•

II

3RD EDITION

Dr. Lin Lougheed

• Selecting a topic and organizing your ideas

• Writing in clear, grammatical English

• Editing and proofreading your essay Includes model essays to guide your progress

®TOEFL is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Service. This

pu bl lcatlon has been neither reviewed no r endorsed by the Educational Testing Service.

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11 hl1rod1uctlortl Ii'ow' ~! Use "J'W,s :~J~" Q~utiOM amd,.~ 'To ali:: T:ea..:h~

Exipm.dio8 me Actiiiv,icies 1!'!~~"r:a4 illnd¢pemdiMi. Task. \lll'HclD,g Skil~

~E'!iV

QllI.e$tig~ T~ Soonog~md,T:lsk SCQrrnlt-lnd~,~m~ TaSk WriJ~iil1gSt~C5

Sc1f,.l'Cst

Int~ted Task ~Cfid~T~k

Wrl~ dle ,RespCl:n~C S1!!:mm<!rmtlg ~ri.~6 :Stcp3~c

U~ dJE~isioilit Ch~.

PAccice .~ Pn.criiicc:2

Clledc dllc 8pd1Jin,g :and. ,hnauaM Spctli.fig

I~~cion

.~'3

~~.4

.~.Pn~ce

'p~ec m~T'IlIk,

11

W,rilirng Sk~ns Inidepenldenl: Task

Stcp,lPlD

Wr1iu: II. '~5 S(;1j~~.eOl; P:m~oe 1

M~:NQfes: .MQDI!: GtCa;lJ~tal J.dl~ ;:md Speciic De~Ls,

Oudmes

DiimUce 2

~3

:~~-P

Pliacli(l:~ ~.

PraJ:ttice ~

Step 2Wri1ie

Wft~ .d!!,C' ~n;tr:oducd.on

S'l::lm~Q~ OrH!~O:!!! ,bactk:e ~, ihacttml ,~cc:,3, Puracd~4 Pmctiu.5' P!ll!i.ctID~:6

2

Wrilirng Ikiillsi hllegrated Task

._~. 'nL~ '~~ ~, .~.I.iiI,

39

GUide Ime: Bader Pf;;iccl~1 Write me~,lu; P~<i;.oo~8

How to Take 'No res ~(jj]i:Jru_g List¢Jliilllg

Oyd_in~ ;u;!d Idiea Mairs ·IT.\mu. ~, ~Ql2 ~2'YrB

'W.i:i~c ~ Thes~ S~IDC!]it Fhi:IID[: 'MV]~

Pf!!ak:e 1 Compur.:aod, 'Co:nJEra&!:

PxacuocZ

Wriu:lh~ Sllippo.rdmg D~ r~-fh:~:io,g

PF.i.'«ia:3

P!:'aooce4

elclng

p~oo~s:

78 78,

'80 :88: 88

UO US U.G n6 nG .~'UI ~20! mu 123

1!:25

1.27 127 12B

150 131 132 134 1513: 142 146 1St 1:50 ISO 1:51 [52 ~52 153 154

1.'5 IS,S,

157 159 HSO

iy Writing fO'f the TOEFL 1ST

Wrirome Condusi.ol:! ['mcu()e 9

:lixl~ Ptactice ~p3~

US~ m.~ RevisiQIl C...h.ecktisl Pmcdee I.

PrattLoo :2

ChlX'k the Spdling and JlIu:I'i.oruanoJ'l Pra~ice3

Ex,r.m rmetiGe

Practice JDdiepel!l,denJt TJUk

4

Wriliing ,S,kJiIE_ Both 'Tasks,

T-nmritliDm Counetting :mdl.inkias Time

D.tI~

Com,pi!:l"mo!1 and. COliltmm Cal.lStl and Bffcctt ExpkJlult.icm

Ad.di:ng Mare [llfQnnafion Pmctice ~

Vmet)'lWo. ad ~1!Itmm:

Synon.yms Pr.l.ro~2 Pmctice 31 PrOfiauJli$

Parnlld StfUOt:limi Il"'tact ioe <4

:162 163· ]{;4.

16t5 ]65 U!91 ]94 ~9'7 1;98 199

2.001

201

2,03 20.3 203 204 204, 2)05, ~05 205 207 2fJ7 .20S· 2,]0 2t2. 2U 215

Coh~reflce Repeating Rcphra-..Sins

Practice 5 Practice 6 SiiflU ... IJICC "1:fpes Pr.t~:t.ioe 7 Subjool:

Pnwr.icc' a:

Yoke Pmcctcc·9 P:!'acdac]O

5

Mode! Test 1~[n~l'awdTa:/lk I\.1od~1 'Test '1~llld!:peCldctl[ Task Model TC'l[ .2--Im:e,grated T~k Modlil Test ,2.~ll'ldeprndcnc Task Model Tcsl: 3--Lnmgrated T:uk .M.od:eJ T~i: 3-wde.pcndl!n~ Task Model Test 4,.......'futegra![Od T~k MoiM T~t 4---lndepcndent TaSk

.Appendlx

Mode1&says: ]n~~ratoo 1m Mood! &~ys: ll:i·d~ndei][ Tasks AiilWie.r~y

.Audi;o~~.ri:Pf

216 216 :2]6 2]7 2][8 219 220,

22L 2,21 223 22.4 226

227

229 2'0 231 232 233 254· 235 236

237

239 244 3'53· S.n

PART 1

----- -n--------

INT'RIOluIUC:ITIIOI'N

Howw V.This BOlek Qllesdo.RB' and .Answers:

To,the Teach.er

EXpanding rheAcifivicies [n~egrated Task Independent Task WFli.ti.Dg Slcills

'Overvii.ew

Question Types Sco.ring

Io~egF:al[ed Task Inde(Penden't Task Wdt~ng $[fatepe-s

.SeIf;.Yest

In~eg,mted Task Independent Task

1

llinleglra.led TlIsk.

This task oonsists of 3. 2.50 ... 300 wom passag:e QQ an ac:ademicsubJett followed. by Ii '~minut:e wcmre (I'I discussion on lhe same topic. T.he rest taker :i~ !hen. given a: question aboUJt thetopic, Theress ,taker mwt write 3:. 150- 'to 225-WOfd summary oftbeimpom!l!it points made' in the li:mnmg passa,ge~ and. explain how these points relatetcthcse in the readi IDg passage. The ~reaker m_ay write more thalJl.22;5'W'(I!.l!ds If time permitl!:.

~ndependel1l Task.

This 'task asbin: an opimon abour ~ ·wpic. The Wt ·taloor win use pemooo bowl .. ledge and ~rience to write an essay of at least 300 words to answeI 'tile question.. The testmbl" may write mOlretban ~OO words .ifclm.epermih.

The teSt bbr has a toed of 50. mlauees ro complete: these two, essays: 20 minutes fuflt~.e InIeifpmd T~k and 30 min.ute:i fW- the Independ.elllt 'Task. &tJb. essays mYISt be: written on the ,oomputm'i; they ~o[be 'Wl'I.tteiil. by hwcL The ~ays are meID soored by two OF morereaGer;s, (lin ETS~s Online Soo.re Ne~fk. E'.acb ~af reodves a. score of 0,-:5.

H'DW Ta' USE THIS BOOK

There are' three StepS in. creating an ,essay: planning" writing, sad revising" Wriung' for tnt TOEFL iBT p;r-ov;id,es a .m:p-b"-Y--Step guide for' pimniDg. WTiting,. and revising your e·ssays en.: bo,m 'me I~~ttd. Task and the mdepefideru; Task a,OttJIe: TOEFL iBT. You willlearn~o folloW' asi;mple~(ep modd ,and.pmalce; applying it '[0

'... L ~L. f·-

Wli'1tlng (jaw .typeS (I: ~ay:s: .•

Step 1 PLAN

Step 2 WRITE

Slap 3 REVISE

Introduction 3:

WAININ'G

SlUdy the mQdel& ~IIY:. ArlB.I:f2;EI U)em oompleteJ,y. Do NOT memorize Huun. Your writing will not be $®red if it matG~es an ~. In this book.

Your wdting an the TOEFL 19j must be your OWN original work ..

l~ HOw ,mu.ro tim.e dlo I Jlarve t~wodc. OD eacllwntin,g :task?

