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The Laws of Manu

The Laws of Manu

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The Laws of Manu

translated by G. Buhler

The Laws of Manu

Table of Contents
The Laws of Manu....................................................................................................................................................1 translated by G. Buhler..................................................................................................................................1

i

The Laws of Manu
translated by G. Buhler
CHAPTER I. 1. The great sages approached Manu, who was seated with a collected mind, and, having duly worshipped him, spoke as follows: 2. 'Deign, divine one, to declare to us precisely and in due order the sacred laws of each of the (four chief) castes (varna) and of the intermediate ones. 3. 'For thou, O Lord, alone knowest the purport, (i.e.) the rites, and the knowledge of the soul, (taught) in this whole ordinance of the Self−existent (Svayambhu), which is unknowable and unfathomable.' 4. He, whose power is measureless, being thus asked by the high−minded great sages, duly honoured them, and answered, 'Listen!' 5. This (universe) existed in the shape of Darkness, unperceived, destitute of distinctive marks, unattainable by reasoning, unknowable, wholly immersed, as it were, in deep sleep. 6. Then the divine Self−existent (Svayambhu, himself) indiscernible, (but) making (all) this, the great elements and the rest, discernible, appeared with irresistible (creative) power, dispelling the darkness. 7. He who can be perceived by the internal organ (alone), who is subtile, indiscernible, and eternal, who contains all created beings and is inconceivable, shone forth of his own (will). 8. He, desiring to produce beings of many kinds from his own body, first with a thought created the waters, and placed his seed in them. 9. That (seed) became a golden egg, in brilliancy equal to the sun; in that (egg) he himself was born as Brahman, the progenitor of the whole world. 10. The waters are called narah, (for) the waters are, indeed, the offspring of Nara; as they were his first residence (ayana), he thence is named Narayana. 11. From that (first) cause, which is indiscernible, eternal, and both real and unreal, was produced that male (Purusha), who is famed in this world (under the appellation of) Brahman. 12. The divine one resided in that egg during a whole year, then he himself by his thought (alone) divided it into two halves; 13. And out of those two halves he formed heaven and earth, between them the middle sphere, the eight points of the horizon, and the eternal abode of the waters. 14. From himself (atmanah) he also drew forth the mind, which is both real and unreal, likewise from the mind egoism, which possesses the function of self−consciousness (and is) lordly; 15. Moreover, the great one, the soul, and all (products) affected by the three qualities, and, in their order, the five organs which perceive the objects of sensation. The Laws of Manu 1

17. 27. truth or falsehood. plains. But from minute body (−framing) particles of these seven very powerful Purushas springs this (world). and Saman. But from fire. and the Sudra to proceed from his mouth. That the great elements enter. the oceans. pleasure. for the due performance of the sacrifice. the lunar mansions and the planets. which possess measureless power. and uneven ground. 30. Dividing his own body. and his feet. wind. But for the sake of the prosperity of the worlds he caused the Brahmana. and anger. this whole creation he likewise produced. As at the change of the seasons each season of its own accord assumes its distinctive marks. the Lord. in order to distinguish actions. and he caused the creatures to be affected by the pairs (of opposites). He. virtue or sin. the perishable from the imperishable. such as pain and pleasure. Austerity. But to whatever course of action the Lord at first appointed each (kind of beings). the rivers. therefore the wise call his frame sarira. 19. Time and the divisions of time. also created the class of the gods. (the body. even according to the words of the Veda. that alone it has spontaneously adopted in each succeeding creation. the mountains. with that (female) he produced Virag. Yagus. 21. he separated merit from demerit. 20. Among them each succeeding (element) acquires the quality of the preceding one. and the sun he drew forth the threefold eternal Veda. 29.The Laws of Manu 16. 25. 23. But with the minute perishable particles of the five (elements) which have been mentioned. 22. 24. 28. even so corporeal beings (resume in new births) their (appointed) course of action. through its minute parts the framer of all beings. But in the beginning he assigned their several names. he created all beings. 32. joining minute particles even of those six. which form the (creator's) frame. 26. the Lord became half male and half female. that clung (afterwards) spontaneously to it. his thighs. and the eternal sacrifice. Moreover. the Kshatriya. and conditions to all (created beings). with particles of himself. his arms.) 18. noxiousness or harmlessness. the Vaisya. But. the imperishable one. this whole (world) is framed in due order. desire. and the subtile class of the Sadhyas. actions. The Laws of Manu 2 . and whatever place (in the sequence) each of them occupies. called Rik. and whose nature is action. together with their functions and the mind. as he desired to call these beings into existence. speech. who are endowed with life. enter (a−sri) these (creatures). gentleness or ferocity. Whatever he assigned to each at the (first) creation. 31. even so many qualities it is declared to possess. Because those six (kinds of) minute particles.

The Laws of Manu 33. Praketas. and heavenly lights of many kinds. cattle. to be the creator of this whole (world). Vasishtha. Pisakas. 40. performed very difficult austerities. that I will truly declare to you. the demons called) Rakshasas and Pisakas. and men are born from the womb. Atri. lords of created beings. Angiras. 48. 38. grow from shoots. fishes. 42. having performed austerities. 46. 36. possess internal consciousness and experience pleasure and pain. snakes. propagated by seed or by slips. comets. men. 41. tortoises. carnivorous beasts with two rows of teeth. 39 (Horse−faced) Kinnaras. O most holy among the twice−born. the climbing plants and the creepers spring all from seed or from slips. These (plants) which are surrounded by multiform Darkness. But whatever act is stated (to belong) to (each of) those creatures here below. Pulaha. Virag. 43. 37. desiring to produce created beings. Small and large worms and beetles. (Those trees) which bear fruit without flowers are called vanaspati (lords of the forest). From hot moisture spring stinging and biting insects. moths. Rakshasas. annual plants (are those) which. the different kinds of grasses. fishes. and all other (creatures) of that kind which are produced by heat. flies. supernatural noises. Lightnings. 47. Cattle. as well as similar terrestrial and aquatic (animals). flies. and carnivorous beasts with two rows of teeth. 34. as well as their order in respect to birth. Asuras. But know me. perish after the ripening of their fruit. lice. all stinging and biting insects and the several kinds of immovable things. Pulastya. From eggs are born birds. produced by those high−minded ones by means of austerities and at my command. the result of their acts (in former existences). crocodiles. himself produced. and (thereby) called into existence ten great sages. 49. Thus was this whole (creation). lice. They created seven other Manus possessing great brilliancy. gods and classes of gods and great sages of measureless power. The Laws of Manu 3 . falling meteors. birds of many kinds. bugs. Mariki. deer. thunderbolts and clouds. (the bird−deities called) Suparnas and the several classes of the manes. bugs. Kratu. All plants. But the various plants with many stalks. monkeys. Gandharvas (or musicians of the gods). (each being) according to (the results of) its actions. but those which bear both flowers and fruit are called vriksha. 35. Apsarases (the dancers of the gods). 45. 44. and Narada. (the snake−deities called) Nagas and Sarpas. Bhrigu. growing from one or several roots. whom that male. Then I. imperfect (rohita) and perfect rainbows. deer. bearing many flowers and fruits. both the immovable and the movable. Yakshas (the servants of Kubera.

the corporeal beings whose nature is action. united (with the fine body). Bhrigu. to me alone in the beginning. 64. 66. he disappeared in himself. Auttami. the descendant of the Self−existent (Svayambhu). himself taught them. both human and divine. being thus addressed by Manu. pleased in his heart. by (alternately) waking and slumbering. Kakshusha. and as many (muhurtas) one day and night. and to end with (that of) these (just mentioned immovable creatures). 52. to all the sages. very powerful Manus. the imperishable one. The sun divides days and nights. thirty kalas one muhurta.The Laws of Manu 50. but performs not its functions. then he who is the soul of all beings sweetly slumbers. Raivata. the night (being intended) for the repose of created beings and the day for exertion. Thus he. These seven very glorious Manus. thirty kashthas one kala. are one kashtha). will fully recite to you these Institutes. 54. 65. 57. (Are) Svarokisha. 53. it remains for a long time united with the organs (of sensation). 'Listen!' 61. 62. But he having composed these Institutes (of the sacred law). it then assumes. spoke. When. each during the period (allotted to him). The dark (fortnight) is their day for active exertion. are stated to begin with (that of) Brahman. 60. When he whose power is incomprehensible. 55. the first among whom is Svayambhuva. Tamasa. and the son of Vivasvat. then this world stirs. next I (taught them) to Mariki and the other sages. When that divine one wakes. The Laws of Manu 4 . it then leaves the corporeal frame. 58. 63. it enters into vegetable or animal seed. had thus produced the universe and men. possessing great lustre. being clothed with minute particles (only). a (new) corporeal frame. 51. here. who belong to the race of this Manu. the bright (fortnight) their night for sleep. then the universe sinks to sleep. The (various) conditions in this always terrible and constantly changing circle of births and deaths to which created beings are subject. A month is a day and a night of the manes. Then that great sage Bhrigu. When they are absorbed all at once in that great soul. for that sage learned the whole in its entirety from me. Six other high−minded. when he slumbers tranquilly. 59. When this (soul) has entered darkness. but the division is according to fortnights. and who have severally produced created beings. according to the rule. free from all care and occupation. repeatedly suppressing one period by means of the other. 56. desist from their actions and mind becomes inert. But when he reposes in calm sleep. produced and protected this whole movable and immovable (creation). Eighteen nimeshas (twinklings of the eye. incessantly revivifies and destroys this whole movable and immovable (creation).

Mind. and (so is) Truth. The before−mentioned age of the gods. who) know that the holy day of Brahman. They declare that the Krita age (consists of) four thousand years (of the gods). 79. the thousands and hundreds are diminished by one (in each). 70. 78. modifying itself. modifying itself. being multiplied by seventy−one. Dharma is deprived successively of one foot. awakes and. 74. The Laws of Manu 5 . creates mind. 80. accomplish all their aims. that is held to possess the quality of touch. possessing the quality of taste. the vehicle of all perfumes. such is the creation in the beginning. performs the work of creation by modifying itself. yuga) according to their order. proceeds the brilliant light. 73. ends after (the completion of) one thousand ages (of the gods) and that his night lasts as long. 69. by reason of (unjust) gains (agama). In the Krita age Dharma is four−footed and entire. and live four hundred years in the Krita age. The Manvantaras. Brahman repeats this again and again. At the end of that day and night he who was asleep. 81. powerful wind. they declare that sound is the quality of the latter. the creations and destructions (of the world. and the twilight following it of the same number. thence ether is produced.The Laws of Manu 67. Those (only. (constitutes what) is here named the period of a Manu (Manvantara). 71. that during which it goes southwards the night. 72. (or) twelve thousand (of their years). impelled by (Brahman's) desire to create. as it were. In the other three ages with their twilights preceding and following. 68. and fraud the merit (gained by men) is diminished by one fourth (in each). sporting. And from light. the twilight preceding it consists of as many hundreds. nor does any gain accrue to men by unrighteousness. are) numberless. 77. A year is a day and a night of the gods. Next from wind modifying itself. 83. indeed. But hear now the brief (description of) the duration of a night and a day of Brahman and of the several ages (of the world. 82. falsehood. springs the pure. but in the Treta and (in each of) the succeeding (ages) their life is lessened by one quarter. from water earth which has the quality of smell. that is declared to possess the quality of colour. and through (the prevalence of) theft. These twelve thousand (years) which thus have been just mentioned as the total of four (human) ages. But know that the sum of one thousand ages of the gods (makes) one day of Brahman. In the other (three ages). are called one age of the gods. (are really) men acquainted with (the length of) days and nights. which is both real and unreal. after awaking. 75. which illuminates and dispels darkness. (is produced) water. (Men are) free from disease. and that his night has the same length. 76. But from ether. their division is (as follows): the half year during which the sun progresses to the north will be the day.

91. those who know the Brahman. 93. the lord of all created beings. through whose mouth the gods continually consume the sacrificial viands and the manes the offerings to the dead? 96. those who recognise (the necessity and the manner of performing the prescribed duties). 95. entitled to all. and as he possesses the Veda. on account of the excellence of his origin The Brahmana is. To Brahmanas he assigned teaching and studying (the Veda). in the Dvapara (the performance of) sacrifices. and to abstain from attaching himself to sensual pleasures. Whatever exists in the world is. 88. those who perform them. in a proportion as (those) ages decrease in length. and of men. One set of duties (is prescribed) for men in the Krita age. mentioned in the Veda. in the Kali liberality alone. 99. in order that the offerings might be conveyed to the gods and manes and that this universe might be preserved. A Brahmana. For the Self−existent (Svayambhu). But in order to protect this universe He. is born as the highest on earth. 89. to bestow gifts. The Kshatriya he commanded to protect the people. arms. to serve meekly even these (other) three castes. as he was the first−born. and (again) another (set) in the Kali. 86. coming into existence. Of created beings the most excellent are said to be those which are animated. 98. to trade. produced him first from his own mouth. What created being can surpass him. and feet. 87. mankind.The Laws of Manu 84. giving and accepting (of alms). indeed. of the intelligent. As the Brahmana sprang from (Brahman's) mouth. 90. Man is stated to be purer above the navel (than below). One occupation only the lord prescribed to the Sudra. 94. sacrificing for their own benefit and for others. assigned separate (duties and) occupations to those who sprang from his mouth. to offer sacrifices. in the Treta (divine) knowledge. the property of the Brahmana. he is by right the lord of this whole creation. Of Brahmanas. of the learned. those which subsist by intelligence. The very birth of a Brahmana is an eternal incarnation of the sacred law. 85. the most resplendent one. to study (the Veda). and to cultivate land. The life of mortals. of the performers. of those who possess this knowledge. for he is born to (fulfil) the sacred law. for the protection of the treasury of the law. The Laws of Manu 6 . thighs. In the Krita age the chief (virtue) is declared to be (the performance of) austerities. the desired results of sacrificial rites and the (supernatural) power of embodied (spirits) are fruits proportioned among men according to (the character of) the age. to offer sacrifices. 100. different ones in the Treta and in the Dvapara. and becomes one with Brahman. to lend money. to study (the Veda). 97. 92. the Brahmanas. those learned (in the Veda). hence the Self−existent (Svayambhu) has declared the purest (part) of him (to be) his mouth. to bestow gifts. of the animated. having performed austerities. The Vaisya to tend cattle.

(the law) of hermits. (the manner of gaining) final emancipation and (of) renouncing the world. or deeds. is never tainted by sins. 111. whether it be taught in the revealed texts or in the sacred tradition. The sages who saw that the sacred law is thus grounded on the rule of conduct. A Brahmana who studies these Institutes (and) faithfully fulfils the duties (prescribed therein). 105. the result of (good or bad) actions.The Laws of Manu 101. 108. the ordinances of studentship. the most excellent rule of bathing (on return from the teacher's house). (the manner of attaining) supreme bliss and the examination of the good and bad qualities of actions. (to be followed) by all the four castes (varna). wise Manu sprung from the Self−existent. 114. have taken good conduct to be the most excellent root of all austerity. 117. the whole duty of a king and the manner of deciding lawsuits. the origin of the mixed castes. the law of (inheritance and) division. it procures fame and long life. bestows but his own in alms. The creation of the universe. (The law concerning) the behaviour of Vaisyas and Sudras. and he must duly instruct his pupils in them. He sanctifies any company (which he may enter). 102. the purification of men and of things. the rule of the sacraments. (The law of) marriage and the description of the (various) marriage−rites. The rules for the examination of witnesses. the regulations for the great sacrifices and the eternal rule of the funeral sacrifices. but nobody else (shall do it). does not reap the fruit of the Veda. 103. should be always careful to (follow) it. hence a twice−born man who possesses regard for himself. 115. The rule of conduct is transcendent law. the laws concerning husband and wife. wears but his own apparel. (To study) this (work) is the best means of securing welfare. 109. seven ancestors and seven descendants. (the rules regarding) lawful and forbidden food. and the respectful behaviour (towards Gurus). The Laws of Manu 7 . A Brahmana who departs from the rule of conduct. The threefold course of transmigrations. and he alone deserves (to possess) this whole earth. words. In order to clearly settle his duties those of the other (castes) according to their order. other mortals subsist through the benevolence of the Brahmana. In this (work) the sacred law has been fully stated as well as the good and bad qualities of (human) actions and the immemorial rule of conduct. The laws concerning women. 104. it increases understanding. it (leads to) supreme bliss. 106. 110. The Brahmana eats but his own food. the law for all castes in times of distress and the law of penances. 112. The description of the modes of (gaining) subsistence and the duties of a Snataka. 116. arising from thoughts. composed these Institutes (of the sacred Law). (the law concerning) gambling and the removal of (men nocuous like) thorns. but he who duly follows it. A learned Brahmana must carefully study them. 113. 107. will obtain the full reward.

formerly promulgated these Institutes. gains fame in this (world) and after death unsurpassable bliss. has its root in the conception that an act can yield them. of castes (gati). 1. The Veda. should. The desire (for rewards). as an atheist and a scorner of the Veda. and (finally) self−satisfaction. But a learned man after fully scrutinising all this with the eye of knowledge. even so learn ye also the (whole work) from me. But by Sruti (revelation) is meant the Veda. next the tradition and the virtuous conduct of those who know the (Veda further). relying on the Institutes of dialectics. of families. Every twice−born man. 10. to those who seek the knowledge of the sacred law the supreme authority is the revelation (Sruti). who are ever exempt from hatred and inordinate affection. and one's own pleasure. 5. in reply to my questions. for whatever (man) does. 11. To act solely from a desire for rewards is not laudable. Not a single act here (below) appears ever to be done by a man free from desire. Whatever law has been ordained for any (person) by Manu. 6. reaches the deathless state and even in this (life) obtains (the fulfilment of) all the desires that he may have conceived. and the rules concerning heretics and companies (of traders and the like)− (all that) Manu has declared in these Institutes. it is (the result of) the impulse of desire. indeed. He who persists in discharging these (prescribed duties) in the right manner. The whole Veda is the (first) source of the sacred law. since from those two the sacred law shone forth. prescribed by the Veda. that has been fully declared in the Veda: for that (sage was) omniscient. Learn that sacred law which is followed by men learned (in the Veda) and assented to in their hearts by the virtuous. must be cast out by the virtuous. 7. also the customs of holy men. and in consequence of (that) conception sacrifices are performed. yet an exemption from that desire is not (to be found) in this (world): for on (that) desire is grounded the study of the Veda and the performance of the actions. 119. 2. CHAPTER II. As Manu. 12. The Laws of Manu 8 . who. 3. 4. be intent on (the performance of) his duties. The primeval laws of countries. and by Smriti (tradition) the Institutes of the sacred law: those two must not be called into question in any matter. For that man who obeys the law prescribed in the revealed texts and in the sacred tradition. vows and the laws prescribing restraints are all stated to be kept through the idea that they will bear fruit. they declare to be visibly the fourfold means of defining the sacred law. 13. The knowledge of the sacred law is prescribed for those who are not given to the acquisition of wealth and to the gratification of their desires. the sacred tradition. treats with contempt those two sources (of the law). the customs of virtuous men. 9.The Laws of Manu 118. 8. in accordance with the authority of the revealed texts.

which (extends) as far as the eastern and the western oceans. before he has risen. 22. 19. Rishis. is called the conduct of virtuous men.The Laws of Manu 14. indeed. these (form). Know that he for whom (the performance of) the ceremonies beginning with the rite of impregnation (Garbhadhana) and ending with the funeral rite (Antyeshti) is prescribed. The Laws of Manu 9 . That (country) which (lies) between the Himavat and the Vindhya (mountains) to the east of Prayaga and to the west of Vinasana (the place where the river Sarasvati disappears) is called Madhyadesa (the central region). With holy rites. by (the recitation of) sacred texts. at any time after the sun has risen. may reside anywhere. the country of the Brahmarshis (Brahmanical sages. which sanctify the body and purify (from sin) in this (life) and after death. the wise call Aryavarta (the country of the Aryans). must the ceremony on conception and other sacraments be performed for twice−born men. 29. The plain of the Kurus. derived from both parents. The custom handed down in regular succession (since time immemorial) among the (four chief) castes (varna) and the mixed (races) of that country. and butter. created by the gods. learn (now) the duties of the castes (varna). But (the tract) between those two mountains (just mentioned). or when neither sun nor stars are visible. he must be fed with gold. which lies between the two divine rivers Sarasvati and Drishadvati. by the great sacrifices. the (country of the) Matsyas. 26. 18. but a Sudra. that (is declared) by Vedic texts. which ranks) immediately after Brahmavarta. honey. the Kauda (tonsure). 28. and while sacred formulas are being recited. by burnt oblations. 20. the Gatakarman (birth−rite) must be performed for a male (child). born in that country. let all men on earth learn their several usages. by the Gatakarman (the ceremony after birth). 25. Before the navel−string is cut. prescribed by the Veda. 15. by offering (to the gods. the (sages) call Brahmavarta. Thus has the origin of the sacred law been succinctly described to you and the origin of this universe. (Thus) the (Agnihotra) sacrifice may be (optionally) performed. 27. and manes). removed from twice−born men. By burnt oblations during (the mother's) pregnancy. Pankalas. and Surasenakas. both are held to be law. 23. 24. By the study of the Veda. but no other man whatsoever. while sacred formulas are being recited. by (the procreation of) sons. 17. 16. distressed for subsistence. That land. for both are pronounced by the wise (to be) valid law. But when two sacred texts (Sruti) are conflicting. From a Brahmana. one must know to be fit for the performance of sacrifices. and by (Srauta) rites this (human) body is made fit for (union with) Brahman. by vows. by the (acquisition of the) threefold sacred science. Let twice−born men seek to dwell in those (above−mentioned countries). That land where the black antelope naturally roams. (the tract) different from that (is) the country of the Mlekkhas (barbarians). 21. and the Maungibandhana (the tying of the sacred girdle of Munga grass) is the taint. is entitled (to study) these Institutes.

35. become Vratyas (outcasts). not imply anything dreadful. according to the order (of their castes). the Kudakarman (tonsure) must be performed. (The initiation) of a Brahmana who desires proficiency in sacred learning should take place in the fifth (year after conception). With such men. in a lucky muhurta. by all twice−born men in the first or third year. 39. (and that) of a Vaisya who longs for (success in his) business in the eighth. 40. The (time for the) Savitri (initiation) of a Brahmana does not pass until the completion of the sixteenth year (after conception). a Kshatriya's be connected with power. on the tenth or twelfth (day after birth). 41. and he−goats. In the fourth month the Nishkramana (the first leaving of the house) of the child should be performed. 44. one should perform the initiation (upanayana) of a Brahmana. but a Sudra's (express something) contemptible. smooth and soft. and of a Vaisya until the completion of the twenty−fourth. (and) that of a Vaisya of woollen threads. if they have not been purified according to the rule. of a Kshatriya's (a word) implying protection. 43. 34. and contain a word of benediction. According to the teaching of the revealed texts. of a Kshatriya until the completion of the twenty−second. of a bowstring. (that) of a Kshatriya who wishes to become powerful in the sixth. of Pilu or Udumbara. Asmantaka. made of Murva fibres. (the girdles) may be made of Kusa. But let (the father perform or) cause to be performed the Namadheya (the rite of naming the child). 32. in the eleventh after conception (that) of a Kshatriya. flax or wool. The girdle of a Brahmana shall consist of a of a triple cord of Munga grass. form a connexion either through the Veda or by marriage. with a single threefold knot. a staff of Bilva or Palasa. or with three or five (knots according to the custom of the family). Let (the first part of) a Brahmana's name (denote something) auspicious. (and consist) of three threads. but in the twelfth that of a Vaisya. a Kshatriya. (and) a Vaisya. spotted deer. of hempen threads. and (lower garments) made of hemp. in the sixth month the Annaprasana (first feeding with rice). (that) of a Vaisya. 33. and optionally (any other) auspicious ceremony required by (the custom of) the family. A Brahmana shall (carry). and a Vaisya's with wealth. excluded from the Savitri (initiation) and despised by the Aryans. of Vata or Khadira. 37. 42. or on a lucky lunar day. If Munga grass (and so forth) be not procurable. according to the sacred law. possess a plain meaning. 31. that of a Kshatriya of hempen threads. The names of women should be easy to pronounce. Let students. In the eighth year after conception. wear (as upper dresses) the skins of black antelopes. end in long vowels. (shall be) twisted to the right. and Balbaga (fibres). let no Brahmana ever. be pleasing and auspicious. (that) of a Kshatriya. even in times of distress. for the sake of spiritual merit. 45. and of a Sudra's (an expression) denoting service. 38. of a Vaisya's (a term) expressive of thriving.The Laws of Manu 30. After those (periods men of) these three (castes) who have not received the sacrament at the proper time. under an auspicious constellation. 36. (The second part of) a Brahmana's (name) shall be (a word) implying happiness. The Laws of Manu 10 . The sacrificial string of a Brahmana shall be made of cotton.

or out of (that) sacred to the gods. unhurt by fire. (and) that of a Vaisya. turning his right hand towards it. fame. with the (prescribed) tirtha. or out of that sacred to Ka (Pragapati). Excessive eating is prejudicial to health. the tirtha) sacred to the gods. if he turns to the south. but eaten irreverently. 55. it destroys them both. but a Vaisya. (that) at the tips (of the fingers. 49. and pray that he may always obtain it. a Kshatriya. or of his sister. 53. 54. 47. and to (bliss in) heaven.The Laws of Manu 46. to reach his forehead. to reach (the tip of his) nose. to fame. and having announced it without guile to his teacher. show a pleased face. for these reasons. 58. the tirtha) sacred to the manes. or of (some other) female who will not disgrace him (by a refusal). Food. after performing an ablution. let him eat. not likely to terrify men. 59. He who knows the sacred law and seeks purity shall always perform the rite of sipping with water neither hot nor frothy. turning his face towards the east. if he eats facing the east. 60. if he faces the east. Let a Brahmana always sip water out of the part of the hand (tirtha) sacred to Brahman. Having taken a staff according to his choice. and eat it without contempt. and is odious among men. Let all the staves be straight. (the seat of) the soul and the head. 48. never out of that sacred to the manes. handsome to look at. They call (the part) at the root of the thumb the tirtha sacred to Brahman. or of his own maternal aunt. and beware of eating between (the two meal−times). An initiated Brahmana should beg. (the student) should beg alms according to the prescribed rule. placing (the word) lady in the middle. The staff of a Brahmana shall be made of such length as to reach the end of his hair. and after he has eaten. next twice wipe his mouth. truthfulness. Having collected as much food as is required (from several persons). Let him first sip water thrice. Let him first beg food of his mother. 57. one ought. nor go anywhere without having purified himself (after his meal). it prevents (the acquisition of) spiritual merit. beginning (his request with the word) lady (bhavati). and having purified himself by sipping water. Let him not give to any man what he leaves. 50. if he turns to the west. 51. touch with water the cavities (of the head). to avoid it carefully. Let him always worship his food. lastly. having worshipped the sun and walked round the fire. The Laws of Manu 11 . that at the root of the (little) finger (the tirtha) sacred to Ka (Pragapati). Let a twice−born man always eat his food with concentrated mind. with their bark perfect. gives strength and manly vigour. 61. that of a Kshatriya. when he sees it. placing it at the end (of the formula). 52. that is always worshipped. let him rejoice. 56. let him not over−eat himself. without a blemish. and that below (between the index and the thumb. (His meal will procure) long life. and. in a lonely place. prosperity. and turning to the east or to the north. let him duly cleanse himself with water and sprinkle the cavities (of his head).

Svah. and for a Vaisya. and touch the left (foot) with his left (hand). (and) a Sudra by water touched with the extremity (of his lips). 64. (and) his water−pot he must throw into water. he is called) prakinavitin. reciting sacred formulas. two (years) later than that. and of the twilight devotions. passed under it. 73. (for) unless the syllable Om precede (the lesson) will slip away (from him). his staff. and (the Vyahritis) Bhuh. the skin (which serves as his upper garment). his sacrificial thread. With crossed hands he must clasp (the feet) of the teacher. who dwells in the highest heaven (Parameshthin). 65. Pragapati (the lord of creatures) milked out (as it were) from the three Vedas the sounds A. But to him who is about to begin studying. and has brought his organs under due control. This whole series (of ceremonies) must be performed for females (also). passed under it. Bhuvah. that is called the Brahmangali (joining the palms for the sake of the Veda). 72. 63. At the beginning and at the end of (a lesson in the) Veda he must always clasp both the feet of his teacher.The Laws of Manu 62. The Laws of Manu 12 . recite! He shall leave off (when the teacher says): Let a stoppage take place! 74. 67. must say: Ho. has made the Brahmangali. A Brahmana is purified by water that reaches his heart. sacred to Savitri (Savitri). of conduct. Having performed the (rite of) initiation. But (a student) who is about to begin the Study (of the Veda). the right (foot) with his right (hand). the teacher always unwearied. when they have been damaged. and the household duties (the same) as the (daily) worship of the sacred fire. serving the husband (equivalent to) the residence in (the house of the) teacher. and sanctified by three suppressions of the breath (Pranayama). of the fire−worship. after he has sipped water in accordance with the Institutes (of the sacred law). A twice−born man is called upavitin when his right arm is raised (and the sacrificial string or the dress. 71. learn (now) to what duties they must afterwards apply themselves. shall receive instruction. a Vaisya by water taken into his mouth. (when his) left (arm) is raised (and the string. rests on the right shoulder. a Kshatriya by water reaching his throat. at the proper time and in the proper order. purified by Pavitras (blades of Kusa grass). the teacher must first instruct the (pupil) in (the rules of) personal purification. and sanctifies. one foot from each. 77. 70. The nuptial ceremony is stated to be the Vedic sacrament for women (and to be equal to the initiation). 68. or the dress. which begins with the word tad. Let him always pronounce the syllable Om at the beginning and at the end of (a lesson in) the Veda. and nivitin when it hangs down (straight) from the neck. U. His girdle. 66. 69. and M. 75. which indicates a (new) birth. he is worthy (to pronounce) the syllable Om. (and) he must study. Moreover from the three Vedas Pragapati. for a Kshatriya. milked out (as it were) that Rik−verse. Thus has been described the rule for the initiation of the twice−born. rests on the left shoulder). (The ceremony called) Kesanta (clipping the hair) is ordained for a Brahmana in the sixteenth year (from conception). (has put on) a clean dress. and take others. and unless it follow it will fade away. in the twenty−second. in order to sanctify the body. joining his hands. 76. Seated on (blades of Kusa grass) with their points to the east. but without (the recitation of) sacred texts.

who recites during both twilights that syllable and that (verse). 92. the Kshatriya. 82. (Viz. the anus and the rest. is ten times more efficacious than a sacrifice performed according to the rules (of the Veda). He who daily recites that (verse). pass away. preceded by the Vyahritis. the skin. burnt oblations and (other) sacrifices. (whether) he perform other (rites) or neglect them. 80. 84. he who befriends (all creatures) is declared (to be) a (true) Brahmana. and assume an ethereal form. The monosyllable (Om) is the highest Brahman. will be blamed among virtuous men. both those sets of five have been conquered. undoubtedly. as a snake from its slough. will enter (after death) the highest Brahman. 81. it only grows stronger like a fire (fed) with clarified butter. I will properly (and) precisely enumerate in due order. but if he keep them under complete control. An offering. but know that the syllable (Om) is imperishable. the tongue. Know that the three imperishable Mahavyahritis. the ear and the rest according to their order. like a charioteer his horses. The four Pakayagnas and those sacrifices which are enjoined by the rules (of the Veda) are all together not equal in value to a sixteenth part of the sacrifice consisting of muttered prayers. and the nose as the fifth. they call organs of sense. the anus. A wise man should strive to restrain his organs which run wild among alluring sensual objects. Those eleven organs which former sages have named. 93. he will obtain success (in gaining all his aims). and the (organ of) speech.) the ear. 91. untired. Five of them. but nothing surpasses the Savitri truthfulness is better than silence. Desire is never extinguished by the enjoyment of desired objects. and the Vaisya who neglect (the recitation of) that Rik−verse and the timely (performance of the) rites (prescribed for) them. 90. The Brahmana. (three) suppressions of the breath are the best (form of) austerity. 79. A Brahmana. Know that the internal organ (manas) is the eleventh. A twice−born man who (daily) repeats those three one thousand times outside (the village). 87. hands and feet. during three years. 85. consisting of muttered prayers. (and) the Lord of creatures (Pragapati). But.The Laws of Manu 78. gains the (whole) merit which (the recitation of) the Vedas confers. 94. The Laws of Manu 13 . a Brahmana reaches the highest goal by muttering prayers only. organs of action. preceded by the syllable Om. the organ of generation. when that has been subdued. and (it is) Brahman. the eyes. a (prayer) which is inaudible (to others) surpasses it a hundred times. All rites ordained in the Veda. will be freed after a month even from great guilt. Through the attachment of his organs (to sensual pleasure) a man doubtlessly will incur guilt. and five of them. and the mental (recitation of sacred texts) a thousand times. which by its quality belongs to both (sets). learned in the Veda. 86. move as free as air. 83. named as the tenth. 88. 89. and (followed) by the three−footed Savitri are the portal of the Veda and the gate leading (to union with) Brahman.

(daily) offer fuel in the sacred fire. that (daily recitation) will ever cause sweet and sour milk. take the place of the exclamation Vashat. 98. thereby (man's) wisdom slips away from him. one who possesses (mental) ability. But he who does not (worship) standing in the morning. That man may be considered to have (really) subdued his organs. According to the sacred law the (following) ten (persons. sleep on the ground and do what is beneficial to this teacher. 97. retiring into the forest. 109. destroys the sin he committed during the day. 103. controlling his organs and concentrating his mind. shall be excluded. one who is intent on fulfilling the law.The Laws of Manu 95. just like a Sudra. removes the guilt contracted during the (previous) night. seated. in the evening until the constellations can be seen distinctly. But when one among all the organs slips away (from control). For him who. 108. cannot so effectually be restrained by abstinence (from enjoyments) as by a constant (pursuit of true) knowledge. nor sacrifices. 105. 104. one who desires to do service. If one man should obtain all those (sensual enjoyments) and another should renounce them all. 107. 100.) the teacher's son. but he who (recites it). requiring) a cessation of the Veda−study. If he keeps all the (ten) organs as well as the mind in subjection. nor sitting in the evening. may even recite the Savitri near water. nor austerities. beg food. Let him stand during the morning twilight. 101. muttering the Savitri until the sun appears. likewise when (one repeats) the sacred texts required for a burnt oblation. one who is honest. ever procure the attainment (of rewards) to a man whose heart is contaminated (by sensuality). seated. no regard need be paid to forbidden days. viz. Both when (one studies) the supplementary treatises of the Veda. without reducing his body by (the practice) of Yoga. but (let him recite it). 106. he may gain all his aims. when (natural phenomena. clarified butter and honey to flow. nor any (self−imposed) restraint. 96. 102. may be instructed (in the Veda). He who stands during the morning twilight muttering (the Savitri). The Laws of Manu 14 . Neither (the study of) the Vedas. from all the duties and rights of an Aryan. one who imparts knowledge. He who (desires to) perform the ceremony (of the) daily (recitation). during a year daily recites the Veda according to the rule. even as the water (flows) through the one (open) foot of a (water−carrier's) skin. until (he performs the ceremony of) Samavartana (on returning home). and a relative. one who is pure. and it is meritorious (even). nor liberality. since that is declared to be a Brahmasattra (an everlasting sacrifice offered to Brahman). and when (one recites) the daily portion of the Veda. Let an Aryan who has been initiated. one who makes presents of money. 99. at that the Veda takes the place of the burnt oblations. in the evening. being pure and controlling his organs. Those (organs) which are strongly attached to sensual pleasures. a person connected by marriage or friendship. on tasting and smelling (anything) neither rejoices nor repines. who on hearing and touching and seeing. the renunciation of all pleasure is far better than the attainment of them. There are no forbidden days for the daily recitation.

125. of subdued senses. and him who illegally asks (a question). 120. 119. the syllable preceding it being drawn out to the length of three moras. and shall sink into hell. O gentle one!' and the vowel 'a' must be added at the end of the name (of the person addressed). or to the Brahman.) length of life. deliver me not to a scorner. A Brahmana should thus be saluted in return. do not understand (the meaning of) the salutation. 111. 118. is better than he who knows the three Vedas. 124. Even in times of dire distress a teacher of the Veda should rather die with his knowledge than sow it in barren soil. and sells all (sorts of goods). though he know the Savitri only. 113. 'It is I. a Brahmana who greets an elder must pronounce his name. even so is he.' and (he should address) in the same manner all women. nor (must one answer) a person who asks improperly. But he who acquires without permission the Veda from one who recites it. Sacred Learning approached a Brahmana and said to him: 'I am thy treasure. one (or both) will die or incur (the other's) enmity. a wise man should say. as a Sudra. Where merit and wealth are not (obtained by teaching) nor (at least) due obedience. chaste and attentive. him who illegally explains (anything). to the Veda. to a Brahmana whom thou shalt know to be pure. For the vital airs of a young man mount upwards to leave his body when an elder approaches. 121. 'May'st thou be long−lived. as to the keeper of thy treasure. but by rising to meet him and saluting he recovers them. A Brahmana who does not know the form of returning a salutation. fame. Unless one be asked.The Laws of Manu 110. when a name is pronounced. A Brahmana who completely governs himself. preserve me. 'But deliver me. 'I am N. He who habitually salutes and constantly pays reverence to the aged obtains an increase of four (things). (but) does not control himself.' 115. (and) strength. for the sages have declared that the nature of bhoh is the same as that of (all proper) names. 117. After the (word of) salutation. 122. eats all (sorts of) food. so (preserved) I shall become supremely strong. one must not explain (anything) to anybody. (A student) shall first reverentially salute that (teacher) from whom he receives (knowledge). referring to worldly affairs. Of the two persons. and (afterwards) salute him. just as good seed (must) not (be thrown) on barren land. 126. must not be saluted by a learned man. though he knows (the answer). One must not sit down on a couch or seat which a superior occupies. let a wise man. knowledge.' 116. (viz. 114. and he who occupies a couch or seat shall rise to meet a (superior). saying. To those (persons) who. N. In saluting he should pronounce after his name the word bhoh. in such (soil) sacred knowledge must not be sown. The Laws of Manu 15 . 112.' 123. incurs the guilt of stealing the Veda. behave among men as (if he were) an idiot.

that man is worthy of honour among them. but (the feet of) wives of (other) paternal and maternal relatives need only be embraced on one's return from a journey. 139. and for a bridegroom. sacred learning are titles to respect. 142. a Kshatriya (with the word) anamaya. (the due performance of) rites. 135. Know that a Brahmana of ten years and Kshatriya of a hundred years stand to each other in the relation of father and son. and gives food (to the child). the latter receives respect from the king. and not a blood−relation. and.. he must say. Let him ask a Brahmana. is called the Guru (the venerable one). with the word) kusala. Fellow−citizens are called friends (and equals though one be) ten years (older than the other). on meeting him. if they meet (at one time). is called the sub−teacher (upadhyaya). the wife of a maternal uncle.The Laws of Manu 127. for a woman. for one who is above ninety years old. and (so is) also a Sudra who has entered the tenth (decade of his life). a Snataka and the king must be (most) honoured. 131. N. (The feet of the) wife of one's brother. (and other) venerable persons. 136. even though they be younger (than himself). Srotriyas (though) three years (intervene between their ages). but each later−named (cause) is more weighty (than the preceding ones). Towards a sister of one's father and of one's mother. 141. after (his health. for the carrier of a burden. or also the Angas of the Veda. officiating priests. a Vaisya (with the word) kshema. 137. But he who for his livelihood teaches a portion only of the Veda. 'I am N. 132. A maternal aunt. 128. They call that Brahmana who initiates a pupil and teaches him the Veda together with the Kalpa and the Rahasyas. one must behave as towards one's mother. who performs in accordance with the rules (of the Veda) the rites. 138. the teacher (akarya. 133. for a Snataka. 'Lady' (bhavati) or 'Beloved sister!' 130. he who knows the sacred law must use in speaking to such (a man the particle) bhoh and (the pronoun) bhavat (your worship). the Garbhadhana (conception−rite). Whatever man of the three (highest) castes possesses most of those five. That Brahmana. and a paternal aunt must be honoured like the wife of one's teacher. To his maternal and paternal uncles. and so forth. must be clasped every day. age. if she be of the same caste (varna). Wealth. a mother−in−law. (but) the mother is more venerable than they. both in number and degree. The Laws of Manu 16 . of the latter). But to a female who is the wife of another man. even though he be a younger man. fifthly. he must say. for the king. for one diseased.' and rise (to meet them). Way must be made for a man in a carriage. they are equal to the wife of one's teacher. kindred. but blood−relations only (if the) difference of age be very small. 140. and towards one's own elder sister. Among all those. 134. and if the king and a Snataka (meet). He who has been initiated (to perform a Srauta sacrifice) must not be addressed by his name. fathers−in−law. and a Sudra (with the word) anarogya. men practising (the same) fine art (though one be) five years (older than the other). but between those two the Brahmana is the father. 129.

' 152. the Pakayagnas. 'The child has addressed you properly. such is an unlearned Brahmana. in accordance with the law. As a eunuch is unproductive with women. Young Kavi. asked the gods concerning that matter. nor through wealth. has learned the Veda. and. is called in these (Institutes) his Guru. and as a gift made to an ignorant man yields no reward. 148. (The pupil) must know that that man also who benefits him by (instruction in) the Veda. 157. 145. the gods consider to be venerable. (the pupil) shall consider as his father and mother. The Laws of Manu 17 . The seniority of Brahmanas is from (sacred) knowledge.' 153. and he who teaches him the Veda is his father. A man is not therefore (considered) venerable because his head is gray. having assembled. the son of Angiras. the giver of the Veda is the more venerable father. that of Kshatriyas from valour. and when he was born from the womb (of his mother). 150. Of him who gives natural birth and him who gives (the knowledge of) the Veda. taught his (relatives who were old enough to be) fathers. he must never offend him. but the mother a thousand times more than the father. is real. nor through (powerful) kinsmen (comes greatness). and "father" to a teacher of the Veda. 149. those three have nothing but the names (of their kind). He who. 'He who has learnt the Veda together with the Angas (Anukana) is (considered) great by us. who (does) not (know) the Rikas. 146. for (the sages) have always said "child" to an ignorant man. The sages have made this law. 158. and the gods. be it little or much. nor through white (hairs).' 155. but that of Sudras alone from age. as an antelope made of leather. answered. As an elephant made of wood. when his parents begat him through mutual affection. as a cow with a cow is unprolific. (and) the (Srauta) sacrifices. exempt from age and death. procures for him through the Savitri. Neither through years. 144. Let him consider that (he received) a (mere animal) existence. performs the Agnyadheya. They. though young. the father a hundred times more than the teacher. in consequence of that benefit (conferred by instruction in) the Veda. But that birth which a teacher acquainted with the whole Veda. such as the Agnishtoma (for another man). That Brahmana who is the giver of the birth for the sake of the Veda and the teacher of the prescribed duties becomes by law the father of an aged man. 156. he called them 'Little sons. even though he himself be a child.The Laws of Manu 143. him who. as he excelled them in (sacred) knowledge. moved with resentment. The teacher (akarya) is ten times more venerable than a sub−teacher (upadhyaya). 151. That (man) who truthfully fills both his ears with the Veda. that of Vaisyas from wealth in grain (and other goods).' 154. 147. being (duly) chosen (for the purpose). even so is a Brahmana useless. 'For (a man) destitute of (sacred) knowledge is indeed a child. for the birth for the sake of the Veda (ensures) eternal (rewards) both in this (life) and after death. is called (his) officiating priest.

shall gradually and cumulatively perform the various austerities prescribed for (those who) study the Veda. observing the prescribed rules. and lower garment are prescribed for a (student at the initiation). but the scorner utterly perishes. the like (must again be used) at the (performance of the) vows. daily recites the Veda in private to the utmost of his ability. 168. Among those (three) the birth which is symbolised by the investiture with the girdle of Munga grass. staff. 161. (He who has not been initiated) should not pronounce (any) Vedic text excepting (those required for) the performance of funeral rites. sacred thread. for the study of the Veda is declared (to be) in this world the highest austerity for a Brahmana. since he is on a level with a Sudra before his birth from the Veda. is his birth for the sake of the Veda. 166. An Aryan must study the whole Veda together with the Rahasyas. 172. forsooth. not having studied the Veda. 174. whose speech and thoughts are pure and ever perfectly guarded. He. soon falls. A twice−born man who has been sanctified by the (employment of) the means. let him not utter speeches which make (others) afraid of him. constantly repeat the Veda. The (student) who has been initiated must be instructed in the performance of the vows. A twice−born man who. Verily. to the condition of a Sudra and his descendants (after him). They call the teacher (the pupil's) father because he gives the Veda. 163. 165. (speak words) cutting (others) to the quick. 162. According to the injunction of the revealed texts the first birth of an Aryan is from (his natural) mother. 167. and with an easy mind walk here among men. 171. Created beings must be instructed in (what concerns) their welfare without giving them pain. for nobody can perform a (sacred) rite before the investiture with the girdle of Munga grass. applies himself to other (and worldly study). since that will prevent him from gaining heaven. and the third on the initiation to (the performance of) a (Srauta) sacrifice. 173. who. Whatever dress of skin. though wearing a garland. Let him not. awake with an easy mind. 169. they declare that in that (birth) the Sivitri (verse) is his mother and the teacher his father. 170. the second (happens) on the tying of the girdle of Munga grass. and sweet and gentle speech must be used by (a teacher) who desires (to abide by) the sacred law. Let a Brahmana who desires to perform austerities. 160. A Brahmana should always fear homage as if it were poison. even while living. performing at the same time various kinds of austerities and the vows prescribed by the rules (of the Veda).The Laws of Manu 159. (described above) in due order. For he who is scorned (nevertheless may) sleep with an easy mind. that twice−born man performs the highest austerity up to the extremities of his nails. and constantly desire (to suffer) scorn as (he would long for) nectar. let him not injure others in thought or deed. 164. gains the whole reward which is conferred by the Vedanta. even though in pain. The Laws of Manu 18 . and gradually learn the Veda. girdle.

without being sick. earth. flowers. worship the sun. A student. 181. 186. (a student) shall always exert himself in studying (the Veda). 190. 184. Every day. 176. meat. but no such duty is ordained for a Kshatriya and a Vaisya. from (sensual) desire. applying collyrium to his eyes. he may go to each (house in the) village. Let him fetch a pot full of water.The Laws of Manu 175. and from hurting others. must bathe. from the use of shoes and of an umbrella (or parasol). 188. and in doing what is serviceable to his teacher. make with it burnt oblations to the sacred fire. worship (the images of) the gods. 180. for he who voluntarily wastes his manhood. Both when ordered by his teacher. 187. but let him avoid Abhisastas (those accused of mortal sin). observing (however the conditions on his vow. and playing (musical instruments). who has involuntarily wasted his manly strength during sleep. 189. perfumes. and lying. from looking at and touching women. shall perform the penance of an Avakirnin (one who has broken his vow). unwearied. having bathed. From gambling. he must offer libations of water to the gods. and from doing injury to living creatures. the subsistence of a student on begged food is declared to be equal (in merit) to fasting. 183. A twice−born student. and Kusa grass. covetousness. behaving (however) like a hermit. neglects during seven (successive) days to go out begging. Let him abstain from honey. and to offer fuel in the sacred fire. Let him always sleep alone. He who performs the vow (of studentship) shall constantly subsist on alms. Let him not beg from the relatives of his teacher. let him go to one of those named above. or at a (funeral meal) in honor of the manes. the food of one man at (a rite) in honour of the gods. let him never waste his manhood. duly controlling all his organs. 179. 178. backbiting. both evening and morning. being pure. breaks his vow. sages and manes. and let him. and without a (special) command. shall daily bring food from the houses of men who are not deficient in (the knowledge of) the Veda and in (performing) sacrifices. and daily go to beg food. in order to increase his spiritual merit. singing. nor from his own or his mother's blood−relations. This duty is prescribed by the wise for a Brahmana only. anger. and being purified. garlands. let him place it anywhere but on the ground. 'Again let my strength return to me. women. At his pleasure he may eat. 177. taking the last−named first. as much as may be required (by his teacher). The Laws of Manu 19 . but if there are no houses belonging to strangers. when invited. 185. if there are no (virtuous men of the kind) mentioned above. all substances turned acid. But a student who resides with his teacher must observe the following restrictive rules.' 182. Or. and afterwards thrice mutter the Rik−verse (which begins). and place fuel on (the sacred fire). and who are famous for (following their lawful) occupations. cowdung. From anointing (his body). 191. He who. Having brought sacred fuel from a distance. (but) not eat the food of one (person only). dancing. idle disputes. substances (used for) flavouring (food). being pure and remaining silent.

on a bed of grass or leaves. In the presence of his teacher let him always eat less. on a terrace. and deportment. and go to rest later. on a mat. or may give him salutary advice. and when he is addressed (with the words). 193. 203. he who lives on his teacher's substance. nor standing. and if he stands in a lower place. horses. if he is seated in a carriage or on a (raised) seat. though justly. Let him not answer or converse with (his teacher). speech. on a rock. if (his teacher) is seated. his speech. approaching him if he stands at a distance. but bending towards him if he lies on a bed. wear a less valuable dress and ornaments (than the former). he must descend and afterwards salute his (teacher). and he who is envious (of his merit). 'Be seated. Towards his betters let him always behave as towards his teacher. going to meet him if he advances. Controlling his body. 202. there he must cover his ears or depart thence to another place. 196. The Laws of Manu 20 . nor with an averted face. By censuring (his teacher). by falsely defaming him. but within sight of his teacher he shall not sit carelessly at ease. Going (round) to face (the teacher). on a wooden bench. and let him rise earlier (from his bed). If his teacher's teacher is near. or in a boat. 205. 206. behave decently and keep his body well covered. 199. Wherever (people) justly censure or falsely defame his teacher. towards his relatives (to whom honour is due). He must not serve the (teacher by the intervention of another) while he himself stands aloof. 204. 194. let his bed or seat be low. to the leeward or to the windward (of him). towards all who may restrain him from sin. nor when a woman is near. When his teacher is nigh. likewise towards sons of his teacher. unless he has received permission from his teacher. 195. not salute venerable persons of his own (family). his organs (of sense).The Laws of Manu 192. nor sitting. looking at the face of his teacher. Let him do (that). and towards the teacher's relatives both on the side of the father and of the mother. and his mind. will become a worm. 200. Let him not sit with his teacher. reclining on a bed. nor let him say anything which his teacher cannot hear. let him stand with joined hands. This is likewise (ordained as) his constant behaviour towards (other) instructors in science. 207. nor eating. He may sit with his teacher in a carriage drawn by oxen. Let him not pronounce the mere name of his teacher (without adding an honorific title) behind his back even. let him behave (towards him) as towards his own teacher. a (larger) insect. 198. he will become (in his next birth) an ass. standing up. but let him. born by wives of equal caste. and running after him when he runs. advancing towards him when he stands. 197. 201. Let him always keep his right arm uncovered. and let him not mimic his gait. or camels. facing his teacher. nor when he (himself) is angry.' he shall sit down. if his face is averted. a dog.

