc~ures Involvin~ EquatIOn.s of Condition.

.: 'VlheneverspcclaJ conditions of construction have been l~troduced In.to a structure, . ,;~_.:cvaluation of the react.i~ns involves both the equations of static .c:udlbnum ;" and the equations of condition. Even. whe~ such str~ctures are statlc~lIy deter-

'minatc,thc computation of the reactions IS more difficult and requires more ingenuity than cases where no equations of condition have been introduced.

- To illustrate the method of attack in such

cases, consider the structure shown in Fig. 2.9. This structure is of a type already discussed and may be shown to be statically determinate and stable. There are four unknown reaction elements, but in addition to the three equations of static equilibrium there is the equation of condition introduced by the frictionless hinge at point b. As discussed previously (Art. 2.4), such a hinge is incapable of transmitting a couple either from the portion ab to the portion be or vice versa. It is therefore necessary that the algebraic sum of the moments about an axis through point b of all the forces acting on either the portion ab or the portion be add up to zero; in equation form,

Figure 2.9 Three-hinged arch




At first glance, a student might infer from this that such a hinge really introduces two independent equations of condition. This is not so. There is only one ¥ independent equation introduced, as may easily be shown by the following reason- f ing. One of the equations of static equilibrium requires that for the entire structure l' the summation of ~he moments ~bout any axis of all the forces shall be equal to ~ zero, and hence, WIth h as an aXIS, 2:.Mb = O. If one then writes the equation of r,

. ~ f

condition that, for the portion ab, L M; = 0, it immediately implies that the r algebraic sum <if the moments about b of all [he remaining forces acting on the'


remainder of the structure be must add up to zero. Therefore, L A1b = 0 is not

an independent relation: it is simply equal to the equation IMb = 0 minus the


equation I Mil =.0. The student should constantly keep these ideas .in ·.mind when setting up the equations of condition of the structure. He should never be fooled into thinking that he has more independent equations than he actually has.

fib be

In this case any two of these three equations, LMb = 0, L Mb = 0, 2: Mb = 0, can

be used independently, but the remaining one is not an independent relation.

To proceed JlO\~. with (he: s o lu t io n \)f this example, the reactions can easily be oblained If Ingenuity h u .ed III ;,ClIlIlg up the cqu.r ions of siat ics :

(20)(15)+-- (40)(55) ._ BORcv -I- 151(" = ° Rey = 31.25 T ~·16 Rex .


(40)(l5) - 40RCY -I- 45Rcx = 0 Rex = ~~Rcy - 13.33t


Substituting for Ref from Eq. (a) into Eq. (b) gives Rex = (%)(31.25 + %6 Rcxl - LU3

And then substituting back in (a) leads (0

u., = 34.5 kip., t

Rc.< = 17.33 kips <-+

In a similar manner.

t;OR"y -I- 15R"x - (20)(65) - (40)(25) ~ ° Ru, = 28.75 -- ~i6R,a



LM~ =0, Q

40 R"y - 30Rax -- (20)(25) = 0 Rax = ~3 Ray - 16.67

Then substituting from Eq. (e) into Eq. (d) gives


Ra~ = (%)(28.75 - %6R.xl- 16.67 And substituting back in (e) gives

Rax = 17.33 kips +>

Ray = 25.5 kips t

Using equations 'if x = 0 and 2__F.v = 0 for checks on the solution leads to

2:Fr = 0, + 17.33 - 17.33 = 0 .'. O.K.

Ify = O, i+ 25.5 - 20 - 40 + 34.5 = 0 O.K.

.If the supports of a and c of this structure had been on the same elevation. it is evident that the solution of the reactions would have r.p",n """~h easier ("r ir t' . "

• • - '_'_,. LLL ................... <..1,..).1 1, lu 1 I U._1.t

case a direct solution for [he vertical components of the reactions would be obtain-

ed fro~ the equations 2.,A1. = 0 and 2__Mc = O. From a consideration of the- 1ITus,.ratlv~ examples in Art. 2.11, it will be apparent that the solution of the reactions of co~plI~ated structures involving special condilions of construction can be expedIted. III some ca~es by isol;~ting internal portions as free bodies and applying

- t~e equations of §tatlc .egullibnul)'l.to those portions.· lt should again beempha, SIZed to the st~dent, however, that such a technique does not add any new independent equations besides the three equations of static equilibrium for the entire structure plus the equations of condition resulting from the special conditions of

t Numbers such as 13.333 ... wi!1 often be writrcn j 3 ~ the dot OV'[ th lasr di .. di .

that it may be repeated indefinitely. ' '" ". < < c e , 19l~ in lcatmg

I~ q ) )~~:
" !/
~ ! l ~
',; J <aLi B C'g
'" l
~ , I ,
U'I 0 .-;>jm


• • •


(1f rither the bor.zonrul or vertical component at B. Note that if the point of application and the direction of a rc.ict ion arc known, the one unknown element "fthi~ reaction may be considered a,; the magniwdl: of the resultant reaction itself or the IlJ:lgtlituoe of either its vcrt icul or horizontal component. Since the reaction ~urplicd by the support iii Is dUe;, not pass through point A, this structure is stable. The three unknown reaction clements can therefore be found from the three available equations of static equilibrium, and the structure is statically detcrminate.

Consideration of the beam in Pig. 2.10b shows that there arc only two unknown l\';lction clements, the magnitude of the reactions at A and B. These two unknown elements may also be considered as either the horizontal or the vertical component ,,reach reaction. Since the three equations of stat ic equilibrium cannot be satisfied ·,imullaneously by these two independent unknown reaction elements, this structure i:-: statically unstable under a general system of applied loads. The lines of action of the two reactions intersect at point O. If thc resultant effect of the applied loads I' a resultant force whose line of action also_pa.:.s_eSJhL(l!.lgb~ 0, the two reactionswill be capable or keeping such a special system of load, in equilibrium . Whilcthc structure is still classed as unstable, it will be in it state of unstable cquilibriurn under this loading and its reactions can be determined by the equations of static equilibrium.

If a roller support is added at point C. as shown in Fig. 2.lOc, the reactions of the structure will be equivalent to three links whose lines of action are neither concur. rent nor parallel, The structure will therefore be stable and also statically determinate, for the three unknown reaction clcments=-rhe three unknown magnitudes->can be found from the three equations of static equilibrium. On the other hand, If the link support is applied at point C in Fig. 2.l0d, the structure will be geornetrirally unstable since the supports will consist of three links whose lines of action all intersect at point O. The structure is not completely unrestrained, of course, but will rotate instantancouslv about point 0 through some finite angle until equilibrium is attained. Since the new position assumed by the structure is a function of the deformut ions of the structure, the reactions acting on the structure in its displaced position are considered to be statically indeterminate.

The structure shown in Fig. 2.10£1 is obviously stable and has a total of six unknown reaction clements-a horizontal and vertical component and a couple at each support. Since there are only three equations of static equilibrium available. the structure is indeterminate to the third degree. The insertion of the hinge in the structure shown in Fig. 2.10; introduces one condition equation and therefore makes the structure indctcrmi nate to the second degree The insertion of the roller in Fig. 2.IOk makes il possible to transmit only a vertical force from one part ofthe structure to the other. This in effect introduces two equ.QJiQJJ.5ofcondition, one that the sum of the momenISaDout a:-olih-e- r;:;'~-c~-, _~ti~g qn either portion shall be 'cqual tOl£ro-ai1u tneotl1Crthatt~uIlj .pLlhehoJj]'Qn..lal~omROI!Wlts of the forces acting all ellhl:'r'Po'ffioii-si1allb~~q~~lto zero. As a rcs~tt:-thi;-strueture is indeterminate 10 the ftrst-dcgree-onIY_-" -. - .. - ...

In the figures from P on, all the truss port ions should be considered as rigid bodies Whose bar forces arc statically determinate :1iKe ,lie' :C"\;';lIOnS have been calculutcd.

t -


• •

.4 •

• ..

• • •

• ..

• • • •

A \

,_ 9: 1

-"7tl-p:. [J


,: )

~ l
= ,/>/,
~ m 1 ?777c --z::.!7
A .3
,(' ) ) l \
~ " l~
.. /, Figure 2.10 Examples tor classification

construction The CqU~lt ions used may be in a different form, but they are [lot nell',

indepeudcn. line,. . .. .

2.10 Examples for Ch"iii('ution, In this article, cxampies arc; discussed

ill t tine the method- or dctcrmininr whether a structure's stable 01' unstable

1 iUS fa 1 ...._ l t..: r.: ~ U' L oJ • •

and whetl;cf it is statically determinate or indcle:minat~ \~i:h respect to Its ~eac1J~n\ Note that all beams arc represented by straig ht lines coinciding with their c~ntrOlda : axes and thai their depth is not shown in the sketches of Fig. 2.10. This will be).

. . . t' ...... t he remainder of the -book whenever the depth docs not essen- (

common prae.lCc I" c e , ;,

tiallv affect the solution of the problem. . t

C~llsider the beam shown in Fig. 2.IOa. The unknown independent rea~tJOni

I 1· -, the maunit ude and direction of the reaction at A and the magl1ltudel

e elncn.~ ~1rc- .( ~ , s .

of the' reaction at B or :I tOeal of three. These clements may also he considered a ,

~he magnitude of the horizontal and vertical components of the reaction at A and

& 'i 66



I '


The arrangement of the bars of a truss necessary for stability, etc., is discussed detail in Chap. 4. For the purposes of the present discussion, the trussed portions, may be considered as solid bodies. The structures in Figs. 2. lOp and q are easily seen to be stable and statically determinate under any general system of loads. In Fig. 2.10r the structure has four unknown reaction elements-the magnitude of [he reactions at the link supports A and B and both the magnitude and direction of the reaction of the hinge support at C. To solve for these four unknowns there are only three equations of static equilibrium. The structure is therefore stable and statically indeterminate to the first degree.

For structures similar to that shown in Fig. 2. [Os, it is often better to use a different approach to determine their stability or statical determinancy. In such structures, the counting of the available equations may be awkward and obscure. Suppose instead that the structure is broken up into separate parts and the solution for the forces connecting each part to the rest of the structure is considered. If in this case an isolating section is passed through the link ED and the hinge support at E is replaced by the horizontal and vertical reaction components that it supplies, the truss portionwill be isotatcd as afree body acted upon by the applied Ioads-arrd three unknown forces=-the link force and the two components of the reaction at E. If this free body is to be in equilibrium, these three unknowns may be determined so as to satisfy the three equations of static equilibrium. Taking IM E = 0 on the free body will yield an equation involving the link force as the only unknown.

Figure 2.10 (Continued)

• • • • • • • •

• • •



ng the force in the link ED, we can find the forces in links AB and Be by fA':= 0 and IFy = 0 applied 10 hinge B isolated as.a free body. Th~ reactions of ~ structure can therefore be found by the equations of ,[atlc equilibrium, and :he structure is t.hus said to be stable and ~tatically dcl~rmillatc. . 2.11 IJlustmLIye Examples of ComputatlOll of Hcacrious. 1 he student should ~udy the following examples carefully. All the structures arc statically dctcrrninlie, but the student should investigate them independently for practice .

tpwp!e 2.1 Determine lire reactions of the beam abo

Method A:

IM.= O,'+'

(60)(4)- (40)(12) + (40)(20) - (R".)(24) c .. 0

:. Rb-i - SG~~.l --- 23:_~1; r Rex C__C-", ~>:;_R'''J:-_ fl.j" ~+

:. R", . "%4 .. 3~~~ t

IM.·~O,? Il.=O,!

(R.,.)(24)·~ (60)(20) ; (40)(12) - (40)(4) = 0

R •• -30 -17.5 = 0


36.6 - 60 + 40 - 40 + 23.3 .~ 0


.'. OX

Method B:

:LM, -0.0


-(60}(20) 1,200

+ ( 40)(1 2) _. 480

-(40)(4J 160

1- 480 - 1,360 + 480

R .. =3'!J.: t= - 880


··(60)(4) = 241)

(40)(12) .~ 48()

··(40)(20) 800

+ 1,040 ·480 - 48()

R" = -t- 560 -~ ~3.~' T 24

N" = •. (%)(233) = 17] H


R .... ~ 47.5' +->

Discussion :

The Iwa methods of soldllil for rill' reaction: al'C [undamentally the same and difler ol'ly in Ihe details of the arrangement 0/ the computations, Afellwd.4 1.1 probably the best .... ay to oruaniie Ih~ computations for an unusual or complicated structure, Howeucr, [he systematic arranqement

of method B will be found most useful for the simple or concentional t ypes of beams and trusses, ,

. Npte lnal it is usually extremely convenient tareptace inclined forces Cby 'tI,elr horizontal and tertical components and to use these components instead of lite forces in writinq the equations 0/ static equilibrium?

J If both a force and its components ate shown on a free-body sketch, a wavy line should he drawn along the shank of the force arrow, thereby indicating that (he force has been replaced by its components.







'17Ie Q1Ul/ysl should clearly indicate his results by underlining them (j~d also bv indicaling (he II/IllsanJdirections a[the/orees. Remember that if an ~nswer comes out p.IIS, the force w", assumed

i L_ t direction on the firee-body sketch; If the ansWer come.' oW msnus, II,,· fur ce act,

acting n t IIC correc

Opp()sile to the dir",ction assumed.. "I .

Note thai in this problem two moment equations and one force equatton were used II' the solution,

The check eqliiltion ::LF, = 0 git'es a check m' the vertical components of the reactions bUI ,[,,,,.1 110/ check the horizontal components. If L:Af = 0 were written about any axis that did nat lie 011 " line through a and b, a check would be obtained on the calues of the horizontal reactions.

Example 2.2 Determine the reactions of this structure.


Isolate ab:


9R" - (40)(5) = 0 :. Roy = n.i' t

Isolate bd:

I:M. = O.r_;-(l7.7X18) =

-(40)(15) =

- [(4)(8)](8) =

--(30)(2) =





LM,~O,r; +
-(1 7.7)(6) ~ i06.6
-(40)(3) ~ 120
-1 [(4)(8)](4) = 128
,-(30)(10) ~ 300
+428 226.;;-
- 226.6 I:M, = 0, Cf:' (40)(4) - (S)(9) = 0


s., ~ !_O!: t =~ -] ,236 12

Rd, = +20d ~ ]6}' t 12

IF. C-~O

: > Rax = 30" of+--

If. =0

., F= 30'<--

Check: LF,,~ 0, i +,for entire structure

22.2 - 40 - 40 + 103 - 32 - 30 + 16.7 = a 142 - 142= 0

.. ox.

:r . ~

. ISCUSSlon : ~;

h~t isolali~g' the-i,;o p~rlions abo and bdj",m. Olle.OIlOlher, i';ogi;,e that the hinge pinis ~~m'oved. f'

The hinqe may transmit a force actmq 111 allY direction throuqh the center of the hmge ptn. If the, horizontal and vertical components of this force are designated by F and S and assumed to act as l shown all the portion ab, they must act in the apposite senses on the portion bd. Note that un in- t dependent check could be obtained Oil both the horizontal and the certical reactions by taking F' L,\1 - 0 about .lome axis which doe, 1101 lie Ol! the line through (l and d. c·






20 ;


10 p

-1----- '

• • •

4 t 4

Free-bod« sketch a:


(H,)UOI- -:-.: (10) I)


, •

17, .. 5' +->

Free-bodY,skNelr b : '[Aff .. (l,?

'LFx =c 0, ~!~ L.:M •. O,'?

{-10)( l }_3~) 17.9- 5 - I,

I/./\'~ ~ :. «:». II.!S~ t

. F (~;;)(l2.91 5./61..i

(1',)10,'1 0



U7.9)(I(J)· (.15.81(60) . (S . .'6)(SO)

v, - 29.77 i .'. R~.,. = ?_?~?_~"l

• 4


:- 5.1.6 -l 29.77 -_ 35.8 -

-o.ot ··u ".O.A'-.



Free-body sketch d:

LM,~-O,,? LMn~ a,r;" LF, -.~ 0

(12.9)(20) - (R".)(! 5) - 0 .'. RJ •• -c ! ~.:' i

(12.9)(20) - (5.161(/5"). (R"y)(] 51. f)

.'. R". -, J 2.04' t

• •

• • •

• • •

• • • •

• • •

• •

• • •




a whole:

C'Iwdr. 1M arucrsr« as

f the structure, for the lever arms, slopes of the members, etc., arc changcd by an important amount. As a result, it will be found that the forces and deflections in the structure are not directly proportional to the load P even though the material of the structure may follow Hooke's law. This is therefore an illustration of the first case noted above where the principle of superposition is not valid. In this struc(Ure, the effects of a load 2P are not twice the effects of a load of P, nor are the effects of a load equal to PI + Pz equal to the algebraic sum of the effects of PI and of P2 acting separately. From applied mechanics, a more important case can be recalled where superposition is not valid-the case of a ~lel1~der .. s1rut acted upon by both axial and transverse loads. There the stresses, moments, deflections, etc., due to an axial load of PI + Pz are not equal to the algebraic sum of the values caused by PI and P2 acting separately. Fortunately, most cases of this type where superposition is not valid are easily recognized.

It was mentioned above that superposition is not valid in cases where although the effect of change in geometry can be neglected, the materia) of the structure does not follow Hooke's law. If such structures are also statically determinate, then quantities that can be found by statically determinate stress analysis (such as reactions, shears, and bending moments) can be superimposed but stress intensities and deflections cannot be superimposed. For example, in the case of an end. supported cast-iron beam, the reactions and the shear force and bending moment on the tranverse cross sections arc statically determinate quantities and can be superimposed. However, the stress intensities and deflections produced by the bending moment due to a load 2P are not equal to twice those due to load P, and hence such quantities cannot be superimposed, If the reactions of a cast-iron beam are statically indeterminate, none of these quantities may be superimposed, since the stress analysis is then a function of the deformation of the structure. 2.13 Problems for Solution

'Pro"'em 2.1 Classify the 'strllctures shown in Figs. 2.1Oe, J, i, 1 to o ; and / to v as staQ~r unstable and statically dCICrminate or indeterminate, Discuss and state reasons for your answer.

'Problem 2.2 Detennine the reaction, of the structures of Fig. 2.12.

. T •

• An asterisk in front of a problem number indic"ks that answer to this problem appears in the Answer section at the end of the book

( !)(3{))

129 T 17.9 ; 10 - 2

• •


- 17.7 ' 1:'.04


. 35.S

Lf7~ O. i+ LM.~O,?

-·(12.04)(15) - (29.77)(40) - (II 18)(/20) '.

!! .18 0

- Olii· 0

(17.9)(40) j. (35.8)(60). (1)(302 (/0) - 0 2

-2,863 I 2,804··0



In I1lob/em':." of this type, th" structure is hl"Okcll up inlrl its sep arate "true/ural rlemcuts, and the free-body sk erchcs are drawn for each element, The inreractin{J forces bets .. !ee~1 elements may be assumed to act in either sense, bur rhe)' must act it: opposite senses on two adjacent elcmc~{J. For example, Iffurce F is assumed 10 act down 10 the lcfr on sketch b, if must aC'1 ~p to f.h,e r~ghl on sketch d. Since the st mcrure as a whole is in equiln» ium, each of it s elements mas: he 111 equilibrium The equations of static eqi,ilibrillfli lor each element mus! be satisfied, and they therefore form Q baSis/or the SOIUfirJI1 of the unl.n,», n reu('u·o/l.\ lind unknown inieractinq forces.

Note that when all tlu: ll.J.lkl1ol\'J! rruction« lun:« been ohtained, the results can be {'ht'('k('t/ by applying IIlL' equations of stu fie cr.-J'ti!ibriUI1i 10 fhe srrurt ure as a whole to see whether or no! the» a,.-e satisfied.

2.12 SUPC~II1.sitiGU of Effects. At (his point, a brief discussion of .the principle of superposition is appropriate. This principle is used continually In structural computations; e.g., in Example 2.1. it would have been easy to compute th~ rcactions due to each one of [he three loads acting separately and then supenrnp?se these separate effects to obtain the total reactions produced by the three loads actrng simultaneously.

Such a procedure i5 usually permissible. However,. there are two important cases in which the principle of superposition is not valid: (1) when the geometry. of the structure chances an essential amount during the application of the loads; (2) when the strains inthe structure are not directly proportional to the corresponding stresses. even though the effect of change in geometry can be neglected. The latter case occurs whenever the material of the structure is stressed beyond t~e clastic limit or when it docs not follnw Hooke's law through any portron of its stress-strain curve.

In Art. 2.3 il was pointed out that usually the deformations of a s.tructure are so sliaht that it is permissible to consider (he structure as a rigid body in applying the eq~!ations of stat ic equilibrium and therefore to neglect the effect of slight changes ..

in geometry on the lever arms of forces, the p

inclinations of members of the structure, etc. k

' How(I,ver, consider the structure. shown in -Fig. LH109e

2.11. In this case, all three hinges he along JA,;----- __ --o- -- _~

the same straight line in the unloaded structure. 0 o C

It will be found necessary to consider the altera-

tion of the geometry call sed by the deformation Figure 2.11 Nonlinear structure





Rcdl~JS c'i pi:

PJ I :e'yS

.q S"HnVe '


-l.r, -ir d ihe read Ions on ihe be a rr. oo by sultin~ cabl,€ belween A ond B o-,d C and £. Fino cable rsnsior. by isoiajing pulley 0

) '"


RJdlC', O' we ';~lt: 2

2:J'j t __ 4.<:'-..L-+-+---;


. ~ .

• • •


Flexural Members-Shear and Bending Moment

• •

~l Gen" ... l. The ul!imate aim of all stress analysis is to determine the adcq uacy of a strucr II re to carry the loads for which it is being designed. The criteria for determining this involve a comparison of the stresses develQped py _t.J!c_applied loads "'it~ certain allowable stress levels fofl6C structuraf.nateri-al'bcing used, The stresses acting 00 any cross -section can be studied bY passing an rrnagmary section' that cuts through the structure along this cross section and isolalC$ any convenient portion,~f.!!H~.Eructu[e_~~J~oh) I f all the other forces 'Kling on this isolated port,on'have already been determined, thc.!<,!_quired resultant effects of the stressc-, .cling on the cross section being investigated can easily be computed by the 'equations of static equjJibriu,m.

One of the commonest structural elements to be investigated in this manner is a beam, I.C., a member t~tis subjected to ~ncl.!.nJL~ .. _!l:~~r~ .. ~.x..IoaJs acting transversely (0 its centroidal ads or sometimes by loads acting both transversely and parallel to this axis. The following .r.scussioDS are limited to straight beams, i.e., beams in which the axis joining the centroids of the cross sections (centroidal axis) is a straight line, and to beams the cross sections of which arc of such a shape that the shear center' and the centroid are coincident. It is also assurnec that all tile loads and reactions Y.e -'irrii~e'~'-j;~~which ~ntainSth;; ccntroidaf axis of the Ilcxura I n'itiTme,ariaaprincipal 3xis-o(e;"erY"~'ioss' section, -r'f these conditions arc satisfied, the hcarn ~lril1i11epTiine6n("iiamgw;fuOuttwisting.

U D.,r"nninalioo of Steesses in Beam», Suppose that in determining the adequacy 0;' t h.: \lalically determinate beam in Fig. 3.1 it is necessary to compute the stresses on a transverse LTD" section Inn. The reactions necessary for static equilibrium can easily be computed and are shown in free-body sketch a. The portions of the beam to the left and right of (ross section "lt1 may be imagined to be isolated from one another by cutting the structure in two along this section. Freebod}' sketches band c can then be drawa showing allthe forces acting on th'cse two portions of ~ 'the beam.

• •

• 41

I For a discussion of the location of the shear center of a beam cross section. "'e .>landard 41

textbooks on mechanics of materials such as S. H. Crandall, N, C. Dahl, and T. J, lardner,

"An Infroduction to the Mechanics of Solids:'-'-2(J-cc[;-p: 470, ~1cG"m-Hill ll,w:'" (','l'\p;lny, ..

New York, 1972. •

• ,9':


• 74







4' 4._·

; -..+..

"l" - I


£, + 4

made for the resultant c-f the remaining external forces applied to the right of tim. Now if art beam as a whole is in equilibrium under all the force, acting on II, it must be apparent that It><: resultant of those forces applied (0 the left of mil must be Collinear, numerically equal, hut !hcpOSilC in sense to the rcvultan; of the remaining forces applied to (he right of nm. It therefore "~IOWS that the resultant of the external forces in sketch h must be numerically equal but opposite flO nse to the resultant of the external forces in sketch c, and hence the resultant effects of the

Hl se . , , •

,tresscs in sketches hand c musr likewise bear the same relation. ,

II is convenient to assign names to F, S, and M, the resultant effects of the stresses acting on a crOSs section of a member. Tll.c a~i~! forccjO_d:cts th~o~~~~C:,:~.'_l~roid oflhe, cro~s sec~on ~nd will be called_t~c axial resisting f~rc~. Thc_t_r<I_~sY.£r~e_0rce_§ wil.l~ caIJc~:~..<:shear::::~isting

r;;;:cr, aligfh.~£()_upIc M will!x'c.allc~ _th<:~esisting m(\Il~en~.. . ~-

'~r to satisfy the three equations of static equilibrium for either the portion of the beam In sketch b or the portion in sketch c, the magnitudes of F, S, and /\1 must be such as to counteract the rcsulta_n.t.2f the externalforces acting on the portion ,consider~d. Which portion is used "iiihs--;;-;-difference theoretically. The portion having the fewer external forces is ordinarily used t<> sirnpliry the compulatjons,": Static equilibrium will be maintained by values computed in the following manner. The axial resisting force F and the shear resisting force S must be equal and "ppruite to the axial'a-ild transverse components, re,p~ci;'veiy, of 'the' resultant of the external [,'fLes acting on the portion of the beam under consideration. Upon taking moments about an "'" through the centroid of the eros, section, i.e., the point of intersection of the resisting forces rand S. it is then apparent that the resisting moment M must be equal in magnitude but opposite 1'1 direction to the moment of the resultant of the external forces acting on this portion.

~,O~cc'thc axial resisting force, the shear resisting force, and the resisting momenj have been tl~termined at any section, the intensities of the normal and shear stresses at any point on the no" section can be computed 1'-y"uSlng"'w-ell-krlOWft equations given in standard textbooks on

Ihe'slrength of materials. ... . ' .

'T,3Sb";c and Bending Mom"nt Defined; Sign Convention. From the previous discussion, it "evident that in order to determine the magnitudes of the axial resisting force, the shear resisting force, and the resisting moment acting on a cross section of a beam, it is advisable to compute f",1 the magnitude and position of the resultant of the external forces acting on the portion of the beam on either side of that cross section. It is usually convenient to represent this resultant ~y its axial component, its transverse component, and its moment about an axis through the centroid of the cross section under consideration. These three elements are-itatically equivalent ; (I this resultant and are respectively called the axial force, shear force, and bending moment. The ,;dinition or these three terms may therefore be summarcici"as101Iows:

Axial force F The axial force at any transverse cross section of a straight beam is the algebraic sum of the components acting parallel to tbe axis of the beam of:aU the loads and reactions applied

10 the portion of the beam on either side of that cross section, ~~ --_' --' .. .

-S1ieaijorce (shear) S The shear force at any transverse cross section of a straight beam is the ~Igebraic sum of the components acti"l! transverse to the axis of the beam of aU the loads and reactions

.pyliro to the portion of the beam on either side of the cross section." _ - _, - .... - ..

B~-;;;ting moment M The bending moment at any transverse cross section of a straight beam is the ~Igebraic sum of the moments, taken about an axis passing through the centroid of the cross section, of all the loads and reac:tions applied to the portion of the beam on either side of the cross section. The axis about which tbe moments are taken is, of course, normal to the plane nf loading.

While it is not the purpose of the authors to encourage students to memorize structural principles, forrnulas., etc., these definitions' recur constantly and are "so fundamental 'to structural , engineering that students should study and understand them so thoroughly and completely that they are indelibly impressed on their minds.

With these definitions introduced, this discussion can now be summarized by saying that the axial resisling force acting on a cross section will be equal but opposite to the axial force at that section; fhe shear resisting force will be equal and opposite to the shear force (or shear); and th« rl'Sj'''I''; moment will be equal and opposite /0 the bending moment.





Figure 3.1 Stresses in beam'

. f h ortions b or c, it i, 'lI1Hllcdiatdy

1 f ' cti ng 0 n ei t her 0 t c P' . . I ne

wjien one considers the externa orces a ilib " under the external forces nctrng a 0 ~.

YY • static equi I HUm . f't nust be ill

t that the portions are not In . ach and every portIon 0 " ,

apparcn hole is in equilibrium, however, then c. . 1 forces or ,trcs>c, di'lributed If the beam as a w h th rc shall be mterna ' ' ... ~

ilib . rn It is therefore necessary t at e he oginary cut. These stn:<'~' [1111't ,~

equt I rtu ' be posed by 1 c. tma , 0 the

th internal faces which have en ex I' tbat of the external fl'"ces acting n

over e . 11' nt effect ba ances '1" .

f h a magnitude that their resu a .' state of static equ: ttlTlum.

a suc ' tai the portIon lfl a . . po 1 -nts

. d rtion and therefore main ains , be broken down In[O t ..... o com [to ••

Isolate po, sed internal faces rna) . . d h other acnns

The stresses acting on the expo. d 11 d the normal stresses an t e

ent acting normal to the face an cane body sketches band r, these stre~ses

one ~o~~Ot~e face and called the shear stresses. 1 n thet f~~-y the forces Sand F, acting through para e . It t effect as reprcsen e a' IS S F and M

h been replaced by their resu an. 1 N te that.thc.resultant .CHCC .' , ' .

t:::cntroid of.!!!,?_~r~SS_$ect~()n;_~.n~~:'he C?~'?!b ~\~ sho:n to be numerically equal out oPPosLte

O~~ acting' on the portion III Sletc~ k3 the That this must be so IS apparent from

d' ffects shown III sec .

in sense to the correspon mg e I I ds

the following considerations. . ntire beam acted upon by all the externa oa

onsider the free-body sketch a shOWing th~ e e external farces applied to the beam on th~

C . Suppose that the resultant of all th. , Suppose that SImilar computation, '0

and reacttons.. d i rna nitude and pO~itlOn. "

left of section mn IS compute III g ~

77 •






t §3.4i





I 1· th f II in ' sicn convent ion will be used to dcs. ign~1 tc the d i rcctions

In sU~Qucnl ca cu allons, C (1 0"," t:. - ' . '~v' . ~

. h d .. " di >111 'It a-iv rr.msvcrsc cros-s secllon 01 a bc.un. I he COI1-

of axial forcev s ear. an l~n Ing Illome ~ ~ ~ ._ _' . . .. ,'.,' ,

vcntion is that ordinarily used in structural ~n~lm.:el"!ng. Lt IS- clear and ~11:1pll_; to c-nploy and will be referred to as the beam ronventi()f1. As shown ill I:ig, 3,2, axial force IS plu-, \\ hell II tends to pull two portions of a-;:;:;em:t;;r';"part, i.e, when It tends to produce a

tensile stress on the crOSS section, Shear force is plus when it tends to ----r=;. _ _:J--push the left portion upward with respect to the right. Bending moment is plus when it tends to produce tension in the lo w er fibers of the beam and compression in the upper fibers, i.c. to bend the beam concave upward, Many beams arc horizontal, and this convention can be applied without confusion, When it member is not horizontal, however, either side may be selected as the" lower side" and the bean. convention applied to co rrcspond.

3.4 Method of Computation of Shear and Bending- l'tlomf'llt. The procedure for computing the axial force, shea r force, and bending moment at any section of a beam is straightforward and can easily be explained I': "irllc!'iq "nome'" by the illustrative example shown in Fig, 3.3, In this example, it is

desired to compute the axial force, shear, and bending moment at the Figure 3.2 Beam

cross sections at points b, c, and d. Tile computation of the axial force is simple and needs no cxplar.anon 111 this case, as is true of this com-

putation with respect ro most beams. If the couple applied by the bracket at point r i, asxumcc! to be applied along the cross section at point <, there will be an abrupt change in the bending moment at this point and lt i~ necessary to compute the bending moment, first on a (TO,~ section an infinitesimal distance 10 the left of c and then on a cross section an infinitevimal distance to the right of c.

it will be recalled that the shear and bending moment at any cross section can be computed by considering all the external loads and reactions applied to the portion of the beam on either side of the cross section under consideration, Either portion may be used, but the computations can usually be performed more efficiently by using that involving the smaller number of forces. One portion having been selected, only the loads and reactions Gering on thot portion are included in the summation of the force components or moments,

The left-hand portion of the beam was chosen for computing the shear and bending moment at section b and at the sections to the left and right of point c. Free-body sketches b, r, and d, respectively, show the portion used in each case, To illustrate the advantage of using one portion instead of the other, the shear and bending moment at section d are computed by using first the left- and then the right-hand portion, as show n in free-body sketches e and f. respectively, Note the simplicity of the computations for sketch f as compared with sketch e.