For me llntqMlJedl Tatk" eryuu. .ooad,me~~ :roI dm:~ minuees and .Ilistenoo me ~~~ you, .have 20 minU!.tt.S~o, l'~an :;tfid write yow ,essay •. FOl: mlhe lA,dependeil1t TiJ..!kJ ycm. have 30 :min1.ll,W$ to plm,md wl'.iilie yOlfl" 'essay on, ~ Bivm, mpk.

2~Do I ,have to 'ue the 'oo,mp!iJt~ri

Yes, you.. d.o. [tis: an, Inliunet:..ba;sedres:r. Use, Qif dle ro:mputa is:requ:ired. You showd .. ~ 'Kl mellbe QWERTY key:ooil.l1d. This ~.~s .mm~d for me fits It ~ix.leue.ES on rhe ~OO'P !lOW of letters,

3\~ Do, 1 have a, mllroe of topic!

No, you'"don't. Forme [ntegn~ed. Task, y~1iII wW.respond,ma CJju.ooion illlSmg iErfoirmadon &'O.nl the ooadmgpasapMl_.d ~ prov~ded. forme .lodependmt 'Tas.k~ youwiU be given only fillieropJ~, and you, .mlllscwrireabol!lt ;ma( ~op·ic.

4~ Wdl.aUte.uukeR ,bavethe same topld

No~, not every test taker wII. have 'me same mpk.

5,., What wilba"en if'[ dO,D~t Wldersitand, ·the top:ico.li1tbe Imllep~deDlt

IuiH? .

Ufyou s'wdymi.sboo~ IDat 'Y«):IT£ 00 at p.robl~m. YGU, 'will un~lSbmd • the pmslb~etopics. 00 me day ,o:f IDct~tl yaiY\ will nOf mGe.ive my hdp with. the oopic.

6.. What d.lmppen ii'I: ,do.u\ UDdeabiDd bow 'm WMktb,e oompuWf' 'Th!llr!lli will be OOSt !!ir.lml~iU:!J:OOE'S in me room.whQ 'CUll anme:r yom ques.ti:oWl ,about uiJ.~:th:e computer. They will n.ot~ any' questicms :a!bout m.e use of E'llilgllsh.

7~ What kind of pencils sJhouM lb~'

NORe. Everything you l\I,eOOCQ Wl'im your essays m~~be glven roy<lg.a;.t d1_1: resting 'OO1lret, If you .nee<! CCM ,pencik ,Ot pa:~.I'" :ask .j"ou:r'~est ad.miniis:w:oo,r.

8. 'c:::'Jao, 1: bring·a. dod:'Widt me:?

I.::.'

No. No.~ng can b<:: brought into the '~est ,room .. YOiU can wear' your \Vltt,ro. o.f~oo:ka:[ the clock on .d..e oompntet sc.reen.

!9~ ,CanE brin,B2 ,diaioiftaty wii'm .me?

No. Noming: 0Jiil. be brou,gbt hnQrne test room.

l'9,.Qm. :1 brin,g paper with me?

No. Nothing an be brought tmo dleteSt .roOM. Sc.mrch.paper willbe

S1uppUed.· -

Il., W'b.athappeuto, tlu! u(ltk51.~

You ~ wrimyt'lluX' notes in Enph or YOill' .m~t Lmguage. T.heywill be co;I~ lec{~d. and. disamile<l They will not be seen by !h,emters.

12,., Is them iill speD dieckeror :gpmma'f ch,~[on,ru oomplJKe-.d

No. You will have to de yow: ownproom-amliig. Do,IIi'~ WOi_rny abOUt a: few spe1llr.g ,e:tml<'l or a few .mistakes 'With poocmatiQn Qr gmmm.u~ A fewsmaU e!!:'mmwill n()lt count agalJ!I__5[ yoU[ 500'"_ HUIe: If you are UWlWl: .how to' ,spell a W()i~ use a wold you do .bow how mspelL

13~, How I<mJ,G •. 0,111d the wridng SlUDple be'

On die Integmt.oo Tas'k, you showdl Wll!W '1.5'0-225 words, Yhn .may write more uyou harwiw.e. On. themdependem Task, you ih~uJId w.ri~earoWld 300wo~:. You ,may write more if YOIil havetime,

14,., 'WILJ" .~.ilnport:m~, (IIEp,n,iqdWl ol~m

Both Me. imponanl. A reader Judges i'ilfi essay on .. ilts ,ol'piza:tion. theuse of deu!ils 00, suppon; themain ,Polin:mJ omd your .f.tciIity 'widh.Eo,gLish. Seem.e

~cdQn~ SCfJring :tht&say, fOl'mo.rcinfonna.tion ondd.s:. -

15~ 'Wh:u;U;p~ns if I d,O;O~E6ni"M'

Youd.o .~~[ .needro .have.!Ift ,e1egomdystMed c;onciwiol1. Wha,t you, d.o "Write shmuel demonstrate 'your faciity mdt En,glish .. Do fiOt end vrith a!]J3;PQlogy. DOllo·t apol('l,glze 00' me :reader for what you diid not do or fur what' you. iliiink yuu should.. ha,;r~ deae better.

16. Is tb~1ll !I'mIa, fee for the writing 5ecDOIit o<ftfie~_, No. The w'tJ'ee, CO¥eES .aI! pUts of me TOEFL.

17 ~ Is wwri~g secti.Oilil~d?

Yes. AIl eesreakers whotake 'We TOEFt mu:st:tikeme writing: secti.on of 'lhe'wt,

1811 How:~ .my writing SOO.red:f

Two readeawii~~. Ieoo each essaymd wiD give <1.: soore .of 0-::5. Nelmelf .reader will bow tbe seoee rhe (Idler .reader glves. Ifth_.e swru gre mQ're 'mm oo,e f0lnt ~part~, athitd perron. 'Win read '~IM ,~ay. ¥our SCOf'C willthen be~OOfi~ y~d t'O ::.1. seaJjed], !!:oo.re of 1~30.

6 Writing' for the TOEFL iST

1'9~ W'dl I see my 5:GQ:re5, im:m,~a't,ely?

No'_ Your scores will beavaiLab~e online and, mailed ro you appro!X:imately MO weeks after the' eesr dace,

zn What .W I diafit lib mY'~OOleSf

Si,gn up ee tm the oosta,gal:U afte.r you do all the exercises in. (his book a few more times, You should ~ an improvement: in. your scores"

TO THE, 'TEACHI:R

Writingfor the TOEFL iET pttcsents 5fep··by~st,ep methods for c'ompleting the 'twO tasks in the writing ,s:ectioll of 'me TOEFL. By foUo,wlng the steps in order, your stu~ dents will bulldnew skills on tOp ,of previously developed enes, AlthQug_h the activ.ides in ws 'book are sped6icaUy aimed 3iilr men.vo writing w__b in the' ~rOEFL. y011M' seudenrs will be l,ea:mi.llg skills that they can apply to '[heir: wddng in general. They w:Ul learn how to o,rgatnizoe their thoughts dcve~op eheir c~')ays" and use appropriate semGnce strucmre to ,ex:p1'~ tfuci.f' ideas. The activities i,i.']. this book are well s:ui'r.ed f()iI:" d3!§mQim use, The' aouivi~ie-s: are cru:efuU.y ~tIfI,.u;:tur,ed and. can, easi.1y be oomp:l~wd in class. They canalsc he d,one as' hemewcrk and th~n 'OO,tr-cetoo in dass.

Expa.nding' the A,ctiv'ilias; IN,TEGR,ATED TASK .

• ' S~p I PLAN

This book p'liovides many oppoI"wnides fQII:' students 1)0 plan and pr:actioe:taking notes OIl. rea:di.ng passag-es and lectures, Yo,u. C3l1, provide additional pracdce by h~vi.ngtbe sUld,ents take neres on piUi~g~th!lt, you or £iIl.ey suppi.y; You. can 'WlC pallsag~ .&o.mread.ing texts, Jle'!IVspapers. magaz:llle5;and other sources that ,m available and are of inrereilt to' the srudents. &oourag:ethe students ttl read ofren and. to .m,ake notes on what dle-y read. Scudents an bring' their notes to, dass to sbre w~m, their dassmaaes,

• St,ep' ,2WRlTE

This book provides many 0ppo;l.'tu1iilnes fur praccice wrn:lDg, summaries of l,eadin:g p~ges:rnd lectures. Awtin!, yo'u. can pr1)vide additienal praeeice by ha.ving ihe srudenl["sWfffire sllmlJnuffies of tb:io~ they have read or ne\li'S smries t.hey have listened [0 • .E:lloolillage srudems te share wirh the dil.iSS SUlillmaries of :inooresting <_rtide!iwey have read or movies OJ TV pOOgJra-ffiS the-y have seen.