210. If a woman or a man of low caste perform anything (leading to) happiness. 'I. If the sun should rise or set while he is sleeping. while the sun sets or rises. (Some declare that) the chief good consists in (the acquisition of) spiritual merit and wealth. he shall daily worship during both twilights with a concentrated mind in a pure place.The Laws of Manu 208. or braid one lock on the crown of his head. but the (correct) decision is The Laws of Manu 21 . and (others say that the acquisition of) wealth alone is the chief good here (below). 223. N. and does not perform (that) penance. and master even a learned man. shampooing her limbs. It is the nature of women to seduce men in this (world). (others place it) in (the gratification of) desire and (the acquisition of) wealth. who belong to the same caste. must be treated as respectfully as the teacher. must be honoured by rising and salutation. (A pupil) who is full twenty years old. let him diligently practise it. deserves the same honour as the teacher. muttering the prescribed text according to the rule. the sun must never set or rise while he (lies asleep) in the village. O lady). he shall fast during the (next) day. N. or arranging her hair. or daughter. (others) in (the acquisition of) spiritual merit alone. 213. and (to make) him a slave of desire and anger. even so an obedient (pupil) obtains the knowledge which lies (hidden) in his teacher. The son of the teacher who imparts instruction (in his father's stead). whether younger or of equal age. But at his pleasure a young student may prostrate himself on the ground before the young wife of a teacher. 220. A (student) may either shave his head. The wives of the teacher. 211. but those who belong to a different caste. 216. Purified by sipping water. and say. for that reason the wise are never unguarded in (the company of) females. for the senses are powerful. 222. On returning from a journey he must clasp the feet of his teacher's wife and daily salute her (in the manner just mentioned). or wear his hair in braids. For women are able to lead astray in (this) world not only a fool. 218. is tainted by great guilt. assisting her in the bath. or a student of (the science of) sacrifices (or of other Angas). 215. remembering the duty of the virtuous. (A student) must not shampoo the limbs of his teacher's son. 224. One should not sit in a lonely place with one's mother. nor assist him in bathing. (worship thee. nor wash his feet. in accordance with the rule. sister. but even a learned man. As the man who digs with a spade (into the ground) obtains water. 212. be it (that he offended) intentionally or unintentionally. Let him not perform for a wife of his teacher (the offices of) anointing her. muttering (the Savitri).. For he who lies (sleeping). shall not salute a young wife of his teacher (by clasping) her feet. 214. 209. 219. 221.' 217. and knows what is becoming and unbecoming. as well as (any other permitted act) in which his heart finds pleasure. nor eat the fragments of his food.

so long let him not (independently) perform any other (meritorious acts). and an excellent wife even from a base family. word. the father the image of Pragipati (the lord of created beings). Obedience towards those three is declared to be the best (form of) austerity. is stated to be the Garhapatya fire. (even after he has become) a householder. they the three (principal) orders. but to him who honours them not. 236. especially by a Brahmana. and they the three sacred fires. He shall inform them of everything that with their consent he may perform in thought. 225. 229. will conquer the three worlds and. this triad of fires is most venerable. but the teacher the Ahavaniya fire. let him not perform other meritorious acts without their permission. He who possesses faith may receive pure learning even from a man of lower caste. 232. 235. By (honouring) these three all that ought to be done by man. (the rules of) purity. The father. 238. Even from poison nectar may be taken. The teacher. let him always serve them. is accomplished. the mother the image of the earth. the highest law even from the lowest. 226. The teacher is the image of Brahman. when those three are pleased. 230. radiant in body like a god. even from a child good advice.The Laws of Manu that it consists of the aggregate of (those) three. 237. cannot be compensated even in a hundred years. and an elder brother must not be treated with disrespect. even from a foe (a lesson in) good conduct. For they are declared to be the three worlds. though one be grievously offended (by them). he obtains all (those rewards which) austerities (yield). That trouble (and pain) which the parents undergo on the birth of (their) children. by honouring his father the middle sphere. he will enjoy bliss in heaven. 233. and various arts may be acquired from anybody. 231. the mother. He who neglects not those three. learning. and even from an impure (substance) gold. all rites remain fruitless. but by obedience to his teacher the world of Brahman. that is clearly the highest duty. forsooth. Excellent wives. rejoicing (to do what is) agreeable and beneficial (to them). 239. By honouring his mother he gains this (nether) world. The Laws of Manu 22 . they the three Vedas. the father. 228. (the knowledge of) the law. the mother the Dakshinagni. As long as those three live. good advice. and an (elder) full brother the image of oneself. every other (act) is a subordinate duty. 227. 240. or deed for the sake of the next world. Let him always do what is agreeable to those (two) and always (what may please) his teacher. All duties have been fulfilled by him who honours those three. 234.

or (other) property. or until the (student) has perfectly learnt them. as long as the instruction lasts. the Veda. 3. Having bathed. nor with a Brahmana who does not know the whole Veda and the Angas. 242. but when. 249. shall be honoured. horses. or two. (A student) who has studied in due order the three Vedas. a horse. 6. 5. and thus finish his life. and performed according to the rule the Samavartana (the rite on returning home). 244. reaches forthwith the eternal mansion of Brahman. gold. if his teacher dies. is recommended to twice−born men for wedlock and conjugal union. grain. 246. or for half that time. a parasol and shoes. (Viz. in the same manner as the teacher. 1. he must diligently serve him. be they ever so great. from his father. or his Sapinda. let him procure (a present) for the venerable man according to his ability. sheep. But if (a student) desires to pass his whole life in the teacher's house. 247. He who knows the sacred law must not present any gift to his teacher before (the Samavartana). he is about to take the (final) bath. The Laws of Manu 23 . serve his son (provided he be) endowed with good qualities. sitting on a couch and adorned with a garland. until he is freed from this body. he must serve the sacred fire. 248. (and thus) give pleasure to his teacher. with (the present of) a cow (and the honey−mixture). He who desires incomparable bliss (in heaven) shall not dwell during his whole life in (the house of) a non−Brahmanical teacher. reaches (after death) the highest abode and will not be born again in this world. or even one only. a twice−born man shall marry a wife of equal caste who is endowed with auspicious (bodily) marks. A damsel who is neither a Sapinda on the mother's side. (even) vegetables. In connecting himself with a wife. let him carefully avoid the ten following families. Should none of these be alive. without breaking the (rules of) studentship.) a field. 2. grain. A Brahmana who thus passes his life as a student without breaking his vow. CHAPTER III.The Laws of Manu 241. 245. A Brahmana who serves his teacher till the dissolution of his body. a cow. or his widow. a seat. with the permission of his teacher. The vow (of studying) the three Vedas under a teacher must be kept for thirty−six years. or rich in kine. and that he shall walk behind and serve (such a) teacher. 4. (A perpetual student) must. with the permission of his teacher. shall enter the order of householders. nor belongs to the same family on the father's side. He who is famous for (the strict performance of) his duties and has received his heritage. 243. standing (by day) and sitting (during the night). It is prescribed that in times of distress (a student) may learn (the Veda) from one who is not a Brahmana. or for a quarter.

or a river. 11. 19. that of the gods (Daiva). 10. those which are subject to hemorrhoids. who is tainted by her breath. Let him not marry a maiden (with) reddish (hair). nor one whose name inspires terror. (Viz. It is declared that a Sudra woman alone (can be) the wife of a Sudra.) one which neglects the sacred rites. but for those who through desire proceed (to marry again) the following females. 13. in their folly. those two and one of his own caste (the wives) of a Kshatriya. and of guests chiefly with a (Sudra wife's) assistance. though they lived in the (greatest) distress. 18. that of the Rhashasas (Rakshasa). a moderate (quantity of) hair on the body and on the head. through fear lest (in the former case she be made) an appointed daughter (and in the latter) lest (he should commit) sin. or white or black leprosy. nor one who has a redundant member. For the first marriage of twice−born men (wives) of equal caste are recommended. 17. nor one whose father is not known. A Brahmana who takes a Sudra wife to his bed. (chosen) according to the (direct) order (of the castes). 12. if he begets a child by her. one in which the Veda is not studied. nor one who is sickly. small teeth. and such (a man) will not go to heaven. epilepsy. nor one who is garrulous or has red (eyes). that of the Asuras (Asura). The manes and the gods will not eat the (offerings) of that man who performs the rites in honour of the gods. she and one of his own caste (the wives) of a Vaisya. and that of the Pisakas (Paisaka). For him who drinks the moisture of a Sudra's lips. 20. a snake. (They are) the rite of Brahman (Brahma). or a slave. those three and one of his own caste (the wives) of a Brahmana. wed wives of the low (Sudra) caste. and soft limbs. according to Saunaka on the birth of a son. he will lose the rank of a Brahmana. alone). phthisis. who has an agreeable name. A Sudra woman is not mentioned even in any (ancient) story as the (first) wife of a Brahmana or of a Kshatriya. of the manes. 15. or of a mountain. 21. 16. the (graceful) gait of a Hamsa or of an elephant. one (the members of) which have thick hair on the body. and who begets a son on her. soon degrade their families and their children to the state of Sudras. will (after death) sink into hell. that of Pragapati (Pragapatya). Now listen to (the) brief (description of) the following eight marriage−rites used by the four castes (varna) which partly secure benefits and partly produce evil both in this life and after death. are most approved.The Laws of Manu 7. he who weds a Sudra woman becomes an outcast. no expiation is prescribed. But a prudent man should not marry (a maiden) who has no brother. Nor one named after a constellation. weakness of digestion. nor one bearing the name of a low caste. 14. and according to Bhrigu he who has (male) offspring from a (Sudra female. one in which no male children (are born). a tree. According to Atri and to (Gautama) the son of Utathya. nor one either with no hair (on the body) or too much. nor one named after a bird. Let him wed a female free from bodily defects. 8. that of the Gandharvas (Gandharva). Twice−born men who. that of the Rishis (Arsha). 9. The Laws of Manu 24 .

after receiving from the bridegroom. When (the bridegroom) receives a maiden. to a priest who duly officiates at a sacrifice. and the same four. 28. When (a man) by stealth seduces a girl who is sleeping. 37. while I fully declare what quality has been ascribed by Manu to each of these marriage−rites. 27. 33. For Kshatriyas those before−mentioned two rites. One may know that the first six according to the order (followed above) are lawful for a Brahmana. which springs from desire and has sexual intercourse for its purpose. is called the Rakshasa rite. but in the case of other castes (it may be performed) by (the expression of) mutual consent. to a man learned in the Veda and of good conduct. excepting the Rakshasa rite. liberates from sin ten ancestors.The Laws of Manu 22. is called the Brahma rite. Which is lawful for each caste (varna) and which are the virtues or faults of each (rite). 30. after decking her (with costly garments) and honouring (her by presents of jewels). they call the Daiva rite. or disordered in intellect. intoxicated. whom (the father) himself invites. ye Brahmanas. that is named the Arsha rite. The gift of daughters among Brahmanas is most approved. 25. one. the Paisaka and the Asura (rites) must never be used. The gift of a daughter. that is called the Asura rite. during the course of its performance. to the kinsmen and to the bride herself. and the Asura (marriage in that) of a Vaisya and of a Sudra. that is the eighth. for a Vaisya and a Sudra. the son of a wife married by the Arsha rite three (in the ascending and descending lines). after (her kinsmen) have been slain or wounded and (their houses) broken open. 24. The voluntary union of a maiden and her lover one must know (to be) the Gandharva rite. a cow and a bull or two pairs. Listen now to me. 35. 26. The son of a wife wedded according to the Brahma rite. and the son The Laws of Manu 25 . if he performs meritorious acts. for (the fulfilment of) the sacred law. as well as their good and evil results with respect to the offspring. The son born of a wife. The gift of a daughter who has been decked with ornaments. 32. according to his own will. ten descendants and himself as the twenty−first. But in these (Institutes of the sacred law) three of the five (last) are declared to be lawful and two unlawful. The sages state that the first four are approved (in the case) of a Brahmana. (if it is preceded) by (a libation of) water. are permitted by the sacred tradition. the Gandharva and the Rakshasa. the Rakshasa (rite in the case) of a Kshatriya.' and has shown honour (to the bridegroom). 23. whether separate or mixed. wedded according to the Daiva rite. the four last for a Kshatriya. while she cries out and weeps. 38. likewise (saves) seven ancestors and seven descendants. 29. 34. after having given as much wealth as he can afford. 31. 'May both of you perform together your duties. the most base and sinful rite of the Pisakas. The forcible abduction of a maiden from her home. all this I will declare to you. is called in the Smriti the Pragapatya rite. When (the father) gives away his daughter according to the rule. 36. The gift of a daughter (by her father) after he has addressed (the couple) with the text.

54. The Laws of Manu 26 . Some call the cow and the bull (given) at an Arsha wedding 'a gratuity. Endowded with the qualities of beauty and goodness. Sixteen (days and) nights (in each month). the eleventh and the thirteenth are (declared to be) forbidden. a hermaphrodite or a boy and a girl. In the blameless marriages blameless children are born to men. a female child by the prevalence of the female. But from the remaining (four) blamable marriages spring sons who are cruel and speakers of untruth. A male child is produced by a greater quantity of male seed. a failure of conception (results). (enumerated) successively. appropriate) the beasts of burden. be it small or great. possessing wealth and fame. commit sin and will sink into hell. the remaining nights are recommended. takes a gratuity. is a seller of his offspring. 46. When the relatives do not appropriate (for their use) the gratuity (given). which begin with the Brahma rite spring sons. is (equal in chastity to) a student. 51. 45. a Vaisya bride of a goad. (in that case) the (gift) is only a token of respect and of kindness towards the maidens. 41.g. is a sale (of the daughter). carriages. they will live a hundred years. and clothes of women. in whichever order he may live. one should therefore avoid the blamable (forms of marriage). live on the separate property of women. for a man who. 39. From the four marriages. 53. if (both are) equal. being constantly satisfied with her (alone). 50. No father who knows (the law) must take even the smallest gratuity for his daughter. approach her with a desire for conjugal union (on any day) excepting the Parvans. Let (the husband) approach his wife in due season. since (the acceptance of) a fee. 48. if (both are) weak or deficient in quantity. obtaining as many enjoyments as they desire and being most righteous. On marrying a man of a higher caste a Kshatriya bride must take hold of an arrow. in blamable (marriages) blamable (offspring). being intent on pleasing her. 43. 42. 52. radiant with knowledge of the Veda and honoured by the Sishtas (good men). including four days which differ from the rest and are censured by the virtuous. and a Sudra female of the hem of the (bridegroom's) garment.' (but) that is wrong. On the even nights sons are conceived and daughters on the uneven ones. he may also. through avarice.The Laws of Manu of a wife married by the rite of Ka (Pragapati) six (in either line). it is not a sale. in their folly. The ceremony of joining the hands is prescribed for (marriages with) women of equal caste (varna). 47. who hate the Veda and the sacred law. hence a man who desires to have sons should approach his wife in due season on the even (nights). But among these the first four. 44. 40. 49. He who avoids women on the six forbidden nights and on eight others. (e. But those (male) relations who. (are called) the natural season of women. know that the following rule (applies) to weddings with females of a different caste (varna).

should always honour women on holidays and festivals with (gifts of) ornaments. 64. and carriages. 70. But families that are rich in the knowledge of the Veda. 67. 71. by pecuniary transactions. and (dainty) food. For if the wife is not radiant with beauty. who desire (their own) welfare. Hence men who seek (their own) welfare. by (the pursuit of) agriculture and by taking service under a king. the burnt oblation the sacrifice offered to the gods. 62. 59. but if she has no attractions for him. Where the female relations live in grief. as if destroyed by magic. and brothers−in−law. clothes. He who neglects not these five great sacrifices. deficient in the (knowledge of the) Veda. where the husband is pleased with his wife and the wife with her husband. and acquire great fame. the family soon wholly perishes. though possessing little wealth. 65. a householder shall perform according to the law the domestic ceremonies and the five (great) sacrifices. Women must be honoured and adorned by their fathers. 68. by using which he is bound (with the fetters of sin). by (begetting) children on Sudra females only. the Bali offering that offered to the Bhutas. 56. 61. there the gods are pleased. the broom. Teaching (and studying) is the sacrifice (offered) to Brahman. and the hospitable reception of guests the offering to men. If the wife is radiant with beauty. horses. she will not attract her husband. 57. and (with that) he shall daily cook his food. 63. all will appear dismal. by (trading in) cows.The Laws of Manu 55. (great) families sink low. In that family. by omitting (the performance of) sacred rites. the grinding−stone. the (offerings of water and food called) Tarpana the sacrifice to the manes. though he constantly lives in the (order of) house (−holders). no sacred rite yields rewards. and by irreverence towards Brahmanas. families. but if she is destitute of beauty.) the hearth. no children will be born. the pestle and mortar. By low marriages. By sacrificing for men unworthy to offer sacrifices and by denying (the future rewards for good) works. kindled at the wedding. In order to successively expiate (the offences committed by means) of all these (five) the great sages have prescribed for householders the daily (performance of the five) great sacrifices. viz. happiness will assuredly be lasting. By (practising) handicrafts. Where women are honoured. With the sacred fire. A householder has five slaughter−houses (as it were. but that family where they are not unhappy ever prospers. by neglecting the study of the Veda. the whole house is bright. not being duly honoured. 66. husbands. perish completely. 60. brothers. but where they are not honoured. quickly perish. the water−vessel. are numbered among the great. The Laws of Manu 27 . The houses on which female relations. 58. while he is able (to perform them). pronounce a curse. 69. is not tainted by the sins (committed) in the five places of slaughter.

the manes. which cannot be practised by men with weak organs. lives not. and (then) to Dhanvantari. Because men of the three (other) orders are daily supported by the householder with (gifts of) sacred knowledge and food. hence he who knows (the law). the gods by burnt oblations. roots. A Brahmana shall offer according to the rule (of his Grihya−sutra a portion) of the cooked food destined for the Vaisvadeva in the sacred domestic fire to the following deities: 85. 84. 83. then to both these gods conjointly. An oblation duly thrown into the fire. from rain food. the gods. 76. and Prasita. 79. supports both the movable and the immovable creation. or also with milk. even so (the members of) all orders subsist by receiving support from the householder. Yama. though he breathes. Prahuta (offered by scattering it on the ground) the Bali offering given to the Bhutas. let him throw Bali offerings in all directions of the compass. As all living creatures subsist by receiving support from air. (The duties of) this order. 73. reaches the sun. must be carefully observed by him who desires imperishable (bliss in) heaven. Huta. and Prasita (eaten) the (daily oblation to the manes. which belongs to the five great sacrifices. 87. as well as to the servants (of these deities). Let (every man) in this (second order. and finally to Agni Svishtakrit (the fire which performs the sacrifice well). men by (gifts of) food. 74. First to Agni. 86. Ahuta. or with water. the manes by funeral offerings (Sraddha). 81. They call (these) five sacrifices also. 82. to heaven and earth conjointly. and guests ask the householders (for offerings and gifts). according to the rule. and also to the performance of the offering to the gods. Further to Kuhu (the goddess of the new−moon day). the Bhutas. but let him not feed on that (occasion) any Brahmana on account of the Vaisvadeva offering. and (next) to Soma. to Indra. and constant happiness in this (life). The sages. the respectful reception of Brahmana (guests). further to all the gods (Visve Devah). 78. the manes. the sages by the private recitation of the Veda. proceeding (from the east) to the south. for he who is diligent in the performance of sacrifices.The Laws of Manu 72. and himself. Let him worship. Brahmya−huta. at least) daily apply himself to the private recitation of the Veda. The Laws of Manu 28 . 77. and Soma. But he who does not feed these five. 75. Huta the burnt oblation (offered to the gods). Varuna. Ahuta (not offered in the fire) is the muttering (of Vedic texts). therefrom the living creatures (derive their subsistence). the gods. and the Bhutas by the Bali offering. 80. called) Tarpana. must give to them (what is due to each). from the sun comes rain. to Pragapati (the lord of creatures). Prahuta. therefore (the order of) householders is the most excellent order. to Anumati (the goddess of the full−moon day). After having thus duly offered the sacrificial food. Let him daily perform a funeral sacrifice with food. Let him feed even one Brahmana in honour of the manes at (the Sraddha). and (thus) please the manes. Brahmya−huta (offered in the digestive fire of Brahmanas). those whom he is bound to maintain. his guests. and fruits.

93. he is called atithi (a guest). Having performed this Bali offering. '(Adoration) to the trees. The Laws of Manu 29 . even (a small portion of food as) alms. if the givers in their folly present (shares of them) to Brahmanas who are mere ashes. 91. or the pot with flowers and fruit). 101. water. goes. by a straight road to the highest dwelling−place (i. even though he has come to a house where (there is) a wife. give alms to an ascetic (and) to a student. and where sacred fires (are kept). Brahman). made by men ignorant (of the law of gifts). Near the head (of the bed) he shall make an offering to Sri (fortune).The Laws of Manu 88. takes away (with him) all the spiritual merit even of a man who subsists by gleaning ears of corn. 98. But a Brahmana who stays one night only is declared to be a guest (atithi). are lost. and (some) in water. and near the foot (of his bed) to Bhadrakali. to a Brahmana who knows the true meaning of the Veda. the same reward for his meritorious act which (a student) obtains for presenting. An offering made in the mouth−fire of Brahmanas rich in sacred learning and austerities. But let him offer. saves from misfortune and from great guilt. in accordance with the rule. room (for resting). One must not consider as a guest a Brahmana who dwells in the same village. to a guest who has come (of his own accord) a seat and water. in accordance with the rule. he shall first feed his guest and. (and in the evening one) for the goblins that walk at night. speaking thus. and (in the day−time one) for the goblins roaming about by day. 97. 94. A Brahmana who stays unhonoured (in the house). Grass. these (things) never fail in the houses of good men. according to the rule. saying. 90. having garnished (the food with seasoning.' he shall throw (some) on the pestle and the mortar. and insects. Let him gently place on the ground (some food) for dogs. or a pot full of water.' he shall scatter (some food) near the door. Let him throw up into the air a Bali for all the gods. '(Adoration) to the Maruts. in the centre of the house let him place a Bali for Brahman and for Vastoshpati (the lord of the dwelling) conjointly. endowed with a resplendent body. nor one who seeks his livelihood by social intercourse. The oblations to gods and manes. as well as food. by giving alms. 102. in accordance with the rule.e.' 89. garnished (with seasoning). Saying. That Brahmana who thus daily honours all beings. A twice−born householder gains. 103. Let him give. 96. In the upper story let him offer a Bali to Sarvatmabhuti. but let him throw what remains (from these offerings) in a southerly direction for the manes. or offers oblations in five fires. 95. crows. and fourthly a kind word. a cow to his teacher. Kandalas (Svapak). '(Adoration to the waters. 99. for because he stays (sthita) not long (anityam). those afflicted with diseases that are punishments of former sins. 100. 92. outcasts. according to his ability.

to the most distinguished in the best form. Even to others. A guest who is sent by the (setting) sun in the evening. But if a Kshatriya comes to the house of a Brahmana in the manner of a guest. who have come to his house out of affection. the sages. nor a Sudra. but not if no sacrifice is being performed.) to newly−married women. to infants. and a maternal uncle. But if another guest comes after the Vaisvadeva offering has been finished. even before his guests. he may allow to eat with his servants. that is a settled rule. the hospitable reception of guests procures wealth. (the house−holder) may feed him according to his desire. nor a Vaisya. after death the cattle of those who give them food. But the foolish man who eats first without having given food to these (persons) does. the manes. rooms. the householder shall eat afterwards what remains. A king and a Srotriya. he must not stay in the house without entertainment. 110. (but) not repeat the Bali offering. (viz. nor the teacher. (at the same time) with his wife. 120. for he who boasts of them for the sake of a meal. 119. must be honoured with the honey−mixture. must not be driven away by a householder. 113. to the sick. (the householder) must give him food according to his ability. to the lower ones in a lower form. men. personal friends and so forth. Without hesitation he may give food. he may give food. 115. a son−in−law. After the Brahmanas. eats nothing but sin. Even a Vaisya and a Sudra who have approached his house in the manner of guests. 112. the teacher. while he crams. 116. showing (thereby) his compassionate disposition. 117. 109. beds. and the servants have dined. A Brahmana shall not name his family and (Vedic) gotra in order to obtain a meal.The Laws of Manu 104. long life. who come on the performance of a sacrifice. an officiating priest. and to pregnant women. nor a personal friend. the kinsmen. Let him not eat any (dainty) food which he does not offer to his guest. 108. the householder and his wife may afterwards eat what remains. become. Those foolish householders who constantly seek (to live on) the food of others. 106. 107. But a Kshatriya (who comes) to the house of a Brahmana is not called a guest (atithi). 118. He who prepares food for himself (alone). fame. is called by the wise a foul feeder (vantasin). to equals in an equal manner. garnished (with seasoning) according to his ability. and the guardian deities of the house. not know that (after death) he himself will be devoured by dogs and vultures. Let him honour with the honey−mixture a king. a Snataka. The Laws of Manu 30 . Let him offer (to his guests) seats. 105. in consequence of that (baseness). to the following persons. 114. a father−in−law. attendance on departure and honour (while they stay). (if they come) again after a full year (has elapsed since their last visit). after the above−mentioned Brahmanas have eaten. for it is ordained that the food which remains after (the performance of) the sacrifices shall be the meal of virtuous men. whether he have come at (supper−) time or at an inopportune moment. Having honoured the gods. 111. nor a relative. and heavenly bliss.

learned in the Veda. some to austerities and to the recitation of the Veda. 123. spears. 133. A large company destroys these five (advantages) the respectful treatment (of the invited. The wise call the monthly funeral offering to the manes Anvaharya (to be offered after the cakes). 130. and that must be carefully performed with the approved (sorts of) flesh (mentioned below). I will fully declare what and how many (Brahmanas) must be fed on that (occasion). cannot be cleansed with blood. smeared with blood. Some Brahmanas are devoted to (the pursuit of) knowledge. 135. for that (rite which is called the) Vaisvadeva is prescribed both for the morning and the evening. 128. and iron balls must (the giver of the repast) swallow after death. or one only on either occasion. for hands. called) Pindanvaharyaka. 129. is worth them all as far as the (production of) spiritual merit (is concerned). to (men of) all the four (above−mentioned classes). he is declared (to procure as great rewards as) a guest (atithi). and on what kinds of food (they shall dine). the funeral sacrifice (Sraddha. One must feed two (Brahmanas) at the offering to the gods. 124. unaquainted with the Rikas. Oblations to the gods and manes must be presented by the givers to a Srotriya alone. who is satisfied (with his entertainment). what is given to such a most worthy Brahmana yields great reward. even a very wealthy man shall not be anxious (to entertain) a large company. month by month. 132. were to dine at a (funeral sacrifice). As many mouthfuls as an ignorant man swallows at a sacrifice to the gods or to the manes. Food sacred to the manes or to the gods must be given to a man distinguished by sacred knowledge. the propriety of) place and time. and one at (the sacrifice) to the manes. 122. and others to (the performance of) austerities. 126. Let him feed even one learned man at (the sacrifice) to the gods. on the new−moon day. 127. (the reward of) the rite for the dead. and others to (the performance of) sacred rites. 134. not (if he entertains) many who are unacquainted with the Veda. which is performed according to Smarta rules. Though a million of men. if a man is diligent in (performing) that. and three at the offering to the manes. who must be avoided. 125. Oblations to the manes ought to be carefully presented to those devoted to knowledge. After performing the Pitriyagna. Let him make inquiries even regarding the remote (ancestors of) a Brahmana who has studied an entire (recension of the) Veda. The Laws of Manu 31 . a Brahmana who keeps a sacred fire shall offer. he therefore shall not seek (to entertain) a large company. in accordance with the reason (of the sacred law). reaches him constantly. Famed is this rite for the dead. so many red−hot spikes. (thus) he will gain a rich reward. called (the sacrifice sacred to the manes (and performed) on the new−moon day. (if descended from a virtuous race) such a man is a worthy recipient of gifts (consisting) of food offered to the gods or to the manes. 131.The Laws of Manu 121. without (the recitation of) sacred formulas. but offerings to the gods. yet a single man. But the wife shall offer in the evening (a portion) of the dressed food as a Bali−oblation. purity and (the selection of) virtuous Brahmana (guests).

143. Let him (take) pains (to) feed at a Sraddha an adherent of the Rig−veda who has studied one entire (recension of that) Veda. yet the other one is worthy of honour. 147. Know that he whose father knows the Veda. (If no learned Brahmana be at hand). know that the virtuous always observe the following subsidiary rule. That meanest among twice−born men who in his folly contracts friendships through a funeral sacrifice. a sister's son. the ancestors of him (who gives the feast). eaten by a foe. Let him not entertain a personal friend at a funeral sacrifice. 144. one who has not studied (the Veda). as far as the seventh person. reaps after death no reward for Sraddhas and sacrifices. a maternal uncle. consumed with (friends and relatives). 137. or a singer of Samans who (likewise) has completed (the study of an entire recension). or a follower of the Yagur−veda who has finished one Sakha. because respect is due to the Veda (which he has learned). 142. 149. eunuchs. at a funeral sacrifice.The Laws of Manu 136. This is the chief rule (to be followed) in offering sacrifices to the gods and manes. is said to be offered to the Pisakas. makes the giver and the recipient partakers of rewards both in this (life) and after death. will be satisfied for a very long time. 145. For a rite sacred to the gods. because he performed a Sraddha for the sake of friendship. one's own officiating priest or a man for whom one offers sacrifices. even so the giver of sacrificial food gains no reward if he presented it to a man unacquainted with the Rikas. Let him not entertain at a Sraddha one who wears his hair in braids (a student). outcasts. If one of these three dines. The Laws of Manu 32 . bears no reward after death. duly honoured. he may gain his affection by (other) valuable gifts. a cognate kinsman. Manu has declared that those Brahmanas who are thieves. loses heaven. 139. If there is a father ignorant of the sacred texts whose son has learned one whole recension of the Veda and the Angas. he may rather honour a (virtuous) friend than an enemy. One may also entertain (on such occasions) one's maternal grandfather. is the more venerable one (of the two). a daughter's husband. one's teacher. But a present made in accordance with the rules to a learned man. a daughter's son. and a son ignorant of the sacred texts whose father knows an entire recension of the Veda and the Angas. 141. a father−in−law. 140. nor those who sacrifice for a multitude (of sacrificers). 146. though the latter may be qualified (by learning and so forth). 151. He who performs funeral sacrifices and offerings to the gods chiefly for the sake of (gaining) friends. let him feed at a Sraddha a Brahmana whom he considers neither as a foe nor as a friend. but when one performs a ceremony in honour of the manes. one must carefully examine (the qualities and parentage of the guest). or atheists are unworthy (to partake) of oblations to the gods and manes. A gift (of food) by twice−born men. a gambler. 138. it remains in this (world) alone like a blind cow in one stable. he who knows the law will not make (too close) inquiries regarding an (invited) Brahmana. for sacrificial food. 148. 150. As a husbandman reaps no harvest when he has sown the seed in barren soil. one afflicted with a skin−disease.

156. A trainer of elephants. 165. he who undertakes voyages by sea. A breeder of sporting−dogs. and he in whose house a paramour of his wife (resides). oxen. he who eats the food given by the son of an adulteress. and he who offers sacrifices to the Ganas. A shepherd. one who constantly asks (for favours). his father. a blind man. a falconer. or camels. 163. and who are unworthy (to sit) in the company (at a repast). a (man destitute of energy like a) eunuch. one afflicted with white leprosy. one who neglects the five great sacrifices. a prisoner. he who has contracted an alliance with outcasts either through the Veda or through a marriage. and the son of a widow. the betrayer of a friend. a younger brother who marries or kindles the sacred fire before the elder. The Laws of Manu 33 . he who instructs Sudra pupils and he whose teacher is a Sudra. he who is accused of a mortal sin. the husband of a remarried woman. 158. 166. and a carrier of dead bodies. a bird−fancier. an architect. Physicians. An epileptic man. 160. or a teacher without a (sufficient) reason. the son of a remarried woman. one who has broken the vow of studentship. and he who is censured by virtuous men. a seller of Soma. and a usurer. the son of an adulteress. a club−footed man. An actor or singer. he who gains his subsistence from Sudras. 164. man with deformed nails or black teeth. a bard. a one−eyed man. who suffers from scrofulous swellings of the glands. one who subsists by tending cattle. and he who plants trees (for money). He who diverts water−courses. He who forsakes his mother. horses. 162. he who lives by agriculture. One suffering from consumption. an oil−man. and he who teaches the use of arms. 154. A maker of bows and of arrows. whose conduct is reprehensible. one who subsists by gambling. He who does not follow the rule of conduct. he who speaks rudely. a hypocrite. one who opposes his teacher. An incendiary. 155. and those who subsist by shop−keeping must be avoided at sacrifices offered to the gods and to the manes. and he who cavils at the Veda must (all) be avoided. a drunkard. He who teaches for a stipulated fee and he who is taught on that condition. 159. an enemy of the Brahmana race. 157. he who delights in injuring living creatures.The Laws of Manu 152. a messenger. 161. (all these) must be carefully avoided. A Brahmana who knows (the sacred law) should shun at (sacrifices) both (to the gods and to the manes) these lowest of twice−born men. one whose (only or first) wife is a Sudra female. 167. He who wrangles or goes to law with his father. A paid servant of a village or of a king. he who is afflicted with a disease (in punishment of former) crimes. sellers of meat. a keeper of buffaloes. a madman. a seller of substances used for flavouring food. the keeper of a gambling−house. he who subsists by astrology. one who has forsaken the sacred fire. and one who belongs to a company or corporation. and he who delights in obstructing them. a suborner to perjury. temple−priests. an informer. one who defiles maidens. 153. he who learns (the Veda) from his son. he who lasciviously dallies with a brother's widow. an elder brother who marries or kindles the sacred fire after the younger.

both in this life and after death. flesh. 171. consume (the food) eaten by Brahmanas who have not fulfilled the vow of studentship. 179. 176. can look on while they are feeding. as the fifth. and the full (description of) the Brahmanas who sanctify a company. due for such a non−sacrificial gift. for the food sacred to gods or manes which has been given (to them). A blind man by his presence causes to the giver (of the feast) the loss of the reward for ninety (guests). and the sacrificing priest. he will quickly perish. indeed. What has been given to a Brahmana who lives by trade that is not (useful) in this world and the next. to a man who is unworthy to sit in the company. who are born of wives of other men. must be known to be a Didhishupati. blood. Two (kinds of) sons. the female with whom such a marriage is contracted. by a Parivettri and so forth. 175. 170. but (that presented) to a temple−priest is lost. 183. for as many Brahmanas as a (guest) who sacrifices for Sudras may touch (during the meal) with his limbs. if he gives food. The giver (of a Sraddha) loses the reward. and by other men not admissible into the company. like a vessel of unburnt clay in water. though learned in the Veda. sacrificial food must not be given to him. The foolish giver (of a funeral repast) does not reap the reward for as many worthy guests as a man. He must be considered as a Parivettri who marries or begins the performance of the Agnihotra before his elder brother. all fall into hell. are born by wives of other men. a Kunda and a Golaka. 178. As a fire of dry grass is (unable to consume the offerings and is quickly) extinguished. He who lasciviously dallies with the widow of a deceased brother. (is turned into) adipose secretions. since it (would be) offered in ashes.The Laws of Manu 168. The Rakshasas. enumerated above. 169. a Golaka. and (he who is begotten) after the husband's death. 174. and (a present) to a Brahmana born of a remarried woman (resembles) an oblation thrown into ashes. (he who is born) while the husband lives. inadmissible men. 172. inadmissible into company. The Laws of Manu 34 . Now hear by what chief of twice−born men a company defiled by (the presence of) unworthy (guests) is purified. and (that given) to a usurer finds no place (in the world of the gods). accepts through covetousness a gift from such (a man). 182. and bone. he who gives her away. (that given) to a physician pus and blood. cause to the giver the loss (of the rewards). a one−eyed man for sixty. the younger brother who marries before the elder. And if a Brahmana. 177. though she be appointed (to bear a child by him) in accordance with the sacred law. one who suffers from white leprosy for a hundred. destined for the gods or manes. But the wise declare that the food which (is offered) to other unholy. 180 (Food) given to a seller of Soma becomes ordure. 173. But those two creatures. will be a Kunda. marrow. but the latter as a Parivitti. I will fully declare what result the giver obtains after death. and one punished by a (terrible) disease for a thousand. even so (is it with) an unlearned Brahmana. The elder brother who marries after the younger. 181.

are stated to be the manes of the Sadhyas. The Somasads. the Agnidagdhas. On the day before the Sraddha−rite is performed. 196. Snake−deities. careful of purity. ever chaste. born of Atri. a student. the children of Mariki. and with what ceremonies they ought to be worshipped. 185. and who are the descendants of Srotriyas. 195. Those men must be considered as the sanctifiers of a company who are most learned in all the Vedas and in all the Angas. the Agnishvattas. who are children of Manu. and sit near them when they are seated. 189. one who is versed in the six Angas. but the Sukalins (the issue) of Vasishtha. Gandharvas. the Kavyas. the Anagnidagdhas. For the manes attend the invited Brahmanas. such as have been mentioned above.The Laws of Manu 184. takes upon himself all the sins which the giver (of the feast) committed. 192. A Trinakiketa. becomes guilty (of a crime). being duly invited to a rite in honour of the gods or of the manes. and endowed with great virtues. 199. Danavas. in any way breaks (the appointment). being invited to a Sraddha. one who sings the Gyeshthasaman. and the Saumyas. the son of a woman married according to the Brahma rite. and a Kimnaras. 197. the Havishmats the children of Angiras. 188. Mariki and the rest. and (in his next birth) a hog. 194. or on the day when it takes place. A Brahmana who has been invited to a (rite) in honour of the manes shall always control himself and not recite the Veda. The manes are primeval deities. and he who expounds it. and he who performs the Sraddha (must act in the same manner). Now learn fully from whom all these (manes derive) their origin. but the Sukalins those of the Sudras. 190. the Barhishads. The (various) classes of the manes are declared to be the sons of all those sages. free from anger. But he who. Rakshasas. dallies with a Sudra woman. Suparnas. a Trisuparna. the Agyapas those of the Vaisyas. The Somapas those of the Brahmanas. One who knows the meaning of the Veda. the son of Hiranyagarbha. are famous in the world (as the manes) of the gods. are (the manes) of the Brahmanas alone. 187. 186. The Laws of Manu 35 . 191. let him invite with due respect at least three Brahmanas. But a Brahmana who. and a centenarian must be considered as Brahmanas who sanctify a company. the Havirbhugs those of the Kshatriyas. are recorded to be (the manes) of the Daityas. the Agyapas the offspring of Pulastya. One should know that (other classes). and the Agnishvattas. follow them (when they walk) like the wind. Yakshas. 193. 198. averse from strife. one who has given a thousand (cows). the sons of Virag. The Somapas are the sons of Kavi (Bhrigu). one who keeps five sacred fires. The Barhishads.

From the sages sprang the manes. 211. it shall not begin and end with a (rite) to the manes. he shall honour them with fragrant garlands and perfumes. The manes are always pleased with offerings made in open. Having first. on the banks of rivers. let him afterwards satisfy the manes by a gift of sacrificial food. sit down on separate. 215. 201. both the movable and the immovable in due order. and carefully make it sloping towards the south. free from anger. (and) the whole series of ceremonies in such a manner that they end in the south. Even water offered with faith (to the manes) in vessels made of silver or adorned with silver. But if no (sacred) fire (is available). the Brahmana (sacrificer) shall offer (oblations) in the sacred fire. place them on (Kusa grass) exactly in the same manner in which (he poured out the libations of) water. The Laws of Manu 36 . easily pleased. prepared seats. 210. according to the rule. for he who makes it begin and end with a (rite) in honour of the manes. 212. 214. For twice−born men the rite in honour of the manes is more important than the rite in honour of the gods. They (also) call those first of twice−born men the ancient deities of the funeral sacrifice.The Laws of Manu 200. 202. naturally pure places. for Brahmanas who know the sacred texts declare. and blades of Kusa grass. and to Yama. Let him first invite a (Brahmana) in honour of the gods as a protection for the (offering to the manes). oblations to Agni. and in secluded spots. has been declared to be a means of fortifying (the latter). But having made three cakes out of the remainder of that sacrificial food. 204. beginning with (those who are invited in honour of) the gods. 'What fire is. Let him make (the Sraddha) begin and end with (a rite) in honour of the gods. as a means of protecting (the Sraddha).' 213. from the manes the gods and the Danavas. Having placed those blameless Brahmanas on their seats. after having received permission (to do so) from (all) the Brahmana (guests) conjointly. 203. 206. on which blades of Kusa grass have been placed. 205. soon perishes together with his progeny. even such is a Brahmana. but from the gods the whole world. he shall place (the offerings) into the hand of a Brahmana. Let him smear a pure and secluded place with cowdung. who have duly performed their ablutions. 208. let him sprinkle water with his right hand on the spot (where the cakes are to be placed). produces endless (bliss). performed. for the offering to the gods which precedes (the Sraddhas). sesamum grains. But know also that there exist in this (world) countless sons and grandsons of those chief classes of manes which have been enumerated. The (sacrificer) shall make the (invited) Brahmanas. for the Rakshasas destroy a funeral sacrifice which is left without such a protection. he must. concentrating his mind and turning towards the south. 207. After he has performed (the oblations) in the fire. employed in making men prosper. Having presented to them water. to Soma. 209.

being pure and attentive. he shall give (to each) that (above−mentioned) portion of the cake. The malevolent Asuras forcibly snatch away that food which is brought without being held with both hands. carefully place on the ground the seasoning (for the rice). smell those cakes. and Khilas. tales. and thrice slowly suppressed his breath. contact with his foot to the Rakshasas. such as broths and pot herbs. Let him. Whatever may please the Brahmanas. become angry or utter an untruth. legends. shall. the Institutes of the sacred law. The Laws of Manu 37 . into the hands of the (guests). successively invite them to partake of each (dish). All this he shall present (to his guests). with fixed attention. in which a blade of Kusa grass has been placed. a shaking to the sinners. A tear sends the (food) to the Pretas. anger to his enemies. or he may also feed his father at the funeral sacrifice as (one of the) Brahmana (guests). 218. But carrying (the vessel) filled with food with both hands. being pure. and. 230. in the order in which they were placed (on the ground). 228. let him wipe the same hand with (the roots of) those blades of Kusa grass for the sake of the (three ancestors) who partake of the wipings (lepa). (the sacrificer) who knows the sacred texts shall worship (the guardian deities of) the six seasons and the manes. Let him on no account drop a tear. before (their dinner). But if the (sacrificer's) father is living. turned round (towards the north). in accordance with the rule. mention (that of) his great−grandfather. At a (sacrifice in honour) of the manes. he shall make those seated Brahmana eat them. the (sacrificer) himself shall gently place it before the Brahmanas. But taking successively very small portions from the cakes. sweet and sour milk. let him give without grudging it. Having offered those cakes according to the (prescribed) rule. or (the grandson) having received permission. a falsehood to the dogs. may perform it. 229. and honey. 'To those. being pure and attentive. 226. Svadha!' 224. 231. (As well as) various (kinds of) hard food which require mastication. and of soft food. fruits. while his grandfather lives. roots. Puranas.The Laws of Manu 216. he must let (his guests) hear the Veda. savoury meat. 225. Having poured water mixed with sesamum. 217. Having (next) sipped water. let him give riddles from the Veda. Let him gently pour out the remainder of the water near the cakes. 219. 222. 221. But he whose father is dead. Manu has declared that either the grandfather may eat at that Sraddha (as a guest). and fragrant drinks. proclaiming its qualities. 232. meditating on the manes. 223. saying. for that is agreeable to the manes. nor let him touch the food with his foot nor violently shake it. as he desires. after pronouncing his father's name. 227. he must offer (the cakes) to three remoter (ancestors). 220.

after having eaten a Sraddha (−dinner). a dog. 242. let him give delight to the Brahmanas. that produces not the intended result. falls headlong into the Kalasutra hell. show honour according to his ability. though he be a student. that the Rakshasas consume. he must be removed from that place (where the Sraddha is held). The foolish man who. suppression of anger. 244. cleanliness. at a (solemn) gift. a cock by the air of his wings. As long as the food remains warm. What (a guest) eats. covering his head. to be the share of honest. and the portion scattered on Kusa grass. when they have finished their meal. as long as they eat in silence. and give one cake only. a cock. be even the servant of the performer (of the Sraddha). what he eats with sandals on (his feet). the sons must offer the cakes with those ceremonies. he may. with the permission of (his) Brahmana (guests). 243. 245. 247. Let him eagerly entertain at a funeral sacrifice a daughter's son. and they recommend three (other things) for it. shall be the share of deceased (children) who received not the sacrament (of cremation) and of those who (unjustly) forsook noble wives. as long as the qualities of the food are not proclaimed. what he eats with his face turned towards the south. 239. To a Brahmana (householder). The Laws of Manu 38 . one must feed at the funeral sacrifice in honour of a (recently−) deceased Aryan (one Brahmana) without (making an offering) to the gods. 234. scattering them (on Kusa grass). and absence of haste. or at any rite in honour of the gods and manes. cause them to partake gradually and slowly (of each dish). (even though) asked by the giver (of the feast). All the food must be very hot. If a lame man. 236. a dog by throwing his eye (on them). But after the Sapindikarana of the (deceased father) has been performed according to the sacred law. the Brahmanas shall not proclaim the qualities of the sacrificial food. 235. one deficient in a limb. 238. A boar makes (the rite) useless by inhaling the smell (of the offerings). and sesamum grains. a menstruating woman. 241. 248. a village pig. sprinkle them with water and put them. 237. and a eunuch must not look at the Brahmanas while they eat. gives the leavings to a Sudra.) 249. a Nepal blanket. There are three means of sanctification. (to be used) at a Sraddha. a one−eyed man. Himself being delighted. so long the manes partake (of it). or to an ascetic who comes for food. or one with a redundant limb. A Kandala.The Laws of Manu 233. at a dinner (given to Brahmanas). 240. down on the ground in front of (his guests). 246. The remnant (in the dishes). scattering sesamum grains on the ground. They declare the fragments which have fallen on the ground at a (Sraddha) to the manes. a daughter's son. a low−caste man by touching (them). What (any of) these sees at a burnt−oblation. and repeatedly invite (them to eat) by (offering) the food and (praising) its qualities. (described above. Let him mix all the kinds of food together. dutiful servants. and the (guests) shall eat in silence. But before the performance of the Sapindikarana. and let him place a Nepal blanket on the on the seat (of each guest).

silent and pure. Having addressed the question. with the permission of the Brahmanas let him dispose (of that). the due preparation of the dwelling. At a (Sraddha) in honour of the manes one must use (in asking of the guests if they are satisfied. a goat. (with the words) 'Rest either (here or at home)!' 252. let him prepare (food) for his paternal relations and. will serve for a long time or for eternity. cause a cow. 257. the word) svaditam. The (sacrificer's) first wife. after giving it to them with due respect. The food eaten by hermits in the forest. or let him throw them into water. 'Have you dined well?' (to his guests). of the food which remains.The Laws of Manu 250. 254. Soma−juice. on account of their nature. and salt unprepared by art. and at (a rite) in honour of the gods. 261. look towards the south and ask these blessings of the manes: 259. that is a settled (rule of the) sacred law. 258. 251. The afternoon. some cause (them) to be eaten by birds or throw them into fire or into water. at a Goshthi−sraddha. (if she be) desirous of bearing a son. with a concentrated mind. milk. rich. after (the prayer). after they have sipped water. (the word) rukitam. 263. the manes of his (ancestors) will lie during that month in her ordure.' for at all rites in honour of the manes the word Svadha is the highest benison. 253. 264. famous. Next let him inform (his guests) who have finished their meal. The Laws of Manu 39 . Having dismissed the (invited) Brahmanas. the father of numerous offspring. are blessings at a sacrifice to the gods. who is faithful and intent on the worship of the manes. I will now fully declare what kind of sacrificial food. sesamum grains. and (the company of) distinguished Brahmanas are true riches at all funeral sacrifices. the morning. the careful preparation of the food. mentioned above. let him feed his maternal relatives also. 255. may eat the middle−most cake. afterwards he shall perform the (daily) domestic Bali−offering. Having thus offered (the cakes). sacrificial food. 'May liberal men abound with us! May (our knowledge of) the Vedas and (our) progeny increase! May faith not forsake us! May we have much to give (to the needy)!' 260. meat which is not prepared (with spices). Having washed his hands and sipped water. a Brahmana. as they may direct. 262. If the partaker of a Sraddha (−dinner) enters on the same day the bed of a Sudra female. 256. The Brahmana (guests) shall then answer him. are called. Some make the offering of the cakes after (the dinner). let him. 266. intelligent. and those means of purification. Know that Kusa grass. (the word) sampannam. at a Vriddhi−sraddha. (the word) susrutam. Kusa grass. endowed with (the quality of) goodness. sacrificial viands of all kinds. purificatory (texts). But the remnants shall be left (where they lie) until the Brahmanas have been dismissed. given to the manes according to the rule. 'Let there be Svadha. liberality. and righteous. and dismiss them. let him. (Thus) she will bring forth a son who will be long−lived. let him give water for sipping to them who are satisfied. 265. or the sacred fire to consume those cakes.

and in the rainy season. obtains distinguished offspring. but eleven months indeed with that of hares and tortoises. but that which is included among the five great sacrifices. duly perform the (rites) in honour of the manes in accordance with the prescribed rule. 277. 270. but nine with that of the (deer called) Ruru. 'May such a man (the manes say) be born in our family who will give us milk−rice. beginning with the tenth. because the (night) is declared to belong to the Rakshasas. Let him not perform a funeral sacrifice at night. 269. Let him offer here below a funeral sacrifice.' 275. must not be made in a common fire. nor in the twilight. offered at a sacrifice to the manes. 279. seven with that of spotted deer. 280. (it is) not thus (with) the others. with honey and clarified butter. Six months with the flesh of kids. up to the end (of the ceremony). barley. even so the afternoon is better for (the performance of) a funeral sacrifice than the forenoon. duly gives according to the prescribed rule. in winter. and fruits. gains (the fulfilment of) all his wishes. The ancestors of men are satisfied for one month with sesamum grains. a Brahmana who keeps a sacred fire (shall) not (perform) a funeral sacrifice except on the new−moon day. but excepting the fourteenth. are recommended for a funeral sacrifice. He who performs it on the even (lunar) days and under the even constellations. The (vegetable called) Kalasaka. every day. 274. Whatever (a man). (the fish called) Mahasalka. masha beans. Whatever (food). he who honours the manes on odd (lunar days) and under odd (constellations). roots. The burnt−oblation. that becomes in the other world a perpetual and imperishable (gratification) for the manes. As the second half of the month is preferable to the first half. 278. according to the rule given above. one gives on the thirteenth lunar day in the rainy season under the asterism of Maghah. full of faith. four with mutton. nor when the sun has just risen. from the flesh of a long−eared white he−goat their satisfaction endures twelve years. untired. passing the sacred thread over the right shoulder. The days of the dark half of the month. Let him. mixed with honey. 272. rice. 282. 273. proceeding from the left to the right (and) holding Kusa grass in his hands. 281. One year with cow−milk and milk−rice.The Laws of Manu 267. 276. Ten months they are satisfied with the meat of boars and buffaloes. the flesh of a rhinoceros and that of a red goat. on the thirteenth lunar day (of the month of Bhadrapada) and (in the afternoon) when the shadow of an elephant falls towards the east. (at least) thrice a year. which have been given according to the prescribed rule. in summer. Two months with fish. that also procures endless (satisfaction). 268. three months with the meat of gazelles. and five indeed with the flesh of birds. water. The Laws of Manu 40 . 271. and all kinds of food eaten by hermits in the forest serve for an endless time. eight with that of the black antelope.

and for the solstices. each later−(named) must be considered more distinguished. what is given unasked. The Laws of Manu 41 . Moreover. He who maintains himself by picking up grains and ears of corn. or make no provision for the morrow. A Brahmana must seek a means of subsistence which either causes no. One of these follows six occupations. honest life of a Brahmana. But trade and (money−lending) are Satyanrita. 11. for happiness has contentment for its root. and (those of) great−grandfathers Adityas. or a store filling a grain−jar. hear now the law for the manner of living fit for Brahmanas. and Amrita (ambrosia). among these four Brahmana householders. therefore one should avoid it. 284. 285. Let him never. thus (speaks) the eternal Veda. 2. 7.The Laws of Manu 283. (those of) grandfathers Rudras. or he may collect what suffices for three days. or at least little pain (to others). Even when a Brahmana. straightforward. and through his virtue to have conquered the world more completely. and constantly offer those Ishtis only. Having dwelt with a teacher during the fourth part of (a man's) life. CHAPTER IV. or even by (the mode) called Satyanrita (a mixture of truth and falsehood). follow the ways of the world. Service is called Svavritti. he obtains thereby the whole reward for the performance of the (daily) Sraddha. He who desires happiness must strive after a perfectly contented disposition and control himself. Let him daily partake of the vighasa and daily eat amrita (ambrosia). 10. By Rita shall be understood the gleaning of corn. the root of unhappiness is the contrary (disposition). by Mrita. even by that one may subsist. let him live the pure. and live (by that) except in times of distress. He may subsist by Rita (truth). For the purpose of gaining bare subsistence. 12. after bathing. Thus all the ordinances relating to the five (daily great) sacrifices have been declared to you. 3. 5. satisfies the manes with water. 6. for the sake of subsistence. but the fourth lives by the Brahmasattra. They call (the manes of) fathers Vasus. but never by Svavritti (a dog's mode of life). must be always intent on (the performance of) the Agnihotra. one by two. after he has wedded a wife. 8. but vighasa is what remains from the meal (of Brahmana guests) and the remainder of a sacrifice (is called) amrita. or by Mrita (death) and by Pramrita (what causes many deaths). let him accumulate property by (following those) irreproachable occupations (which are prescribed for) his (caste). by Amrita. 286. which are prescribed for the days of the conjunction and opposition (of the moon). He may either possess enough to fill a granary. without (unduly) fatiguing his body. food obtained by begging and agriculture is declared to be Pramrita. 9. 1. another subsists by three. a Brahmana shall live during the second quarter (of his existence) in his house. 4.

without having offered the (Agrayana) Ishti with new grain and an animal−(sacrifice). Whether he be rich or even in distress. 16. for he who performs those according to his ability. and the Darsa and Paurnamasa (Ishtis) at the end of each half−month. seeing with the eye of knowledge that the performance of those rites has knowledge for its root. 14. nor (let him accept presents) from any (giver whosoever he may be). if he is able (to perform them). according to his ability. Let him not. speech. those which are beneficial (for other worldly concerns). and thoughts to a conformity with his age. to the gods. to men. who is a Snataka and subsists by one of the (above−mentioned) modes of life. (because they are) greedy for new grain and flesh. 28. seek to devour his vital spirits. and fame. neglect the sacrifices to the sages. 20. Let him never. his occupation. No guest must stay in his house without being honoured. at the end of the (three) seasons the (Katurmasya−) sacrifices. 29. 15. not being worshipped by offerings of new grain and of an animal. those which teach the acquisition of wealth. Let him. The Laws of Manu 42 . by (reflecting on their worthlessness in) his heart. (let him maintain himself) anyhow. his wealth. untired. with a seat. always perform them through knowledge alone. perform daily the rites prescribed for him in the Veda. For his fires. 17. 18.The Laws of Manu 13. A Brahmana. always offer these great sacrifices in their organs (of sensation). or roots and fruits. 24. long life. and likewise over the Nigamas which explain the Veda. some always offer their breath in their speech. bringing his dress. to the Bhutas. but study. and their speech in their breath. a couch. attains to the highest state. 27. 26. attach himself to any sensual pleasures. and his race. and his great learning shines brightly. 19. Let him avoid all (means of acquiring) wealth which impede the study of the Veda. because that (devotion to the Veda−study secures) the realisation of his aims. without any (external) effort. nor by forbidden occupations. 21. Let him daily pore over those Institutes of science which soon give increase of wisdom. A Brahmana. must discharge the (following) duties which secure heavenly bliss. at the end of the year Soma−offerings. and let him carefully obviate an excessive attachment to them. let him not seek wealth through pursuits to which men cleave. the more he fully understands (them). When the old grain has been consumed the (Agrayana) Ishti with new grain. not eat new grain or meat. Some men who know the ordinances for sacrificial rites. A Brahmana shall always offer the Agnihotra at the beginning or at the end of the day and of the night. who keeps sacred fires. 25. For the more a man completely studies the Institutes of science. his sacred learning. shall. if he desires to live long. Other Brahmanas. at the solstices an animal (sacrifice). water. Let him walk here (on earth). out of desire (for enjoyments). food. and to the manes. 23. 22. Knowing that the (performance of the) sacrifice in their speech and their breath yields imperishable (rewards).