To explain typical computations, consider those for the shear and bending moment on the cross section just to the left of point r , as shown in sketch c. The shear force at this section is the algebraic sum of the 57-kip reaction, the uniformly distributed load totaling 16 kips, and the concentrated load of}O kips. where the reaction causes positive shear (tends to rush left portion lip) and the two loads cause negative shear (tend to push the left portion down). Hence, lhe

Sketch a:


[(4)(4)](22) 352

(30)(16) 00. 480

(40)(8) no

(60)(4) 240

-1,392 (6)(4) = + 24

-1,368 1,368

R.y = ~- ~ 57'1'


LM.=O, r;v [(4)(4»)(2) = + (30)(8) = (6)(4)= (40)(16) = (60)(20) o~

32 240 24

640 /,200

Check: LF, -, 0, tl'

57 + 89 -16 - 30 - 40 - 60 ~ 0 OX

Sketch b :

s= 57- (4)(4) = +4/'

M =. (.17)(6) - (/6)(4) 'c -r 278"

s ~ 57 - 16 - 30 = + 1/'

M ... (57)(12) - (16)(10) - (30)(4) ~ +404"

s ~ 57 - 16 - 30 'c -r- 11'

M = (57)(12) - (/6)(10) -. (30)(4)

+ 24= .,..428" S= 57-- 16 - 30 - 40 = -29'

M ~~ (57)(18) - (16XI6) - (30)(10)

- (40)(2) + 24 = +414" s= -89+60= -29'

M = (89)(6) - (60)(2) = + 414" Sketchg: S=41-30= +Ll"

M·~ 278 + (41)(6) ~- (30)(4) = +404"

Sketch r : (to hift

of point c;

Sketch d: (to righl a/pointe)

Sketch e:


Figu<e 3.3 Computation of axial force, shear, and bending moment

it is necessary for the resisting moment to be 404 ki f ' ,

section in sketch c Th ' . tp- t actrng counterclockwIse on the cross

. .' ,e rcmarntng computations arc self-explanotory

l! IS Important to note that, if the axial force shear d be ~, ..

em" section si milar item" ca be d" an ndmg moment are known at one

, c n compute at any other cr ti b .

qUJnTities rather than 'Working with all th If '05.1 sec~lon y,usmg these known

either side of tn " e externa orces On the entire portron of the beam on

c new cross section For example th . I f

at c could be computed with th ' , , ,e axra oree, shear, and bending moment

shear axial force and be' di e quantrt'bes already computed at h. This is apparent since the

, , n mg moment at are statically equi I t h I

forces applied to the left of b H "u,va en to t e resu tan! of the external

all the forces" 11) the left· j"' ~ , , :fe, t~e contnbu!i?n oL~he~ forces 10 th,e resultant effect of forcrs themselves Th Ode rna} ev~ uated by using their statical equivalent rather than the

H. e a vantage of this procedure increases wi h h

applied to the left of point b S h ,n ~ reases Wit t e number of external forces

the f,· " uc computations are Illustrated under sketch g of Fig 3 3 d

crces acting on the ISolated portion be are shown in this sketch . , ,an

3,5 Shear and Bending-M o ment D;agram. When a beam i be"

a stationary system of I d . is h c', s mg analyzed or desigoed for shear and be' rdi oa s, It IS clpful to have diagrams available from which the value of the n tng moment at any cross secuor, can readily be obtained, Such diagrams can be

shear force is

S,- -57-16- }o= +11 kips

having a resultant positive effect lending to push the left portion up with respect to the right. For equilibrium, the shear resisting force obviously must be II kips acting down on the cross section in sketch c. In the same manner, the bending moment is the algebraic sum of the moments about the ce~troi'd of th~ cross section of the same three forces, Since tne ~ction tends to produce tension in the lower fibers at the section and the two loads tension in the upper fibers, the bending moment is

;\1= (57)(12) - (l6)(l0)·- (30)(4) = +404 kip-ft



- §3.5



• •

constructed by drawing a base line corresponding in length to the axis of the beam and then plotting ordinates at points along this base line which indicate the value of the shear or bending moment at that cross section of the beam, Plus values of shear or bending moment are plotted

as upward ordinates from the base line and minus values as downward ordinates, Diagrams drawn connecting the end, of all such ordinates along the base line arc called shear and bendingmoment diagrams. In Fig, 3.4, shear and bending-moment diagrams arc shown for the beam in Fig, 3,3,

• •

• •

• •

• •

Figure 3.4 Shear and bending-mament diagrams

The construction of these diagrams is quite straightforward but needs some explanation, The shear on a cross section an infinitesimal distance to the right of point a is +57 kips, and therefore the shear diagram rises abruptly from zero to + 57 at this point. In the portion af, the shear on any cross section a distance x from point a is

• •

s= 57 -4x

which indicates that the shear diagram in this portion is a straight line decreasing from an ordinate of I-57 at a to :-41 at point j'. Since no additional external loads are applied between points! and g, the shear remain; +41 an any cross section throughout this interval and the shear diagram is a horizontal line as shown, An infinitesimal distance to the left of point 9 the shear is +41, btl! at an infinitesimal distance to the right of this point the 30-kip load has caused the shear to

. be'Iurrher reduced io + r l. Therefore, at point g,-there is an abr}-lpt,change in the shear diagram from +41 to + 11. In this same manner, the remainder of the shear diagram can easily be verified, It should be noted that, in effect, a concentrated load is assumed to be applied at a point and hence at such a point the ordinate to the shear diagram changes abruptly by an amount equal to the load, Physically, it is impossible for a load to be applied at a point without developing an infn::e contact pressure, and it is therefore necessary for such loads to be distributed over a small area. However, for such computations as for shear and bending moment, such inconsistencies


• • •

• •

are j~norcd . and it is considered IH:tthc-matical1y pCl~-..:.ibl,~ fn 'I"'-~

a powt. - .... - I l.-~ILJ~l!hl.tr.:..'d II".id" t o hI.;: ~lp;~ljed

In the portion aJ: the hendill" moment at -["' - '

2:2 Th D L( ,-IO:-':;~CCI!c)ll·l h:-.l"··· r .

f!.:5_~ X : e~cfore, .the bending-moment diagr;nll xt.irt-, ;_~~ {; ;' t·t,k: ~~ :,"0111 1.~'lll.l a i'J ,~f ,curved line to an ordinate or J 196 ki -ft . ;- u no.nt u .md IrllTca",es ai ... ")j

, j' P at porn: f, In '11" portio t. I -

alanypOlnta(1staneexfronlpoim/isJl4' __ I')6, • _. ,r.,"_ 11'_- nCllcI"Wll1o'nc

, ,_ . + 1_, lienee I) 'h l-

in tfus_portlon is a straight line .ncrcasi r f ~ .' , H.: enc rng~rnU:llcilt uiagra

" , ' ng rom an or dinar« of 196 a J ) 0 '

m the portion ge. the bcndmg-momellt diaura m . _. t to (, at o. L,kc~'is

_ " . lag. am IS a strotlght line i l' " '

a cross section an infinitesimal distance to tl ' Iff. r lre,blng to a value of 404 ;

. fini ' I dis 11; C t 0 ponu c How cvo "

m OIteslma istancc 10 the right of po t ' h L..' ' ncr, d, a GO" section "

. Hl(,teL~ndlrlgmOmctf'-' u

Assumtng the external couple of 24 kip-It t be ,- n Ids increased by 24 to 42:

L_ 'II be 0 applied exactly On I' -, -. .

tur;re WI an abrupt change in the bendinz _ -. I 11c LI 0'>\ :';CCTJOll ;.It point <

__ ~~;'I _ ,: _ ~ _" _ .tng-morne.u curve ~imda - t Ii· ~ or '

$~areadyd'scll"ed, Inan anak _ u unat o rnc a IUl'tch~!'~("Jnth

do , -.'-~.-.-.--, tOl!ousm:lnllcrther'rr'lJllf I"L t, '- ,_ .

.aagram may easily be verified. The comp ta t' r . C J( • ~ cr ,) rl~:'_: L;~rhljllg:-nlOnlCj

are shown in Fig. 3.4. . u a ions or tile c()ll[r·olIin~ (lrdjnak'i of the diagrar

3~6 Relarions between Load, Sh-ear~ and Hendj ns)lfom<nl. In cases where a beam is subjected t~ transverse loads, the construction of the shear <'nd bendtn~.-moment diagrams can be facililated bv recogmzmg certain relationships that exist bctw"~;l load: shear, and bending moment. For exam pic consider the beam shown in Pig, 3,5, Suppose tha;

the shear S and the bending moment ,H have been

computed at the cross sectior; fo '

p .. ' r any point m,

omt ,tn IS located by the distance .r, which is measured from point a, being positive when mea sured to the right from that noint S h ' - h ,," uppose I at the

5 ear and be~ding moment are now computed at

~hC cross s~ctton at point n, a differential distance x tal the, n~ht of point m. Assuming that a uni-

torrn y distributed upward load of, - -

per unit len f h f -- - - an Inlens,ty f!

g 0 l5eam has been appl ied '0 tl"

beam betw d ,'" r'

_ ce~ m. Lin n, the shear and bendini:;. ~'lgUT{~ 3.5 r{c .. rL11[')n~ bl:t\\i...\ ..... ,] I('<k sl: ... ~'}r.

moment WIll have mcreascd bv dlifercnt['ol' - J"U bend ,I~ 'n ""1'_' II

to al f ~ u .Jnloumi: ._, ' _.

;h ues 0 S -t dS and Iv! + d ~1, resf'c~tl\,cl}

, e nev, values of shear and bending moment al ~ ,

already computed at point 1J1. as IS dlscussed In A t p'l0~nt Ii l_o:1'~ 1)(: cornnun-.: bJ lf~jll.!; tb~ value-s

_',-t rillh,

S --dS~S-pdx


At .. d\j ;;;~_ .r\.c1 i- c',: d.l. ._ fJ d.t ~_. 2

Therefore, from (a) it is evident that


<Ix ~(J and, d~ff~r~ntial quantities of the second order

being Ilcglcctcd,Jmm Eq: Ib) it ca n. be found l ha;



~ . ~

II should be 'I .

, parucu arly noted that in additi ,~'

and bend ton. u [he usual be', -

i mg moment, upward loads have be' , '<" - C < III convention being used for shear

ncrease fro.n left to righr, en l;O(1')IC'\,:fCd ae:; pn'ltIV:..'; .ind \" IU~ been as:';U:llCU to




dS ~ - dx o_ P dx dx

Therefore, the difference in shear at two cross sections A and B is


S.- S,


p d\

" x..{

to;" ••



Thus, the difference in the ordinates of the shear diagram at points if and [I is equal to tile total I'.

load applied to the beam between these two points. .

According to Eq. (c) and the sign convention used in its derivation, if the load h upward, or .: positive, at a point on the beam, the shear is changing at a positive rate at this point. This means - that if the shear is computed 011 a Cross section just to the right of this point, i.c., eli a slightly I; greater distance x from the left support, it will tend to be 1I10/"1' positive, or algCl-)r.dicall~: larger, , than it was at the first point. Of course, if the load is downward, or ncguuvc, at a point, JlISI . the reverse will be true, If we think of this interpretation in terms of ~lor.c of Ihe. ;h. car diagram I"'. and use the ordinary calculus convenuon for slope of a curve, If dSjdx IS plus, the diagram slopes upward to the right, since positive values of S are plotted upward and _, increases frorn left to \ right. If dS/dx is minus, the shear diagram slopes downward to the right.

To apply these ideas, if a uniformly distributed load is applied to a portion of a beam, p "ill be constant and therefore the shear will change al a constant rate and the shear diagram will be

a straight sloping line in such a portion, However, if the load is dist ributed but its intensityvariev continuously, the shear diagram will ,~,a._clJ~ved -line whose slope changes continuously to_ cor- < respond,'lf~nolOad is a'pp[ie-d 10 a-beam between two points, the rate of change of shear WII! bezero,-re" the shear will remain constant and the shear diagram will be slraight and parallel to ' the base line in this portion, At a point where a concentrated load is applied to a beam, the f intensity of load will be infinite;lindtherefore the slope of the shear diagram will be infinite:_ or r vertical. Atsuch a point, there w1t!1'lrln:lHC()ritinuity in the shear diagram, and the difference in ~ ordinates from one side of the load to the other will be equal to the concentrated load - These r ideas conform to the discussion of the previous article. ~:

Equation (d) may be interprcted in the same manner. I_t slEks_lhat the rale of change 0;' t bending moment at any point is equal to the shear at that, point in the beam,_ i.e. the slope of _the ~ bending-moment diagram at any point is equal to the ordinate of the shear diagram at that point. t The change in ben-ding moment dM between two cross section, a differemial distance ds ap~rt IS t

clM d_\1~-dx~Sdx dx

Therefore, the difference in the bending moment at two cross sections A and B is

r"BdM=,'I1~--AfA= rXBSdt ',H8-jH4~ f.~>d~ ,!

.. ,"1.... ....\:A • .... ~

or the difference in the ordinates of the be~ding-moment diagram at points A and 8 is equal to i the area under the shear diagram between the twa points, i From Eq (d) it IS evident that, If the shear IS posiuvc at a pornt m a beam, the rate of change!! of bending moment is also positive at this point. This means that if the bending moment is~ computed on a cross section just to the right of this point. i.c., at a ,.,lightly grcucr distance x :

s IIf: A R ,\ N nllE:'I111 I N f:- ,\IO .... IE NT DIAC HA MS

(r(1l"J1 (he left SllprorL it \\T!i lc..::'1d It_, be mori: pn'\iCI\(, (If algebraically larger, than it V"~h at a. rir.-I Jloint Trlhe -;hl'~H i-. ncgaljyo;:,_Jl-bl t hc t cvcr-c \1, ill br u ue. In ter ms of slope (~rthc ;~;-ldirl~rn.,mcnt J~agl::un, ij 111<,l: !It.~. SJi~~ fhar, it" d~t;d\ i:-, ~h'_-.J1I\e ~or ncg~ .. t ivc). _the slOPe tJf the belldJ:Ee r.J(lnlcnt diagram at thl::' pornt ;" ~q)l.·tard (or d0\\/'l",,-ard) to rile fight, since rl()~itivc- valllc~ .)f ,~.! Jrc plotted upward and .v incrc:l-;:c ...... 1'1"1..1111 left to righl

If rhe shear is c onstnnt ; n a portion "I' the beam, the bend; ng-moment diagran: will he a 'tral!!l. line in this portion. However, if the shear varies in an) manner within a por tion , the h<:"d,~~",oment diagram wiil he a curved li nc, At a point where a concentrated load is applied. ther'. i, an abrupt change in !he cndinate of the shear diagram and, therefore, an abrupt change in tl.c ~Inre of the bending-moment diagram at such a poinr. A! a point where the shear di"g'JIl1 W>C' lbr<,ugh zero and the ordinatc-, to (he left of the point arc-rio~i(ivc -and those 10 the rig hi neg"li;". flit' ~Iopc< of the bending-mon.cnt .ha grurr: will change trom positive at the left of the po.n: tnrj~alive ~t the right of the ,~(Jjllt. ~l'hercfufe~ the ordinate- !_~f the: b~nding-[~"~~lllcilt d~agr.ip:~ \\;;,. N: a maXlIHum ~1 such a p ... nnr. II, O~ the other hand, the shear diagram goes through zoro j'l. the reverse manner, the ordinal" at that point on the bending-moment diagram will be a minimunc

2k.1 Construdlnn or Shear and R-e-ndln~-!\-foincnt Diagram_.... The ideas of ArL 3.r: can ~'";:' lJtili~~c-d most efficiently in constructing shear and bending-moment dii1grarns [or beLl'll'" ~uhjecl~~d

'" tr.":l.ns\:erse load- if th: fl,J10\, i~l~ P!-oc-C.dl~r~ i·.., adl1pkd, ,After C(lLl1PiJtill~ the n'L!cti(_Hh ,:11' 2. ream, firvt plot a load diagram, I he load l.k~gr',l_['l 1\ ,1 dl':~:;l~~: th: .. : (l:'d!lla~c'-l ~)~ which ... h(n~ 1he irllr-n~,ity of the distributer' loa(1 applied to the beam ;]1 al1j point. In addition, 2n conccnrratc.! hId, should be indicated, Upward, or posiuve. loaci_, shOL:ld be dr aw n above the base line 3n(I' !Il'/!alivc load, below. Then the 'hear and bending-moment diagrams cal; be constructed in 11lI"I1. proceeding fr-om, left to right across the beam and c,Wblishlng the shape of the diagrams by ,,,in,. the following principles, which arc sumrnarizcd from the above discussion,

I. The slope of the shear diagram at any point is equal to the intensity of the distributee load 4

at that point. r

2. Abrupt changes in the ordinates of the shea. diagram occur at points of application cre concentrated loads.

3. The slope of the bendingmoment diagram at any point is equal to the ordinarc of Ihe 1

,I'ear diagram at thai point. I

4, At pornts where concentrated loads arc applied, There arc abrupt changes in the prdinatc, I or the shear diagram and, hence, abrupt changes in the slopes of the bending-moment diagram ..•

It IS usually necessary to compute the numerical values of the ordinates of the shear and """ bending-moment diagrams only at the points where the shapes of the diagrams change Or at ! points where the maximum or minimum values OCCLlr, Such values car. usually be computed t most easily by direct computation. as in Fig, 3_3, Such computations can be cbcckcd u;ing the i

following principles if the value of one ordinate of a diagram is known: •

S, The difference in the ordinates of the shear diagram between any two points is equa l (0 t he lol~1 load applied to the beam between these two points, i.e., the area IIPder 'h,: jA",f -:!;:!~~c::~-,

between these two points plus any concerrtrated kJad:; applied within this port jon. _

6, The difference in the ordinates of the bcnding-rnorm-nt diagrar» between any 1\'0 r,',nh i, equal [0 the area under the shear diagram between (he," two points.


This method of constructing shear and bcnding-rnomcnt diagrams will be illustrated in the

examples that follow, •

Although all these relations and this discussion apply specifics lIy to the case of a beam loaded

,by transverse 'loads, it should not be inferred that they'-are useless in ana lyzing a beam subjected I to a more general condition of loading. The method of handling Stich cases will be discussed in

the examples Ihat follow. For cases of loading involving anything more complicated than transverse loads, it will be seen that a load diagram loses its utility and becomes impractical, While • some of the above relations may be used to advantage, il will be found that in most of the more complicated cases of loading they m uvt be revised, To, [,,,,;r;][e, in Exampi:; 3.4 it will he seen • that abrupt changes in the ordinates of the moment diagram occur at points where external

• •

• •

• •

• •

• •



couples are applied to the bc.im. Therefore, the difference ill the ordinate of lhe_bending. moment diagram bclwccr. a nv tWI_\ points will--be C{IU::It to the area under the sh:;r diagram between these two points phIS or minus (he sum of any cxrer nal couples applied to the beam within t his portion. However. the student will lind that the experience g3"incifin drawing.lhe shear and bending-moment cha gr ams for the simpler ca~cs of transverse loadings wit! enable hill) to proceed 10 the more complicated problems with very little difficulty.

3.8 Illustrative t:xampleA-Stat ... ally Determinate Beams, The following examples illustrate the construction of shear and bending-morncnt diagrams for statically determinate beams, utilizing the ideas and principles discussed above.

Example 3.1

---- --.----.~--- -----

- -j'-:-_-~

u b

'. d

IJvT. 0,'(

(2)(l6)(/i) - 256


1 H]

222J; .'. R.y 11.13'1

}::M. = 0,-:; (2)(16)(12) (2)(1%)(23.3)

I 384 1·233.3

I 617.3 s.; -~ 30.87' t

:LF,- 0, j+,

II.]] I JO.87 - 32 - 10 0


:qt.'!I)· 1/./3-(2)(;6)-- -20.87'

Locution of poi/If o] 51 - [1 ivrtwccn b and r,

S,' 11./3- 2 .. a

,',.Y - 5.57'

Bending moment:

M,-- I U 1. 13)( ~.I . i 44.52"

(2)(10) 10

2 3



··.-'re ....


<"1l13)(9.57)- ... 175.48"





'[/2 establishinc the ,,-}uJp('''iJj the' vhcur und hending-moinellt di .. yrlmrs; foilo»: [he' ideas of Art. 3.7. Slarrillg at the 11'/1 "lid of the shear diaoram, Ihe diaqram nscs abntptly 10 a value of I- I I .13. From a to bj ... lnce p - 0, [he shear diaaram is horizontal, Front b to C', since p;:_. -2, the shear diaqram slopes do "'II ward 10 the riah: at (l constant slope 10 a rolue oj - 20.87 JUII to the left of c. Al C, the reaction calise \- {IN abrup: increase in the ordinate of (he shear diagram to ----;-10 just 10 the =: of point c, i rom c ~o if, \inl~e p 2 ).'/5, lli(' shrw diuaro,» ,\fOpc.\ downward to the rig/a It.'llh a -Iopc th at iarie-. Iinearfy froin -2 at C (0 a at d.


I' the same way, the bending-moment diagram st arts at 0 at a and proaresses from a to b with a (#lIS/ani p()silil'e slope (JlPward 10 the righl). To the riqh: of h. (he slope decreoses linearly from , slope 0/ ~- If. 13 at b 10 zero at the PO;III of maximum moment, and further 10 a slope of·· 20.87 at e, There is all abrupl chanqe III c: 10 a nolue of + /0 j"vl to lire righl of c. Between c and d, rhe J~ decreases from + 10 to 0 at d.

The numerical value of the controllinq ordinates 0/ the shear and betiding moment {"WI 1110'" ,_sil)' be computed by direct computation ill the manlier discussed ill Arl. 3.4.

ExAmpk 3.2

I ~'i I

y, I I

_L_ ~ ~ __ j.--l_~---_-





-·1--· .. ·

I.F.= 0, '+ LM.~O.':

R.,·- (I,I25)(I~i) = 0 R •• = IO,12Y ++-

(I ,125){1%)(6) - M. ~ 0 u ~ (j0.7~~'" V



Shear and bending momeni;

.~I y = 9', p = - 1,125 + (62.5)(9) = - 1,125 + 562.5 = - 562.5"" S= +(562.5)(%)= +2,53i.3"

1\-[ = - (562.5)(%)(3) = - 7,593.8"


After tire reactions have been determined, the load, shear, and bendinq-mome»t diaarams COli ~ draw~. the fibers on lite right-fraud side of the cantilever being considered w the" {ower ftbers' In app{J'I~g :he beam contention, Then, the uniformly taryinq load would be considered downward or negatwe 111 piol/illg the load diagram.

. Tire shear diagram rises abruptly at a to a ualue of + 10,125. Progressing toward b, the shear dlalg~~'-l_!_la:.t~d_o.!",!.wardwirh a neqatice slope of 1,125 bill gradCla7l'<']fiiiiensout to eero slope as

WI' I as a zero ordinate at 5.-" .. - '

01/. t~e olh:.r hand • .rhe belld_ing-mf!men! diagram storrs from an ordinate 0/ ~- 60.750 at a with a pos:,we slope 0/+10,125. Proceeding toward b: the mapnitude of slope ;,,:'rdins posili~e but ,Ie;,{y decreases until at b both the slope and the ordinate of the bending-moment diagrams are zero. "he shape a/these diagrams hat'iug been established, an ordinate of either the shear or the bendina-

moment diagram at a . 1 d' t . It <

. . ny in erme ta e point H'C as y = 9 can most easily be computed directly by

cotl!ildermg the portion of the beam between that point and b.

" .> •. ,.,.,.;. "~:~~fM::BERS:""SHEAR AND BENDING MO~IJ::NT


E ...... ple3.3



85 •

LAf. =0.-:2

(30)( 2)- 60 (30)( 8) ~ 240 (40XJ4) ~ 560 (40)(1 8) ~ 720 (40)(22) ~ 880 (40X26) ~ J .040

220 3.500

Roy = IO:37~ t

• •

I>Ho • 0, r:t' (30)(30) = (30)(14) ~ (40)(18) = (40)(14) = (40){JO) = (40)( 6)-

900 720 720 560 400

_____ ----- - ~-.--

2::\1, I},'I'

(5)(JO)- (41(30)- (R,.,)(24). 0 :. Rq.. 1.25'

LH, ·0, ('I"

(1<".)(24) - (30)(1\1) ~ (30l( 4) !)

.. R". 2f1.7Y

• •

"'2J,= 0, i+

240 3,540

.. R.y = J 10.63' t

109.37 ':7io.6i=_ 220·- 0 :. OK

2::";. 0, r j-

28.75 1.25 - 30 I)

... O.K.

s ~ (109.4)(6) ~ 656.4

-40 656.4 = AI.

S = (69.4)(4) = +277.6

-40 934.0 = Al,o

S = (29.4)(4) ~ + 117.6

-40 ]j)5I.6 = M,.

S = (-10.6)(4) = - 42.4

-40 1,009.2 = Mj•

s= (-50.6)(6)= -303.6

-30 705.6=M,~

S = (-80.6)(6)= -483.6

- 30 222.0 _. M '0

S = (-JiG.6)(2) = -2212

-JJO.6 ..JHr.~ AI"

o 0

:. O.K. :. O.K.


'f occurs where shear posses throuah zero (14 ft from a).

~'\. max '

Bending Morncnt»:

AI/I ({UH to lef,'),

• •

~ .... ~. I'"

Oiscu~shm:' be di oment diagrams for concentrated load systems,

In computing ordinates ro the shear and . n Irl~g-m the ordinates being computed successively

. . I P rations In t IS manner, u .

it is connenient 10 arrange / I<? com u d th end of Art 3 7 Note that a check

Cram left 10 right by mcans of principles 5 and 6 state lIear e I . I' b, .

J' . 'fb / di come back 10 zero a POIn .

of the computations is obiained i of I iaqrams

i} 1_5'

.-If ,;) (_fIr,! '0 ,(a/I:,),

If." (28.75)(6), (3'))(3)" t- 2625" lr c: (jll.N 10 [eft),

\/'L - 262.5 .- (1.25)(8) - ,252.5"

A. " ijus: to rig!:t). isolate element of

beam between 111'0 era 'IS sec/{ol1s--one JUS! to Icji, one just 10 riat« of ooint c, This efClI'tc.7! will IW['t_J a dijll'u'fil!"a! Icngth, sa}', of 0 , J!.

• •

I t

- A1'J< ~- 0 ·\f'K ,-~ 252.5 - 90 - 0- + 162.5"

AI .l i just 10 left).

H'L _0 (1.25)(8) ~ (}O)(J) ~ 100"

AI d (hm to righl)

HJR -, (1.25)(8) 0_' f·IO·'

t •


As is eoident in Chap. 2t the COI1~puta!i()1I of thi._~ rcuctio», o/.,uch structure ... ' can be carrie-d cuct without first compwillg the force.> tha: the illdioidll,'[ I'lIl.',,)"\" appl.v to the beam. How""er, [or the construction of shear and bellding-moment diayra",., and Ii,,· comtmtotio» of internal .<11<'",,,,,in Ihe beam, it is lIecessar.v ro compute the der{lilfd manner in which the pull"Ys appl.v lite loads. The reactions from sketch I and the pufley load", 1I""ing been compured, sketch II call be d,..,wl1,

showinq the precise manner ill which the structure is loaded, . _

As explained in the latter pan of Art, 'J7, ir is unwise ,,; attempt 10 draw a load diaaram in such problems. Instead, the load diaaram is rep/aced by a free-bod)" sketch such as sketch If. The student may nOlV proceed 10 draw the shear bel1ding-molllent diagrams, usi!lg lire fundamental definilions and methods of COtnpulalion and, of course, lIfiii:illg the experience gained ill simple problem> such as £,amp!e.,· 3.1 to 33. All the aborc cll[nt/aliclIls may hejiy!lowed without ,h!!ic,':irJ'

• t



• •

• •

• •

• •

• •

• •






Ei:amplr: 3.5

C()u:,:jiferilly J\-uialcd girder acted upon by strinYl'" reactions,

I>H,"O,? (80)( I P) -- SOP (40)(21') - - 80P

(50)(31') 150P

(40)(-.:1') lOOP

(5P)(Rh) = 4701' "Vel Rf; ~ 94~ r

30' ~ GrOS5 Rfy _~ 124' T

L,"'ff = 0, '+' (80)(4P) = 3201' (40)(31') ~ 1201' (50)(2P) = lOOP (40)(lP)-c 40P

(5P)(R"y) -- 5801' Nel R" ~ 116_' r

-2ii CrOl",\' R", _ 136' f

-t 11'

07 "7»//

IN-: 13(, - U)(40)-(4)(30)

-- 20 = 0 _q 2()() 120- /20 -20--0 ,-,O,K lnc.'"jJ ,."euCfiOIl.\ may also be checked by USil/g th» applred li)(I(/\ directly

Shear and bending moment un girder:

Gross R.y = JJ6'

--- 20 0 .- tv!.

C 116')(6) -·696"

-696" -~ ,"'f,
s, (36)(6) ,-216
- >' i2 ~ AI"
- 10
~y .. - u -_, -4)(1j1 -2~
-, 888 /v1,
-- 50
S,._ ,_- 54)(6) ~ -324
'-564 ~ '''',
s, ( 9.,')(6) ·564
I; },1.
C;ro ,'S R,. = --;-/24
0 Discussion:

Note the terms gross and net reacuon, Tire ( " '1\ __ ) " " _

suopor: and includes any load appf- d I '] I ./10 reaction t-. /"" IOI(1i force ,lIIppli("d bv the reaction is the re ti JC 0 t tc )['U/I1 immediate], Ot"{ '" the support point TIr~ ne:

ac IOn at a support due (0 all 10[1' is ., r,' " . . .

Note (hat only the net reaction it ~"J. ~.~ ('-~{('p, .,le Olle applied riah: (/{ this support,

en ell t JI! (O!Ilr"J!{/(lrU)/i I" t-» _,/i."~_{I· c(jU! hClld""i/ IHUN/CI!(

Sect Or] t: L

Figure 3,6 Gird", bridge

3.9 Illustrative Exarnpl("--(;irder8 '" ith Floor Beams. I n a II the previous cxa mp 1(:5, (he loads have been applied directly to the beam uscu. Oui:e often. however, loads arc applied mdirectly through a floor system that i, supported by girder«. A tvpical construction of this k md is shown diagrammatically in Figs. 1.5 and 3.6. In such a structure, the loads P arc applied to the longitudinal members S, which are called stringers. These arc supported by the transverse members FE, called floor beams, The 11,)01" bcarr« are in tum sUPPor{,;J by the girder» G_ Therefore, no matter whether the loads are applied to the strin,~c.-~ as ,1 uniformly distributed load or as some system of concentrated loads, tiici r effect Oil the girder is that of concentrated loads applied by the floor beams at poi nts (J, b, c, etc.