,_ Swp 3 REVISE

WhlIe wo;dci.~lg on St~e'p3" smdents can p.mtdce r-;evisimg by clhcdcing each orner's wOlrk. looking :31 the developm,e:nt, ,o~ni.'Z..ado:n, ~3T. p:1II.rll:ty~6Qn, and spelling. TheWriring SkjUs section of (be book provides pracitice with wiog transinon words and variety In sentence structureand can be stu.ruedi.[l ronjunction MchStep 3.

INIDIEIPIENDENT TASK

I. St~ I PLAN

In o.idetllopImrne:lrrespOWleS[;O the writing ro'.Pia:~ students need til) be. able to .furm:uiItte ·opLniQrui OlD. these cCilPia. They must get used! to wr.LkID~ OOOlIlit and desc:ribirng reailO'~ and ruivan:m.ges Dr dUi~d.wm~. In :smaU POU!.P:~ Srud.ellts ron brainsform and discuss 'meir ideas on the wrlM.& topIcs presented throru;ghout the boekand in ilihe Appendix. Swde~n;s 10m then .praetioe ~wrhing thesis 8mremen~ and developing ooooepir .. ma:ps en the. same subjects,.

" Step 2WRlTE,

When dl_,e cla:ss is worlcing o'n Sileps 2 and . .3, have me srudea'ts Icheck each ,odui"s ~ys U) .make. suretheee .~8 BIDOpic sentence' in ~ihpuagraph and.that both. the 'mem:e and all the Su,ppO[m];gpCiiiJa:r~ M~ me~tLon.ed im the illtmdwcci!on .. Have me .s:md.ents cheek the oonclusi'on to mike sure the theme is &,ummaJ'izOO rhere, The model essays in 'the Appendix can bill 'used Eor atddi.dorutl practice. Have d:te stude:nts wdmillY in a model essay the theme and. suppOll:ting painm in the in.moducdan. topic sentences in the body ef'the essay,. and the c$umuuliiud theme in the oondU8to.n.

.' Step 3 REVISE

While' workinS on. Steipl 3, MUd.f!fia can pmccice revisiJDIg' by d].eclri~ eacll ,adler's

_l'~ ,. - ~i!_. ,. • h __ 1_:P A." .L 'W7..... - cl·._~n· . (' ~'L' b k

WOm usmg !,C!!lt .. ~.lS~QJDI. C . ~:LSr. ng.un; mew [lnn,1: ,aaus seaton C1J; ·tulS .: 00, .-

can be studied along with rbese sreps. -

WRITING SK~LLS

.

.A WORD OF CAUTIDN

Remind students NOT to memBrim the essays In this bOok.

An 'BIBsy wfD not be rated if tile ~ader sU'spectS it was copied rrom the mooel essayS'.

Introduction 7

OVe:F\lVII!W

QuestiDI1 'TYlpes, !INTE(3,RAIEID TASK

first'. youwm read a 2:;0-300 word ~;!;ge en an :academ.~c ,sullblje(:~. YOiU wml~a:ve three .mlfiuces m read ..

~ __ !c>~'_"'~.Ico·_,!,,_.~ "'1I!lOIifiD¥I>o'iI'>~,.,_iI\iIlliiim!oiiii!lO_"~ ~~'~'~~~lI!Ot_,~~~~Ot,~ __ tl!!,~~·~!j"~f~if_f"'fti~~_~1iI1

=e=~~":'~--::,,-:=-

_·~"IW!ii!!H._IiJ_ 1IH~ .. IIiiiI!aig!il~ ~'''',~~,~IIQI~IMotDI~ltu!Iip(li1t~~~it~ _","._~iM!i __ ~~~.

~·~II!I~I!I!!j'~"H.,'!~t~'11''''~JIIi!!I!,gj'!I!!!~. ~Mlllo!c«ilcll'l_'~_" __ ~

~'ID''''_Rl~,_,CIlI<i!ooIl*",~ _!!\,I!!cI!.;;.jf>l!j~.~!fI!!>t~f_~ ~«i_OiI_,",~_'iiDiYpnt,_o!_

""'~

~_",',,-,_Io.~lil>ild",,_'QI"',j'""'~ _"':_"'__I!!!'M_~~' __ !!\!!'~ ~t!I~ItL"'~_cl_,,~""ifiUii·_ ... ~!IO _~:_ .. ~_.C!!~.,_,~_:IIf!II.'

~"'::~~'!.7~:::~ :"1r==~~:="=':!~~

'_~~CIIfI __ !>I!r!t'!O~~lC'1"C!"'II!'~

·_,IlIiIj .... _jiO>1.QI~'"'Im!ilhl!ill

The!l1,~ },.l:)l:!. wi~~ listen 110~. Mti~m.i.r.nue~ecm:re or discussion Ql11 tili:Ie SOlIDe ~op.~c, 'You cm t3k~ n.ores whUe yo,uUScten.

IntfoduoJkm 9

1,01 Wr,iting for ,the TOEFL tST

SAMP'LE ,AUDIO SCRIPT

There is; a lot of OOIlb'oversy surrouoohng the, rSSllJ8 ,of geoo1fcall" modiriedfoods. !(~olden lice is a 'Jam,OtlS ex.ample., II bas bee" mn1ro·, ,Cluted as an lil1~slvB arndi ,efi['KlNe way toaddli'ass ttm p,ro'b!m;n O;f vitamin A deflfotency in pa~s, of the wo~dwhe. I'Ioa Is a,stB;P!e, food. M: seemsslmple~ bUll iit is oot so' Ul'ltOOlJlpncatedas H looks;,

F:or one thing I' the problem is, not, :00 s1taiigl1Ho,rward as I, laok of a, vitamin filat cambE!,solved by providingltle vitam]". frloople' ,liVillQl in BJreas wnere vi~mill'l It deficiency ;is an-issuE! also' stlRearfmm ~ck: rjf ,DilervilamtnsanO nu1Jiients.So simply :adding ina, r;mrtiC!l:llar vitamJn Is: notQoiRg~ to, solve the, overall problem of lmalnutJlil'on.

Inadl:litio,nl, H, solutlorl sud'l, ,as gokien ricetmats malnllibffiOrll as 8iIl isolated protllem rmtmll"Uum what it _~ is -8 symptom of tl1la ,ooepew Issu. of po'V,e;rty. PoopJa ruMng il'll areas: wl\et'e lack msufli'cient nutritiD,nl .is a problem :also sufferfmm, oUler [lacks;: ~ of ptablie liJealD'l systems" of IOOl!Jca~on" ofsamiitatlon,! of ecol"tOllil"iic :power, Eating golCleti rfoo win oot m8Jke,lIiese pnWlerns go, ~.

l!\Ien!ooking: ,atpumly numtional iissues.golden I11ice is: Inot~h9 magic :so.lution it 'has been ,prese:ntecilto,oo. :For ollelU1irr;11 11 COI\OORiuK:l· in m:m:naI! amounits, goI'dBnl noewould provide ooly :about1'O% of I. dI1i1C1~ dai'" need~ ,of Vtitamln A. In adc:Iition,U1ere, are, ,entler" ibettersoul:'Ce5 of tltlis 'vi~'almin. A cup, or iless ofswee,tpo~artoos!. reafygroon 'vege,U:)bT,es. or mmq;oos, woul'd provide all, of is o'hil\i~s dailr need ,of v'titalJlilll A~ ,B!tId woultll provide oHler nl:.dri~nts as well:, CW.earty, wei need .~ seek: otJmr :H1ulolns totlile problem.

_1!!'~~'~iNI - ,\I,~_' .