Let him not eat in the company of his wife. even by a greeting. may beg wealth of a king. utterly perish. 45. let him not run when it rains. 41. men who follow forbidden occupations. not approach his wife when her courses appear. who are Srotriyas. and to all beings one must distribute (food) without detriment (to one's own interest). Keeping his hair. a bundle of Kusa grass. while she is in that condition. sight. heretics. 44. is eclipsed or reflected in water. or sits at her ease. though mad with desire. sneezes. 35. A householder must give (as much food) as he is able (to spare) to those who do not cook for themselves. 46. (arguing against the Veda. but one must avoid those who are different. on a mountain. (and) householders. or stands in the middle of the sky. 43. let him not void urine on a road. nor shall he wear old or dirty clothes. Nor on ploughed land. If he avoids her. a crossway. a cow. a Brahmana. logicians. A Snataka who is able (to procure food) shall never waste himself with hunger. Let him not step over a rope to which a calf is tied. nor look at her. 34. 36. 42. or in a cow−pen. 38. clarified butter. subduing his passions by austerities. 33. rogues. 40. Those who have become Snatakas after studying the Veda. one must worship by (gifts of food) sacred to gods and manes. nor ever on an ant−hill. and well−known trees. on the ruins of a temple. if he possesses property. A Brahmana who desires energy must not look at (a woman) who applies collyrium to her eyes. and let him not look at his own image in water. nor let him sleep with her in the same bed. a pot full of water. For the wisdom. Let him not honour.The Laws of Manu 30. honey. turning his right hand towards them. 31. yawns.) and those who live like herons. and beard clipped. while she eats. 32. on ashes. Let him. 39. that is a settled rule. on an altar of bricks. but not of others. his wisdom. men who live like cats. the energy. he shall be always engaged in studying the Veda and (such acts as are) conducive to his welfare. wearing white garments and (keeping himself) pure. nails. dressed with one garment only. of one for whom he sacrifices. The Laws of Manu 43 . the sight. has anointed or uncovered herself or brings forth (a child). let him not bathe naked. when he sets or rises. He shall carry a staff of bamboo. Let him never look at the sun. Let him not eat. in water. and (wear) two bright golden ear−rings. and of a pupil. and vitality will increase. a sacred string. 37. and the vitality of a man who approaches a woman covered with menstrual excretions. energy. an idol. Let him pass by (a mound of) earth. or after completing their vows. that is a settled rule. A Snataka who pines with hunger. strength. the strength.

Let him not exert himself without a purpose. let him not eat food (placed) in his lap. The intellect of (a man) who voids urine against a fire. 57. clods. 52. or a fire. or looking towards a Brahmana. nor blood. a cow. Let him not dwell in a village where the sacred law is not obeyed. in the presence of Brahmanas. The Laws of Manu 44 . 56. nor very late (in the evening). Let him not place (fire) under (a bed or the like). Let him not eat. In the shade or in darkness a Brahmana may. nor place it (when he sleeps) at the foot−(end of his bed). the moon. nor (clothes) defiled by impure substances. perishes. let him not wake (a superior) who is sleeping. Let him never void faeces or urine. grass. let him not eat very early (in the morning). nor reside long on a mountain. nor let him go to a sacrifice. at night turning towards the south. must not point it out to anybody. 53. restraining his speech. A wise man. Let him not throw urine or faeces into the water. Nor in holes inhabited by living creatures. let him not look at a naked woman. nor (take any food) in the evening. Let him not eat anything from which the oil has been extracted. nor (stay) long where diseases are endemic. 60. in the daytime turning to the north. let him not take off his garland. nor step over it. and the like. Let him not blow a fire with his mouth. nor travel. if he sees a rainbow in the sky. He may ease himself. 54.The Laws of Manu 47. during the private recitation of the Veda. let him not throw any impure substance into the fire. having covered (the ground) with sticks. let him not show (idle) curiosity. let him not be a glutton. nor in one which has become subject to heretics. water. and let him not warm his feet at it. and at meals. Let him void faeces and urine. Let him not interrupt a cow who is suckling (her calf). 48. wrapping up his body. let him not scratch the ground. nor in one which is surrounded by unrighteous men. if he has eaten (his fill) in the morning. likewise when his life is in danger. the sun. 63. 55. in water. 51. both by day and at night. and covering his head. in a cow−pen. (keeping himself) pure. Let him not sleep alone in a deserted dwelling. leaves. 62. against a Brahmana. nor on the top of a mountain. if he is not chosen (to be officiating priest). 49. do it. 59. nor any other (impurity). nor in one swarming with men of the lowest castes. nor while he walks or stands. nor poisonous things. or the wind. let him not torment living creatures. Let him not dwell in a country where the rulers are Sudras. the sun. nor sleep during the twilight. let him not go alone on a journey. nor saliva. Let him keep his right arm uncovered in a place where a sacred fire is kept. let him not converse with a menstruating woman. nor on reaching the bank of a river. or cows. assuming any position he pleases. nor tell anybody of it. let him not drink water out of his joined palms. 58. 50. 61. during the two twilights in the same (position) as by day. facing the wind.

67. Let him never wash his feet in a vessel of white brass. nor with fools. 77. ornaments. let him never sleep naked. nor grind his teeth. will attain long life. eyes. let him not look at urine or ordure. let him not do anything that is useless or will have disagreeable results in the future. or whose horns. nor what has been placed in his hand or on a seat. let him not eat out of a broken (earthen) dish. Let him not clip his nails or hair. 66. nor let him make uncouth noises. 70. let him not eat. To ride on the back of cows (or of oxen) is anyhow a blamable act. Let him not crush earth or clods. or bites his nails. Let him not wrangle. the smoke rising from a (burning) corpse. 65. ashes. Let him not travel with untrained beasts of burden. nor himself take off his shoes. Let him not stay together with outcasts. The Laws of Manu 45 . endowed with lucky marks. or whose tails have been disfigured. Let him not eat after sunset any (food) containing sesamum grains. and not tear his nails with his teeth. potsherds. without urging them much with the goad. nor the remnants (of his meal). Let him never enter a place. swift. nor tear off grass with his nails. goes soon to perdition. 74. nor with low−caste men. nor let him explain the sacred law (to such a man). 78. nor with overbearing men. a garland.The Laws of Manu 64. Let him not enter a walled village or house except by the gate. nor go anywhere unpurified (after meals). A man who crushes clods. garments. cotton−seed or chaff. or a water−vessel which have been used by others. and hoofs have been injured. bones. a sacred string. and a broken seat must be avoided. tears off grass. 69. The morning sun. nor slap (his limbs). nor sing. Let him always travel with (beasts) which are well broken in. Let him never play with dice. nor with Kandalas. 72. likewise an informer and he who neglects (the rules of) purification. 80. but let him not go to bed with wet feet. 79. nor with Pukkasas. 76. Let him not use shoes. Let him not dance. nor cross a river (swimming) with his arms. Let him eat while his feet are (yet) wet (from the ablution). nor out of one that (to judge) from its appearance (is) defiled. which is impervious to his eye. nor with (animals) that are tormented by hunger or disease. 68. nor food offered to the gods. nor with Antyavasayins. Let him not give to a Sudra advice. nor play musical instruments. lying on a bed. nor impose (upon him) a penance. difficult of access. let him not wear a garland over (his hair). and perfect in colour and form. 73. He who eats while his feet are (still) wet. if he desires long life. and by night let him keep at a long distance from the roots of trees. 71. 75. Let him not step on hair. though he be in a passion.

the (flaming) river. 89. one king as (bad as) ten brothels. honour. Pathin. one tavern as (bad as) ten oil−presses. When he has risen. Putimrittika. 92. fame. He who accepts presents from an avaricious king who acts contrary to the Institutes (of the sacred law). and think of (the acquisition of) spiritual merit and wealth. Kudmala. Mahaviki. oil−manufacturers. and Lohakaraka. Samgivana. who know that. One oil−press is as (bad) as ten slaughter−houses. a Brahmana shall perform in the forenoon the Utsargana of the Vedas. Sampratapana. 94. or during that day (of the Utsarga) and (the following) night. Sakakola. 86. Having performed the Upakarman according to the prescribed rule on (the full moon of the month) Sravana. he shall not touch any of his limbs with oil. 83. and at the proper time (he must similarly perform) the evening (devotion). Andhatamisra. or on that of Praushthapada (Bhadrapada). When the Pushya−day (of the month Pausha). Salmala. wisdom. and publicans. he shall stop reading during two days and the intervening night. For he who explains the sacred law (to a Sudra) or dictates to him a penance. let him stand during the morning twilight.The Laws of Manu 81. 96. Let him not scratch his head with both hands joined. Learned Brahmanas. 84. nor from butchers. as the Institutes (of the sacred law) prescribe. Samghata. has relieved the necessities of nature and carefully purified himself. who study the Veda and desire bliss after death. sacred to Brahman. or the first day of the bright half of Magha has come. When he has bathed (submerging) his head. 87. do not accept presents from a king. Mahanaraka. 91. 85. 93. the Kalasutra hell. Raurava. A king is declared to be equal (in wickedness) to a butcher who keeps a hundred thousand slaughter−houses. muttering for a long time (the Gayatri). Lohasanku. Having performed the Utsarga outside (the village). Let him wake in the muhurta. 95. one brothel as (bad as) ten taverns. the sages obtained long life. and excellence in Vedic knowledge. Tapana. a Brahmana shall diligently study the Vedas during four months and a half. Let him avoid (in anger) to lay hold of (his own or other men's) hair. and of the true meaning of the Veda. let him not touch it while he is impure. will go in succession to the following twenty−one hells: 88. to accept presents from him is a terrible (crime). The Laws of Manu 46 . nor from those who subsist by the gain of prostitutes. Let him not accept presents from a king who is not descended from the Kshatriya race. Asipatravana. Rigisha. By prolonging the twilight devotions. will sink together with that (man) into the hell (called) Asamvrita. Maharaurava. Tamisra. 97. 90. of the bodily fatigue arising therefrom. or to strike (himself or others) on the head. nor bathe without (submerging) it. 82.

both in the day−time and at night. thunder. when he has accepted an invitation to a (funeral rite) in honour of one ancestor (ekoddishta). or when Rahu by an eclipse makes the moon impure. In a village where a corpse lies. a man must not even think in his heart (of the sacred texts). a continual interruption of the Veda−study (is prescribed) in villages and in towns. even if (these phenomena happen) in the (rainy) season. 103. and in a crowd of men the (recitation of the Veda must be) stopped. or when large fiery meteors fall on all sides. Manu has stated. while (the sound of) weeping (is heard). 101. 107. (who is) not in distress. A learned Brahmana shall not recite the Veda during three days. Let him not recite (the texts) indistinctly. On (the occasion of) a preternatural sound from the sky. 99. the stoppage shall last as long as the light (of the sun or of the stars is visible). and when it whirls up the dust in the day−time. But when lightning and the roar of thunder (are observed) after the sacred fires have been made to blaze. and rain (are observed together). after the sacred fires have been made to blaze (for the performance of the Agnihotra). In water. when the wind is audible at night. The Laws of Manu 47 . Afterwards he shall diligently recite the Vedas during the bright (halves of the months). if in the latter part of the night he is tired with reciting the Veda. go again to sleep. the recitation must be interrupted until the same hour (on the next day. and duly study all the Angas of the Vedas during the dark fortnights. Let him who studies always avoid (reading) on the following occasions when the Veda−study is forbidden. and also when clouds appear out of season. if the remaining (above−named phenomenon. As long as the smell and the stains of the (food given) in honour of one ancestor remain on the body of a learned Brahmana. let him recite the daily (portion of the) Mantras. 100. while he sits on his hams with a cloth tied round his knees. 102. the reading shall cease). (shall study) the Brahmana and the Mantrasamhita. while his feet are raised (on a bench). that when lightning. and when the lights of heaven are surrounded by a halo. let him know that (the Veda−study must be) stopped until the same hour (on the next day). 111. in the presence of a (man who lives as unrighteously as a) Sudra. occurs. Those who know the (rules of) recitation declare that in the rainy season the Veda−study must be stopped on these two (occasions). For those who wish to acquire exceedingiy great merit. 104. or when the king has become impure through a birth or death in his family (sutaka). nor let him. While lying on a bed. nor when he has eaten meat or food given by a person impure on account of a birth or a death. 106. and (let) him who teaches pupils according to the prescribed rule (do it likewise). 112. and (the Veda−study must) always (cease) when any kind of foul smell (is perceptible). during the middle part of the night. let him not study. nor in the presence of Sudras.The Laws of Manu 98. 109. so long he must not recite the Veda. counting from the occurrence of the event). 108. and a zealous Brahmana. while he voids excrements. 110. then one must know the recitation of the Veda to be forbidden. or is impure. According to the rule declared above. and after he has partaken of a funeral dinner. When one perceives these (phenomena) all together (in the twilight). 105. (of) an earthquake. rain.

The Rig−veda is declared to be sacred to the gods. Knowing this. and the Sama−veda sacred to the manes. Let him not study near a burial−ground. nor on an elephant. and when he himself is unpurified. nor on the fourteenth and the eighth (days of each half−month). for the hand of a Brahmana is his mouth. When the village has been beset by robbers. Let him never recite the Rig−veda or the Yagur−veda while the Saman (melodies) are heard. nor dressed in a garment which he wore during conjugal intercourse. a dog. nor during a mutual assault. A twice−born man who is a Snataka shall remain chaste on the new−moon day. 121. nor while jackals howl. whatever be the (gift) at a Sraddha. nor while the sky is preternaturally red. and when an alarm has been raised by fire. an ichneumon. The new−moon day destroys the teacher. A Brahmana shall not recite (the Veda) during a dust−storm. nor while the sound of arrows is audible. nor while (he is seated) in a company. nor during both the twilights. the braying of donkeys. a frog. nor on a tree. the Yagur−veda sacred to men. 118. nor in a camp. hence the sound of the latter is impure (as it were). let him know that (the Veda−study must be) interrupted until the same hour (on the next day).The Laws of Manu 113. but on the Ashtakas and on the last nights of the seasons for a day and a night. nor when he has just eaten. 128. on the full−moon day. the fourteenth (day) the pupil. nor in a boat (or ship). when cattle. nor in a cow−pen. nor on camel. 127. a snake. and on (the occurrence of) all portents. nor on the new−moon day. or a rat pass between (the teacher and his pupil). 120. nor during a battle. nor while the wind blows vehemently. nor while blood flows from his body. Nor without receiving permission from a guest (who stays in his house). Know that (the Veda−study must be) interrupted for a day and a night. 119. (let him stop all Veda−study for a day and a night) after finishing a Veda or after reciting an Aranyaka. viz. even (if they fall) in the period (proper for conjugal intercourse). nor on a donkey. nor after receiving a present at a funeral sacrifice. Be it an animal or a thing inanimate. 125. 126. 116. nor after vomiting. nor when he is wounded by a weapon. Let him not recite the Veda on horseback. Let a twice−born man always carefully interrupt the Veda−study on two (occasions. a cat. The Laws of Manu 48 . On (the occasion of) the Upakarman and (of) the Vedotsarga an omission (of the Veda−study) for three days has been prescribed. the learned daily repeat first in due order the essence of the three (Vedas) and afterwards the (text of the) Veda. nor near a village. 117. nor with sour eructations. Nor during a verbal altercation. 114. nor on the full−moon day. 124. 115. nor riding in a carriage. and on the fourteenth. on the eighth (lunar day of each half−month). nor during an indigestion. 123. nor standing on barren ground.) when the place where he recites is impure. or the grunting of camels (is heard). nor while the barking of dogs. let him therefore avoid (reading on) those (days). 122. recite the Veda. having just accepted it. Nor during a fog. let him not. the eighth and the full−moon days (destroy all remembrance of) the Veda.

Because these three. Let him not intentionally step on the shadow of (images of) the gods. nor alone. nor those who are of low birth. and in the two twilights let him not stay long on a cross−road. 145. of a Guru. (What is) well. daily offer oblations in the fire. nor with an unknown (companion). 141. and let him utter no agreeable falsehood. be careful of purity. or fire. hence a wise man must never despise them. on water used for a bath. let him not engage in a useless enmity or dispute with anybody. nor too late in the evening. be they ever so feeble. nor. being in good health. Let him who desires prosperity. let him mutter (prayers) and. after partaking of meat at a funeral dinner. Let him not step intentionally on things used for cleansing the body. indeed. or of one who has been initiated to the performance of a Srauta sacrifice (Dikshita). of his teacher. Let him not journey too early in the morning. on blood. If he has touched these. 130. while he is impure. and on anything spat out or vomited. nor very aged men. or let him say 'well' only. nor just during the midday (heat). until death let him seek fortune. of a king. on mucus. At midday and at midnight. 134. Let him not bathe (immediately) after a meal. nor with Sudras. nor when he is sick. 137.The Laws of Manu 129. 138. a snake. Let him eagerly follow the (customs which are) auspicious and the rule of good conduct. nor those who have no beauty or wealth. let him look at the luminaries in the sky. and control all his organs. or to the wife of another man. For in this world there is nothing so detrimental to long life as criminal conversation with another man's wife. never despise a Kshatriya. 140. let him utter no disagreeable truth. nor frequently dressed in all his garments. and he must avoid (to touch) the hair on the secret (parts). let him say what is pleasing. Except when sick he must not touch the cavities (of the body) without a reason. and a learned Brahmana. nor those destitute of knowledge. 142. 143. A Brahmana who is impure must not touch with his hand a cow. 131. a Brahmana. all his limbs. Let him not despise himself on account of former failures. of a reddish−brown animal. nor in a pool which he does not perfectly know. while impure. to the friend of an enemy. Let him not show particular attention to an enemy. Let him not insult those who have redundant limbs or are deficient in limbs. may utterly destroy him. on urine or ordure. The Laws of Manu 49 . that is the eternal law. and the navel. 135. nor despair of gaining it. of a Snataka. to a thief. let him call well. 133. 136. Let him say what is true. let him always sprinkle with his hand water on the organs of sensation. 139. 132. nor in the middle of the night. 144. to a wicked man. untired. when treated with disrespect.

which has been fully declared in the revealed texts and in the sacred tradition (Smriti) and is the root of the sacred law. But on the Parva−days let him go to visit the (images of the) gods. gains endless bliss by the continual study of the Veda. nor Brahmanas. (all) other (observances) are called secondary duties. By daily reciting the Veda. lives a hundred years. give them his own seat. 156. and by doing no injury to created beings. for they declare that to be one's highest duty. and virtuous Brahmanas. No calamity happens to those who eagerly follow auspicious customs and the rule of good conduct. far (let him remove) the water used for washing his feet. follow the conduct of virtuous men. nor any men performing austerities. 155. and worship the gods. Let him. when they leave. 159. through virtuous conduct imperishable wealth. apply collyrium to his eyes. though he be entirely destitute of auspicious marks. for the sake of protection. When the performance of an act gladdens his heart. 149. everything that depends on oneself (gives) pleasure. 158. walking behind them. to those who are always careful of purity. has faith and is free from envy. and to those who mutter (sacred texts) and offer burnt−oblations. Let him reverentially salute venerable men (who visit him). 160. Let him always offer on the Parva−days oblations to Savitri and such as avert evil omens. untired. but let him avoid the opposite. The Laws of Manu 50 . 150. Early in the morning only let him void faeces. 153. Let him. Through virtuous conduct he obtains long life. daily mutter the Veda at the proper time. 147. nor him who explained the Veda. again recites the Veda. is afflicted with diseases. Let him never offend the teacher who initiated him. 162. through virtuous conduct desirable offspring.The Laws of Manu 146. and short−lived. let him perform it with diligence. 151. 148. and on the Ashtakas and Anvashtakas let him constantly worship the manes. constantly suffers misfortunes. 157. let him sit near them with joined hands and. Everything that depends on others (gives) pain. and the ruler (of the country). and far the remnants of food and the water from his bath. by (practising) austerities. recollecting his former existences. decorate (his body). nor (any other) Guru. without tiring. bathe. connected with his occupations. virtuous conduct destroys (the effect of) inauspicious marks. as well as his Gurus. He who. one (obtains the faculty of) remembering former births. but let him eagerly pursue that (the accomplishment of) which depends on himself. nor cows. know that this is the short definition of pleasure and pain. clean his teeth. A man who follows the conduct of the virtuous. Let him carefully avoid all undertakings (the success of) which depends on others. by (the observance of the rules of) purification. 161. 154. (accompany them). 152. nor his father and mother. Far from his dwelling let him remove urine (and ordure). For a man of bad conduct is blamed among people.

178. As many particles of dust as the blood takes up from the ground. Let him always delight in truthfulness. cavilling at the Vedas. 172. even with a blade of grass. Let him not be uselessly active with his hands and feet. 167. nor crooked (in his ways). A twice−born man who has merely threatened a Brahmana with the intention of (doing him) a corporal injury. like a cow. aged and sick men. (it falls) on his sons. never turn his heart to unrighteousness. not raise a stick against another man. with a maternal uncle. if not on the sons. Let him avoid (the acquisition of) wealth and (the gratification of his) desires. contempt of the gods. A wise man should therefore never threaten a Brahmana. though suffering in consequence of his righteousness. and purity. nor strike him even with a blade of grass. never fails to produce fruit to him who wrought it. it cuts off the roots of him who committed it.The Laws of Manu 163. with infants. want of modesty. nor he who always delights in doing injury. when angry. and harshness. but (at last) he perishes (branch and) root. 165. connexions by marriage and maternal The Laws of Manu 51 . Let him walk in that path of holy men which his fathers and his grandfathers followed. his arms. Let him. If (the punishment falls) not on (the offender) himself. he will be born during twenty−one existences in the wombs (of such beings where men are born in punishment of their) sins. He prospers for a while through unrighteousness. with learned men. nor talk idly. practised in this world. those two he may beat in order to correct them. conduct worthy of an Aryan. Having intentionally struck him in anger. Neither a man who (lives) unrighteously. let him keep his speech. 174. with a teacher. and even lawful acts which may cause pain in the future or are offensive to men. 169. then he gains great good fortune. or with his eyes. 175. wicked men. pride. will wander about for a hundred years in the Tamisra hell. 171. nor he who (acquires) wealth (by telling) falsehoods. With an officiating or a domestic priest. nor strike (anybody) except a son or a pupil. hatred. does not at once produce its fruit. during so many years the spiller of the blood will be devoured by other (animals) in the next world. but an iniquity (once) committed. Unrighteousness. nor injure others by deeds or even think of it. ever attain happiness in this world. and his belly under control. 164. Let him avoid atheism. A man who in his folly caused blood to flow from the body of a Brahmana who does not attack him. Let him. for he will see the speedy overthrow of unrighteous. a guest and a dependant. advancing slowly. 173. 166. but. 168. nor cause his blood to flow. he will not suffer harm. (obedience to) the sacred law. next he conquers his enemies. with his paternal relatives. (at least) on his grandsons. will suffer after death exceedingly great pain. 177. 170. let him chastise his pupils according to the sacred law. 176. while he walks in that. if they are opposed to the sacred law. 179. anger.

a horse. (A man) who knows the law should not offer even water to a Brahmana who acts like a cat. with his daughter and with his slaves. the connexions by marriage over that of the waters. the eldest brother as equal to one's father. The female relatives (have power) over the world of the Apsarases. with a brother. yet delights in accepting gifts. hence if one is offended by (any one of) these. 191. (who is) a hypocrite. the mother and the maternal uncle over the earth. land. for through his accepting (many) presents the divine light in him is soon extinguished. a dress. For property. food. (or) clarified butter. the maternal relatives over that of the Visve Devas. causes in the next world misery both to the giver and to the recipient. for by reason of a very small (gift) even a fool sinks (into hell) as a cow into a morass. a deceiver of the people. one must know to be one who acts like a cat. clarified butter his energy. nor to one who is unacquainted with the Veda. he will be freed from all sins. just as (he who attempts to cross over in) a boat made of stone (is submerged) in the water. sesamum−grains. Gold and food destroy his longevity. and the priests over the world of the gods. sesamum−grains his offspring. With his father and his mother. one's daughter as the highest object of tenderness. One's slaves as one's shadow. one must bear it without resentment. A Brahmana who neither performs austerities nor studies the Veda. the father has power over the world of the Lord of created beings (Pragapati). 194.The Laws of Manu relatives. let him not have quarrels. As he who (attempts to) cross water in a boat of stone sinks (to the bottom). 183. aged. even so an ignorant donor and an ignorant donee sink low. displays the flag of virtue. though earned in accordance with prescribed rules. (A man) who. Hence an ignorant (man) should be afraid of accepting any presents. 187. a guest rules over the world of Indra. But an ignorant (man) who accepts gold. If he avoids quarrels with these persons. 186. ever covetous. let him not attach himself (too much) to that (habit). The Laws of Manu 52 . 189. 185. 195. is reduced to ashes like (a piece of) wood. (and) a detractor (from the merits) of all men. with his son and his wife. Though (by his learning and sanctity) he may be entitled to accept presents. and by suppressing (all) such (quarrels) a householder conquers all the following worlds. prescribed by the sacred law for the acceptance of presents. poor and sick men must be considered as rulers of the middle sphere. 184. 182. nor to a Brahmana who acts like a heron. 181. land and a cow his body. intent on doing injury. 188. a wise man should not take anything. Infants. 192. Without a full knowledge of the rules. even though he may pine with hunger. sinks with the (donor into hell). a cow. 193. one's wife and one's son as one's own body. a horse his eye (sight). with female relatives. a garment his skin. 180. The teacher is the lord of the world of Brahman. 190. which is given to these three (persons).

Let him never eat (food given) by intoxicated. angry. by a woman. nor the leavings (of another man). nor that prepared for a woman in childbed. When he has committed a sin. 210. a carpenter. or a hypocrite. of a cruel disposition. That Brahmana. Nor that at which the slayer of a learned Brahmana has looked. let him therefore avoid it. who with downcast look. nor that which has been touched by a menstruating woman. fall in consequence of that wicked mode of acting into (the hell called) Andhatamisra. dug by the gods (themselves). nor that which has been pecked at by birds or touched by a dog. nor the food of an Ugra. and in waterholes or springs. in lakes. and those who display the characteristics of cats. but not always the minor ones (called niyama). 211. He who uses without permission a carriage. if he bathes (in such a one). 197. A Brahmana must never eat (a dinner given) at a sacrifice that is offered by one who is not a Srotriya. a miser. Such Brahmanas are reprehended after death and in this (life) by those who expound the Veda. nor that in which hair or insects are found. a usurer. one who has been initiated (for the performance of a Srauta sacrifice). a hunter. 202. nor what has been touched intentionally with the foot. Let him always bathe in rivers. (thus) hiding his sin under (the pretext of) a vow and deceiving women and Sudras. takes upon himself one fourth of (the owner's) guilt. he is tainted by a portion of the guilt of him who made the tank. 204. Nor the food (given) by a thief. a seat. or sick (men). a musician. nor (any sweet thing) that has turned sour. When those persons offer sacrificial viands in the fire. 212. 209. takes upon himself the guilt of (all) students and is born again in the womb of an animal. gains his livelihood by (wearing) the dress of a student. nor particularly that which has been offered by an invitation to all comers. By one accused of a mortal sin (Abhisasta). and a vow. a hermaphrodite. 199. nor what has been kept a whole night. one who eats the fragments (of another's meal). without being a student. dishonest and falsely gentle. He who. Nor (the food given) by a physician. a bed. nor that (given at a dinner) where (a guest The Laws of Manu 53 . while he obeys the latter alone.The Laws of Manu 196. a well. Those Brahmanas who act like herons. Nor food at which a cow has smelt. is one who acts like a heron. for he who does not discharge the former. 205. an unchaste woman. 206. 198. 208. goes to the Rakshasas. Let him never bathe in tanks belonging to other men. 207. nor that which is declared to be had by a learned (man). performed under a false pretence. nor that (given) by a multitude or by harlots. by one who sacrifices for a multitude of men. 201. or by a eunuch. nor (the food) of a Sudra. becomes an outcast. it is unlucky for holy (men) it displeases the gods. one bound with fetters. A wise man should constantly discharge the paramount duties (called yama). 203. in ponds. 200. a garden or a house belonging to an (other man). is solely intent on attaining his own ends. a cruel man. let him not perform a penance under the pretence (that the act is intended to gain) spiritual merit.

220. 227. nor the food of an enemy. a dyer. 213. Nor the food (given) by an informer. on failure of (other) means of subsistence. or a dealer in weapons. if he finds a worthy recipient (for his gifts. having considered (the respective merits) of a niggardly Srotriya and of a liberal usurer. or an ungrateful (man). Let him. and a man in whose house (lives) a paramour (of his wife). always offer sacrifices and perform works of charity with faith.The Laws of Manu rises) prematurely (and) sips water. 223. A Brahmana who knows (the law) must not eat cooked food (given) by a Sudra who performs no Sraddhas. with a cheerful heart. 221. (that of the) of the) other (man) is defiled by a want of faith. 225. The gods. The food of that liberal (usurer) is purified by faith. that of a usurer (as vile as) ordure. the wise declare (to be as impure as) skin. sufficient for one night (and day). the food of a Sudra his excellence in sacred learning. nor that on which anybody has sneezed. The Laws of Manu 54 . the duty of liberality. both by sacrifices and by charitable works. the food of a goldsmith his longevity. without grudging. 'Do not make that equal. ordure. nor that which is unpalatable. nor that (given by a woman) whose ten days of impurity have not elapsed. a Nishada. according to his ability. 224. or by one who sells (the rewards for) sacrifices. which is unequal. bones. If he has unwittingly eaten the food of one of those. and that of a dealer in weapons (as bad as) dirt. By trainers of hunting dogs. that of a washerman his (bodily) strength. (procure) endless rewards. or urine.) 228. but. (he must) fast for three days. 214. if he has eaten it intentionally. the food of a multitude and of harlots excludes him from (the higher) worlds. Let him always practise. a pitiless (man). be it ever so little. that of an unchaste woman (equal to) semen. and by those who in all matters are ruled by women.' 226. by one who habitually tells falsehoods. 215. he may accept raw (grain). By a blacksmith. or (has swallowed) semen. The Lord of created beings (Pragapati) came and spake to them. 218. without tiring. a basket−maker. nor the food (given) by an actor. 219. 216. nor food (given by men) whose ten days of impurity on account of a death have not passed. The food of an artisan destroys his offspring. nor (that which contains) meat eaten for no sacred purpose. a stage−player. nor that (given) by outcasts. for a worthy recipient will (perhaps) be found who saves him from all (guilt). nor that (given) by the lord of a town. nor (that given) by a female who has no male (relatives). and hair. that of a leather−cutter his fame. he must perform a Krikkhra penance. declared the food of both to be equal (in quality). If he is asked. for offerings and charitable works made with faith and with lawfully−earned money. The food of a king impairs his vigour. a tailor. Nor (the food given) by those who knowingly bear with paramours (of their wives). The food of a physician (is as vile as) pus. 222. a washerman. let him always give something. 217. a goldsmith. The food of those other persons who have been successively enumerated as such whose food must not be eaten. Nor (food) given without due respect. publicans.

but spiritual merit follows the (soul). 244. single (it suffers the punishment of its) sin. who desires to raise his race. to the next world. gold. 230. a giver of food imperishable happiness. just as the white ant (gradually raises its) hill. and clarified butter. and shuns all inferior ones. or a clod of earth. by self−complacency (the reward for) austerities is lost. Leaving the dead body on the ground like a log of wood. and shun all low ones. a giver of the Veda (brahman) union with Brahman. 233. for that same purpose he receives (in his next birth) with due honour its (reward). 234. a giver of a draught−ox great good fortune. let him not utter a falsehood after he has offered a sacrifice. a giver of a house most excellent mansions. nor mother. single it dies. Let him therefore always slowly accumulate spiritual merit. a giver of a lamp a most excellent eyesight. a giver of gold long life. by an opposite conduct he becomes a Sudra. in order (that it may be his) companion (after death). a giver of protection supreme dominion. a giver of sesamum desirable offspring. Let him not be proud of his austerities. 237. for the sake (of acquiring) a companion to the next world. land. A giver of land obtains land. though he be tormented (by them). 243. The gift of the Veda surpasses all other gifts. Let him. and he who respectfully bestows it. 232. let him not speak ill of Brahmanas. The Laws of Manu 55 . nor sons. nor relations stay to be his companions. a giver of grain eternal bliss. for with merit as his companion he will traverse a gloom difficult to traverse. 239. 242. Giving no pain to any creature. ever form connexions with the most excellent (men). (himself) becomes most distinguished. A giver of a garment a place in the world of the moon. 235. in the contrary case (they both fall) into hell. single it enjoys (the reward of its) virtue. a giver of a cow the world of the sun. 240. (That companion) speedily conducts the man who is devoted to duty and effaces his sins by austerities. Single is each being born. 238. A giver of a carriage or of a bed a wife. By falsehood a sacrifice becomes vain. a giver of silver (rupya) exquisite beauty (rupa). 241. let him slowly accumulate spiritual merit. longevity by speaking evil of Brahmanas. cows. A giver of water obtains the satisfaction (of his hunger and thirst). 231. go to heaven. nor wife. 236. clothes. the relatives depart with averted faces. when he has bestowed (a gift). For whatever purpose (a man) bestows any gift. 245. radiant and clothed with an ethereal body. water. A Brahmana who always connects himself with the most excellent (ones). a giver of a horse (asva) a place in the world of the Asvins. For in the next world neither father. sesamum.The Laws of Manu 229. Both he who respectfully receives (a gift). let him not boast of it. spiritual merit alone remains (with him). food. and (the reward of) a gift by boasting.

conducts himself in this manner and daily destroys his sins. and to the gods. likewise a gift (which consists in) a promise of protection. provided (the gift) had not been (asked for or) promised beforehand. Alone let him constantly meditate in solitude on that which is salutary for his soul. and does no injury (to living creatures). water. nor does the fire carry his offerings (to the gods). meat. is the most sinful (wretch) in this world. shuns the company of men of cruel conduct. even so (a voluntary slave) must offer himself. jewels. spoke to great−souled Bhrigu. who sprang from fire: The Laws of Manu 56 . and from speech they proceed. being learned in the lore of the Vedas. 1.) 251. to the manes. which cause an increase of holiness and are praiseworthy. may accept (gifts) from anybody. and as the manner is in which he means to serve. in a manner contrary to truth. by controlling his organs and by liberality. but he who is dishonest with respect to speech. let him make over everything to his son and dwell (in his house). or if he lives separate from them in (another) house. 255. and vegetables let him not reject. heavenly bliss. 253. speech is their root. will be exalted in Brahman's world. flowers. and honey. gains. is dishonest in everything. sweet milk. food offered without asking. and the summary of the ordinances for a Snataka. 258. His labourer in tillage. his cow−herd. a friend of his family. Thus have been declared the means by which a Brahmana householder must always subsist. his debts to the great sages. He may accept from any (man). He who describes himself to virtuous (men). 254. likewise (a poor man) who offers himself (to be his slave). a house. not caring for any worldly concerns. gentle. 256. (and) patient. 259. A couch. if he constantly lives in that manner. accept (presents) from good men alone. water. But if his Gurus are dead.The Laws of Manu 246. but he must not satisfy his (own hunger) with such (presents). among Sudras. 260. 250. 248. fish. He who desires to relieve his Gurus and those whom he is bound to maintain. his slave. those whose food he may eat. 247. for he who meditates in solitude attains supreme bliss. As his character is. All things (have their nature) determined by speech. fuel. let him. (if they are voluntarily offered. having heard the duties of a Snataka thus declared. During fifteen years the manes do not eat (the food) of that man who disdains a (freely−offered gift). when he seeks a subsistence. He who is persevering. and his barber are. as the work is which he desires to perform. grain. When he has paid. Kusa grass. 249. roots. fruit. 257. he is a thief who makes away with his own self. sour milk. 252. A Brahmana who. CHAPTER V. perfumes. The Lord of created beings (Pragapati) has declared that alms freely offered and brought (by the giver himself) may be accepted even from a sinful man. The sages. or wishes to honour the gods and guests. according to the law.

13. or of one that has no calf with her. he who eats fish is an eater of every (kind of) flesh. Rice boiled with sesamum. Garlic. and all (substances turned) sour must be avoided. and one−hoofed animals which are not specially permitted (to be eaten). though they may fall under (the categories of) eatable (creatures). the Raggudala. Simhatundas. and fruit. 11. springing from impure (substances). and Sasalkas on all (occasions). the Khangaritaka. likewise what is extracted from pure flowers. Death becomes eager to shorten the lives of Brahmanas. that of women. the Selu (fruit). (thus) answered the great sages: 'Hear. milk and sugar. sour milk. the Brahmani duck. roots. the woodpecker. 16. 14. 'Through neglect of the Veda−study. 6. The milk of a cow (or other female animal) within ten days after her calving. and the thickened milk of a cow (which she gives after calving). of one−hoofed animals. 15. the Koyashti. of a cow in heat. and all (food) prepared of it may be eaten. nor any five−toed (animals). through deviation from the rule of conduct. The sparrow. milk−rice and flour−cakes which are not prepared for a sacrifice. The Baka and the Balaka crane. 8. the son of Manu. (animals) that eat fish. 12. The Laws of Manu 57 . (one may eat) likewise Ragivas. the parrot. if used for offerings to the gods or to the manes. and the starling. (in punishment) of what faults Death seeks to shorten the lives of Brahmanas!' 4. (But the fish called) Pathina and (that called) Rohita may be eaten. wheat mixed with butter. 17. mushrooms and (all plants). O Lord? ' 3. 'How can Death have power over Brahmanas who know the sacred science. the Plava. through remissness (in the fulfilment of duties). Let him avoid all carnivorous birds and those living in villages. the Hamsa. the Sarasa crane. Let him not eat solitary or unknown beasts and birds. let him therefore avoid fish. those which scratch with their toes. and all kinds of fishes. 10. those which dive and live on fish.The Laws of Manu 2. Those which feed striking with their beaks. 9. of sheep. (The milk) of all wild animals excepting buffalo−cows. food offered to the gods and sacrificial viands. 7. the raven. web−footed birds. and the Tittibha (Parra Jacana). Among (things turned) sour. He who eats the flesh of any (animal) is called the eater of the flesh of that (particular creature). meat which has not been sprinkled with water while sacred texts were recited.' 5. One should carefully avoid red exudations from trees and (juices) flowing from incisions. leeks and onions. village−pigs. and through faults (committed by eating forbidden) food. the village−cock. the Veda. that of camels. meat from a slaughter−house and dried meat. are unfit to be eaten by twice−born men. Righteous Bhrigu. (and) who fulfil their duties as they have been explained (by thee).

20. and the hare they declare to be eatable. for Agastya did this of old. 29. onions. shall perform a Samtapana (Krikkhra) or the lunar penance (Kandrayana) of ascetics. a village−cock. The eater who daily even devours those destined to be his food. in case (he who has eaten) any other (kind of forbidden food) he shall fast for one day (and a night ). Beasts and birds recommended (for consumption) may be slain by Brahmanas for sacrifices. excepting camels. But all preparations of barley and wheat. garlic. been fully described. be eaten after death by his (victims). a village−pig. 28. whether he has bought it. likewise those (domestic animals) that have teeth in one jaw only. when he honours the gods and manes. while Mantras were recited. The Laws of Manu 58 . 'The consumption of meat (is befitting) for sacrifices. though they may have stood for a long time. will become an outcast. 23. for if he has eaten it unlawfully. 31. One may eat meat when it has been sprinkled with water. the tortoise. those without hands of those who possess hands. Thus has the food. he will. 27. 21. as well as preparations of milk. 25. 24. 32. 33. For in ancient (times) the sacrificial cakes were (made of the flesh) of eatable beasts and birds at the sacrifices offered by Brahmanas and Kshatriyas. allowed and forbidden to twice−born men. though stale.' that is declared to be a rule made by the gods. All lawful hard or soft food may be eaten. 22. Once a year a Brahmana must perform a Krikkhra penance. when one is engaged (in the performance of a rite) according to the law. 19. or leeks. unable to save himself. (after having been) mixed with fatty (substances).The Laws of Manu 18. The porcupine. A twice−born man who knowingly eats mushrooms. (animals) without fangs (are the food) of those with fangs. when Brahmanas desire (one's doing it). the hedgehog. What is destitute of motion is the food of those endowed with locomotion. The Lord of creatures (Pragapati) created this whole (world to be) the sustenance of the vital spirit. A twice−born man who knows the law. or himself has killed (the animal). and when one's life is in danger. and in order to feed those whom they are bound to maintain. 30. the rhinoceros. in order to atone for unintentionally eating (forbidden food) but for intentionally (eating forbidden food he must perform the penances prescribed) specially. both the immovable and the movable (creation is) the food of the vital spirit. and so may the remains of sacrificial viands. commits no sin. commits no sin. I will now propound the rules for eating and avoiding meat. must not eat meat except in conformity with the law. the iguana. for the creator himself created both the eaters and those who are to be eaten (for those special purposes). and the timid of the bold. 26. or has received it as a present from others. may be eaten by twice−born men without being mixed with fatty (substances). He who unwittingly partakes of (any of) these six. He who eats meat. but to persist (in using it) on other (occasions) is said to be a proceeding worthy of Rakshasas.

The Laws of Manu 34. After death the guilt of one who slays deer for gain is not as (great) as that of him who eats meat for no (sacred) purpose. 35. But a man who, being duly engaged (to officiate or to dine at a sacred rite), refuses to eat meat, becomes after death an animal during twenty−one existences. 36. A Brahmana must never eat (the flesh of animals unhallowed by Mantras; but, obedient to the primeval law, he may eat it, consecrated with Vedic texts. 37. If he has a strong desire (for meat) he may make an animal of clarified butter or one of flour, (and eat that); but let him never seek to destroy an animal without a (lawful) reason. 38. As many hairs as the slain beast has, so often indeed will he who killed it without a (lawful) reason suffer a violent death in future births. 39. Svayambhu (the Self−existent) himself created animals for the sake of sacrifices; sacrifices (have been instituted) for the good of this whole (world); hence the slaughtering (of beasts) for sacrifices is not slaughtering (in the ordinary sense of the word). 40. Herbs, trees, cattle, birds, and (other) animals that have been destroyed for sacrifices, receive (being reborn) higher existences. 41. On offering the honey−mixture (to a guest), at a sacrifice and at the rites in honour of the manes, but on these occasions only, may an animal be slain; that (rule) Manu proclaimed. 42. A twice−born man who, knowing the true meaning of the Veda, slays an animal for these purposes, causes both himself and the animal to enter a most blessed state. 43. A twice−born man of virtuous disposition, whether he dwells in (his own) house, with a teacher, or in the forest, must never, even in times of distress, cause an injury (to any creature) which is not sanctioned by the Veda. 44. Know that the injury to moving creatures and to those destitute of motion, which the Veda has prescribed for certain occasions, is no injury at all; for the sacred law shone forth from the Veda. 45. He who injures innoxious beings from a wish to (give) himself pleasure, never finds happiness, neither living nor dead. 46. He who does not seek to cause the sufferings of bonds and death to living creatures, (but) desires the good of all (beings), obtains endless bliss. 47. He who does not injure any (creature), attains without an effort what he thinks of, what he undertakes, and what he fixes his mind on. 48. Meat can never be obtained without injury to living creatures, and injury to sentient beings is detrimental to (the attainment of) heavenly bliss; let him therefore shun (the use of) meat. 49. Having well considered the (disgusting) origin of flesh and the (cruelty of) fettering and slaying corporeal beings, let him entirely abstain from eating flesh. 50. He who, disregarding the rule (given above), does not eat meat like a Pisaka, becomes dear to men, and will not be tormented by diseases. The Laws of Manu 59

The Laws of Manu 51. He who permits (the slaughter of an animal), he who cuts it up, he who kills it, he who buys or sells (meat), he who cooks it, he who serves it up, and he who eats it, (must all be considered as) the slayers (of the animal). 52. There is no greater sinner than that (man) who, though not worshipping the gods or the manes, seeks to increase (the bulk of) his own flesh by the flesh of other (beings). 53. He who during a hundred years annually offers a horse−sacrifice, and he who entirely abstains from meat, obtain the same reward for their meritorious (conduct). 54. By subsisting on pure fruit and roots, and by eating food fit for ascetics (in the forest), one does not gain (so great) a reward as by entirely avoiding (the use of) flesh. 55. 'Me he (mam sah)' will devour in the next (world), whose flesh I eat in this (life); the wise declare this (to be) the real meaning of the word 'flesh' (mamsah). 56. There is no sin in eating meat, in (drinking) spirituous liquor, and in carnal intercourse, for that is the natural way of created beings, but abstention brings great rewards. 57. I will now in due order explain the purification for the dead and the purification of things as they are prescribed for the four castes (varna). 58. When (a child) dies that has teethed, or that before teething has received (the sacrament of) the tonsure (Kudakarana) or (of the initiation), all relatives (become) impure, and on the birth (of a child) the same (rule) is prescribed. 59. It is ordained (that) among Sapindas the impurity on account of a death (shall last) ten days, (or) until the bones have been collected, (or) three days or one day only. 60. But the Sapinda−relationship ceases with the seventh person (in the ascending and descending lines), the Samanodaka−relationship when the (common) origin and the (existence of a common family)−name are no (longer) known. 61. As this impurity on account of a death is prescribed for (all) Sapindas, even so it shall be (held) on a birth by those who desire to be absolutely pure. 62. (Or while) the impurity on account of a death is common to all (Sapindas), that caused by a birth (falls) on the parents alone; (or) it shall fall on the mother alone, and the father shall become pure by bathing; 63. But a man, having spent his strength, is purified merely by bathing; after begetting a child (on a remarried female), he shall retain the impurity during three days. 64. Those who have touched a corpse are purified after one day and night (added to) three periods of three days; those who give libations of water, after three days. 65. A pupil who performs the Pitrimedha for his deceased teacher, becomes also pure after ten days, just like those who carry the corpse out (to the burial−ground). 66. (A woman) is purified on a miscarriage in as many (days and) nights as months (elapsed after conception), and a menstruating female becomes pure by bathing after the menstrual secretion has ceased (to flow).