To illustrate the construction of the shear and bending-moment diagrams for girders loaded in this manner, consider Example 3_5, For simplicity. it will be assumed in this example that the loads are applied to stringers supported on the hlp flange of the girder as shown. The stringers and girder will be assumed to lie in the sarne plane. It will further be assumed that the stringers arc supported as simple end-supported beam" with a hinge support at one end and a roller at the other. As a first step, it is necesxary to obtain the stringer reactions and from them to determine the concentrated [o rces acting On the girder. Fn.H1t this point on, the construction of the shear and bending-moment diagrams for the girder procce .... Is <.l~ for any bca n: acted upon by a system of concentrated loads,

The student should study the foiIowi ng <lues'.iews concerning this type of structure: How do a

the shear and bending-moment diagrams cliffet in the two cases, i.c., with and without the stringers? ,'." .• ,. Is there any notable sirnilarity ? If a uniformly distributed load i., applied 10 the structure, how will the shear and bending-moment diagrams compare with and without stringers ~ For concentrated loads applied to the stringers direct tv at the floor-beam locations, does it make any difference, as far as the floor-beam forces are concerned, whether we think of the loads as being applied to the stringer 011 1;11.;' it:fL o r righ , L)l liJ~ ~l_x~r-uc-._HI~ ~u..:ati~)ll, or whether W~ Ji;jdc such loads between these two stringer>.' Note at hand d of Example .15 such loads are assumed to

be applied to (he stringers on the left. If I);":: ,trlng~rs arc not supported as simple end-supported beams by the girder. will the unsv.crs to the previou« questions be altcr cd ' Problems at the end

of the chapter "iii crnphasizc so.r.c of the,,, points,

', '




3.10 Jllu!lltralh'~ E::'Iample--..~tatk.aU,.. Indeterminate Hearns, From the discussion m Chap. 2 it w il l be recalled that the stress .malysi-, of indctcr minatc structures involvc-, the S~l.tl,.Ja,-·tjon of nut only the equ~til.lll~ of static cqui'{briu rn but ~1i-';l"J. certain conditions of (lcfol[1l:1tIP;I.. Tt~e analysi» of such structun> i-:; discussed 111 dcta.l later in till" book. In these later dn .. p~:.:r~, It will be seen that after some of the unknown ,..:.trec;,;,; con-ponc nt«. c.g., reactions, ... he.irs, and moments, have been found s-o as to ~.atisf)' the conditior.s of dcforrnation. the renl~inHlg unknown- can be found so as to satisfy the equations of stat.c cquilibrrurn. That i" the rel11aj',ing por-tion of the problem i~ statically determinate and can be handled by means of the techniques explained in Chaps. 2 and 3 for statically determinate structures,

Once the reactions of a statically indeterminate beam have been determined, the "tear and bending moment can be computed at any desired eros, section in the same manner as that used for statically determinate beams, The same principles may also be followed in constructing shear and bending-momer.t diagrams,

I Eaample 3.6 Thrs st(l[icu/ly iluh,termIFi.llf(.J continuous bean: he nor only acted upon by \.rhe

loads shown hut is also mhjc('ied to certain support mOt cments. Fhe [ollowin« hUldinq moments have been computed h)' ur.:;ing method: dtscussed later for an(ilysi)" of ,""lntit'o_l(y indeterminate

structure s :



c c,'
te b,
0.751 $
6' 4·
\0' Sketch I:

2:>', -O,(~"

(R".)(lO) + 60.05 - 85.!7 (60)(4) .'. Ro,' - 26.51' r

:. S'L = 26.5/ - 60

- 33.49'




Sketch H:

2::.I>f, = 0,'1

(5)(10)(5) - 60.05 - (R,,)(lO)·c 0 R" ~ l}J_.OO' r

.'. S'R'-- - -19.00 - 50 ~- -i-}f .1)0'

Sketch III:

L:t~ .. - .. 0

Rt, - 33.49 n .00 64.49' r

Bending moments:

,lfe .--- -85./7 + (26.51)(6) 73.89"


3.ll Problems fnr Solution

fooblem 3.1 Draw (he shear and ,"ending-moment diagram, for the conditions of loading uf a simple end-supported beam as shown in Fig. 3.7.


I -T--Ir~

o /.--.L. • .. b

77A~ L "7

f.-- - -- ----j

Figure J.7 Problem 3_1

Suggestioll. What is the maximum bending moment in each case? If, ;:. part b, k equals 0.5, w hat is the maximum bending moment?

./"Probl<m 3.2 I)ra" the load, shear, and bending-moment diagrams for the beam of Fig. 3.8

Figure J_H Problem 3.2

J'I'roblem 3_3 Draw the shear and bending-moment diagrams for the beam of Fig. 3.9.

'0" ~C' 10' 5' :;.'

ct± ~t~'--±;¢ G~:t- c~~~ t

~/~ ~ '-j H1nq-,: r: .. 4 1.

, I

+ &' 1


Figure 3_9 Problem 3.3



Prohlem 3.4

2.2a and c.

Draw the shear and bending-l11oment diagrams fOI the beams shown in Probs.

"'"".ruLlcln 3.5

Draw the shear 8!1d bending-moment diagrams for beam AR of F,.c:. 3_IU


. JYhol S. r-'- 0 = j I :- 5x, • ., x-~ 6.1Q'

Figure 3.ltl Problem 3.5

Figure 3_11 Problem 3.6

·Probl.m .3.6 Draw the shear and bending-moment diagrams fa~ the beam of Fig 3 II ( Problem 3.1 Draw the shear and bending-moment diagram> for beam ab of Prob 2.21f and

for beam bed of Prob, 2.2y <; __

• •

• •

• • • •

• • • • •

• • •

• •

• •

• • •

Figure 3.12 Problem 3,8

-I 'Problem 3.9 Draw the shear and bending-moment diagrams for girder ab of Fig 3.D.

Figure 3.13 Problem 3.9

/ Problem 3.10 Draw the shear and bending-moment diagrams for girder ab of Fig. 3.14.


12 -+ 6,1_6' +_ 12' - §Q' __

Figure 3.14 Problem 3.10



Plane and Space Frame'\vorks

4.1 JlJtroduetion. Although most engineering structures are three-dimensional it is often permissible to break a three-di'11<:nsional >lructure down into component planar structures and to andlyze each planar structure for loads lying in its plane. Consider, for example, a typical through-paraI1el-chord truss highway bridge. Such a structure is three-dimensional. hut it can be broken down into six component structures, each of which is planar, the two main vertIcal trusses, the top-chord lateral system, the bottom-chord lateral system, and the two end portals. Often a given member must he considered as part of more t!Jan one component planar structure: a bottom chord of a vcnicallruss, for eX:imp!e, is also likely to be a chord of the bottom-chord lateral SY~lem. T11i, mtroduces no difficulty, since fa!' such members the stresses can be computed for eacf component planar structure in which it participates and these two contribU!lOns superimposed to give the total stress in the member.

In same three-dimensional structures, however, the stresses are so interrelated between members not lying in a plane that the analysis cannot be carried out 011 the basis of component planar SfrilctUCCS. For such 'lruc[ures, a special consideratIOn of the analysis of three-dimensional structures is necessary.

Structures that may fall into this c1as.sification include towers, guyed masts, derricks, framing for domes, and framing for aircraft, (0 mention only a few. Such structures may be either statically determinate or .qatical'y indeterminate.

In this chapler, the genera! theory of the stress analysis of both two- and threedimensional frameworks is discussed. Consideration is also given ·to the manner in' whIch the mern"'bcrs (bars) of plane and space framel'orks must be arranged in order to obtain stable structures. In Chap. 6 the stress analysis of some of the more important Iypes of bridge and roof trusses is considered in detail under design loading conditions.

Consideration in this chapter is focused on ,t:ltically determinate frameworks.

In Chaps. 8 and 9 methods of computing deflections and of analyzing statically



r .





indeterminate structures arc discus,.::d in dt';ai1. These m('lho(\, arc ar;1!;,·;'bk. in principle to both plane and space frumewor s ». although ,llmost all t hc tllu,\I:ittVC examples in Chaps. 8 and 9 involve only two-dimensional ~tructun:,.

4.2 Gener a l Ddinil;ons. A plane framework tu,ually called ;1 trussl mil" be defined as a structure composed of a number of bars, all lying in one pbnc ,,:1(\ hinged together at their ends in such a manner as to form a rigid configuralloll. For the purposes of the discussion in this c haptc r, it will be avsurncd that the following conditions exist: (I) The members are connected together at their endby frictionless pin joints. (2) Load, and reaction- arc applied 10 the tru-.» only at the joints. (3) The centroidal axi, (If each member is straight, coincide, with the line connecting the joint centers .n car h end or the mcrn her, and lies ill ,\ plane t ha t also contains the lines of action or all the load, and rcnct ions. Of course. it is physically impossible for all these conditions 10 be satisfied exactly in an actual truss, and therefore a truss ill which tho-,c idealized conditions arc assumed to exis.

is called an ideal truss.

Any member of an ideal t,cl'S can he isolated as it free body by discor'necting

it from the joints at each end" Since all external loads and reactions arc applied to the truss only at t\1e;c1ints and no loads are applied bc:tw*,en the ends of the members themselves, the isolated member would be acted upon by only two forces, one at each end, each such force representing the action on the member by the joint at that end. Since all the pin joints are assumed to be frictionless, each of these two forces must be directed through the center of its corresponding pin joint. For these two forces to satisfy the three conditions of static equilibrium for the isolated member, IF, = 0, I.F,. = 0, and I.M = 0, it is apparent that the two forces must both act along the line joining the joint centers at each end of the member and must be numerically equal but opposite in sense. Since the centroidal axes of the members or an ideal truss are straight and coincide with the line connecting the joint, at each end of the member, every transverse cross section of a member will be subjected to the same axial force but to no bending moment or shear force. The stress analysis of WI ideal truss is essentially completed, therefore, 1I'1I£'/1 the axial forces have been determined for all the members of the truss, since the normal stress intensities all the cross sections of the members can

then easily be computed.

Three-dimensional st,u;::tUT~C. ~c;:~lra:;c:d or ;! number or h:1r, connected to-

gether by ball-and-socket joints S'.J as to form a rigid configuration are called space frameworks. Such structures arc discussed in detail in Arts. 4.15 to 4.21.

Trusses and space frameworks arc structure, which are arranged specifically ID carry loads applied at their joints. As a result of these joint loads, the members of such framework> are subjected primarily to axial forces and to little or no shear

". and bending. If transverse loads are applied to the members between joints, one of the requirements for truss behavior is violated and significant shear and bending effects are produced. If the joints are substantially frictionless pin joints or ball joints, these flexural effects areconfined -to the members which are subjected to the between-joint loads. (Problcn: 4.(; illustrates such a casc.} If, however. the joints are substantially rigid, the structure acts as if it were a rigid frame (sec Art. 4.14).

ARRA1'iCEMEN'l' OF ~tR.ll"'CRS




In such a case, the flcxu:'ai elrLY'" in t h, ('11' • 1

• • c. ~ "I.svcrscty 0 d j

[hrc>ugh Ih.c .I01llL to ot hcr members II , a e{ mcmbersaretransmitled

J I ,~ ., ,0 rat 'll.!rllIICtnt she d b

prO'lICC{ III all members of t nc t ". ~ , . ar an ending can be

. . . c ,rllctlIlC. Methods of" I"' .

de[crrnlllak rigid frames \\'III b' j , ... J" . dna yzrng statically In-

4.:1 I,,," a I ,'.' ... \I'tual Tru ',. L [\:~clllIS'l HI ( haps, 7 and 9.

.,,',. 'lIC'ltlstrlletl" he ide- .

~nd can never exist physicallv t hc '1 .... . rat t e ideul truss IS hypothetical

. - 'J, t: S rcss analYSIS of 'In actual t b

,umptlon that it ~Jeh ,j-i an ideal truss . 'II f" .' , ai tr uss ascd on the as-

. 1 r c • us ua y urriishe. as' tixf

tbeaxJa orces in the members of t l ", . I '. '_' n l'laclory solution for

," t' , ., . 11; actua truss. 1 he axial f ' .

or bars, 0 d truss witl be referred [ . I b orces In the members

b r Ll dS t 1C ar forces Th . . . '

to the ar orces computed on the [ .. ', h . . e stress mtenSltles due

d .' c ),ISh t at the tr uvs act 0.. , .

rcfcrrc (0 ;IS prnnary stress intensities ' x ,15 <In Ideal truss are

The pilb of an act ua] pin-jointed tr'II"S a r

," co e never rcaf . fr i .

moxt modern trusses are mace with ri A .' y rlCllol1less; moreover

. "u_, lflvekuOf\\,cld'l . . '

('ssentlal change in thc angle- bet '" cc jcmts so that [here can be no

_ , ,,\\ecn the iTIt:l1lb'rs .

result. even when the external '0' 1 " c mccnng at a joint.' As a

, ". ~_ ~:_ .. _' J a( s :,re applied at the "0' t '" .

rhc joints on the enils of a men 1)""-' .. --, '.,' J In._lenters, the actron of

force and a couple. The trans" I cr ~na:-'. con~I't or both an axial <lr;(i tra~;sve~e

, ,erse cross sccirons of' b . "."

rhcrcforc, to an axial fore .. a shea f ,d rnem er may be subiccted

" ". ,r ore" and . b d' J ,

I ~le dead weight of the members the . 1" ,i .en lI1g morncnr. In addition

, ernse ves mUS1 necess '1 b di . '

the members and therefore comribut . t I'" C , ,SMI Y e istributed along

d '1' '. eo, 0 urthcr bcndlnnofth

etai mg practice IS followed '1! . .' . =- c members. If good

b ,n( care IS taken to 'oce tho t th .

mern ers coincide with the lines co t' hc i a e centroidat axes of the

the members due to possible cc ,nnle~ In!! t e ~Oll1t centers, additional bending of

.. . c'. <: Lennclli' j his

munrnized. c, 0 t liS type may be eliminated or

A 1,1 these departures from the conditions rc uircd . .

develop a bending of the members f . q L for an nleallruss not only may L l ,0 an acrual uu- btl < inar are somewhat different fro th .. " '., "ll a so may cause bar forces

he " ... m osc 111:t1l lOcal truss Th J·ft· '

[ r stress mtensltJCS In the memb . f : ',.. e I ercnces between

. . cr, a dll uctua l truss d h .

tensiues computed for the corrc di . Cc an the pnrnary stress in-

intensities. It may be dell1onst~~:~~nl Il1g Ideal lrll~s are called secondarv stress

where it is detailed so that th'e ' lOjWeVer, rln:. In the case of the usu~1 truss

. "centroll al uxrs f h -. "

centers and where the members o r- . I' . L . 0 t e members meet at the joint

.: • l v ,.re Ie at ivelv 51 en I tl ..

SItI~S. are small in comparison with the ,rin;ar .~~ le:,. 1e,.w,~ol1d~ry stress ~nten-

stress rntcnsures computed on th.: h", ,._ P;hn. 'I~ c ~re .. -, mklbIUCS. The primary

III f uccSb """ tnc ,rus,.; 'j .t , . I

cre ore usually satisfactor-, f " " , . . L .,' c, as an rdeai [[U." arc

I .ubs . J or prdc;[lc<,,, lle.il:211 purposes

n su sequent dISCUSS' h L' •

h ,. '. . IOns. t e ierrn tru-» will be sed .

t at either IS actuallv an ideal . '. . U." to denote a framework

- c, ,pm-]01I1tel1 tru" 0 b

II ere an ideal truss. ' "r may c assumed to act as if It

4.·t Arrangement of Membus of . T _,

members of.a truss must be hi ! a russ, In An. 4"2, it was stated that the

fi· • " .' Ingee together in .uch 3:'" . " .'

ron rguranon. The term 'aid "': '. ~ ~ ,,,,allner a, to form a rigid

wh flgr as used m this lI1,t·W'· J .. , '

en used previously in Art 23 hat i .. a nee ias tile same SIgnificance as

. . , t at IS, a conh:2l1ration is said to be . id if

1 See al fi h ~, , e ngl I there

z so rs! t ree paragraphs of Art 4 14

Sec J. 1. Parcel and R B B M· .' . .

rhap, 9, John Wilev & S " ... vO!1112Il, ·'An:·I!\ ... i , ~.,' ·...::.~ti .. ·a!!.·, 1··,1, .

~ oris, Inc., New York, 1955. L.u...:.cn~1I:1ak Structure«,"

• •

• • •

• • • • •

• •

t 41

41 ~

t 4 4 4

• f!
• i
•• I

• 94





is no relative movement bet ween an)- of its particles beyond that caused by the small cbstic deformations of the members of the configuration. In this sen:;e~_<1 rigid configuration can be obtained by arru.nging the truss members in many different ways. When the bars have been satisfactorily arranged in one of these ways, the entire truss can be supported in some manner and used to carry loads

just like a beam.

Suppose that it is necessary to form a truss with pin joints at points a, b, c, and d.

If this is attempted by pin connecting four bars together as shown in Fig. 4.1a, the

resulting framework will not he rigid and may collapse p

in the manner shown due to the loads P, until, in this

case, joints {I, d, and c arc lying along a straight line. After a little thought, it is apparent that any attempt like

this to connect four or more joints together with a like number of bars hinged at their end, will result in a framework which will collapse u ndcr all but a few special P condition, of Ioadinp. If, however. points a and bare first connected by a bar ab, then two other bars of lengths

ad and bel can be hinged at a and h. respectively. If the

d ends of these bars are then hinged together at point d,

a rigid triangle will he formed connecting joints a, b, and d. Bars of lengths de and be can then be connected

to the pin joints at d and b, rcspecrively. The c ends

of these bars can then be made 10 coincide at point c and pinned together at this point, t hus rigidly connecting joint c to the triangle abd and resulting in a rigid framework of five bars with joints at a, b, c, and d. As alternative arrangements, point c can be connected to joints a and b by bars ac and be or to joints (I and If by bars ac and de. Several other alternative arrangements can he used by first forming a .riang!e with joints a, b, and c, or with a, d, and C, 0;' wi\'h b. c. and d. Any or these arrangements will result in a rigid framework capable of withstanding any system of joint loads without collapsing, as long as none of the members buckles or is strained beyond the yield point of

the material.

In this S:11l1e manner, any number of pin joints can be connected together with

balo> to fo m: a r igid framework. The pTocedure is first to select three joints that do not lie along a straight Ii 11\:. The-e three points can then he connected by three bars pinned together to form a triangle. Each of the other joints can then be connected in turn. two bars being u-ed to connect it to any two suitable joints on

t he framework ahead)' consu uctcd. Of course, the new joint and the two joints to which it is connected should never I ie along the same straight line. Each of the trussesshown in Fig. 4.2 has been formed in this.manner by. starting with a rigid. triangle abc and using two additional bars 10 connect each of the other joints in

alphabetical order.

Trusses the bars of which have been arranged in this manner are called simple

trusses, for this is the <imple st .md commonest type of bar arrangement encountered 1ll practice.

r I I

t=:'. a~t


Figure 4.1 Frameworks: (al nonrigid; (b) rigid

b e f


c d q .(>

b d


o~ ,~

~c'___--_j,· e


e a j


d C k

~i o~

/) f

Figure 4.2

Simple trusses


In all truss diagrams like those shown in Fie 4"' .

sen led by single lines and the . . . ";' . ..:., the members will be repre-

t" b e pin jomts connectmg them by small circles S

rrnes ars may cross each other but rna ' be arran ., . ome-

ate not connected together b .. } hei . ged In SUL-h a manner thar they

Wh .h Y a joint at t err point of intersection

en t e members have been arran d t f . - .

work can then be supported' th ge 0 arm a SImple truss, the entire frame-

the conditions f' an i In e same manner as a beam. In order to approach tions are appli~d :~ ~~ea: ~russ, ~he supports should be detailed so that the reacrecalled it . ehJOI~ts 0 the truss. When the discussjun in Art 2 i is

, IS apparent t at If the supports of th t . .-

are equivalent to three-link .... e russ are arranged so that they

is-stable and-I-.:s--r-e·a·--·t·----·-~u~?or_ts neither parallel nor concurrent, the structure:

.. . c IOns are statically dete . t d '

loading. -jlhi-s'tnitions of a sim I . rrnma ~ un cr a general condition of

mirfate IJ_Ianner are shown in Fi~.e 4~~~ss supported In a stable and statically deter-

Sometimes it is desirable to conn t .

one rigid framework I h ec .twa or more Simple trusses together 10 form

manner is called a co~ n SduC cases, the .composite framework built up in this

POUD truss. One SImple truss be ri idl

another simple truss if the tw t can e rig. y connected to

three links neither parallel no 0 fusses are connected to?ether at certain points by ncction. Hence t ' r concurrent or by the equivalent of this type of COIl-

, ""0 trusses connected In this manner will form a .



96 framework that is completely rigid. .Additional

t d in a similar manner simple trusses can be connec e

to the framework already assembled to form a more elaborate compound truss.

Several examples of compound trusses are shown . F- 44 In all these cases' the simple trusses

In Ig. .. h

that have been connected together are s. own

crosshatched. In trusses a, e, and f, the simple trusses have been connected together by bars I, 2, and 3. In cases band c, the trusses have been hinged together at one common joint, .t~us requiring only one additional bar to form a rigid composite framework. In case d, the additional bar connecting trusses A and B together has been replaced by the simple truss C.

The members having been arranged to form a compound truss, the entire frame~ork can be supported in the same manner as.a simple :russ.

4.5 Notation and Sign Conventien Used m Truss Stress Analysis_ Before the stress analysis of trus~es is discussed it is necessary to establish a definite notation and sign convention for designating the bar forces in the members of a truss.

The various members of a truss will be designated by the names of the joint, at each end of the

Figure 4.3 Stable and statically determinate simple trusses


, -

. ~ {e)

Figure 4.4

Compound trusses




" ,

member. The leiter F will be used 10 denote the bar force III it member. Thus, subscripts I:ll:ing used to denote [he bar. f~" denotes t he bar- force in member all. The v:tlucs of the b.rr fOlces ill t he members of a trw" arc often tabulated or written alollgsidc iii, v ariou- members un a line diagram of the truss. For this purpose, it is convcnic:ll to h;n-c a de/mi!_e ('(mlnllivll/iN deSignating th« character of stress ill a member i.e" whether !he illfernal slress is lellsioll or compreSSIOn. TiJefllosl cOlwellien! ('0111;1'1111011 is to lise a pillS ( +) slg~1 !o !!:'siglla/c a ~and a mil1Us ( -) .1'191110 designate a compression. Thus. + 10 means a tension ot10, and -10 a compression 01 10. A plus sign is used to designate tension because such a bar force causes an elongation, or an increase in length, of t he bar. Thus, a plus force causes a plus change in length. On the other hand, a compression, or minus, bar force causes a decrease, or minus change in the length of a bar.

In the stress analysis of trusses, it is often conven ient to work with two reciangular components of a bar force rather than the bar force itself For this purpose. two orthogonal directions x and y are selected (uvua llv horizontal and vertical. respectively), and the two corresponding components in bar ali an: designated as X"~ and Yo1,' It is particularly important for the studen: to be complckly familiar with the various relationships between a force and it, two rectangular components, These relationship> are so important in truss an~lysis that a student must have complete facility with them. For this reason, Some of them are reviewed at this lime. When it is realized that a bar force acts along the axis of a member, the following statements are self-evident:

1. The horizontal (or I'Ntica!) componen: ora barforrr is equal to rile bar force mulIl/I/icri by the ratio ol!fw horizontal (elr ('('({ieul) proiectton 0/ a member 10 its axial tOlb'lh,

2. Tire bar force 0/ a member is equal /0 it» horizontal (or ccrtical) component multiplied by the ratio 0/ lire axiallcligth of the member 10 its. horizontal (*T vertical) projection.

3. The horizontal component 0/ a bar Jorce is equal to the tertical component multiplied by the ratio of the horizontal 10 the vertical projection of tl:« axial Icnqrh, and vice versa.

The following principle is also useful and imporranr In dealing with bar-force computations:

4, For purposes of writinq equilibrium equations for a particular isolated body, all)' force may be rep/aced by its rectangular components as long as the components arc both assumed to act at Some one convenient point along rill! fine of action of fhe force.

4.6 Theory of Stress Analysi~ of Tl1JJiSfS .. To.deterrninc the adequacv of a truss to withstand a ·given condition of loading, it is first necessary to compute the bar forces developed in the members of the truss to resist the prescribed loading. The fundamental approach to studying the internal stresses in anv body is the same Whether it is a beam, a truss, or some other type of structure. lr: "the case of a truss, this approach (0.;':1.';, in passing all Ilniigllla:'y section that cuts through

• • • •

• •

• •

• •

• • • • • • • • • •

• • • •




(al (b)



certain of the bars and isolates some convenient portion of the tru-.s as a rr~c hody. Acting on the internal cross sections exposed by the: isolating section w i l l he 1f1- ternal stresses. In the case of a member of an ideal truss. the rcsulr.m: of -hc",c stresses is simply an axial force referred (0 as the bar force in the member,

If the truss as a whole is in static equilibrium, any isolated portion ot II must likewise be in 'equilibrium. Any particular isolated portion of i1 tr uss \\ ill be acted upon by a system of forces which may consist of certain external forces and the bar forces acting on the exposed face, of those members which have been cut by the isolating section'- It is often possible to isolate portions of a truss so that each portion is acted upon by a limited number of unknown bar forces. which may then be determined so as to satisfy the equations of stat rc equilibrium for that portion.

This procedure may be explained quite easily by considering a specific example

such as the simple truss shown in Fig. 4.5. This truss is supported in such a manner

'tbat the reactions are statically determinate and are easily computed, a, shown in: the figure. Proceeding now with the determination of the bar forces in this truss,' suppose an imaginary section is passed around joint Q, culling through bars ah and ab and thus completely isolating joint Q from the rest of the truss. a, shown in free-body sketch a of this figure.

Such an isolated joint will be a body acted upon by a concurrent system of forces since the bar forces in the cut bars or an ideal truss and the external forces are all forces the lines of action of which are directed through the center of the isolated joint. Theresultant of a concurrent system of forces cannot be a couple, and hence the force system will be in equilibrium if IF, = 0 and IF, = O~ Therefore. if there are only two unknown bar forces acting on a given isolated joint and these do not-have the same line of action,' the two conditions for static equilibrium will yield - two independent equations that can be solved s imultancously for the two unknown forces. If there arc more than two unknown bar forces, the values of all the unknJtvns cannot be determined immediately from these two equations alone.

In this particular case, however, the isolated joint Q is acted upon by the known reaction and only two unknown bar forces F.h and F;,. . The slopes of the members being known, the horizontal and vertical components of the two unknown bar forces may be expressed in terms of the bar force as shown in sketch Q, The two equations of static equilibrium can then be written, assuming that both Fa" and Fub are tensions, as


, ~ " : 20 + t2) , 24 Check:
(kl Ro; 52
I ~ x ; 4C -;.- 8;'
, 2<1 48
132' ~ x 40 'W 40
58'! t20Kf
Rey' t x 40 030
} x [40+8) 0 2'1 58
~x(20~12io 5~4 120Tt
.01< LEy = 0, +1' IFx = 0, +-

58 + %Fah = 0 %,Fah + Fob = 0

"@ 24'096'

, 101 . F!Jc'

-p; __ -cc


Figure 4_5 Analysis of simple truss

Then, from Eq, (a),


Fa" = - 72. 5 kips

. - . .

and hence, from Eq, (b),

F.b = -%F.h = -(%)(-72.5) = +43.5 kips



. Then the componentsof E~h are

Xuh = (%)( -72.5) = - 43.5 kips Yuh = (}D( -72.5) = - 58 kips

Thus the' . . -

, rnmus sign indicates that F . s .

pression), while the plus si n indi an I. O~p~slte to the assumed sense (a corn-

g rcates that fob IS In the assumed sense (a tension).

I If the two unknown bar forces have the same line of action, will the two equations be consistent and independent?

• •




.. iO

. f rns to the sian con-

. f the results, therefore, automatICally con or . b .ul

The Sign 0 " I f stress These rcsu ts

. h. t has been adopted to llldlGlle the c iaractcr oi : .. . h

ventron t a < "'", -725 and +415. t C

. be recorded on the line diagram of the truss as ,,' .'. h

may now . 'nh of the force In (I

, indicating the proper character ol strcs«. The cornpone

sIgns J _ , •

' , be recorded convenientlv c.S ,hown O!l the line diagram. , ,. ,

m.iy c " . • ". ' bt: .d f 111 dra\vlng

Such conforrnitv In the signs of the reS\l![S \\t11 always be 0 ame I

the free-body sketches and selling up the equations of statics the sense of the un-

. bc tcr-« If his -. d then a plus sign for an

known bar forces IS assumed to c tensIOn. t IS IS one, . ," .

answer indicates that the assumed sense is correct and therefore tension, while a

- , , t rd therefor" compresSion.

minus sign indicates that the assumed sense IS mcorrec at ~"

. , r 'it l the established Sian

Thus the signs of the results wi] I auiornauc .. rllv conrorm \\1 1 ~ " '"

convention. . , ., _, f I' known

The procedure just used may he applied III principle to solve or the un "

. j" ha i i J bv onlv two unk nown bar forces.

bar forces at any isolator JOint t at IS acre upon r» ..

' .. , . b f. '-ould be computed

1n this particular truss, the remarmng unk no« n ar orces ~ ,

" ., f I th alwavs sclcctin s the next

easil. by isolatinz the remairung JOI nts one a tcr t ie 0 cr"" ..

.. 0 • ~ b (f) of the cut bars h"ve

joint to be isolated so that the fnrce, in all ut tv o or ewer , <

previously been computed, Of cour se , it IS also nccess.ary for Ihe~: t wr: ur:kno\.\'n bar forces to have different lines of action. ~~b techl1lque Ofr'l'~1lL~,£Cl!QD",o

~s ~o iS~lale a s0_gle ioi~f a trus s i, called the method of joints, .

orne Imes It is more exrcdlCnllop~lOn that .1~_~:._~::.t.lOn .c~ntaining several jomts of a truss. This latter techniq~e of passmg t he cult 1f~~_~C{.lOn ]sealled the methoiroTS~c:!!ons. An isolated portion consisung of s~vcra~ JOI~ts oTa truss will be a body acted upon by a nonconcurrent system of ~orc~s t.hat, may consist of certain external forces and the bar forces In those b~rs cut 0:; the isolating

ti n For equilibrium of such a portion. the three cquatron- LI, ,= 0, IFy = 0,

sec 10 • , , hi f h t " There

d LW = 0 must be satisfied by the forces acting on t IS part 0 u C russ. _

fore, if there are-only three unknown bar force, acting on this part <11!d these three bars are rteither parallel nor concurrent. the v3llle~ of the three unxnown forces can be obtained from these three equilihrium ccuanons

'A '1 I' at ion of the method of sections is shown in free-body sketch c

typica app IC" . " , , , " , b

of Fig. 4.5. In this case, the cuni Ilg ,,[cIOIl I' passed through. bar, I,g, he, and c,

I . I' th portion of the truss to the left of this section l he unknown

t lllS ISO atmg e ..,. h ' .

forces in these three cut bars can now be dctermll1c.d by solving the t ree equatlO~s

f , ilibr i f, til 'I,nj'ltp.-l port ion 111 previous discussions of the cornpu-

() ('OUI I. [I\It'1.rH .j'> ",.C1 ~...... J • •

.' f '- 'I ''is d>lnonqrn~d that it is often possible to expedite the

lations 0 rcacuons. I \\,. t , t, '.., ••

[ t" I ~~ ~- 01' nonconcurrent force <\sltms by using mgenuuy in wriunj;

'0 1I Ion In SUC1 L",L, , , •

I . fIt" For example 10 solve for F,,". take moments about

t J~ equatIOns 0 ,a res. , ,. '.,. '...

. ion of F . d F and resolve F into lIs horizontal

point c the point of mtcrscctron () ',,,, <in 0,' 'hf! .

' . - . TI " onlv \/ enters the moment equation,

;IIH1 vcrlIcal components at point g. ien . 1 ng


IM, = 0, '+ (-'"":)(42) + (58)(48) - (32)(24) = 0 j

whence X;'II = - 4R and by proportion }"hy = - 20 and Fhg = - 52. in a similar




whence F~c = + 43. 5. Then either LFx = 0 or ,£F~ = 0 may be used to obtain the horizon tu I or vertical component, respectively, of Fhc:

Lf~ = 0, + Xh, -r- 43.5 - 48 = 0

wllt'nce Xh, ~c +4.5 and by proponion Yhg = + 6 and FOg = + 7.5. Of Course, any three independent equations of statics could be written and solved for these three unknown forces. However. if ingenuity is not used, the three equations may all contain all three unknowns and have to be solved simultaneously, whereas, as just shown, it is possible to write three equations, each of which contains only one unknown.