~~'bo'b)'~~I_,'_"'Imn<il'.md!~Mr

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---,ij'-g_\_~!!>1,~~~,_1"'~_NliKoo_:~_,

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'.~1I!I'1l:>_~ Ct!:~,~,~

_b1!1!fi~m_~~N __ ~

~1(;I~~~,~!ili\<i;~'llW~'~~~ , ,~

INDc.f?icINDENIT rJ\6il(

~; DQ'VQU~Q!!d~iwlJ'llhll~?

y~ t,lwild ~.~ i!l!llre, ~ Uth8,m.tU'I m!!, ~ .. ~

Th,cIDJtegrated Task: ,essay .~. s~ornd on. a srnle of 0001 .5., Tbe SOJf~fS wlllook at how well YOu.ad.dresfed. the tilISk:. of summariz~ng and comparing the rea:mng selection and rhe USotenin.gsdecuo:n., They w:ilU also .~ook StrYQur use of correct ~d,ml Forms and. yocibul~

,AI as_,al ~I:IIB levell

~ Glea:rly anal ocmciselysummmizes fhe marn points ofU1a re;lding andilla lis!t:en~

Ingserealofil!S

_, cI,earl;y and mneiselyeJC!P~:ain9 OOW ~heyslillppol1 orcf.m~adic~ €laoil oHThe'.r ~. uses OO:nTOOt g~aI1m.icaiI1'ort1\sanci ~",p~priate, word c'hoice

- may haveslighit iinaOOUiracies il1lthe summa:ry o~ ideas or ,oooasiornaJi g!r:amma1ic.al '6'ITOfS

AI, essay at titUs, ~evel

-sutmmal1f1zes thai maffn points o~tle reading and fIist€lnil1l9 seledtO'Ji1$i blllll: may be 1m~&SlBrlgalll idea or ideas Qr ma;y lbe, iackil'lQlin clatiity

~ l'J'il'a;y not accurately e:~p1!ainth~ trelatilla1slliip lootwootl~ne readiil1gal1l.d. ~liSte:ning seJfsctio,ns

.~ IlSiY ladle c!arity because of ~gmm'ma1[eaJ e:rrom ,or Wna~p:l11Opriatei wom choice

1.0-2.10 ,LIm .ted

Alill e&N(v'al thisre'llle~

- may' clemonslralie inoomph!ite ulIru:!eilrstamUiIlg of·tIe treadii1\Q: orlisten]ng .se'tectimls, ~ may not e:xpl!Wna Qttear re~ationship betweenlUlerea,dingl ,n IltstenrT:ngsaTectlofls - Ila}f tle cliffi'olJl~to read becalilJH, of se~[OUS grmnmmical 'SfIilOfS

(An essa,y~ha.t reCelMeS, s, S€lIlIJN:!f' 0 may be blank., wriUen In snoller LBn!'a!J~,e, 'Or

I. not· relate to~he_iG;)

1,4 Wr/{10g fOf the' TOEFL iB r

aAMIPLE SCOR:ED :ESSAYS

Score: ,5.

The autnm e)(plaillfls~i1at uilldeirsta:ndin.g ieamJng s~les (l8ll1improvEI learning ;and1mining. "RIespeakerl however,sU;ggesls that lilnderstam:lifil9 lr,e~nln9sty~e'S doesn;~ always provide ,asoIUUon.

lheSJuU1:of stalBlS that understanding I:earningstyles h.elps ~ndividluais learn better anfWprofeooors allta Imim€fS instruct better~ Thea.lUthor Mplainsclifferent wlI'.f's to ,ejeSCfioo!!eami'ng slyles.Somep&aple learn m.or,e easily by listening, oitheR by sea:]ng~and sti~~ o~hers by ooing. AetNa l~arIners understanidi new infb:rmatinrn by doingl som.ethiing with it ReftrecM !emners undeJ\Stand In!fornna~[o:n by~hil1llkiingabOu.t it Se~uentia!' leamers lool!!:,at '~nformatron as a series: ofis!1:eps, ilut,gtotbal learrtem pre~er to' looket 1tIewlit;ole iiaUler tharn the palils.Tha , .. 1m:!' beml'e1ves mat understandingl reaming styles ean inT'lp'lr,ovestudy skills:. $equentiml leamers:,a!I!.u;Jltary lea.msrs; amil I'!erfl~eetive leamers:i~r 8xamp!9, OM e8(lh chooseU1e study methods lliat bes~ SilJi~: l1elr irn:ll[" vidual ii!esl1ningsly!es.

111espeaker iP:lieoonls a differeliU PQirrut of V~Stw. Rmt, some sl..lt>;jeom. have, to be taught 1nce!1ail1l 'ways. MiaUl has t'O betaugl1t seq!l.le~tiiaJly. In addu!tiDn!,th:e .Spelakslf(' :SUQgre'Srts that sll.i1dents~lmply arm' ~nwr;. es~oo" in fln~'ornla.tion ,about ~!eamin.gl slyies. Some p.mf;sMOrs ar,siIl"t

In~:erested j.,.. lea ,min'" ,; >ko!' ~,_ : ':'1.. :: '

II _' ,___.r! ,"" .. "~ s'l,es. Elnner.

NQ't-e; The ~p£e.~ in ~ book include pata.graph inde:nm" but yuu wiU fiO[ be acored do-wn if yO'll do filot U;sC: mem 'on 'me resf.

Ravision, Ch,BClkll!sl

I CONTENT

FLUENCY AND COHESION

TMs ,essay admuses ,me task by giving cgi!]jci~ sumraaries (if bor_h me ,readIng passage and 'me Iectureand explain.lfl:g deMly h.«w 'me' .mai.m ideas or both OOtl~t wiw. each ome.r;

The Afst pa:~ph ~es <11. ,clearrne!iis~ e~:Wnmgthatrn.e ,readIng and, m~ l~ctun: present a()nuas~mg idea. 'Tile stlOOLlild paragnph ~!!lC'ppom the reading: m~ Mea. by or5i!J.!)T.Hn&'wl'I!S ehe m,a! nflJ1nUl oftbereadl~g. Tille d:l:Uid patagmph :SIIlPPO:Wi IElh~ lis .. £~ITIIi:n.B:~ idea by sumw~ d!.~ rn~D po~n:ts; ,of 'me Jls.teni:~gl The para:gaphs have topic sen;~efices amd.mppCilning dcmJs. fume body of the: essa)\l tffileropic senWlIoes of me paagrapm:ma:tcll thewpics ,iflrlQdlllced.! ,In £hefirslt ~W'3!p!h.

IFlil:.ile:n,cyo'ndl,Coli1eSlon

TIle essayue!l app!.flopll1a1ltemlJifl;SidIDiIl WG.Fids sluclla8: for' ItIKflmPUJI jintJ, and in addj.. tie,nO! There are ri-o .grn:mmar or 5'pelling: errers, TllileesD-Y OO!DJJ1!affima, vrrurlco/ of sen[ence sworu(fleS snclt as ~j.mp.~e mdl,oompoWiltd, SeIiJlRiIlG:e5, u.da:dlectw,ve doJiYIHs"

Score: !

n.s BuntOr e~p~l1Is~ham: undemtarilding learrUnglstyles: oon 11m learning: afKItrainl[ng baHer.ltite: ~akeilf says. tie O'~positelllh:at. kn.owing .abom ~.eaJlil'lirngsMes doesrrultt always help.achsrs and s~uden1s.,

IIiI1lIe mac!inQI pa:ssage,Utle auU1l(:m :says:UliiBlt l:mderstann:i~ngleamTng S{Jtes; Inelps; swd:ents learn better ,a1\lcl~aQ'I1ers teach be,t!ler .. Theaul:io:r ~pl'ail'1l!s lie ·diM,efiei!i1~ kjl1lds. leami~1 sllyles.Some students lea:m Iby ~riS'" ~enJngllsome by Heinig" ia!li1d SOITl1il:e, by doh'lliQ'. A~~m~1 sollles~!J.dents are adiLw lumne:m. They need:m do IDilJilgs wiUill!1lew infonma1ff:on. Seqiuefill~ tia!~ ~eamers $ee mnfomnati:anirn sequence. The aui~hor sayslhati~ you u ndemand l:eamll1l!gl :styles;, carn im;p!l'iOVe: JQUJf s~u:dy s~]~ls. SequerntiJWl ilear:ners MdaJudiwiry ;tearlners., fo'r l~ns'~'aiI1l,ce'" ~My C'aAcmooseUle best sw~ memodsfor lJeir :!earnijngstyles.

The ,speaker hasa ,diffel)eill~: opiniCiin. FiQt, some things l1Iave to be taug:h~irn cer1:Wn way,s. Malll is 001 lexal1il~:e:. It has to tletaug~!t :Se(JI.itei!l,- 1Jf:a~~r. A1sojthi,e' ~aJkle:r says ilatstuclents ~JIIiI1P~ aren't. inter:ested~in mnfomultlo:n ,a!bOUlt leamlngls~les. Some professors don't hl~eres~ed in IreaF.nn:ng S~lesi eiml:u.u.

I CONUNT

l Siuppo.w['J,g deoos;

C [ FLtmNCI .AND' COHESION

Trn:n:lli~riI@iJ)!l worn:.