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The Laws of Manu 67. (On the death) of children whose tonsure (Kudakarman) has not been performed, the (Sapindas) are declared to become pure in one (day and) night; (on the death) of those who have received the tonsure (but not the initiation, the law) ordains (that) the purification (takes place) after three days. 68. A child that has died before the completion of its second year, the relatives shall carry out (of the village), decked (with flowers, and bury it) in pure ground, without collecting the bones (afterwards). 69. Such (a child) shall not be burnt with fire, and no libations of water shall be offered to it; leaving it like a (log of) wood in the forest, (the relatives) shall remain impure during three days only. 70. The relatives shall not offer libations to (a child) that has not reached the third year; but if it had teeth, or the ceremony of naming it (Namakarman) had been performed, (the offering of water is) optional. 71. If a fellow−student has died, the Smriti prescribes an impurity of one day; on a birth the purification of the Samanodakas is declared (to take place) after three (days and) nights. 72. (On the death) of females (betrothed but) not married (the bridegroom and his) relatives are purified after three days, and the paternal relatives become pure according to the same rule. 73. Let (mourners) eat food without factitious salt, bathe during three days, abstain from meat, and sleep separate on the ground. 74. The above rule regarding impurity on account of a death has been prescribed (for cases where the kinsmen live) near (the deceased); (Sapinda) kinsmen and (Samanodaka) relatives must know the following rule (to refer to cases where deceased lived) at a distance (from them). 75. He who may hear that (a relative) residing in a distant country has died, before ten (days after his death have elapsed), shall be impure for the remainder of the period of ten (days and) nights only. 76. If the ten days have passed, he shall be impure during three (days and) nights; but if a year has elapsed (since the occurrence of the death), he becomes pure merely by bathing. 77. A man who hears of a (Sapinda) relative's death, or of the birth of a son after the ten days (of impurity have passed), becomes pure by bathing, dressed in his garments. 78. If an infant (that has not teethed), or a (grownup relative who is) not a Sapinda, die in a distant country, one becomes at once pure after bathing in one's clothes. 79. If within the ten days (of impurity) another birth or death happens, a Brahmana shall remain impure only until the (first) period of ten days has expired. 80. They declare that, when the teacher (akarya) has died, the impurity (lasts) three days; if the (teacher's) son or wife (is dead, it lasts) a day and a night; that is a settled (rule). 81. For a Srotriya who resides with (him out of affection), a man shall be impure for three days; for a maternal uncle, a pupil, an officiating priest, or a maternal relative, for one night together with the preceding and following days. 82. If the king in whose realm he resides is dead, (he shall be impure) as long as the light (of the sun or stars shines), but for (an intimate friend) who is not a Srotriya (the impurity lasts) for a whole day, likewise for a Guru who knows the Veda and the Angas. The Laws of Manu 61

When he has touched a Kandala.The Laws of Manu 83. or eastern (gates). A king is an incarnation of the eight guardian deities of the world. To women who have joined a heretical sect. 96. (of those who have been killed) by lightning or by the king. that is a settled rule. northern. Libations of water shall not be offered to those who (neglect the prescribed rites and may be said to) have been born in vain. becomes pure by bathing. and the (last two are) ever pure like Brahman. and those engaged in the performance of a vow. and to those who have committed suicide. have killed their husbands. on seeing any impure (thing or person). for the (first are) seated on the throne of Indra. if it be free from fat. the Wind. Because the king is pervaded by those lords of the world. A Brahmana shall be pure after ten days. addressed to Surya. A Brahmana who has touched a human bone to which fat adheres. a Kshatriya after twelve. a menstruating woman. 86. Indra. or one who has touched a (corpse). mother. no impurity is ordained for him. but when he has offered water after its completion. 84. father. 90. immediate purification is prescribed. 98. or drink spirituous liquor. the Lords of wealth and water (Kubera and Varuna). a (Srauta) sacrifice is instantly completed. 93. and (of those who perished fighting) for cows and Brahmanas. by the western. he becomes pure by bathing. 88. and the Pavamani (verses). for he who performs that (Agnihotra) rite will not be impure. but (the corpses of) twice−born men. though (he be) a (Sapinda) relative. an outcast. as is proper. always mutter the sacred texts. on the throne of magnanimity. The taint of impurity does not fall on kings. 97. by sipping water and by touching (afterwards) a cow or looking at the sun. 94. who through lust live (with many men). 95. the Moon. the Fire. and a Sudra is purified after a month. nor interrupt the rites to be performed with the sacred fires. 92. A student does not break his vow by carrying out (to the place of cremation) his own dead teacher (akarya). the Sun. For a king. By him who is slain in battle with brandished weapons according to the law of the Kshatriyas. he becomes pure in three days only. and Yama. or Guru. to those who are ascetics (of heretical sects). sub−teacher (upadhyaya). a corpse. who have caused an abortion. Let him not (unnecessarily) lengthen the period of impurity. The Laws of Manu 62 . to those born in consequence of an illegal mixture of the castes. 85. 87. or of a Sattra. He who has purified himself by sipping water shall. and so is the period of impurity (caused by his death). a woman in childbed. 89. 91. (The same rule applies to the kinsmen) of those who have fallen in a riot or a battle. a Vaisya after fifteen. and the reason for that is that he is seated (there) for the protection of (his) subjects. and to those whom the king wishes (to be pure). for purity and impurity of mortals is caused and removed by (those) lords of the world. Let him carry out a dead Sudra by the southern gate of the town. He who has undertaken the performance of a vow shall not pour out libations (to the dead) until the vow has been completed.

and time are the purifiers of corporeal (beings). 111. 108. he becomes pure by bathing. having carried out a dead Brahmana who is not a Sapinda. and his weapons. (restraint of) the internal organ. A golden vessel which shows no stains. Having voluntarily followed a corpse. A Brahmana. The wise ordain that all (objects) made of metal. acids or water. a Kshatriya by touching the animal on which he rides. water. or a near relative of his mother. becomes pure after three days. Thus the purification (required) on (the death of) Sapindas has been explained to you. The learned are purified by a forgiving disposition. not he who purifies himself with earth and water. becomes pure with water alone. and water. iron. By earth and water is purified what ought to be made pure. and anything made of stone are to be cleansed with ashes. pewter. The purification prescribed for all (sorts of) liquids is by passing two blades of Kusa grass through them. hear now the decision (of the law) regarding the purification of the various (inanimate) things. secret sinners by muttering (sacred texts). gems. a woman whose thoughts have been impure by the menstrual secretion. (but) in one day. becomes pure by touching water. as (if he were) a (near) relative. tin. and a silver (vessel) not enchased. Copper. Among all modes of purification. for that burnt−offering which is defiled by a Sudra's touch is detrimental to (the deceased's passage to) heaven. smearing (with cowdung). a Brahmana by abandoning the world (samnyasa). sacred rites. by touching fire and eating clarified butter. the wind. therefore. the intellect by (true) knowledge. 102. 106. if he does not eat their food nor dwells in their house. earth. those two. O best of twice−born men. those who have committed forbidden actions by liberality. for he is pure who gains wealth with clean hands. by alkaline (substances). (At the end of the period of impurity) a Brahmana who has performed the necessary rites. 100. 113. Let him not allow a dead Brahmana to be carried out by a Sudra. a Sudra by touching his staff. the internal organ is purified by truthfulness. a Vaisya by touching his goad or the nose−string (of his oxen). fire. dressed in his clothes. hear now the manner in which men are purified on the death of any (relative who is) not a Sapinda. 109. From the union of water and fire arose the glittering gold and silver. a river by its current.The Laws of Manu 99. 110. (holy) food. 107. The body is cleansed by water. earth. he is purified in ten days. The knowledge (of Brahman) austerities. 114. purity in (the acquisition of) wealth is declared to be the best. 103. for (objects) made of wood by planing them. what is made of stone. 101. But if he eats the food of the (Sapindas of the deceased). while men of the same caste are at hand. Thus the precise rules for the purification of the body have been declared to you. the sun. as may be suitable (for each particular case). are best purified by (the elements) from which they sprang. 115. whether (that of) a paternal kinsman or (of) a stranger. The Laws of Manu 63 . for solid things by sprinkling (them with water). 104. and those who best know the Veda by austerities. and lead must be cleansed. 112. 105. likewise what is produced in water (as shells and coral). brass. the individual soul by sacred learning and austerities.

that (on which) no (taint is) visible.) by sweeping. if it is collected on (pure) ground. blankets with pounded Arishta (fruit). so long must earth and water be applied in cleansing (inanimate) things. 120.The Laws of Manu 116. so is (every vendible commodity) exposed for sale in the market. is pure. sneezed on. ordure. likewise (the wooden sword. the pestle and the mortar. viz. sufficient (in quantity) in order to slake the thirst of a cow. becomes pure by scattering earth (over it). and unmixed with impure substances. vegetables. 129. horn. pus or blood cannot be purified by another burning. An earthen vessel which has been defiled by spirituous liquor. As long as the (foul) smell does not leave an (object) defiled by impure substances. Amsupattas with Bel fruit. and fruit like grain. Silk and woollen stuffs with alkaline earth. 132. 122. a calf is pure on the flowing of the milk. an earthen (vessel) by a second burning. The Laws of Manu 64 . the cart (for bringing the grain). and taste. Land is purified by (the following) five (modes. likewise (that) of a (beast) slain by carnivorous (animals) or by men of low caste (Dasyu). 127. At sacrifices the purification of (the Soma cups called) Kamasas and Grahas. likewise a bird when he causes a fruit to fall. as well as excretions that fall from the body. or with a mixture of cow's urine and water. by sprinkling (it with cows' urine or milk). but the purification of small quantities is prescribed (to take place) by washing them. (Food) which has been pecked at by birds. possessing the (proper) smell. urine. like linen cloth. 124. by smearing (it with cowdung). such as Kandalas. roots. 131. 119. Manu has declared that the flesh (of an animal) killed by dogs is pure. All those cavities (of the body) which lie above the navel are pure. The gods declared three things (to be) pure to Brahmanas. The Karu and (the spoons called) Sruk and Sruva must be cleaned with hot water. 125. and (afterwards) rinsing (them with water). called) Sphya. (but) those which are below the navel are impure. and what has been commended (as pure) by the word (of a Brahmana). wood. The manner of purifying large quantities of grain and of cloth is to sprinkle them with water. linen cloth with (a paste of) yellow mustard. and of (other) sacrificial vessels (takes place) by rubbing (them) with the hand. and a dog when he catches a deer. what has been washed with water. colour. 118. A man who knows (the law) must purify conch−shells. The hand of an artisan is always pure. 121. smelt at by cows. by scraping. Grass. and food obtained by begging which a student holds (in his hand) is always fit for use. 128. Skins and (objects) made of split cane must be cleaned like clothes. a house by sweeping and smearing (it with cowdung or whitewash). saliva. the winnowing−basket (Surpa). 123. 130. touched (with the foot). and by cows staying (on it during a day and night). and straw become pure by being sprinkled (with water). or defiled by hair or insects. Water. 117. bone and ivory. that is a settled rule. The mouth of a woman is always pure. 126. and the stain caused by them (does not disappear).

Flies. 142. their mode of purification (shall be) the same as that of Vaisyas. telling untruths. 137. while carrying anything in any manner. Drops which trickle on the feet of him who offers water for sipping to others. the wind. 146. earth. or sons. bathing is prescribed for him who has had intercourse with a woman. the mucus of the nose. spitting. and afterwards eat clarified butter. the (left) hand alone by (applying it) ten (times). or even by an aged one. 140. faeces. husband. semen. as they may be required. Let him who desires bodily purity first sip water three times. and drinking water. Though he may be (already) pure. the rheum of the eyes. She must not seek to separate herself from her father. eating. a shadow. let him. have been fully declared to you: hear now the duties of women. Drops (of water) from the mouth which do not fall on a limb. Sudras who live according to the law. ear−wax. let him only sip water. but quadruple for ascetics. sneezing. urine. nor the hair of the moustache entering the mouth. and always before he takes food. Oily exudations. after sipping water. the rays of the sun. likewise when he is going to study the Veda. tears. In order to cleanse (the organs) by which urine and faeces are ejected. a horse. they render him not impure. nor what adheres to the teeth. is touched by an impure (person or thing). and both (hands) by (applying it) seven (times). earth and water must be used. by leaving them she would make both (her own and her husband's) families contemptible. 136. 143. 147. phlegm. if he performs an ablution. shall become pure. 144. nothing must be done independently. but a woman and a Sudra (shall perform each act) once (only). do not make (a man) impure. 141. without putting down that object. a woman must never be independent. and those for cleaning (inanimate) things. by a young woman. and then twice wipe his mouth. and fire one must know to be pure to the touch. even in her own house. sprinkle the cavities.The Laws of Manu 133. dust. When he has voided urine or faeces. when her lord is dead to her sons. 148. 145. Such is the purification ordained for householders. 138. and their food the fragments of an Aryan's meal. treble for hermits. shall each month shave (their heads). and sweat are the twelve impurities of human (bodies). in youth to her husband. 134. The Laws of Manu 65 . a cow. 149. the anus by (applying earth) three (times). (the fatty substance of the) brain. let him sip water after sleeping. Thus the rules of personal purification for men of all castes. must be considered as equal to (water collected on the ground. blood. likewise when he is going to recite the Veda. In childhood a female must be subject to her father. must clean the organ by one (application of) earth. 139. (it shall be) double for students. but if (the attack comes on) after he has eaten. He who. likewise in removing the (remaining ones among) twelve impurities of the body. He who has vomited or purged shall bathe. He who desires to be pure. 135. drops of water. By a girl.

158. 155. 154. never slights her lord. The husband who wedded her with sacred texts. and actions. Many thousands of Brahmanas who were chaste from their youth. resides (after death) with her husband (in heaven). but she must never even mention the name of another man after her husband has died. brings on herself disgrace in this world. a wife is disgraced in this world. reaches heaven. and strive (to fulfil) that most excellent duty which (is prescribed) for wives who have one husband only. controlling her thoughts. 164. 159. both in season and out of season. (but) the betrothal (by the father or guardian) is the cause of (the husband's) dominion (over his wife). A virtuous wife who after the death of her husband constantly remains chaste. speech. and fruit. she must not insult (his memory). 153. and economical in expenditure. she will for that (reason alone) be exalted in heaven. self−controlled. She must always be cheerful. and loses her place with her husband (in heaven). always gives happiness to his wife. She who cohabits with a man of higher caste. 151. 156. 160. nor (does offspring begotten) on another man's wife (belong to the begetter). A faithful wife. 162. 152. in this world and in the next. At her pleasure let her emaciate her body by (living on) pure flowers. though she have no son. and is tormented by diseases (the punishment of) her sin. nor is a second husband anywhere prescribed for virtuous women. But a woman who from a desire to have offspring violates her duty towards her (deceased) husband. gains in this (life) highest renown. or devoid of good qualities. she shall obey as long as he lives. forsaking her own husband who belongs to a lower one. She who. Offspring begotten by another man is here not (considered lawful). 165. 157. if a wife obeys her husband. In reward of such conduct. and the sacrifice to the Lord of creatures (Pragapati) are used at weddings. The Laws of Manu 66 . words. and when he is dead. will become contemptible in this world. and in the next (world) a place near her husband. and chaste. No sacrifice. and deeds. 161. and is called a virtuous (wife). and is called a remarried woman (parapurva). clever in (the management of her) household affairs. careful in cleaning her utensils. For the sake of procuring good fortune to (brides). the recitation of benedictory texts (svastyayana). By violating her duty towards her husband. 166. a female who controls her thoughts. Though destitute of virtue. whether he be alive or dead. no fast must be performed by women apart (from their husbands). or seeking pleasure (elsewhere). roots. have gone to heaven without continuing their race.The Laws of Manu 150. no vow. (yet) a husband must be constantly worshipped as a god by a faithful wife. who desires to dwell (after death) with her husband. Until death let her be patient (of hardships). just like those chaste men. 163. Him to whom her father may give her. (after death) she enters the womb of a jackal. must never do anything that might displease him who took her hand. or her brother with the father's permission.

and give alms according to his ability. 10. and compassionate towards all living creatures. 9. and all his belongings. let him severally prepare the sacrificial cakes (purodasa) and the boiled messes (karu). and his nails (being unclipped). and which he himself has collected. or with herbs. The Laws of Manu 67 . versed in the sacred law. 168. taking a firm resolution and keeping his organs in subjection. Let him offer those five great sacrifices according to the rule. the sons of his sons. and. When a householder sees his (skin) wrinkled. and fruit. as the law directs. according to the law. (mixed with) salt prepared by himself. Abandoning all food raised by cultivation. the Agrayana. shall burn a wife of equal caste who conducts herself thus and dies before him. or accompanied by her. roots. and fruits. either committing his wife to his sons. having taken a wife. fit for ascetics. at the funeral. with (the sacred fires used for) the Agnihotra. let him be patient of hardships.The Laws of Manu 167. and let him always wear (his hair in) braids. 1. friendly (towards all). 11. of collected mind. dwell in the forest. ever liberal and never a receiver of gifts. Let him be always industrious in privately reciting the Veda. Taking with him the sacred fire and the implements required for domestic (sacrifices). 5. the Agnihotra with three sacred fires. given the sacred fires to his wife who dies before him. With pure grains. may. then he may resort to the forest. Let him wear a skin or a tattered garment. and (his hair) white. he may go forth from the village into the forest and reside there. he may marry again. 13. as well as the Turayana and likewise the Dakshayana. 2. he must dwell in (his own) house during the second period of his life. he may depart into the forest. let him honour those who come to his hermitage with alms consisting of water. CHAPTER VI. Let him also offer the Nakshatreshti. the hair on his body. his beard. with various kinds of pure food fit for ascetics. 7. flowers. Let him perform the Bali−offering with such food as he eats. and oils extracted from forest−fruits. which grow in spring and in autumn. he must never neglect the five (great) sacrifices. A twice−born Snataka. in due order. 12. he may use the remainder for himself. and. and the Katurmasya (sacrifices). consisting of the produce of the forest. 3. Let him offer. and fruit. 6. Having thus. duly controlling his senses. the productions of pure trees. and with the sacrificial implements. 169. never omitting the new−moon and full−moon sacrifices at the proper time. roots. Having offered those most pure sacrificial viands. who has thus lived according to the law in the order of householders. 4. A twice−born man. and again kindle (the fires). let him bathe in the evening or in the morning. roots. (Living) according to the (preceding) rules. duly (observing the rules given below). Let him eat vegetables that grow on dry land or in water. 8.

the vegetables called) Bhustrina. and fruit. 22. He may either at once (after his daily meal) cleanse (his vessel for collecting food). and the Sleshmantaka fruit. 15. (or) let him alternately stand and sit down. 25. Let him throw away in the month of Asvina the food of ascetics. though it may have been thrown away by somebody. in (his naked) hand. or what has been ripened by time. or in the day−time (only). The Laws of Manu 68 . roots. and may eat eight mouthfuls. following the rule of the (Institutes) of Vikhanas. sleeping on the bare ground. or in a broken earthen dish. and practising harsher and harsher austerities. (barely sufficient) to support life. 16. Or (the hermit) who dwells in the forest may bring (food) from a village. boiled barley−gruel. flesh. or lay up a store sufficient for a month. Let him either roll about on the ground. let him offer libations of water to the manes and the gods. and fruit alone. let him live without a fire. midday. Making no effort (to procure) things that give pleasure. and Sigruka. 18.The Laws of Manu 14. or at every eighth. let him dry up his bodily frame. These and other observances must a Brahmana who dwells in the forest diligently practise. 26. he may either eat at night (only). and mushrooms growing on the ground (or elsewhere. according to the prescribed rule. or gather what suffices for six months or for a year. Let him avoid honey. receiving it either in a hollow dish (of leaves). once (a day only). From Brahmanas (who live as) ascetics. which he formerly collected. 21. subsisting on roots and fruit. and at sunset) to water in the forest (in order to bathe). 20. without a house. Or he may constantly subsist on flowers. dwelling at the roots of trees. 27. chaste. (he must study) the various sacred texts contained in the Upanishads. nor roots and fruit grown in a village. 28. roots. daily diminishing the quantity of his food) in the bright (half of the month) and (increasing it) in the dark (half). 29. or stand during the day on tiptoe. (thus) gradually increasing (the rigour of) his austerities. which have been ripened by time and have fallen spontaneously. When he bathes at the three Savanas (sunrise. Let him not eat anything (grown on) ploughed (land). and in winter be dressed in wet clothes. at midday. going at the Savanas (at sunrise. not caring for any shelter. likewise his worn−out clothes and his vegetables. 17. wholly silent. or at every fourth meal−time. Having reposited the three sacred fires in himself. or his teeth may be his mortar. or he may eat on the last days of each fortnight. Having collected food according to his ability. 19. though (he may be) tormented (by hunger). during the rainy season live under the open sky. and in order to attain complete (union with) the (supreme) Soul. he either may use a stone for grinding. and sunset). He may eat either what has been cooked with fire. let him receive alms. or from other householders of the twice−born (castes) who reside in the forest. In summer let him expose himself to the heat of five fires. 24. 23. Or he may live according to the rule of the lunar penance (Kandrayana.

gains his end. He who after passing from order to order. (he shall be) indifferent to everything. 42. He shall neither possess a fire. the roots of trees (for a dwelling). coarse worn−out garments. meditating (and) concentrating his mind on Brahman. as a servant (waits) for the payment of his wages. fully understanding that the solitary (man. gains bliss after death. life in solitude and indifference towards everything. 34. (As well as those rites and texts) which have been practised and studied by the sages (Rishis). and their austerity. 35. 38. 36. and in order to sanctify their bodies. Let him not desire to die. he may direct his mind to (the attainment of) final liberation. by whom not the smallest danger even is caused to created beings. Having performed the Ishti. 39. and without having offered sacrifices. he may live as an ascetic during the fourth part of his existence. without any companion. 44. let him keep his heart pure. But having thus passed the third part of (a man's natural term of) life in the forest. until his body sinks to rest. becomes. and having offered sacrifices according to his ability. nor a dwelling. 46. after offering sacrifices and subduing his senses. Having studied the Vedas in accordance with the rule. without having studied the Vedas. having got rid of his body by one of those modes practised by the great sages. after abandoning all attachment to worldly objects. 43. 40. a Brahmana may depart from his house (as an ascetic). 45. after he is freed from his body. become (the portion) of him who recites (the texts regarding) Brahman and departs from his house (as an ascetic). A Brahmana. Let him put down his foot purified by his sight. Let him always wander alone. let him drink water purified by (straining with) a cloth. in order to increase their knowledge (of Brahman). are the marks of one who has attained liberation. let him not desire to live. A potsherd (instead of an alms−bowl). let him wait for (his appointed) time. without having begotten sons. 37. where (he gives) all his property as the sacrificial fee. Departing from his house fully provided with the means of purification (Pavitra). let him apply his mind to (the attainment of) final liberation. in order to attain (final liberation). and caring nothing for enjoyments that may be offered (to him). free from sorrow and fear. firm of purpose. When he has paid the three debts. radiant in brilliancy. he who seeks it without having paid (his debts) sinks downwards.The Laws of Manu 30. A twice−born man who seeks final liberation. fully determined and going straight on. Worlds. having reposited the sacred fires in himself. having begat sons according to the sacred law. an ascetic. Or let him walk. sinks downwards. he may go to a village for his food. For that twice−born man. subsisting on water and air. 32. in a north−easterly direction. let him utter speech purified by truth. 41. let him wander about absolutely silent. The Laws of Manu 69 . and by Brahmana householders. 33. sacred to the Lord of creatures (Pragapati). is exalted in the world of Brahman. tired with (giving) alms and offerings of food. who) neither forsakes nor is forsaken. 31. there will be no danger from any (quarter). after giving a promise of safety to all created beings.

54. when the pestle lies motionless. when the people have finished their meal. the son of Svayambhu. On the separation from their dear ones. and beard being clipped. controlling himself and not hurting any creature. birds. By eating little. let the ascetic always go to beg. and by standing and sitting in solitude. Delighting in what refers to the Soul. when the embers have been extinguished. Neither by (explaining) prodigies and omens. entirely abstaining from sensual enjoyments. has declared (to be) vessels (suitable) for an ascetic. 51. on their falling into hell. let him not care about the (quality of his) utensils. by the destruction of love and hatred. it is ordained that they shall be cleansed with water. carrying an alms−bowl. independent (of external help). 57. His vessels shall not be made of metal. attaches himself also to sensual enjoyments. desiring the bliss (of final liberation). when the remnants in the dishes have been removed. and a water−pot. or other mendicants. on their being overpowered by age and being tormented with diseases. His hair. scattered at the seven gates. The Laws of Manu 70 . 62. 56. Let him patiently bear hard words. let him restrain his senses. and let him not utter speech. and let him not become anybody's enemy for the sake of this (perishable) body. devoid of truth. on their union with hated men. nor by giving advice and by the exposition (of the Sastras). nails. or one made of split cane. 48. 60. 52. let him bless when he is cursed. 58. nor rejoice when he obtains (something). nor by skill in astrology and palmistry. like (the cups. Let him disdain all (food) obtained in consequence of humble salutations. 55. at a sacrifice. Manu. dogs. Let him go to beg once (a day). A gourd. he becomes fit for immortality. let him not insult anybody. they shall be free from fractures.The Laws of Manu 47. if they are attracted by sensual objects. a staff. 50. Let him not be sorry when he obtains nothing. with himself for his only companion. a wooden bowl. Let him reflect on the transmigrations of men. let him continually wander about. Let him not (in order to beg) go near a house filled with hermits. let him (accept) so much only as will sustain life. let him not be eager to obtain a large quantity (of alms). (for) even an ascetic who has attained final liberation. caused by their sinful deeds. Brahmanas. and on the torments in the world of Yama. When no smoke ascends from (the kitchen). let him ever seek to obtain alms. 59. Against an angry man let him not in return show anger. called) Kamasa. an earthen (dish). 53. sitting (in the postures prescribed by the Yoga). By the restraint of his senses. he shall live in this world. is bound (with the fetters of the Samsara) by accepting (food given) in consequence of humble salutations. 49. and by the abstention from injuring the creatures. for an ascetic who eagerly seeks alms. 61.

72. In order to preserve living creatures. which is held together by tendons (instead of cords). composed of the five elements. he attains the eternal Brahman by the practice of meditation. which is foul−smelling. let him always by day and by night. an ascetic shall bathe and perform six suppressions of the breath. which is caused by the attainment of their highest aim. 74. Let him destroy the taints through suppressions of the breath. 78. He who possesses the true insight (into the nature of the world). even so the taints of the organs are destroyed through the suppression of the breath. 65. is freed from the misery (of this world. gloomy with passion. Three suppressions of the breath even. and on its wanderings through ten thousand millions of existences. infested by old age and sorrow. (the production of) sin by fixed attention. 79. 69. (men) gain that state (even) in this (world). To whatever order he may be attached. On the departure of the individual soul from this body and its new birth in (another) womb.The Laws of Manu 63. and its presence in all organisms. 64. melted in the blast (of a furnace). 73. The Laws of Manu 71 . fulfil his duty. walk. 70. By not injuring any creatures. even with pain to his body. He who leaves this body. one must know to be the highest (form of) austerity for every Brahmana. 76−77. the seat of disease. Let him quit this dwelling. by detaching the senses (from objects of enjoyment). carefully scanning the ground. are consumed. equal−minded towards all creatures. which is thatched with the skin. 75. On the infliction of pain on embodied (spirits). harassed by pain. is drawn into the circle of births and deaths. and accompanied with the (recitation of the) Vyahritis and of the syllable Om. performed according to the rule. Let him recognise by the practice of meditation the progress of the individual soul through beings of various kinds. and by rigorously practising austerities. (a progress) hard to understand for unregenerate men. let him. 67. and perishable. Making over (the merit of his own) good actions to his friends and (the guilt of) his evil deeds to his enemies. yet the (latter) does not become limpid in consequence of the mention of the (fruit's) name. all sensual attachments by restraining (his senses and organs). 71. and all qualities that are not lordly by meditation. which is caused by demerit. is not fettered by his deeds. By deep meditation let him recognise the subtile nature of the supreme Soul. filled with urine and ordure. (gained through) spiritual merit. 66. where the bones are the beams. (be it by necessity) as a tree (that is torn from) the river−bank. In order to expiate (the death) of those creatures which he unintentionally injures by day or by night. (for) the external mark (of the order) is not the cause of (the acquisition of) merit. where the flesh and the blood are the mortar. dreadful like) a shark. by the rites prescribed in the Veda. both the highest and the lowest. but he who is destitute of that insight. 68. For as the impurities of metallic ores. though blemished (by a want of the external marks). Though the fruit of the Kataka tree (the clearing−nut) makes water clear. and the gain of eternal bliss. or (freely) like a bird (that) quits a tree.

and after studying obey it. truthfulness. 87. That is the refuge of the ignorant. Contentment. and (those) which treat of the Soul and are contained in the concluding portions of the Veda (Vedanta). Having given up (the performance of) all rites. wisdom. 89. and even that (the refuse) of those who know (the meaning of the Veda). reposes in Brahman alone. forgiveness. (those) referring to the deities. The Laws of Manu 72 . that is (the protection) of those who seek (bliss in) heaven and of those who seek endless (beatitude). the householder. (obedience to the rules of) purification. follows the tenfold law and has paid his (three) debts. even so men of all orders find protection with householders 91. he may live at his ease under the protection of his son. destroys his guilt by his renunciation and obtains the highest state. for he supports the other three. and abstention from anger. throwing off the guilt of his (sinful) acts. with collected mind. the hermit. But all (or) even (any of) these orders.The Laws of Manu 80. these (constitute) four separate orders. Let him constantly recite (those texts of) the Veda which refer to the sacrifice. 93. He who has thus given up (the performance of) all rites. 83. abstention from unrighteously appropriating anything. 85. enter the highest state. A twice−born man who. assumed successively in accordance with the Institutes (of the sacred law). for he who is not proficient in the knowledge of that which refers to the Soul reaps not the full reward of the performance of rites. By twice−born men belonging to (any of) these four orders. the tenfold law must be ever carefully obeyed. shakes off sin here below and reaches the highest Brahman. 81. coercion of the organs. (form) the tenfold law. which all spring from (the order of) householders. A twice−born man who becomes an ascetic. All that has been declared (above) depends on meditation. 92. who is solely intent on his own (particular) object. subduing his organs and having studied the Veda. He who has in this manner gradually given up all attachments and is freed from all the pairs (of opposites). 95. And in accordance with the precepts of the Veda and of the Smriti. find a resting−place in the ocean. When by the disposition (of his heart) he becomes indifferent to all objects. As all rivers. Thus the law (valid) for self−restrained ascetics has been explained to you. knowledge (of the supreme Soul). The student. and the ascetic. become an ascetic. 94. 90. both great and small. 86. after the successive performance of the above−mentioned acts. the housekeeper is declared to be superior to all of them. may. Those Brahmanas who thoroughly study the tenfold law. he obtains eternal happiness both in this world and after death. self−control. lead the Brahmana who acts by the preceding (rules) to the highest state. 82. now listen to the (particular) duties of those who give up (the rites prescribed by) the Veda. after learning the Vedanta according to the prescribed rule. 88. 96. 84. (and) free from desires.

11. formed of Brahman's glory. he Sun and Moon. of Varuna. of the Moon. Fire burns one man only. the protector of all creatures. 1. The (man). Having fully considered the time and the place (of the offence). through fear dispersed in all directions. Through fear of him all created beings. (his) power. in whose anger abides death. Thus the fourfold holy law of Brahmanas. will doubtlessly perish. the strength and the knowledge (of the offender). Having fully considered the purpose. has been declared to you. he the Lord of justice (Yama). he Varuna. who in his exceeding folly hates him. both the immovable and the movable. must duly protect this whole (world). together with its cattle and its hoard of property. he great Indra. the fire of a king's (anger) consumes the (whole) family. and of the Lord of wealth (Kubera). (from an idea) that he is a (mere) mortal. which after death (yields) imperishable rewards. CHAPTER VII. 13. and the place and the time. I will declare the duties of kings. he Kubera. allow themselves to be enjoyed and swerve not from their duties. in whose favour resides Padma. 8. he assumes by turns many (different) shapes for the complete attainment of justice. of Yama. of Fire. and how (he can obtain) highest success. Even an infant king must not be despised. who has received according to the rule the sacrament prescribed by the Veda. (and) show how a king should conduct himself. of the Wind. Let no (man). how he was created. now learn the duty of kings. Through his (supernatural) power he is Fire and Wind. Because a king has been formed of particles of those lords of the gods. like the sun. he therefore surpasses all created beings in lustre. for he is a great deity in human form. when these creatures. transgress that law which favourites. And. in whose valour dwells victory. Taking (for that purpose) eternal particles of Indra. 15.The Laws of Manu 97. if he carelessly approaches it. he burns eyes and hearts. therefore. the goddess of fortune. (an incarnation of) the law. For. 2. A Kshatriya. He. 9. 10. The Laws of Manu 73 . nor can anybody on earth even gaze on him. nor (his orders) which inflict pain on those in disfavour. 16. 5. is formed of the lustre of all (gods). 12. 14. 6. of the Sun. Punishment. being without a king. let him justly inflict that (punishment) on men who act unjustly. 4. 7. For the (king's) sake the Lord formerly created his own son. for the king quickly makes up his mind to destroy such (a man). the Lord created a king for the protection of this whole (creation). 3.

provided that he who inflicts it discerns well. pleasure. But where Punishment with a black hue and red eyes stalks about. 22. it strikes down the king who swerves from his duty. the wise declare punishment (to be identical with) the law. it destroys everything. and deceitful will be destroyed. inflict punishment on those worthy to be punished. all barriers would be broken through. if they are tormented by (the fear of) punishment. that the manager of affairs. and that is called the surety for the four orders' obedience to the law. but he who is voluptuous. If the king did not. 32. 19. through fear of punishment the whole world yields the enjoyments (which it owes). who acts after due consideration. The whole world is kept in order by punishment. The fame of a king who behaves thus. The Laws of Manu 74 . 25. and be lenient towards Brahmanas. the bird and snake deities even give the enjoyments (due from them) only. (nor) by a fool. 26. there the subjects are not disturbed. If (punishment) is properly inflicted after (due) consideration. 24. 20. destroying sinners. punishment alone protects them. The gods. who is wise. together with his relatives. but inflicted without consideration. They declare that king to be a just inflicter of punishment. prospers with respect to (those) three (means of happiness). for a guiltless man is hard to find. behave without duplicity towards his friends. 28. and all men would rage (against each other) in consequence of mistakes with respect to punishment. and is hard to be administered by men with unimproved minds. the Gandharvas. likewise the sages and the gods. punishment watches over them while they sleep. the stronger would roast the weaker. 31. 21. like a drop of oil on water. partial. (nor) by a covetous man. (nor) by one addicted to sensual pleasures. who (on the failure of offerings) ascend to the sky. even through the (unjust) punishment (which he inflicts). like fish on a spit. Next it will afflict his castles. By him who is pure (and) faithful to his promise. 18. without tiring. All castes (varna) would be corrupted (by intermixture). that the ruler. (nor) by one whose mind is unimproved. the lower ones would (usurp the place of) the higher ones. even though he subsist by gleaning. and who knows (the respective value of) virtue. the whole world together with the movable and immovable (creation). Let him act with justice in his own domain. his territories. who is truthful. Punishment (possesses) a very bright lustre. who has good assistants and is wise. it makes all people happy. the Rakshasas. 29. and wealth. with rigour chastise his enemies. is spread in the world. (Punishment) cannot be inflicted justly by one who has no assistant. A king who properly inflicts (punishment). 33. punishment can be (justly) inflicted. the Danavas. who acts according to the Institutes (of the sacred law). Punishment alone governs all created beings. Punishment is (in reality) the king (and) the male.The Laws of Manu 17. 27. and ownership would not remain with any one. The crow would eat the sacrificial cake and the dog would lick the sacrificial viands. 30. 23.

treachery. together with their belongings. Through a want of modesty many kings have perished. Through a want of humility Vena perished. and useless travel are the tenfold set (of vices) springing from love of pleasure. is honoured even by Rakshasas. from the people (the theory of) the (various) trades and professions. censoriousness. The Laws of Manu 75 . and music. violence. for he who always worships aged men. through modesty even hermits in the forest have gained kingdoms. 38. 35. Whatever must be done by him and by his servants for the protection of his people. after rising early in the morning. But by humility Prithu and Manu gained sovereignty. the primeval science of government. but (he who is given) to those arising from anger. 37. dice. Kubera the position of the Lord of wealth. the son of Pigavana. (unjust) seizure of property. and the knowledge of the (supreme) Soul. springing from love of pleasure. and follow their advice. 48. 36. 39. proceeding from wrath. all according to their rank. worship Brahmanas who are well versed in the threefold sacred science and learned (in polity). constantly learn modesty from them. which (all) end in misery. though he may already be modest. For a king who is attached to the vices springing from love of pleasure. diminishes in extent among men like a drop of clarified butter in water. he must know to be the most pernicious in the set that springs from love of pleasure. gambling.The Laws of Manu 34. 46. who. singing. (loses) even his life. and assault are the eightfold set (of vices) produced by wrath. and the eight. 43. Let the king. reviling. 49. drunkenness. both sets (of vices) are produced by that. discharge their several duties. Sumukha. 40. sleeping by day. 41. 47. Drinking. That greediness which all wise men declare to be the root even of both these (sets). and hunting. loses his wealth and his virtue. From those versed in the three Vedas let him learn the threefold (sacred science). Let him. envy. and the son of Gadhi the rank of a Brahmana. Day and night he must strenuously exert himself to conquer his senses. for he (alone) who has conquered his own senses. 42. for a king who is modest never perishes. Sudas. Tale−bearing. women. and Nemi. (excess with) women. 45. can keep his subjects in obedience. slandering. Hunting. let him carefully conquer. The king has been created (to be) the protector of the castes (varna) and orders. the science of dialectics. But the fame of a king who acts in a contrary manner and who does not subdue himself. Let him carefully shun the ten vices. that I will fully declare to you in due order. these four (which have been enumerated) in succession. (an inordinate love for) dancing. 44. 50. Let him daily worship aged Brahmanas who know the Veda and are pure. likewise king Nahusha.

Let him appoint seven or eight ministers whose ancestors have been royal servants. Doing bodily injury. With respect to the affairs let the (ambassador) explore the expression of the countenance. and the sanctification of his gains (by pious gifts). the ambassador transacts that business by which (kings) are disunited or not.) in mines. who are versed in the sciences. especially (if he has) no assistant. the high−born. the revenue. manufactures. peace and its opposite (war) on the ambassador. 53. and the honest in (offices for the collection of) revenue. A self−controlled (king) should know that in this set of seven. who understands hints. As many persons as the due performance of his business requires. He must also appoint other officials. full of confidence. 65. ascends to heaven. free from sloth. firm. For the ambassador alone makes (kings') allies and separates allies. 54. the due control (of the subjects) on the army. who is) handsome. 52. he who dies. let the king deliberate on the most important affairs which relate to the six measures of royal policy. 57. 62. let him afterwards begin to act. The army depends on the official (placed in charge of it). (Such) an ambassador is commended to a king (who is) loyal.The Laws of Manu 51. 60. (e. these three he must know to be the most pernicious in the set produced by wrath. and the seizure of property. heroes skilled in the use of weapons and descended from (noble) families and who have been tried. honest. 63. and storehouses. possessing a good memory. 67. fearless. 66. Even an undertaking easy (in itself) is (sometimes) hard to be accomplished by a single man. having taken his final resolution with him.g. (but) the timid in the interior of his palace. who is honest. Let him daily consider with them the ordinary (business. 64. and eloquent. 58. which prevails everywhere. reviling. referring to) peace and war. the skilful. skilful. (the four subjects called) sthana. free from vice. skilful. 61. the gestures and actions of the (foreign king) through the gestures and actions of his confidential (advisers). how much (harder is it for a king). always entrust to that (official) all business. expressions of the face and gestures. 55. (who are) wise. 59. who knows the (proper) place and time (for action. let him appoint. and (discover) his The Laws of Manu 76 . Let him also appoint an ambassador who is versed in all sciences. 56. well able to collect money. a vicious man sinks to the nethermost (hell). and of (noble) family. let him do what is (most) beneficial for him in his affairs. the treasury and the (government of) the realm on the king. (to govern) a kingdom which yields great revenues. each earlier−named vice is more abominable (than those named later). vice is declared to be more pernicious. But with the most distinguished among them all. Among them let him employ the brave. Having (first) ascertained the opinion of each (minister) separately and (then the views) of all together. and well tried. (On a comparison) between vice and death. (men) of integrity. the (manner of) protecting (himself and his kingdom). so many skilful and clever (men). a learned Brahmana. Let him.

hence an imperishable store must be deposited by kings with Brahmanas. resplendent (with whitewash). and pleasant. with engines. (well) protected.The Laws of Manu designs among his servants. 78. money. A king shall offer various (Srauta) sacrifices at which liberal fees (are distributed). Let him cause to be built for himself. Let him make every effort to secure a hill−fort. The Laws of Manu 77 . animals living in holes and aquatic animals. 70. 83. where the vassals are obedient and his own (people easily) find their livelihood. which is chiefly (inhabited) by Aryans. One bowman. or one protected by water or trees. with Brahmanas. 80. Inhabiting that. and in order to acquire merit. who possesses auspicious marks (on her body). 77. As enemies do not hurt these (beings. Let that (fort) be well supplied with weapons. 69. where grain is abundant. 76. Let him build (there) a town. and gods respectively. For the various (branches of business) let him appoint intelligent supervisors. or a fortress built of (stone and) earth. Let him cause the annual revenue in his kingdom to be collected by trusty (officials). not subject to epidemic diseases (or similar troubles). in the centre of it. 72. Having learnt exactly (from his ambassador) the designs of the foreign king. men. habitable in every season. or one (formed by an encampment of armed) men or a hill−fort. and behave like a father towards all men. placed on a rampart. who is charming and possesses beauty and excellent qualities. let him wed a consort of equal caste (varna). hence it is prescribed (in the Sastras that a king will posses) a fortress. Let him settle in a country which is open and has a dry climate. one hundred for ten thousand. he shall give to Brahmanas enjoyments and wealth. a spacious palace. 81. Neither thieves nor foes can take it. 73. grain and beasts of burden. for amongst all those (fortresses mentioned) a hill−fort is distinguished by many superior qualities. supplied with water and trees. the last three by monkeys. 68. Let him honour those Brahmanas who have returned from their teacher's house (after studying the Veda). protected by a desert. with artisans. for that (money which is given) to Brahmanas is declared to be an imperishable treasure for kings. they shall inspect all (the acts) of those men who transact his business. let (the king) take such measures that he does not bring evil on himself. let him obey the sacred law in (his transactions with) the people. nor can it be lost. when they are) sheltered by (their) fortresses. 71. 82. 74. Let him appoint a domestic priest (purohita) and choose officiating priests (ritvig). making for his safety a fortress. with fodder. 75. 79. even so foes (can) not injure a king who has taken refuge in his fort. they shall perform his domestic rites and the (sacrifices) for which three fires are required. and with water. and is born in a great family. The first three of those (various kinds of fortresses) are inhabited by wild beasts. is a match in battle for one hundred (foes).

nor a eunuch. cattle. whatever (it may be). must be distributed by the king among all the soldiers. The Laws of Manu 78 . nor one who is fighting with another (foe). Nor one who sleeps. or weaker. 85. which is neither spilt. women. must not shrink from battle. Thus has been declared the blameless. 86. 94. all sorts of (marketable) goods and valueless metals belong to him who takes them (singly) conquering (the possessor). is far more excellent than Agnihotras. nor one who has turned to flight. or the points of which are blazing with fire. 91. is defied by (foes). all that his master takes. 90. (a gift) to one who knows the Veda and the Angas (Vedaparaga. 87. while he turns back in fear. be they equal in strength. 93. 98. or stronger.The Laws of Manu 84. But the (Kshatriya) who is slain in battle. money. nor one who is disarmed. takes upon himself all the sin of his master. A text of the Veda (declares) that (the soldiers) shall present a choice portion (of the booty) to the king. nor one who is in fear. nor one who joins the palms of his hands (in supplication). Nor one whose weapons are broken.' 92. A gift to one who is not a Brahmana (yields) the ordinary (reward. 99. and what he has augmented let him bestow on worthy men. 97. while he protects his people. nor one who (flees) with flying hair. A king who. go to heaven. remembering the duty of Kshatriyas. nor one who says 'I am thine. elephants. The offering made through the mouth of a Brahmana. 96. nor one who has lost his coat of mail. primeval law for warriors. (but in all these cases let him) remember the duty (of honourable warriors). poisoned. nor one who looks on without taking part in the fight. to protect the people. let him augment what he preserves. nor one who has been grievously wounded. Chariots and horses. a reward) without end. fight with the utmost exertion and do not turn back. what has not been taken singly. 95. a double (reward). a hundred−thousandfold (reward). a gift to a well−read Brahmana. what he has gained let him carefully preserve. nor one who sits down. When he fights with his foes in battle. from this law a Kshatriya must not depart. For according to the particular qualities of the recipient and according to the faith (of the giver) a small or a great reward will be obtained for a gift in the next world. Let him not strike one who (in flight) has climbed on an eminence. when he strikes his foes in battle. to honour the Brahmanas. a gift) to one who calls himself a Brahmana. Not to turn back in battle. grain. And whatever merit (a man) who is slain in flight may have gained for the next (world). is the best means for a king to secure happiness. 89. seeking to slay each other in battle. parasols. nor with (such as are) barbed. nor ever perishes. Let him strive to gain what he has not yet gained. nor falls (on the ground). Those kings who. 88. nor one afflicted (with sorrow). let him not strike with weapons concealed (in wood). nor one who is naked.