4.7 Application of Method of Joints and Method nf Sections. In the previous article, the equations involved in applying both the method of joints and the method of sections were set up in a rather formal manner. However, it is often unnecessary 10 do this. For example. consider joint a, which was used in illustrating the method of joints in the previous article, Consider now this isolated joint as shown in free-body sketch b of Fig. 4.5. By inspection, it is obvious that for LFy = ° to be satisfied, the vertical component in bar ail must push downward with a force of SS kips in order to balance the reaction. Then, by proportion, the horizontal component and the bar force itself in this bar are equal to 43.5 and a compression of 72.5, respectively, acting in the directions shown. The horizontal component in ail being known, it is now apparent that, for LFx = 0 to be satiSfied, the force in ab must be a tension of 43.5 acting to the right to balance the horizontaLcomponent

in all acting to the left. ~,;" , f~.

Since the bar force in ab is known, it is a simple mailer to find th6' force;'i~ be and hi.< by pa:.sing a section that isolates joint b as shown in free-body sketch' e of Fig. 4.5. Again, this simple case can easily be solved in an infoimalmanner to obtain the two unknown bar forces Fbc and Fbh. To satisfy Li1~O;i'iis'apparent that~;,. muslbe.a tensio~ of 43:5, .and to satisfy EFy = 0, r: musrii'e.'i1~on of20.

If JOint h IS Isolated !l1 a SImIlar manner, as shown in free-body ski'teh d the isolau ng section will cut through four bars, two in which the bar forceJ'~he kn'own and two in which they are unknown. Again these two unknowns canbe found from the equilibrium conditions ,£Fx = 0 and 'LFy = ° for the isolated joiAt.,- As. suming the unknown forces to be tension, the two equations may be written

I,FJ; = 0, + EFy = 0, +t

1313Fhq + %Fhc + 43.5 = 0 J130,g - UFhc - 12 -- 20 + 58 = 0

In !llis case, unfortunately, both equations contain both unknowns, and it is necessary to solve the equations simultaneously for these two values. Of Course, the two unknowns can be obtained quite easily in this mqnner, but co.nsider the

a~vantages of proceeding as follows. ~ 't .' <.

In the discussion of computation of reactions in Chap. 2, it will be recalled that it was often adYantageous to replace either or both LFx = 0 and LFy = ° by one or two moment equations. A similar technique is likewise desirable in the present ~asc of the isolated joint h. Suppose that in free-body sketch d the positions of Joint~ a, c. and g are located in space as shown. Then, EA-Ie = 0 could be used instead of the equation LFy = ° Or I(" = O. Taking moments about point c not

• • • • • • •

• •

• • •

• • • • • • • . ,

• • • • •

',' >~'.' . r-


O~y eli~iDa~ Floc from the equation but also makes it possible 10 simplify the

t tion of the moments of the forces in bars ail and hg. These two bar forces

compu a I .. .

can now be resolved into their vertical and hor izorual components-at JOInts a and g,

respectively, and then only the vertical component of F.!I and the horizontal component of Fhf1 will enter the moment equation and the lever arms of both these components are easily obtained. In this way,

LMc = 0, '+ (Xhg)(42) + (58)(48) ~ (32)(24) = 0 :.Xhg = -48

and by proportion Yhg = ~ 20 and Fhg = ~ 52.

Fhg and its two components being known, it is an easy matter to use either' 'LF" = 0 or 'LFy = 0 and obtain, respectively, either the horizontal or vertical components of the force in he directly. For example, since Xhg = -48, the horizontal component in he must act to the right with 4.5 kips so as to balance the 43.5 kips in ah and make 'LFx = o. This means that this bar is in tension and by proportion . the bar force and vertical component are + 7} and + 6.0, respectively. All these computations can now be checked by seeing whether the results satisfy 'iFf = 0.

In the following illustrative examples, additional techniques and tricks will be . used to expedite the application of the method of joints and the method of sections .. In the first example all of the free-body sketches will be shown in detail. To train the student to visualize free-body sketches when possible, such sketches will be omitted iu;~he later examples. When desirable, the numerical computations wiII be c'·'~>··';out in an informal manner. If the student finds it difficult to follow the~e;;~?r~ .' he should draw the necessary free-body sketches and set up the

equijioi")"u ations in a fundamental manner. The student should recognize

that::it'isj )ible to develop a facility for visualizing free-body sketches and

solving equUiprium equations in an informal manner; but he should also recognize thai even.t~e,~e~.e~.has to go back to fundamentals-draw sketches and write equation:~w.hene.¥er he is confused or faced with a difficult problem.

The st'qdent"should also note carefully the technique of drawing free-body sketchesgr isolated portions of a truss. Any bar force that is known in magnitude! from pr~yious computations should be shown aC{rng with this known magnitude on aJlY;'~ketch that is drawn subsequently. For "example, in drawing free-body sketch d of Fig. 4.5, the forces in bars ah and bh have previously been computed and recorded on the line diagram of the truss as ~ 72.5 and + 20, respectively. Hence, the bar forces acting on the stub ends of these two bars should be shown pushing the stub end of ah into joint h and pulling the stub end of bh out of this joint. Thus the sense of these known bar forces having been indicated by arrows, the forces should be labeled with their numerical value only, i.e., simply by 72.5 and 20, not by ~ 72.5 and + 20. As suggested in the previous article, the free-body sketch is completed by showing the unknown bar forces as being tensions .

When- the \ahie of a bar-torce is recorded on the line diagram ·of the truss,' it will be found helpful also to draw arrows at each end of the member, indicating the direction in which the force in the member acts on the joint. This procedure will be followed in recording the bar forces in the remaining illustrations of this chapter.

I Note that magnitude has previously been defined as including the sense in which a force acts.




80r Cc Se:'on Bor CD

l ?O'

~H,c o. 0-

(20)(1) 20

(40)(2) 80

(20)(5) 100


--(10)(1) -/0

190 RI'~' 47_.! t

'c:..~ff '.0 0, r; -(40)(2)


- (10)(5)

-80 60 -50




-170 R.,. = :2"5 t

~F, = O;"j+

47.5 + 42.5 - 10 - 20 . "." 40-20 =0

":::.Mm =0/1: ;-' (10)(2) ~ .. + 20 -(42.5)0) = -Izh



.'. Fe, - -i- -4- = .01'.8

::.. .. t, = il. r» (./15)11)~. 'r 42.5 '-(:O)r:3) -- -20

.j 22.5"

- (22.5)(30)

.. -~--


.= -16.88

~. - 17.80





- 5.62


I).f> ( i rJ ~ ( _-, ; (.:0)('; )

_\ !



Bor co Secj~on .:c2 I - (? \ ROI':'O


.>8.3 -'10

Be r DE Section (~)

~~_'ln ~-- (),~;

- (2u)( I) -"" - 20 (,'0)(3)- 30 -50

(-12.<)(2) - ,\5


.'. Fu! - -= (. 35)( '~\,I -J ,)

2:\ie-O,Q (475)( I) ,(20)(2) "

:n !
~ 1 :y' + 15 ---i 20 '30 Consider the "'Iuilihrilim of the structure as u whole 10 ohtain the react ions; From };M, = 0, obtain RM,;andfrom L.Mm~" 0, obtatn R,y. Use '£F. - 0 as (I check.

Section 1-1: Isolate the structure above thi, section and apply ~~Aff ~ 0 10 obtain F ••.

Section 2-2: Isolate the structure aboce this section (1IId, wilh J;;', known, use '£.'I-f. ~ 010 'obtain Y"",. Then isolate joint _q and, willi X,...,. kn()wl1~ usc 2.f.~ -: 0 10 obtain F'In _

Next isolate joint hand note frorn ':.1", 0 that in the absence of any applied vertical load, 'he !'alira/component.1 in burs III and Inn must he eqULJI and opposite, Thus if Y,. ~ A, then Y'm ~ '-A,

and X,. =%A and X'm 'C - riA .'

Section 3-3: Isolate the structure aboie this section and applyI:.F. = O. Since the horizontal components of Ih and mh /WI(, bern expressed ill terms of A, it is easy 10 find A (0 he equal to 'j 20 from this equal ion, tlwrehy defining completel v Ihe Lor forces in 111 and mho

-- 47 .5


-:-75 n


If the force s ill all the ball' are required; the method of joints can be applied, lire joints being imlaled slI('ceSl"hely ill the following order: a, e, h, d,}; e, g, k, h, I, m. This i.1' prni){lhly th» 1110 It r-fjicif!rrt method of' Iindim; 011 th,. nur forces if: th:::; I-;~,i;-:.iciilu( truss, ii only a few particulor bar forces are requirvd the! compufation can be carried out as illu,,.'unled ill this example.


~ ~


'" ~





- -j.92


'.:;("~ .

": ,,~,<; Discussion": , , .

Note I~ after the force ill Cc has bee» found, the rertica] component ol the force ill c D call easily be /Jij;,d "J' isolating jO;'11 c. Note a/so that the force ill c D heill[l kIlOH'II, IiiI' ',,'rt:cal CDm" ponent in;{jD CQII be found from ZF, ~ () rarticr tltan :S.H" = () for the Fee-~o_dy skctch fi'r scOW/I 2-2. nie /;rce in CD [willY known, the force ill cd can he obtained from Lfx () (lppiled /0 this free-hifIy sketch. . , , '

The force in member DF. CUll be obtained by i\u/alin_q the portion of tile truss to cit ner (he ngm or the icf: of section J~3. The portion 10 tI.'l.' riyhl H'U,,, chosen becuuse if has jnl'cF' cvscrnalforces celing 011 it, . 1 I III all these compu!aliiJn:.., the tJNJ/I/C'flf.'> of the ce-tical forces an.' COnil-'1I~('d ut /.tY/NJ () pane length.,.. J--Vhen necessary. lire panellengr/' oj 30 if fl," .... ulrchute d ill 'he end oj [lie computation. Till! trick s;,rlpfijies the numerical work ill such computations.


Example 4.3 Compute the bar forces iu mrrnbers be; Be, aC, and be.

------------ __ --------

Har he: Portion to "It 0/1-1, '£Jl1c ~ 0,7',

40 ~ F.c = +50

Bar BC: Isolate joint A, (hen B .. Fi«: = .--=-~O Bar aC: Portion I() left 0/2-2, 2;P, ,- 0

y"c - - 36.7

v' J' +'p

Fsc= ----(- 36.?)~- -66.1

2 . -~


• •

Bar irC: Portion to leji of l-L, with [orce in aC known i from :i:F, = 0





or, from joint B, P., = 0; then; from joint b, "LF,= a

• •

Y,c =120


Example 4.4 Compute tire bar forces ill member» (d, Be, btn, ni, nF, (1l1d md.

• •

Bar cd; Port ion 10 left of t-t, from r.,'vfn=O, Fed = ·\080

Bar BC: Same portion, 'LM, = 0, FCD ~ _-90 Then, isolate joint C, "L,F. O~ 0, F Be ~ ;;::!~

":0951 L_J20


• •

• •

• • •

Barbm: Im/aling .joint C sho ... :, F,,", ., Q. Hence., WllsidfrillB.. portion isolated Q.y s.cflio_nl-2, ,£/1..(, ~ 0, .. Y.m = -20

Hence, considering portion isolated by section 3-3,

Bar I1f: Isolating joint E show" FE. ~ -10. l:Md = 0, .'. Y.f = -5

Bar nF: Portion I~ righl of 4-4, l:P~, = 0, Bar md: Portion to rfgIJ,I of I-I, t:r, --: ()~

Y.F =~s.~!

y." = -'-6.3




Determine the bur forc,., ;11 all members ofthis truss,


'T .13D

t? t ,t

co.2'o l' ~?D'

-- - -- ------ - .



in Ike solution of this problem,;/ is possible /0 stor; 0111 and apply Ihe method ofjoints successfully at joints A, B, G, and F. However, altempling /0 apply this sante procedure at all)' of the remaininq joints prove", impossible ,iIlCI' there are mare than two unknown bar forces at each of these joints, It is therefore desirable 10 resort to the method of sections, 111 this problem, the bar force in member bd is found by considering the portion to the left of section I-I, The me/hod of joints can/hen be applied at joint band then successioely at each of the remaininq joints.

Ir should be noted rhot this ;" a compound truss. in such trusses it is usually impossible 10 soh:e for all/he bar farces by using simply the method of joints. A., illustrated ill this problem, it is usually necessary 10 make at least aile applicatiolJ.ojlhe method of sections.

. ""---.:;', '; "

Example 4,6 Determine the bar forces in all memb~rs. ;;/this:';russ.



~=~I;~~hU' ~p/e. U is possible to start 01 0111' end of the truss, and t>'(~'k throuo]: 10 the other end using only the method of joints 10 compute the bar forces, This IS a .\'ll11l'le 11/1 I,'. and it is al_ys ~ssible to foul all the bar forces in such a truss in this manner once the r<',lt/I{)II,'

have been compur~d., ,

II also should be noted that the »ertical components 0/ the bar force' in tile dwgOl1a!\ COli olvo he easily obtawd by using::EF1 = Q on the portions either to the right or to the leji o] I/,,! J~:jl('ated vertical sections through the panels, '.1ht: force in the verticals can then be obtained from ~}y - (J at the joints, and the force in the chords from :EF. = 0 01 the joints, working aero.'S from end 10 end 0/ the truss.

4.8 Discussion' of Method of Joints and Method of Sections. The examples in the previous article 'illustrate that isolations of portions of the truss using hoth the method of joints and the method of sections must be employed In the stress analysis of trusses. Experience in such computations will teach the student how to combine these two methods most effectively It is the purpose of this particular article to summarize and clarify the important points concerning them.

In the previous discussion of the method of joints, it was pointed out that this procedure enables one to determine immediately all the unknown bar forces acting on an isolated joint, provided there are not more than two unknown forces and they have different lineS of action. It sometimes happens that there is only one unknown bar forceYieting on an isolated joint. In such a case. one of the two available equilibrium equations may be used to solve for the one unknown force, and the' other may be used as a check that must be satisfied by all the forces actmg on this joint, If there are more than two unknown forces acting on an isolated joint; it is usually impossible to obtain an immediate solution. for any of th~ ~nknowns from-thejwc :equations of equilibrium that are available at that joint. In such cases ;'it js'~~ary to isolate additional joints and write two additional equations for each~JQ1~i.~J'~,~thts .mauner, it is sometimes possible to obtain n independent equatip~~~ilW~!Ying'tiunknown bar forces. Then these n equations can be solved simulta~~~ltJor the n unknowns.

There is one importaiitcase.where there are more than two unknown bar forces acting on an isolated joint' but s9 arranged that it is possible to obtain the value of one of them immediately. If all the unknown forces except one have the same line of action', the force in that one particular bar can be determined immediately, Such a case is shown in sketch a of Fig, 4,6. lfthe x axis is taken as being parallel to the line bac and the y axis perpendicular to this line, the y component of the unknown force F can be determined immediately from the equation 'LFy = O. No immediate solution can be obtained from 'LF", = 0 at such ajoint since this equation involves both the unknowns Fab and Fac. A special case of this type is shown in sketch b of Fig. 4.6, where the joint is acted upon by only the three unknown bar ,

. forces. If F' arid F have the same line of action, 'if is apparent that the' only

• ub ac .

remaining force at the joint, Fad must be zero. It is als.o .of I~terest to consider the case shown in sketch c of Fig. 4.6. In this case, the jomt IS acted upon by only two forces, which do not have the same line of action; therefore, in order to satisfy 'IF = 0 and I,F = 0 for such a joint, both Fab and F.e must be equal to zero,

.< y •


HISel' SSI !Pi OF ~I E 1'1I0[) OF JO[:-; 'r s , SECTIONS



Figure 4.6 Special cases

It is abo interesting to note (hat once the reactions have been determined on a s;',nple truss. all the bar forces can be determined by using only the method of'joinrs and never resorting to the method of sections, It is apparent that this IS so, since there are only two unknown bar forces acting on the joint that was located las! in arranging the layout of the bars of the truss, After these two bar forces have been determined by isolating this joint, it will be found that the joints at the far end, of these two members arc acted upon by only two unknown bar forces. Thus, by isolating the joints in the reverse order from that in which they were established in laying out the truss, the method of joints can be used to determine all the bar forces, This explains why it is possible to solve Example 4.6 in this manner. It should be noted. however, that in many cases of simple trusses the calculation of all the bar forces can be expedited by combining the use of both the method of sections and the method of joints, as illustrated by some of the examples in Art. 4,12,

When applying the method of sections, if the isolated portion of the truss is acted upon by three unknown bar forces that are neither parallel nor concurrent, all three unknown forces can be determined from the three equilibrium equations available for the isolated portion. It is presumed, of course, that the reactions acting on any such portion have been determined previously. Of course, if there are only one or two unknown bar forces, they can be determined by using a like number of the available equations. The remainder of the equatirm, that must be satisfied by the system of forces acting on the isolated portion can then be used simply as a check on the calculations up to this point.

It is sometime, ro,sible to find some of the unknown forces by the method or sections even when there are more than three unknowns acting on the isolated porlion. For example, suppose that the lines of action of all but One of the unknown forces intersect at a point a. Then the stress in this one remaining bar can be determined from the equation L:M" = 0, that is, by summing up the moments of the forces about point Q, Another similar case would be one where all the unknown bar forces"except one are parallel: The stress in this, remaining bar can' tfien be determined by summing up all the force components that are perpendicular to the direction of the other unknown bar forces. In each of the above cases, the remaining two equilibrium equations for the isolated portion will involve more unknowns than there are equations, and hence no immediate solur io-i for these remaining unknowns is possible .

• I'

~ lit,

• • •

• • •

• • • • • • •

• • • • •




. ;:,.



In applying either the method of joini , or the method o(,cctillns, it is important to realize that it makes no dilfercllCl> ho« many bars h;IVC been cut ill which the bar forces are known, Only the uu mhr-r of unknown bar force, is unpor iaur.

In the latter half of the nineteenth century. graphical mcthnd-, of sUe"s analysis were widely used. with outstanding analysts such as Culmann. Maxwell, \10hr, and ~ulkr-Breslau being leaders in developing these computational techniques. C?raphtcal procedures for applying the method of joints in truss analysis were particularly useful, especially for trusses having unusual geometrical configurations. In earlier editions of this text, a 20-page chapter was devoted to a condensed treatment of some of the more useful graphical methods. Nowadays, of course, computerized solutions are available to handle truss analyses and other similar problems that were cumbersome and tedious to solve by hand calculations, whether graphical or algebraic. Since the study of graphical methods helps a person develop his skills for visualizing and representing physical and spatial relationships.

it was with great reluctance that we finally decided to delete the chapter on graphic' . statics in order to contribute space for the treatment of systematic structural>. analysis in Part II.

4.9 Statical Stability 'Ul,I Stutical Determinuncy of Truss Stn ... tures. Up 10 this point the emphasis has been placed on the methods of computing the bar forces In trusses. For this purpose. all the examples have been staticallv determinate and stable .. With these ideas as a background, it is now possible to di~,c'Jss the question of statical stability and determinancy of trusses from a general standpoint.

In discussing the arrangement of the members of a simple truss, it was shown that a rigid truss is formed by using- three bars to connect three joints together in the form of a triangle and then using two bars to connect each additional joint to ~h~ framework alr~py constructed. Thus, to form a rigid simple truss of n joints. Jl IS necessary to US~· the three bars of the original triangle plus two additional bars for each of the remaining 11 - 3 joints. If h denotes thc total number of bars

required, then .

b = 3 + 2(/1 - 3) = 2n - 3

This is the minimum number of bars that can be used to form a rigid simple truss. To lise more is unnccccssary, and to use fewer results in a nonrigid or un,tabie truss. If a simple truss having n joints and 2n' - 3 bars is supported ill a manner that is equivalent to three links that are neither parallel nor concurrent. the struct ure i3 stable undcr a general condition of loading and the reactions are staticallv determinate. In the previous article, it was pointed out that once the reaction's are found, all the bar forces of a simple truss can be computed by the method of joi nts.

If~an'theref6re be concluded that a stable simple truss ba~ing three independent reaction elements and 211 - 3 bars is statically determinate with respect to both reactions and bar forces. If there are more than three reaction elements the structure is statically indeterminate with respect to its reactions; if there are more than 211 - 3 bars but only t hrec reaction dements, it is indeterminate with respect

to'the bar forces; and if there is an excess of both bars and reaction elements, the structure is indeterminate with respect to both reactions and bar forces.

The same discussion and conclusions apply equally well to a compound truss.

Suppose a compound truss is formed by connecting two simple trusses together by means of three additional bars that are neither parallel nor concurrent. If the two simple trusses have III and 111 joints. respectively, the total number of bars b in the compound truss is

b = (2n[ -3) + (2n2 - 3) + 3 =:2(n1+ 112) - 3

or if n denotes the total number of joints In the. compound truss, i.e., if n = nl + n2, then



.•.. Thus, the minimum number of bars that can be used to form a rigid compound '. - truss is the same as in the case of a simple truss. If the remainder of the discussion.. were carried out in a similar manner for a compound truss, it would be found that > the conclusions of tbe previous paragraph apply equally well to both simple and

.. compound trusses.

It is desirable to discuss this question of deterrninancy and stability from a more general standpoint. Suppose a truss structure has r independeqt reaction elements,

~ bars. and. /I jO.ints. .If the .t:us~ as a wh~le is in equilibrium,;e¥ry isolated pornon must likewise be In equilibrium, To Isolate an entire baf:i_otfJ;ome portion of

it would produce no new information since the equilibrium cort'diiions ofthebars were considered during the establishing of the definition of the term bar.force. However. it is possible to isolate each of the II joints in turn and~t'o::write f~r"each of these joints two n.ew and independent equations ofstatic!ci~ilibiium. 'LFx = 0 - and I.Fy = O. In this manner. a total of 211 mdependentc;q!{;rllOns would be obtained, involving as unknowns the r reaction elements and'thC"b.b'ar forces a total of r + b unknowns. These 211 equations must be sati~fied simultaneously by the

r + b unknowns. By comparing the number of unknowns with the number of independent equations. it is possible to decide whether a truss structure is unstable statically determinate. or indeterminate. Th~ reasoning involved is similar to that used in Art. 2S If r + b is less than 2n, there are not enough unknowns available 1 to satisfy the 211 equations simultaneously and therefore the truss structure is said to be ) statically unstable. If r + b is equal 10 211, the unknowns can be obtained from the t Sil1l1:ltalleolis SO/:Ition of :he 2n .equatiolls and therefore the structure is said to be slatlcally determinate. 1J r + h IS greater than 211. there are 100 many unknowns to be determined from these 2n equations alone and therefore the structure is said to be statically indeterminate, The criterion establishes the combined degree of indeterminancy with respect to both reactions and bar forces. provided that .the structure is neither staticallji nor geornet'rically ullstable.- It· is- apparent that these c~ncIusions agree with the foregoing discussion of simple and compound trusses.

At first glance, it might seem that the total number of independent equations of static equilibrium in a truss structure should include not only the 2" equations noted in the previous paragraph but also the three equations "L.F" = 0, 2:.F, = 0, and 2:.M = ° applied to the entire structure as a








Figure 4.7 Equilibrium considerations

free body. However, the following demonstration will prove that this offhand opinion is not so and that there are only 2n independent equations. Consider any truss as a free body acted upon by its reactions and applied loads such as the truss shown in Fig, 4,7a. Suppose that the system of forces shown in Fig. 4.7b is superimposed on the system in Fig. 4.70; the combination of these two loading systems will then be as shown in Fig. 4.7c. ' The load system in b is a special system consisti ng of several pairs of equal and opposite forces, one pair for each member of the truss. For any particular member, both forces of its pair act along the member, one acting on the joint at one end of the member and the other on the joint at the other end, Each of the forces is numerically equal 10 the bar farce in that member produced by the farces in system a and acts in a sense that is the same as the action of this bar force on the joint, Each pair of forces is in equilibrium, of course, and hence all the pairs acting together form a system that is in equilibrium.

Considering now the combined system in c, it is found that the forces acting at each joint of the truss are the same forces that would be acting on that joint if, under the loading of a, it were isolated by itself as a free body, If, however, the applied forces, reactions, and bar forces satisfy simultaneously the 211 equations of statics obtained by isolating the n joints and writing '£F, = 0 and "iF. ~'~, 0 for each joint, the forces acting on each joint in c form a concurrent system of forces that are in equilibrium. Since at each joint the forces are in equilibrium. the combined system in c of all joints is in equilibrium and satisfies the equations "i:,F. ~ 0, "i.F. = 0, and Y.M ~ 0 for the entire truss, Since the combined system in c is in equilibrium and the portion of this system shown in sketch b is alio in equilibrium by itself, then the remaining portion of the system as shown in sketch a must "be in equilibrium and therefore must satisfy the equations Lf~ -~ 0, "i:,f"" ~ 0, and :E}\ct = 0 for the entire truss, It may be concluded, therefore, that, if the reactions. bar forces, and applied loads satisfy the 2n equations of equilibrium obtained by isolating the joints of the truss, then the reactions and applied loads will automatically satisfy the three equations of equilibrium for the truss as a whole and that thus there are only 2n independent equations of static equilibrium involved in a truss,

lt should he noted that (nmparing the count of the unknowns and tire independent equations establishes a criterion which is necessary but not always sufficient to decide whether a truss is stable or not, If' b + r is less than 2n, this comparison is sufficient for deciding that the truss is statically unstable. If, however, b + r is equal to or greater [han 2n, it does nor automatically follow that the truss is stable. This statement can be verified by considering the examples shown in Fig. 4.8. In all four of these cases, -the structures are, unstable, whereas, t,he 5oun,t by itself indicates that a and b are statically determinate and c and d are indeterminate to the first degree, a and d are unstable under a general condition ofloading because in each case the reactions arc equivalent to parallel links, band c are unstable, not beUlUS(' of the arrangement of the reactions but because of the arrangement of the bars. in 1>, (oj;' example, the rCuctiono are statically determinate, but the truss is unstable



I .'




D:'3 r-3 '7:8 b+r-1E (n-1(}

LL, !3 : =3 '- d [i t- r _1~) ?!"1:_ 1~,

• •

• • •

b,17 r - '1 n c tC btrc21 2,0,20

t r :

Figure 4.11 Unstable SlrLk'ltire'

and would collapse because there is nothing to carry the shear in the second panel from the right end.

, ~hese and other considerations lead to the conclusion that, even though the count indicates that the truss structure is either statically determinate or indeterminate (or it t~ be stable also, ii, is necessary that the following conditions shall !ike;\'is~" he satisfied: (I) The reactions mllSI be equit.alcnt 10 three or more links that are neither parallel nor concurrent. (2) The bars of {he {russ must a/so be arranged /11 (111 adequate manlier. It is sometimes difficult to determine whether or not the ar runaement of the bars is adequate. !n such cases, if the arrangement js inade(j'Elk~ it ~;.!Lbec~me apparent; for when a stress analysis is attempted, it will yield result«

th_at a_r~~~s(ent, infinite or indeterminate, -

. :[10 Examples Illustrating the Determination of Stability and Deleemill:tllcY. J, IS easy to investigate the stability and determinancy of a truss structure that IS form~d by supporting in some manner a truss that is in itself a rigid bodv. The tru~s Itself may bcrnerel~,a si;nple" or compound trll~S or, in some cases, ; simple or compound truss modified oy adding more [Lall tnc Ilece"ar'y number of bars. In elth~r case, the bars, reactions, and joints can be counted and the criteria of the last ar~lcle a~pl ied to decide whether the structure is unsta ble, sta t icallv determinate. or statl.cally Indeterminate. This count, of course, enables one to cla;sifv the st ructure With .respect to both bar forces and reactions. If the count shows that the st:ucture IS statically determinate or indeterminate. the question of stability must ~tIlI be decided, for-the count by itself-is notrsufficient to prove that the sl;ul'ture IS stable.

It is also easy to classify simple or compound trusses with respect to their react ion-, only, If there arc fewer than three independent reaction elements the .tr t ,'-

t . II ' strur u re IS

~:tIca y U1:stable under a general condition of ]oadillo'( re""'l'eJi..:,;s of how tl.c h:lr,; the truss are arranged, If there are three or mort: independent reaction clements

• •

• •

• •

• • •

• • •

" .,

• • It

• • • • • •


• • • • • • • •








b,9 ,,4 ,,~6 ",12 (,2 0,,'

10) :D)

b~43 r'5 17'24 {b)


, /

, I /



b'18 "3 n'lO

~ rfQ/

o : 2/6 n, 15


b=42 ,'5

( c )




_ 9 ECl[jeis _@_g5' __ ,

0'34 T' E n=2:) Ie]

D=31 r=5 1"18 u:

Figure 4.10 Examples for classification

trusses connected together in some manner and then the whole assemblage mounted

on a certain number ofsuppvrls. In such cases the supports are usually arranged

so as to provide more than three independent reaction elements. The connections between the several rigid trusses are nut completely rigid, however, so that certain equations of condition (or construction) are introduced to reduce the degree of indeterminancy or perhaps even to make the reactions statically determinate. This type of structure is the hardest to analyze from a stability or determinancy standflOint.· However, some of the most irnporfaru trussed structures, e.g., canti- .• lever and three-hinged arch bridges, belong in this category, and therefore it is important for the student to master the methods of investigating this type. Structures of this general type arc illustrated in Fig, 4.10.

The stability and determinancy of st r uctu re-, of" the type shown in Fig, C.".IO can be investigated by comparing the count of the bars and reaction elements with

..7::35 r , 5 n:-j8 ie)

Figure 4.9 Examples for classification

and they are arranged so as to be equivalent 1.0 three or more links that arc neither parallel nor concurrent, the structure is stable with respect to its reactions. For a stable structure, if there are exactly three reaction elements, these elcrnent-, are statically determinate; if there are more than three reaction elements, the structure is statically indeterminate with respect to its reactions alone to a degree that is equal to the number of reaction clement, in excess of three. Structures ir: this general category are shown in Fig. 4.9.

The COUnt of the bars, joints, and reaction elements is shown in each of the sketches in Fig. 4.9. Considering only the reactions, structure a is stable and statically indeterminate to the first degree. Since b + r = 13 and 2n = 12, it is also indeterminate to the first degree, (Y)[l~ioering both reactions and bar forces. The count of structure b indicates that it is statically determinate since b + rand 2n are both equal to 14. A consideralion of the reactions, however, discloses that this structure is actually unstable. Likewise. the count indicates that structure c is statically indeterminate to the first degree, but consideration of the reactions shows that it is unstable. Both the count and the consideration of the reactions indi.ca~e that structure d is indeterminate to, the- first degree, With respect to the reactions only, structure e is indeterminate to the second degree, but a count of both bars and reactions discloses that it is actually indeterminate to the fourth degree.

There is another important type of truss structure that is built up out of more than just one rigid truss. In this type, the structure is composed of several rigid




the count of the joints" with this criterion. it will be conduded that structures a, b. d, c, andJare statically determinate .md structure c is indeterminate to the first degree. In structures of this type, it is a iso important to consider whether or not the structure is statically dctcrrnin.ue with respect to its reactions alone. This can be done by comparing the count of the unknown reaction elements with the number of available equations in the same manner as in Arts. 2.5 and 2.6. In these cases, the available equations include the three equations of static equilibrium for the structure as a whole plus any equations of condi tion which may be introduced by the manner in which the several rigid trusses are connected together.

If two trusses arc hinged together at a common joint, such as the joints marked a in Figs. 4.IOa to e, one equation of condition is introduced, namely, that the bending moment about that point must be zero since the hinge cannot transmit a couple from one truss to the other. If two trusses are connected together by a link or roller, such as the link marked I in structure d, two equat ions of condition arc introduced since then both the direction and point of application of the interacting force are known. This means. therefore. (I) that the bending moment about either end of the link must be zero or, in other words, (2) that the interacting force between the two trusses cannot have a component perpendicular to the link. If two trusses are connected together by two parallel bars, as is done in panels P of structures d and e, one equation of condition is introduced. namely. that the interaction between the two trusses cannot involve a force perpendicular to the two bars. In the case of structures d and C', this means that the shear acting on panel p must be zero.

From this discussion, it is apparent that one equation ha-, been introduced in structure a, two in D, one in c, four in d. and three in e. It will be concluded, therefore, that with respect to reactions only structures a, b, d, and e are statically determinate and structure c is indeterminate to the first degree. Structure f is a special type of structure. called a \Vichert1 truss in this country. that can be counted only by considering the bars, joints. and reactions.