Content

~ essay 3Jddres~wewk 'by givffif.l!grummilfles ofbom me .f~di.ng p~ md. ~e .1ectW~: .and. explWnin,g .how the ~. id~ gf ~ contrast: wi. each. 'o~; nu:~ Wfi~u left oura mw SUppo.l'ltin§ d~~ai1s £r,am me !:lum:mazy nfdle ft:ading~ She men.~ tiorned. dve lemnclfS bU:tID.Qt rdileccive learners. Sh.e menriened ~u~:tia1 ~eam<ll';!i, but lIo,t~loba1 ]~nel'S.

Theth:esi1!i .iJs de.ulf o'SUic:edl, exp~;ii:f!j;~G th~tme Ie-.lding and. :me .wcturep(~nt oon;~cin;g wdeas:. Th.e second pamgnph and th~d. p~,ph. support the mal.n. Ideas !of me reading p.~OMlJdlwe .~ectI.!.ie. by s:u.mmaiiz~iIl:g the ,mrunpo.i:n,m of each. In, 'd.~ 'body of me essaY:iwetoplc seniWlilce5: of·fhe p~grap.hs match mne oopks iJIttOduood. tro. the .first p~mph..

fIIuencyafl.d 'Dabe's,lo:n

The essay 'uses :a:PPi[()plria!i~tfami,tion woms su!Ch.'fMfor inskmtt, fi:t#" .andl. inadJi:.:4tJ1'J., There are a few gmmmu er.K1:rSj b!!ltthq d!Qri'~ in.t-ukte wIth undersunrun,6 the e.ss:ay~

" .. tile ,different kiM's, ~aming :sty!es.

'. .. U1e 'differenf kinds, o~ leamingl stY!es"

• • • 'if yoo understand :leamr1l19 styles, .iI2n.ilmpTO"Ile ycltlrs1ludy skills •

.. • ~f y.au understand ~~amingstylesllfCiu ,ca!nimprove your study :alms.

SeqlRliltial mearners Md: auditory leamers.! far instanoe,. ll!ull, can ei1oOH: ....

5eqlJemiaJ lewmem, arm. auCioory leame:r9. for ~n$tance. can choose· ...

SOme IPfO'MSSOrs d.aJJl,inter!E!sted in learning. stylesJ. ,eifler. Some Ipmfesso.rs aJ)El:Il't in~~rested ifln. 1!&8Ii11ing :sMes~ ei~her.

Score:: 3-

Thea,ullor e'xplaiinmS! lIat unclers!faniclill1Q learnillg' styles 00111 make !eaming andtesJjlMng better; ibut thel speaker says: the OJ:llXlSim opirlliL'on. E'v!en if leached Uld swc:le:n~s krlLOWa'bQlIIt r.eaming $,tyles" dOBS!I1"t always hi.elp,U:lem.

~rn the reading p~ssage, ,it says that unde.mam::lIr:\Qi diffiamrnt ~ea.miing styles help :S1i!J.u::lenl$. emil teachers. bettElii. Tihey·earn iITilPfOVe!'em:ndng. Th11lmare diffiemnl kin:ds, olf Ileama'ngs·Uyles stEcl1!as Iisteniillg,see:Ting. and doing., rn additiofll, 'them a_fie active leamers;ancl :relilectwe, learners. Fina.~~iwB hSJ.!I8 sequEll'I't]am leamers: and Gi!OOal Itearners. The ,autOO:l' says that leamil'1lQstyles will improve'youlr study' skills" YO'lJ.canl to o'lloo.se, the bes~ wall' ,~"" 'stu"!' '. l...r· 'IJ.i'II'1 i'e I:·: ":" -: -kd:,

-" -- _ -- ----- --'~--'-"'1 'W , __ "'!If 'IY '1,""",r ea!ffllng 5':I',e.

Tihe s~aker say,s title op,posite. fiirs~ 6O!1ll:9 thl;ngs you hu,a ttl t:eadl ti1em in all:liaill'l w.arys. MSIIth is an example., Also, santi people don't Ute l~em:nJjflg styles. SemesU~dE!nts am:i:some lpR)fessors dom1: Ii~e diHer'en~: ways of leamlngl. IIt's~oo lbad beca.uSBI it ,ean helpfllem.

Conlent

TMs: essay addresses' lb.ecdby gi.-viog s~les ofboilime read.ing~age and 'me .lectwre and ~pJiinmg how me .mmn id!~ 01£ Hcll, ro,n'~t wmth ~Cb. o,me-r. The writer Je.fc.out some suppocting detaiJ!sfinm. me. sm'illl'Iiaty ,o:hihe .read.i.ng. She .WeG.tia~~d. 'the names of Iihe ,d'i:ffe._n;m:t learni:n;g styles but. did. (lgrt ~b.inw.hat t:heya!.ie ,orhQ1iN they difFelf tl1'l.m. ,each. othee, Inthe Issr p~hJ she .. meerloaed math ~ an example of 'Something'~t has,ro bemught ,in, <11, cermin~r hut did. n.or explain how .i[ was an example.

There are some inaeearaeies ,in exp:laining;'~ su:ppouingdetais o:f the lecmre.

The essaYStatd '~Some srudleIlUl fulId. ~oime pilJo{essors doIIlt like. different 'waYS ,of leM'Jlinll!;~ ~ [n me ~·~the speaker made 'me point "'at some p~o'ple :a:r.en\ interesredhlthimclfi,g aho~f learning styles. That ismmew1:mt ,d:i:EFerentmao ~yifig ibirt they don~t ,lib; l~s~es.

Fluemc,V and Cohesion

1'11.e ,~ay uses aJppfflpl!'latetmll.'iicio.Dwo:tds su,e!h, 3i8 in: nJdltio.n, first~ and ,also'. '11wre :rue sevetal ~_ImU' erro~ .

. . , ,psn!l; ,aflways, Mlp them ...

' .. ' .' It doe~njt alwa_ys help th:eam •

... .. difleremlleamiMiQ s¥es Mlp SWden1s; and beacMm .betmr,

. .. c1iHeliient leami~styles tnelp students and teachers dD,theiil'woJt

better" - - .

You can m_~h.oose file best w,ay ...• You can chooseU1tel best .~ .•••

IFirs~~ som.eJhirn.gsc JOu hav;em leadUl:]em iln OOrtailFlwa:yS. IFir&t~!{Ou have tD tea,Ch some t1in:gs IiIl cerlaJnways.

TIle essay ooo:tamsavariety of sentence stt~ such as simple" Ol'MPOURd" ilftd.oomp~ex sefUelP.ces.

Introduotion 1'1'

l' 8 'WritIng for the TOEFL is T

Score: 2

In the read]ng pa!ssage it says, 1hat ills ~mpol1ant to undersmnd dif~ fer,emt !eaml'ng styhl! because it can improbe -~:eadhJli1g and I:eaming. In ine lecturte, it :a!~, taJks aJxu.d: dJHerent. le.amin,g stytas.

:In 'the readling [!l'assa.ge" i~ talks about (i1iffl'erent leamlng ,SIyi~s that can tn,llp ,sludel1lil'S: _anrllleacllers. They' 'can leamand t,each marie tieHer if tiley' !<now 'U'I'is. Borne students learn better when 'they' 11:~ten, see" or do. ,Ano1!l1er llearnlng styite it is, active and lreflactiv~ And 'finally 'd1erais sequential and glo.baI. The' author says that teaJfling styles will goingl '~O improbel your study skills" If you are an ,ao1ive leamer, you nan :study one way an:danoULer way if you are mtla.ctivB.Thi:$ Is an excample., You hav,e to' [have a good st}1e:.

The ~peaker talks, about leaming styles" too. Mail is a suoleclt: that. you can tea-cll, sequeil1tiall,!li ,SOl it is good f'or sequentla!lleameil's, There arie some IpeDp!J;e'~hey aleri'~t lnteresl,oo in lemmingl :s1'}l1:es. But ,so,me peo;ple~h8,Y ar,e good at iteaming and tla]r diftelrent ~leaming :stylil'S: can

helpUtem. -

Reviision Checklist

IContent

This essay attempts '[0 address the task by giving sum.m.aries of both the reading pas~ge alnd. the lecture. It fails in both the tbesis statement and the summeries to show the re~adQfisrupbetween Ihe ideas in the reading passage and the le~. Both ·taIk about ~earnmg styles~ but. tih.eir main points contta:!iC wiilh each other.. Tbis essay does not mendon the OOfltmt.