107. and on no account treacherously. conciliation and the rest. let him always fathom the treachery which his foes employ. even so let him secure the members (of his government against treachery). That king who through folly rashly oppresses his kingdom. together with his relatives. His enemy must not know his weaknesses. the learned always recommend conciliation and (the employment of) force for the prosperity of kingdoms. but he must know the weaknesses of his enemy. 104. 114. let him augment by (various modes of) increasing it. conciliation and the rest. 115. what he has protected. what he has gained. let him liberally bestow (on worthy men). like a wolf. and his secrets constantly concealed. gradually bring them to subjection. Let him ever act without guile. Of him who is always ready to strike. overcoming them by force alone. even so let the king protect his kingdom and destroy his opponents. When he is thus engaged in conquest. 102. 103. let him double in retreat. Let him be ever ready to strike. like a lion. for a king who governs his kingdom well. and let him constantly explore the weaknesses of his foe. 105. let him put forth his strength. lords of a hundred. The Laws of Manu 79 . commanded (by a trusty officer). As the weeder plucks up the weeds and preserves the corn. ere long be deprived of his life and of his kingdom. As the lives of living creatures are destroyed by tormenting their bodies. In governing his kingdom let him always observe the (following) rules. by the (four) expedients. lords of twenty. as the tortoise (hides its limbs). three. let him subdue all the opponents whom he may find. (to be) a protection of the kingdom. Among the four expedients. his prowess constantly displayed. Let him plan his undertakings (patiently meditating) like a heron. then let him. without ever tiring. 106.The Laws of Manu 100. let him. 109. let him therefore make all creatures subject to himself even by the employment of force. 111. 108. properly employ them. What he has not (yet) gained. 101. Let him know that these are the four means for securing the aims of human (existence). even so the lives of kings are destroyed by their oppressing their kingdoms. carefully guarding himself. (will). let him protect by careful attention. and what he has augmented. five or hundreds of villages. let him protect his own weak points. and lords of a thousand. 110. as well as lords of ten villages. like a hare. the midst of two. easily prospers. let him snatch (his prey). 113. If they cannot be stopped by the three first expedients. the whole world stands in awe. Let him appoint a lord over (each) village. Let him place a company of soldiers. 112. let him seek (to gain) by (his) army.

the superintendent of a hundred villages (the revenues of) one village. likewise clothing every six months and one drona of grain every month. and the ruler of ten (shall make his report) to the ruler of twenty. such as food. (medical) herbs. the charges of securing the goods. 117. elevated in rank. skins. six to the highest. 123. who are appointed to protect (the people). Let that (man) always personally visit by turns all those (other officials). 121. Having well considered (the rates of) purchase and (of) sale. But the ruler of twenty shall report all such (matters) to the lord of a hundred. and banish them. Of leaves. and fruit. grass. 130. which are connected with (their) villages and their separate business. substances used for flavouring food. (objects) made of cane. perfumes. Let the king confiscate the whole property of those (officials) who. and all (articles) made of stone. honey. (the expense for) food and condiments. clarified butter. 127. 125. the calf. another minister of the king shall inspect. 131. And in each town let him appoint one superintendent of all affairs. let the king make the traders pay duty. 128. the ruler of twenty five kulas. let him fix a daily maintenance. 124. sixth. 118. A fiftieth part of (the increments on) cattle and gold may be taken by the king. in proportion to their position and to their work. As the leech. 129. The ruler of ten (villages) shall enjoy one kula (as much land as suffices for one family). and the bee take their food little by little. (who must be) loyal and never remiss. the lord of one village shall obtain.The Laws of Manu 116. 120. may take money from suitors. even so must the king draw from his realm moderate annual taxes. (the length of) the road. evil−minded. and the eighth. and the lord of a hundred shall himself give information to the lord of a thousand. 119. 126. flowers. and fuel. generally become knaves who seize the property of others. let him protect his subjects against such (men). 122. After (due) consideration the king shall always fix in his realm the duties and taxes in such a manner that both he himself and the man who does the work receive (their due) reward. pot−herbs. The Laws of Manu 80 . For women employed in the royal service and for menial servants. For the servants of the king. the lord of a thousand (the revenues of) a town. One pana must be given (daily) as wages to the lowest. of earthen vessels. He may also take the sixth part of trees. or twelfth part of the crops. Those (articles) which the villagers ought to furnish daily to the king. The affairs of these (officials). let him properly explore their behaviour in their districts through spies (appointed to) each. The lord of one village himself shall inform the lord of ten villages of the crimes committed in his village. formidable. drink. meat. (resembling) a planet among the stars. 132. roots.

he makes himself or them wretched. Whatever meritorious acts (such a Brahmana) performs under the full protection of the king. which is called a tax. 146. having performed (the rite of) personal purification. and having worshipped Brahmanas. he shall take counsel with his ministers. Having risen in the last watch of the night. When he is tired with the inspection of the business of men. he shall enter the hall of audience which must possess the marks (considered) auspicious (for a dwelling). The highest duty of a Kshatriya is to protect his subjects. and descended from a (noble) family. be both sharp and gentle. 139. and he and his servants are (quietly) looking on. and kingdom increase. is a dead and not a living (king). 144. That king whose secret plans other people. 145. Tarrying there. and shall protect him in every way. pay annually some trifle. 140. self−controlled. will even. having. 137. ere long. The kingdom of that king.The Laws of Manu 133. Let him not cut up his own root (by levying no taxes). Let the king. 142. in whose dominions a Srotriya pines with hunger. wealth. 147. he shall zealously and carefully protect his subjects. Though dying (with want). 148. 141. the king shall provide for him means of subsistence in accordance with the sacred law. or in a solitary forest. must perish from hunger. (and) retiring (there) in a lonely place. let him place on that seat (of justice) his chief minister. wise. for the king who enjoys the rewards. for a king who is both sharp and gentle is highly respected. Ascending the back of a hill or a terrace. and no Srotriya. let him consult with them unobserved. Having ascertained his learning in the Veda and (the purity of) his conduct. Having thus arranged all the affairs (of) his (government). a king must not levy a tax on Srotriyas. 134. as a father (protects) the lawful son of his body. having carefully considered (each) affair. 138. offered oblations in the fire. 136. with a collected mind. though he be poor in treasure. he may cause to work (for himself) one (day) in each month. (though) assembled (for the purpose). (who must be) acquainted with the law. nor the root of other (men) by excessive greed. Let the king make the common inhabitants of his realm who live by traffic. The Laws of Manu 81 . having dismissed his subjects. for by cutting up his own root (or theirs). Mechanics and artisans. be afflicted by famine. That (monarch) whose subjects are carried off by robbers (Dasyu) from his kingdom. 143. do not discover. 135. is bound to (discharge that) duty. residing in his kingdom. he shall gratify all subjects (who come to see him by a kind reception) and afterwards dismiss them. thereby the king's length of life. as well as Sudras who subsist by manual labour. (will) enjoy the whole earth. while they loudly call (for help). just mentioned.

and as neutral (the king) beyond those two. On (reconciling) the attainment of these (aims) which are opposed to each other. eight others are enumerated (in the Institutes of Polity) and (thus) the (total) is declared to be twelve. on the behaviour of the neutral (king). the blind. either with himself alone or with his (ministers). 162. (or) by bravery and policy (alone). These (four) constituents (prakriti. these are mentioned in connexion with each (of the first twelve. women.) alliance. the kingdom. On the whole eightfold business and the five classes (of spies). Marching (to attack) is said to be twofold. Let him overcome all of them by means of the (four) expedients. on virtue. conciliation and the rest. Having carefully considered the business (in hand). of) seventy−two (constituent parts). Let him constantly think of the six measures of royal policy (guna. on the goodwill or enmity and the conduct of the circle (of neighbours he must) carefully (reflect). one must know to be of two descriptions. On sending ambassadors. besides. 154. The minister. (viz. very aged men. as friendly the immediate neighbour of his foe. thus the whole circle consists). on the completion of undertakings (already begun). briefly (speaking. war. and two (occasions for) seeking protection. and (that undertaken) by one allied with a friend. on the doings of him who seeks conquest. Let (the king) consider as hostile his immediate neighbour and the partisan of (such a) foe. (employed) either singly or conjointly. 156. that undertaken) by one alone when an urgent matter has suddenly arisen. 161.) that which is undertaken in season or out of season. on the behaviour of (the women in) his harem. for that reason he must be careful with respect to them. 158. and the deaf. the fortress. on bestowing his daughters in marriage. and seeking protection. likewise animals. At midday or at midnight. (likewise two) of both marching and sitting quiet. and particularly women betray secret council. 151. the foundation of the circle (of neighbours). and the army are five other (constituent elements of the circle). But the king must know that there are two kinds of alliances and of wars. alliance or war. 159. the treasury.) that when one marches together (with an ally) and the contrary (when the allies act separately). 165. An alliance which yields present and future advantages. by oneself and for one's own purposes. let him resort to sitting quiet or marching. briefly (speaking). halting. pleasure. and wealth. and (that waged to avenge) an injury done to a friend. form). 157. barbarians. animals. and those deficient in limbs. viz. marching. At the time of consultation let him cause to be removed idiots. for. (Such) despicable (persons). 152. let him deliberate. 150. (viz. War is declared to be of two kinds. dividing the army. dividing his forces or seeking protection (as the case may require). (viz. the sick. and on the doings of his spies. 160. and (on that) of the foe (let him) sedulously (meditate). 164.) 163. 155.The Laws of Manu 149. when his mental and bodily fatigues are over. 153. the dumb. The Laws of Manu 82 . On the conduct of the middlemost (prince). and on keeping his sons (from harm).

or towards the months of Phalguna and Kaitra. When the king knows the enemy to be stronger in every respect. (first) for the purpose of attaining an advantage when one is harassed by enemies. That (prince) who will coerce both his (disloyal) subjects and the army of the foe. and understands the consequences of past (actions). By all (the four) expedients a politic prince must arrange (matters so) that neither friends. Let him fully consider the future and the immediate results of all undertakings. But if he is very weak in chariots and beasts of burden and in troops. 167. 176. When he knows his own army to be cheerful in disposition and strong. 175. let him without hesitation have recourse to war. 181. 169. 170. 171. and (that) at the time present (he will suffer) little injury. 173. Let the king undertake his march in the fine month Margasirsha. powerful king. 177.The Laws of Manu 166. nor foes are superior to himself. and (that) in favour of a friend. nor neutrals. He who knows the good and the evil (which will result from his acts) in the future. then let him divide his army and thus achieve his purpose. that is called by those acquainted with the virtues of the measures of royal policy. in the following manner. (secondly) in order to become known among the virtuous (as the protege of a powerful king). then let him carefully sit quiet. But if the king undertakes an expedition against a hostile kingdom. the twofold division of the forces. even in that (condition). and the good and bad sides of all past (actions). and (that) of his enemy the reverse. that incumbent) on one who has gradually been weakened by fate or in consequence of former acts. he sees (that) evil is caused by (such) protection. But when he is very easily assailable by the forces of the enemy. 182. according to the (condition of his) army. The Laws of Manu 83 . When. then let him make war. gradually conciliating his foes. is quick in forming resolutions for the present. (viz. then let him have recourse to peaceful measures. Seeking refuge is declared to be of two kinds. When (the king) knows (that) at some future time his superiority (is) certain. If the army stops (in one place) and its master (in another) in order to effect some purpose. 174. against his foe's capital. then let him quickly seek refuge with a righteous. 178. But when he thinks all his subjects to be exceedingly contented. no neutral or foe may injure him. and (that he) himself (is) most exalted (in power). then let him gradually advance. then let him march against his foe. Let him arrange everything in such a manner that no ally. 179. that is the sum of political wisdom. 168. 180. let him ever serve with every effort like a Guru. 172. Sitting quiet is stated to be of two kinds. will not be conquered.

food. Let him instigate to rebellion those who are open to such instigations. when he has a certain prospect of victory. having secured a basis (for his operations) and having duly dispatched his spies. and ditches. at his pleasure let him extend a large number in loose ranks. From whatever (side) he apprehends danger. and let him always himself encamp in an array.The Laws of Manu 183. Pankalas. or like a boar (i. in a wedge). and water. After arranging his troops. Having cleared the three kinds of roads. When he has shut up his foe (in a town). (if it can be avoided. Let him march on his road. trying to conquer. 198. 194. by (well−applied) gifts. harass his kingdom. in a rhomboid with far−extended wings). as well as (others who are) tall and light. when fate is propitious. on hilly ground with swords. let him fight without fear.e. in an oblong). Let him allot to the commander−in−chief. in a rhombus). targets. in water−bound places with boats and elephants. in two triangles. 185.e. let him be informed of his (foe's) doings. Likewise let him destroy the tanks. shaped like a lotus. or like a Garuda (i. or like a pin (i.e. fuel. never by fighting. with the apices joined). Matsyas. 192. 197. with whom signals have been arranged. for such (men are) the most dangerous foes. who are expert both in sustaining a charge and in charging. (and a large number) in the thunderbolt−array. But having duly arranged (all affairs) in his original (kingdom) and what relates to the expedition. he should also mark the behaviour (of the soldiers) when they engage the enemy. (Men born in) Kurukshetra. let him leisurely proceed in the manner prescribed for warfare against the enemy's capital. and continually spoil his grass. Let him be very much on his guard against a friend who secretly serves the enemy and against (deserters) who return (from the enemy's camp). fearless and loyal. He should (however) try to conquer his foes by conciliation. and. 195.) The Laws of Manu 84 . in that (direction) let him extend his troops. or like a Makara (i. On even ground let him fight with chariots and horses. and (having made) his sixfold army (efficient). 184. Let him make a small number of soldiers fight in close order. or like a waggon (i. let him cause to fight in the van of the battle. he should encourage them (by an address) and carefully inspect them. he may advance to attack him.e. 196. to the (subordinate) general. in a long line).e. arranging (a small number) in the needle−array. and by creating dissension. let him sit encamped. (and other) weapons. On all sides let him place troops of soldiers. Even at other times. arraying (his troops) like a staff (i.e. 193. or when a disaster has befallen his foe. 187. or let him make them fight. and those born in Surasena. (and to the superior officers) places in all directions. 188. 190. 189. 191. and let him turn his front in that direction whence he fears danger. on whom he can rely. on (ground) covered with trees and shrubs with bows. ramparts. and let him assail the (foe unawares) and alarm him at night. 186. used either separately or conjointly.

though weak. of noble race. 213. On the person who employs the expedients. and its distribution which causes pleasure. Or (the king. 210. (who). victory and defeat in the battle are. duly exerting himself. who is wise. as experience teaches. 207. For when two (princes) fight. may. and firm. All undertakings (in) this (world) depend both on the ordering of fate and on human exertion. But having fully ascertained the wishes of all the (conquered). grateful. whose people are contented. 201. By gaining gold and land a king grows not so much in strength as by obtaining a firm friend.The Laws of Manu 199. A wise (king). 206. When he has gained victory. let him therefore avoid an engagement. knowledge of men. be it together or separately. 212. and on all the expedients collectively. 209. brave. 208. but among these two (the ways of) fate are unfathomable. whether (he may have become) friendly or (remained) hostile. should try all (the four) expedients. in the case of man's work action is possible. let (the conqueror) secure the fruit of the expedition from (the prince whom he attacks). fertile. on these three let him ponder and strive to accomplish his ends. let him at all events preserve himself even by (giving up) his wife and his wealth. liberal. 203. 202. Having paid due attention to any king in the circle (of neighbouring states) who might attack him in the rear. Let the king. uncertain. at the expense of his wealth let him preserve his wife. and causing an increase of cattle. Behaviour worthy of an Aryan. and to his supporter who opposes the latter. on the business to be accomplished. are both recommendable. just as they are stated (to be). bent on conquest). clever. Let him make authoritative the lawful (customs) of the (inhabitants). For times of need let him preserve his wealth. and let him honour the (new king) and his chief servants with precious gifts. quit for his own sake even a country (which is) salubrious. make peace with (his foe) and return (to his realm). and let him impose his conditions. 214. The Laws of Manu 85 . gold. let him duly worship the gods and honour righteous Brahmanas. fight in such a manner that he may completely conquer his enemies. a compassionate disposition. using diligent care. bravery. 200. who is righteous (and) grateful. A weak friend (even) is greatly commended. considering a friend. The wise declare him (to be) a most dangerous foe. without hesitation. and let him cause promises of safety to be proclaimed. 211. and great liberality are the virtues of a neutral (who may be courted). then let him.) 215. who is attached and persevering in his undertakings. 204. The seizure of desirable property which causes displeasure. (in order to save himself. 205. (But) if even those three before−mentioned expedients fail. let him place there a relative of the (vanquished ruler on the throne). (if they are) resorted to at the proper time. and land (to be) the triple result (of an expedition). (may become) powerful in the future. seeing that all kinds of misfortunes violently assail him at the same time. let him grant exemptions.

Having thus consulted with his ministers on all these (matters). having taken exercise. (11) assault and (12) defamation. and having bathed afterwards. 1. 217. incorruptible (servants) who know the (proper) time (for dining). The Laws of Manu 86 . (4) concerns among partners. 225. (14) robbery and violence. the king may enter the harem at midday in order to dine. raising his right arm. (2) deposit and pledge. (9) disputes between the owner (of cattle) and his servants. 2. 223. and perfumes. (6) Non−payment of wages. 5. Let him mix all his food with medicines (that are) antidotes against poison. (7) non−performance of agreements. 4. 221. well armed. Having performed his twilight−devotions. he may entrust all this (business) to his servants. Daily (deciding) one after another (all cases) which fall under the eighteen titles (of the law) according to principles drawn from local usages. and having been recreated by the sound of music. 220. 219. which has been well examined (and hallowed) by sacred texts that destroy poison. he may enter the harem. CHAPTER VIII. without ostentation in his dress and ornaments. and all his ornaments. Adorned (with his robes of state). he may divert himself with his wives in the harem. But going to another secret apartment and dismissing those people. (then follow). must enter his court of justice. desirous of investigating law cases. bed. and from the Institutes of the sacred law. in order to dine again. (13) theft. 224. let him again inspect his fighting men. all his chariots and beasts of burden. toilet. surrounded by female (servants). 218. he must. (15) adultery. A king. Having eaten there something for the second time. 3. seat. and let him always be careful to wear gems which destroy poison. in due time. either seated or standing. 222. (which has been prepared) by faithful. bath. Of those (titles) the first is the non−payment of debts. A king who is in good health must observe these rules. let him. let him examine the business of suitors. Well−tried females whose toilet and ornaments have been examined. 226. the weapons and accoutrements. In like manner let him be careful about his carriages. When he has dined. shall attentively serve him with fans. (3) sale without ownership. but when he has diverted himself. There he may eat food. but. let him go to rest and rise at the proper time free from fatigue. preserving a dignified demeanour. together with Brahmanas and with experienced councillors. There. (8) rescission of sale and purchase. and (5) resumption of gifts. if he is indisposed. water. 6. hear in an inner apartment the doings of those who make secret reports and of his spies.The Laws of Manu 216. (10) Disputes regarding boundaries. again think of the affairs of state.

or one who merely calls himself a Brahmana (though his origin be uncertain). preserves: therefore justice must not be violated. destroys. one quarter on the king. justice. 19. approaches and the judges do not extract the dart. and having worshipped the guardian deities of the world. A Brahmana who subsists only by the name of his caste (gati). having covered his body. 18. But if the king does not personally investigate the suits. begin the trial of causes. beware of violating justice. let him decide the suits of men who mostly contend on the titles just mentioned.The Laws of Manu 7. and the judges are saved (from sin). The kingdom of that monarch. becomes sinful. but never a Sudra. which is infested by atheists and destitute of twice−born (inhabitants). being preserved. while the judges look on. what is pure justice or injustice. 17. The Laws of Manu 87 .' 16. One quarter of (the guilt of) an unjust (decision) falls on him who committed (the crime). they call that the court of (four−faced) Brahman. let him examine the causes of suitors according to the order of the castes (varna). there they shall also be destroyed. let him. and fully consider (all) causes (brought) before the (king). Depending on the eternal law. But where he who is worthy of condemnation is condemned. that (man) who violates it (kurute 'lam) the gods consider to be (a man despicable like) a Sudra (vrishala). or the truth must be spoken. 23. there (they also) are wounded (by that dart of injustice). wounded by injustice. a man who either says nothing or speaks falsely. 'Justice. That kingdom where Sudras are very numerous. 13. therefore. lest violated justice destroy us. afflicted by famine and disease. 14. Having occupied the seat of justice. 8. Knowing what is expedient or inexpedient. accompanied by three assessors. (17) partition (of inheritance). the king is free from guilt. like a cow in a morass. being violated. But where justice. 15. (16) Duties of man and wife. Where justice is destroyed by injustice. That (man) shall enter that most excellent court. Where three Brahmanas versed in the Vedas and the learned (judge) appointed by the king sit down. soon entirely perishes. will sink (low). 10. who looks on while a Sudra settles the law. 21. may. 22. Either the court must not be entered. 12. 11. one quarter on the (false) witness. (18) gambling and betting. at the king's pleasure. let him. For divine justice (is said to be) a bull (vrisha). one quarter on all the judges. then let him appoint a learned Brahmana to try them. for everything else is lost at the same time when the body (perishes). either sitting down or standing. 9. or truth by falsehood. The only friend who follows men even after death is justice. the guilt falls on the perpetrator (of the crime alone). 20. with a collected mind. these are in this world the eighteen topics which give rise to lawsuits. 24. interpret the law to him.

of those who have no sons. by their voice. (and) ought (to receive) that property. within the period of three years the owner may claim it. 29. of wives and widows faithful to their lords. or one−tenth. The Laws of Manu 88 . 31. and the number (of the articles found) and so forth. and their gestures. if he accurately describes the shape. until he has returned (from his teacher's house) or until he has passed his minority. shape. 35. A righteous king must punish like thieves those relatives who appropriate the property of such females during their lifetime. 27. But if he does not really know the time and the place (where it was) lost. he shall cause to be slain by an elephant. or. 30. the owner of which has disappeared.The Laws of Manu 25. the motions. He who says. of guilds. their motions. The internal (working of the) mind is perceived through the aspect. their eyes. But he who falsely says (so). When the king finds treasure of old concealed in the ground let him give one half to Brahmanas and place the (other) half in his treasury. Now the king. 28. 34. those whom the king may convict of stealing it. their colour. he is worthy of a fine equal (in value) to the (object claimed). of districts. From that man who shall truly say with respect to treasure−trove. 38. When a learned Brahmana has found treasure. a king who uses such (property) for himself incurs the guilt of a thief. 32. and of families. 33.' must be examined according to the rule. the speech. 36. Property lost and afterwards found (by the king's servants) shall remain in the keeping of (special) officials. and the changes in the eye and of the face. its colour. By external signs let him discover the internal disposition of men. shall be fined in one−eighth of his property. In like manner care must be taken of barren women. the king shall cause to be kept as a deposit during three years. the gestures. The king shall protect the inherited (and other) property of a minor.' the king may take one−sixth or one−twelfth part. 40. their aspect. 39. The king obtains one half of ancient hoards and metals (found) in the ground. deposited in former (times). and size. 'This belongs to me. of those whose family is extinct. for he is master of everything. by reason of (his giving) protection. and of women afflicted with diseases. the gait. or at least one−twelfth. (and) because he is the lord of the soil. 37. may take one−sixth part of property lost and afterwards found. and (thus) settle the peculiar law of each. in some smaller portion (of that). a calculation of (the value of) the treasure having been made. must inquire into the laws of castes (gati). after (that term) the king may take it. he may take even the whole (of it). (he is) the owner. Property. Property stolen by thieves must be restored by the king to (men of) all castes (varna). 41. remembering the duty of good men. (A king) who knows the sacred law. 26. 'This belongs to me.

he shall order to pay that debt to the creditor and a small fine according to his circumstances. 44. become dear to people. and to the aspect. When a creditor sues (before the king) for the recovery of money from a debtor. or hush up one that has been brought (before them) by (some) other (man). By moral suasion. 43. to the place. does not answer. fails in his suit. 50. or who does not know what is the first (point). For men who follow their particular occupations and abide by their particular duty. he may be punished corporally or fined according to the law. (The plaintiff) who calls a witness not present at the transaction. even so the king shall discover on which side the right lies. and castes (gati). being ordered to speak. must not be blamed by the king for retaking what is his own. But him who denies a debt which is proved by good evidence. The Laws of Manu 89 . Him also who says 'I have witnesses. or by the customary proceeding. 48. even by those means may he force the debtor and make him pay. the complainant must call (a witness) who was present (when the loan was made). 53. When engaged in judicial proceedings he must pay full attention to the truth. or who being questioned on a fact duly stated by himself does not abide by it. 45. who retracts his statements. he has lost his cause. 58. 56. On the denial (of a debt) by a debtor who has been required in court to pay it. to the time. 54. by force. Or who having stated what he means to prove afterwards varies (his case). and fifthly. and what the second. though they may live at a distance. 55. or does not perceive that his statements (are) confused or contradictory. by inferences (from the facts). 51. the judge must on these (same) grounds declare to be non−suited. 49. (and) to himself. or does not prove what he has alleged. or adduce other evidence.The Laws of Manu 42. if it be not opposed to the (customs of) countries. produces them not. families. if (a defendant) does not plead within three fortnights. by suit of law. Neither the king nor any servant of his shall themselves cause a lawsuit to be begun. let him make the debtor pay the sum which the creditor proves (to be due). to the object (of the dispute). What may have been practised by the virtuous. a creditor may recover property lent. 52. A creditor who himself recovers his property from his debtor. being ordered to produce them.' and. If a plaintiff does not speak. or who declines to answer a question. properly put. that he shall establish as law. next to the witnesses. Or who converses with the witnesses in a place improper for such conversation. 47. As a hunter traces the lair of a (wounded) deer by the drops of blood. 57. or leaves (the court). Or who. 46. by artful management. by such twice−born men as are devoted to the law. By whatever means a creditor may be able to obtain possession of his property.

nor (men) formerly convicted (of perjury). nor one of bad fame. of defamation and assault. be they) Kshatriyas. But the (judge) should consider the evidence of infants. nor a Dasyu. nor (an ascetic) who has given up (all) connexion (with the world). Women should give evidence for women. Nor one extremely grieved. nor a madman. nor an infant. aged and diseased men. (men) who know (their) whole duty. on a difference between (equally) distinguished (witnesses. nor one oppressed by fatigue. shall be convicted (of his falsehood) by at least three witnesses (who must depose) in the presence of the Brahmana (appointed by) the king. 70. to give evidence. 68. or in a forest. nor one (man alone). and enemies (of the parties). or Sudras. 61. 73. In the double of that sum which (a defendant) falsely denies or on which (the plaintiff) falsely declares. if (the conflicting parties are) equal in number. and indigenous (inhabitants of the country.The Laws of Manu 59. and are free from covetousness. 72. or by a hired servant. men with male issue. Trustworthy men of all the (four) castes (varna) may be made witnesses in lawsuits. as untrustworthy. 69. shall those two (men) offending against justice be fined by the king. nor familiar (friends). nor (those) tainted (by mortal sin). nor an aged (man). 65. by an infant. who has personal knowledge (of an act committed) in the interior apartments (of a house). I will fully declare what kind of men may be made witnesses in suits by creditors. who (are apt to) speak untruly. may give evidence between the parties. and men of the lowest castes for the lowest. by a relative. Householders. 67. Nor one wholly dependent. he must not examine the (competence of) witnesses (too strictly). are competent. nor a man of the lowest castes. nor one tormented by hunger or thirst. 63. (A defendant) who. In all cases of violence. or of (a crime causing) loss of life. (that of) those distinguished by good qualities. and for twice−born men twice−born men (of the) same (kind). The Laws of Manu 90 . when called by a suitor. nor a: Srotriya. 60. 64. companions. nor a student of the Veda. not any persons whatever (their condition may be) except in cases of urgency. Vaisyas. evidence) may given (in such cases) by a woman. But any person whatsoever. nor (persons) suffering under (severe) illness. likewise that of men with disordered minds. On a conflict of the witnesses the king shall accept (as true) the evidence of the) majority. virtuous Sudras for Sudras. nor one intoxicated. and in what manner those (witnesses) must give true (evidence). but let him reject those (of an) opposite (character). On failure (of qualified witnesses. of theft and adultery. by a slave. Those must not be made (witnesses) who have an interest in the suit. 62. nor a thief. nor one who follows forbidden occupations. The king cannot be made a witness. denies (the debt). being brought (into court) by the creditor. 71. nor mechanics and actors. 66. by a pupil. nor a wrathful man. (and) being questioned. that of) the best among the twice−born. nor one deficient in organs of sense. nor one tormented by desire. by an aged man.

which they make improperly. therefore. a witness who speaks truth in those (cases). such testimony is revered by Brahman (himself). and justice know the conduct of all corporeal beings.' 87. 78. the fire. neither loses spiritual merit nor wealth. being purified. (the male in) the heart. 82. for ye are witnesses in this (cause). through truthfulness his merit grows. "Nobody sees us.The Laws of Manu 74. The Laws of Manu 91 . that must be received on trials. and to an ungrateful man. to him who betrays a friend. declare all that in accordance with the truth. 86. 75. Evidence in accordance with what has actually been seen or heard. One man who is free from covetousness may be (accepted as) witness. 'Whatever places (of torment) are assigned (by the sages) to the slayer of a Brahmana. is admissible. 79. let the judge examine them. who are tainted with sin. 89. are worthless for (the purposes of) justice." but the gods distinctly see them and the male within their own breasts. if thou speakest falsely. (depositions) differing from that. Let him examine a Brahmana (beginning with) 'Speak. but not even many pure women. grain. helpless during one hundred existences. a Sudra (threatening him) with (the guilt of) every crime that causes loss of caste. the supreme witness of men. shall ask in the forenoon the twice−born (witnesses) who (also have been) purified. those shall be thy (portion). When a man (originally) not appointed to be a witness sees or hears anything and is (afterwards) examined regarding it. the moon. 'By truthfulness a witness is purified. 81. (and stand) facing the north or the east. 84. despise not thy own Soul. Yama and the wind. 'He who gives false evidence is firmly bound by Varuna's fetters. 'The sky.' a Kshatriya (beginning with) 'Speak the truth. (Saying). 'The Soul itself is the witness of the Soul. to the murderer of women and children. indeed. be spoken by witnesses of all castes (varna). the night. because the understanding of females is apt to waver. falls after death headlong into hell and loses heaven. What witnesses declare quite naturally. 88. the earth. kindly exhorting them in the following manner: 80. and gold. 'The wicked. The (judge). the sun. and the Soul is the refuge of the Soul. say in their hearts. 85. he must declare it (exactly) as he saw or heard it. let (men therefore) give true evidence. 'A witness who speaks the truth in his evidence. 'What ye know to have been mutually transacted in this matter between the two men before us. 83.' a Vaisya (admonishing him) by (mentioning) his kine. 77. The witnesses being assembled in the court in the presence of the plaintiff and of the defendant. the two twilights. nor even many other men. to give true evidence in the presence of (images of) the gods and of Brahmanas. 76. A witness who deposes in an assembly of honourable men (Arya) anything else but what he has seen or heard. gains (after death) the most excellent regions (of bliss) and here (below) unsurpassable fame. the waters. truth must.

he kills a hundred by false evidence concerning horses. by false evidence concerning land. O friend of virtue. 'Untie. 97. such (evidence) they call the speech of the gods. the uppermost fetter. "I am alone. '(The reward) of all meritorious deeds which thou. of false evidence concerning land. 'Headlong. The Laws of Manu 92 . resembles a blind man who swallows fish with the bones. 101. when he gives evidence. Such (witnesses) must offer to Sarasvati oblations of boiled rice (karu) which are sacred to the goddess of speech. sacred to Varuna. for such (falsehood) is preferable to the truth. Or such (a witness) may offer according to the rule. 'He kills five by false Testimony regarding (small) cattle. 93. menial servants or usurers. he kills the born and the unborn. he kills ten by false testimony regarding kine. in utter darkness shall the sinful man tumble into hell. 'The gods are acquainted with no better man in this world than him. 'Naked and shorn. from an enumeration in due order. 'If thou thinkest. clarified butter in the fire. good man. tormented with hunger and thirst. or consisting of stones (to be) equally (wicked) as a lie concerning land. the (judge) shall treat like Sudras. if in thy speech thou departest from the truth. 98. ever resides in thy heart. the son of Vivasvat.The Laws of Manu 90. actors (or singers). 104. 92. a falsehood may be spoken. 95. 105. of a Vaisya." (know that) that sage who witnesses all virtuous acts and all crimes. of a Kshatriya. go with a potsherd to beg food at the door of his enemy. 99. 94. produced in water. 'By speaking falsely in a cause regarding gold. hast done since thy birth. and deprived of sight. he kills everything. beware. concerning the carnal enjoyment of women. of whom his conscious Soul has no distrust. who being interrogated in a judicial inquiry answers one question falsely. declare thou openly everything as (thou hast) heard or seen (it). thou needest neither visit the Ganges nor the (land of the) Kurus. or the Rik. Whenever the death of a Sudra. with respect to thyself. and a thousand by false evidence concerning men. shall the man who gives false evidence. 100. 91. 103. 96. therefore. though knowing (the facts to be) different. who are mechanics. 'Learn now.' or the three verses addressed to the Waters.' 102. or of a Brahmana would be (caused) by a declaration of the truth. 'If thou art not at variance with that divine Yama. 106. 'That man who in a court (of justice) gives an untrue account of a transaction (or asserts a fact) of which he was not an eye−witness. O friend. how many relatives he destroys who gives false evidence in several particular cases. Brahmanas who tend cattle. gives such (false evidence) from a pious motive. who dwells in thy heart. who trade. does not lose heaven. and concerning all gems. O Varuna. (thus) performing the best penance in order to expiate the guilt of that falsehood. reciting the Kushmanda texts. 'They declare (false evidence) concerning water. In (some) cases a man who. 'Marking well all the evils (which are produced) by perjury. shall become the share of the dogs.

If two (parties) dispute about matters for which no witnesses are available. 111. I will propound in (due) order the particular punishments for him who gives false evidence from any one of these motives. and in (order to show) favour to a Brahmana. a Vaisya by his kine. one hundred (panas). friendship. but (he who does it) through childishness. and Vasishtha even swore an oath before king (Sudas). 109. Let no wise man swear an oath falsely. in the lowest amercement. (shall pay) ten times the lowest amercement. must be held innocent on (the strength of) his oath. at marriages. 119. 113. is committed by swearing (falsely) to women. 116. and the (judge) is unable to really ascertain the truth. (he who does it) through distraction. a fire. For formerly when Vatsa was accused by his younger brother. 120. three times the next (or second amercement). does not give evidence in (cases of) loans and the like within three fortnights (after the summons). without being ill. terror. or severally to touch the heads of his wives and children. (he who does it) through ignorance. He whom the blazing fire burns not. for the sake of fodder for a cow. but (he who does it) through wrath. lust. whom the water forces not to come (quickly) up. Or the (judge) may cause the (party) to carry fire or to dive under water. A man who. and a Sudra by (imprecating on his own head the guilt) of all grievous offences (pataka). within seven days after he has given evidence. and in order to restrain injustice. grain. four times the amount of the lowest (amercement). 122. or of fuel. who meets with no speedy misfortune. and gold. 110. shall be made to pay the debt and a fine. 117. the spy of the world. burned not even a hair (of his) by reason of his veracity. and childishness is declared (to be) invalid. 112. distraction. 115. or the death of a relative. even in a trifling matter. Let the (judge) cause a Brahmana to swear by his veracity. for he who swears an oath falsely is lost in this (world) and after death. the fire. Evidence (given) from covetousness. (He who commits perjury) through covetousness shall be fined one thousand (panas). in order to prevent a failure of justice. happens (a misfortune through) sickness. causing loss of caste. a Kshatriya by his chariot or the animal he rides on and by his weapons. shall become responsible for the whole debt and (pay) a tenth part of the whole (as a fine to the king).The Laws of Manu 107. (if a man does it) through fear. two full hundreds. the objects of one's desire. the son of Pigavana. and whatever has been done must be (considered as) undone. Both by the great sages and the gods oaths have been taken for the purpose of (deciding doubtful) matters. two middling amercements shall be paid as a fine. 108. The witness to whom. ignorance. he may cause it to be discovered even by an oath. 121. let the (judge) reverse the judgment. Whenever false evidence has been given in any suit. 114. wrath. They declare that the wise have prescribed these fines for perjury. The Laws of Manu 93 . (if he does it) through friendship. 118. (He who does it) through lust. No crime.

the son of the Self−existent (Svayambhu). (These are) the organ. and causes even in the next world the loss of heaven. and punishes not those who deserve it. 129. The very small mote which is seen when the sun shines through a lattice. or purana. and fame (after death). silver. but a Brahmana he shall (only) banish. and ten palas one dharana. four suvarnas must be considered (equal) in weight to a nishka. and fifthly the two feet. Unjust punishment destroys reputation among men. A king who punishes those who do not deserve it. and three of the latter to a white mustard−seed. having fully ascertained the motive. or pana. let him. 133. The Laws of Manu 94 . and having considered the ability (of the criminal to suffer) and the (nature of the) crime. 128. and gold. 130. Know (that) ten dharanas of silver make one satamana. has named ten places on which punishment may be (made to fall) in the cases of the three (lower) castes (varna). 135. three of those to one grain of black mustard (ragasarshapa). the time and place (of the offence). then let him apply to them even all the four (modes cojointly). therefore. 137. but a Brahmana shall depart unhurt (from the country).The Laws of Manu 123. Four suvarnas are one pala. Those technical names of (certain quantities of) copper. but know (that) a karsha of copper is a karshapana. the tongue. two krishnalas (of silver). 132. the eye. 134. A debt being admitted as due. weighed together. 131. afterwards by (harsh) reproof. I will fully declare. beware of (inflicting) it. 138. (the defendant) shall pay five in the hundred (as a fine). Know (that) eight trasarenus (are equal) in bulk (to) a liksha (the egg of a louse). But a just king shall fine and banish (men of) the three (lower) castes (varna) who have given false evidence. that is the teaching of Manu. 136. brings great infamy on himself and (after death) sinks into hell. but one thousand as the highest. after that by corporal chastisement. 127. the two ears. the belly. 139. But when he cannot restrain such (offenders) even by corporal punishment. 124. five (hundred) are considered as the mean (or middlemost). five krishnalas are one masha (bean). 126. the two hands. cause punishment to fall on those who deserve it. thirdly by a fine. likewise the (whole) body. Let him punish first by (gentle) admonition. and three barley−corns one krishnala (raktika. the nose. which are generally used on earth for the purpose of business transactions among men. Sixteen of those make a silver dharana. Let the (king). they declare (to be) the least of (all) quantities and (to be called) a trasarenu (a floating particle of dust). and sixteen of those one suvarna. Manu. Six grains of white mustard are one middle−sized barley−corn. 125. must be considered one mashaka of silver. or gunga−berry). if it be denied (and proved) twice as much. Two hundred and fifty panas are declared (to be) the first (or lowest) amercement.

144. A money−lender may stipulate as an increase of his capital. three. and five (and not more). Or. he may take two in the hundred (by the month). (and) beasts of burden it must not be more than five times (the original amount). He who.The Laws of Manu 140. they call that a usurious way (of lending). for he who takes two in the hundred becomes not a sinner for gain. 145. 147. one from which profit accrues. 142. are never lost (to the owner). for the interest. he may insert it in the renewed (agreement). an (open) deposit. may renew the agreement. (if it has been spoilt by use) he shall satisfy the (owner) by (paying its) original price. (the lender) is (in no case) entitled to (more than) five in the hundred. A pledge. In money transactions interest paid at one time (not by instalments) shall never exceed the double (of the principal). on grain. a boundary. shall give up his (whole) interest. A pledge (to be kept only) must not be used by force. the property of the king and the wealth of a Srotriya are not lost in consequence of (adverse) enjoyment. 143. 151. 146. after paying the interest which is due. a riding−horse. (But in general) whatever (chattel) an owner sees enjoyed by others during ten years. If he cannot pay the money (due as interest). and corporal interest. Stipulated interest beyond the legal rate.e. they are both recoverable. being against (the law). he must pay as much interest as may be due. 154. If (the owner is) neither an idiot nor a minor and if (his chattel) is enjoyed (by another) before his eyes. that (chattel) he shall not recover. 148. he may take as monthly interest according to the order of the castes (varna). after keeping (such) a pledge for a very long time. 155. the adverse possessor shall retain that property. allowed by Vasishtha. a sealed deposit. nor can he. women. stipulated interest. wishes to make a new contract. nor such as is unapproved. nor compound interest. so using it. he shall receive no interest on the loan. (the creditor). 149. else he commits a theft of the pledge. 150. Just two in the hundred. remembering the duty of good men. Let him not take interest beyond the year. But if a beneficial pledge (i. though they have remained long (with the bailee). Neither a pledge nor a deposit can be lost by lapse of time. while. Things used with friendly assent. a camel. 141. and take monthly the eightieth part of a hundred. the property of infants. cannot be recovered. four. The Laws of Manu 95 . The fool who uses a pledge without the permission of the owner. a cow. 153. unable to pay a debt (at the fixed time). or. though present. shall remit half of his interest. give or sell it. periodical interest. as a compensation for (such) use. and (a beast) made over for breaking in. 152. it is lost to him by law. wool or hair. has been given). fruit. he says nothing.

or by an unauthorised (party) is invalid. the power of the king grows. A contract made by a person intoxicated. and produces him not. decline taking that which he ought to take. No king. The Laws of Manu 96 . Whatever rate men fix. the son (of the party owing it) shall not be obliged to pay. shall not rescind it. 158. 167. 159. and a king. If the surety had received money (from him for whom he stood bail) and had money enough (to pay). 172. shall pay the debt out of his own property. A fraudulent mortgage or sale. and (any transaction) where he detects fraud. by preventing the confusion of the castes (varna). On what account then is it that after the death of a surety other than for payment. the master (of the house). If the debtor be dead and (the money borrowed) was expended for the family. Manu has declared void. witnesses. the (judge) may compel even his heirs to discharge the debt. 170. a king will be accused of weakness and perish in this (world) and after death. and he prospers in this (world) and after death. What is given by force. shall pay (the debt) out of his property. whose affairs are fully known. 165. Three suffer for the sake of others. shall take anything that ought not to be taken. that is the settled rule. But money due by a surety. that (has legal force) in such cases with respect to the payment (to be made). or what remains unpaid of a fine and a tax or duty. or of his refusing what ought to be received. though it be established (by proofs). who are expert in sea−voyages and able to calculate (the profit) according to the place. also what has been caused to be written by force. By taking his due. a merchant. This just mentioned rule shall apply to the case of a surety for appearance (only). shall not reap that reward. The man who becomes a surety in this (world) for the appearance of a (debtor). and all other transactions done by force. the (judge) shall declare null and void. what is enjoyed by force. however wealthy. a surety. That agreement which has been made contrary to the law or to the settled usage (of the virtuous). 164. a Brahmana. 168. 166. or grievously disordered (by disease and so forth). if he does not keep to the place and the time (stipulated). or due for spirituous liquor. a money−lender. 157. and the objects (carried). 169. and by protecting the weak. be it ever so small. nor shall he. the time. if a surety for payment should die. 161. and judges. or insane. by an infant or very aged man. can have no legal force. 160. then (the heir of him) who received it. In consequence of his taking what ought not to be taken. but four enrich themselves (through others). however indigent. whether (living) in his own country or abroad. the creditor may (in some cases) afterwards demand the debt (of the heirs)? 162. it must be paid by the relatives out of their own estate even if they are divided. 163. 171. or lost at play.The Laws of Manu 156. or wholly dependent. Should even a person wholly dependent make a contract for the behoof of the family. or idly promised. He who has made a contract to carry goods by a wheeled carriage for money and has agreed to a certain place or time. a fraudulent gift or acceptance.

The Laws of Manu 173. Let the prince, therefore, like Yama, not heeding his own likings and dislikings, behave exactly like Yama, suppressing his anger and controlling himself. 174. But that evil−minded king who in his folly decides causes unjustly, his enemies soon subjugate. 175. If, subduing love and hatred, he decides the causes according to the law, (the hearts of) his subjects turn towards him as the rivers (run) towards the ocean. 176. (The debtor) who complains to the king that his creditor recovers (the debt) independently (of the court), shall be compelled by the king to pay (as a fine) one quarter (of the sum) and to his (creditor) the money (due). 177. Even by (personal) labour shall the debtor make good (what he owes) to his creditor, if he be of the same caste or of a lower one; but a (debtor) of a higher caste shall pay it gradually (when he earns something). 178. According to these rules let the king equitably decide between men, who dispute with each other the matters, which are proved by witnesses and (other) evidence. 179. A sensible man should make a deposit (only) with a person of (good) family, of good conduct, well acquainted with the law, veracious, having many relatives, wealthy, and honourable (arya). 180. In whatever manner a person shall deposit anything in the hands of another, in the same manner ought the same thing to be received back (by the owner); as the delivery (was, so must be) the re−delivery. 181. He who restores not his deposit to the depositor at his request, may be tried by the judge in the depositor's absence. 182. On failure of witnesses let the (judge) actually deposit gold with that (defendant) under some pretext or other through spies of suitable age and appearance (and afterwards demand it back). 183. If the (defendant) restores it in the manner and shape in which it was bailed, there is nothing (of that description) in his hands, for which others accuse him. 184. But if he restores not that gold, as be ought, to those (spies), then he shall be compelled by force to restore both (deposits); that is a settled rule of law. 185. An open or a sealed deposit must never be returned to a near relative (of the depositor during the latter's lifetime); for if (the recipient) dies (without delivering them), they are lost, but if he does not die, they are not lost. 186. But (a depositary) who of his own accord returns them to a near relative of a deceased (depositor), must not be harassed (about them) by the king or by the depositor's relatives. 187. And (in doubtful cases) he should try to obtain that object by friendly means, without (having recourse to) artifice, or having inquired into (depositary's) conduct, he should settle (the matter) with gentle means. 188. Such is the rule for obtaining back all those open deposits; in the case of a sealed deposit (the depositary) shall incur no (censure), unless he has taken out something. 189. (A deposit) which has been stolen by thieves or washed away by water or burned by fire, (the bailee) shall not make it good, unless he took part of it (for himself).

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The Laws of Manu 190. Him who appropriates a deposit and him (who asks for it) without having made it, (the judge) shall try by all (sorts of) means, and by the oaths prescribed in the Veda. 191. He who does not return a deposit and he who demands what he never bailed shall both be punished like thieves, or be compelled to pay a fine equal (to the value of the object retained or claimed). 192. The king should compel him who does not restore an open deposit, and in like manner him who retains a sealed deposit, to pay a fine equal (to its value). 193. That man who by false pretences may possess himself of another's property, shall be publicly punished by various (modes of) corporal (or capital) chastisement, together with his accomplices. 194. If a deposit of a particular description or quantity is bailed by anybody in the presence of a number (of witnesses), it must be known to be of that particular (description and quantity; the depositary) who makes a false statement (regarding it) is liable to a fine. 195. But if anything is delivered or received privately, it must be privately returned; as the bailment (was, so should be) the re−delivery. 196. Thus let the king decide (causes) concerning a deposit and a friendly loan (for use) without showing (undue) rigour to the depositary. 197. If anybody sells the property of another man, without being the owner and without the assent of the owner, the (judge) shall not admit him who is a thief, though he may not consider himself as a thief, as a witness (in any case). 198. If the (offender) is a kinsman (of the owner), he shall be fined six hundred panas; if he is not a kinsman, nor has any excuse, he shall be guilty of theft. 199. A gift or sale, made by anybody else but the owner, must be considered as null and void, according to the rule in judicial proceedings. 200. Where possession is evident, but no title is perceived, there the title (shall be) a proof (of ownership), not possession; such is the settled rule. 201. He who obtains a chattel in the market before a number (of witnesses), acquires that chattel with a clear legal title by purchase. 202. If the original (seller) be not producible, (the buyer) being exculpated by a public sale, must be dismissed by the king without punishment, but (the former owner) who lost the chattel shall receive it (back from the buyer). 203. One commodity mixed with another must not be sold (as pure), nor a bad one (as good), nor less (than the proper quantity or weight), nor anything that is not at hand or that is concealed. 204. If, after one damsel has been shown, another be given to the bridegroom, he may marry them both for the same price; that Manu ordained. 205. He who gives (a damsel in marriage), having first openly declared her blemishes, whether she be insane, or afflicted with leprosy, or have lost her virginity, is not liable to punishment.

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The Laws of Manu 206. If an officiating priest, chosen to perform a sacrifice, abandons his work, a share only (of the fee) in proportion to the work (done) shall be given to him by those who work with him. 207. But he who abandons his work after the sacrificial fees have been given, shall obtain his full share and cause to be performed (what remains) by another (priest). 208. But if (specific) fees are ordained for the several parts of a rite, shall he (who performs the part) receive them, or shall they all share them? 209. The Adhvaryu priest shall take the chariot, and the Brahman at the kindling of the fires (Agnyadhana) a horse, the Hotri priest shall also take a horse, and the Udgatri the cart, (used) when (the Soma) is purchased. 210. The (four) chief priests among all (the sixteen), who are entitled to one half, shall receive a moiety (of the fee), the next (four) one half of that, the set entitled to a third share, one third, and those entitled to a fourth a quarter. 211. By the application of these principles the allotment of shares must be made among those men who here (below) perform their work conjointly. 212. Should money be given (or promised) for a pious purpose by one man to another who asks for it, the gift shall be void, if the (money is) afterwards not (used) in the manner (stated). 213. But if the (recipient) through pride or greed tries to enforce (the fulfilment of the promise), he shall be compelled by the king to pay one suvarna as an expiation for his theft. 214. Thus the lawful subtraction of a gift has been fully explained; I will next propound (the law for) the non−payment of wages. 215. A hired (servant or workman) who, without being ill, out of pride fails to perform his work according to the agreement, shall be fined eight krishnalas and no wages shall be paid to him. 216. But (if he is really) ill, (and) after recovery performs (his work) according to the original agreement, he shall receive his wages even after (the lapse of) a very long time. 217. But if he, whether sick or well, does not (perform or) cause to be performed (by others) his work according to his agreement, the wages for that work shall not be given to him, even (if it be only) slightly incomplete. 218. Thus the law for the non−payment of wages has been completely stated; I will next explain the law concerning men who break an agreement. 219. If a man belonging to a corporation inhabiting a village or a district, after swearing to an agreement, breaks it through avarice, (the king) shall banish him from his realm, 220. And having imprisoned such a breaker of an agreement, he shall compel him to pay six nishkas, (each of) four suvarnas, and one satamana of silver. 221. A righteous king shall apply this law of fines in villages and castes (gati) to those who break an agreement. 222. If anybody in this (world), after buying or selling anything, repent (of his bargain), he may return or take (back) that chattel within ten days.

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the king shall in that case not punish the herdsmen. if he cannot prove her blemish. 229. (provided they are) in his house. suddenly jumping on one of them. (and) nowhere among men to females who have lost their virginity. 228. 231.' shall be fined one hundred (panas). but the learned should know that they (and the marriage ceremony are complete with the seventh step (of the bride around the sacred fire). skin. (if it be) otherwise. if he did not duly exert himself (to prevent it). tails. destroyed by worms. and let him point out their particular. (the king) shall keep him on the road of rectitude in accordance with the rules given above. though he raised an alarm. out of malice. The herdsman alone shall make good (the loss of a beast) strayed. But the king himself shall impose a fine of ninety−six panas on him who gives a blemished damsel (to a suitor) without informing (him of the blemish). 235. 230. 224. On all sides of a village a space. let him carry to his master their ears. marks. tendons. such shall be his hire if no (other) wages (are paid). 232. 225. 236. 226. kept in (proper) order. But if goats or sheep are surrounded by wolves and the herdsman does not hasten (to their assistance). If cattle die. during the night on the owner. 238. kills it. except by consent) shall be fined by the king six hundred (panas). shall be reserved (for pasture). 227. the herdsman shall bear in that case no responsibility. killed by dogs or (by falling) into a pit. I will fully declare in accordance with the true law (the rules concerning) the disputes. But if they. (arising) from the transgressions of owners of cattle and of herdsmen. 233. The Laws of Manu 100 . and thrice (that space) round a town. says of a maiden. bladders. But for (an animal) stolen by thieves. and a wolf. During the day the responsibility for the safety (of the cattle rests) on the herdsman. lie shall be responsible for any (animal) which a wolf may attack and kill. provided he gives notice to his master at the proper place and time. both he who takes it (back) and he who gives it (back. If the cattle do damage to unfenced crops on that (common). may milk with the consent of the owner the best (cow) out of ten. for such (females) are excluded from religious ceremonies. graze together in the forest. If anybody in this (world) repent of any completed transaction. The nuptial texts are applied solely to virgins. A hired herdsman who is paid with milk. the herdsman shall not pay. 234. one hundred dhanus or three samya−throws (in breadth). 237. 'She is not a maiden. the herdsman will be responsible (for them also during the night). But that man who. The nuptial texts are a certain proof (that a maiden has been made a lawful) wife. But after (the lapse of) ten days he may neither give nor cause it to be given (back).The Laws of Manu 223. and the yellow concrete bile.

thickets of Kubgaka. those he should cause to be buried where one boundary joins (the other). 246. unattended by a herdsman. the fine shall amount to ten times as much as (the king's) share. thus the boundary will not be forgotten. Asvatthas.) Nyagrodhas. The Laws of Manu 101 . Stones. Salas. And whatever other things of a similar kind the earth does not corrode even after a long time. together with their names. (For damage) in other fields (each head of) cattle shall (pay a fine of one (pana) and a quarter. By clustering shrubs. the herdsman shall be fined one hundred (panas). and by constantly flowing streams of water the king shall ascertain the boundary (of the land) of two disputing parties. (the watchman in the field) shall drive away. cinders. 245. Let him mark the boundaries (by) trees. chaff. and sand. by bulls and by cattle sacred to the gods. (The owner of the field) shall make there a hedge over which a camel cannot look. As they. ashes. let him cause to be made other hidden marks for boundaries. wells. and fountains should be built where boundaries meet. 240. cisterns. pebbles. (but cattle). 252. bricks. potsherds. dry cowdung. If there be a doubt even on inspection of the marks. but the fine (shall be) only half that amount if (the fault lay) with the servants and the farmer had no knowledge of it. even so he shall record the boundary (in writing). To these rules a righteous king shall keep in (all cases of) transgressions by masters. By these signs. cotton−trees. Kimsukas. their cattle. reeds. bones. being questioned. when the landmarks are most distinctly visible. 241.The Laws of Manu 239. and in all (cases the value of) the crop (destroyed) shall be made good to the owner of the field. the settlement of a dispute regarding boundaries shall depend on witnesses. The witnesses. 251. 242. Palmyra palms. 250. (giving evidence) regarding a boundary. Samis. 244. (e. 249. And as he will see that through men's ignorance of the boundaries trespasses constantly occur in the world. 254. and herdsmen. whether they are attended by a herdsman or not. and stop every gap through which a dog or a boar can thrust his head. But Manu has declared that no fine shall be paid for (damage done by) a cow within ten days after her calving. If (the crops are destroyed by) the husbandman's (own) fault. bamboos of different kinds. creepers and raised mounds. that is the settled rule. by long continued possession. (If cattle do mischief) in an enclosed field near a highway or near a village. 247. 248. cow's hair. and trees with milky juice. unanimously decide. If a dispute has arisen between two villages concerning a boundary.g. 255. Tanks. as well as temples. shall be examined concerning the landmarks in the presence of the crowd of the villagers and also of the two litigants. the king shall settle the limits in the month of Gyaishtha. 243. 253.

root−diggers. On failure of neighbours (who are) original inhabitants (of the country and can be) witnesses with respect to the boundary. of gardens and houses depends upon (the evidence of) the neighbours. settle (the boundary) in accordance with the truth. snake−catchers.) hunters. the king shall cause hot oil to be poured into his mouth and into his ears. even so the king shall justly cause them to be fixed between the two villages. being examined. the king shall make each of them pay the middlemost amercement as a fine. declare the marks for the meeting of the boundaries (to be). himself assign (his) land (to each). and other foresters. 270. The Laws of Manu 102 . shall make (as witnesses) a decision concerning the boundary in the presence of the king. shall be fined five hundred (panas). 267. when men dispute about a boundary−mark. (the king) may hear the evidence even of the following inhabitants of the forest. they shall be compelled to pay a fine of two hundred (panas). the fine shall be) also twelve (panas). or a field. 271.The Laws of Manu 256. I will next propound the (manner of) deciding (cases of) defamation. On failure of witnesses (from the two villages. If the boundary cannot be ascertained (by any evidence). Let them. a garden. the fine (shall be) two hundred (panas). If he mentions the names and castes (gati) of the (twice−born) with contumely. herdsmen. 268. a Sudra shall suffer corporal punishment. fishermen. 265. but if they determine it unjustly. 269. 260. The decision concerning the boundary−marks of fields. having defamed a Brahmana. (Viz. tanks. 258. For offences of twice−born men against those of equal caste (varna. He who by intimidation possesses himself of a house. for he is of low origin. If he arrogantly teaches Brahmanas their duty. putting earth on their heads. shall be fined one hundred (panas). A Brahmana shall be fined fifty (panas) for defaming a Kshatriya. Should the neighbours give false evidence. for speeches which ought not to be uttered. a tank. 272. 261. let a righteous king with (the intention of) benefiting them (all). 264. wells. men of) the four neighbouring villages. 262. that (and every fine shall be) double. 257. fowlers. who are pure. they are guiltless (being) veracious witnesses. gleaners. 263. shall have his tongue cut out. wearing chaplets (of red flowers) and red dresses. in (the case of) a Sudra twelve. If they determine (the boundary) in the manner stated. being sworn each by (the rewards for) his meritorious deeds. Thus the law for deciding boundary (disputes) has been fully declared. A once−born man (a Sudra). ten fingers long. A Kshatriya. (if he trespassed) through ignorance. 259. 266. that is the settled rule. in (the case of) a Vaisya the fine shall be twenty−five (panas). As they. who insults a twice−born man with gross invective. an iron nail. shall be thrust red−hot into his mouth. a Vaisya one hundred and fifty or two hundred.

he who breaks a bone shall be banished. A low−caste man who tries to place himself on the same seat with a man of a high caste. he who in anger kicks with his foot. If out of arrogance he spits (on a superior). He who through arrogance makes false statements regarding the learning (of a caste−fellow). He who damages the goods of another.The Laws of Manu 273. shall be compelled to pay a fine of two hundred (panas). He who defames his mother. shall be fined at least one karshapana. or the whole (both the usual amercement and the expenses of the cure as a) fine (to the king). his caste (gati). that is the teaching of Manu. or his teacher. According to the usefulness of the several (kinds of) trees a fine must be inflicted for injuring them. the king shall cause both his lips to be cut off. or blood (flows. 280. shall be branded on his hip and be banished. shall have his foot cut off. In the case of (damage done to) leather. 282. With whatever limb a man of a low caste does hurt to (a man of the three) highest (castes). 277. the beard. The Laws of Manu 103 . the anus. shall have his hand cut off. 276. or to utensils of leather. 281. of wood. be it intentionally or unintentionally. roots. but the tongue (of the Sudra) shall not be cut out. his father. he who cuts a muscle six nishkas. his country. 278. 287. He who breaks the skin (of an equal) or fetches blood (from him) shall be fined one hundred (panas). Thus the rules for punishments (applicable to cases) of defamation have been truly declared. (For mutual abuse) by a Brahmana and a Kshatriya a fine must be imposed by a discerning (king). I will next propound the decision (of cases) of assault. 288. shall give satisfaction to the (owner) and pay to the king a fine equal to the (damage). or the rites by which his body was sanctified. likewise in the case of (damage to) flowers. even that limb shall be cut off. his wife. or the scrotum. if he urines (on him). 285. If a blow is struck against men or animals in order to (give them) pain. 283. or (the king) shall cause his buttock to be gashed. and he who gives not the way to his preceptor. and fruit. lame. a wound (is caused). let the (king) unhesitatingly cut off his hands. 284. 286. or the like (names). his brother. likewise (if he takes him) by the feet. 274. the fine (shall be) five times their value. He who raises his hand or a stick. shall be compelled to pay one hundred (panas). 289. the assailant) shall be made to pay (to the sufferer) the expenses of the cure. 279. the neck. that is the decision. but on the Kshatriya the middlemost. if he breaks wind (against him). the penis. that is the settled rule. He who even in accordance with the true facts (contemptuously) calls another man one−eyed. 275. If he lays hold of the hair (of a superior). his son. If a limb is injured. or of clay. A Vaisya and a Sudra must be punished exactly in the same manner according to their respective castes. on the Brahmana the lowest amercement. (the judge) shall inflict a fine in proportion to the amount of pain (caused).