There is no obvious instability in any of the structures of Fig. 4.10. If,IIO\\·('ver. one attempts to compute the reactions and bar forces for either structures e ot ], the results will be inconsistent, infinite. or indeterminate: therefore, these struct urc-, are actually unstable. In bot h cases, by changing only the' geometry of the structure. it is possible to !1E1ke (11,C' q!\lctl!r~ ,t:,hk Structure« (' ;Ind/are therefore said to be: geometrically unstable. This type of instability may arise whenever equations of condition are introduced by the nrrar gcrnern of the structure. Sometimes the instub.lity is obvious, but usually it does not become apparent until one attempts to compute the reactions, etc."

4.,11 Conventional Types of Bl"i.lgc and Roof Trusses. The members of a truss can btl arranged in un almost unlimited number o_f wan, but the. vast.major isy of trusses encountered in bridge or building work belong to one of the common types shown in Figs. 4.11 and 4.12. Since they are encountered so frequently. the student should be familiar with the names of these conventional types.

In. B, Stein-nan. "The Wi.hcrt T~-:i-''','' O. v'un "l':('~iI"aTlJ. Cor .... ip:.tny, lnc., New York, 19~2. , For a more complete discussior see W. M. Fife and J. B. Wilbur, "Theory of Statically t"""terminale Structure'." M.;Gmw-Hilt Boo" COn1p~ny, New York, t937.



Hcwe Trw,:; 101

Prot .. Truss



Warren Truss I.e]

Warr€n Truss wlh ver+ico Is (d ~


K Truss lei

Sub- di.lded Warren Truss (f)


SlIb-divldod Pra·t Truss or Boltlmore Truss (gi

So It i more Truss WI-h Incllrecl cnor d I)! Pen T 1rus~

Figure 4.11 Conventional bridge trusses

Trusses a, b, c, d, and e of Fig 4.11 are simple trusses, while the rernainins trusses are .compound trusses built up out of the simple trusses (shaded) 1 b d .

achiev . I d . . n or er to

. ~ econorruca esign of single-span steel-truss bridges, it is essential for the

ratio 0 depth of truss to length of span to be between 1_./ and 1L f th di r

I . 0 75 /10, or e ragona s

to s ope at approximately 45 to the horizontal, and for the panel 1 .tll·

exceed 30 to 40 ft T eng s not to . . russes a, b, c, and d can meet these requirements if the span

IS not too long For long-spa br id h .

ofth bdi id d n n ges, owever, It becomes necessary to usc one

e su IVI e types such as f, g, or h. .

AI! the roof trusses show . F 4 12 .

II F" k ..' n m Ig.. are simple trusses, with the exception of

ic In truss, which IS a compound truss.

4.12. D1ustrative Exampl!'.s f St A I .

I "" . e ress na YSIS of Determinate Trusses, The fol-

o~;n"'. exafmPles Illustrate ~he application of the previous discussions to 1 he stress

ana ysrs 0 several conventional ty'p f t - Th .

d. . es 0 russcs, e analvsis of such trusses i'

iscusscd further In Chap. 6. .' . s

Howe Truss

P-rot! Truss


. ~ .

- I

. 10)

Fan Truss


Figure 4.12 Conventional roof trusses

I f

• •

-I, ...




Example 4.7 chord.

Determine the bar forces in all members 0/ this Pratt truss with a currrd lop

OoM() IZG'?ox30' ~767,5

-10 _ 3·r87,~ = Mb

106 25x 3O~ :'187.,5

- 45 6975.0= Me:

6fi~x30' 16315

·')0 sBiis Md

-\USx30° 3315

- 4~ 0/50.0 - Me


3U W3TI -M,.

-G3~?5x3D' i_91~





i "



i r


This Pratt trUSS is a simple truss and call there/ore be analyzed by usillg simply thc method of

joints. This procedure, however, is II{)I particularly efficient ill a case where the two chords arc not parallel. Probably the best procedure is first 10 find tire horizontal components ill the members of the curved chord, These can be computed by passing a vertical section through" pane] and takinq moments about the appropriate joil1l on tire bottom chord. Tnese computation,' are facilitated i/ the bending moments are known at the various joints along the bottotn chord.

The bending moments 01 the bOllom·chord joints and tire shears in the pand, can roncenientlv be computed as shown, In this cast', where ali the loads and reactions are rerttcal ; the bendino moment about any LOp-chord joint is the same as (hat about the botrom-clinrd john directly under it . 0/ course, if there are horizontal loads, this relationship is not necessarily true ..

The horizontal components in (he top chord being known, the remainder o] [he stress analysis C<ln be accomplished by the method of joints. 11 should also be noted that it is easy 10 compute the vertical component .. in the diaqonals once the shears in the panels and the certicn! components in the tap chords are known.




E •• ",ple ,1.8



11375' +



~rg 2?47~

\H3.-<~'~·;-'- ) ». o; I~: -

- -t::C_').::l


Although thi» fl"k truvs j '; a compound IrWi_'~ it can hi' a,,(i!Y_-l_od hy lisiNY on I)' tire mel:lOtt of ioints. For example, afler 'he reactions hare been comp!ltcd~ the method o/jo/ni,- run be oppticd successioelv at joinrs_i) [I ; q,.~d h. Since then: are more than (h'() unknown bar forcr-: at each oj joints g and G, it is no/ possible 10 consider thes« joints as th« /1('."'0 ste]: in the anoly-J», nowerer, olle ('UII determine Ill" force ill bar Ff by iw/alillg joint F and t lu: force ill h"r fG by isoiotin« joint I. lhen 'he stress anolvsis can he completed .... fill b)" means oli» in f .... '. Thi: proccdur« i~ po.'5ii'/t' ').,d_i because joints £1 F~ and G and likewise joints E, f, antlq lie on .H! ai_qllr lines,

HOH'eL'Cr, it is usually preferable to proceed as follow«. Ajler applyiJig the 1IIt:hod ,j"jiJi,l,'f_\ ut joints i, H. (Old II. the force in bar cg call he obtained hy isolat nu; the portion to th» riah: o] .),:',( :i()11 I·) and laking moments about point E; the rest of the anatysi» C(I/1 then h~ completed hy th(' .'",:1/10" of join Is.

Nate a/sa that the stress alia lysis can be expedited by filldillg tlu: forces ill bars Cd, CU, Gj, and 'Gh, "'sind sectionssimilar fa section 2·2 and laking ;1101>1<'111.1' abou: pain" such as point E 111 'he ca,'e of sectlon 2-2.

The main point to remember is to consider the applicotion oj' both the method of joints and the method of sec/ions and combine the two approaches in such a waya.1 t o expedite the calcuiations.

Note tha: the geometry of the truss is rather complicated This is often true of roof trusses, in such cases it is often easier to accomplish tlu: strcs. analy«: .. h.'. ,,~','~[1f,h;·n7.j methods.







11 I· 0111r1l HOI1"C In'l·S.

Determine the forct's in a nidll!!( 1'.\

!llls'es C<J nnot be classified as either simple Or compound. Such a truss is shown in Fig. 4.l3a. In these case>, u is usually difficult to tell by inspect ion whether the truss is rigid or not and whether it is statically determinate or indeterminate. In th is particular case, a count of the structure shows that there are nine bars and six joints, which indicates that the structure is statically determinate. Whether or not the truss is stable is not apparent, but one way of finding out is to attempt a stress analysis and discover whether the results are consistent.

After computing the reactions, it is found that there is no joint at which (here are only two unknown bar forces. Applying the method of joints will therefore not yield immediate solutions for the bar forces as in the case of simple trusses. It is also found that the method of sections likewise will net yield an immediate solution for any of the bar forces. Of course, it is possible to set up and sol v e nine simultaneous equations involvi ng the nine unknown bar forces by using nine of the twelve equations that result from applying the method of joints to the six joints of the structure. If the three reactions have already been computed, the three remaining equations can be used for checking the results obtained for the nine bar

Example 4.9








//,W? ~5'

Figure 4.13 Complex truss


Setting lip nine equations in this manner i, a poor \\"J.'. to ~ClI\'e this problem, however. Several other approaches arc LTFIc:h SUpcr'OI, one of" hidl i, to proceed as follows. After computing the reactions, a:')SlJnl-e tkd lhc horizonr.rl ("\Hllp·unl:nt of the bar force in member FE is a tension of H. Then. fro:n joint t . the horizonra: componcnr ii' FA must also be . If, and the bar force in Fe i\ . ·OS/I. By i<,,!atLl1g jo.nt C, it l' then (uuml that the IlCTrizontal and vertical components in hoth h:trs HI and en are" 0.5/1 and - O~"fI. respective!,. The forces in these five bars having occn found in terms of II. it is no"." D()..;~·!r~1c '0 p.;)'.;s <;cctiOll I-I rhrough the truss, thus isolating the portio.: to the righ: of this scrtiun. \V~lcn t he morucms about point a arc surnmed.n-, equation i'l nbt~jncd invt)!viEg II ib the 01l1y u nk no- ... n:

Discussion:. ,_ . '/1. r ''I~JPute the vertica! compo.uas ; i.ll ui!

. J F'(H/CJ/IIp/il(dlll~~PO\~Ii'c),()L',. 1

After the i cuctron, un e ,(,' ~ , " .", t ,', it her usina either the method 0 joints

the web member» by working [ron. ~JHI.' I'ndil_t tn: tru "~ (~II.h I, " ';"~/"{ll'conll)onc"ts in 1/1(' dilif./O,rah

'" /'. T/T'i it isoo ... ·swlc/() ((J.'11Pld{ il'I.-'IUAL'- • 1 , •

or the method ol ,)((,dOI.S. d.; I, .,r. .. /J' , I this elise however, Inc compuuuton

} I! 1'u',lte: to n'-"arn tire (J:('II, OICt~. rt rnt, ~ , II

a".d apply I Ie met !Of 0 ) I. .. • hori I .0 I' )J. '/1'< in the various diagol1!1i.1". Since a

/ r. I ,-J. onlv 011 :11(' ion zonia, c In c I~ •• • !

oj th: chore jorces aeocn. ,~ .. -. .., II .. crtica! and horizontal componentsis lie

I I ! .. / )JJ' inc ratio ne[lLc,u. rL I d

tl:e diaqono ~' lOU.' ! u: S.dl/U· .1 (I t: l I • " s:r.» (- (1/ the carious joints 10 obtoin th» char

II' . ',' II' ee,,' -!() iu, if:' (/FPj~l/,·.lj - }i" ) • 'n ri! f

Sallie '". a '. :r.~'.:"., '~\".i~·.f>;;/)l:' ·'0 ",:. ,t", '''''.'''f.' "I ,·,,,·'iro! ('(J"',n{IIIP11t\ I('mp:mmlv tn o "~~ 0.

j'.."l-L·.), II c ) "'I..I,").)'l FLr • _ I' /. '7 '1'('1' thr values obtained for the (lund t

ts] [ill' Jiuo.»,« I' 1,',' {!l, "Il'~. } fit

thr horizomu! ccnnponcms III. "." ._.., ,' __ [ !""a the ratio between these value,., an, I if

t lot' > j }/' 'orcc: ,Til lil(' .(_ /IOf{ ~. I" .

forces arc m);" {'tilld 10 ttu. ,I W. " J _, ' +' bet wee» rIll' rertical and horizontal components UI the

tnte nlJU{!S is constant and equa! to th. I{/IW

diaqonuls, j It· J', i bv a constant factor to obtain the true

. .. I· 1 I J. d [orrrs which mu,\j IH' ow; Ip iU.. '. b

7 H('.I'e t:{[ W:~ 0 tie (' tor ,- { L n, .i, the vertical components in the we

II { . d fore ':0; [or f !H' chore v • Il\.t"h .. ve .

bm' force are cu U In ex 1,;, , ". I.' Tt esc index forces are easily written. down,

b ~ d.t \·illdc~jor,.·\j"'II""1t·"" I. ..• ., b

IIlclllbas may e reterre . (III. . ..,. f- .. I: . di('qrtllli Then the true bar forces can e

I· ~iJ~H"lutne 'r.~lJorc(' ,_ . ~

a \ \1101.1'11 hy the Hum )(!rs 111 fHi.rCfi. 1:, • .l _. ••. .• j licatcd

. I . I' I , " -f, .. , 'jol'CC\' bv cer-tuul.fuClrJ'-', n .. H.t . d

o[;lui!lt:d by lilli lip ymy t nc i.ll t.... . _. . ,_. 'lcl-chot d trusses that have equal panels an

Tt f ! l 'ji . , ... IId7jlli III ilIWh_I1liJ para,. d i

J , • ..., r(,;,'c (l lll, c.\: Of fl." ,~ 1 ~. IJ - d. x-forcc method becomes involved an IS

art' actrd npon by fnln.ITersc [oruis, In other C:!'"~S~ It' m e .

t. 1'.:~:1J"1· [I!f;'''i~rr 10 ! he of /i,'I' n:{~rl?;,d, a trro ell , d, \ ('il,\ ,,·('d.

I'lf - f20110.311) -. (15)(20) ~ 0

wheoce II - .: (-iO. \\,'ir:l If knov.r, :~j~ the L\::~.:r b<ll' 10t·,>.: -, ,,:~~n he found by the method of joints . ;J~ shown in Fig, 4.13h Since in thi- m.inncr it i~ !lu:-;sibk tc' !113ke 8_ consisten] stress analysis of :hi_'i. truss undi-r any roru.i.tion of 1\)~lJi[j~_ it Ceil' be conclu, .. kd [hat it is statically determinate and stable.

Trusses of this t)";1(:, which "'nl;Tot he clclssitieu as either ,imple or compound, may be called COmplex trusses. Prllk:,,:,or S. Tirnoshcnko u:-,c" this tel'n1i;lology' In his excellent discussion of complex trusses, Tirnoshenko ([",cribc, a geneval method of analysis of complex trusses called

Henneberg's method." . .'

. While the student should know hw .. to recognize a corr plcx truss and something about investi-

gafing its stability and stress anuly-.' ..... he \\'in not encour.ter this typo often enough to warrant

1 S. Timoshenko and D. H. Young, .. E'lgillcering Mecha nics." \"0J. I ... Statics," McGraw-Hili Book Company, New York, 1956.

1 This method \\;;. '.1:.:'. ·~~:·~r·':i.-l hy L ! +.'. ~":~2~:;; i.i ~~,~ .. Si,il,;'_ J"':l -tarrcn Sysicme," lJarmstadt, 19~6.

• •

• •

• • •

• • • •

• • • • •

• • •





J I 0 ..

( 01

devoting more space to the subject h:.._'-H.'. l ! :Hjdjtjor~al information i:-; required, the student is referred to Timoshcnkr ... ·s book.' SC\ cr.1I pt"ubk'rn" at the end of dlh chanter emphasize the faCf that complex trusses may often be ar'·clt1~I.·d ..;,~) :L";' t o be g-:I"):nctricall) uli"tl0k. Ca'ic,;,; ofthi..; type are not always obvious and InJY nol be .... ·..._'!l"':.K clp:'_ar~:llt unul the- stress an3.1Y~1~ i"i attempted and found to lead to ir.consistent results.

4.14 Two-Duuensional Rigid Fr-ames, Before closing this treatment on twodimensional structures. it is important to call to the attention of the student the difference bel ween an ideal truss and a so-called rigid frame. The members of a rigid frame arc usually connected by moment-resisting (rigid) joints instead of being hinged together as in an ideal truss. Thus, a rigid frame may be defined as a structure composed of a number of members all l~'ing in one plane and connected so as to form a rigid configuration by joints, some or aU of which arc moment-resisting (rigid) instead of hinged.

A moment-resisting joint is capable of lransmitLing both a force and a couple from one member to the other members connected by the joint. Such a joint can be formed by riveting or welding ,111 the member, to gusset plates, The detail of such joints is such that the angles between the ends of the various members at a joint remain essentially unchanged as the frame deforms under load, For this reason, moment-resisting joints arc usually referred to as rigid joints.

By a strict interpretation of these definitions, a modern truss with riveted or welded joints should actually be classified as a rigid frame. However, since a satisfactory stress analysis can usually be obtained by assuming that such a truss acts as if it were pin-jointed. such structures are called trusses. The term rigid frame i, reserved to designate structures of the type shown in all of Fig, 4.l4 except sketch b. When rigid frames arc rcprcscrn ed by line diagrams. as in this figure, moment-resisting joints are designated by indicating little fillets between the memhers meeting at a joint. Any pin joints arc represented in the: usual manner.

The stability and dercrminancv of rigid frames can be investigated by methods similar to those used for trusses. For this purpose, a criterion may be: established comparing the number of unknow ns with the number of independent equation, of st at ic equilibrium available for their solutiou.

The total number or independent unknowns is equal to the sum of the number of unknown reaction clements plu- the number of independent unknown internalforce components in the member', In a frame with rigid joints. the action of a joint on a member may consis: of a couple a, I\-ell as a force. Likewise, this force lllZly have both axial arid transverse components, As a result, the cross sections of a member may be subjected to an a vial force. shear, and bending moment. However. if the axial force, shear. arid bending moment arc known at one end of a member, similar quantities can be found for any other cross section of the member. There are-therefore only three independent- internal-force components for each member of the frame. If the number of reaction elements is r and the number of members is b, the total number of independent unknowns in a rigid frame is equal to 3b + r.



, Timoshenko and Young, op. C,I,



1 1


Figure 4.14 Rigid frames

If a rigid joint is isolated ~s. a ,free body, it will be acted upon by a system of forces and couples., For equJl!bnum of such a joint, this system, therefore must

satisfy three equations of statrc equilibrium "iF = 0 ~F = 0 d ~M _'

h irc fr. - - ." ' x ,,,,, J , an "" _ O. If

t. e entire lame IS In equilibrium, each of its joints must be ' ilib '

If h -, - id ., , l!l eqUl Inurn.

t ere at e I. fig! joints to the frame, each of these joints can be isolated as a f

b,ody and a total of 312 equations of static equilibrium obtained. As in the discussion of tr~sse:;, II .can be shown that the three equations of equilibrium of the entire structure are not II1dcpenden.t of these equations, and therefore it can be concluded that the~e arc only 3n equations of static equilibrium for the entire rigid frame.

Occasional Iv hinges Or some oth . 1 di .

." , er specra con itions of construction are int _

duced LIllO the structure, if ill this manner s special equations of condition are inl~~-

<iuced, the total number of equations available 'or the sol ti ., I k .

l' I f 3 . , l' U 1011 oJ t Ie un 1I0l'"liS WIll

q,IQ 11 + s. T~le criterion for stability and dcterminancy of the rigid frame is ob-

Wined by comparing the number of unknowns 3b + r with the numb .r , d d.

e '1 . " H er oJ III epen ent

quations, _11 + s. As before; it call therefore be concluded that

If 3n + s > 3b + r , the frame is unstable, ~

lf31! _+ s. "'_ 3b + r, .the frame is stetically deterrninate. • ~. .~

Jf3n + s < 3b +_ r, the frame is statically indeterminate.

If the criterion indicates that the frame is statically deter 'nat . d. . . sho l . . . u. mtna e or en etermznate, rt

u d bee remembered/rom the similar discussion in Art 49 til at the t 1 d.

not - b . . coun a,one oes

prove a solutely that the structure is stable' it lila)' be st ti II .

unstable. . a tea y or qeometrically

• •







This criterion establishes the combined degree of inde(erminancy with respect to both reactions and internal-force components. The degree of indeterminancy with respect to reactions only can be established in the same manner as discussed in Art. 4.10 for truss structures and also in Arts. 2.5 and 2.10.

Table 4.1 shows the application of the above criterion to the frames in Fig. 4.14.

Tab!e ".1

Frame I_n 1_$ b r 3n -I- s 3h -+-,. Classification
10 3 24 33 Indeterminate, ni neth degree
a 8 0
b 8 0 13 3 24 42 Indeterminate, eighteenth degree
c 4 0 3 3 12 12 Determinate
d 4 0 3 3 12 12 Determinate
c 4 0 3 6 12 J 5 Indeterminate, third degree
f 9 0 I JO 9 27 39 Indeterminate, twelfth degree
g 6 0 6 6 18 24 Indeterminate, sixth degree
h 6 0 5 9 18 24 Indeterminate, sixth degree
k 6 2 I 5 9 2.0 24 Indeterminate, fourth degree
m 4 I 3 6 13 )j Indeterminate, second degree
n 6 3 I 6 6 21 24 Indeterminate, third degree restraints that must be removed 10 accomplish tlsis result is equal to th« c/cqi'ce of ill- j::.

determinancy of the actual structure, . . '.

4.15 Statical COOllitions for Tbrc.,-di"",nsi()llal Frameworks. In II1IS trcutrncnt '.

of three-dimensional structures, analysi-. will be made with [eferellce' 10 t hrco co-

ordinate axes. ox and oy will be used, as 111 planar structures, i.e .. \\ ith (IX •

horizontal and oy vertical; the third axis oz is horiwntal and perpendicular to

the plane xoy. I

It should be pointed out that the basic approach to the analysis of three-dimensional s~ructures is the same as for planar structures. Any equation of sUllie'; can t be applied to the structure as a whole or to any portion of the structure. There

are, however, mor~ equations of statics available, since forces call he xu m mcd i1p •

along a new coordinate axis and moments can be taken about t v, 0 new coordina te

axes. •

It is usual~y assumed that the member, of a Ihrce-dimensionai frameworK arc connected ~'Ith universal joints in such a manner lilat the members carry axial tI force only. Hence there IS only one independent component of bar force for

each member of the framework. Although each member can have three com-

ponents of bar force, one parallel to each of (he three coordinate axes, the relations •

between these three components can be computed from the projections of the

member. •

At a point of support of a space framework, it is possible to have three independ.ent components of force reactions. although the structure may be designed at a ~Oll1t of support .so that one or morc of these reaction components equal zero. In Fig. 4.15a, the hinge support shown. which is actually a universal joint. can d~velo~ three independent reactions, Roe<, ROY' and R.z. Suppose that the ~m~e IS /eplaced with a roller, as shown in Fig 4.15b. Since this resists

orizonta movement in the c direction only, the reactions Rand R ' be

developed, but. Rox equals zero. If the roller is replaced by a s;herical h;II~'\~cr~ can be no horizontal reaction whatever and only the vertical reaction R " be de . 1 d Thi ditinn j 0, can c

,,~ope . IS con Ilion IS shown in Fig. 4.1Sc. Sometimes it mal' be COIl-

yement to represent !hese t?r~e typical supports by an eqUivalent numbc~r 01 TiiTK.i .. F~mple, the uJUversal-Jomt suPpoi1SJTowlI in fJg. 4.15a is equivalent to three COncurrent but nonplanar links such as shawn isornetricallv in Fi g 4 1 ~d· t he rut! ,.' C . et support In bg. 4.ISb, to the two concurrent links ill the plane 10.:: as shown

In fIg. 4.1.5e; and the ball support in Fig. 4.15c. to the one link in th~ OJ" dircc.riun

assliownmFlg.4.15f ~~-

r ~

o represent these three types of support ill plan view, heavy dotted line \\;il

~ drawn ~lon~ the lines of action where horizontal reactions can ex ivt. This i-; Illustrated I~ FIg. 4.16, where (a) represents a hinge-lype support in which horizontal reactions can be developed in both 'thcv - and , direction: (h)· rep' . _~ r II· ,. r esen t-, ,t

o er-type .support, with the Toller so placed that a horizontal reaction can be

developed m the z direct!on only; (c) represents Q foller-type support. with the roller so placed that a hor izonta! reaction can be developed in the .r direction on 1)1:

1 Such a universal (or ball) joint ,,·'11 be rcr--c'er~:."; ~_, .[ .,.

representation of space frameworks. :<11<1. (";':._-n I..:H(I~>'; JJ\ t~c rjT1~'-l:i;I::_:;,lill

In applying this criterion, any extremity of the frame, e.g., those marked E in Fig. 4.14, should be counted as a rigid joint even though just one member is connected to it. Sometimes the count of the s special equations of condition is rather difficult to make. It is quite obvious in structure k of Fig. 4.14 that the insertion of the two hinges has introduced two equations of condition. The insertion of the hinge joint A in structure In introduces one equation of condition, but the insertion of a similar joint A as shown in structure n introduces two equations of condition. In each case, the validity of these counts is more apparent if one considers the auxiliary sketches of the joints shown in each case. The auxiliary sketches show how the same structural action can be obtained at these joints by insertion of hinges in the ends of the members meeting at the joint. These alternative arrangements require one hinge for structure m and two hinges for the joint A in structure II. To generalize. it may be stated that the number ofspeciJ!lJ:ondition equations intfOcf"uced 0)' \he m,ertlOn 01 a hmge joint in a ngld fr e is equa to! c num er 0 ars mce !fig at t at Jomt mmus. t e s special equatlOl1!'. are counted 1Il thiS manner. the criterron Yields the correct results.

After reading this last paragraph. the reader will no doubt appreciate the truth of the statement that it is almost impossible to count some structures properly without firsr knowing tire answer. . Because of the difficulties encountered in counting some structures, the authors feel that, while criteria such as the above are sometimes very useful, the stress analyst should rely 011 a more fundamental approach to

L., determine the degree of indeterminancy of an indeterminate structure. The most ! fundamental approacl: is to rcmorc supports and/or to cut members until the structure Jllas been reduced to a statically determinate and stable structure. The number of'

' .. .... _.

t •


t t

• • •

• •

. -, ", . . . . ,-- ,. \,

• '. •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • •









Bo!1 support

un.ver sot-jolnt support

Roller s uppor t





( J ' r I

Figure 4.15 Typical supports of space frameworks

and (d) represents a ball-type support, in which there can be no horizontal rea.ction,

Thus the: total number of independent unknown stress elements present III the analysis of a three-dimensional framework equals. the number ~f bars plus the number of independent reaction components (or links), there being one, two,. or three of the latter at each point of support. depending on the type of construction used at the reaction point.

'"" . For a three-dimensional framework, six. indepi'lIden(. equations. of statics may be written regarding the equilibrium of the e xternal loads and reacl~ons acting on the entire structure. If ox, 0)', and oz represent the three coordinate axes, these equations are LFx = 0, LFy = 0, LF, = 0. 'LMx =~, LMy = 0, and 'f.M= ~ O. .J.Mx denotes the sum of the moments about the ox axis of all the forces acting on the

structure, etc.




--I .: _L,I_







PLAN (dl


Figure 4.16 Indication of horizontal reaction components

II may therefore be concluded that a necessary (although not sufficient) condition for statical determination of a three-dimensional framework with respect to its outer [orces is that the total number of independent reaction components shall equal six.

- If we now consider both the internal and external forces, three independent equariol/so/:.talics can be written for each joint, namely, 'f.Fx = 0, 'LF, = 0, and 'LFz; = O. Equations of statics applied to the structure as a whole will not furnish further independent equations. It may therefore be concluded that a necessary (although not \ sufficient) condition for statical determination of a three-dimensional framework with } respect 10 both inner and outer forces ~~ that the total number oj bars plus the total number 0/ independent reaction components shall equal 3 times the number of joints,

The application of these principles can be illustrated by considering Fig. 4.17a.

Considering first only tbe external forces,

-~x if the horizontal reactions arc arranged as shown in the plan view, there is a total of9 independent reaction components, so

I (c: that the structure is statically indeterrnin-

'f; [ ale to the 9 - 6 = third degree. If rollers

\ are substituted for hinges, so that the hori-

__ j~~ 00 _~. -_f zontalreactionsactasshowninFig,4.17b

o 0 c the number of independent reactions is 6 and the structure is statically determinate.

Suppose, however, that the rollers are placed so that the horizontal reactions have the directions indicated in Fig. 4,17 c.



o c




Figure 4.17 Arrangement of reactions for stability

Then, while the numerical count indicate, that this structure is statically determinate with respect to its outer forces, it is actually unstable. The z reaction at b, for example, will apparently have two values, depending on whether it is determined by applying 'Lf~ = 0 to the entire structure (in which case it equals zero) or whether it is computed by applying the equation 'LMy = 0 about a vertical axis through a (in which case it must have a. value).'. This shows that the numerical count, while a necessary condition for·smte• ical determination, is not a sufficient criterion. The reactions must be laced QJ.baJ 'hey can resist translation along and rotation abo ear, 0 I Ie three coordinate axes if a three-dimensional structure is to be stable. The react ions shown in Fig. 4.17c all pass through point 0; they cannot resist--rotation about a vertical axis passing through that point.



Considering now both internal and external forces, in Fig. 4.17a. there J:T present [5 independent unknowns, 6 bar forces and 9 reaction components There are 4 joints and hence (4)(3) = 12 independent equations of static». Therefore the structure is statically indeterminate to the 15 ~ 12 = third degree. With the hor i, zontal reactions arranged as shown in Fig. 4.17b, there are only 12 independent unknowns, 6 bar forces and 6 reactions. There are still 12 independent equations of statics. Hence the structure is statically determinate with respect to both inner and outer forces.

4.16 Determination of Reactions and Bar Forces of Three-dimensional Frameworks. If a three-dimensional framework is statically determinate with respect to its outer forces, and if it is supported at only three points, its reactions can be readily determined by applying the equations of statics to the structure as a whole. When there are more than three points of support, it is usually necessary to determine some or all of the bar forces before the reactions can be evaluated. In Example 4.10 consideration will be given to a structure where the reactions can be determined directly. In Example 4.11 a case will be considered where reactions cannot be computed without first computing the bar forces.

As with planar structures, the particular equations of statics used and the order in which they are applied may be varied in accordance with the ingenuity of the analyst.

A bar of a three-dimensional framework may have projec- Projections of bar tions on each of three coordinate axes. This is illustrated in

Fig. 4.18, where the bar ab has the projections ax, ay, and az in the directions of the ax, oy, and oz axes, respectively. In terms of these projected lengths, the length of the bar ab is given by



Figure 4.18

Since the force Fob is axial, the components of f~b parallel to the coordinate axes are

By combining these relations, it is easy to express one component of force in terms of either of the other force components. For example, Xab = Yab a.xiay; etc.

At any joint where the converging bars do not lie in a plane, three equations of statics are available for bar-force determination. Hence, if not more than three bars with unknown forces meet at such a joint, these bar forces can be determined. . This general method of procedure, which ~s the method of joints expanded to three dimensions, can be illustrated by its application to joint d of the structure in "Example 4.10. Note also that this application in this particular example is given solely for the purpose of illustrating a procedure of general importance. The solution at joint d could be substantially simplified by the application of Theorem I, Art. 4.17.

The reader will also be interested in a useful procedure origin;:!::, introduced in

English by Southwelll for computing bar forces This procedu t

. . . . ~ . re amoun s to

settJn~ up. the eq~atlOns of eqUlhbrium for the joints of a framework in terms of

the dIrectIOn cosines of the bars. At joint a the bar force F in b b b'

• ob ar a may e

expressed.as FOb = lab Lab , wherelab IS called the tension (or force) coefficient. Then

when settmg up the forcc~equilibriurh equations at a jornt, the contribution of the component of Fob to cqu ilihr iurn in the x direction will simply brIt' I' d

• • J e Job mu lp Ie

by the x projecuon of ab, etc. A convenient rotc is involved wh b t:

'. n en ar-lorce

calculatIons are set up 111 terms of tension coefficients and bar . ti d

. projec Ions, an

the computatIOns can readily be tabulated.

• •

• • • •

Enmple 4.10 Determine first (he reactions and then the bar torces ~ thi f

)1 ..._ .> jar us ... pace romework,


1 Ele., -t--,

• •

• •

• •

Member Lenglh
x y z
-~ -~ ~~
ad 22,9 10 20 5
bd 20.6 0 20 5
cd 22.9 10 20 5
ab 14.14 10 0 10
he 14.14 10 o 10
ac 20.0 20 0 0 •

If moments are taken about a horiz ! I ' . "

valieal reaction at the third' { on a a:~o passtnq throuqh ally tl<'O points of Supports. tire

potnt of support Will be the only' unknown in (Ire resul/iug equation:

;;:~x ~~ a about ae :. R,y c- 0

• •

"LM, = 0 about aoliJ (10,000)(20) ~ (R,,)(20)- 0

Th' OJ)

en, "[J" = 0 for the entire structure

• •

:. R,,~. ~ 10,000'


.. :;:

If moments are taken about a certic I' .

anv two horiz t " a aXl,: passtnq through the intersection of the lines 0/ action of

. onzoma reactions, 'he third horizonmt reaction will be the only unknown inioh-ed,

"L.AI, = 0, axis t hrouah 0, ~ 10,000(5) ~ R,,(20) = 0 R" = ~ 2,500"" t


'i.F. ~ 0 for entire structure


"LF, = 0 for entire structure

.:. R., =:J__,~ .', R., cc 10,000 ~


.. t

.'. +-+-

• • • •

wher'! arrows indicate directions ill the plan view.