The main idea of 'mfi: :r~di.ng p3SIlage is expJ~.n:ed. a],thou,gh.me supporting decalls are .:iomewltat oon.~:ed, 'the ,de,iUls~ h~rj, could, 'be m'(l,re il:horou,gh~r lexp[ajned. All. IE'hC lear:nwn,g sryl.es are filendcli_loo.. but the ,dif.feireDCeS b~twee:n ~ are o.ot explained. 'The surnm.ary of ' the lecture &iIs m explain me main idea - dlat understandin;g lear,ning SI:Y~es ,does not alI.ways improve leM'mng~

Supporting deeaile

FLUENCY ANU COHESION

Trans~rion 'Words

Fluenc, and Cohesion

The essaf ·wes ~o.me tmmii.UGn WOI.d.:SSlIIcih, as ,(l1frJt/Mr and finally. There are several g.ram:mar eU()I8.

The,y can leam and team ,~ better. The:y can learn and teach betteif'~

.Anothel1' learning styIe!U ~ ,actiVe •• " A!noUil:sb'l' leemlngl styI:el rs aotive •••

Thel author ,saysHlat Ilemllib11gstyies will goingl Wimprove your srudy

skills. .

The autoors~s that learnillQ' styles wilm ,Improve your study S:~lls.

lliIsreare some! p~le :tIle~ are'n': illlteres~ed In l:earning 'SW!es:. TlitsfSare soms' people woo aren~t ~nlerestoo ~n !!earning~It.s..

The. are ·also a few spellingl ~s., __Improve. FeAaeti~treleclvel

Th,e. ~' OO'lTIIm~fl.s ia wrlety ,of sentence :irtmoru:res. s,ucll as simplc,j. oompotmdj, and oom,pio: :i~nmn.~.

Scare: '1

~n '(he reacling,pelssage j,ttalks :abou~ dil'erent lea:rnlrng stytr.es~ and

'dile Ilecture, '~. . .

lin lie lreading pesag:e. it tells you Ir!owyou can learn loott'Elil' forilMlat, lit lisYOUlf QMI,siyle!. ll1er1 il1 is Imp:fQVe what this teachersa:nd tIhs sb.J~ dents do'. The cUff,ersnt reaming sty1Qs,~hay are about Ilstenln9~ :seeing! and dolngl. AndsoltooUlay am 8.OtaV81 ami ~:ect.That n:iIEIDS ~f you do someU1i"9 M if yooilink.aOOiUt. it The,y are alxll.rt seqlJSJlJ1im and giobulle. 'l1hat is mean it is step by step OJ the whole thing ..

The ,spe'akeli' Is also ,abou~ rBanllng s~les,jtoo. But ihey are 'rnofso QpOO. Some 1tIil1QSlfOU Iileed ooe style. IlJlmfor mnatm. Some pec;lple aroo't, interest. Somestuclants, they 'oon't ,oue If it is style!, Theirteacll~ ers .• too. The, jUiSt leaol1l1eir OMIstYle, like the way'1rney 00' bestlif ,studernts: 'cal" ,do it g:aocIl. em if not flay earn do, it, 'roo badlfior 'he students.

RgviisianChecldist

Coralerd

ms ess:aY03l!ttemp,BOO address dlcmik: by giving :iMn ma rie:i: ·0·£ borth. '~reading .~ ~d. me: lectm:le.The .em: !t;Hemefil does, nru.mendon. rhe. oo.ntfUI: be~. the ideas ln the madi:o.G p~ aad lIhe kcttrr,e. The :!iLml:rrutt'1e:s of the

[C',a_drng: ~d.the ~ecrure. both .. mendon me malaidea and me gdetais" but

.£he demis are. notcleafly explain~and.rhe .ideas ue (I'mn _! lit ·to fonow.

FtlLJe:ncy ;andl Cohnlolil

The essar lacks ti'amldOiD\VIO.tJds. There aee sevaal grammar amlS, (Of example:

11111 the II\sa.dlng passage iii: talks about diifferem: leami"9lsty.les,uoo the ileo'!ul"S mo.

'orr c • - ~ .. ,... ,- - __ : - ~·c ,.,.- : .."'l'...,.., ...... ,.,..u*, "'¥'~n·t 11e- ,''''"1'"'1....... cl'I~les " ,arid the,

l'lle WaullFlg pa.s5!i3igB _ ""'"' C!YV I~ Uln .... · ... ,., , "'" I, '-"!:;Ii ''':1- __ ., __ _ _ _ _

lecture, does.! tog.

Then i~ is iimprovewhat lleteactu.tP.i' andUlesWd~r:rts 00,. This 'improveswflat 1!hateamsrs and the sttments 00.

The dYlfferentleam:ing styles ~tlte!l! a{,B Hold Iisttlil1lng, seeillg, am:t IWing. "JhB diifferent. learning styles are aootlt listenlng,seell:'lg. iarld do1n9_

there are also a 'f,ew ~pellingen:Qrs.

~. aOOYB

(tlatliy!e globaru

Theessa, ,oon~a. Dumber of' lllW.kw:md senrences whkh mike it ·d:UrlOlilt to "How theidw.

SCOR:IN.CPlND'E:PII!NIDENT TASK.

TheI:ndepend,eat Taik: ,~say .~s scered O.fIl a scale ·of OKl' 5. The soocmrs wll1 look at h.ow wdl you oodmsed. the ropkMld. devd_,arped and sup~d YOUI' idea. They wmll.ilso :look at yow: use ,o:f OO.fred .~tiC3!ll f(IJnnsand.v~uJ)aJ:'¥ ..

An uHf at ·11111 [8"'811

- £6 wen organized an(j wen ,oa<velo;ped

-uses ,oo:rr,eot grunma~ca:1 ,f!oJ1ili1ls ,Ulcl apiP~oJlliiaite'wor(!1 o'l1oice

.~. may I\a;ve ;sUght wealtln.essesil1l the' elaoolfatiorn ,of icteas 'Of oocasio.l1al9ralf!mali~ ,cal ,alIT or'S

2.,5,-3.5 Fair

An __ , at dills level

~. has a thesis Ilat ~s suppcintedllby reasoIlS!, ~ples.and: detElUs

.- n1a:y h'ElVEl welEl~n.esses [nile ,dewlo,pmen,t and support ,of the, l1aln poirnts

,-, may laCk. ctariily because c~ pro.IJI'ems w&lill ol'gMizati'on er lpoo:r use ,mtrarnSitiOI1lS; ~ ,mayhavB "uramm:a!icaJli IB'm'lI!'S ,Dr [nal=lp:~Pil'late, wol!(iI choice thai ili1b~riI"~ue'wil1

meBlilirng,

- -- ---

1.0-2.0 Limited

A!n HA,Y at this Ile,vel

~. lmay racksUlfiliciernt datal'! to' olaliffyid~as ~. may not ,ac:lclooss~liIe q~fition ,eked

- ma_y be ,difiliclIIH to Ireadi tleca!!J.Ise ,of seiiious gqmau or vccabulmy 'Bnno:rs

(An essay- that receives a score of 0 may be !iJ1_ MfttOO in aI"I!ltIler '~guag8t or not l'fifataio,1tJe tOpio.)

22 'Writ.ing' tor the' TOEFL 1ST

·SAMP'l.,!E ·SCOR'EID ESSAYS Scare,:: :5.

To.p"ltU

Somepeo.p:le .pm£« to eat, at food . .nands Q,rmtaurmu. iO~er peop:1e prefer ._,

.prep~ and, eat £ood, ;31 htllDle. Whim do, 'you pre£e~? Use .specl&c MUOm and examples .• , supportyo,Ulf' aASWefi •.

AWu.ou.g;hi IIImlrY pacple IPliiSfer ta' 'eat at ihoMeI, Illpfef~r to eat out. Title main reasonlstlhat I am IliLol ,EI. 'Varyg;oocil cook... ~n addltiOril, eMiling Cllut ,allows ma' m spend Rloretimls :skldyil'lQl ,and less 'Iime, [n the lenehan • . And, be1Ifeve, H. or'lnm, eating ow can be ofleaperlhalll cookl~1 at: heme,

To, begin Wil!h~ I d'on't· kno,w how' to ,oo.ok. Willen )1.01.1 dOril~ 1m,ow how to oook" there, rs a gO'od 'ChBillCEI (hal 'whS!~ YOUi cook. will l1'Iot be· wo:lidiJ ,eating. This results ~n a woW of 'food ,as well' as a wa61:e of money and ,effort.