300. But if he is stopped on his way by cattle or by (another) carriage. But if the cart turns off (the road) through the driver's want of skill. 296. But on the back part of the body (only). his fame grows and his kingdom prospers. 293. a slave. indeed. and when (the driver) has loudly called out. A king who protects the created beings in accordance with the sacred law and smites those worthy of corporal punishment. daily offers (as it were) sacrifices at which hundred thousands (are given as) fees. the rope around the neck or the bridle are broken. but the punishment for killing a dog or a pig shall be one masha. sheep. and goats the fine shall be five mashas. 301. by charitable gifts. by sacrificing. If the driver is skilful (but negligent). 'Make way. and a (younger) brother of the full blood. his guilt will be at once the same as (that of) a thief. 297. if the driver is unskilful. the occupants of the carriage (also) shall be each fined one hundred (panas). he who strikes them otherwise will incur the same guilt as a thief. When the nose−string is snapped. he alone shall be fined. a pupil. the owner shall be fined. The Laws of Manu 104 . the fine for beautiful wild quadrupeds and birds shall amount to fifty (panas). I will now explain the rules for the decision (in cases) of theft. two hundred (panas). elephants. the king obtains a sixth part of that in consequence of his duly protecting (his kingdom). never on a noble part. which he. A wife. is ever worthy of honour who ensures the safety (of his subjects). If a man is killed. for the sacrificial session (sattra. They declare with respect to a carriage. and he causes the death of any living being. Let the king exert himself to the utmost to punish thieves. That king. half of that. when the yoke is broken. A king who (duly) protects (his subjects) receives from each and all the sixth part of their spiritual merit. For injuring small cattle the fine (shall be) two hundred (panas). 291. 306. 292. Thus the whole law of assault (and hurt) has been declared completely. For donkeys. 305. a fine shall without doubt be imposed. when the axle or a wheel is broken. 303. 302. camels or horses. a son. if he punishes thieves. if he does not protect them. for. 299. who have committed faults. 295. if damage (is done). as it were. the sixth part of their demerit also (will fall on him). 294.' Manu has declared (that in all these cases) no punishment (shall be inflicted). its driver and its owner. When the leather−thongs. 304. Whatever (merit a man gains by) reading the Veda. when the carriage turns sideways or back.The Laws of Manu 290. in other cases a fine is prescribed. 298. (or by) worshipping (Gurus and gods). may be beaten with a rope or a split bamboo. (that there are) ten cases in which no punishment (for damage done) can be inflicted. performs thereby) ever grows in length. the safety (of his subjects representing) the sacrificial fee. for large animals such as cows.

if he punishes not. (yet) takes his share in kind. a (sinning) pupil or sacrificer on (their negligent) teacher (or priest). 318. 319. being abused by men in pain. (the offender) deserves corporal (or capital) punishment. 'Thus have I done. 322. but in other cases. shall pay one masha as a fine and restore the (article abstracted or damaged) in its (proper place). For (stealing) more than fifty (palas) it is enacted that the hands (of the offender) shall be cut off. tolls and duties. but he who. A king who does not afford protection. So shall corporal punishment be inflicted for stealing more than a hundred (palas) of articles sold by the weight. or an iron staff. 308. He who steals the rope or the water−pot from a well. takes upon himself all the foulness of his whole people. punish me. takes upon himself the guilt of the thief. (yet) receives the sixth part of the produce. the thief is freed from the (guilt of) theft. aged and sick men. 314. but the king. daily presents and fines. silver. 310.The Laws of Manu 307. Let him carefully restrain the wicked by three methods. will sink low (after death). and by various (kinds of) corporal punishments.e.' 315. who is an atheist. pardons (them). a thief on the king (who pardons him). A thief shall. They declare that a king who affords no protection.) of gold. 321. 320. will (after death) soon sink into hell. being pure like those who performed meritorious deeds. (i. Whether he be punished or pardoned. in other cases he shall be fined eleven times as much. (And he must) carry on his shoulder a pestle. confessing that theft (and saying). will for that (reason) sink into hell. But men who have committed crimes and have been punished by the king. who inveigh against him. and shall pay to the (owner the value of his) property. an adulterous wife on her (negligent) husband. and rapacious. 313. running. On him who steals more than ten kumbhas of grain corporal punishment (shall be inflicted). 323. who does not protect (his subjects. 311. will in reward of that (act) be exalted in heaven. or damages a hut where water is distributed. He who. or a club of Khadira wood. 312. or a spear sharp at both ends. A king who desires his own welfare must always forgive litigants. The Laws of Manu 105 . with flying hair. go to heaven.− by imprisonment by putting them in fetters. For stealing men of noble family and especially women and the most precious gems. kings are constantly sanctified. his taxes. just as twice−born men by sacrifices. infants. let him inflict a fine of eleven times the value. 316. 309. Know that a king who heeds not the rules (of the law). 317. approach the king. forgives them not. and of most excellent clothes. (proud) of his kingly state. For by punishing the wicked and by favouring the virtuous. The killer of a learned Brahmana throws his guilt on him who eats his food. and so forth. but) devours them.

The Laws of Manu 324. For stealing large animals, weapons, or medicines, let the king fix a punishment, after considering the time and the purpose (for which they were destined). 325. For (stealing) cows belonging to Brahmanas, piercing (the nostrils of) a barren cow, and for stealing (other) cattle (belonging to Brahmanas, the offender) shall forthwith lose half his feet. 326. (For stealing) thread, cotton, drugs causing fermentation, cowdung, molasses, sour milk, sweet milk, butter−milk, water, or grass, 327. Vessels made of bamboo or other cane, salt of various kinds, earthen (vessels), earth and ashes, 328. Fish, birds, oil, clarified butter, meat, honey, and other things that come from beasts, 329. Or other things of a similar kind, spirituous liquor, boiled rice, and every kind of cooked food, the fine (shall be) twice the value (of the stolen article). 330. For flowers, green corn, shrubs, creepers, trees, and other unhusked (grain) the fine (shall be) five krishnalas. 331. For husked grain, vegetables, roots, and fruit the fine (shall be) one hundred (panas) if there is no connexion (between the owner and the thief), fifty (panas) if such a connexion exists. 332. An offence (of this description), which is committed in the presence (of the owner) and with violence, will be robbery; if (it is committed) in his absence, it will be theft; likewise if (the possession of) anything is denied after it has been taken. 333. On that man who may steal (any of) the above−mentioned articles, when they are prepared for (use), let the king inflict the first (or lowest) amercement; likewise on him who may steal (a sacred) fire out of the room (in which it is kept). 334. With whatever limb a thief in any way commits (an offence) against men, even of that (the king) shall deprive him in order to prevent (a repetition of the crime). 335. Neither a father, nor a teacher, nor a friend, nor a mother, nor a wife, nor a son, nor a domestic priest must be left unpunished by a king, if they do not keep within their duty. 336. Where another common man would be fined one karshapana, the king shall be fined one thousand; that is the settled rule. 337. In (a case of) theft the guilt of a Sudra shall be eightfold, that of a Vaisya sixteenfold, that of a Kshatriya two−and−thirtyfold, 338. That of a Brahmana sixty−fourfold, or quite a hundredfold, or (even) twice four−and−sixtyfold; (each of them) knowing the nature of the offence. 339. (The taking of) roots and of fruit from trees, of wood for a (sacrificial) fire, and of grass for feeding cows, Manu has declared (to be) no theft. 340. A Brahmana, seeking to obtain property from a man who took what was not given to him, either by sacrificing for him or by teaching him, is even like a thief.

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The Laws of Manu 341. A twice−born man, who is travelling and whose provisions are exhausted, shall not be fined, if he takes two stalks of sugar−cane or two (esculent) roots from the field of another man. 342. He who ties up unbound or sets free tied up (cattle of other men), he who takes a slave, a horse, or a carriage will have incurred the guilt of a thief. 343. A king who punishes thieves according to these rules, will gain fame in this world and after death unsurpassable bliss. 344. A king who desires to gain the throne of Indra and imperishable eternal fame, shall not, even for a moment, neglect (to punish) the man who commits violence. 345. He who commits violence must be considered as the worst offender, (more wicked) than a defamer, than a thief, and than he who injures (another) with a staff. 346. But that king who pardons the perpetrator of violence quickly perishes and incurs hatred. 347. Neither for friendship's sake, nor for the sake of great lucre, must a king let go perpetrators of violence, who cause terror to all creatures. 348. Twice−born men may take up arms when (they are) hindered (in the fulfilment of their duties, when destruction (threatens) the twice−born castes (varna) in (evil) times, 349. In their own defence, in a strife for the fees of officiating priests, and in order to protect women and Brahmanas; he who (under such circumstances) kills in the cause of right, commits no sin. 350. One may slay without hesitation an assassin who approaches (with murderous intent), whether (he be one's) teacher, a child or an aged man, or a Brahmana deeply versed in the Vedas. 351. By killing an assassin the slayer incurs no guilt, whether (he does it) publicly or secretly; in that case fury recoils upon fury. 352. Men who commit adultery with the wives of others, the king shall cause to be marked by punishments which cause terror, and afterwards banish. 353. For by (adultery) is caused a mixture of the castes (varna) among men; thence (follows) sin, which cuts up even the roots and causes the destruction of everything. 354. A man formerly accused of (such) offences, who secretly converses with another man's wife, shall pay the first (or lowest) amercement. 355. But a man, not before accused, who (thus) speaks with (a woman) for some (reasonable) cause, shall not incur any guilt, since in him there is no transgression. 356. He who addresses the wife of another man at a Tirtha, outside the village, in a forest, or at the confluence of rivers, suffer (the punishment for) adulterous acts (samgrahana). 357. Offering presents (to a woman), romping (with her), touching her ornaments and dress, sitting with her on a bed, all (these acts) are considered adulterous acts (samgrahana).

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The Laws of Manu 358. If one touches a woman in a place (which ought) not (to be touched) or allows (oneself to be touched in such a spot), all (such acts done) with mutual consent are declared (to be) adulterous (samgrahana). 359. A man who is not a Brahmana ought to suffer death for adultery (samgrahana); for the wives of all the four castes even must always be carefully guarded. 360. Mendicants, bards, men who have performed the initiatory ceremony of a Vedic sacrifice, and artisans are not prohibited from speaking to married women. 361. Let no man converse with the wives of others after he has been forbidden (to do so); but he who converses (with them), in spite of a prohibition, shall be fined one suvarna. 362. This rule does not apply to the wives of actors and singers, nor (of) those who live on (the intrigues of) their own (wives); for such men send their wives (to others) or, concealing themselves, allow them to hold criminal intercourse. 363. Yet he who secretly converses with such women, or with female slaves kept by one (master), and with female ascetics, shall be compelled to pay a small fine. 364. He who violates an unwilling maiden shall instantly suffer corporal punishment; but a man who enjoys a willing maiden shall not suffer corporal punishment, if (his caste be) the same (as hers). 365. From a maiden who makes advances to a (man of) high (caste), he shall not take any fine; but her, who courts a (man of) low (caste), let him force to live confined in her house. 366. A (man of) low (caste) who makes love to a maiden (of) the highest (caste) shall suffer corporal punishment; he who addresses a maiden (on) equal (caste) shall pay the nuptial fee, if her father desires it. 367. But if any man through insolence forcibly contaminates a maiden, two of his fingers shall be instantly cut off, and he shall pay a fine of six hundred (panas). 368. A man (of) equal (caste) who defiles a willing maiden shall not suffer the amputation of his fingers, but shall pay a fine of two hundred (panas) in order to deter him from a repetition (of the offence). 369. A damsel who pollutes (another) damsel must be fined two hundred (panas), pay the double of her (nuptial) fee, and receive ten (lashes with a) rod. 370. But a woman who pollutes a damsel shall instantly have (her head) shaved or two fingers cut off, and be made to ride (through the town) on a donkey. 371. If a wife, proud of the greatness of her relatives or (her own) excellence, violates the duty which she owes to her lord, the king shall cause her to be devoured by dogs in a place frequented by many. 372. Let him cause the male offender to be burnt on a red−hot iron bed; they shall put logs under it, (until) the sinner is burned (to death). 373. On a man (once) convicted, who is (again) accused within a year, a double fine (must be inflicted); even thus (must the fine be doubled) for (repeated) intercourse with a Vratya and a Kandali. 374. A Sudra who has intercourse with a woman of a twice−born caste (varna), guarded or unguarded, (shall be punished in the following manner): if she was unguarded, he loses the part (offending) and all his property; if she The Laws of Manu 108

no adulterer. Let him never slay a Brahmana. but (for the same offence) a Kshatriya shall be shaved with the urine (of a donkey) or (pay) the same fine. or a Sudra female. That king in whose town lives no thief. 378. no man guilty of violence. A sacrificer who forsakes an officiating priest. nor a father. 375. but (men of) other castes shall suffer capital punishment. (For intercourse with a guarded Brahmana a Vaisya shall forfeit all his property after imprisonment for a year. they both deserve the same punishment as in the case of an unguarded Brahmana female. The suppression of those five in his dominions secures to a king paramount sovereignty among his peers and fame in the world. everything (even his life). Neither a mother. 383. No greater crime is known on earth than slaying a Brahmana. shall be fined five hundred (panas). he who casts them off. and an officiating priest who forsakes a sacrificer. shall be fined six hundred (panas). But even these two. 380. nor a wife. or a Kshatriya a (guarded) Vaisya woman. 385. a king who desires his own welfare should not (hastily) decide (what is) the law. though he have committed all (possible) crimes. 389. if they offend with a Brahmani (not only) guarded (but the wife of an eminent man). 387. 377. A Brahmana who carnally knows a guarded Brahmani against her will. no defamer. but (for intercourse with) a female (of the) lowest (castes). attains the world of Sakra (Indra). If a Vaisya approaches a guarded female of the Kshatriya caste. a Kshatriya shall be fined one thousand (panas) and be shaved with the urine (of an ass). but he shall be made to pay five hundred. shall be punished like a Sudra or be burnt in a fire of dry grass. must each be fined one hundred (panas). let him banish such an (offender). nor a son shall be cast off. For (intercourse with) an unguarded Kshatriya a fine of five hundred (panas shall fall) on a Vaisya. let him fine the Vaisya five hundred (panas) and the Kshatriya one thousand. A Brahmana who approaches unguarded females (of the) Kshatriya or Vaisya (castes). if he had connexion with a willing one. therefore. leaving all his property (to him) and (his body) unhurt. shall be fined one thousand (panas). 386. If twice−born men dispute among each other concerning the duty of the orders. a king. 381. (each being) able to perform his work and not contaminated (by grievous crimes). 382. The Laws of Manu 109 . unless guilty of a crime causing loss of caste. 390. 384. 376. If a Vaisya or a Kshatriya has connexion with an unguarded Brahmana. one thousand. for (offending with) a (guarded) Sudra female a fine of one thousand (panas shall be inflicted) on a Kshatriya or a Vaisya. 379. A Brahmana shall be compelled to pay a fine of one thousand (panas) if he has intercourse with guarded (females of) those two (castes). and no committer of assaults. must not even conceive in his mind the thought of killing a Brahmana. Tonsure (of the head) is ordained for a Brahmana (instead of) capital punishment. 388.The Laws of Manu was guarded.

shall be made to pay him twice (the value of) the meal and a masha of gold (as a fine to the king). Let the king always treat kindly a Srotriya. (though) both (he) worthy (of the honour). an animal and a woman one quarter of a (pana). nor allow anybody (but the owner) to wear them. The Laws of Manu 110 . is liable to a fine of one masha. a sick or distressed man. the (probable) profit and the (probable) outlay. an unloaded man one−half of a quarter. a hermit in the forest. 405. Let the king take one−twentieth of that (amount) which men. A blind man. For a long passage the boat−hire must be proportioned to the places and times. A weaver (who has received) ten palas (of thread). and Brahmanas who are students of the Veda. with (the assistance of) Brahmanas. how long they have been kept. 394. whither they go. shall return (cloth weighing) one pala more. having (duly) considered whence they come. or he who makes a false statement in enumerating (his goods). shall not be compelled by any (king) to pay a tax. 396. at sea there is no settled (freight). and he who confers benefits on Srotriyas. a man's (load) half a pana. A washerman shall wash (the clothes of his employers) gently on a smooth board of Salmaliwood he shall not return the clothes (of one person) for those (of another). 392. 400. At a ferry an (empty) cart shall be made to pay one pana. 393. All weights and measures must be duly marked. But a woman who has been pregnant two months or more. an idiot. and once in six months let him re−examine them. Let (the king) fix (the rates for) the purchase and sale of all marketable goods. may fix as the value for each saleable commodity. a man full seventy years old. he who buys or sells at an improper time. Having shown them due honor. he who acts differently shall be compelled to pay a fine of twelve (panas). he should. an ascetic. a man of high birth.The Laws of Manu 391. shall not be made to pay toll at a ferry. 398. an infant and an aged or indigent man. 404. (a cripple) who moves with the help of a board. shall be fined eight times (the amount of duty) which he tried to evade. and an honourable man (Arya). 395. or at the close of each fortnight. 397. 402. Let the king confiscate the whole property of (a trader) who out of greed exports goods of which the king has a monopoly or (the export of which is) forbidden. 407. to a festival at which twenty Brahmanas are entertained. well acquainted with the settlement of tolls and duties (and) skilful in (estimating the value of) all kinds of merchandise. A Srotriya who does not entertain a virtuous Srotriya at auspicious festive rites. Carts (laden) with vessels full (of merchandise) shall be made to pay toll at a ferry according to the value (of the goods). 406. 399. A Brahmana who does not invite his next neighbour and his neighbour next but one. 401. empty vessels and men without luggage some trifle. 403. let the king publicly settle the prices for the (merchants). He who avoids a custom−house (or a toll). Once in five nights. first soothe them by gentle (speech) and afterwards teach them their duty. know that this (rule refers) to (passages along) the banks of rivers.

for he was created by the Self−existent (Svayambhu) to be the slave of a Brahmana. because he is powerful. though emancipated by his master. all the legal business enumerated above. for if these two (castes) swerved from their duties. 413. Whatever may be damaged in a boat by the fault of the boatmen. he may compel to do servile work. and carriages. (the collection of) his revenues and the disbursements. (The king) should carefully compel Vaisyas and Sudra to perform the work (prescribed) for them. out of greed makes initiated (men of the) twice−born (castes) against their will do the work of slaves. the wealth which they earn is (acquired) for him to whom they belong. who can set him free from it? 415. his mines and his treasury. a woman is never fit for independence. 418. 410. (The king) should order a Vaisya to trade. they would throw this (whole) world into confusion. (Some wealthy) Brahmana shall compassionately support both a Kshatriya and a Vaisya. that shall be made good by the boatmen collectively. But a Sudra. 416. is not released from servitude. and a Sudra to serve the twice−born castes 411. whether bought or unbought. (viz. Day and night woman must be kept in dependence by the males (of) their (families). and. 414. if they are distressed for a livelihood. 412. if they attach themselves to sensual enjoyments. shall be fined by the king six hundred (panas). CHAPTER IX. A king who thus brings to a conclusion. employing them on work (which is suitable for) their (castes). these three are declared to have no property. her husband protects (her) in youth. he who is bought and he who is given. to lend money. for. 417. and removes all sin.The Laws of Manu 408. or to tend cattle. But a Brahmana who.) he who is made a captive under a standard. 419. A Sudra. his beasts of burden. Her father protects (her) in childhood. I will now propound the eternal laws for a husband and his wife who keep to the path of duty. 1. they must be kept under one's control. 3. and a slave. no fine can be (inflicted on them). This decision in suits (brought) by passengers (holds good only) in case the boatmen are culpably negligent on the water. Let him daily look after the completion of his undertakings. as that (slave) can have no property. in the case of (an accident) caused by (the will of) the gods. A Brahmana may confidently seize the goods of (his) Sudra (slave). 420. to cultivate the land. and he who is enslaved by way of punishment. his master may take his possessions. There are slaves of seven kinds. reaches the highest state (of bliss). he who serves for his daily food. (each paying) his share. a son. he who is born in the house. whether they be united or separated. since that is innate in him. and her sons protect (her) in old age. he who is inherited from ancestors. The Laws of Manu 111 . 409. A wife. 2.

in (the fulfilment of) religious duties. (thinking). '(It is enough that) he is a man. He who carefully guards his wife. And to this effect many sacred texts are sung also in the Vedas. even so is the son whom she brings forth. 9. confined in the house under trustworthy and obedient servants. As the male is to whom a wife cleaves. rambling abroad.' they give themselves to the handsome and to the ugly. which the Lord of creatures laid in them at the creation. if they are not guarded. let him therefore carefully guard his wife. but those who of their own accord keep guard over themselves. 19. for that is the wifehood of a wife (gaya). through their mutable temper. 18. wrath. 12. 17. in order to (make) fully known the true disposition (of women). becomes an embryo and is born again of her. 8. dishonesty. and reprehensible is the son who does not protect his mother after her husband has died. that is a fixed rule. associating with wicked people. 6. 5. however trifling (they may appear). The Laws of Manu 112 . however carefully they may be guarded in this (world). (every) man should most strenuously exert himself to guard them. through their natural heartlessness. for. Women must particularly be guarded against evil inclinations. impure desires. Considering that the highest duty of all castes. himself. thus the law is settled. nor is their attention fixed on age. Women do not care for beauty. No man can completely guard women by force. Reprehensible is the father who gives not (his daughter in marriage) at the proper time. Drinking (spirituous liquor). reprehensible is the husband who approaches not (his wife in due season). 14. they will bring sorrow on two families. 7. are well guarded. they become disloyal towards their husbands. and in looking after the household utensils. and dwelling in other men's houses. (are as impure as) falsehood (itself). (of their) seat and (of) ornament. but they can be guarded by the employment of the (following) expedients: 11. separation from the husband. 15. are not (well) guarded. Knowing their disposition. that he is born (gayate) again by her. The husband. Let the (husband) employ his (wife) in the collection and expenditure of his wealth. malice. are the six causes of the ruin of women. (When creating them) Manu allotted to women (a love of their) bed. 16. his family. in the preparation of his food. virtuous conduct. and his (means of acquiring) merit. in keeping (everything) clean.The Laws of Manu 4. Women. 10. to be such. 13. hear (now those texts which refer to) the expiation of their (sins). women (who are) destitute of strength and destitute of (the knowledge of) Vedic texts. even weak husbands (must) strive to guard their wives. in order to keep his offspring pure. Through their passion for men. after conception by his wife. For women no (sacramental) rite (is performed) with sacred texts. preserves (the purity of) his offspring. sleeping (at unseasonable hours). and bad conduct.

who are worthy of worship and irradiate (their) dwellings. The production of children. (of these matters) woman is visibly the cause. and in some the womb of the female. 34. depend on one's wife alone. conceived illicit desires. 28. violates not her duty towards her lord. who reside) in the houses (of men). speech. Between wives (striyah) who (are destined) to bear children. By the sacred tradition the woman is declared to be the soil. highest conjugal happiness and heavenly bliss for the ancestors and oneself. but when both are equal. 21. In some cases the seed is more distinguished. like a river (united) with the ocean. and in this world is called by the virtuous a faithful (wife. going astray and unfaithful. others declare (that it is) the owner of the soil. Offspring. the offspring is most highly esteemed. the punishment of her sin. 24. She who. faithful service. 23. Thus has been declared the ever pure popular usage (which regulates the relations) between husband and wife. Whatever be the qualities of the man with whom a woman is united according to the law. the seed is declared to be more important. there is no difference whatsoever. the production of all corporeal beings (takes place) through the union of the soil with the seed. Akshamala. 35. may my father keep that seed from me. 31. 33. If a woman thinks in her heart of anything that would pain her husband. who secure many blessings. 22. 27. such qualities even she assumes. On comparing the seed and the receptacle (of the seed). 32. 'If my mother. became worthy of honour.' that is the scriptural text. the man is declared to be the seed. being united to Vasishtha and Sarangi. for the offspring of all created beings is marked by the characteristics of the seed.The Laws of Manu 20. the nurture of those born. and acts. and (in her next life) she is born in the womb of a jackal and tormented by diseases. sadhvi) 30. 25. (being united) to Mandapala. 29. the (above−mentioned text) is declared (to be a means for) completely removing such infidelity. salutary to all men. These and other females of low birth have attained eminence in this world by the respective good qualities of their husbands. hear (next) the laws concerning children which are the cause of happiness in this world and after death. Listen (now) to the following holy discussion. controlling her thoughts. The Laws of Manu 113 . But for disloyalty to her husband a wife is censured among men. which the virtuous (of the present day) and the ancient great sages have held concerning male offspring. and the daily life of men. (the due performance on religious rites. dwells with him (after death) in heaven. a woman of the lowest birth. 26. They (all) say that the male issue (of a woman) belongs to the lord. some call the begetter (of the child the lord). but with respect to the (meaning of the term) lord the revealed texts differ. and between the goddesses of fortune (sriyah.

40. (and) once does (a man) say. springs up in it. who knows the Veda and its Angas and desires long life. 43. Whatever (kind on seed is sown in a field. sung by Vayu (the Wind. 50. shot by (a hunter) who afterwards hits a wounded (deer) in the wound (made by another). barley. slave−girls. With respect to this (matter). do indeed not receive the grain of the crop which may spring up. 37. If no agreement with respect to the crop has been made between the owner of the field and the owner of the seed. they declare a field to belong to him who cleared away the timber.' 46. leeks. As with cows. (once is) a maiden given in marriage. (a plant) of that same kind. As the arrow. The rice (called) vrihi and (that called) sali. The Laws of Manu 114 . benefit the owner of the woman. even so the seed. in vain would the bull have spent his strength. If (one man's) bull were to beget a hundred calves on another man's cows. those acquainted with the past recite some stanzas. buffalo−cows. such we know the law to be. sown at the proper time in the land. which the Lord of creatures (Pragapati) made of old. is shot in vain. 47. thus (says the Veda). Never therefore must a prudent well−trained man. the receptacle is more important than the seed. himself. marked with the peculiar qualities of the seed. He only is a perfect man who consists (of three persons united). sesamum. (a plant of) that kind even comes forth. and (learned) Brahmanas propound this (maxim) likewise. sown on what belongs to another. prepared in due season. 39. mares. Neither by sale nor by repudiation is a wife released from her husband. she−goats. whatever seed is sown. 51. and a deer to him who (first) wounded it. and sugar−cane. but possessing seed−corn. (Sages) who know the past call this earth (prithivi) even the wife of Prithu. mudga−beans. 49. but sow their seed in the soil of others. 'The husband is declared to be one with the wife. is quickly lost (to the sower). and ewes. indeed. cohabit with another's wife.The Laws of Manu 36. 44. but the giver of the seed reaps no advantage. to show) that seed must not be sown by (any) man on that which belongs to another. In this world seeds of different kinds. female camels. Those who. is called the primeval womb of created beings. Thus men who have no marital property in women. 42. 45. (all) spring up according to their seed. it is not the begetter (or his owner) who obtains the offspring. having no property in a field. 38. even thus (it is) with the wives of others. That one (plant) should be sown and another be produced cannot happen. This earth.' I will give. 48. come forth (each) according to its kind. 41. they would belong to the owner of the cows.' each of those three (acts is done) once only. the benefit clearly belongs to the owner of the field. sow it in another's soil. Once is the partition (of the inheritance) made. even in one field. 52. his wife. and his offspring. but the seed develops not in its development any properties of the womb. masha−beans.

68. 61. the (plant sprung from that) seed belongs even to the owner of the field. (as men) who defile the bed of a daughter−in−law or of a Guru. but the wife of the younger is declared (to be) the daughter−in−law of the elder. his intellect being destroyed by lust. That chief of royal sages who formerly possessed the whole world. 64. If the (future) husband of a maiden dies after troth verbally plighted. they will both become outcasts. 55. 56. 65. If those two (being thus) appointed deviate from the rule and act from carnal desire. will violate the eternal law. then the owner of the seed and the owner of the soil are both considered in this world as sharers of the (crop). By twice−born men a widow must not be appointed to (cohabit with) any other (than her husband). 69. to (bear) children (to another man). If seed be carried by water or wind into somebody's field and germinates (there). 67. An elder (brother) who approaches the wife of the younger. her brother−in−law shall wed her according to the following rule. whose husband died. may obtain. and ewes. The wife of an elder brother is for his younger (brother) the wife of a Guru. In the sacred texts which refer to marriage the appointment (of widows) is nowhere mentioned. versed in the law. while Vena ruled. female camels. (and) beget one son. considering the purpose of the appointment not to have been attained by those two (on the birth of the first). and a younger (brother who approaches) the wife of the elder. But if by a special contract (a field) is made over (to another) for sowing. those two shall behave towards each other like a father and a daughter−in−law. both become outcasts. Know that such is the law concerning the offspring of cows. Since that (time) the virtuous censure that (man) who in his folly appoints a woman. I will next propound the law (applicable) to women in times of misfortune. This practice which is reprehended by the learned of the twice−born castes as fit for cattle is said (to have occurred) even among men. 59. 66. On failure of issue (by her husband) a woman who has been authorised. by no means a second. But when the purpose of the appointment to (cohabit with) the widow bas been attained in accordance with the law. 54. 57. mares. He (who is) appointed to (cohabit with) the widow shall (approach her) at night anointed with clarified butter and silent. slave−girls. she−goats. the desired offspring by (cohabitation with) a brother−in−law or (with some other) Sapinda (of the husband). The Laws of Manu 115 . as well as of females of birds and buffalo−cows. Some (sages). 63.The Laws of Manu 53. for they who appoint (her) to another (man). even though (they were duly) authorised. nor is the re−marriage of widows prescribed in the rules concerning marriage. the owner of the seed does not receive the crop. except in times of misfortune. 60. (in the) proper (manner prescribed). 62. think that a second (son) may be lawfully procreated on (such) women. 58. caused a confusion of the castes (varna). Thus the comparative importance of the seed and of the womb has been declared to you.

the seniority. not a wife of a different caste by any means. though having been forbidden. diseased. honour. diseased. 83. mischievous. in anger departs from (her husband's) house. 77. give her again to another. or wasteful. 76. (she) must wait for him eight years. if (he went) for pleasure three years. 81. but if he departed without providing (for her). But a sick wife who is kind (to her husband) and virtuous in her conduct. 72. Having. She who shows disrespect to (a husband) who is addicted to (some evil) passion. he may abandon (her if she be) blemished. If (the husband) went on a journey after providing (for her). and (if she have been) given with fraud. If twice−born men wed women of their own and of other (lower castes). shall be deserted for three months (and be) deprived of her ornaments and furniture.The Laws of Manu 70. or goes to public spectacles or assemblies. (the bridegroom) may annul that (contract) with the evil−minded giver. 85. shall personally attend her husband and assist him in his daily sacred rites. she whose children (all) die in the tenth. 79. 73. The Laws of Manu 116 . is a drunkard. or deflowered. a eunuch. for a wife. 86. espoused her (who must be) clad in white garments and be intent on purity. may be superseded (only) with her own consent and must never be disgraced. If anybody gives away a maiden possessing blemishes without declaring them. and habitation of those (wives) must be (settled) according to the order of the castes (varna). one destitute of manly strength. She who drinks spirituous liquor. she may subsist by blameless manual work. he shall approach her once in each proper season until issue (be had). 82. being superseded. but after (the lapse of) a year let him deprive her of her property and cease to cohabit with her. If the husband went abroad for some sacred duty. for he who gives (his daughter) whom he had before given. is of bad conduct. may be corrupted if she be distressed by want of subsistence. For one year let a husband bear with a wife who hates him. 74. 80. must either be instantly confined or cast off in the presence of the family. rebellious. drinks spirituous liquor even at festivals. A man who has business (abroad) may depart after securing a maintenance for his wife. even though virtuous. or diseased. A barren wife may be superseded in the eighth year. may at any time be superseded (by another wife). 78. Among all (twice−born men) the wife of equal caste alone. But she who shows aversion towards a mad or outcast (husband). she who bears only daughters in the eleventh. Let no prudent man. shall neither be cast off nor be deprived of her property. but she who is quarrelsome without delay. according to the rule. or one afflicted with such diseases as punish crimes. incurs (the guilt of) speaking falsely regarding a human being. after giving his daughter to one (man). 75. But she who. shall be fined six krishnalas. the wife shall subject herself to restraints in her daily life. 84. 71. A wife who. Though (a man) may have accepted a damsel in due form. if (he went) to (acquire) learning or fame six (years).

98. have we heard. the giver of the fee dies. But he who takes (to wife) a marriageable damsel. 96. Neither ancients nor moderns who were good men have done such (a deed) that. though she be marriageable. A man. for he who takes a fee sell his daughter. (he must marry) sooner. is declared by the ancients (to be) as (despicable) as a Kandala (sprung from the) Brahmana (caste). united in marriage. To be mothers were women created. Thus has been declared to you the law for a husband and his wife. while his wife of equal caste is alive. shall not pay any nuptial fee to her father.' this may be considered as the summary of the highest law for husband and wife. constantly exert themselves. called a nuptial fee. in case she consents. If. given by her father or her mother. aged thirty years. (But) the maiden. 99. Even a Sudra ought not to take a nuptial fee. 93. even in former creations. though marriageable. indeed. But he who foolishly causes that (duty) to be performed by another. than that he should ever give her to a man destitute of good qualities. he must always support her (while she is) faithful. she herself seeks a husband. The Laws of Manu 117 . when he gives away his daughter. and to be fathers men. if (the performance of) his duties would (otherwise) be impeded. learn (now the law concerning) the division of the inheritance. or a man of twenty−four a girl eight years of age. 100. 103. after promising (a daughter) to one man. religious rites. 88. Three years let a damsel wait. nor (does) he whom she weds. Let man and woman. and the manner of raising offspring in times of calamity. should rather stop in (the father's) house until death. 92. if she carries them away. 91. 89. 'Let mutual fidelity continue until death. which is intimately connected with conjugal happiness. being not given in marriage. 90. or her brothers. though she have not attained (the proper age). she shall be given in marriage to his brother. they have her to another. 102. The husband receives his wife from the gods. it will be theft. (he does not wed her) according to his own will.The Laws of Manu 87. Nor. To a distinguished. for the (latter) will lose his dominion over her in consequence of his preventing (the legitimate result of the appearance of) her enemies. doing what is agreeable to the gods. covering (the transaction by another name). shall not take with her any ornaments. she incurs no guilt. If. but after that time let her choose for herself a bridegroom (of) equal (caste and rank). 94. therefore. handsome suitor (of) equal (caste) should (a father) give his daughter in accordance with the prescribed rule. after the nuptial fee has been paid for a maiden. 101. 95. A maiden who choses for herself. that (they may not be) disunited (and) may not violate their mutual fidelity. shall marry a maiden of twelve who pleases him. 97. are ordained in the Veda to be performed (by the husband) together with the wife. of such (a thing as) the covert sale of a daughter for a fixed price.

118. 105. the division must then be made equally. but for the youngest one−fourth. 112. but if no deduction is made. Immediately on the birth of his first−born a man is (called) the father of a son and is freed from the debt to the manes. 120. The eldest (son) makes the family prosperous or. hence separation is meritorious. the allotment of the shares among them shall be (made) in the following manner. they have no power (over it) while the parents live. 117. on the contrary. If additional shares are thus deducted. thus the law is settled. After the death of the father and of the mother. 116. 115. (Or) the eldest alone may take the whole paternal estate. Let him never divide (the value of) a single goat or sheep. 111. Among the goods of every kind the eldest shall take the best (article). 109. each out of his share one−fourth part. the brothers. being assembled. But to the maiden (sisters) the brothers shall severally give (portions) out of their shares. If the eldest brother behaves as an eldest brother (ought to do). all the rest they consider the offspring of desire. 107. or apart. 108. and let them also in accordance with the law behave towards their eldest brother as sons (behave towards their father). it is prescribed (that) a single goat or sheep (remaining after an equal division. may divide among themselves in equal shares the paternal (and the maternal) estate. those who refuse to give (it). The Laws of Manu 118 . 110. for (by their living) separate (their) merit increases. he should yet be honoured like a kinsman. and (even a single chattel) which is particularly good. the (brother) born next after him one (share) and a half. but if he behaves in a manner unworthy of an eldest brother. 106. The additional share (deducted) for the eldest shall be one−twentieth (of the estate) and the best of all chattels. the eldest is not treated with disrespect by the virtuous. or a (single beast) with uncloven hoofs. for. (consisting of the best animal) among ten. brings it to ruin. the eldest (is considered) among men most worthy of honour. for the middlemost half of that. one must allot equal shares (out of the residue to each). the younger ones one share each. 119. this the law is settled. will become outcasts. That son alone on whom he throws his debt and through whom he obtains immortality. 114. is begotten for (the fulfilment of) the law. so let the eldest support his younger brothers. Both the eldest and the youngest shall take (their shares) according to (the rule just) stated (each of) those who are between the eldest and the youngest. Let the eldest son take one share in excess. But among (brothers) equally skilled in their occupations. 113. the others shall live under him just as (they lived) under their father. there is no additional share. if (each) desires (to gain) spiritual merit. Either let them thus live together. he (must be treated) like a mother and like a father. therefore. belongs) to the eldest alone. shall have the share (prescribed for the) middlemost. is worthy (to receive) the whole estate. As a father (supports) his sons. some trifle only shall be given to the eldest as a token of respect. If a younger brother begets a son on the wife of the elder. as well as the best of ten (animals). that (son).The Laws of Manu 104.

lord of created beings. the husband of the appointed daughter may.' 128. shall (also) take the estate of his (own) father. Between a son's son and the son of an (appointed) daughter there is no difference. that is the share of the unmarried daughter alone. how the division shall be made. while such (an appointed daughter who is even) oneself. (conceived at one time) in the wombs (of their mothers) the seniority is declared (to depend) on (actual) birth. twenty−seven to King Soma. seniority is declared (to be) according to birth. either not appointed or appointed. for there is no right of primogeniture for a woman. The representative (the son begotten on the wife) is not invested with the right of the principal (the eldest brother to an additional share). neither with respect to worldly matters nor to sacred duties. may bear to (a husband) of equal (caste). being) born of the eldest wife. And with respect to the Subrahmanya (texts) also it is recorded that the invocation (of Indra shall be made) by the first−born. he shall (then) present two funeral cakes to his own father and to his maternal grandfather. lives? 131. 126. Through that son whom (a daughter). take that estate. formerly made (all his female offspring) appointed daughters in order to multiply his race. He gave ten to Dharma. But whatever may be the separate property of the mother. thirteen to Kasyapa. 129. 134. (Then the son) born of the first wife shall take as his additional share one (most excellent) bull.The Laws of Manu 121. how can another (heir) take the estate. (such) a daughter is equal to a son. But if an appointed daughter by accident dies without (leaving) a son. 136. born of her. 'The (male) child. himself. But the eldest (son. indeed. If there be a doubt. the next best bulls (shall belong) to those (who are) inferior on account of their mothers. shall perform my funeral rites. 127. 125. According to this rule Daksha. a son be born (to her father). The son of an (appointed) daughter. honouring (them) with an affectionate heart. who leaves no (other) son. He who has no son may make his daughter in the following manner an appointed daughter (putrika. Between sons born of wives equal (in caste) (and) without (any other) distinction no seniority in right of the mother exists. hence one should give a share to the (son begotten on the wife of the elder brother) according to the rule (stated above). saying to her husband). 135. he shall present the funeral cake and take the estate. that is a settled rule. and the son of an (appointed) daughter shall take the whole estate of (his maternal grandfather) who leaves no son. 123. 130. without hesitation. after a daughter has been appointed. his maternal grandfather (has) a son's son. the principal (became) a father on the procreation (of a son by his younger brother). of twins likewise. shall receive fifteen cows and a bull. 122. The Laws of Manu 119 . 124. 132. in case the younger son is born of the elder wife and the elder son of the younger wife. the other sons may then take shares according to (the seniority of) their mothers. the division (of the inheritance) must in that (case) be equal. 133. for their father and mother both sprang from the body of the same (man). A son is even (as) oneself. But if.

are both unworthy of a share. The rules (given above) must be understood (to apply) to a distribution among sons of women of the same (caste). shall. for he was procreated by an outcast. and the son of the Sudra may take one share. Of the man who has an adopted (Datrima) son possessing all good qualities. that (son. the funeral cake follows the family (name) and the estate. 143. the funeral offerings of him who gives (his son in adoption) cease (as far as that son is concerned). 152. they declare (to be) incapable of inheriting and to be produced in vain. 139. but through his son's grandson he gains the world of the sun. through a son's son he obtains immortality. after raising up a son for his brother. the rule for the division (of the estate) among the sons born of them is as follows: 150. A son (legally) begotten on such an appointed female shall inherit like a legitimate son of the body. the son of the Kshatriya two. 144. bears to her brother−in−law. 138. (one being) the son of an adulterer and (the other) produced through (mere) lust. the funeral to his father's father. Let the son of an appointed daughter first present a funeral cake to his mother. is unworthy of the paternal estate. 142. Through a son he conquers the worlds. not begotten according to the rule (given above). An adopted son shall never take the family (name) and the estate of his natural father. not appointed (to have issue by another). and he whom (an appointed female. hear (now the law) concerning those begotten by one man on many wives of different (castes). the second to her father. 140. already) the mother of a son. for that seed and the produce belong. 141. if he is) begotten through desire. that same (son) shall take the inheritance. for even the son of a daughter saves him (who has no sons) in the next world. like the son's son. Let the son of the Brahmana (wife) take three shares of the (remainder of the) estate. and one most excellent share. Because a son delivers (trayate) his father from the hell called Put. give that property even to that (son). Between a son's son and the son of a daughter there exists in this world no difference. and justly distribute them according to the following rule: The Laws of Manu 120 .The Laws of Manu 137. The (slave) who tills (the field). he was therefore called put−tra (a deliverer from Put) by the Self−existent (Svayambhu) himself. the son of the Vaisya a share and a half. If there be four wives of a Brahmana in the direct order of the castes. and the house shall be given as an additional portion to the Brahmana (son). If a woman (duly) appointed bears a son to her brother−in−law or to another (Sapinda). 145. 148. 149. the ornaments. according to the law. 146. The son of a wife. 147. though brought from another family. to the owner of the soil. He who takes care of his deceased brother's estate and of his widow. the bull kept for impregnating cows. Or let him who knows the law make ten shares of the whole estate. the vehicle. Even the male (child) of a female (duly) appointed. 151.

the son of the Vaisya shall have two parts. is called a son begotten on a wife (Kshetraga). 169. a Kshatriya. The legitimate son and the son of the wife (thus) share the father's estate. 154. that shall be his property. the son begotten on a wife. the son of the Sudra may take one share. 160. (confirming the gift) with (a libation of) water.The Laws of Manu 153. and a Vaisya by a Sudra (wife) receives no share of the inheritance. The Brahmana (son) shall take four shares. to the exclusion of the other. the son self−given. 155. (but) kinsmen. in order to avoid harshness. 165. the son made. according to the law. son of the Kshatriya (wife) three. let him know to be a legitimate son of the body (Aurasa). he shall give one−sixth or one−fifth part of his father's property to the son begotten on the wife. Among the twelve sons of men whom Manu. He who was begotten according to the peculiar law (of the Niyoga) on the appointed wife of a dead man. whatever his father may give to him. 156. and the son cast off. (and) endowed with filial virtues. 164. six are kinsmen and heirs. each (of the two sons). the son received with the wife. the son bought. Whether (a Brahmana) have sons or have no sons (by wives of the twice−born castes). But he is considered a son made (Kritrima) whom (a man) makes his son. 167. but the other tell become members of the family. The legitimate son of the body. even that result obtains he who (tries to) pass the gloom (of the next world) with (the help of) bad (substitutes for a real) son. 157. All the sons of twice−born men. enumerates. Whatever result a man obtains who (tries to) cross a (sheet of) water in an unsafe boat. 162. shall equally divide the estate. even if there be a hundred sons. 159. (but) kinsmen. Him whom a man begets on his own wedded wife. sprung from the Self−existent (Svayambhu). shall take the estate of his (natural) father. after the others have given to the eldest an additional share. but. For a Sudra is ordained a wife of his own caste only (and) no other. the son begotten on a re−married woman. acquainted with (the distinctions between) right and wrong. born of wives of the same caste. the (heir) must. 168. The Laws of Manu 121 . and six not heirs. 158. of a eunuch. or of one diseased. the first in rank. 161. and the son of a Sudra female. give to the son of a Sudra (wife) no more than a tenth (part of his estate). But when the legitimate son of the body divides the paternal estate. let him allow a maintenance to the rest. 166. If the two heirs of one man be a legitimate son of his body and a son begotten on his wife. those born of her shall have equal shares. That (boy) equal (by caste) whom his mother or his father affectionately give. must be considered as an adopted son (Datrima). the son adopted. 163. The son of a Brahmana. in times of distress (to a man) as his son. the son secretly born. (he being) equal (by caste). and inherit according to their order (each later named on failure of those named earlier). (are) the six heirs and kinsmen. The legitimate son of the body alone (shall be) the owner of the paternal estate. (are) the six (who are) not heirs. The son of an unmarried damsel.

If she be (still) a virgin. whether equal or unequal (in good qualities). If among brothers. 171. he is a son born secretly in the house (Gudhotpanna). of her own accord contracts a second marriage and bears (a son). she is worthy to again perform with her second (or first deserted) husband the (nuptial) ceremony. being begotten by strangers. 179. thus the law is settled. is called a son cast off (Apaviddha). To three (ancestors) water must be offered. and declare) such offspring of an unmarried girl (to belong) to him who weds her (afterwards). On failure of each better (son). but the father shall take the inheritance of (a son) who leaves no male issue. who have been mentioned in connection with (the legitimate son of the body). the fourth (descendant is) the giver of these (oblations). 173. they shall all share the estate. gives himself to a (man). from his father and mother for the sake of having a son. (though) alive (parayan). Not brothers. having lost his parents or being abandoned (by them) without (just) cause. and his brothers. If a woman abandoned by her husband. belong (in reality) to him from whose seed they sprang. 174. 184. but if there be many (of) equal (rank). (taken) in order (to prevent) a failure of the (funeral) ceremonies. Manu has declared them all to have male offspring through that son. If a man buys a (boy). the son begotten on the wife and the rest as enumerated (above). or on the female slave of his slave. nor fathers. 186. Manu declares them all (to be) mothers of male children through that son. 183. may. a corpse (sava).The Laws of Manu 170. and hence called a Parasava (a living corpse). that (child) is called a (son) bought (Kritaka). one have a son. the wise call substitutes for a son. and is called (a son) received with the bride (Sahodha). or one who returned (to her first husband) after leaving him. sprung from one (father). If (a child) be born in a man's house and his father be not known. the child in her womb belongs to him who weds her. 178. 176. He who. or a widow. one shall name the son of an unmarried damsel (Kanina. 177. 180. The Laws of Manu 122 . Those sons. the fifth has no connection (with them). and shall belong to him of whose wife he was born. 185. he is called the son of a re−married woman (Paunarbhava). If one marries. take a share (of the inheritance). if permitted (by his father). but not to the other (man who took them). A son whom a damsel secretly bears in the house of her father. 181. If among all the wives of one husband one have a son. either knowingly or unknowingly. 175. a pregnant (bride). A son who is (begotten) by a Sudra on a female slave. 172. (but) sons take the paternal estate. He whom (a man) receives as his son. The son whom a Brahmana begets through lust on a Sudra female is. to three the funeral cake is given. 182. is called a son self−given (Svayamdatta). (after he has been) deserted by his parents or by either of them. each next inferior (one) is worthy of the inheritance. These eleven.

idiots and the dumb. 190. But it is just that (a man) who knows (the law) should give even to all of them food and raiment without stint. The Laws of Manu 123 . the Arsha. receive no share. that the daughter (of the) Brahmani (wife) shall take. begotten by two (different men). and what was received from her brother. his heirs shall not divide. (Such property). 195. those who divide them become outcasts. But on failure of all (heirs) Brahmanas (shall) share the estate. 199. nor from their own (husbands' particular) property without permission. the Gandharva. 188. It is ordained that the property (of a woman married) according to the Brahma. 198. mother. what (was given) on the bridal procession. 189. as well as those deficient in any organ (of action or sensation). afterwards a Sakulya shall be (the heir. 197. 193. as well as a gift subsequent and what was given (to her) by her affectionate husband. 194. if she dies without issue. but (the property of men) of other castes the king may take on failure of all (heirs). 196. to the exclusion of the other. contend for the property (in the hands) of their mother. out of the estate of their maternal grandmother. (even) if she dies in the lifetime of her husband. he who gives it not will become all outcast. (If the widow) of (a man) who died without leaving issue. what was given in token of love. according to his ability. the Daiva. What (was given) before the (nuptial) fire. Whatever property may have been given by her father to a wife (who has co−wives of different castes). shall go) to her mother and to her father. she shall deliver to that (son) the whole property which belonged to the (deceased). as is seemly. thus the law is not violated. But if two (sons). The ornaments which may have been worn by women during their husbands' lifetime. 202. Even to the daughters of those (daughters) something should be given. (persons) born blind or deaf. 191. or that (daughter's) issue. all the uterine brothers and the uterine sisters shall equally divide the mother's estate. what belonged to his father. if she dies without issue. The property of a Brahmana must never be taken by the king. But when the mother has died. 203. the offspring of such among them as have children is worthy of a share. 200. But it is prescribed that the property which may have been given to a (wife) on an Asura marriage or (one of the) other (blamable marriages. on the score of affection. Women should never make a hoard from (the property of) their families which is common to many. shall go to her offspring. that is called the sixfold property of a woman. Always to that (relative within three degrees) who is nearest to the (deceased) Sapinda the estate shall belong. then) the spiritual teacher or the pupil. 192. 201. pure and self−controlled.The Laws of Manu 187. that is a settled rule. each shall take. (who are) versed the in the three Vedas. or the Pragapatya rite (shall belong) to her husband alone. raises up to him a son by a member of the family (Sagotra). or father. the insane. If the eunuch and the rest should somehow or other desire to (take) wives. Eunuchs and outcasts.