'R. V. Southwell, "Theory of Elasticity" 0 ,- d U' .' P

, xror nrversrty ress. London, 1936.

< , .«. • . ~ . . .~ . f:

• •

• •

• •

• • •

• •

• •

• •

• • • •



Consider now the computation of the bar forces. AI joint d, the three unknown bar forces can be obtained from the simultaneous solution of the followinq three force-eqllilibriurAuo!wII\ Jar the isolated joint, in which all bars are assumed to be in tension:

"i.Fx·_ 0 10,000 - '%2.9F •• + 1%29Fcd ~ 0


. 2\Y22.SF •• - 2%0.6 Fb• - 2%2.9 F,,~· 0 -r%2.9 F., - %o.6Fbd + %2.9 F" ~ 0

Simultaneous solution of these equations leads 10

F •• =. + J J,450~


Fed = -11,450'

Actually ill this problem, once the certical reactions haoe been determil1e~, the bor_f~,"ces itt ad, bd,

f '1 f, '" F - O'applied in turn to the isolated JOIllI; {I, b. ' and c,

and cd can be compute: more emil y rani ~ }I - ,

respectively. It is important; however, to understand the general approach based on wrlllllg IhreE simultaneous equations for each joint, since in more complicated structures it may be the only procedure that can be used. . '.c I . d

The bar forces in the horizontai bars can easily be determined or,ee the horizonta reactions GIl

the barforces ill ad, bd, and cd have been found. For example, at joint a,

r:.F, = 0 2,500 _.- (1l,450){%2.9) - (F.,)(l'Y! •. 14) ~ 0 .. F •• ~' -7,070'

Now from LF" = 0 at joint a, F,e can be computed. F~c call be obtained [rmn 'i.F, -" 0 at joint c.

Eumple 4.11 Compute the bar [orces and reactions of this structure.

Bar I enqth
X y Z
ab 5 20 5 21.2
ae 15 20 5 25.5
ad /5 20 10 26.9
ae 5 20 10 22.9
be 20 0 0 20.0
cd 0 0 15 15.0
de 20 0 0 20.0
eb 0 0 15 15.0 This structure is statically determinate with respect to both inner and outer forces. hWhlere;, .

b J • db a consideration of the structure as a woe, tne

the three horizontal reactions can e determine y '. >/ b j' If th .

our vertical reactions cannot be computed without first computmg so."''' 0 the ar orce~. e

fi. d. d h d be I computed the four vertical reactions could be determined from

forces ~ obi aC7 a 7.an a.g q ~ opet __ • • ,. .. ".. . ' _ ... ".

the vertical equilibrium equatiollsfar joints 6, c, d, and e. . h

. . . .. Ii, the four unknown bar forces cannot be determined from the tree

Unfortunately at joint a, nuua ) . be t d

. . . '6 . '.. .[ hI Even Ihough the horizontal reacttons have en compu e ,

joint-equili num equattons Oval a e. . . t b d and Of course three .

ther e still remain four unknowns at each of the four base Jam s ,c,,~. , .

. _ . . ld b written at each of the jive joints, and the Simultaneous solution .

force eouilibrinm equations cou e h ~ ..

. f II . d out but this might be laborious. Under r ese conautons,

of these fifleell equi/IIDIIJ COli' se carrie ,


a COnl1enit'll/ alternate approach i.\ fa (li/oP! ONC oftlu- har forces (Is a temporary unknown and pro{'€{'d as/ol/ow,;

AI joint c: ':::,r, .- 0 r.. }i:l.c r~(" 0 .. J." 5. JOF,.,
AI joint d: 'f:.F, . 0 Fed I ~~<!~i_ 9 ;;rJrJ 0 r: - 2.69F"
At join 1 c: 'i.FJJ 0 R,." ;.!?-~::i,::i r.: () R" 0.7f141~,
At joilll d: s», "~ 0 R~r -] 2~.~tj.f1 Fall ... 0 _. RJy -0.744F"
- 2.00F'd N(}w wiJh R(~, and RrJr expn,~,,.cd in l('on.'! of F,J., faking monu-nts about by [or the clIrhe structure yields

(150)(20) -- (R"l(lO) - (R,})(20)- 0

"'h~"ce 3,000 - (4.00F,.1(20)- (2.00F,,)(20) ~ 0

.. F," _ +25'.

Theil. of course, RlIy t Rd ... ) Frl{' ~ and Ftr,j can quickly be rraluatcd Witlt fhe'ie known, !he remainder 0/ 1iJe·alla/y.lIs proceed, without difficulty.

4.11 Special Theorems fur Thrce-dimcn-ional Frameworks, While threedimensional frameworks can be analyzed by the methods that have been presented, the following theorems arc of importance because application of them often results in an appreciable saving in computations:

Theorem 1: If all tire bars meeting at a joint, 11'1111 lire exception of one bar n, lie

" in a plane, the component normal 10 that plane of (he force in bar n is equal to tire component normal to that plane of" any external load or loads applied at that joint.

That this theorem is correct call be seen from a consideration of the static equilibrium of the joint, summing ill) all the rOfC~S normal to the plane that contains 311 bars except n. In the structure of Example 4.10, for example, suppose that this theorem is applied to joint d. Bars ad and de lie in the plane ade; the cornponent of bar force in bar bd, normal to plane adc, must equal the component of the applied load normal to the same plane. For this particular case, the applied load also lies in the plane adc and hence has no component normal to that plane. We can conclude, then, that the bar force in bar bd is zero. Recognition of this fact would simplify the analysis of joint d carried out in Example 4.10 by means of three simultaneous equations, since only two equations would be necessary.

On the basis of Theorem I, two corollary theorems may be stated:

Theorem 2: If all the bars meeting at a joint, with the exception of one bar 11, lie ill a . .plt¢ne, and if /l0 external load is appliedat this joint, the force in bar n is Zero.

Theorem 3: If all but two bars 01 a joint have no bar force and these Iwo are not collinear, and if no external load acts a/ that joint, the barforce in each of these two bars is zero.


(;:;;'; Application of Special Theorems-Schwf',!l<·r 1)""11'. The i mpurt.m.-c of th~hree theorems in the analvsis of rhrccdu.tcus iona l framework, may be illustrated by considering the Sch\;edler dome ,h.l\\ Il ill Pig. 4.19, nctcd upon by a vertical load P applied at joint A. The bars shown by dotted hiles In the plan view have no bar force, as may be concluded from ihc foregoing t hcorcms. arpilt'd as follows.

At joint F, bars EF, KF, and LF all lie in a plane. but AF docs not. Since no load is applied at joint F, the force in bar AFis zero, in accordance with Theorem 2. A similar consideration of joints E, D, C, and B leads to the conclusion that bars EF, DE, CD, and BC, respectively, all have zero bar force.

Considering joint F again, since the bar forces in FA and FE arc zero, bars KF and LF comprise two bars meeting at a joint where no load is applied. Hence the bar forces in KF and L F are zero, on the basis of Theorem J. A sim iia r consideration of joints E, D, and C leads to the conclusion that bars KE and J E, J D and I D, and Ie and He, respectively, all have zero force.

Now, considering joint K, since KE and KF have zero force, bar KL is a single bar lying outside the plane of bars J K, PK, and QK. Hence bar KL has zero force. In a similar manner, a consideration of joints J and I shows that bars JK and JJ have zero



Considering joint K again, since bars JK, EK, FK, and LK have zero force, bars QK and PK comprise two bars meeting at a joint where no external load is applied. The forces in these two bars are therefore zero, A similar consideration of joint J shows that bars PI and OJ also have zero force.

Hence, when this framed dome is acted upon by a vertical load at A, only the bars shown by solid lines in the plan view of Fig. 4.19 carry force. To complete the analysis of this structure, the method of joints can now be applied successively to joints A, B, L, G, H and I, and the bar forces in all the bars except those of the base ring thus determined. The vertical reactions can then be determined by applying 'LFy = 0 at each point of support.

5, 1-/, end /\"'tio not ;Ie:e-ss-on I '1 l.e on a s!rotghl line etc !


p «a


Figure 4.19 Schwedler dome


.. To determine the horizontal reactions andjhe bae forces in the base-ring bars.vall of which' lie in a plane, it is necessary to take the force in one of the base-ring bars as a temporary unknown. Suppose F"", is taken as the temporary unknown. At joint R, the application of LF. = 0 and I:.F. = 0 permits one to express FOR and the horizontal reaction at R in terms of FfiM. (Note that joint R is also acted upon by the x and z components of bar force in bars LR and GR.) Proceeding clockwise around the base ring and successi\'c1\' writing similar equations at joints Q, P, 0, and N enable one to express the bar forces in all [he 'Ja,c·ring bars (and all the horizontal





I t




r(,:!':liLHlo; C:,"(CPI ~h~it at \1) in l:'I-r~,-;; of FU\1 If the equations "L.F" __ 0 and L---:f~ =-= 0 are now arrlicci at J,"nt .\1, Ihe values 01 I" .. , ,lIhI the horivonta! reaction at .\1 can he obtained. Since alllhc z'Ithl,.-"j' har fO:'cc-r; a~d hnn/n:l1:~i 1·\..';IOlon..; h.ive been 1l,'CViDlISiJ/ expressed !Il terms of F

l~ll·ir v~]llCS can now be dckrmlih.:d. ~M,.

lt is po>siblc f[lr a Schwcdlcr d,)IJ'c I" he gC')l11drically unxtable, even [hough the statical count jl~)!ds. if the anblc~ bd\\C(,Il the rH~"inH;(cll rcacrions and the base-ring bars have certain values.'

4.19 . Towers. lJnlcs, t hc legs of a framed tower have a constant batter throughout their lellglil, the structure should be ana lyzed on the hasis of three-dimensional considerations. Figure 4.20a shows the side elevation of a lower of triangular cross section, in which the batter of the legs is not constant; Fig. 4.20b shows the arrangement of horizontal reactions. This structure is statically determinate, as can be verified, and it can be analyzed panel by panel, beginning ',\ IIh tile top panel and working down. Whenever, it, in this case, adjacent legs of the top panel lie in a plane, the bar force in any of the top ring bars C:I n he computed most easily by utilizing the three theorems of Art. 4.17. For example, Fab can be computed by noting that its component normal to the face acid must halance the component of the

external load at joint a, which is also normal to this plane. Once the top ring bar forces are known the forces in the legs and diagonals of the top panel can be computed. The forces in these bar> together with any external loads at joints d, c, and f comprise the loading on the second panel which can

now be analyzed similarly, etc.

If however, adjacent legs of a panel do not lie in a plane, a more general approach must be used to

Figure 4.20 Triangular lower obtain the ring bar forces. Starting as before with

the top panel, the bar force in any top ring bar may be t,aken as a temporary unknown. If Fah is chos~n for this purpose, application 0, the method of joints at joint b permits one to express F~c in terms of F,~, Similar treatment at c uivcs f~a ill terms of F,. Finallv F con be

..__. ".) ~"ab a

e-valuated by applying the method of joints at joint a,

It is customary to have secondary bracing members in each horizontal plane where the batter of the tower legs changes and often at panel points where no ch.ange in batter occurs. Ina tower with a rectangular cross section, for example, this bracing may consist of horizontal diagonals connEcting diagonally opposite panel points. The presence of such members may make a tower slaticallv indeterminate. It is common practice, however, to assume for the purpose of·ana, Iyzing the main members of the tower that the bar forces in these secondarv bracing

. ~


!'~I------'-_-_~k I


! C M. Spofford. "Theory of Structu-es," 4th ed .. char. J 6, Spuce Framev,.olks, McGraw-Hiil Book Company, New York, 1939.

• ,



• 134



members arc zero, thus permittillg s.ich analyses to be carried out by the principles of ,\;11 ics.

t.20 Tower with Struight L'·g". If the bauer of the tower legs is constant Over

the entire height. the tower (';t11 be analyzed on the basis of component planar i russcs. Such a structure is shown in Fig. 4.21. A load P. applied at any joint. can be resolved into three components: C!, parallel to the tower leg; C2• horizontal and lying in the plane of one adjacent face of the tower: and C" horizontal and lying in the plane of the other adjacent face of the tower.

It is easy to show by the theorems of Art. 4.17 that C1 causes bar forces in the bars of leg GC only, C2 causes forces in the bars of tower sidc Cf)GH only, and C3 causes force, in the bars of tower side ACEG only.

Thus the bar forces due to each of the components C!, C2, and C3 can be obtained by carrying om a separate planar analysis, and the total force in any bar due to load P can be obtained by superposition of the effects of its three components. Since each panel load can be handled in the forgoing manner, this constitutes a general procedure far analysis.

If all the faces of such a tower are identical, influence data can be pre-

pared Divino the bar forccs in each bar Figure 4.21 Rectangular tower with straight

of on~ bor the faces due to (1) a unit legs

horizontal load applied successively at .

each join: of that face and (1) a unit load parallel to the tower leg applied suecessivelv at each joint of that face. Such influence data, prepared for one face of the tower. will be applicable to all faces of the tower. By resolving panel loads into components as previously out l.ned a n d by using these influence data, forces in any member, due to any condition of external loading, can be obtained by superposition .

..21 General Theory £Or. Three-dimensional Frame ..... o.rks. .. Many spac;e frame:. works used in conventional structures can be analyzed by the application of the methods and procedures discussed above. In order to handle with facility .some of the problems regarding the more unconventional frameworks, however, It IS nece~-

sary to study the statical stability and statical detcrrninancy of space frameworks III a more rigorous manner.' similar !O that used for trusses (or planar frameworks). A brief outline of such a treatment follows.

I , ' 1 • '


--:) - fft--

S"i I




Arrangements of members of simple space framework. A group of points which do not lie in a plane could be connected together by a rigid and noncollapsiblc space framework by constructing this framework in the following manner. (See Art. 4.4 for definitions of rigid and noncollapsible.) First form a tetrahedronal nucleus byusingsix bars to connect together four points which do not lie in a plane, as shown by the solid lines connecting joints 1, 2, 3, and 4 in Fig. 4.22. Joint 5 could then be rigidly connected to this nucleus by bars from joints I, 3, and 4, as indicated by the dashed lines. Joints 6 to 12 could be connected in sequence as shown, using three bars which do not lie in a plane to connect each new joint to the framework previously formed.

Using the same terminology as for trusses, a space framework formed in the manner just described is called a simple space framework. The number of bars b required to form such a framework of n joints is obviously 3(n ~ 4) + 6, or b = 3n ~ 6 .

. ~ Figure 4.22 Simple space framework Formation of compound space frame-

.. . works, Several simple space frameworks

may be connected together to form a so-called compound space framework, as 'illustrated in Fig. 4.23, by using six bars the axes of which do not intersect a single ~raighl1ine. In Fig. 4.23, the two simple space frameworks are shaded, and the six connecting bars are shown by the dashed lines. Note that the total number of bars used in such a case is (3nl ~ 6) + (3n2 ~ 6) + 6, or b = 3(n[ + 112) ~ 6, or h = 3n ~ 6, where n1 and n2 represent the number of joints in the individual simple space frameworks and n represents the total number of joints in the entire structure.

Complex space frameworks. Many practical space frameworks cannot be classifieaas either SImple or co;;p0und and are therefore categorized as complex space fnmeworks. An illustration of such a framework is shown in Fig. 4.24. Note that this framework would be a simple space framework if a member 1-4 were substituted for member 2-6. As before, the number of bars required to construct a rigid and noncollapsible complex space framework is given by b = 3n _ 6.2

Supports for space frameworks. If a rigid noncollapsible space framework is SUpported sush that the',reaetiOlt components are equivalent to SiX finks thelines of

, For an excellent discussion of statically determinate space frameworks, the reader is referred to S. P. Tirnoshenko and D. H. Young, "Theory of Structures," 2d ed., McGraw.Hill Book

Company, New York, 1965. .

2 As emphasized in Art. 4.9, such a criterion is a necessary but not sufficient condition that the rramework be rigid and noncollapsible, Though the number of bars may be adequate, if they are tot properly arranged, the space framework may be geometrically unstable.



Figure 4.24 Complex 'pace framework

action of which do not intersect a single straight line, the structure will be stable and these six reaction components are statically determinate from the six equations of statics noted in Art. 4.1 5 and

I· d to the structure as a whole.

app Ie . .

Such an arrangement is shown In FIg.

4.25 by the links shown by the heavy

black lines and numbered 1 to 6. .

, k Obviously if link 6 had a line of action',

4 23 Compound space frarnewor ,

Figure . coinciding with line aa, the structure,'

. . . h re would be no reaction capable ,

would be supported m an unstable fashion SInce sxis coinciding with axis of link 3. '

of resisting rotation of the stru~ture about -eola d by the vertical link 6'. Note'

d lik ' b true if link 6 were rep ace, . I

This woul 1 ewise ~. . of the six links involved intersect a verttca ",

that in either of t~esc ~ltuatLO~s the. aXkls 4 5 and 6' which are parallel to link 3, " line coinciding With link 3 SInce lin s , ,



intersect this vertical line at infinity, Olcours.: ifaddition:lllinks xuch a , 7, 8, and 9 were added to the original ,,;1, link-, I 10 (,, the structure would be o;!ah!c hut the reactions would be >tatically indL'l(rlllinate, III t hi-, l':"C: to till' third degrc~.

In many practical space framework", there .t rc rn.u c than six rc';!CliOn componcnt-, provided. Often in such C:l~n, If there ;lil.' r rC;Il'II(\n cornponcnu, r - (, bar, have been omiued from t hc 311 -- 6 rcqum-rl Ior a rigid and J1oncollapsl~Tr;!Incwork, and, as a result,

b = (311 - 6) -- (r - 6)

or b + r = 3n. In other words, the nmission of the r - 6 bar, is equivalent to introducing r - 6 equation, of condition (or construction), When this i, done properly so that geometric instability is avoided, the '-lructurc is stablc and ,(;nicaIiy determinate. Sorncurncs the re<JClion;, cal] be determined directly from the com-

·bination of (he equations or condition and the cquatiors of static» for the structure .• as a whole. Often, however, the reactions cannot he obtained without firs t determining some of the bar forces as illustrated III Example 4,1 J,

These and similar considcr.n ions lead to the foilo\\'ing conClusions regarding the stability of a space framc>\ork structure and its combined statical dctcrrninaney with respect 10 both reaction components and bar forces. For a space

'framework, a total of 3!1 independent equations of statics arc available by isolating each joint and writing the three cqu.u ions I.F, ~' 0, I.Fy = 0, and If~ = o. Involved among these equations are a tout! of b + r unknowns, that is. b bar forces and r reaction components. ComparisOI) of the number of unknowns with the: number of equations indicates that

If b + r < 311, the structure is unstable

Jf b + r = 311. the structure I, statically determinate. If b + r > 3n, the structure is staticolly indct ern.inau),

'If this criterion indicates that the frame is statically determinate or indeterminate, it should be remembered that the count alone does not prove it is also stable: it may still be statically or geometrically unstable if the bars or reaction COmponents arc improperly arranged.

Stress analysis of statically deterrnlnan- space framcworke, The stress ana Iysi, of many space frameworks can bc carried out by using a combination of the mc'tlwd of joints and the method of sections as discussed previously for tnbses (or rlanar frameworks). The additional geometry of the three-dimensional structure irnpedes the rate of progress with such computations very considerably, of course,

Consider, for example, the case of a simple space framework which is supported in a statically determinate fashion. III such a case, the reactions can be determined from a consideration of the equilibrium of the entirestructure. ,Once the reactions are knowrt, the definition oftheexternai forces acting on th~ structure is complete. Then one can isolate the Iast joint established in the pseudo construction of the simple space framework (such as joint 12 in Fig. 4.22). At this joint, there are only three unknown bar forces, which can then be determined from the three equilibrium equations for this ioiru. If OI1~ works b~i~h\ .rrd lhrou;:h tile structure considering the joints in the reverse order-II, 10, 9, etc.- _ there will be on ly three

• • •

• • •

• • • •

• • •

• • •

• • •

• • • • •





WJ1lplcx III",SC' and the;, a, being statically determinate or indeterminan-, stable or unstable. If the ,tructure " IiH!ctcmllrl;,k. Sla(c the degree of in.Ictcrminancy both with respect to reactions and D;H forcc,-"nJ wnh ("'pcet to reaction, only. If the structure is unstable, state the reason for the in-tabilitv.

'p",hl,m 4.2 Compute the bar (,'rcc, If] the lettered bar-, of the trllsses of Fig, 4.27 due to the loads ,llOwn.

10 --r 4°
115' 10
Ie I
IC' :2C'
1_) t unknown bar forces at each joint. Thus, the entire solution for lhe~' fPfCC, can be completed simply by successive application of the method of Joints.

In the case of a compound space framework, even after the react ions ha v L been determined one can proceed just so far using the method of joints before finding that a jointcannot be isolated where there are only three unknown h~t forces. At such a point in the solution, the method of sections must be applied to obtain SOme of the bar forces. In the case of complex space frameworks, even after (he reactions have been determined, one finally reaches a point in the solution where neither the method of joints nor the method of sections will lead to a direct solution. In such a case, one must resort to a procedure such as described in Art. 4.13 for planar frameworks or to Hcnneberg's method (sec reference cited in Art. 4.13).

In recent years, some extremely complicated space frameworks have been involved in radar transmitters and receivers. Such structures involve vast numbers of joints and bars and sometimes cumbersome geometry, Often, deflection limitation, and vibrational characteristics rather than strength requirements control the design. Modern digital computers have been used extensively in the analysis of such structures, utilizing displacement-matrix methods such as described in Chap. 15.

4.22 Problems for Solution

• Problem 4.1 Classify the truss structures of Fig, 4.26 first a, being simple, compound, or

10 I I
(oj .... -+
5' 5 :0)
---I s'
20 :- --l ____ 512 ~~

I ----~

Figure 4.27 Problem 4.2



Pr-oblem 4.3

Compute the reactions for each of the structures shown in Fig. 4.28.




1 __ -


3D !


8 .::t ?(j' '1_6_C


6 @ 20"'2:)

Figure 4:28 Problem 4.3








141 •


Compute all the bar forces in the trusses of Fig. 4.29 due to the loads shown.


• • • • • • • •

• • •

h 80



o a c_j5

L _ 20' 1_20' ._~


_ ~ •. 20 .20 . . lO

1--' ...:._-_.-

+ .

9 40


(c I

G - ItO'


H !30

.~~----:-,---+.:-~¥---_h____::a' J


10 5 II e)


Li '0 20 20

____ 8@20

5 5

--1 '



I ( f)


• • • • • • • • • •

l---- 5

10 10 5

5 @25'

s ,:/1:
-- -I'
50 i
5 c

10 10


Figure 4.29 Problem 4.4

• i,i

• It!




.Problem 4.5 Compute the bar forces in the structures of Fig. 4.30. tHint: Remember that structures of this type may be geometrically unstable.)

Figure 4.30 Problem 4.5

"Problem 4.6 Compute the bar forces in the structures of Fig. 4.31. Also draw the shear and bending-moment diagrams for those members in which such stress conditions exist.

'Problem 4.8 as shown.

Find the reactions 011 the -nruc-urr- of Fig. 4.33 due to the load of 1,000 lb acting

20 4 ~030



10 d 5

;...._ __ _..:4,_,.,@30· __J






Figure 4.31 Problem 4.6

Peeblem 4.7 Compute the bar forces in the bars noted on each of the structures shown in Fig. 4.32.

Figure 4.33 Problems 4.8 and 4.9, 4.10

'Problem 4.9 as shown.

Find the bar forces in the structure of Fig. 4.33 due to the load of 1,000 Jb acting

"Problem 4.10 Fin~ the reactions and bar forces of the structure of Fig. 4.33 if the load of 1,000 lb IS applied at joint d but with a direction such that it passes through point q which lies

at the center of the equilateral triangle del . ,

*Problem 4.11 (a) Show that the structure of Fig. 4.34 is statically indeterminate to the first degree.

(b) Find the reactions all the structure of Fig. 4.34 and the bar forces in all the bars, for the load of 10,000 Ib acung as shown, assuming that bar ef is in compression and has a force equal to half the applied load.

f ~CeJ12l"'" ~" -, ':. /~':\

~Z ',I"U \.



• _ .1. J.~ \,

:;}'i) Rb t:.: i'~ (~, r> L

r. '_" elj, ,,) ',::,',h;,


Peeblem 4.12 in Fig. 4.35.

" I r [I space r 'U11 'wor~' ,11"", n

Compute the reactions and b.rr ft,J-rc-L.:'> t,,)r l';i-C 1 o IC',· c ! aruc .



_t_ !,_rj_ .L--------~



ve r tic c l reo c tton cur-iponen t s of pOh~ t s e. dono f



Figure 4.35 Problem 4.12







• • • • • •

• • •

~". 4

5.1 Introduction. Chapters 2 to 4 arc devoted to a consideration of the basic

ideas involved in the computation of reactions. shears, bending moments, and bar, forces for statically determinate structures. Before any of these functions can

be computed, it is of course necessary to establish the condition of loading for t which the analysis is to be made. In Chap. 1. a distinction was drawn between dead loads, such as the weight of the structure itself, which remain stationary, and t live loads, which may vary in position on a structure.

When one is designing any specific part of a structure, it is necessary to proper- • lion the part under consideration so that it has sufficient strength to withstand the greatest stress to which it may be subjected during the life of the structure. In ... order to design such a part, the greatest contribution of the live load to the total .. design stress is one of the items that must be determined. The stress produced in a given part by the live load varies with the position of the load on the structure. I There is always one position of the live loads on a structure that will cause the I maximum live stress in any particular part of the structure. The part of the struclure and the type of stress involved may be, for example, the reaction at a support,

the bending moment or shear at a section in a beam or girder, the tension or com- • pression in a truss member, or the load carried by a particular rivet. The proper design of the various parts will, in general, depend on different live-load positions ...

It should therefore be clear that it is essential for the structural analyst to understand clearly the methods by which the position of live load which causes the maxi- •

mum stress at any point can be determined. . t

. 5:2 . m"ustration of Variation in Stre~s ~th P~sition ~f Load. Suppose that a t

downward load of unity is placed at point A on the beam AB of Fig. 5.1. By taking moments about B, the reaction RAy is found to act upward and to equal 1. , At A' on the base line A'B', A' being directly beneath A, let the distance + 1 be plotted vertically. Let the applied unit load now travel to C; upon laking moments 41 about B, RA, is found to equal + YIo. Plot this ordinate + ~io at C' on the base


Influence Lines

• • • • • • • •

• •

• • • • •

• • • •

• • •

• • • •

I· 'A' 8' C bciru; directly belov- the point of application of the unit load. Let lJle;,~, , ..' fl / . II D', the unit load now travel to D; RAJ bccorncs -r- ~/H); plot + /10 veruca Y at

which is directly below D.

Repeat the procedure for all positions of the unit load between A and ~. , The resultant reaction values, plotted in each instance from the ba~c line A. Band directly below the particular load position, all lie on a straight line. ThiS. might

have been forseen, since for the umt load at any section at distance x from B, RAY equals + x/20. The ordinate + x/20 IS plotted at distance x from B', and the plot

'7?," of x/20 against x is linear.

Because of the manner of plotting this curve from the base line A' B', a number of important conclusions can be drawn.

I. The ordinate at any point on this

E curve equals the value of RAv if a unit load J:' applied at that section, (Note that all ordinates refer to the reaction at point A

h . . I .: . fthe uni load causinz this reaction which is the variable

and t at it 1~ tne posiuon 0 t ,'~

in constructing the curve.) ..'

2. As the unit load travels from B to A, the reaction ~t A m~reases linearly.

The maximum value of R" is seen \0 occur when the load I'; applied at A.

3. Since all the ordinates to this curve are positive, it may be conclud-:d that a unit load applied at any point along the span AS causes an upward reactl~n at A. Hence. if this structure were to be loaded with a uniform live load, the hve. load should extend over the entire span AE in order to pvc a maxln.mm value to RA.Y" . .').3 The lufluence Line-Definition. The curve drawn in Fig. 5.1 IS .called an influence line because it shows the influence on a certain funct~on of a unit I~ad as

, 1 ' th .t 'lure In this particular ease the function under considcra-

it travc s across e s rue . , b hi h t

t ion is the venical reaction at A. The function, however, may e anyt .ll1g t a '

varies as the load move, across the span, such as moment or shear at a glve.n section in a girder or beam, or bar force in a particular truss member, or deflection of

a given point on a structure. .' . '

~An influence line may be defined as follows: An influence line IS ~ curve the ordl~-

hi It' . t equals the value of some particular function due to a umt

ate to W ic I a an~ 110m

load (say a l-lb load) acting at that point. .

C b f F· 52 hows the influence line for the moment at C, center of an

urve 0 Ig. . S " . . ' f . fl I'

d b Th t this curve satisfies the definition 0 an III uence me

end-supporte . earn. a " d.

b . 'fi" d b . h ki the ordinate at nn~ pemt. - If; fur example, a l-Ib loa

can even e y c ec mg . ' • . . .

, I'd D h tatCequa's(l;j)(lO)= +2.5ft-Ib. This IS the ordinate

IS app ie at , t e momen , '...,

to the influence line at point D. .

C f hi fi hews the influence l ine for shear at D, the left quarter

urve cot IS gure S n "

. TI hi ., t isfics the: definition of an influence line may also be seen

po 1111. rat t I, curve sa IS c: . ..,

b h ki th di ate at anv point If lor example, the umt load lS applied

v c ec mg e or 111 ' • •• 3 "

just to the r icht of D. the "hear at D equals + 74 lb .





Figure 5.1 Simple influence line


-- '1











Figure 5,2 Influence lines for. simple end-supported beam

, By definition, an influence line shows the effect of a unit load as it travels across . Q1esP,3ii:.·lt should be apparent that such a curve is closely related to a live load ~itiovin'g across a bridge. The usefulness of influence lines is 110t, however, limited io'biigi~strlictures, since they are ofimportance in the determination of maximum stresses in ail'y structure subject to the action of live loads. These live loads may be themovable loads in an office building, or the aerodynamic loads on the wing of

'ail airplane, or the hydrostatic support caused by the displacement of waves on the' .~!hulJ of .a:'ship .

._it. S.4 Properties of the Influ"ence Line. Influence lines can be used for two very ~ important purposes: (I) to determine what position of live loads will lead to a maxi-

~- '.' "_'.,

,,-mum value of the particular function lor which an influence line has been construe-

·t~d; (2) to compute the value of t~t function with the loads so placed or, in fact,

for-any loading condition,.~i.:"'!{!ll'

'. Since the ordinate to an influence line~kls the value of a particular function due to a unit load acting at the point wh~;the ordinate is measured, the following

two theorems hold. ....:(:;:~

"-~ ~:: '~:-2j -\

-~,,;' ;-:.

Theorem 1: ; ,:,t.

To obtain the maximum value of a function due to a single concentrated live. load, • the load should be placed at the point where the ordinate to the influence line for that function is a maxim 11m.

It is obvious that if the maximum positive value of a function is desired, the load should be placed at the point where the ordinate to the influence line has its maximum positive value, while if the maximum negative value is to be obtained, the position of the load is determined by the maximum negative ordinate.

't .'

, .. -.......)- .

: . ' . '1




Thoorem 2:

The value of a function due to the action of a sinqle concentrated lii:e load cquols the product of the magnitude of the load and the ordinate to the in/fllCl1("C lim: for that function, measured at the point of application of the load. I

This follows from the principle of superposition. Further, the total value of a function due to more than one concentrated load can be obtained by superimposing the separate effects of each concentrated load, as determined by Theorem 2.