.I4JISOi. ,cooking takes s, fot ofti·Jln8. 'WlIlI'e the 'fcod might not. acwafly 00' ,onllh'9stovel 001' ¥8:IY :lGlIg~ yOUl aI'sa, Ih:aveto, consider tlle time, that [s spent shopping fiiJ:r th.e·~oOO. ,cle,m111'1l91 anG1 oflo,l1pi'll1Q1 ~~, and elean1ng up ~he kitchen drer iIt Is coo~ed.

Rnall:y, eating out issLirprislnglv' eoo.nomfcal. Of ,ooums, goiru to el'egant: restaumnbJ: Is expenstVEJl, but Imli. are, 'ad1.er- ways· to eat out. F:ood stand's EIJ:iId :some sman~ casuall IrElstmlrants. provides plenty of good fODd ror verv Utr!e oost.Many pl'a.ces of "fils. type ,am laca,. near U1e universHy and ,are 'wry oon'i.,iel1t for .stud'ents. .

. As Im.y lrife changes! mr pmfeJences about. where to eat may ,change"j too. For tile lim ,of a st!udent:, ealng 'OU~ ius lie only prdcam choice .

. FlIevl'slen ,ChaClkllisl

I CONTmff'

Content

This ,es~Y' ha:s a cleM dlesis in ·th,1i: ~giMln.B aad Is 3!Ilso,vieryweU 'D~:anized" The first·mro of the 'dlree body' p~hs give reasons why 'me wDlt:e11' does ;OO[\V':mIm; to cook at bom·c~ w-hUe the third gives. reaso.ns why eatin,g ·OUt is better; Th~1e aure. suf:.

ficicml!: detaiJls to support the maio. idea in each paragraph. The oonclusioD.pa:raphrases the main. ,idea nuher than limply' repealing it •

. Fluency aHId Ool1e.sI'ol1

"The essay 'WeB appifiopriat<e tl.':aDslri.on. wo,ms suc:b. as in additWn~ :m' itgJ"n wi..th~ 1Ils1}~ and fi1t48y. There is one grammar' erro:r~ and it: doesn't interfere. with understanding dUl escsay:

IFOOd 51Mds and somel smail" casuaJ resttluran1S, provides plBin~ of goOOl food •••

IFood stmlOO and sonne small; casual restauran~s providel plenty of good food •••

Score: • 'To"";'c 114

_p . -

SOme people fhink that 1ib.e family gdt~ most impoJ'Wlt Udluence on ~ ,adUlts. ,~ ,poop~ ,think tbail:frieads are the m()Stimportan!t.;~dg(lIl~'QB yo~ adults" Whl:cb view do you agree' wi!t!h~ U~: ~.esb:i'SlilPFO'H' YOlK podd.OIIl.,

Waare ,aJl f:nmlu&:noEl by whomever we meet We'sll :stand as, models to, everyone In 'lhrs world. liGW8"'Ier, OUT ohoice of ,8 modei 'is important lespooialty wilen choosin,Q ,8. ,career. I believe that in the case ocrncem~ in; our future 8_nd our career.familfi&s haY,s more wnUuence on us than friends.

IFr1'emfs ,metns QI18SWe spend {tme haVil,n9 fun,. ,enjp¥ingli playing and sofcfl:l1l. firieAds, alsom:ead1 ,good dllngS and help us. F'~!ell1ds advioe gQod! Ulin9's about rnt'e~ bUrl: Inof: like f'amily~ Family' always 1tIink 1hat 1iIeir dlildren will become &1lJperior ones rnn 1he tllJ~urre. They want: their children ttl loo'smarter than afly.o:ne eiI!se!. liowevarif'riencls ;are not suchan lnfluel1lltial adviser like, fam]~; Fam~" feels, 'that time is wasm when 'H1eir ,adult: oilUdrf!1l1 nave toD mucl1run. However., friends infll:uence us mo:re to, 1p3lay 0'11' 'have 'fun rather'Ulan ,advising us about our camer •. Tht!l"iefore,mmily pUits tle1r substanshl1 Impact en D1eir children

in order to shape up,Uleir fulure career; ~

lin the US. most youngl adults arel usuallY i'l1'Ifluence!by Iheir Me!I1ds mtller Dum U'leilr parents. It d8'pends, on what type' of 'inoftuenee, h: ls, Usuall)li, people are busier lin the US. They don-'t IilIVet 'tlme'to give impo:rmn_1: lnlluence t.o lheHr el1i1C1filill.llI.erefore" ttle children MOOse flair own W'B:Y to ,eatdl up "air caJiIOOfS., Wllid:ever Uwy see ,DQulI'Id Influences lIem. However, '~his, mnftuen.ce might not be good for their

future careers. ~

'1iherefore'. ,I·d ,say family influences their adult children more ,and better 'Ulan friends.

introduction :13,

:Ravision Checkllisl:

Content

FLUENCI.ANDCORESID:N

The 'dte5is 'of ·chis· essay is 'very' demand.f':.lq'to, loCMeatthe end. of the introdui;:,.. don. 'The e.s®ay is geneml.y well OIp:red.Tb.e wri,U!m- ~y compares and 00.0.WiSCS. 'the levd of iml,uenoe Oililif mccives oom.Qne?s ~'Il: witbthe .inf:lue.n,oe one I~celves mom. oneis men.ds. The'~ 15. well ~j'oped~an.d~e !sa, ,oondusiotDI,

~L_ oiL .;111._..::_ ul!i(t restates !l)!ley~.

P.luelley and Cohesion

The ,essay uses appoopria:rettansiidan w.o:rds s~ as h'(fflJ,W"~ .~ and ~. There m.a few ,gmm:war' e[f(lif:S'~ but .. they dodt hU'effe.re wimwtdem:mdmgwe essay.

Waare aU illlmlum:JOO by who!mever we meet, We are all. i!nilluenced by whOllHwr we meet.

IFamil!y feels lllatMirma iis .~'" P,amily feels ttatUl1lleis wasted •••

Themfoi'B,family putsltleir___subsiBll1stliIJMpad; am tbeir;JCl!'ii"mlll . . .• 11lemfOfiB., fa_milies Ilavea.sl:Uootarnlal ~mpaot cmtie']r ctJlldren •••

Ili1the lIIS. moot young adults ue Ilsually: iromJue{Jce by til:eirm~em'!s . • • Inlle US~ noost young aduilts am usually inmluenood by lIeir flieoo5., ,

There is one s,pem",g ,&:n;o,r. 61:1tl1etaAsi=liI substimfia:1

The essay contains a vadely ofsentm.ee stmctmes su.m as s~m!ple..oo.mpou!Dd. ami comp]exsen~.

Score:: ,3 Top'1c 136

Do, )'O!U ~e (Jili ,.:&agree with thiCfaltowliRgstaltem.e[J!U' Pb~g apm~ lis m oaly when,auwin. Usespeci1ic ~o:ns and ~plesm support ye'lE amswef.

Some would ~'iike to play ~l'Ie game such as, basketiball" tenl'iliis,swim" mi]rlQ,arld lriding, bike: for e~ercises and fum. But. $Omeilh;ey p!ay~Qr Uteir actntewment. II~r,&e' 1tIat P~iy1iilg game is 'Win when we willi.

Asa. mder of~ot! wilen ~wasil'il HUgill sdloo11, I like to, play bask:et~, baU as my hobby_ I w.as very eX:Ci,toowhe'n Iwonltrus, glame .. AU hi~h scfuools: in Camibod:ra, theyrequJmOI studen'; ~o ,choose iQJile kind a~: game,such as v,O:~~eyban, :soccer; buketball,~enlil1i6 anel sw[.mmung. S,y ~nilt~me:.1 too~ basmtlaU as, my favmam hobby: Myschi.ool ,gave me' ~h:e be<st basketbaU~ cOactl. Hie had a. ~otof expellience oftrainingl basketball players. My taams,and I' W'ere~r,a}iIIled uy hiim ,everyday for two Months. AJl:er two mo:nll1:esof 'trainingl. MiY CQa.ch wan~ed IJS'to compete wi~h ,otheroohools.