An eldest brother who through avarice may defraud the younger ones. But if all of them. one must divide it equally. (for it is) self−acquired (property). the division of that shall be equal. His uterine brothers. that acquisition. ornaments. (living with their father. in (due) order. 216. that is a settled rule. being unlearned. and those brothers who were reunited (with him) and the uterine sisters. a vehicle. 214. are unworthy of (a share of) the property. if the mother be dead. born after partition. a share of that (shall belong) to his younger (brothers). after all the debts and assets have been duly distributed according to the rule. those begotten on a wife and the rest. If undivided brethren. or if any (of the other sons) be reunited with the (father). and a pasture−ground. (once) divided and living (again) together (as coparceners). Whatever property the eldest (son) acquires (by his own exertion) after the father's death. likewise the gift of a friend. with his sons. 217. 215. they declare to be indivisible. and the eldest shall not make (anything his) separate property without giving (an equivalent) to his younger brothers. 211. What one (brother) may acquire by his labour without using the patrimony. shall alone take the property of his father. 207. Property (acquired) by learning belongs solely to him to whom (it was given). have been thus declared to you. 213. and shall be punished by the king. being able (to maintain himself) by his own occupation. shall no (longer hold the position of) the eldest. provided they have made a due progress in learning. he may be made separate (by the others) receiving a trifle out of his share to live upon. a present received on marriage or with the honey−mixture. and. A dress. The division (of the property) and the rules for allotting (shares) to the (several) sons. But a son. 206. 209. make a second partition. 219. But if a father recovers lost ancestral property. shall not receive an (eldest son's additional) share. the division shall in that case be equal. in such a case there is no right of primogeniture. But if one of the brothers. property destined for pious uses or sacrifices. 220. hear (now) the laws concerning gambling. And if. A mother shall obtain the inheritance of a son (who dies) without leaving issue.The Laws of Manu 204. 205. he shall not share unless by his own will (with his brothers). If the eldest or the youngest (brother) is deprived of his share. having assembled together. does not desire (a share of the family) property. acquire property by their labour. his share is not lost (to his immediate heirs). All brothers who habitually commit forbidden acts. 212. (made solely) by his own effort. water. 210. 208. unless by his own will. the paternal grandmother shall take the estate. the father shall on no account give to them unequal shares (on a division of the estate). shall equally divide it. and female (slaves). he shall share with them.) together make an exertion (for gain). 218. or if either of them dies. any (property) be afterwards discovered. The Laws of Manu 124 . he shall not divide it. cooked food. If brothers. (as it is) not property acquired by the father.

But those appointed (to administer public) affairs. let him instantly banish from his town. and those who serve his enemies. and he who violates a Guru's bed. a wise man. when animate beings are used (for the same purpose). or a rope and the like. the king shall put to death. 230. and sellers of spirituous liquor. who. dancers and singers. a Vaisya. men belonging to an heretical sect. 224. On those four even. 227. those who slay women. that is called among men gambling (dyuta). 225. Let the king corporally punish all those (persons) who either gamble and bet or afford (an opportunity for it). a dog's The Laws of Manu 125 . dwell in the realm of a king. The slayer of a Brahmana. (the mark of) a female part shall be (impressed on the forehead with a hot iron). and a Sudra who are unable to pay a fine. When inanimate (things) are used (for staking money on them). 234. must each and all be considered as men who committed mortal sins (mahapataka). 237. those following forbidden occupations. infants. the king may inflict punishment according to his discretion. Gambling and betting let the king exclude from his realm. In a former Kalpa this (vice of) gambling has been seen to cause great enmity. the king shall deprive of their property. mar the business of suitors. let him inflict corporal punishment and fines in accordance with the law. therefore. or Brahmanas. they constantly harass his good subjects by their forbidden practices. 229. 228. 232. Whenever any (legal transaction) has been completed or (a punishment) been inflicted according to the law. for stealing (the gold of a Brahmana). 231. a Brahmana shall pay it by installments. he shall sanction it and not annul it. Whatever matter his ministers or the judge may settle improperly. baked by the fire of wealth. if they do not perform a penance. for drinking (the spirituous liquor called) Sura. he who steals (the gold of a Brahmana). For violating a Guru's bed. men of disordered mind. 233. On every man who addicts himself to that (vice) either secretly or openly. cruel men. should not practise it even for amusement. shall discharge the debt by labour. those who corrupt his ministers. 236. the king shall always exert himself in suppressing both (of them). If such (persons who are) secret thieves. the king shall inflict punishment with a whip. Gambling and betting amount to open theft. infants. But a Kshatriya. those two vices cause the destruction of the kingdoms of princes. that the king himself shall (re−) settle and fine (them) one thousand (panas). one must know that to be betting (samahvaya). a cane. Forgers of royal edicts. 223. the sign of a tavern. 226. the poor and the sick.The Laws of Manu 221. 222. On women. Gamblers. 235. likewise Sudras who assume the distinctive marks of twice−born (men). (A twice−born man) who drinks (the spirituous liquor called) Sura.

238. Varuna is the lord of punishment. The Laws of Manu 126 . 239. But (men of) other (castes). 253. between two litigant parties. For (such) offences the middlemost amercement shall be inflicted on a Brahmana. 243. Excluded from all fellowship at meals. let him offer it to Varuna. 240. And the crops of the husbandmen spring up. each as it was sown. but (he acquires) merit when he punishes (justly). he shall use his utmost exertions to remove (those men who are nocuous like) thorns. Thus the (manner of) deciding suits (falling) under the eighteen titles. solely intent on guarding their subjects. must not be branded on the forehead by the king. 244. or he may be banished from the realm. excluded from instruction and from matrimonial alliances. A virtuous king must not take for himself the property of a man guilty of mortal sin. Having thrown such a fine into the water. keeping his money and his chattels. Having duly settled his country. By protecting those who live as (becomes) Aryans and by removing the thorns. a headless corpse. but if he takes it out of greed. and no misshaped (offspring) is born. 242. 248. kings. When a king punishes an innocent (man). 245. and receive neither compassion nor a salutation. men are born in (due) time (and are) long−lived. But (men of) all castes who perform the prescribed penances. and the children die not. he is tainted by that guilt (of the offender). but shall be made to pay the highest amercement. who intentionally gives pain to Brahmanas. let them wander over (this) earth. his guilt is considered as great as when he sets free a guilty man. for murdering a Brahmana. they shall be banished. and shall duly protect them when he has gained them. Such (persons) who have been branded with (indelible) marks must be cast off by their paternal and maternal relations. excluded from all sacrifices. various (kinds of) corporal punishment which cause terror. 249. if (they committed them) intentionally. a Brahmana who has learnt the whole Veda is the lord of the whole world. reach heaven. 250. But the king shall inflict on a base−born (Sudra).The Laws of Manu foot. 241. 252. abject and excluded from all religious duties. 247. or let him bestow it on a learned and virtuous Brahmana. In that (country). 246. may seek to gain countries which he has not yet gained. that is the teaching of Manu. where the king avoids taking the property of (mortal) sinners. and having built forts in accordance with the Institutes. ought to be deprived of their whole property. who have unintentionally committed such crimes. for he holds the sceptre even over kings. 251. has been declared at length. A king who thus duly fulfils his duties in accordance with justice.

Having detected them by means of trustworthy persons. though he does not punish thieves. and bring them into his power. houses where water is distributed or cakes are sold. and so forth. robbers in forests. These and the like places the king shall cause to be guarded by companies of soldiers. wearing various disguises. him who (is taken) with the stolen goods and the implements (of burglary). brothels. (pretend) to follow the same occupations and by means of spies. 257. he must cause them to be instigated (to commit offences). but the concealed rogues are burglars. who secretly prowl over this earth. Old gardens. men living by showing their proficiency in arts. 262. follow them and know their various machinations. he should know to be thorns (in the side of his people). and play−houses and concert−rooms. discover the two sorts of thieves who deprive others of their property. 268. festive assemblies. protected by the strength of his arm. without hesitation. those who live by teaching (the performance of) auspicious ceremonies. both those who (show themselves) openly and those who (lie) concealed. 267. Officials of high rank and physicians who act improperly. disguising themselves. 255. to be proclaimed in accordance with the facts. sanctimonious hypocrites. Among them. and connexions. 259. Let the king who sees (everything) through his spies. taverns and victualler's shops. the open rogues (are those) who subsist by (cheating in the sale of) various marketable commodities. 264. who. Assembly−houses. it will constantly flourish like a (well)− watered tree. 256. cheats and rogues. and on the pretence of (showing them) feats of strength. (unless taken) with the stolen goods (in his possession). the king shall attack by force and slay together with their friends. the shops of artisans. These and the like who show themselves openly. and fortune−tellers. of introducing them to Brahmanas. cross−roads. Then having caused the crimes. (will be) disturbed and he (will) lose heaven. blood relations. 269. 258. But if his kingdom be secure. 266. he may. cannot be restrained except by punishment. Those who take bribes. By the means of clever reformed thieves. 265. as well as others who walk in disguise (such as) non−Aryans who wear the marks of Aryans. 270. the (spies) must make them meet (the officers of justice). A just king shall not cause a thief to be put to death. both stationary and patrolling. in order to keep away thieves. 261. the king shall duly punish them according to their strength and their crimes. cause to be slain. and by spies. The Laws of Manu 127 . natural and artificial groves. and those who suspect the old (thieves employed by the king). empty dwellings. Under the pretext of (offering them) various dainties. he must detect and destroy them.The Laws of Manu 254. who associate with such (rogues). 260. which they committed by their several actions. and clever harlots. forests. 263. The realm of that king who takes his share in kind. gamblers. For the wickedness of evil−minded thieves. well−known trees. Those among them who do not come.

He who destroys a bridge. (if they remain) inactive in attacks (by robbers). But the king shall cut off the hands of those robbers who. and for breaking gems or for improperly boring (them). an armoury. who subsists by (the fulfilment of) the law. drops filth on the king's high−road. and those who steal elephants. 283. But that man who behaves dishonestly to honest (customers) or cheats in his prices. except in a case of extreme necessity. departs from the established rule of the law. 286. the (king) shall severely punish him by a fine. shall be banished with their goods and chattels. or shelter. 287. shall repair the whole (damage) and pay five hundred (panas). 277. an aged man. commit thefts at night. 282. or images. must be made to pay the first (or lowest) amercement. Those who are appointed to guard provinces and his vassals who have been ordered (to help). shall be reprimanded and clean the (place). he shall speedily punish like thieves. and receivers of stolen goods. 280. or a temple. the ruler shall punish like thieves. All those also who in villages give food to thieves or grant them room for (concealing their implements). 278. he shall cause to be put to death. 274. made in ancient times. the flag (of a temple or royal palace). 279. but shall be made to pay the highest amercement. let him cause two fingers of a cut−purse to be amputated. On the first conviction. Those who do not give assistance according to their ability when a village is being plundered. in the case of animals. breaking into houses. the middlemost (amercement). (because he) violated his duty. All physicians who treat (their patients) wrongly (shall pay) a fine. arms. 272. he shall slay without hesitation. food. Those who break into a (royal) storehouse. On those who rob the king's treasury and those who persevere in opposing (his commands). For adulterating unadulterated commodities. or chariots. The Laws of Manu 128 . 275. a pregnant woman. the first (or lowest). shall pay two karshapanas and immediately remove (that) filth. the fine is the first (or lowest) amercement. he shall inflict various kinds of capital punishment. 284. on the second. But he who shall take away the water of a tank. on the third. one hand and one foot. 285. Him who breaks (the dam of) a tank he shall slay (by drowning him) in water or by (some other) (mode of) capital punishment. 273. and cause them to be impaled on a pointed stake. Moreover if (a man). in the case of human beings. a dyke is being destroyed. or shall cut off the supply of water. a pole. But a person in urgent necessity. that is a settled rule.The Laws of Manu 271. 276. horses. likewise on those who conspire with his enemies. he shall suffer death. shall be fined in the first or in the middlemost amercement. But he who. 281. or a child. Those who give (to thieves) fire. or a highway robbery committed. or the offender may repair the (damage).

waking the Dvapara (or brazen) age. which is upheld like the triple staff (of an ascetic). taking upon himself the office of Indra. The Laws of Manu 129 . let him begin his operations. let the king constantly ascertain his own and his enemy's strength. Let the king emulate the energetic action of Indra. Dvapara. 289. As Indra sends copious rain during the four months of the rainy season. for fortune greatly favours the man who (strenuously) exerts himself in his undertakings. The various ways in which a king behaves (resemble) the Krita. of the Wind. Him who destroys the wall (of a town). even so let the king. He who sells (for seed−corn that which is) not seed−corn. for magic rites with roots (practised by persons) not related (to him against whom they are directed). The king and his minister. he shall instantly banish. of the Fire. 300. and Kali ages. 302. or breaks a (town)− gate. (hence) a kingdom is said to have seven limbs (anga). taking into account the time (of the offence) and the use (of the object). where the suffering and disfigured offenders can be seen. his capital. a fine of two hundred (panas) shall be inflicted. 294. Moreover. afterwards. of Varuna. 303. 292. he who takes up seed (already sown). his realm. Treta. there is no (single part) more important (than the others). 304. of Yama. 301. For all incantations intended to destroy life. let the king award punishment.The Laws of Manu 288. when he has fully considered their relative importance. each earlier (named) is more important and (its destruction) the greater calamity. shall be punished by mutilation. 291. Yet in a kingdom containing seven constituent parts. to be cut to pieces with razors. and by carrying out (various) undertakings. of the Moon. shower benefits on his kingdom. 298. but moving (actively) the Krita (or golden) age. (and thus) each is declared to be the most important for that particular purpose which is effected by its means. by a (pretended) display of energy. Sleeping he represents the Kali (or iron age). of the Sun. 296. But the king shall cause a goldsmith who behaves dishonestly. his army. hence the king is identified with the ages (of the world). of arms and of medicines. the most nocuous of all the thorns. 290. by reason of the importance of the qualities of each for the others. 299. But let him know (that) among these seven constituent parts of a kingdom (which have been enumerated) in due order. let him begin his operations again and again. ready to act the Treta (or silver age). his treasury. For each part is particularly qualified for (the accomplishment of) certain objects. 293. (Though he be) ever so much tired (by repeated failures). For the theft of agricultural implements. and for various kinds of sorcery. By spies. and of the Earth. 297. and his ally are the seven constituent parts (of a kingdom). 295. Let him place all prisons near a high−road. and he who destroys a boundary (−mark). or fills up the ditch (round a town). all calamities and vices.

the king shall. A Brahmana. Who could escape destruction. He is a king. could instantly destroy him together with his army and his vehicles. and deprive the gods of their divine station? 316. by whom the fire was made to consume all things. entering (in the shape of the vital air) all created beings. Kshatriyas from Brahmanas. while he injures those (men) who provoked to anger. then his character is said (to resemble) that of Fire. 319. Let him not. 310. could create other worlds and other guardians of the world. and whose wealth is the Veda? 317. 318. and by whom the moon was made to wane and to increase again? 315. 311. desirous of life. When the Kshatriyas become in any way overbearing towards the Brahmanas. 314. though Brahmanas employ themselves in all (sorts of) mean occupations. 312. and destroys wicked vassals. Who could prosper. they must be honoured in every way. As Yama at the appointed time subjects to his rule both friends and foes. Employing these and other means. is a great divinity. restrain thieves both in his own dominions and in (those of) others. 307. 306. even so let him penetrate (everywhere) through his spies. for (each of) them is a very great deity. is a great divinity. As (a sinner) is seen bound with ropes by Varuna. that is his office in which he resembles Varuna. The Laws of Manu 130 . would injure them to whose support the (three) worlds and the gods ever owe their existence. even so let him gradually draw his taxes from his kingdom. even so all subjects must be controlled by the king. provoke Brahmanas to anger. for they. whether carried forth (for the performance of a burnt−oblation) or not carried forth. by whom the (water of the) ocean was made undrinkable. the Brahmanas themselves shall duly restrain them. it again increases mightily. As the Wind moves (everywhere). when presented with oblations (of butter) at sacrifices. though fallen into the deepest distress. iron from stone. The brilliant fire is not contaminated even in burial−places. 321. the all−penetrating force of those (three) has no effect on that whence they were produced. 308. for the Kshatriyas sprang from the Brahmanas. ever untired. 320. just as the fire. be he ignorant or learned. Thus. that is the office in which he resembles Yama. 309. taking upon himself the office of the Moon. (If) he is ardent in wrath against criminals and endowed with brilliant energy. that is the office in which he resembles the Wind. 313. (takes upon himself) the office of the Earth. What man. and. for that is the office in which he resembles the Sun. thus (a king) who supports all his subjects. Fire sprang from water. whose (appearance) his subjects (greet with as great joy) as men feel on seeing the full moon. As the Sun during eight months (imperceptibly) draws up the water with his rays.The Laws of Manu 305. when angered. when he provokes to anger those (men). even so let him punish the wicked. As the Earth supports all created beings equally.

and if a Vaisya is willing (to keep them). For when the Lord of creatures (Pragapati) created cattle. Thus the eternal law concerning the duties of a king has been fully declared. 335. prosper in this (world) and in the next. he made them over to the Vaisya. Kshatriyas prosper not without Brahmanas. not the other two. 331. Brahmanas prosper not without Kshatriyas. He must be acquainted with the (proper). 330. the advantages and disadvantages of (different) countries. Thus conducting himself (and) ever intent on (discharging) his royal duties. discharging their (prescribed) duties. which leads to beatitude. 336. 325. 328. 326. 327. but among them the Brahmana (alone) shall teach it. (A Sudra who is) pure. (when they are) not in distress. and free from pride. After a Vaisya has received the sacraments and has taken a wife. and of the good and bad qualities of fields. study (the Veda). But to serve Brahmanas (who are) learned in the Vedas. and always seeks a refuge with Brahmanas.The Laws of Manu 322. (A Vaisya) must know the respective value of gems. now hear in order their (several duties) in times of distress. and famous (for virtue) is the highest duty of a Sudra. The Laws of Manu 131 . and then seek death in battle. He must be acquainted with the (manner of) sowing of seeds. on Brahmanas. that is an established rule. and he must perfectly know all measures and weights. 329. of metals. and of condiments. and let him zealously give food to all created beings. The excellent law for the conduct of the (four) castes (varna). and the means of properly rearing cattle. I will not keep cattle. the excellence and defects of commodities. and (the rules of) purchase and sale. Brahmanas and Kshatriyas. being closely united. has been thus promulgated. CHAPTER X. with the various languages of men. householders. 323. the servant of his betters. Let him exert himself to the utmost in order to increase his property in a righteous manner. of pearls. 333. he shall be always attentive to the business whereby he may subsist and to (that of) tending cattle. of (cloth) made of thread. 324. 1. with the manner of keeping goods. wages of servants. Moreover. 334. and to the king he entrusted all created beings. 332. attains (in his next life) a higher caste. the (probable) profit and loss on merchandise. gentle in his speech. a king shall order all his servants (to work) for the good of his people. A Vaisya must never (conceive this) wish. they must never be kept by (men of) other (castes). of coral. But (a king who feels his end drawing nigh) shall bestow all his wealth. Let the three twice−born castes (varna). of perfumes. know that the following rules apply in (due) order to the duties of Vaisyas and Sudras. to the Brahmana. accumulated from fines. make over his kingdom to his son.

12. the lowest of men. ferocious in his manners. though they were born in the inverse order of the castes (from mothers one degree higher than the fathers). resembling both a Kshatriya and a Sudra. Brahmana. and the Vaisya castes (varna) are the twice−born ones. and delighting in cruelty. Those sons of the twice−born. The Brahmana must know the means of subsistence (prescribed) by law for all. and a Kandala. begotten on wives of the next lower castes. but from a Kshatriya a Suta only. has one birth only. the Sudra. even so are a Kshattri and a Vaidehaka. and of a Vaisya by (a wife of) the one caste (below him) are all six called base−born (apasada). From a Kshatriya by the daughter of a Brahmana is born (a son called) according to his caste (gati) a Suta. In all castes (varna) those (children) only which are begotten in the direct order on wedded wives. From a Brahmana a with the daughter of a Vaisya is born (a son) called an Ambashtha. From a Vaisya are born in the inverse order of the castes a Magadha and a Vaideha. the Kshatriya.The Laws of Manu 2. (sons who owe their origin to) a confusion of the castes. 5. Children of a Brahmana by (women of) the three (lower) castes. and himself live according to (the law) 3. A Brahmana begets on the daughter of an Ugra an Avrita. from a Vaisya by females of the royal and the Brahmana (castes) spring a Magadha and a Vaideha. these are three other base−born ones (apasada). on the daughter of an Ambashtha an Abhira. the lowest of men. there is no fifth (caste). 17. 11. are to be considered as belonging to the same caste (as their fathers) 6. On account of his pre−eminence. but) blamed on account of the fault (inherent) in their mothers. Sons. 4. From a Sudra are born an Ayogava. 7. begotten by twice−born man on wives of the next lower castes. a Kshattri. and on account of his particular sanctification the Brahmana is the lord of (all) castes (varna). 14. they declare to be similar (to their fathers. and Brahmana) females. who have been enumerated in due order. 9. but the fourth. they call by the name Anantaras (belonging to the next lower caste). 15. apasada). and a Kandala. a Kshattri. 16. 13. who is also called Parasava. Kshatriya. with the daughter of a sudra a Nishada. know (that) the following rule (is applicable) to those born of women two or three degrees lower. on account of his observance of (particular) restrictive rules. From a Kshatriya and the daughter of a Sudra springs a being. but on a female of the Ayogava (caste) a Dhigvana. on account of the superiority of his origin. of a Kshatriya by (wives of) the two (lower) castes. (begotten) in the direct order on (women) one degree lower (than their husbands) are declared (to be). Such is the eternal law concerning (children) born of wives one degree lower (than their husbands). an Ayogava. by Vaisya. called Ugra. The Laws of Manu 132 . 8. 10. As an Ambashtha and an Ugra. equal (in caste and married as) virgins. instruct the others. From a Sudra spring in the inverse order (by females of the higher castes) three base−born (sons. on account of the blemish (inherent) in their mothers.

and with females (of) higher ones. (but inferior) on account of the lower degree (of the mother). but one begotten by a Vaidehaka on an Ambashtha female is named a Vena. the Khasa. the Vatadhana. But men excluded (by the Aryans. vahya). (or) subsists by snaring (animals). a great many (kinds of) despicable (sons). a Viganman. who is skilled in adorning and attending (his master). low men (hina) still lower races. 29. 22. who. and (thus) are mutually connected. 27. 32. From a Vratya (of the) Vaisya (caste) are born a Sudhanvan. but the son of a Sudra by a Nishada female is declared to be a Kukkutaka. 28. and the Ayogava. By adultery (committed by persons) of (different) castes. the Kandala. 21. continually. From a Vratya (of the) Kshatriya (caste). who are born of Anulomas and of Pratilomas. and (one equal to himself) on a female of his own race. the son of by Kshattri by an Ugra female is called a Svapaka. A Vaideha produces (with the same) a sweet−voiced Maitreyaka. (though) not a slave. he of the Kshattri caste (gati). 25. praises (great) men. and a Satvata. who approach females of higher rank. the Vaidehaka. 30. 31. vahya). 20. a Karusha. I will (now) fully enumerate those (sons) of mixed origin. and by the neglect of the duties and occupations (prescribed) to each. These six (Pratilomas) beget similar races (varna) on women of their own (caste). even fifteen (in number). 24. the Karana.The Laws of Manu 18. they (also) produce (the like) with females of their mother's caste (gati). A Dasyu begets on an Ayogava (woman) a Sairandhra. sons) more (worthy of being) excluded (than he himself). the Ghalla. the Pushpadha. vahya). ringing a bell at the appearance of dawn. Those (six mentioned above) also beget. Moreover. the Nata. and the Dravida. 19. and excluded (from the Aryan community. by marriages with women who ought not to be married. The son of a Nishada by a Sudra female becomes a Pukkasa by caste (gati). lives like a slave. The Suta. who. one must designate by the appellation Vratyas. As a (Brahmana) begets on (females of) two out of the three (twice−born castes a son similar to) himself. not fulfilling their sacred duties. Those (sons) whom the twice−born beget on wives of equal caste. the Avantya. the one on the females of the other. 33. but who. even more sinful than their (fathers). and the Saikha. the Magadha. an Akarya. even so is the order in the case of the excluded (races. 26. 23. the Likkhivi. The Laws of Manu 133 . even so (a person himself) excluded pro creates with (females of) the four castes (varna. a Maitra. Just as a Sudra begets on a Brahmana female a being excluded (from the Aryan community). beget races (varna) still more worthy to be excluded. are excluded from the Savitri. the Malla. are produced (sons who owe their origin) to a confusion the castes. But from a Vratya (of the) Brahmana (caste) spring the wicked Bhriggakantaka. that lowest of mortals.

but all those born in consequence of a violation (of the law) are. and despised even by those excluded (from the Aryan community). from a Nishada (by the same) an Ahindika. are wicked. 40. have the duties of twice−born men. 43. To Kshattris. the Dravidas. playing drums. the art of healing. the Pahlavas. to Magadhas. the Kinas. From a Nishada springs (by a woman of the Vaideha caste) a Karavara.) the Paundrakas. Killing fish to Nishadas. the Kodas. the Paradas. as regards their duties. to Medas. working in leather. the Kambogas. and eat reprehensible food. are called Dasyus. But from a Kandala by a Pukkasa woman is born the sinful Sopaka. these (races) obtain here among men more exalted or lower rank in successive births. who dwell outside the village. apasada) of Aryans. By the power of austerities and of the seed (from which they sprang). whether they conceal or openly show themselves. to Venas. To Sutas (belongs) the management of horses and of chariots. an Andhra and a Meda. and the feet (of Brahman). 36. 37. and of their not consulting Brahmanas. Six sons. (and) whom the inhabitants of Aryavarta call a Kaivarta. 48. Those three base−born ones are severally begot on Ayogava women. begotten (by Aryans) on women of equal and the next lower castes (Anantara). the Sakas. carpenters' work to the Ayogava. to Ambashthas. the service of women. and Pukkasas. and is ever despised by good men. employed in burial−grounds. The Laws of Manu 134 . 46. which are excluded from (the community of) those born from the mouth. 39. Andhras. 35. Ugras. and Madgus. and from a Vaidehaka (by women of the Karavara and Nishada castes).The Laws of Manu 34. the Kiratas. to Dhigvanas. 45. shall subsist by occupations reprehended by the twice−born. Those who have been mentioned as the base−born (offspring. 47. the slaughter of wild animals. or as produced in consequence of a violation (of the law. Kunkus. equal to Sudras. apadhvamsaga). the thighs. 44. All those tribes in this world. 38. whether they speak the language of the Mlekkhas (barbarians) or that of the Aryans. to Vaidehakas. who lives by the occupations of his sire. who works in leather. But in consequence of the omission of the sacred rites. who deals in cane. catching and killing (animals) living in holes. 41. 42. A Nishada woman bears to a Kandala a son (called) Antyavasayin. and the Daradas. the Yavanas. trade. the following tribes of Kshatriyas have gradually sunk in this world to the condition of Sudras. (which originate) in a confusion (of the castes and) have been described according to their fathers and mothers. 49. may be known by their occupations. who wear the clothes of the dead. (Viz. the arms. who subsists by working as a boatman. A Nishada begets (on the same) a Margava (or) Dasa. These races. From a Kandala by a Vaideha woman is born a Pandusopaka.

secures beatitude to those excluded (from the Aryan community. and the ornaments of (such) criminals. the inferior (tribe) attains the highest caste within the seventh generation. 64. 58.) 63. and (in a similar manner) a Brahmana sinks to the level of a Sudra. and they must always wander from place to place. harshness. who belongs not to any caste. 55. If (a female of the caste). veracity. or both. known (by certain marks). 61. let these (tribes) dwell. and subsisting by their peculiar occupations. without the expectation of a reward. born in a great family. 56. on mountains and in groves. in accordance with the law. be they small or great. Dying. sullying (the purity of) the castes. or his mother.The Laws of Manu 50. A man of impure origin. 54. Abstention from injuring (creatures). and they shall carry out the corpses (of persons) who have no relatives. but know that it is the same with the offspring of a Kshatriya or of a Vaisya. bear (children) to one of the highest caste. that is a settled rule. Their dress (shall be) the garments of the dead. black iron (shall be) their ornaments. By day they may go about for the purpose of their work. he can never conceal his real nature. abstention from unlawfully appropriating (the goods of others). Even if a man. whether) with him whom an Aryan by chance begot on a non−Aryan female. 51. cruelty. But that kingdom in which such bastards. or in the defence of women and children. they must be made Apapatras. with whom the preeminence (is. 53. the beds. (they shall eat) their food from broken dishes. but whose character is) not known. Manu has declared to be the summary of the law for the four castes. vahya. (varna. has the appearance of an Aryan. one may discover by his acts. 66. purity. and control of the organs. are born. distinguished by marks at the king's command. he will certainly possess the faults of his (father). By the king's order they shall always execute the criminals. Their food shall be given to them by others (than an Aryan giver) in a broken dish. or (with the son) of a Brahmana woman by a non−Aryan. The Laws of Manu 135 . 52. and they shall take for themselves the clothes. sprang from criminal intercourse. their transactions (shall be) among themselves. shall not seek intercourse with them. (Thus) a Sudra attains the rank of a Brahmana. (though) not an Aryan. Near well−known trees and burial−grounds. 59. and their marriages with their equals. But the dwellings of Kandalas and Svapakas shall be outside the village. 62. who. sprung from a Brahmana and a Sudra female. perishes quickly together with its inhabitants. 57. and habitual neglect of the prescribed duties betray in this world a man of impure origin. Behaviour unworthy of an Aryan. 65. A base−born man either resembles in character his father. If (a doubt) should arise. and their wealth (shall be) dogs and donkeys. at night they shall not walk about in villages and in towns. 60. A man who fulfils a religious duty. for the sake of Brahmanas and of cows.

70. 81. 'Those two are neither equal nor unequal. (to rear) cattle. but their duties are liberality. turns out perfectly well. Seed. 'How shall it be. the study of the Veda. teaching the Veda for a Brahmana. three acts (incumbent on the former) are forbidden. a (fertile) field also. Teaching. Some sages declare the seed to be more important. teaching. protecting (the people) for a Kshatriya. 73. To carry arms for striking and for throwing (is prescribed) for Kshatriyas as a means of subsistence. But among the six acts (ordained) for him three are his means of subsistence. shall live by duly performing the following six acts. but the legal decision on this point is as follows: 71. Brahmanas who are intent on the means (of gaining union with) Brahman and firm in (discharging) their duties. unable to subsist by his peculiar occupations just mentioned. again others (assert that) the seed and the field (are equally important). and. he may adopt a Vaisya's mode of life. in which no (good) seed (is sown). (which are enumerated) in their (proper) order. The decision is as follows: 'He who was begotten by an Aryan on a non−Aryan female. for the latter is next to him in rank. 75. thirdly. (viz. sacrificing for others. the first (being excluded) on account of the lowness of his origin. to trade. But a Brahmana. sacrificing for others. (viz. the second (because the union of his parents was) against the order of the castes. 79. Among the several occupations the most commendable are. perishes in it. the creator declared. for Manu. sacrificing for himself. 78. and others the field. Having considered (the case of) a non−Aryan who acts like an Aryan. and accepting gifts from pure men. 82. As through the power of the seed (sons) born of animals became sages who are honoured and praised. and trade for a Vaisya. if he cannot maintain himself by either (of these occupations?' the answer is).) sacrificing for others. 72. As good seed. studying. (Passing) from the Brahmana to the Kshatriya. 77. 69. 80. The same are likewise forbidden to a Vaisya. the acceptance of gifts. even so the son of an Aryan by an Aryan woman is worthy of all the sacraments. has not prescribed them for (men of) those two (castes). springing up in good soil. and agriculture for Vaisyas.' 68. If it be asked. 76.) teaching. may become (like to) an Aryan by his virtues. sown on barren ground. hence the seed is declared to be more important. and the performance of sacrifices. and (that of) an Aryan who acts like a non−Aryan. will remain barren.The Laws of Manu 67. The law prescribes that neither of the two shall receive the sacraments. he whom an Aryan (mother) bore to a non−Aryan father (is and remains) unlike to an Aryan. The Laws of Manu 136 . making gifts and receiving them are the six acts (prescribed) for a Brahmana. may live according to the law applicable to Kshatriyas. employing himself in agriculture and rearing cattle. that is a settled rule. the lord of creatures (Pragapati).' 74.

But by willingly selling in this world other (forbidden) commodities. birds. and lac a Brahmana at once becomes an outcast. being unable to find service with the twice−born and threatened with the loss of his sons and wife (through hunger). It is better (to discharge) one's own (appointed) duty incompletely than to perform completely that of another. 98. 94. oil. anointing. shall carefully avoid (the pursuit of) agriculture. He must avoid (selling) condiments of all sorts. animals with fangs or tusks. By (selling) flesh. for he who lives according to the law of another (caste) is instantly excluded from his own. or wool. All dyed cloth. and charitable gifts. 96. or a Kshatriya. (but) that means of subsistence is blamed by the virtuous. 97. wax. fruit. 85. be plunged into the ordure of dogs. cattle. but by no means salt for (other) condiments. Kusa−grass. lac. a Brahmana assumes after seven nights the character of a Vaisya. may sell. cooked food (may be exchanged) for (other kinds of) cooked food. weapons. But he who subsists by agriculture. meat. All beasts of the forest. even though they be not dyed. spirituous liquor. indigo. gives up the strictness with respect to his duties. 90. 91. and human (beings). he will be born (again) as a worm and. and sesamum seeds for grain in equal quantities. in order to increase his wealth. But a Sudra. as well as cloth made of hemp. 84. poison. salt. and perfumes of all kinds. cooked food and sesamum. 92. (Some) declare that agriculture is something excellent. But a Brahmana. roots. or flax. Condiments may be bartered for condiments. by selling milk he becomes (equal to) a Sudra in three days.The Laws of Manu 83. But he who. when he is able (to do so). avoiding (however) acts forbidden (to him). provided he himself has grown them and has not kept them long. through a want of means of subsistence. but he must never arrogantly adopt the mode of life (prescribed for his) betters. 86. sour milk. (for) the wooden (implement) with iron point injuries the earth and (the beings) living in the earth. clarified butter. fresh milk. may even maintain himself by a Sudra's mode of life. and (medical) herbs 88. 95. may maintain himself by handicrafts. Water. may at pleasure sell unmixed sesamum grains for sacred purposes. sugar. 89. The Laws of Manu 137 . living by a Vaisya's mode of subsistence. stones. and all one−hoofed beasts. salt. If he applies sesamum to any other purpose but food. (which causes) injury to many beings and depends on others. 99. the king shall deprive of his property and banish. may subsist by all these (means). A Kshatriya who has fallen into distress. 87. making (however) the (following) exceptions. together with his ancestors. the commodities sold by Vaisyas. A man of low caste who through covetousness lives by the occupations of a higher one. 93. and he should give it up. honey. Soma. A Vaisya who is unable to subsist by his own duties.

receiving it the hands of a Kandala. or in want of (utensils made of) common metals. 106. and the acceptance of gifts from virtuous men. (viz. approached in order to slay (his own) son. and teaching (them). grain. sacrificing (for them). The guilt incurred by offering sacrifices for teaching (unworthy men) is removed by muttering (sacred texts) and by burnt offerings. 109. when he was starving together with his sons in a lonely forest. goats. There are seven lawful modes of acquiring property. is no more tainted by sin than the sky by mud. 108. conquest. If Brahmanas. when in danger of losing his life. 102. for they (are as pure) as fire and water. by sacrificing for. 114. finding or friendly donation. 101. and by accepting gifts from despicable (men) Brahmanas (in distress) commit not sin. he must be left. (with respect to) cows. when he was tormented by hunger.The Laws of Manu 100. or of other property. may act in the following manner. (For) assisting in sacrifices and teaching are (two acts) always performed for men who have received the sacraments. 104. By teaching. 107. but that incurred by accepting gifts (from them) by throwing (the gifts) away and by austerities. sheep. are pining with hunger. 105. The Laws of Manu 138 . and cooked food. (The acceptance on an untilled field is less blamable than (that of) a tilled one. the performance of work. 111. did not sully himself when. A Brahmana who is unable to maintain himself. 113. but the acceptance of gifts takes place even in (case the giver is) a Sudra of the lowest class. tormented (by hunger). who suffered hunger. purchase. (but) unwilling to adopt a Vaisya's mode of life and resolved to follow his own (prescribed) path. since he (only) sought a remedy against famishing. who well knew what is right or wrong. Agigarta. picking up single grains is declared to be still more laudable. accepted many cows from the carpenter Bribu. On (comparing) the acceptance (of gifts from low men). He who. gold. a performer of great austerities. A Brahmana who is distressed through a want of means of subsistence and pines (with hunger). they may ask the king for them. lending at interest. who well knew right and wrong. Vamadeva. who are Snatakas. the acceptance of gifts is the meanest (of those acts) and (most) reprehensible for a Brahmana (on account of its results) in the next life.) inheritance. should (rather) glean ears or grains from (the field of) any (man). 110. 112. (Let him follow) those mechanical occupations and those various practical arts by following which the twice−born are (best) served. accepts food from any person whatsoever. he desired to eat the flesh of a dog in order to save his life. for according to the law it is not possible (to assert) that anything pure can be sullied. (the acceptance of) each earlier−named (article is less blamable than of the following ones). 115. Bharadvaga. gleaning ears is better than accepting gifts. (to eat) the haunch of a dog. 103. Visvamitra. and was not tainted by sin. if he is not disposed to be liberal. approached. A Brahmana who has fallen into distress may accept (gifts) from anybody.

but gain praise. either for the sake of heaven. If a Sudra. and if they perform them well. and their old household furniture. alms. 119. But let a (Sudra) serve Brahmanas. and the number of those whom he is bound to support. 124. if they imitate the practice of virtuous men without reciting sacred texts. 118. contentment (with little). Neither a Brahmana. Sudras. 130. nor a Kshatriya must lend (money at) interest. which amount at least to one Karshapana. having protected the Vaisyas by his weapons. 125. 127. Learning. after considering his ability.) from Vaisyas one−eighth as the tax on grain. even though he be able (to do it). he has no right to (fulfil) the sacred law (of the Aryans. artisans. imitates the behaviour of the virtuous. for a Sudra who has acquired wealth. lend to a very sinful man at a small interest. (Sudras) who are desirous to gain merit. yet) there is no prohibition against (his fulfilling certain portions of) the law. rearing cattle. but at his pleasure (either of them) may. and he must not turn back in danger. 126. one−twentieth (on the profits on gold and cattle). The more a (Sudra). the refuse of their grain. or with a view to both (this life and the next). the more he gains. takes even the fourth part (of the crops). The duties of the four castes (varna) in times of distress have thus been declared. for he who is called the servant of a Brahmana thereby gains all his ends. as well as their old clothes. and know (their) duty. 121. is free from guilt. agriculture. 123. 129. keeping himself free from envy. are the ten modes of subsistence (permitted to all men in times of distress). and receiving interest on money. No collection of wealth must be made by a Sudra. They must allot to him out of their own family (−property) a suitable maintenance. The remnants of their food must be given to him. (exaltation in) this world and the next. A Kshatriya (king) who. The service of Brahmanas alone is declared (to be) an excellent occupation for a Sudra. without being censured. Thus all the legal rules for the four castes have been proclaimed. (unable to subsist by serving Brahmanas. gives pain to Brahmanas. His peculiar duty is conquest. traffic. 120. they will reach the most blessed state.The Laws of Manu 116. commit no sin. for whatever else besides this he may perform will bear him no fruit. he may cause the legal tax to be collected. mechanical arts. 128. in times of distress. his industry.) seeks a livelihood. I next will promulgate the auspicious rules for penances. service. and mechanics (shall) benefit (the king) by (doing) work (for him). 117. causing loss of caste (pataka). (Viz. in times of distress when he requires money) for sacred purposes. 131. he may serve Kshatriyas. if he protects his subjects to the best of his ability. or he may also seek to maintain himself by attending on a wealthy Vaisya. and he is not worthy to receive the sacraments. A Sudra cannot commit an offence. 122. work for wages. The Laws of Manu 139 .

and presents for the sake of sacrifices on Brahmanas learned in the Vedas. is worthy to drink the Soma−juice. 14. while a righteous king rules. for a Sudra has no business with sacrifices. But a twice−born man. even (though they be Brahmanas or Kshatriyas). or his mother. according to one's ability. that produces evil results for him. but afterwards) make him swallow the poison (of punishment in hell). thus the fame (of the taker) will spread and his merit increase. If a sacrifice. does not derive any benefit from that (act). These nine Brahmanas one should consider as Snatakas. him who begs for the sake of his teacher. food and presents (of money) must be given. wealth to Brahmanas learned in the Veda and living alone.The Laws of Manu CHAPTER XI. But a king shall bestow. while his family lives in distress. 13. (offered) by (any twice−born) sacrificer. drinks not the Soma−juice. That article (required) for the completion of the sacrifice. a (sacrificer) may unhesitatingly take (what he requires) from the houses of those two. he obtains) no advantage but sensual enjoyment. The Laws of Manu 140 . (thus) one obtains after death heavenly bliss. One should give. To these most excellent among the twice−born. jewels of all sorts. (Or) the (sacrificer) may take at his pleasure two or three (articles required for a sacrifice) from the house of a Sudra. who. If (a man) does anything for the sake of his happiness in another world. If (a man) possessing one hundred cows. 12. may be taken (forcibly) from the house of any Vaisya. to the detriment of those whom he is bound to maintain. begging in order to fulfil the sacred law. nevertheless drinks the Soma−juice. or one possessing a thousand cows. If a man who has a wife weds a second wife. 7. who possesses a large number of cattle. 15. 11. him who wishes to perform a sacrifice. (but) neither performs the (minor) sacrifices nor drinks the Soma−juice. 3. and who refuses to give it. his father. Him who wishes (to marry for the sake of having) offspring. 8. 4. (and) especially by a Brahmana. it is declared that food must be given to others outside the sacrificial enclosure. though possessing less than that amount of property. 2. as is proper. but the issue (of his second marriage belongs) to the giver of the money. both while he lives and when he is dead. (If) an opulent man (is) liberal towards strangers. 10. 9. 5. 1. and a sick man. (Or) he may take (it by force or fraud) from one who always takes and never gives. him who has given away all his property. though he may have formerly drunk the Soma−juice. having begged money (to defray the marriage expenses. a student of the Veda. 6. kindles not the sacred fire. must remain incomplete through (the want of) one requisite. He who may possess (a supply of) food sufficient to maintain those dependant on him during three years or more than that. a traveller. to such poor men gifts must be given in proportion to their learning. that counterfeit virtue will first make him taste the sweets (of fame.

or a crow. That sinful man. In case the prescribed animal and Soma−sacrifices cannot be performed. transforms himself into a boat. a maintenance whereon he may live according to the law. performs his duties according to the law for times of distress. (On such occasions) a Kshatriya must never take the property of a (virtuous Brahmana. 17. On him (who. 24. appropriates another's possessions). seizes the property of the gods. by his own power alone be can punish those men who injure him. who. but if (the owner) asks him. but he who is starving may appropriate the possessions of a Dasyu. who were afraid of perishing in times of distress. who. the wise call the property of the gods. does not use the whole (for that purpose). and by the great sages (of the) Brahmana (caste). for a sacrificer. for (in that case) a Brahmana pines with hunger through the Kshatriya's want of care. or wherever he finds it. obtains no reward for them in the next world. the part of his spiritual merit. without (however) making a provision for the morrow. Likewise he who has not eaten at (the time of) six meals. but the wealth of those who perform no sacrifices is called the property of the Asuras. for he obtains from such (a man) whom he protects. 23. let him always offer at the change of the year a Vaisvanari Ishti as a penance (for the omission). having begged (it from such a man). 18. A Brahmana who knows the law need not bring any (offence) to the notice of the king. having begged any property for a sacrifice. the Brahmana therefore. or of one who neglects his sacred duties. becomes for a hundred years a (vulture of the kind called) Bhasa.The Laws of Manu 16. through covetousness. A Brahmana shall never beg from a Sudra property for a sacrifice. may take at (the time of) the seventh meal (food) from a man who neglects his sacred duties. 32. without being in distress. 25. or from a field. feeds in another world on the leavings of vultures. he must confess to him that (deed and its cause). The Laws of Manu 141 . by the Sadhyas. 29. the king must protect him in every way. He who takes property from the wicked and bestows it on the virtuous. or out of the house. that is the opinion (of the sages). A Brahmana who. for the reasons stated. may punish his foes by his own power alone. 20. and carries both (over the sea of misfortune). a substitute was made for the (principal) rule. 22. But a twice−born. That evil−minded man. or the property of Brahmanas. the king shall allow him. 27. 26. who. 21. Having ascertained the number of those dependent on such a man. and having fully considered his learning and his conduct. 28. being able (to fulfil) the original law. after death is born (again) as a Kandala. lives according to the secondary rule. out of his own property. reaps no reward for that after death. 31. His own power is greater than the power of the king. Either from the threshing−floor. And after allotting to him a maintenance. By the Visve−devas. a righteous king shall not inflict punishment. The property of those who zealously offer sacrifices. 19. 30.

speech. shall perform a lunar penance during one month. 42. but let him on no account offer sacrifices at which he gives smaller fees (than those prescribed). indeed. having become liable to perform a penance. and some in consequence of those committed in a former (existence). voluntarily neglects the sacred fires. hence the person who sacrifices (for another) must be skilled in (the performance of) Vaitana (rites). or performs a blamable act. 37. (that it may be performed) even for an intentional (offence). longevity. 45. (bliss in) heaven. Some wicked men suffer a change of their (natural) appearance in consequence of crimes committed in this life. the punisher. are priests officiating for Sudras. For such (persons) offering a burnt−oblation sink into hell. (and hence) censured among those who recite the Veda. 44. Treading with his foot on the heads of those fools who worship a fire (kindled at the expense) of a Sudra. The Laws of Manu 142 . shall offer an Agnihotra. (and hence) a benefactor (of all created beings). be it by (the decree of) fate or by (an act) committed in a former life. 41. and cattle are destroyed by a sacrifice at which (too) small sacrificial fees are given. the chief of the twice−born by muttered prayers and burnt−oblations. (and using that) offer an Agnihotra. nor a man in great suffering. Those who. The Brahmana is declared (to be) the creator (of the world). have intercourse with virtuous men. A Brahmana who. 34. on the evidence of the revealed texts. The organs (of sense and action). 36. does not give. nor one uninitiated. offspring. honour. nor a fool. A Brahmana who. being an Agnihotrin. some declare. 43. a horse sacred to Pragapati.The Laws of Manu 33. (All) sages prescribe a penance for a sin unintentionally committed. 40. though wealthy. by various (special) penances. A sin unintentionally committed is expiated by the recitation of Vedic texts. 38. Let him use without hesitation the sacred texts. 46. with that he may slay his enemies. for that (offence) is equal to the slaughter of a son. must not. the giver (of the wealth) shall always pass over his miseries (in the next world). Neither a girl. or cleaves to sensual enjoyments. before the penance has been performed. the teacher. must perform a penance. fame. 47. revealed by Atharvan and by Angiras. A Kshatriya shall pass through misfortunes which have befallen him by the strength of his arms. nor a (married) young woman. nor use any harsh words. hence a man of small means should not offer a (Srauta) sacrifice. but that which (men) in their folly commit intentionally. A twice−born man. as fee for the performance of an Agnyadheya. 39. 48. as well as he to whom that (Agnihotra) belongs. a Vaisya and a Sudra by their wealth. and know the whole Veda. 35. to him let no man say anything unpropitious. becomes (equal to one) who has not kindled the sacred fires. obtaining wealth from Sudras. nor a man of little learning. is the weapon of the Brahmana. Let him who has faith and controls his senses perform other meritorious acts. A man who omits a prescribed act.

therefore. drinking (the spirituous liquor called) Sura. giving up the (daily) study of the Veda. adultery. The stealer of a lamp will become blind. 54. eating forbidden food. with the wives of a friend. injury (to sentient beings) is punished by general sickliness. and falsely accusing one's teacher. 59. 63. stealing (the gold of a Brahmana). Penances.The Laws of Manu 49. redundant limbs. a garden. Superintending mines (or factories) of any sort. 57. a calumniator. an adulterer (will have) swellings (in his limbs). white leprosy. or child. with (unmarried) maidens. 55. and silver. usury. a foul−smelling nose. sacrificing for those who are unworthy to sacrifice. they declare to be equal to the violation of a Guru's bed. black teeth. and selling goods which one ought not to sell. a stinking breath. or (swallowing substances) unfit for food. a diseased skin. and neglecting the (sacred domestic) fire. 52. (are offences) equal to slaying a Brahmana. casting off one's teacher. Killing a Brahmana. He who steals the gold (of a Brahmana) has diseased nails. Thus in consequence of a remnant of (the guilt of former) crimes. because those whose sins have not been expiated. deficiency in limbs. they declare (to be) mortal sins (mahapataka). the slayer of a Brahmana. Allowing one's younger brother to marry first. dumb. a horse−stealer. 51. a horse. breaking a vow. 64. deaf. teaching (the Veda) for wages. are six (offences) equal to drinking Sura. land. Stealing a deposit. he who adulterates (grain). 65. must always be performed for the sake of purification. are born (again) with disgraceful marks. a drinker of (the spirituous liquor called) Sura. 61. and deformed men. casting off a relative. Forgetting the Veda. reviling the Vedas. who are (all) despised by the virtuous. diamonds and (other) gems. the violator of a Guru's bed. 58. 50. A stealer of (cooked) food. dyspepsia. Cutting down green trees for firewood. one's wife. Living as a Vratya. or of a son. An informer. Slaying kine. injuring (living) plants. 60. adultery with a Guru's wife. executing great mechanical works. lameness. (and so forth). is declared to be equal to stealing the gold (of a Brahmana). 53. giving a daughter to. doing acts for one's own advantage only. slaying a friend. mother. Carnal intercourse with sisters by the same mother. or men. Falsely attributing to oneself high birth. with females of the lowest castes. learning (the Veda) from a paid teacher. subsisting on (the earnings of) one's wife. marrying before one's elder brother. selling oneself. giving information to the king (regarding a crime). he who extinguishes it will become one−eyed. or son. The Laws of Manu 143 . Defiling a damsel. (either brother). a stealer of grain. dumbness a stealer of clothes. 56. and working (magic by means of) roots. giving false evidence. are born idiots. eating prohibited food. and associating with such (offenders). consumption. 62. or sacrificing for. sorcery (by means of sacrifices). selling a tank. a stealer of the words (of the Veda). father. blind.