To illustrate the application of these two theorems, suppose that a concentrated live load of 10,000 lb is applied to the beam of Example 5.1. If the influence line (b) of Example 5.1 is used, the maximum positive shear that this load can cause at D occurs with the load just to the right of D and equals (10,000)( + Yto) = + 7,000 lb. The maximum negative shear at the same section occurs with the load just to the left of D and equals (10,000)( -ho) = -3,000 lb. From influence line (d) of '. Example 5.1, the maximum positive moment at D occurs with the load at D and; equals

(10,000)( + 2YtO) = + 21,000 ft-lb

From the definition of an influence line, the following theorem, dealing with uniformly distributed live loads, is apparen]':

~; Theorem 3:

To obtain the maximum value of a function-due to a uniformly distributed live load, the load should be placed over all those portions of the structure for which

[ In the above definition of an influence line, it is suggested that the function involved be puted for a l-lb load. As a result, the ordinates of typical influence lines would have the foil units: reactive forces, pounds; shear and axial forces, pounds; bending moments, foot-pounds: etc. On this basis, to compute the effect of some other concentrated load the ordinate involved should be multiplied by the dimensionless magnitude of this load, i.e., by the number of l-Ib loads which it represents. For example, from Fig. S.2b, the bending moment,

at C produced by a load of 750 Ib at ~;may be found to be .

(2.51f:1~)p5(»)::= 1,875 ft-lb

Some structural engineers prefer to define -ar;c'infiuence line as showing functions caused by a dimensionless load of unity. On such a bains, the product just noted would be obtained by

multiplying by a number of 750 lb, or '

(2.5 ft)(75fllb) ~ 1,875 ft-lb

Still other structural engineers prefer to define the orJinates of an influence line as being the ratio of the funcjion involved to the dimensional I -Ib load causing it and theJ;c(occ say that. the ordinates in Fig. 5.2h have units of foot-pounds per pound. On this basis, the p »duct noted would again' be obtained by multiplying by a dimensional number of 750 lb, or

(2.5 ft-Ib per Ib)(750 Ib) c~ 1,875 ft"lb

This latter approach has some merit although it will not be used here. According to this usage, the ordinates of influence lines are referred to as influence coefficients.


149 41

the ordinates 10 th« inj1I1(,II!,t;: line (or that JUIINioll haul' the sig .r tl I

0/ the [unction desired. n oJ Ie (. /GraUer

To compute, from the influence line, the actual value of t he f . d •

uniformly distributed live load thc following theor h ld be uncuon UL 10 a

, ern S OU e used:

Theorem 4: 4

The value of a function due to a uniformly distributed live 10 d . 1 ~

product of the intensify of the loading and the net da ihs equa ~o the

h . rjf . area un er t at portion of

I I' tn uence line, for the function under consideration which . d. t

the portion of the structure loaded. ,wrrespon s 10

~ o_~ t

That the foregoing theorem is correct can be

seen from the following. Let AB be the in- ..

fluence line for a given function F, for a portion

B of a structure. as shown in Fig. 5.3, that is sub- 4 jected to a uniformly distributed load of w lb

per ft, applied continuously to the structure 4 between two points M and N. That portion

f i of the uniform load applied in distance dx •

. . . may be treated as a concentrated load equal to

FJgUre S.3 Portion of influence hnc w dx. By Theorem 2 the value fth f' ..

, 0 e unctron •

F due to this differential load is iven b

dE = w dx y. The total value of F due to (he load between M and /'/. bg· d bY •

integrating dF between x = 0 and x = a or F _ fa .. d J" 1S 0 tame y

b h . ,- Jo H I x = Ii' ydx = It" mult iplied

y t e area under that portion of the influence 'Iine whicho d •

portion of the structure loaded. corrcspon s to the

'. 'To illustrate the application of Theorems 3 and 4 h .

.'10 d f I 000 lb ner ft i ., SUppose t at a uniform live ...

. a 0, per ft IS applied to the beam of Example 5 J I d . . ..

,mfluence line (b) for this b . ." n accor ance with

if I rs earn, to obtain the maximum positive shear at D the 41

urn ~rm oad should extend from C to A and from D to B of the beam The v, I

of-this maxtmum positive shear at D is given by. ,a ue

(1,000)[(70(5)( +~'D + (Yz)(7)( + 31o)J = +3,700 Ib t

For maximum ti h •

. nega lye s ear at D, the structure should be loaded from A to D.

leading to a resultant shear at D equal to

(I,OOO)[(Y2)(3)(-)!{o)] = ~450 Ib II

~~r maximum positive moment at D, refer to influence line (d) of Example 5 J •

.. e structure should be loaded from A to B' the It ..

.• . . , . . resu an t moment equals

(i.OOO)[(Y2)(!0)(+2Mo») = +IO,500ft-Ib •

di,~~~:a~i~~ml va~ues offun.ctions due to a concentrated live load and uniformly ,

, '. C rve oa actmg simultaneously, the max imun. fur ~'io f

anmg separately should be computed by the mct ho.i , alreadv .: . n ~UE'h io each •

- ,,- ,~ .f g.vcn anu 1 c rcsul:s ..

• l- > - .' ~~ '" if'

. \

• • •

• •

• • •

• • •

• •

•• •

• •








superimposed. For example, to obtain the maximum negative moment at A, in the beam of Example 5, I, due to a uniform load of 1,000 Ib per ft and a single concentrated load of 10,000 Ib, it is found by reference to influence line (c) of Example 5.l that the uniform load should extend from C to A and the concentrated load should be placed at C. The maximum negative moment at A is then 'g'jvcn hy

(1,OOO)[(Vz)(5)( - 5)] + (10,000)( - 5) = - 62,500 ft-lb

Suppose that a uniform load of 1,000 Ib per ft extends over the entire length of the beam of Example 5.1. Functions arc then computed on the basis of the algebraic sum of the component areas that constitute the entire influence line. From influence line (d) of Example 5.1, the resultant moment at D would, for example, be given by

(I,OOO)[(Y:)(5)(·- Y2) + (Y:))(10)( + 2Ho») = + 1,750 ft-Ib

5.5 Illustrative Examples-Influence Lines for Beams and Gi~dcrs. Examples 5.1 to 5.3 illustrate the construction of typical influence line, for beams and girders.

For statically determinate structures, influence lines for all functions except deflections turn out to be composed of straight-line segments. For such structures, ordinates of the influence line for a particular function may be computed by one of the three following methods:

1. A unit load is placed successively at -;"number of the positions it could occupy in a transit across the structure; for each such position of the load, the particular function is computed; plotting the computed values ofthc function traces out the desired influence line. This is a straightforward-but laborious procedure.

2, The position of the unit load is located by the distance x from the end or some other key point along the structure, and the particular function of interest is then computed in terms of x. This expression for the function can likewise be interpreted as the equation defining the shape and position of the influence line. As soon., as the unit load moves past a support point or another key location along the struc- '. . ture, the expression for the function changes, As the load moves along into the'; next portion of the structure, its position will be defined by an x distance measured -, from a new convenient origin and a new expression for the function must be computed. With experience, one soon acquires the ability to move quickly across the structure, constructing 1hi' influence line by this procedure.

3. With more experience, one finally acquires the ability to spot the points where discontinuities or changes in slope occur in an influence line. Computation of the particular function for a unit load at these key locations gives the corresponding key ordinates, which can then be connected by straight-line segments to obtain the complete influence line,

In' Chap: 10 construction of influence lines for statically indeterminate structures will be discussed. Such influence lines arc curved lines or, at best, a series of chords of a curved line. As a result, their construction involves much more computation and proceeds more slowly than for the staticall) detcrminate cases now being


E~ .... p1e 5.1 For Ihe beam ShOWII, construct the influence lilies for (a) the shear at the cross sfction 10 the lef: of A, (b) the .,/11'01' at D, (cllhe bendinq moment at A, and (<1) the bending moment

at D.

Discussion :

Sketch a: When a unit load is applied at any location to the left of point A, the shear 011 this section is neqatioe and equal to the unit load. For positions of the load between A and B, there is 110 shear on the cross section of interest,

Sketch b : For positions of the unit load to

te! ,1 I I 5.;e'I' to ell 'J' JI Ii. the left of D, the shear at D Call be computed

.' from the reaction at B. For the unit load at C

I 1-'<' _ T • RB). is 0.5 down, and SD is therefore +0.5. A;

I~I ., -.~~-'-~ : theu!1ir/oadmovesfromCtoA,RB"andlhere-

,t_j ~ ~~' fore So ,decreases linearly 10 zero, SD continues

I·sh", 0' D, ~ ;~o:;~7::,,:~eta;~.fr~~ i~ :;c~~~!f::a;~: ~~I:~

IciT.·VI 1/ '1/" fi B

~:DmD·lt ot A It' ll!!l Oilu moues rom to D,. it is easier to

-';! work witl: the portion of the structure 011 the side


I· away from the load because there are fewer

forces 10 consider, in this fashion, it is easy 10

(0') r see as the load moves from B to D, RA" and


_1_ therefore So, increas~s linearly from 0 to +0.7.

. , Of course, a.' the Will load passes from just 10

Ih~ nghl [0 just to Ihe left 0/ D, So chanqes abruptly from -'-0] to -Q.3.