72. 79. must be known to degrade (the offender) to a mixed caste (Samkarikarana). he is freed (from his guilt). subsisting on sacrificial food. he may dwell at the extremity of the village. 73. and controlling his organs. a goat. Or he may offer a horse−sacrifice. 81. and practising (the arts of) dancing and singing. a snake. of his own free will. slaying women. If either he fights at least three times (against robbers in defence of) a Brahmana's (property). or a house together with the furniture. he may mutter thrice the Samhita of a Veda. he may walk one hundred yoganas. 74. 67. (are all) minor offences. small or large. a Svargit. a Gosava. by means of which all the several offences mentioned (can) be expiated. 71. or birds. studying bad books. (are offences) which make impure (Malavaha). and an unnatural offence with a man. Vaisyas. He who unhesitatingly abandons life for the sake of Brahmanas or of cows. a fish. and speaking a falsehood. in order to remove (the guilt of) slaying a Brahmana. subsisting on alms and making the skull of a dead man his flag. 77. Or. intercourse with women who drink spirituous liquor. cheating. taking pleasure in doing good to cows and Brahmanas. He who thus (remains) always firm in his vow. whole property. is freed from (the guilt of) the murder of a Brahmana. removes after the lapse of twelve years (the guilt of) slaying a Brahmana. Killing a donkey. Killing insects. Neglecting to kindle the sacred fires. Or. reciting one of the Vedas. are declared to cause the loss of caste (Gatibhramsa) 69. Learn (now) completely those penances. or. and atheism. smelling at things which ought not to be smelt at. 70. For his purification the slayer of a Brahmana shall make a hut in the forest and dwell (in it) during twelve years. a horse. a Visvagit. or reconquers the whole property of a Brahmana. become (in a battle) the target of archers who know (his purpose). an elephant. Stealing grain. he may walk against the stream along (the whole course of the river) Sarasvati. a deer. Or let him. or flowers. 78. eating anything kept close to spirituous liquors. 75.The Laws of Manu 66. a sheep. eating little. Giving pain to a Brahmana (by a blow). and of concentrated mind. Having shaved off (all his hair). Accepting presents from blamed men. stealing fruit. Or he may present to a Brahmana. or a buffalo. or an Agnishtut. make (the offender) unworthy to receive gifts (Apatra). a Trivrit. or cattle. or of a Brahmana. as much wealth as suffices for the maintenance (of the recipient). theft. The Laws of Manu 144 . chaste. restricting his food (very much). 82. or at the root of a tree. serving Sudras. non−payment of (the three) debts. or at spirituous liquor. 76. or in a cow−pen. 80. or Kshatriyas. firewood. trading. 68. causing loss of caste (Upapataka). a camel. base metals. an Abhigit. or in a hermitage. and (so is he) who saves (the life of) a cow. learned in the Vedas. or if he loses his life for such a cause. or he may thrice throw himself headlong into a blazing fire. Sudras.

This expiation has been prescribed for unintentionally killing a Brahmana. as the one (named above) even so are all (three sorts) forbidden to the chief of the twice−born. is the dirty refuse (mala) of grain. removes the sin committed by slaying a Brahmana through his self−control. stupefied by drunkenness. the sex of which was) unknown. 88. and a Vaisya shall not drink Sura. 85. water. 87. milk. Sura one must know to be of three kinds. for the words of learned men are a means of purification. after confessing his crime in an assembly of the gods of the earth (Brahnanas). his Brahmanhood forsakes him and he becomes a Sudra. Sura. Sura. or commit some other act which ought not to be committed. when his body has been completely scalded by that. hence he who has confessed his sin before an assembly of such men. in order to remove (the guilt of) drinking Sura. because the Veda is the foundation for that. The Brahmana is declared (to be) the root of the sacred law and the Kshatriya its top. hence a Brahmana. Or. Or he may drink cow's urine. and the gods of men (Kshatriyas). A Brahmana. Rakshasas. 98. might fall on something impure. and (his teaching is) authoritative for men. 92. (the spirituous liquor called) Sura shall drink that liquor boiling−hot. for passionately abusing the teacher. he is freed from his guilt. for slaying a Kshatriya or a Vaisya who are (engaged in or) have offered a (Vedic) sacrifice. A twice−born man who has (intentionally) drunk. or a (Brahmana) woman who has bathed after temporary uncleanness (Atreyi). For destroying the embryo (of a Brahmana. for stealing a deposit. 96. a Kshatriya.The Laws of Manu 83. bathes (with the priests) at the close of a horse−sacrifice. (If) only three of them who are learned in the Veda proclaim the expiation for offences. until he dies. must not partake of such (substances). and that distilled from Madhuka−flowers (madhvi). Or he who. clarified butter or (liquid) cowdung boiling−hot. through delusion of mind. When the Brahman (the Veda) which dwells in his body is (even) once (only) deluged with spirituous liquor. that shall purify the (sinners). wearing clothes made of cowhair and his own hair in braids and carrying (a wine cup as) a flag. is (also) freed (from guilt). or (improperly) pronounce Vedic (texts). with a concentrated mind. he must perform the same penance. he may eat during a year once (a day) at night grains (of rice) or oilcake. 89. becomes pure. The Laws of Manu 145 . 84. Likewise for giving false evidence (in an important cause). but for intentionally slaying a Brahmana no atonement is ordained. By his origin alone a Brahmana is a deity even for the gods. A Brahmana who. 91. that distilled from ground rice. 97. follows any of the (above−mentioned) rules. sin also is called dirt (mala). 93. 95. and Pisakas. a Brahmana who eats (the remnants of) the offerings consecrated to the gods. indeed. 86. and for killing (his) wife or his friend: 90. 94. that distilled from molasses (gaudi). (all other) intoxicating drinks and decoctions and flesh are the food of the Yakshas.

Taking (from him) the club (which he must carry). (living) in a forest and dressed in (garments) made of bark. By means of these penances men who have committed mortal sins (Mahapataka) may remove their guilt. he may. he may walk straight towards the region of Nirriti (the south−west). he must not seek to shelter himself. by his death the thief becomes pure. (subsisting) on sacrificial food or barley−gruel. penance). or falls. or a Brahmana (may purify himself) by austerities. keeping his organs under control. 109. 102. having shaved all his hair. he may during three months continuously perform the lunar penance. He who desires to remove by austerities the guilt of stealing the gold (of a Brahmana). at night. Or. I will next proclaim the atonement for stealing the gold (of a Brahmana). he must live in a cow−house. standing upright. having himself cut off his organ and his testicles and having taken them in his joined hands. in order to remove (the guilt of) violating a Guru's bed. but he may atone for connexion with a Guru's wife by the following penances. 110. He who has committed a minor offence by slaying a cow (or bull) shall drink during (the first) month (a decoction of) barley−grains. he must relieve her by all possible means: 114. or sticks in a morass. shall perform the penance (prescribed) for the slayer of a Brahmana. and the like. he must stand when they stand. 105. dressed in (garments of) bark and allowing his beard to grow. or is threatened by danger from thieves. after serving and worshipping them. The various expiations for drinking (the spirituous liquors called) Sura have thus been explained. the king himself shall strike him once. and covering himself with the hide (of the slain cow). with a concentrated mind. Or. he shall remain in the (posture. but those who committed minor offences. shall. During the day he shall follow the cows and. Controlling himself and free from anger. or when the wind blows violently. after confessing his crime. (When a cow is) sick. until he falls down (dead). tigers. in a lonely forest. carrying the foot of a bedstead. 100. A Brahmana who has stolen the gold (of a Brahmana) shall go to the king and. extend himself on a heated iron bed. 112. punish me!' 101. Or. without (first) sheltering the cows according to his ability. called) virasana. controlling his organs. by dying he becomes pure.The Laws of Manu 99. causing loss of caste. By these penances a twice−born man may remove the guilt incurred by a theft (of gold). 113. 'Lord. During the two (following) months he shall eat a small (quantity of food) without any factitious salt at every fourth meal−time. 108. 111. The Laws of Manu 146 . say. and shall bathe in the urine of cows. inhale the dust (raised by their hoofs). In heat. can do it) by the various following penances. 107. follow them when they walk. revealed by Pragapati. and seat himself when they lie down. confessing his deed. or embrace the red−hot image (of a woman). 103. perform during a whole year the Krikkhra (or hard. in rain. 106. or in cold. (Upapataka. 104. He who has violated his Guru's bed.

and evening). noon. 128. But if a Brahmana unintentionally kills a Kshatriya. shall perform the same penance during one year. Brihaspati) and Pavaka (Fire). (he shall perform) the lunar (penance) during a month. he becomes pure after (the lapse of) one year. controlling himself. When this sin has been committed. The Laws of Manu 147 . to Indra. But a student who has broken his vow shall offer at night on a crossway to Nirriti a one−eyed ass. As atonement for deeds which degrade to a mixed caste (Samkara).The Laws of Manu 115. for (acts) which render impure (Malinikaraniya) he shall scald himself during three days with (hot) barley−gruel. in order to purify themselves. and for those which make a man unworthy to receive gifts (Apatra). For committing with intent any of the deeds which cause loss of caste (Gatibhramsakara). if he breaks his vow. removes after three months the guilt which he incurred by killing a cow. 123. 120. (or) if he does not possess (so much property) he must offer to them all he has. reciting the Rik verse 'May the Maruts grant me. (for doing it) unintentionally. 126. and dwelling at the root of a tree. (the Krikkhra) revealed by Pragapati. in order to purify himself. the Maruts. 116. The divine light which the Veda imparts to the student. But after he has fully performed the penance. according to the rule of the Pakayagnas. if a cow eats (anything) in his own or another's house or field or on the threshing−floor. to the teacher (of the gods. know that it is one−sixteenth for killing a virtuous Sudra. he shall give. Having offered according to the rule oblations in the fire. he shall finally offer (four) oblations of clarified butter to Vata. One fourth (of the penance) for the murder of a Brahmana is prescribed (as expiation) for (intentionally) killing a Kshatriya. Those who know the Veda declare that a voluntary effusion of semen by a twice−born (youth) who fulfils the vow (of studentship constitutes) a breach of that vow. 122. the same penance or also a lunar penance. staying far away from the village. 125. he shall go begging to seven houses. 129. or he may give one hundred cows and one (bull). Or he may perform the penance prescribed for the murderer of a Brahmana during three years. proclaiming his deed. one−eighth for killing a Vaisya. 119.' 121. 130. 124. 127. enters. he must give to (Brahmanas) learned in the Veda ten cows and a bull. except a student who has broken his vow (Avakirnin). or if a calf drinks (milk). 118. dressed in the hide of the (sacrificed) ass. (the offender) shall perform a Samtapana Krikkhra. The slayer of a cow who serves cows in this manner. Subsisting on a single (daily meal that consists) of the alms obtained there and bathing at (the time of) the three savanas (morning. A Brahmana who has slain a virtuous Vaisya. wearing his hair in braids. the teacher (of the gods. one thousand cows and a bull. Twice−born men who have committed (other) minor offences (Upapataka). 117. Puruhuta (Indra). Brihaspati) and to Agni. Let him not say (a word). may perform.

If a man destroys for no good purpose plants produced by cultivation. But for destroying one thousand (small) animals that have bones. can be expiated). or a crow. 134. 139. 137. or a whole cart−load of boneless (animals). A twice−born man. subsisting on milk alone. shall perform for each of them. 136. for a crane (a calf) three years old. a draught−ox. a Balaka. he shall perform the penance for the murder of a Sudra. how) all (sins) committed by partaking of forbidden food (or drink. or he may also give ten white cows and one bull to a Brahmana. five black bulls. an ichneumon. Having killed a cat. or mutter the hymn addressed to the Waters. (even for drinking it) intentionally (a penance) destructive to life must not be imposed. But for killing carnivorous wild beasts. 146. or a sheep. creepers. a falcon. if he injures boneless (animals). a bow. a heifer. 133. or such as spontaneously spring up in the forest. For killing a horse. 140. (For destroying) any kind of creature. 142. or bathe in a river. a Brahmana shall give a spade of black iron.The Laws of Manu 131. a monkey. a frog. in fruit. 135. But for killing (small) animals which have bones. he becomes pure by a suppressing his breath (pranayama). a heron. for (killing) a goat. he shall give a cow to a Brahmana. shrubs. lianas. he should give some trifle to a Brahmana. respectively a leathern bag. for killing a camel. he must give. He who drinks unintentionally (the spirituous liquor. If he has killed a Hamsa. The guilt incurred intentionally or unintentionally by injuring (created beings) can be removed by means of these penances. an iguana. 144. the expiation is to eat clarified butter. 132. in condiments. He who has slain a Sudra. For a boar a pot of clarified butter. called) Varuni. for killing a donkey. 138. in order to purify himself. shall perform that whole penance during six months. for (killing) wild beasts that are not carnivorous. bred in food. for a eunuch a load of straw and a masha of lead. 147. a Krikkhra (penance) in order to remove his guilt. for a parrot a calf two years old. a dog. for a partridge a drona of sesamum−grains. he shall give a milch−cow. he shall attend a cow during one day. hear (now. (a calf) one year old. a blue jay. or flowering plants. a goat. he shall give a garment. or a Bhasa. The Laws of Manu 148 . Or he may drink milk during three days. one hundred Rikas must be muttered. For killing adulterous women of the four castes. an owl. 143. For cutting fruit−trees. for (killing) an elephant. 145. 141. or in flowers. he shall perform the penance (prescribed) for the murder of a Sudra. one krishnala. or a sheep. For killing a snake. or walk one hundred yoganas. a peacock. becomes pure by being initiated (again). who is unable to atone by gifts for the slaughter of a serpent and the other (creatures mentioned). that is a settled rule.

The tonsure. and (for wrongfully appropriating) a field. is a Tapta Krikkhra (penance). of a donkey. a house. 158. of camels. or anything that has touched Sura. (carrying) a staff. has given it away. or the leavings of women and Sudras. must not eat forbidden food. of pigs. If a twice−born man. 154. of crows. 161. shall drink (a decoction of) the Brahmasuvarkala (plant). and must vomit up such as he has eaten unintentionally. though (these substances may) not (be specially) forbidden. shall drink barley (−gruel) during seven (days and) nights. 150. having voluntarily stolen (valuable) property. The atonement for partaking of (the meat of) carnivorous animals. A twice−born man. or (food) into which a hair or an insect has fallen. 152. The Laws of Manu 149 . he becomes pure by thrice suppressing his breath in water. 153. who has swallowed the urine or ordure of a village pig. or quickly atone for it by (various) means of purification.The Laws of Manu 148. by a dog. is purified by performing Krikkhra (penances) during a whole year. grain. who has not returned (home from his teacher's house). (Men of) the three twice−born castes who have unintentionally swallowed ordure or urine. of a jackal. 164. of donkeys. shall drink during five (days and) nights (nothing but) milk in which the Sankhapushpi (plant) has been boiled. or (meat. impure until they have been digested. 149. (wearing) the sacred girdle. 159. shall perform the same penance. the nature of) which is unknown. The chief of the twice−born. 160. But when a Brahmana who has partaken of Soma−juice. or forbidden flesh. A twice−born man who has drunk (fluids that have turned) sour. mushrooms growing on the ground. 155. by a crow. of cocks. or by an ichneumon. He who desires to be pure. 151. or astringent decoctions. of a monkey. by a mouse (or rat). 163. eats food. (or) such as had been kept in a slaughter−house. from the house of a caste−fellow. and the vows (incumbent on a student). or other intoxicating drinks. He who eats what is left by a cat. and afterwards complete his vow (of studentship). whose food must not be eaten. or of a crow. or has drunk water left by a Sudra. He who has eaten dried meat. The various rules respecting penances for eating forbidden food have been thus declared. or the water of wells and cisterns. shall perform an ordinary Krikkhra (penance). and of human flesh.) he shall fast during three days and pass one day (standing) in water. But he who has eaten the food of men. shall perform a lunar penance. But a student who on any occasion eats honey or meat. of a camel. 157. has smelt the odour exhaled by a drinker of Sura. or cooked food. or received it in accordance with the rule. shall drink during three days water in which Kusa−grass has been boiled. are omitted on the second initiation of twice−born men. 162. He who has touched spirituous liquor. The lunar penance has been declared to be the expiation for stealing men and women. going to beg. hear now the law of those penances which remove the guilt of theft. must be initiated again. and eating clarified butter. becomes. He who has drunk water which has stood in a vessel used for keeping (the spirituous liquor. called) Sura. given at a monthly (Sraddha. 156.

sinks low. he removes in three years. 166. 178. 167. A Brahmana who unintentionally approaches a woman of the Kandala or of (any other) very low caste. shall perform a Samtapana Krikkhra. A twice−born man who commits an unnatural offence with a male. Fasting during three (days and) nights shall be (the penance for stealing) grass. (To swallow) the five products of the cow (pankagavya) is the atonement for stealing eatables of various kinds. shall perform the penance. 176. The atonement (to be performed) by sinners (of) four (kinds) even. hear now the penances for those who have intercourse with outcasts. with unmarried maidens. iron. flowers. after restoring the (stolen article). He who has had sexual intercourse with sisters by the same mother. a seat. a bed. 168. (the daughter) of his mother's sister. but (if he does it) intentionally. molasses. medicinal herbs. and compel her to perform the penance which is prescribed for males in cases of adultery. and with females of the lowest castes. shall perform a lunar penance. He who has approached the daughter of his father's sister. he who marries (one of them). a vehicle. (who is almost equal to) a sister. If. 170. A wise man should not take as his wife any of these three. being solicited by a man (of) equal (caste). 172. coral. He who has stolen objects of small value from the house of another man. then a Krikkhra and a lunar penance are prescribed as the means of purifying her. or one with uncloven hoofs. shall bathe. brass. roots. and meat. she (afterwards) is again unfaithful. leather. 171. or with a menstruating woman. a bird. pearls. 177.The Laws of Manu 165. or fruit. but the guilt of approaching women who ought not to be approached (agamya). they must not be wedded because they are (Sapinda−) relatives. has been thus declared. who eats (the food of such persons) and accepts (presents from them) becomes an outcast. clothes. 179. The Laws of Manu 150 . he may expiate by (the following) penances. wood. 175. or of his mother's full brother. or a rope (the penance is to subsist) during three days (on) milk. 169. an animal with cloven hoofs. or has intercourse with a female in a cart drawn by oxen. 174. or of a son. An exceedingly corrupt wife let her husband confine to one apartment. perform a Samtapana Krikkhra for his purification. silver. or an unnatural crime with a female. The sin which a twice−born man commits by dallying one night with a Vrishali. 173. or has had intercourse in water. trees. To subsist during twelve days on (uncooked) grains (is the penance for stealing) gems. By means of these penances. perfumes. or in the day−time. shall. by subsisting on alms and daily muttering (sacred texts). he becomes their equal. prescribed for the violation of a Guru's bed. copper. dry food. A man who has committed a bestial crime. silk. dressed in his clothes. in water. wool. or stone. (For stealing) cotton. with the wives of a friend. 180. a twice−born man may remove the guilt of theft.

196. If Brahmanas acquire property by a reprehensible action. though they may have been purified according to the sacred law. as before. they shall bathe with him in a holy pool and throw down a new pot. 192. to sit with him. 185. Those twice−born men who may not have been taught the Savitri (at the time) prescribed by the rule. dost thou desire to become our equal?' The Laws of Manu 151 . not by sacrificing for him. The Sapindas and Samanodakas of an outcast must offer (a libation of) water (to him. on an inauspicious day. 188. all the duties incumbent on a relative. with those who have returned evil for good. and teachers. 190. He who associates with any one of those outcasts. they become pure by relinquishing it. himself becomes an outcast after a year. 187. (dwelling) for a month in a cow−house. 194. A female slave shall upset with her foot a pot filled with water. Let him follow the same rule in the case of female outcasts. to give him a share of the inheritance.The Laws of Manu 181. in the evening and in the presence of the relatives. but by using the same carriage or seat. He who associates with an outcast. By muttering with a concentrated mind the Savitri three thousand times. and reverently salutes. as if it were for a dead person. 184. 183. the penance prescribed for that (sinner). officiating priests. (and) subsisting on milk. and his stead a younger brother. (a man) is freed from (the guilt of) accepting presents from a wicked man. But when he has performed his penance. shall obtain the share of the eldest. due to the eldest son. outside (the village). and to hold with him such intercourse as is usual among men. who follow forbidden occupations or have neglected (to learn) the Veda. and (performing) austerities. food. filled with water. (the Brahmanas) shall ask him. 193. in order to atone for (such) intercourse. desire to perform a penance. 195. But he shall throw that pot into water. and with the slayers of suppliants for protection or of women. muttering prayers. must perform. But thenceforward it shall be forbidden to converse with him. but let him in no way reproach those who have made atonement. or forming a matrimonial alliance with him. and drink shall be given to them. 182. excelling in virtue. (his Sapindas) as well as the Samanodakas shall be impure for a day and a night. Let him not dwell together with the murderers of children. and they shall live close to the (family−) house. or by eating with him. And (if he be the eldest) his right of primogeniture shall be withheld and the additional share. he shall cause to perform three Krikkhra (penances) and afterwards initiate them in accordance with the law. Let him prescribe the same (expiation) when twice−born men. as if he were dead). 'Friend. but clothes. teaching him. 189. But when he returns from the cow−house. 191. 186. emaciated with his fast. enter his house and perform. Let him not transact any business with unpurified sinners.

or has addressed one of his betters with 'Thou. But he who. For threatening a Brahmana. A twice−born man who performs (the Krikkhra penance). let him fix a penance after considering (the offender's) strength and the (nature of the) offence. or a magic sacrifice (intended to destroy life) or an Ahina sacrifice. and shall fast during another period of three days. adopted by the gods. 202. tied him by the neck with a cloth. removes (his guilt) by three Krikkhra (penances). or a donkey.The Laws of Manu 197. for shedding his blood a Krikkhra and an Atikrikkhra. 203. 'he shall scatter (some) grass for the cows. if the cows hallow that place (by eating the grass) the (Brahmana) shall re−admit him (into their community). becomes pure by bathing outside (the village) in his clothes and by touching a cow. shall appease him by a prostration.' shall bathe. or has performed the obsequies of strangers. To eat during a month at each sixth mealtime (only). He who has been bitten by a dog. during (the next) three days in the evening (only). fast during the remaining part of the day. revealed by Pragapati. being greatly pressed. 210. a jackal. For the expiation of offences for which no atonement has been prescribed. A twice−born man who has cast off a suppliant for protection. 'Forsooth. during one thousand years. I will (now) describe to you those means. intending to hurt a Brahmana. 209. atones for his offence. shall eat during three days in the morning (only). He who has struck (a Brahmana) even with a blade of grass. Fasting is the penance for omitting the daily rites prescribed by the Veda and for neglecting the special duties of a Snataka. for striking him an Atikrikkhra. and appease (the person offended) by a reverential salutation. to recite the Samhita (of a Veda). and he who bathed naked. has threatened (him with a stick and the like) shall remain in hell during a hundred years. the sages. 201. through which a man may remove his sins. 211. 212. if he subsists during a year on barley. If he answers to the Brahmanas. he who (actually) struck him. 207. 205. or has (improperly) divulged the Veda. a horse. become pure by suppressing his breath (Pranayama). for so many thousand years shall the shedder of that (blood) remain in hell. becomes pure by suppressing his breath (Pranayama). either without (using) water or in water. 199. As many particles of dust as the blood of a Brahmana causes to coagulate. by a tame carnivorous animal. He who has sacrificed for Vratyas. 208. and the manes. He who has said 'Hum' to a Brahmana. and (to perform) daily the Sakala oblations. He who has relieved the necessities of nature. A Brahmana who voluntarily rode in a carriage drawn by camels or by asses. The Laws of Manu 152 . or a (village−) pig. 200. 198. 206. during the (following) three days (food given) unasked. a camel. are the means of purifying those excluded from society at repasts (Apanktya). (the offender) shall perform a Krikkhra. 204. by a man. (I will not offend again). or conquered him in an altercation.

eats (during a month daily) four mouthfuls in a morning and four after sunset. If one diminishes (one's food daily by) one mouthful during the dark (half of the month) and increases (it in the same manner) during the bright half. the gods. by liberality. must daily be made (by the penitent) himself. 222. Sudras. called) yavamadhyama (shaped like a barley−corn). and by reciting (the Veda) a sinner is freed from guilt. that is called a lunar penance (Kandrayana). on the first day of the bright half (of the month). By confession. cowdung. Let him constantly mutter the Savitri and (other) purificatory texts according to his ability. speak the truth. If a Brahmana. and evening). dwells (after death) in the world of the moon. The Rudras. shall eat (during a month) daily at midday eight mouthfuls. milk. let him on no account talk to women. but let him purify those whose sins are not known by (the recitation of) sacred texts and by (the performance of) burnt oblations. and Brahmanas. A Brahmana who performs a Taptakrikkhra (penance) must drink hot water. must take his food during three periods of three days in the manner described above. concentrating his mind. and bathe once with a concentrated mind. controlling himself and consuming sacrificial food (only). hot milk. He who performs the lunar penance of ascetics. 217. Burnt oblations. (let him) carefully (act thus) on (the occasion of) all (other) vows (performed) by way of penance. 224. sour milk. eats during a month in any way thrice eighty mouthfuls of sacrificial food. 226. practised this (rite) in order to remove all evil. 221. 219. 218. is called a Paraka Krikkhra. (that is) called the lunar penance of children. and fasting during one (day and) night. 214. noon. Let him bathe three times each day and thrice each night.The Laws of Manu 213. dressed in his clothes. A fast for twelve days by a man who controls himself and commits no mistakes. by austerity. (that is) called a Samtapana Krikkhra. and in case no other course is possible. 225. (Subsisting on) the urine of cows. hot clarified butter and (inhale) hot air. and keep himself free from anger and from dishonesty. He who. A twice−born man who performs an Atikrikkhra (penance). By these expiations twice−born men must be purified whose sins are known. the Vasus and the Maruts. 216. The Laws of Manu 153 . accompanied by (the recitation of) the Mahavyahritis. and a decoction of Kusa−grass. Let him follow throughout the same rule at the (Kandrayana. and bathes (daily) at the time of three libations (morning. 227. which removes all guilt. 215. Let him pass the time standing (during the day) and sitting (during the night). and fast during the last three days. by repentance. (but) one mouthful only at each meal. likewise the Adityas. each during three days. let him be chaste and observe the vows (of a student) and worship his Gurus. and he must abstain from injuring (sentient creatures). together with the great sages. 228. 223. 220. clarified butter. and outcasts. with concentrated mind. or if he is unable (to do that) let him lie on the (bare) ground. (with a) controlled (mind). (but) let him (in that case) begin the lunar penance.

and actions. Insects. even so far is his body freed from that guilt. 242. The Laws of Manu 154 . He who. moths. the sages likewise obtained (the revelation of) the Vedas through their austerities. 235. whatever is hard to be performed. 236. for austerity (possesses a power) which it is difficult to surpass. good health. let him repeat the austerities (prescribed as a penance) for it until they fully satisfy (his conscience). and air. that they speedily burn away by penance. 241. whatever is hard to be reached. Both those who have committed mortal sin (Mahapataka) and all other offenders are severally freed from their guilt by means of well−performed austerities. 240. all (this) may be accomplished by austerities. survey the three worlds together with their moving and immovable (creatures) through their austerities alone. 233. Having thus considered in his mind what results will arise from his deeds after death. and grant to him all he desires. Pragapati. All the bliss of gods and men is declared by the sages to whom the Veda was revealed. In proportion as a man who has done wrong. learning. In proportion as his heart loathes his evil deed. The gods accept the offerings of that Brahmana alone who has purified himself by austerities. The sages who control themselves and subsist on fruit. speech. 243. or deeds. bereft of motion. desires to be freed from (the guilt on it. 238. bees. 244. 234. (the pursuit of) his daily business is the austerity of a Vaisya. Whatever sin men commit by thoughts. (The pursuit of sacred) knowledge is the austerity of a Brahmana. 230. roots. and the various divine stations are attained by austerities alone. and austerity for its end. 231. austerity for its middle. if they keep penance as their only riches. himself confesses it.The Laws of Manu 229. birds and beings. even so far he is freed from guilt. 237. words. He who has committed a sin and has repented. discerning that the holy origin of this whole (world) is from austerity.' 232. The lord. let him always be good in thoughts. having either unintentionally or intentionally committed a reprehensible deed. have thus proclaimed the incomparable power of austerity. created these Institutes (of the sacred law) by his austerities alone. but he is purified only by (the resolution of) ceasing (to sin and thinking) 'I will do so no more. protecting (the people) is the austerity of a Kshatriya. whatever is hard to be attained. 245. reach heaven by the power of austerities. for austerity is the means of gaining them. If his mind be uneasy with respect to any act. Medicines. as a snake from its slough. Whatever is hard to be traversed. is freed from that sin. and service the austerity of a Sudra. The gods. snakes. must not commit it a second time. to have austerity for its root. 239.

255. verily. becomes pure. 252. he is (likewise) freed from all sins causing loss of caste. purify. having accepted presents which ought not to be accepted. 259. 256. He who is stained by mortal sin. but he who has committed any blamable act in water. the performance of the great sacrifices according to one's ability. The violator of a Guru's bed is freed (from sin). Even he who has stolen gold. A twice−born man removes even very great guilt by offering clarified butter with the sacred texts belonging to the Sakala−homas. thus.' and mutters the hymn addressed to Purusha.' (and that beginning) 'Thus. Varuna. O Varuna. and muttering (in the water the hymn seen by) Aghamarshana. bathing thrice a day. if he repeatedly recites the Havishpantiya (hymn). But he who has committed many sins. 249. with a concentrated mind. pure (in mind and in body). sanctified by three Paraka (penances).' or 'Whatever offence here. 251. Even a drinker of (the spirituous liquor called) Sura becomes pure. 'Removing by thy splendour our guilt. 253. he thrice repeats the Samhita of the Veda in a forest. mutters the Taratsamandiya (Rikas). becomes pure. 248. and Mitra. As the horse−sacrifice. even so the Aghamarshana hymn effaces all guilt.' (that seen) by Vasishtha. if he once mutters (the hymn beginning with the words) 'The middlemost brother of this beautiful. The daily study of the Veda. (beginning) 'Adoration.' while he bathes in a river. The penances for sins (made public) have been thus declared according to the law. Sixteen suppressions of the breath (Pranayama) accompanied by (the recitation of) the Vyahritis and of the syllable Om. if he mutters the hymn (seen) by Kutsa. even that caused by mortal sins. even so he who knows the Veda destroys all guilt by the fire of knowledge. learn next the penances for secret (sins). 247. 'With their hymns the Vasishthas woke the Dawn. if. (that beginning) 'Neither anxiety nor misfortune. Or if. O Agni. and the three verses (beginning) 'Aryaman. reciting the Pavamani (hymns) and subsisting on alms. after a month even the murderer of a learned Brahmana. 257. He who desires to expiate sins great or small. removes all sin. The Laws of Manu 155 . he is freed from all crimes causing loss of caste (pataka). must mutter during a year the Rit−verse 'May we remove thy anger. instantly becomes free from guilt. 250.The Laws of Manu 246. A grievous offender shall mutter the seven verses (beginning with) 'Indra.' 258.' for half a year. shall subsist during a month on food obtained by begging. he attends cows for a year. That man who. becomes pure after three days. 260. if he recites during a month the (four verses) addressed to Soma and Rudra. But if (a man) fasts during three days.' 254. ancient Hotri−priest' and the Sivasamkalpa. 261. O Varuna. the king of sacrifices.' the Mahitra (hymn) and (the verses called) Suddhavatis. (and) patience (in suffering) quickly destroy all guilt. or by muttering the Rik. As a fire in one moment consumes with its bright flame the fuel that has been placed on it. or having eaten forbidden food. if they are repeated daily.

or (that of the) Yagur−veda. and talking idly. 11. 265. or (that of the) Sama−veda together with the secret (texts. he who knows them. or a beast. communicate to us (now). Action. That man is called a (true) tridandin in whose mind these three. Taking what has not been given. 6. the highest. the whole sacred law. are the three kinds of (sinful) mental action. and falls under ten heads. a man becomes (in the next birth) something inanimate. has three locations. a bird. 'Hear the decision concerning this whole connexion with actions. 1. (applicable) to the four castes. (that of) a verbal (act) in his speech. 10. injuring (creatures) without the sanction of the law. (A man) obtains (the result of) a good or evil mental (act) in his mind. with a concentrated mind. The Rikas. answered. by action are caused the (various) conditions of men. the middling. Coveting the property of others. is completely freed from all sins. the control over his speech (vagdanda).' 2. the control over his thoughts (manodanda). The Laws of Manu 156 . (is called) learned in the Veda. according to the truth. 263. the Upanishads). 8. is another triple Veda which must be kept secret. 264. Know that the mind is the instigator here below. (is called) learned in the Veda. produces either good or evil results. and holding criminal intercourse with another man's wife. 'O sinless One. are firmly fixed. and the control over his body (kayadanda). and from the body. thrice recites the Riksamhita. must be known (to form) the triple Veda. 266. are declared to be the three kinds of (wicked) bodily action. CHAPTER XII. 7.' 3. thinking in one's heart of what is undesirable. Abusing (others. even so every sinful act is engulfed in the threefold Veda. and in consequence of mental (sins he is re−born in) a low caste. He who. speaking) untruth. (and) which is of three kinds. even to that (action) which is connected with the body. detracting from the merits of all men. and adherence to false (doctrines). 9. though he may have destroyed these three worlds. 4. The initial triliteral Brahman on which the threefold (sacred science) is based. As a clod of earth. the ultimate retribution for (their) deeds. In consequence of (many) sinful acts committed with his body. is quickly dissolved. the manifold Saman (−songs). and the lowest.The Laws of Manu 262. falling into a great lake. That man who keeps this threefold control (over himself) with respect to all created beings and wholly subdues desire and wrath. from speech. the Yagus (−formulas) which differ (from the former). he who knows that. though he may eat the food of anybody. 5. thereby assuredly gains complete success. in consequence (of sins) committed by speech. has been declared by thee. To the great sages (who addressed him thus) righteous Bhrigu. shall be the four kinds of (evil) verbal action. (that of) a bodily (act) in his body. sprung from Manu. which springs from the mind. A Brahmana who retains in his memory the Rig−veda is not stained by guilt.

it suffers. 27. then it makes the embodied (soul) eminently distinguished for that quality. 13. 24. those two mighty ones.The Laws of Manu 12. Those two together examine without tiring the merit and the guilt of that (individual soul). 20. through which (the Kshetragna) becomes sensible of all pleasure and pain in (successive) births. who are closely united with the elements. is produced after death (in the case) of wicked men. Goodness is declared (to have the form of) knowledge. 17. Activity (of) love and hatred. 23. What is mixed with pain and does not give satisfaction to the soul one may know (to be the quality of) Activity. a deep calm. Know Goodness (sattva). Him who impels this (corporeal) Self to action. Darkness (of) ignorance. formed of particles (of the) five (elements and) destined to suffer the torments (in hell). each according to its class. 26. but him who does the acts. pervade him who resides in the multiform created beings. 19. When (the evil−doers) by means of that body have suffered there the torments imposed by Yama. the torments inflicted by Yama. they call the Kshetragna (the knower of the field). 25. Activity (ragas). the Great One and the Kshetragna. having recognised even by means of his intellect these transitions of the individual soul (which depend) on merit and demerit. free from taint. He. again enters. free from stains. 15. with those very elements (from which they were taken). as it were. approaches. When one of these qualities wholly predominates in a body. clothed with those very elements. always fix his heart on (the acquisition of) merit. These two. But if it chiefly cleaves to vice and to virtue in a small degree. Another strong body. having suffered for his faults. From his body innumerable forms go forth. 22. with which the Great One always completely pervades all existences. deserted by the elements. 16. then let him know (that it is) among those three (the quality called) Goodness. which is difficult to conquer. The individual soul. 14. having endured those torments of Yama. each in due proportion. and a pure light. and Darkness (tamas) to be the three qualities of the Self. 28. Let (man). 18. united with which it obtains bliss or misery both in this world and the next. The Laws of Manu 157 . If (the soul) chiefly practises virtue and vice to a small degree. (its constituent parts) are united. such is the nature of these (three) which is (all−) pervading and clings to everything created. which constantly impel the multiform creatures to action. those very five elements. and which result in misery. which are produced by attachment to sensual objects. the wise name the Bhutatman (the Self consisting of the elements). it obtains bliss in heaven. Another internal Self that is generated with all embodied (Kshetragnas) is called Giva. 21. When (man) experiences in his soul a (feeling) full of bliss. and which ever draws embodied (souls towards sensual objects).

Natas. men who subsist by despicable occupations and those addicted to gambling and drinking (form) the lowest (order of) conditions caused by Activity. feels ashamed. Those endowed with Goodness reach the state of gods. fishes. (are) the marks of the quality of Activity. Ghallas. The craving after sensual pleasures is declared to be the mark of Darkness. what cannot be fathomed by reasoning. moreover. But. the performance of meritorious acts and meditation on the Soul. one must consider (as the quality of) Darkness. and high. or being about to do any act. 30. moreover. Suparnas and hypocrites. both small and great. (the pursuit of) wealth (the mark) of Activity. I will. What is coupled with delusion. are the lowest conditions to which (the quality of) Darkness leads. know that it (bears the mark of the quality of) Activity. 44. the following to be a brief description of the three qualities. Delighting in undertakings. I will briefly declare in due order what transmigrations in this whole (world a man) obtains through each of these qualities. are the marks of the quality of Darkness. leading an evil life. and those endowed with Darkness ever sink to the condition of beasts. When a (man). But that (bears) the mark of the quality of Goodness which with his whole (heart) he desires to know. cruelty. the learned may know that all (such acts bear) the mark of the quality of Darkness. according to the particular nature of the acts and of the knowledge (of each man). middling. when (a man) desires (to gain) by an act much fame in this world and feels no sorrow on failing. which he is not ashamed to perform. 45. the present. Karanas. fully describe the results which arise from these three qualities. caused by (the quality of) Darkness. each in its order. 36. lions. and tortoises. Sudras. the excellent ones. 40. and the lowest. that is the threefold course of transmigrations. (the pursuit of) knowledge. doing. pusillanimity. and boars (are) the middling states. a habit of soliciting favours. what has the character of an undiscernible mass. horses. purity. 34. 38. 42. snakes. Covetousness. want of firmness. what cannot be fully known. 31. low. commission of sinful acts. 32. and inattentiveness. (are) the marks of the quality of Goodness. and future). The Laws of Manu 158 . control over the organs. as they appear in the three (times. austerity. Mallas. 35. Rakshasas and Pisakas (belong to) the highest (rank of) conditions among those produced by Darkness. those endowed with Activity the state of men. 43. and at which his soul rejoices. and despicable barbarians. tigers. sleepiness. (the desire to gain) spiritual merit the mark of Goodness. atheism. 33. Elephants.The Laws of Manu 29. cattle and wild animals. 41. 39. 37. Immovable (beings). past. each later) named quality is) better than the preceding one. insects. The study of the Vedas. Know. But know this threefold course of transmigrations that depends on the (three) qualities (to be again) threefold. and continual indulgence in sensual pleasures. the middling ones. having done.

The Laws of Manu 46. Kings and Kshatriyas, the domestic priests of kings, and those who delight in the warfare of disputations (constitute) the middling (rank of the) states caused by Activity. 47. The Gandharvas, the Guhyakas, and the servants of the gods, likewise the Apsarases, (belong all to) the highest (rank of) conditions produced by Activity. 48. Hermits, ascetics, Brahmanas, the crowds of the Vaimanika deities, the lunar mansions, and the Daityas (form) the first (and lowest rank of the) existences caused by Goodness. 49. Sacrificers, the sages, the gods, the Vedas, the heavenly lights, the years, the manes, and the Sadhyas (constitute) the second order of existences, caused by Goodness. 50. The sages declare Brahma, the creators of the universe, the law, the Great One, and the Undiscernible One (to constitute) the highest order of beings produced by Goodness. 51. Thus (the result) of the threefold action, the whole system of transmigrations which (consists) of three classes, (each) with three subdivisions, and which includes all created beings, has been fully pointed out. 52. In consequence of attachment to (the objects of) the senses, and in consequence of the non−performance of their duties, fools, the lowest of men, reach the vilest births. 53. What wombs this individual soul enters in this world and in consequence of what actions, learn the particulars of that at large and in due order. 54. Those who committed mortal sins (mahapataka), having passed during large numbers of years through dreadful hells, obtain, after the expiration of (that term of punishment), the following births. 55. The slayer of a Brahmana enters the womb of a dog, a pig, an ass, a camel, a cow, a goat, a sheep, a deer, a bird, a Kandala, and a Pukkasa. 56. A Brahmana who drinks (the spirituous liquor called) Sura shall enter (the bodies) of small and large insects, of moths, of birds, feeding on ordure, and of destructive beasts. 57. A Brahmana who steals (the gold of a Brahmana shall pass) a thousand times (through the bodies) of spiders, snakes and lizards, of aquatic animals and of destructive Pisakas. 58. The violator of a Guru's bed (enters) a hundred times (the forms) of grasses, shrubs, and creepers, likewise of carnivorous (animals) and of (beasts) with fangs and of those doing cruel deeds. 59. Men who delight in doing hurt (become) carnivorous (animals); those who eat forbidden food, worms; thieves, creatures consuming their own kind; those who have intercourse with women of the lowest castes, Pretas. 60. He who has associated with outcasts, he who has approached the wives of other men, and he who has stolen the property of a Brahmana become Brahmarakshasas. 61. A man who out of greed has stolen gems, pearls or coral, or any of the many other kinds of precious things, is born among the goldsmiths. 62. For stealing grain (a man) becomes a rat, for stealing yellow metal a Hamsa, for stealing water a Plava, for stealing honey a stinging insect, for stealing milk a crow, for stealing condiments a dog, for stealing clarified butter an ichneumon; The Laws of Manu 159

The Laws of Manu 63. For stealing meat a vulture, for stealing fat a cormorant, for stealing oil a winged animal (of the kind called) Tailapaka, for stealing salt a cricket, for stealing sour milk a bird (of the kind called) Balaka. 64. For stealing silk a partridge, for stealing linen a frog, for stealing cotton−cloth a crane, for stealing a cow an iguana, for stealing molasses a flying−fox; 65. For stealing fine perfumes a musk−rat, for stealing vegetables consisting of leaves a peacock, for stealing cooked food of various kinds a porcupine, for stealing uncooked food a hedgehog. 66. For stealing fire he becomes a heron, for stealing household−utensils a mason−wasp, for stealing dyed clothes a francolin−partridge; 67. For stealing a deer or an elephant a wolf, for stealing a horse a tiger, for stealing fruit and roots a monkey, for stealing a woman a bear, for stealing water a black−white cuckoo, for stealing vehicles a camel, for stealing cattle a he−goat. 68. That man who has forcibly taken away any kind of property belonging to another, or who has eaten sacrificial food (of) which (no portion) had been offered, inevitably becomes an animal. 69. Women, also, who in like manner have committed a theft, shall incur guilt; they will become the females of those same creatures (which have been enumerated above). 70. But (men of the four) castes who have relinquished without the pressure of necessity their proper occupations, will become the servants of Dasyus, after migrating into despicable bodies. 71. A Brahmana who has fallen off from his duty (becomes) an Ulkamukha Preta, who feeds on what has been vomited; and a Kshatriya, a Kataputana (Preta), who eats impure substances and corpses. 72. A Vaisya who has fallen off from his duty becomes a Maitrakshagyotika Preta, who feeds on pus; and a Sudra, a Kailasaka (Preta, who feeds on moths). 73. In proportion as sensual men indulge in sensual pleasures, in that same proportion their taste for them grows. 74. By repeating their sinful acts those men of small understanding suffer pain here (below) in various births; 75. (The torture of) being tossed about in dreadful hells, Tamisra and the rest, (that of) the Forest with sword−leaved trees and the like, and (that of) being bound and mangled; 76. And various torments, the (pain of) being devoured by ravens and owls, the heat of scorching sand, and the (torture of) being boiled in jars, which is hard to bear; 77. And births in the wombs (of) despicable (beings) which cause constant misery, and afflictions from cold and heat and terrors of various kinds, 78. The (pain of) repeatedly lying in various wombs and agonizing births, imprisonment in fetters hard to bear, and the misery of being enslaved by others, 79. And separations from their relatives and dear ones, and the (pain of) dwelling together with the wicked, (labour in) gaining wealth and its loss, (trouble in) making friends and (the appearance of) enemies,

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The Laws of Manu 80. Old age against which there is no remedy, the pangs of diseases, afflictions of many various kinds, and (finally) unconquerable death. 81. But with whatever disposition of mind (a man) forms any act, he reaps its result in a (future) body endowed with the same quality. 82. All the results, proceeding from actions, have been thus pointed out; learn (next) those acts which secure supreme bliss to a Brahmana. 83. Studying the Veda, (practising) austerities, (the acquisition of true) knowledge, the subjugation of the organs, abstention from doing injury, and serving the Guru are the best means for attaining supreme bliss. 84. (If you ask) whether among all these virtuous actions, (performed) here below, (there be) one which has been declared more efficacious (than the rest) for securing supreme happiness to man, 85. (The answer is that) the knowledge of the Soul is stated to be the most excellent among all of them; for that is the first of all sciences, because immortality is gained through that. 86. Among those six (kinds of) actions (enumerated) above, the performance of) the acts taught in the Veda must ever be held to be most efficacious for ensuring happiness in this world and the next. 87. For in the performance of the acts prescribed by the Veda all those (others) are fully comprised, (each) in its turn in the several rules for the rites. 88. The acts prescribed by the Veda are of two kinds, such as procure an increase of happiness and cause a continuation (of mundane existence, pravritta), and such as ensure supreme bliss and cause a cessation (of mundane existence, nivritta). 89. Acts which secure (the fulfilment of) wishes in this world or in the next are called pravritta (such as cause a continuation of mundane existence); but acts performed without any desire (for a reward), preceded by (the acquisition) of (true) knowledge, are declared to be nivritta (such as cause the cessation of mundane existence). 90. He who sedulously performs acts leading to future births (pravritta) becomes equal to the gods; but he who is intent on the performance of those causing the cessation (of existence, nivritta) indeed, passes beyond (the reach of) the five elements. 91. He who sacrifices to the Self (alone), equally recognising the Self in all created beings and all created beings in the Self, becomes (independent like) an autocrat and self−luminous. 92. After giving up even the above−mentioned sacrificial rites, a Brahmana should exert himself in (acquiring) the knowledge of the Soul, in extinguishing his passions, and in studying the Veda. 93. For that secures the attainment of the object of existence, especially in the case of a Brahmana, because by attaining that, not otherwise, a twice−born man has gained all his ends. 94. The Veda is the eternal eye of the manes, gods, and men; the Veda−ordinance (is) both beyond the sphere of (human) power, and beyond the sphere of (human) comprehension; that is a certain fact. 95. All those traditions (smriti) and those despicable systems of philosophy, which are not based on the Veda, produce no reward after death; for they are declared to be founded on Darkness.

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shall doubtlessly have legal (force). the four orders. (now) the secret portion of these Institutes. and the (sacred) Institutes which comprise the tradition (of) many (schools). he becomes even while abiding in this world. must be fully understood by him who desires perfect correctness with respect to the sacred law. knows the sacred law. 108. by (modes of) reasoning. Thus the acts which secure supreme bliss have been exactly and fully described. (the answer is). 106. royal authority. which in this respect are) secondary acts. 102. by sacred learning he obtains the cessation of (births and) deaths. declares to be law. Austerity and sacred learning are the best means by which a Brahmana secures supreme bliss. and three men belonging to the first three orders The Laws of Manu 162 . the past. or of at least three persons who follow their prescribed occupations. The eternal lore of the Veda upholds all created beings. 100. taste. colour. will be taught. Sound. 105. He alone. the three worlds.' 109. have studied the Veda together with its appendages. one who recites (the Institutes of) the sacred law. the office of a judge. and fifthly smell are known through the Veda alone. 'that which Brahmanas (who are) Sishtas propound. (Even forgetful) students of the (sacred) books are more distinguished than the ignorant. not repugnant to the Veda−lore. 104. fit for the union with Brahman. Three persons who each know one of the three principal Vedas. and the future are all severally known by means of the Veda. are worthless and false. the present. All those (doctrines). hence I hold that to be supreme. inference. 99. 107. proclaimed by Manu. men who follow (the teaching of the texts) surpass those who (merely) know (their meaning). Command of armies. 110. Whatever an assembly. perception. a logician. and no other man. If it be asked how it should be with respect to (points of) the law which have not been (specially) mentioned. (their) production (is) through the (Vedic rites. those who remember them surpass the (forgetful) students. and sovereignty over the whole world he (only) deserves who knows the Veda−science. even so he who knows the Veda burns out the taint of his soul which arises from (evil) acts. 101. 111. Those Brahmanas must be considered as Sishtas who. differing from the (Veda). who explores the (utterances) of the sages and the body of the laws. because they are of modern date. touch. The four castes. The three (kinds of evidence). a Mimamsaka. 97. those who possess a knowledge (of the meaning) are more distinguished than those who (only) remember (the words). In whatever order (a man) who knows the true meaning of the Veda−science may dwell. the legal (force of) that one must not dispute. which is the means of (securing happiness to) these creatures. one who knows the Nirukta.The Laws of Manu 96. As a fire that has gained strength consumes even trees full of sap. by austerities he destroys guilt. and are able to adduce proofs perceptible by the senses from the revealed texts. which spring up and (soon) perish. 103. 98. consisting either of at least ten. in accordance with the sacred law.

125. meet. others the vital air. bright like gold. by means of birth. Let (every Brahmana). on the quarters of the horizon as one with his sense of hearing. incarnations of Darkness. the Lord of creatures. concentrating his mind. 118. All that which is most efficacious for securing supreme bliss has been thus declared to you. Let him meditate on the ether as identical with the cavities (of the body). smaller even than small. on the most excellent light as the same with his digestive organs and his sight. on Vishnu as one with his (power of) motion. does not give his heart to unrighteousness. on water as the same with the (corporeal) fluids. on Agni (Fire) as identical with his speech. and subsist only by the name of their caste. 119. others Indra. The Self alone is the multitude of the gods. growth and decay. and unacquainted with the law. others Manu. shall be known (to form) an assembly consisting of at least three members (and competent) to decide doubtful points of law. 114. 115. Brahman. 117. this whole most excellent secret of the sacred law. 123. The sin of him whom dunces. on the earth as the same with the solid parts (of his body). and will reach whatever condition he desires. Even if thousands of Brahmanas. fully recognise in the Self all things. 116. on the wind as identical with the organs of motions and of touch. On the moon as one with the internal organ. increased a hundredfold. 122. Let him know the supreme Male (Purusha. A twice−born man who recites these Institutes. they cannot (form) an assembly (for settling the sacred law). a Brahmana who does not fall off from that obtains the most excellent state. one who knows the Yagur−veda. becomes equal (−minded) towards all. falls. for he who recognises the universe in the Self. One who knows the Rig−veda. THE END OF THE LAWS OF MANU The Laws of Manu 163 . revealed by Manu. and enters the highest state. both the real and the unreal. 124. instruct (in his duty). Even that which one Brahmana versed in the Veda declares to be law. revolve like the wheels (of a chariot). are unacquainted with the Veda. who have not fulfilled their sacred duties. He pervades all created beings in the five forms. on those who propound it. 120. through a desire of benefiting mankind.The Laws of Manu shall constitute a (legal) assembly. Some call him Agni (Fire). Thus did that worshipful deity disclose to me. 126. for the Self produces the connexion of these embodied (spirits) with actions. and one who knows the Sama−veda. will be always virtuous in conduct. but) not that which is proclaimed by myriads of ignorant men. consisting of at least ten members. to be) the sovereign ruler of them all. and on Pragapati as one with his organ of generation. and again others eternal Brahman. 112. must be considered (to have) supreme legal (force. on Mitra as identical with his excretions. 113. and perceptible by the intellect (only when) in (a state of) sleep (−like abstraction). and constantly makes them. on Hara as the same with his strength. 121. He who thus recognises the Self through the Self in all created beings. the universe rests on the Self.

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