Sketch c: By proccedinq ill much the same fashion as ill (al, it is easy 10 construct the '1/

~~~. m~ff

Sketch d: Construction of the influence line for Mn proceeds much as ill part (b).


; i 1







Enunple 5.2 For the girdN 111Own, construct the illj1ue!,ee lines for (a) shear in panel Be find (b) moment at E.


Refer to Art. 3.9 and Example 3.5 regardiJlg girders with floor systems supported by floor beams as used ill this example. In such structures, live loads may be considered as traveling along the strinqers wHich Can transmil farces into the girder only through the floor beams at the panel points. As a result, the live-load shear remains constant til any

I cross section within a given panel of the


r I ~ girder. In the caSe oft Iris girder, the strinqers

,,'"' act as end-supported beams spanning between

I+~' t~ I.+~, !

"""---Ll:.--':_:'_--'-+'__:_c-L::__.j_~l{_-"-_,__':"'J '. adjacentfloor beams. Therefore, £Ir a. unit

Moen.n; 01 E " load travels from nne panel paint 10 another,

. the reactions of the strinqer ill the loaded

PQ~e1. which are a/so the forces applied to the girder by the floor beams, vary linearly with the position of the load. Helice, any stress function ill the girder (such as shear in a given panel or ;;ment at a panel point) ,varies ':"Pllrly also. Gird", influence lines an therefore straight lines

ween panel poinrs for gnders wit]: cnd-support=d strinccrs,


. (~)

- I

> .

." ~ '"

r . • . ~ • ~. '!',._ _-: ~ .'~




In Example 5.2b the maximum positive live moment at panel point E, due to thl same live load, occurs with the uniform load extending over the entire span and

with the concentrated load at E. Its value is equal to •

(l,OOO)[(Yii)( +4%)(60)] + (10,000)( +4%) = + 533,333 ft-lb

The foregoing method of computing maximum live shears and moments, basect on locating neutral points and using exact areas under influence lines is exact. The following approximate method is of importance, since it often involves lest! computation and is well suited to efficient organization of computations for complicated struc:ures. In the approximat~ me~hod, it is assumed that. for uniform liv. load there IS acting at each panel point either a full panel load or no panel load whatever, depending on whether the ordinate to the influence line i.ndicates l~at ~ load at that panel point increases or decreases the value of the function for which a

maximum value is desired. •

, A full panel load is the maximum possible load that can be applied to a girder by a floor beam. It can occur only when the stringers adjacent to the panel are, fully loaded, and it is equal (for panels of equal length) to wl, where w is the inten-

sityofthe uniform load and l is the length of the panel. ,

Consider again the structure of Example 5.2 acted upon by live loads consisting of a uniform load of 1,000 lb per ft and a single concentrated load of 10,000 lb .• For the uniform live load, the full panel load equals (1,000)(10) = 10,000 lb. To. compute the maxi~um positive live shear in pan~1 BC by .thc approximate method, • this full panel load IS placed at C, D, E, and F, Since the influence line of Example 5.20 has positive ordinates at these panel points. No panel load will be placed at

B, where the ordinate to the influence line is negative. As in the exact method, • the concentrated load will be placed at C. The resultant maximum positive live

shear in panel BC is equal to t

(lO,OOO)(%, + 72 + Ys + Ys) + (10,000)(%) = 23.333 Ib

Sketch a: Whrl! the load is 10 The riaht of C, there are no floor beam forces at A or B and Soc' is equal 10 RAy. As th« load trauel: from G 10 C, RA>, and therefore SHe, increases linearly frol1] 010 n. WI",,, the load is to the left of B, SHC is most easily compuTed by isolating the portion to rhe riaht alld notinq that Suc is equal 10 RG>, which ill creases linearly from 0 to Yo as the load travels from A to B.

Sketch b: The bending moment at E call most easily be computed by isoiatillg tile portion away front the load and notini; that M~ is equal to the reaction rimes the distance from the support 10 E. A., the load travels from A to E, M£ therefore increaseslinearly from 0 to (%)(20) = ~%.

Example 5.3 Note the unusual srrinqer arranqemcnt for this airder, Construct the i"/fue/ICe lint' for the bendinq moment in the girder at E.


In the girder in Example 5.2 with conventional end-supported stringers, pane! points were the key points where influence lines miqh: change slope or have discontinuities. For unusual STringer arrangements, as ill the present example, discontinuities ill infiuence lines may also occur at key points other than pane! POiIlIS, for instance 01 CoD.

When the load is 10 th« left of C, M» is most

easily computed/rom the portion of the girder 10 (0) ~:"_ __ l__-'-'-' __ --"",,-:

the ripht; beinq equal to simply !OR,·,. Thus, OJ the unit load travels from A all the way 10 C, .w. increases linearly from 0 10 (10)(0.5). When the load is to the riqh: of D, ME call be computed from the isola lea girder 10 the left of E and is equal simply 10 20RA> since for such positions of the food there are /10 ftoor-beam forces at A Or B. As th« load travels from D 10 G, lvh changes linearly from 10 to -3J

5.6 Interpretation of Influence Lines for Girders with Floor Systems. The four theorems of Art 5.4 dealing with the use of influence lines arc perfectly general and are applicable to influence lines for girders with floor systems. Suppose that. live loads consisting of a uniform load of 1,000 Ib per ft and a single concentrated load of 10,000 Ib are applied to the structure of Example 5.2. To obtain the maximum live shear in panel BC, refer to the influence line of Example 5.2a. It is first necessary to locate point a at which this influence line crosses the base line, Such a point is called a neutral point, since a load applied at this point has no effect on the function under consideration. This point can be located by similar triangles; its distance from B will be found to be 2 fl. The maximum positive live shear in panel BC occurs when the uniform load extends from the neutral point to G and when the concentrated load is at C; it is equal to

(l,OOO)[(y:i)( + %)(48)J + (10,000)( + %) = 22,667 Ib

•. _ .. - .' .' . -' t -'

Maximum ncuativc live shear iii. [his panel occurs when the uniform load extends

from A to the neutral point and the concentrated load is at B; it has a value equal to

(l,000)((y;)(~y,;I(:2)1-t- (IO,OOO)f-h) = -2,6671b

The corresponding value was 22,667 lb by the exact method, so that the result by til the approximate method is seen to be slightly on the safe side, i.e., slightly larger than the exact value. The approximate method assumes a full panel load acting. at C, which could not occur without completely loading stringer BC; loading stringer BC would cause a floor-beam reaction at B equal to half a full panel load, • which by itself would cause negative shear in panel Be. Because the negauvc shear due to the partial panel load applied at B is neglected in the approximate' method, the resultant positive shear computed is necessarily on the safe side. The .approximate method of computing 'maximum values of functions never gives t smaller values than the exact method.

To find the maximum positive live moment at E for the same structure .md • loading by the approximate method, refer to the influence line of Example 5.2b.

For the uniform load, a full panel load of 10,000 Ib is applied at all inlc:r,w'd::'l(' 4 panel points, since all the corresponding ordinates to the influence line an; pos.tive.

. .

• - ,- of'-

to..~.. "" '." . ~ :.. . , _ _ ...._ ,_ . '-

• , .' ,

• 154 lNFLUENCE LINES §5.7
10 20 20 20 20 20 20 l.ocos in kiJS pc· , ... hee~
~ ~ & k ~ !) ~ r'Jumbe-:J' oed
I 10' I 5' I s' I 10 I s' ! 5' Wheel spnc r q
0°. --.).?~ .. --l--2.?~.j-,!() ~ Distance ~rom 10JO I
: • 1< • 20-:
jO 30 50 70 90 110 130 Sum of loads trem Icft
400 1000 1500 1900 2100 2200 Sum of mor-ents ob-out ocd 7
350 B50 1250 1550 1650 Sum of moments Ob~u' I~oc 6
300 700 1000 1200 Sum of rnnr--en+s nbo., t roud 5
200 400 500 Sum of momnts cbout ceo z;
150 250 Sum of mome'lts obcur 10JO 3
100 5'."11 ot -ne rr-ents cbou+ lcoc 2 Figure 5.4 Moment chart

The concentrated load is placed at E. The maximum positive live moment is given by

(10,000)( +1% + 2% + 3% +4% + 2%) + (10,000)( + 4%) = + 533,333 ft-lb

This is the same value as that obtained by the' exact method.

5.7 Series of Concentrated Live Loads-e-Lse of Moment Chart. The methods of using the influence line as previously presented apply to uniformly distributed live loads and to single concentrated live loads. They cannot, however, be used directly when the live load consists of a series of concentrated loads of given magnitude and spacing, such as are actually applied by the wheels of a locomotive or of a series of trucks. When there is more than one concentrated load, it is not possible, in general, to tell by inspection which of the concentrated loads should be placed at the maximum ordinate of the influence line in order to make the given function a maximum.

The method that should be followed for such a live load is essentially aile of trial. In order to expedite the various trial solutions, it is desirable to organize such an analysis carefully, so as to minimize computations. For a series of concentrated loads, a moment chart, like that shown in Fig, 5.4, can be used to advantage. This particular moment chart is computed for the seven concentrated loads spaced as shown. The chart is practically self-explanatory. The numbers in the six bottom rows can be explained by a single illustration. The number 1,900 under load 4 and in the horizontal line labeled Sum of moments about load 7 represents the moment about load 7 of loads I to 4; thus

(10)( 40) .,.. (20)(30) + (20)(25) + (20)(20) = 1,900

To illustrate the use of the moment chart, suppose that it is desired to com.pute the moment at load 3 in the .b~a.m of Fig. 5.5 due.to jhc loading of Fig. 5A~

• located as shown in Fig. 5.5. The moment about B of the applied loads is equal to 1,650 (the moment ofloads 1 to 5 about load 6) plus 110 (the sum of the loads from I to 6) multiplied by 2 (the distance from load 6 to point B), whence 1,650 + (110)(2) = 1,870 kip-ft. Dividing this moment by the span of the beam, gives RAY equal 1,870/50 = + 37.4 kips. Hence the moment at load 3, working from the




l':l ?O;.; 2Ck 2~:"
:b ~i 4 !
y- ?OO( ),.--'1'.

4,.,---------"'L...~~~c~ ___\2.l_;1 B


~3' 10' ~5' ~5' _-- 10' ,51 7'

--t- _~~

__ ~.or

Figure 5.5 Usc of moment chart

forces to the left, is given by ( + 37.4)(18) - 250 = + 798 kip-ft. It is to be noted that the moment of 250 k ip-ft, which was subtracted, is the moment of loads 1 and 2 about load 3.

As a ~econd e:am,~!c of the use of the moment chart, the shear in panel BC Of.the girder of Fig, ).6 will bc computed for the toads shown acting, these loads being a part of the loadIng of Fig, 5.4. For the lands so placed, load 1 is not on the span, The girder reaction at A is given bv

R _ (1.650 - 350) -i- (110 - 10)(3) _ .

Ay - ~--~--J6--~--- = +44.) bps

The sum of the floor-beam reactions at A and B is equal to

20 + 09)(20) = 3[.1

Hence the shear in panel BC equals +44,5 - 3Ll = + 13.4 kips,

In using the moment chart it is usually convenient to reproduce it (0 scale on cardboard an,d place It 111 the proper position on a draw ing of the structure to be

analyzed, which IS drawn to the same scale, ,

5,8 Series of Concelltratcd I"i"e Luads-Computati"ll of "[' u

. .... Ll axunum .. uOJncnt.

The computation Of. maximum moment at a given section ina girder will be Illustrated by compuung the maximum moment at C of the girder of FI'g 5 ~ d

h I' I ' ~ c , .t a ue

[0 t e t~e oading corresponding to the moment chart of Fig, 5.4. The in.

ftuc~ce line for the moment at C is first constructed. as shown in Fig. 5,7b. The === mOi'liellt at C wiil occur when one of the concentrated loads is at C: the first part of t~c problem consists in finding OUt which load should be at C in order to cause this maximum moment.

Before attempting this trial solution the slope of each portion of the influence line, going from right to left, is first com~uted. ' For 'example, the portion of the Influence line for the moment at C, which runs from F to C, has a slope of +1%0 = +%.

Using the moment chan of Fig. 5.4.

place load I at C. This causes a certain

Figure 5.6





" • t

• 41


• ,

• • t

41 .a

will nOW be moved to the left until load 3 is at C, and computations will be made to determine whether this new movement of loads has increased Of decreased the moment at C.

Load 2 at section; move up load 3


Load group 1: all loads

Load group 2: none Load group 3: none

All loads combined

I~sc in moment

(lOO)(5)(+%)~ +200 o o +200

(30)(5)( - %) = - 90 o o -90

1 - "5

Figure 5.7 Girder influence lines

moment at C, which, however, wi.l not be computed at this stage of the analysis. Instead, the entire system of loads will be moved to the left until load 2 is at C" and computations will be carried out to determine whether the moment at C has' ' been increased or decreased by this change in the position of the loads. To see,' whether the moment has become larger or smaller, it is convenient to divide the loads under consideration into three groups: (1) those loads which were on the structure before the loads were moved and which remain on the structure after the loads arc moved; (2) those loads which were on the structure before the loads were moved but which have passed off the structure after the loads are moved; (3) those loads which were not on the structure before the loads were moved but which are on the structure after the loads are moved. For convenience we shall refer to these three load groups as load group 1, load group 2, and load group 3,

respectively. .

The following computations determine whether this load move has Il1c:eased or decreased the moment at C. It should be noted that if a load P moves a distance d. and if the slope of the influence line is In, the corresponding change in moment equals Pdm.

Decrease in moment

Since 200 is greater than 90, the moment has again increased. We shall now find out whether there will be a still further increase if load 4 is moved to the section.

Load 3 at section; move up load 4

(50)(5)( -%) = -150 o o -150

Load ! at section; move up load 2

Increase in moment

(10)(10)( -%) - - 60 o o -60'

Increase in moment

Decrease in moment

Decrease in moment

Load grou pI: loads I to 5 Load group 2: none

Load group 3.: IO!:,d 6.

All loads combined

(SO)(I 0)(+ ~i) ~. 320 o (20)(5)('- %) ~ +40 +360

Load group 1: all load, Load group 1.: none Load group 3: none

All loads combined

(80)(5)( + %) 0= + 160 o o

-+ 160

The net change in moment IS + 360 - 60 = + 300 kip-ft, so that a larger moment at (' occurs With load 2 ,1\ t he section, i.c .. at C. t han with load L However, it may bc that a still larger moment occurs with load 3 at the section. The loads

Again, the moment has increased. We shall now move up load 5.

Load 4'at section; move up load 5

(60){I0)( -:.Vo) ~ - 360 o o -360

Increase in moment

Decrease in moment

, 4 41 t

Load group I: loads 2 to 7 Load group 2: load I

Load group 3: none

All loads combined

(60)(10)(+75)= -240 o o


Note that although load I was considered as on the structure with load 4 at the section, it caused no moment at C, so that no change occurred when it passed off the structure, Since 240 is less than 360, moving up load 5 caused a decrease in the moment at C. Hence the maximum moment at C occurs with load 4 at C. With some experience in moving up loads. one might have foreseen that the maximum. moment at C would not occur with load 1 at the section and that it probably would not occur with load 2 at the section, This would have eliminated a portion of the foregoing computations.

With the- position of loadscausing·maximum mornens at C known, the value of this moment can now be computed, either from the ordinates of the influence line directly or by using the moment chart. By the latter procedure,

• 41


• t


R - 2,200 + (130)(10) _ ~ 70 kips

Ay - 50 -


• I.
• ,;

• lSI





The moment of the floor-bearn reactions at A and B about C is equal-to the moment of loads 1, 2, and 3 about load 4, which is 500 kip-ft. Hence the maximum posi-

tive live moment at C equals

( + 70)(20) - 500 = + 900 kip-ft

5.9 Absolute Maximum Live Shear. The methods which have been given the computation of maximum shear due to live loads assume that the section or panel in which the shear is to be computed is known. It is often desirable to compute the absolute maximum live shear in a member, i.e., the maximum live that can occur at any section in the member. For a simple end-supported beam or girder, absolute maximum live shear will occur at a section immediately adjacent to one of the end reactions. If the beam or girder is not a simple end-supported member, the absolute maximum live shear will occur on one side of one of the . reactions. The true value of absolute maximum live shear can be determined only by computing the maximum live shear at each such section.

5.10 Absolute Maximum Live Moment, Similarly, the methods which have been given for the computation of maximum moment due to live loads assume that the : section at which maximum live moment is to be computed is known. It is often necessary to compute the absolute maximum live moment for a beam or girder. For a simple endsupported beam, this occurs at mid-span for either a uniform live load or a single concentrated live load. For a simple end- supported girder with a floor system, absolute maximum Figure 5.8 live moment occur, at the panel point nearest mum moment

the center of the span. For a girder wholly

or partly cantilevered, absolute maximum live moment is likely to occur at a re- . action. If the section where absolute maximum live moment occurs cannot be definitely identified by inspection, it is necessary to compare maximum moments computed for various sections where absolute maximum live moment is likely to


A special case of importance consists in determining the absolute maximum live moment due to the action of a series of concentrated live loads on an end-supported beam, as shown in Fig. 5.8. The moment curve for a series of concentrated loads i, a series of straight lines intersecting at the positions of the loads, so that absolute maximum live moment must occur directly beneath one of the loads. Two questions must he answered: (1) Under which load does absolute maximum live moment occur') (2) What is the position of this load when absolute maximum live moment occurs?

. '. '.' ~ .' '.' . ~. ~ .' . .' .

The answer to the first question must often be determined by trial, but the

second question is subject to direct analysis. Assume that in Fig. 5.8 the absolute' maximum live moment will occur under load B. Let the distance from the center of the span to load B be denoted by x and the distance from load B to the resultant R ,,1' all the loads A. E. C and D be denoted by d. We wish to determine the value of x that will make the moment at load B a maximum. The value of RM1 may

be determined by taking moments about N and considering the resultant Coree R rather than the actual loads A, B, C, and D. Thus

R _ R( L/2 + x - d) R Rx Rd

My- -=-+~--

L 2 L L

. Denoting by MB the moment under load B gives

(L) (R Rx Rd)(L )

M B = RMy '2 - x - Aa = 2 + L - L '2 - x ~ Aa

RL Rd Rx2 Rxd

=-----+ --Aa

4 2 L L

For a maximum value of M B,

dMR 2Rx Rei

dx = - T+Y=O

whence x = d/2.

v:e may therefore co~clude that the maximum moment directly beneath one of a

series of concentrated lite loads rho I are applied to a simple d d b

. . ~ en -supporte eam

occurs when the center of the span is halfway between that particular load and the resultant of all the loads 011 the span.

If there are only two concentrated loads to consider, the absolute maximum live moment will occur under the heavier of the two loads. Such a case is illustrated in Fig. 5.9, where the distance from the l G-kip load to the resultant R of the two loads equals [(5)(12)]/15 = 4 ft. For ab~olute maximum moment, the IO-kip load IS placed 2 ft from the center of the span, and thus the resultant R is 2 ft on the other Figure 5,9 Absolute maximum moment For side of the span center. At this point one

two loads should check to see whether or not both

. loads are on the span. If not the abso-

lute maximum moment 0 t rnid '

t . ccurs a rm -span when the heavy load is at the center of

he span. For th.'s case, both loads are on the span. The absolute maximum live moment occurs directly beneath the IO-kip load and is given by

M = (15)(12 - 2)2

24, +62.5 kip-ft

. :.,..: .-'--,--,.1~2_' __ +- __ 12' ~




~ ~ 12'

. 24'


. If th~re are more t.han two concentrated loads, it may not be possible to tell b m.spectLOn under which load the absolute maximum live moment will Occur it :~l ~sually occur under a large load near the center of the group of loads. . The the xlmum. moment that can occur under each of the loads can be determined by

for.egolllg method, and the largest of these moments will be the absolut ._

mum live moment. e maxi

, .



5.11 Influence Lines for Trusses-e-Ceneral. Influence lines can be constructed for the bar forces in truss members and arc important 111 determining: the IO,'alion of live loads leading to maximum bar forces in truss members a, w~!1 ;I, for computing the actual values of these maximum bar forces, The ,JlIlC ;!cr.L'ral procedure as that used for constructing influence lines for beams and girder» I, applicable to trusses. It is always possible to compute the ordinate to the influence line for a unit load at each panel point of the truss, Usually the stringers act as end-supported beams between the floor beams, so that the influence line is a straight line between panel points. As with beams and girders, it is often possible to reduce the amount of computation by recognizing that t he influence line is a straight line for several successive panels.

Once the influence line has been constructed for the force in a given truss member, the interpretation of the curve with respect to loading criteria and stress analysis is identical with that for beams and girders.

Influence lines for trusses are drawn to correspond (0 a unit load travc:ling across the loaded chord, i.e., the chord containing the panel points at which the 1 lve load is applied to the truss by the floor beams that support the floor system.

5.12 Illustrative Examples--Iniiuence Lines fur Trusses. The first of following examples demonstrates that influence-line ordinates can be computed directly and easily for bar forces of Pratt, Howe, and Warren trusses. More complicated cases, e.g., the K truss with a curved top chord in Example 5,5, may require the construction of several other influence lines before it is possible to construct the influence line actually desired.

Example 5.4 For the through Prall truss shown, construct the influence lines for the bar forces in members L,L" U2L2 .and U,L,.




tt:--~--rl'---'k--'If-;---J!.;---'7--::3!:6-_-_- L




.- ,





lIi1 •


• 41

Sketch b: :nw {WI' forc« ill Lie 1., ('(11/ tic coII'pu(ed hy apr/yill'; ~l~ (J 10 the unloaded portion

0/1/;1' I/'U,", nOIli/cd by .\e'( II,)}/ H-B, /11 liJl' [a-Juo» {I.I the uni! load tracets from L 1 L , . _ I

'librt 111 ., . I. 0 0 " I erttco

~qUl' rlU}~i () Ie rlg.l! pONlOn.\ 10'1'.' 1/10/ rl..ll_~ niu «: balance R6J' and therefore it.') iJlfluence line

ordi"ates l!lCI'CO.l(' fro»: 0 to "l/:}. A I" 1//(' lIni;, load trarcl. from L It) L - .. '{ / I .

. ~ c.~ _ () 3,.luliJarcocuatJot/!Jjor

Ihe par nan 10 the lell 0.'.( b-H \IUH, [lira f r [ r/wH{)("- (row 0 10 __ 1 L' L". d - f-

. , " l- '," .' _ j /2· ,'01 ell -5Upporln 'lfrU1gcn

he/wet'11 LJ. and L.I . !I 1\ PU,\J 10 ronfirrn !I"tI! !he influence' !ill(' is a straiatn lin« fro 1 / J

_ !-1 0' LJ. - ".. . m /~'J at ~1 [()

• •

• •

E..J:ablple 5:5 . F~r (he K "':" ~J/()',~'!I! (,oll.\"jrU~1 "If! influence line for the hal' force ill member _(f,A/l. , (HwI .. Note tlun 1111, IrUH II' acuurtlv internally statically indeterminate However tho mdt'lern:wancy H confim'd 10 the /1.-vo center panels. and the rncmbrrs ill tlu' three panels at {'(lei; end are statically determina/e.)

• •

A 8

I (j"l;

• • •

.4 B



• •


• ..

::::::: +-O-~-

-v- ~ .. -~--.--

• • Ii

e ..

• •

• •

• • • •

• • • • • •






~, /~~f~~~5.~~.~~;~~.?~.~:.;·.' ', 'J' ALTERNATIVE DETERMINATION OF t~~~iriNi~tINES '



Consideration of (he horizontal.eq{,ilibriu11i of M 3 sbow«, in tile Ob,;'l'l.'t(' oI m,y horizontal /(}od~ at

AI:3-, that the horizontal components of the bar forccs in (/]. .'\13 and L] AI J are abwlY" equa! in maqnitude but opposite in charact cr, Since the slopes oj these two hur_r., arl.' Ilh' .wmc, the t'CJlic{i! componlJnlS of these bar forces are [ii.cwisr equal in rnaqnit udc bur oppo.\it...., in chora ctcr " titus they act In the .Iiam~ direction when holding in equilibrium the xerticu! farce» Uflplhd fa tlu: fUJI tion of the structure on one side or the other of section A-At one of which L,t.'rtical forces is t!u: j_'cnical component in the top chord Uz U",

If the influence line for the shear ill panel J-3 is firSI drawn m in I'a), tile inftuem:e line [or the vertical component in U2 U3 call be combined with Ihe shear influence line 10 obtain lire influenc» line for the oeriical component in Uz M, or L1 ]'13, Note that the bar force ill (J, [/, can easily be determined by summinq moments about L3 of the [orces actina on ol1e side or the ot},,·, (If vc crion B-B. Thus, the influence line for the vertical component ill [/, (J, is (/ triangle wilir it, apex (II L" where the ordinate is equal 10 - (%)(9%0)(%0) ~ - %, With the vertical component ill U2 U, known/rom (b), il is now easy 10 consider the certical equilibrium of rile portion ane side or lire ather a/section A-A to determine the ordinate; of the influence line for the nerucol component of U,M, shown in (c).

S.13 Influence Tables. It is often advantageous to express influence data ill the form of influence tables instead of curves, The influence table (Table 5.1) refers to the truss of Example 5.4. It gives the force in each bar of the truss due to a unit load at each panel point. Forces in bars L2 L3• U2 L2 , and U,L, were taken directly from Example SA. Forces for other bars may be checked by the student.

In utilizing an influence table to compute maximum live bar forces by the approximate method, it is convenient to prepare a second table [hat is a summary of the influence table.

Table 5.1 Influence T a hle (or Tru •• of Example 5.1

Bar force due to unit load at:
Lo L, Lo L3 L4 L, L6
LoL, 0,000 -10.625 +0.500 +0375 --0.250 -i-OJ25 0,000
L,L, 0.000 +0.625 +0.500 +0.375 +0250 -0.125 0.000
L2L, 0.000 +0,500 +1.000 -'-0.750 +0500 -0.250 0,000
LoU, OJlOO ~- 1.041 -0,833 I -0,625 -OAI7 -0208 0.000
U,U, 0.000 -0,500 -LOOO -0.750 --0.500 --0250 0,000
U,U, 0.000 -0375 -0.750 -1.125 -0.750 -0,375 0,000
U,L, 0,000 -0.208 +0,833 +0.625 TOAI7 +0,208 0.000
U,L, 0,000 -0.208 -0.417 +0.625 +0.417 +0.208 0.000
U,L, 0.000 +1.000 OJlOO 0.000 .I 0,000 0,000 0,000
U2L;; 0.000 +0,167 +0333 -0.500 -0,333 -OJ67 0.000
p,L, O.OQO 0.000 0,000 0.000 0,000 OJ)OO 0,000 In the summary of the influence table, the sum of the plus and the negative ordinates and the sum of all the ordinates are listed for the influence line for each

bar. Also listed arc the maximum ordinates, positive and negative, and the loaded lengths of the influence lines, positive and negative. If the dead load is represented by all equivalent uniform load and the live load bv the combination f

I d ' - 0 a

uniform can and a single concentrated load placed so as to produce a maximum

effect. the bar forces due to dead and live load can easily be computed using the data In the summary of the influence (able.

5.14 Alternative Approach for Deter-

};;-<-_-----"B:_-- ;:g;-,!;c:.-_----!O ruination of Influence Lines, An alterna-

10' - +_ 10 -_Ir _ 5' tive approach to the construction of influence lines may be made by introducing an imaginary deformation into the truss member or girder section under considcration. This method is of more interest than use in connection with statically determinate structures, but it is of importance in constructing infiuence lines for statically indeterminate structures, both by analytical and experimental procedures. This alternate method is based on Muller-Breslau's principle, discussed in Art. 10.3.

The principle is restated here to illus-

Fi~ure 5.10 I~Aue~cc lines obtained by tral~ its application to several simple

Muller-Breslau s principle statically determinate structures as shown

'... , in Figs. 5.10 and 5.11. The shape of

the inftuence line for any stress element (such as bar force shear b di.

. . . . , . " en mg moment, or

reaC!lol1) IS Similar 10 the deflection curve of the structure obtained by removing the restraint ~or~espondlllg .10 that element and introducinq in its place a corresponding deformation 11110 the residual structure that remains.

~ ~~W~~ ...

Oelad of lurnbuc'cle ~ mser te.o .n

bor s U2Ll ond L2L3

, i

Figure 5.11

Bar-force influence lines obtained by Miiller-Breslau's principle



5.15 Problems for Solution

.Pr"b'eIP 5.1 Referring to Fig. 5.12, const~'ct the influence lines for (a) shear at a; (Il) moment at a; (c) reaction at b.

·ProMeIP 5.2 Referring to Fig. 5.12 and using a live load consisting of a uniform load 5()() lb per ft and a concentrated load of 5,000 lb, compute (a) the maximum upward reaction at (b) the maximum positive and negative moments at a; (e) the maximum positive and shears at a section just to the right of the support at b; (d) If the dead load is 1,000 Ib per It, compute, from the influence line, the maximum moment at a due to dead plus live load.

Problem 5.3 For the structure of Fig. 5.13, construct influence linesfor (a) shear in panel AB;' (b) moment at panel point C.

Problem 5.4 Compute. by both the exact and the approximate methods, the maximum live shear in panel AB and the maximum live moment at panel point C of the structure of Fig. due to a uniform live load of 1,2()() lb per ft and a single concentrated live load of 18,000 'Problem 5.5 For the structure of Fig. 5.14, construct influence lines for (a) shear in DE; (b) moment at panel point E.

Problem 5.6 Compute, by the approximate method, the maximum live shear in panel DE and the maximum live moment at panel point E of Fig. 5.14, dueto the live load of Prob. 5.4.

Problem 5.7 Construct a moment chart for the loading of Fig. 5.15. Problem 5.8 Using the moment chart for the loading of Fig. 5.15 and the structure Fig. 5.13, determine (a) the left girder reaction when load j is at C; (b) the left girder reaction when load 5 is at C; (c) the shear in panel AB when load 3 is at E; (d) the moment at panel point D when load 2 is at D.

'Problem 5.9 Camp ate the maximum live bar force in bars a and b of the truss of Fig. 5.16. due to a uniform live load of 150 Ib per ft. Consider both tension and compression.

Figure 5.12 Problems 5.1 and 5.2

Figure 5.14 Problems 5.5 and 5.6


. 8 ponels @ 2S' 0 200'_ _ __ J

,---- - -- ._ .. _.. ;

Figure 5.16 Problem 5.9

A 8 C 0 E F
! I i :E I i
i 5 pon~~.12" 60~
~- Figure 5.13 Problems 5.3 and 5.4

(All loads ore in kips)

15 . 30 30 30 30 25 25 25

i !ti! t!t \ S' 15,14.1.4,1 8' .1.4,14,1

Figure 5.15 Problems 5.7 and 5.8

~~ ~~J~.

l ~ 5 ponel~ @3C' , \~O_' __ .. ~

Figure 5.17 Problem 5.10

'Problem 5.10 The top-chord panel points of the truss of Fig. 5.17 lie on a parabola. influence lines for (a) horizontal component of the force in bar a; (b) force in bar b ; (c) force bar c; (d) force in bar d.


~ • • 4


~ ,

• • 41


~ 4

Bridge and Roof Trusses and Long-Span Structures

.. " 6.1 Introduction. Loadings for trusses were discussed in Chap. I; stress aoalysis for trusses was treated in Chap. 4; influence lines for trusses and the determination of maximum live bar forces were considered in Chap. 5. In this chapter, we sha!1 bring together the ideas contained in the earlier chapters and apply these concepJs to the general analysis of a typical roof truss and a typical bridge truss. Finally; consideration will be given to movable bridges and long-span structures, including cantilevers, arches, and suspension bridges.

The trusses considered will be analyzed as planar structures, but it should be understood that actually they are portions of three-dimensional frameworks. To see why this procedure is permissible, refer to the deck bridge of Fig. 6.1, in which only the lateral loads PI' P2, •• " Ps will be assumed as acting, these loads lying in the plane of the top-chord lateral system. Suppose that a horizontal plane is passed through the structure at some elevation between the top and bottom chords. Considering the isolated part of the structure above this plane. it will be seen that the horizontal components of the bar forces in the sway-bracing diagonals at the ends of the structure must hold the top-chord lateral system, acted upon by the lateral Loads, in equilibrium.' These horizontal components provide the cnd reactions on the top-chord lateral system, which can therefore be analyzed as a planar truss. The vertical components of the bar forces in the sway-bracing diagonals must be held in equilibrium by the bar forces in the end verticals of the ·main vertical trusses, ' Thus the sway' bracing in e~ch end acts as a planar truss that transfers a reaction on the top-chord lateral system to the foundation.

, 4 .. ..

4 .. t II

• 4

I This statement is not completely correct, because under an unsymmetrical system of lateral loads, the horizontal components of the bar forces in the diagonals of the main trusses would likeWise assist in furnishing the reactions to the top-chord lateral system.

• • • • •

.. ..

• • • • • • • • • •


• ~

• •



Figure 6.1 Truss bridge

Next, consider the same structure, with only the vertical loads P;, P~, ... , Ps assumed to be acting, these loads lying in the plane of the rear vertical truss. Suppose that a vertical plane, parallel to the main vertical trusses, is passed through the structure between these trusses. The sway-bracing diagonals at each end will be the only members cut that are capable of carrying vertical components. If the diagonals a are capable of carrying compression, they will be stressed and this will affect the bar forces in the end verticals of the rear vertical truss. This effect is of .' secondary importance, however, so that it is permissible and on the safe side to analyze the rear vertical truss as a planar truss acted upon by the loads P;, P;, .. <,

P;. .

If additional sway bracing is introduced at intermediate panel points, the becomes more complicated. As the panel points of the loaded vertical

deflect vertically, the sway bracing at each intermediate panel point acts in a . . such that the corresponding panel point on the unloaded vertical truss mu~t also undergo a certain amount of vertical movement. This produces what ar<~called participating stresses in the unloaded vertical truss. However, if both':~'eiticaL trusses have the same loading, there would, because of symmetry, beno, participating stresses of this type. In an actual bridge, the vertical loads on the two main vertical trusses will not always be the same, but they are usually so nearly the same for the maximum loading conditions which control the design that the bar forces in the diagonals of sway bracing at intermediate panel points may be assumed as zero. Each main vertical truss can then be analyzed separately as a planar


6.2 General Analysis of a Roof Truss. The general analysis of a roof truss

includes not only the computation of bar forces in each member due to the various' . types of load that must be supported by the truss but the combination, for each truss member, of the bar forces due to each type of loading, in a manner such that the maximum bar force that can result from the combined effects of the different types of loading is obtained. To illustrate this procedure, consider the wallsupported roof truss of Fig. 6.2, which will be taken as an intermediate truss of a . seriesof trusses spaced at. 20 .ft, center to cepter . ..It will be assumed !hat.the fra[)1- ing of the roof is such that loads from the roof are applied to the truss at the topchord panel points only. The roofing, including .the purlins that support the roofing between trusses, will be assumed to weigh 4.3 Ib per sq ft of roof area; the truss itself will be assumed to weigh 75 lb per horizontal foot, with the weight equally divided between the top- and bottom-chord panel points, The snow load

will be taken as 20 lb per sq ft of projected horizontal area of the roof. The ice load will be taken as IO Ib per sq ft of projected horizontal area of the roof. Wind

loads shall be in accordance with the recommendations of the ASCE report". discussed in Art. 1.11 and shall be based on

a maximum wind velocity of LOO mph. The analysis will be limited to the following combinations of loads: (1) dead plus snow« over the entire roof, (2) dead plus wind plus snow on the leeward side,? (3) dead plus ' ice over the entire roof plus wind. It is to

Figure 6.2 Roof truss be noted that the wind can blow from either

the right or the left.

. The dead bar forces will first be computed. For the bottom chord the dead panel loads are given by (7%)(10) = 375 lb; for the top chord, the dead panel lo~ds are given by 375 + (4j)(l1.2)(20) = 1,345 lb. These panel loads, together WIth the dead bar forces they produce, are shown in Fig. 6.3. Since the dead bar forces are symmetrical about the center line of the truss.. only half the truss is shown. The computations leading to the determination of the dead bar forces are omitted, since they involve no new procedures.

... 'Loading condition I calls for snow over the entire roof; loading condition 2 calls ."f~r~now on the leeward side only. We shall first compute the truss bar forces for .snow ~n the leeward side only; because the truss is symmetrical, we can then .d~tc:r~!ne the bar .f~rces due to snow over the entire roof by the principle of super .~Sltion, thusavoiding a complete second stress analysis. The snow panel load is gtv~n by

(20)(10)(20) = 4,000 Ib

: Wi?d For~s on Structures: Trans. ASCE, vol. 5, no. 126, part. 2, pp. 115()....1152. 1961.

. -r:hls combination of loads IS considered in the present discussion because it is one frequently I~vestlgated. It corresponds to a reasonable condition if wind loads are computed by a formula like that by Duchern~n (see below), since the snow might be likely to be blown from the roof by the p~ure on the windward slope but remain on the leeward slope where there is neither pressure nor suction, When the recommendations of the ASCE report are followed however this particular load combination does not appear to be so likely to occur since one 'may encounter as in th~ particular problem, suction on both slopes, with the grcat~r suction on the leeward' I ~Ith this condition of wind load, the snow, if it remained on the roof at all would appear s::~

likely to rernai th . d d id '

. 10 on e Win war 51 e. However, it is always possible that snow having fallen

preVIOU~ to the a~t!Dn of the wind. would have crusted over in a manner such as to act as assumed for loading condition 2.

According to Duchemin, p., the intensity of nonnal pressure on a given surface. is given b)'

P.~P 2 sin IX .

1 + sin' ex

: which P is the intensity of pressure on a vertical surface and cr; is the angle made by the given rface With the horizontal. Such a formula leads to wind pressure on the windward slope of a zable roof and makes no attempt to account for suction on the leeward slope.




4,300 # (rei "i

Figure 6.3 Bar forces due to dead load

With the snow on the leeward side only, the snow panel load at U3 equals only half this value. These panel loads, together with the bar forces they produce, are shown in Fig. 6.4. Since this is an unsymmetrical loading condition, bar forces will be computed for the entire truss.

To obtain the bar forces due to full snow load, we may use the principle of superposition, as indicated by Fig. 6.5, since the bar forces due to loading a (as already computed in Fig, 6.4), superimposed upon the bar forces due to loading b (which can be obtained from Fig, 6.4 by symmetry), equal the bar forces due to loading c, which corresponds to full snow load, for example, the bar force in bar LoU[ due to full snow load equals

-6,720 - 15,680 = -22,400

for bar U2 L), it equals 0 - 5,660 = - 5,660; etc, Since this is a symmetrical loading condition, only half the truss is shown. The bar forces in Fig, 6,6 could, of course, have been obtained by a separate stress analysis for the full snow-load



~;~fI.~=tIO-, of ·w"rid

Figure 6.4 Bar forces due to snow on leeward side




• • •

2.0 ,A,02'O



(0) • (b) '*"

.. •

Figure 6.S Superposition of loadings

. Loading condition 3 calls for ice over the entire roof S' the i ,

. ," d i h If he i , . mce e intensity of the

lee oa is ate intensity of the snow load the bar force d t f II' I

b " ' J' S ue a U Ice oad can

be 0 tamed from FIg. 6.6 by direct proportion, equaling half the bar forces due to full snow load, Bar forces due to full ice load are shown in Fig, 6,7,



• • • • • tI


• • ,

• • ~

F'~e 6.6 Bar forces due to full snow load

Figure 6.7 Bar forces due to full ice load

According t~ the ASCE report cited, q, the dynamic air pressure in pounds per velocit foot, can be computed from the following expression using the specified wind ve ocity of 100 mph:

q = O.OO2558V1 = (0.002558)(100)2 = 25,61b per sq ft

For the symmetrical gabled roof tan (X = 15/30 = 05 - 26 6" h

expression p _ (0 07 2 I) fro , , a - , , w ence by the

- , "- , q' rom the ASCE report, the windward slope is

2160#' ~2:0 + XJ:o

Figure 6.8 Bar forces due to wind load

, .

, .

... ,,~. ~ • > ;;

- '

, " . . ~

• • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

.' •

• •

• •






T.ble 6,1 Bar.Foree Table for Roof Tro ss of Fig, 6,2t (All bar forces in pounds)

j Maxi- !Load
(2) I _(~, mum lcom-
Bar D S SL 1 W (lJ D+W,DI It' bar bina-
D+S +SL +1 tion s
,._., ...
+ 6;000 - 9,460 + 5,140 +9,140 +28,600 1
LoL, +8,600 -t-20,000 +14,000 +10,000 ~11,250 +28,600 + 11,350 -'-7,350
~ 8 600 1+ 20,000 -t- 6,000 +10,000 - 9,460 +28,600 -l- 5,140 19,140 '28600 1
L,L, +14,000 -11,250 -11,350 -i 7,350 -;- ,
+ 6,000 ~ 7,860 +22,880 + 5,020 j 7,020 -t-22,880 I
L2L, +6,880 ., 16,000 _J_ 8,000 7,400 + 9,480 -i 7,480
+10,000 ~
~ 6,720 ~11,200 + 10,950 -32,050 -- 5,420--9,900 -32,050 j
1.0 U, -9,650 -22,400 -15,680 + 13,470 -I 1,860--7,3~0
U,U,' -7,710,-17,920 - 6,720 + 9,880 -25,630 - 4,550 - 6,790 -- 25~630 1
--11,200 - 8,960 + 10,880 - 8,030 -5,790
- 6,720 + 8,800 -19,220::::: 3,700 -3,700 - 19,220 I
U, U, --5,780 -- 13,440 6,720 -- 6,720 + S,300 4,200 -4,200
.. ;
0 ~ 1',790 "' 140 -2,380, I 150 3
U,L1 -1,930 - 4,480 - 2,240 4,320 - 6,410 2,090 + 150 - 6,410 I
-- 4,480 T -
° -t 2,260 -- 170 -3,000 I 190, 3
U,L, -2,430'- 5,6601_ - 2,830 5,450 - 8,090 2,640j j 190 - 8,0901 1
5,660: + -
UJ., i + ml I 0 0 0 + 375 + 375 1- 375 - 375 1,2,3
I 0 0
-- j----- I
0 - 8001 3,235 -t- 435 11,435 + 3,235 1
U,L, "1,235 + 2,OClO + 2,000 1,000 - 1,9251-:- 1,310 1 310
I +2,365 -:-11,815 1
U,L, -·3,815 - 8,000 4,000 4,000 - 5,450 ~11,8151 + 2,365 t D = dead oar force, S -." bar force due to mow load on both sides, SL ~ bar force due to ' snow On leeward side only, I = bar force due to ice on both Sides, Woe bar force due to wind.

subjected to a suction of

p = [(0.07)(26.6) ~ 2.10](25.6) = 6.41b per sq ft

The suction on the leeward slope equals (0,6)(25.6) = 15.4 Ib per sq ft .. Thus, for 'the windward ~id~: the windpanel load equals

(6.4)(11.2)(20) = 1,435 Ib

For purposes of analysis it is more convenient to treat the vertical and horizo?tal components of the wind panel load, which equal 1,280 lb upward and 640 Ib upwind,

respectively. For the leeward side, the wind panel Ioad equals (15.4)(11.2)(20) = 3,450 lb. This panel load has an upward vertical component of 3,080 Ib and a downwind horizontal component of 1,540 lb. Figure 6.8 shows the truss acted upon by the vertical and horizontal components of the wind panel loads and the bar forces for that condition of loading. The half panel loads at L 0 and L 6 were included in the analysis since the horizontal component of load applied at Lo causes stresses in the truss. Since the wind loading is unsymmetrical, bar forces are computed for the entire truss.

In Table 6.1, we shall list the bar forces as given in Figs. 6.3, 6.4, and 6.6 to 6.8.

Then we shall combine these bar forces to give the total bar force in each member corresponding to the three specified loading combinations. Finally we shall choose, for each member, the maximum bar force of each character which occurs in any of the three loading combinations, these maximum bar forces being those which would control the design of the members. We shall list in the table only the bars in half the truss; but, in entering bar forces for the columns headed SL and W, we shall enter first the bar force in the member itself, due to the loading under consideration, and second the bar force in the symmetrically placed member, due to the same loading.' This second entry covers the case for the wind direction reversed, a condition for which we must provide. Computations for bars L6L;, L5L4' and L4L3 produce more extreme max/min values under loadi ng cornbi nation (3) than shown for Lo LI, L] L2 ' and L2 L3, although such val ues wou Id not control the design of the lower chords.

. 6.S General Analysis of a Bridge Tr~8s. The general analysis of a bridge truss consists in computing the bar force in each member due to each type of loading and the combination, for each truss member, of these forces into the maximum total bar force that will control design. To illustrate this procedure, we shall consider the Warren type of highway truss of Fig. 6.9, which will be analyzed



, L .

t 0 ~3

-_ .) /_:t5L~b

, 8 pCI-·els @ 3:J' - 2..lC'>

~ - --- -- --- - -- --- -- _--- - _-- --- -- - ....,

Figure 6.9 Highway bridge truss

for dead, live, and impact loads. It will be assumed that the truss, including details and secondary bracing, weighs 0.500 kip per ft, with this dead weight divided equally between the top- and bottom-chord panel points, The weight per foot of that portion of the floor system carried by the truss will be. taken as 0.800 kip, .acting- at the bottom-clrord panel points.' For live load, an equivalent live-load system will be used, consisting of a uniform load of 0.650 kip per It and a single concentrated load of 20.0 kips. Impact will be computed in accordance with Eq. (l.l). Maximum live bar forces are to be computed by the approximate

1 This pr ... cedure was not followl'd for the lower-chord members. Why'



method. For each member of the ·left half of the truss, the maximum total bar force of each character is to be obtained.

- We shall first compute the ordinates to the influence line for each member of the left half of the truss, considering the effect of a unit load at eael: bottom-chord panel point of the entire truss. These ordinates are summarized.m the Influence table (Table 6.2). Since no unusual conditions are encountered m the computations of these values, the details of the computations will be omitted.

A summary of the influence table (Table 6.2) will next be prepared (Table 6.3).

Table 6.2 Influenee Table for Tru •• Df Fig. 6.9

Bar force due to unit load at
Bar I
Lo L, L2 L, L4 L, L. L, L.
LoL,t 0 +0.875 +0.750 -;(1.62:5 +0.500 +0.375 +0.250 +0.125 0
L,L4 0 +0.625 + 1.250 _,_ 1.875 + 1.500 .z.. 1.125 +0.750 f 0.375 0
LoU, 0 -1.238 -1.060 - 0.8R5 -0.708 -0.530 -0.354 0.177 0
U,U, 0 -0.750 . -1.500 1.250 --1.000 -0.750 -0.500 -0.250 0
V, U4 0 -0.500 -1.000 -1.500 -·2.000 -1.500 ·1.000 0500 0
0 -0.177 +1.060 , +0.885 1-0.708 ~ 0.530 _;_ 0.354 -'-0.177 0
L, U3 0 +0.177 +0.3:54 -0.885 -0.708 -- 0.530 - 0.354 - 0_177 0
U,L. 0 -0.177 -0.354 - 0.530 +0_708 +0.530 1-0.354 +0.177 0
U,LJ 0 -11.000 0 0 0 0 0 i 0 o
UzL, 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 0 I 0 0
U,L, 0 0 0 + 1.000 I 0 0 0 0 0
U.L .. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 t By the method of joints, the force in Lo L I is equal to the force in L, L, a, long as only vertical loads are applied at joint L,. Hence to save space in this and the following tables. these two members will be treated as a single member.

Table 6.3 SllD1OlQt)· of Inlluen ce Table for Teuas or Fi~. 6.~

1 S_u~m-o-f _or_d_io_a,te_s 1 MaXimum ordi na cs

__ B_a_'_I_p_O_S_it_iV_C_I' __ N_C_g_at_iv_c_/_:_ _lJ' P~";c'_1 N,,,,;,, _T_e_nS_io_n_I_C_o_:_. :_:_es_-_

LoLl + 3.500 0 + 3.500 -, 0.875. D 240 0

L,L. +7.500 0 _; 7.500 -, l.R75 0 i 240 0

Lo U, 0-4_952 -4.952 0 - 1_238 0 240

U, U, 0 - 6_000 - 6.000 0 l.siX) 0 240

U, U. 0 -8_000 - 8.000 0 2.000 0 240

U,L, +3.714 -0.177 1-3_537 -1.060 i -0.177 206 34

L2 U, +0.531 -2.654 -2.12J +0354--.0.S85 69- -[71

V3L.+1.769 -1.061 +0_703 -O.70~ -O.530 137 103

~:~: +~.OOO ~ I' +~_00011 +~ooo ~ I 6~11·: g

U, L, "'-1.000 0 -i 1.000 , I.(JOO 0 I, 60 0

U4L. 0 0 0 0 I 0 0 0

. I

Loaded length ft





1 ,

l ,

• I





t ~


c; rs 75 75 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5
4t1\f;r,'; Symm. 4¥t4s~m
obi. t - -obl.t

39Cl 33:1 390 )9.0 75 (5 75 31.5 31.5 315 31.5
\0 I (6) (e) Figure 6.10 Computation of dead bar forces

Preparatory to the construction of a bar-force table for the members under consideration, we shall compute the panel loads for dead and live load. For dead load, the top-chord panel load equals (30)(0.250) = 7.5 kips; the bottomchord panel load equals 7.5 + (30)(0.800) = 31.5 kips. For uniform Jive load, the panel load equals (30)(0650) = 19.5 kips; the concentrated live load, which is already expressed as a panel load, equals 20.0 kips.

In the bar-force table (Table 6.4), the dead bar forces are computed by the principle of superposition, as shown in Fig. 6.10. The bar forces due to the loading of Fig. 6_1 Oa are first computed. This loading assumes that the total dead load is applied at the bottom chord, so that the dead panel load for bottom-chord panel points equals 31.5 + 7.5 = 39.0. Since the influence table is based on the application of loads to the bottom-chord panel points, the bar forces for this condition of loading are obtained by mUltiplying, for each member, the sum of all the ordinates 10 the influence line by the total dead panel load of 39.0. The bar forces due to the loading of Fig. 6.IOb are next computed, the value 7.5 being that of the topchord dead panel load. This stress analysis is exceedingly simple and results, as shown in the figure, in a bar force of - 7.5 in all verticals and zero force in ail other members. If the loadings of Fig. 6.l0a and b are superimposed, the loading of Fig. 6.1 Dc, which corresponds to the actual dead loading, is obtai ned. Hence the dead bar forces can be obtained by superimposing the bar forces computed for the loadings of Figs. 6.lOa and b. To summarize, the dead bar forces for a given member can be computed as follows: (I) Multiply the total dead panel load by the sum of all the ordinates to the influence line. (2) To the bar force from step 1, subtract. for the v!'rticais only, the magnitude of the top-chord dead panel load.

Had the dead load not been uniformly distributeu, the bar forces corresponding to the loading of Fig. 6.10a would require recourse to the influence table, with bar forces obtained by summing the cross products of the individual panel loads and corresponding ordinates from the influence table. It is, of course, possible, and sometimes desirable, to obtain dead bar forces by a separate analysis for dead

loads, without making use of influence data. ,

. Maximum tension and compression due to uniform live load are entered in the next column, These values are obtained by multiplying the uniform live pane! load (19.5) by the sum of the positive and negative ordinates, respectively, to the influence line. Maximum tension and compression due to concentrated live load are entered in the foliowing column. These value, arc obtained by multiplying the concentrated live panel load (20.0) by the maximum positive and negative

• t


• • t

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .,

• • •

• •


, I li b f rce of each character

ordinates respectively, to the influence line. Tota rve ar 0 ,

, b . db' th ffects of the uniform and concentrated live loads. IS then 0 tame y sumrrung e e . ~ I) are then entered'

Impact fractions, computed in accordance with Eq, (1. '. . '

. . . I I' bar forces give the Impact bar

these impact fractions multiplied by the toto ivc < •

. I I' b f .es leading to the total bar

forces which arc then added to the tota rve ar ore , .

'. . I b f > due to dead load plus live

forces due to live load and Impact. Tota ar orces

Table 6.4 Bar-Foree Table lor Truss of Fig. 6.9 (AU bar-forces in kips)

Live bar force L


1- 25.2

----I~---I----i---- ·--~--I----I----I-----I----

+ 208.9+ 501.4

Dead bar force D

Impact bar force 1



Impact fraction



L+I =D



+ 11.8

I- 97.6 1-234.1



I 85.8


+292.5 -,146.2 +37.5 -\-183.7 0.137

---.-- .-------- --- -----1----1----1----1----1---

193.0 96.5 --24.7 -121.2 0,137


-167.2 -401.2


-234.0 --117.0 300 -147.0 0.137


o, u,

____ I - J 12.0 ~_S6 ~_:_-_4_0_.0_!--1-96-.0 1_~·_1_37 __ 1----2-6-.8-1---2-2Z-.-8- - 534.8

1..., L 1-'> 0 -05 : 21.2 i 1 937 0.151 114.2 + I07.S' -1.245.9

__ '_' _I~~I ~l 3.5 7,0 _0_.3_00_.1-~2-.1-:~-9-.1-1----

L, U.1 , - ,10.4 + 7.1 + 17.5 0.258 -1 4.5 ~ 22.0

- 810 51.8 -17.7 69.5 0.169 -11.8 81.3 -164.3

----1----··--·- ----


- 7.5

-137.8 -- 330.8

-I 27,6

-I- 9.3

- 6.9

-- ------~---I-~~-I-------I~----I-------:------

+ 58.0 + 85.6

- 38.2 10.6

·14,2 -,-4S.7 0.191

-101) .- 31.3 0.219

I I 1-----1-----1----·-----

!- +20,0 ~-~i: 0.270 1-10.7 1- 50,2 I' 81.7

, --. 1 ,--

-----1----1----:1---1------- --- -----1·---1-----

+ 31.5

J_ 19.5


-I 'J1.5 + 19.5


+20.0 +- 39.5

• 10,7


- 7.5





Figure 6.11 Bascule bridge

., . ,,{.Joadplus impact are entered in the final colu~t is to be noted that live and impact bar forces of both characters are carried forward in the bar-force table until it is definitely ascertained that no stress reversal can occur. In the actual design of a truss, bar forces due to other causes, such as wind loads, would be considered, such forces being combined with dead, live, and impact bar forces in additional columns in the bar-force table. In this example, bar forces due to wind have . been' omitted because the analysis of lateral systems and portals has been re',served for discussion in Chap. 7.

--'. f:i.4 Movable Bridges-General. When the topography of a bridge site is such that it is desirable to have the roadway close to the surface of the body of water crossed by the bridge, the vertical underclearance requirements of the navigation Passing beneath the bridge may require a movable bridge, A moveable bridge is one that can be moved to permit the passage of navigation. The three 1110St important types of movable bridges are (J) bascule bridges, (2) vertical-lift bridges, and (3) horizontal-swing bridges. The type to be used depend, largely upon the horizontal and vertical clearance requirements of the navigation, Whether a lowlevel movable bridge or a high-level fixed bridge should be used in a given site can usually be determined only by a careful economic study.

6.5 Bascule Bridges. A bascule bridge may prove economical where horizontal navigation requirements do not necessitate too long a span and where a high vertical clearance is required. A typical bascule bridge IS shown in Fib'. 0.11. Motive power drives a pinion at D, which engages the rack E, thus opening or closing the span. The required motive power is reduced by the action of the counterweight c.

The dead-load bar forces in a bascule span change as the bridge is opened or closed, and it is possible that the dead bar forces in certain members during such an operation may exceed the total bar forces with the bridge closed and subjected to

. " traffic. '- . . . '

To find the maximum dead bar forces that occur while the span is being raised or lowered/let FH be the dead bar force in any member with the span horizontal and

1 See O. E. Hovey, "Movable Bridges," vol, I, p. 219. John Wiley & Sons. Inc .. New York, 1926,

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