Whe:n the c:om:!Jetition day came, oUlir ,emoUoll1 W,ar5: ,combined wJiIlI1 happ,y andscaure 01 losing the game. EliL!t our coachl ,encourag,e us. He tQ1:d us 1fIat ~:fl!on't. 'iJeafraid oilfour ,compe1itDrs, ~ey are! as same as you, so~o'U haVce~o lnav,e I, confident hI "yourHil~ .. ~ WhenUme of com;." peti:liol1l,of 'Q:ame started, our coach led us to baskmball,oourt to ,get ta, know OUlf oompe1i~ors:. The n~sullit of: oompettilion was: rnw' team: completely won. My ooacl1l and cur teamweri8 'Very happy to win tlThat g:am;e,.

I believe fiatt p11ayingl game! ~ V:ellY' c1iffi'o!.!lt if we· dorni't know B. wea:k~ ness of 'ouroomp8~j~o.rs\. We h,ave 'til hav:ea ,ool11r.cle1l1~ in ou,rselv,es. I agree~l1at playing game is very tunwhe:n we wUln .•

CONTENT

FlIJENCY,AN.D COHESlON I

I

COlilitent

This eIlSlly isadequa[ely 'D~ized and devdloped. It shQWS dev;eJopmen:t of id.'eM and sorne faciUty with .E~gHsh. In. me firsl:puag;mpn .iWd .hlme: ooncl,usiOitru, the w.rwrc[[sta:oosm.<:l ,opwianrnn play.imlga. pmie~s fun. when O.!.1!e w.mw:, The w.fit~rd.o;es not: d~ecd13!dd~ 'thet'Opic~ whid1. is more black. and wh,~n:; pJayinga. gam.e Is: run.

Oll!. 'I'll' V'b, - ..." I ,. 11 :~--:l' ':IL., th ., _:I:UI . ..:I . d~' .

. '.["Ilbci Wfn::!Il one:'WJJn:Il • ..it IS ~yIDat " ie wrJ:~'ef i~ .no£ li.Wi.uer-smn .. !!IleqU!CStlOD

dearly. Th,e wd~eruS(lS ape.r:sCl'11al SKIrr 00, ,iUusttale 'the tb:esis. 'Thiissoo~ S~~Q ,inrucatematme wiiter also had,<\:goGdl time playmgbaslrethall eli'~!IlWi\refi .he/she

wclnrt 'l!ldn. '

Auency ,and Coheaiioll

The essay dues 110,t m. U!S'e' of ~i!~ words. Theil) area. liilum:ber of ~ar

md~lbluLry arors whid~ ,disnaame ~~Eromthemeaning., -

BuLeros., 'thfiglg mrbelr achiievsren1. Butsomep!ay for t!mir ,a{il1i~..,..,amer:rt.

Whtemlwas .•• IlIiJm, to' pl~,y ~I as mny' hobby; Wt1t€m1 w~ .•. Il!iked 'wpls,y baske1ballas ~ hobby.

• . ., oursmoUon was: oom.bi[JOOLwiditl 1tI_~amdl ,scam (),f losing! tills game.

• .. our el'lirl'liorn was,s, combination o~ .happiness and fear of rosing tlle game.

'Wel1ave to ,have ,8 CliJlI1fh::lent in Duruly,e,s. We h:a;ve to have oonfideince in ourselves:.

]h,ere are some Sf,lellihgl ilndlJuncwa1:iorn ,errers.

Fl\Wltl:les m,on-lls

As a Esler of fact; when :1 was in l:Iigb_ ,school ••• As; a mater of fact, when 'I was in b~h sdlool .' ••

He talC! !LIS 'that :Mil) beafmid ,of YC!i.lr loompertill:Ors •.• , He tW:d us. ~Dcm' beafi"a!d of your OOliiIlpe:mo:rs. '. •

SCOlFe: I T(lipre 111

Somepoople prefet'to s~nd dmeWith. Que or two, dose &ie:ads" Others ,choose wSpe'nddme 'wi,ma bp number' &ffdenm. Com~w ~ 'of euh

~L '. '(VIiL~ dL t" ""1L. 'f· .;1:,.....'.. ~.~ e: 'U . ~ d=:[!

'EnOijce.'WUi~ o!!,·~ 'two ~IO "peR~bnle:ao ·youp.rerer:. ..cst sp~c

~ons .. suppun, ytrBl ,~"

Peop1s1 :need tisnds· '11eyIndtn:ie1ina.sooety., Some, [people 'b'y'wnnd g:oOO! p00p1e, 'bm SOI11iB' :people ~usl 'take anypem:m :armJOO; them. Whlcf:I means first ooe is, very sefiOllJs,lofirnd: mends and SSOOiIld peopleue Mt roeriousi to, hravB~ri'encis. Some people f,.neferm spend ti'l1ewiUil 'OMI QTMo. Ottltrs clu)ose 'to spend time wUh a large rnUnl'ller ofMeI'l!E.

First Clfaiil, :somelpeq:llewan~: W speii!dtime-wlth ,one or two 'h1oods. ''fhose ~leways takel ,care of their 'frietlOsvsry well. f,or exanmpIe., when1hey have' a partydHy can, ifI'!.mEI everyooo til lIetr Ioome ev&n1l:1orw 'it fssmall. Aliso" 1I1e~ ICam talk wl1lh eadhfri'eoo .bef!omHile, party is over; hcause lhey mm't Mve runy'MBrnds so,IlSVca:n be,.abIe '!o m'ik 'with

eN'eryone. TherefoRlt'1 911 1I\e, friends IIi&1ums hams '\IISIIY happy after party.

secondly. same IPflo,ple want to spend time' with' a large mumiler of flri'encls. Ttlosspeople lOve' ~'e also they earn get a, goodBdM$e froIm filieoos. For example., when 1Ihey have a prcblemlhey caJ'\I ask flWili :mEmy~rileli1ds amlilnell thEJy cam coHea avail' sll6wsr. Th"erefore" they aN figure iit cut '~ 'fb: their problem very easily;

Revllsl~Dn Checklist,

CONTENT

I Thesis Statement'

Suppo,rnng details

Conlenl,

'The ol'gi'iiflimtion and deVtdopmco.1I: IQf the topic f.s net fUly adequate. The w,riter 'uJb abol1i1: ·each Choke but .never lllCcowpllshes: 'the 'wk: w, ~preu a preference. There Is ne conclusion to 'tins ,essay~ There k a. good att:empr: ,It·~ Ibe task. ,discwsmg the' topic in EngUsh" and c:lemo,ustrmng a buic level of oompetence asa

wow in English., -

IAueney an,dCohesion

The may asesscme ,tta:ruiido.n WO!l'&J ,sud] as ~rj, first o/,JL .and s«omlly. Th.ere are ;3. ,nlHllOO o,f grammar 'and v.cu::a!bulxy erroB which, disttatt tb-ereader froniJ. tbe meamng~

WbictLmeons first one is very ,SedDU" findlrieods ., ., •

l1hls means; Ule first: Oru!i' [s very' seriousaboUit finding' friends; " .• •

eecause they d'on't ihav,e many tierKIs; soJb:e:r,can be, able Iomlk: with ~-eJ:Jone.

B9ctW'Q!l, 'U1ay d01il~ haY>a Imamy 'mem::ls~ tlley can tG taJk wid1,evew~'-iOne.

Themfcre~ all the friends ,remms home, very 'happy .•.

Therefore, all Om friends, rewm horne' Yell' h.appy •••

./ntrodu,ction ,27

ThO'se [~eO',fe love_pIe ,alool the~)!: can: g~~: a go.oo: ,advice 'frorn~riermsl' 1~1 'people love: peophi!'.A!so, tlay ,can ,get goodi a;~'oo ffOm '~riernis;,

For E!:xample,. wham they have a I'mtl!'eml NleJ: een ,_t 1lfIeir man,y

~rlr:e:nds ., ., •

For e:-l<ample,wt:tsln 'thsl;' hav,es. [pr,obh:1~ml.i 'they can :Hk their many

~l1te:ncls • • .' -

t& 'Nlew &ElYiee,

'too Uu,:uJQiIl adMoo

SCQfrie "il 1:op[.::128,

Sfinle ~pje$ay that pbysk.a4 C,Xerci.se sbo~d be a, reli[~,p:aft ,of eveJry sda-ool. cby~ Otherpe(l'pie beli.evethat stIlIdenu _QUil,.! spe(gdfhe wnoiesoitllllllli dJI¥' ,0,0 aeademit ~mdies.W1l:dch Qpmio:n. do you ap.ee: wi.?

la_g~&e ana.pInion toot s;t!Jdent$ sh.otllJldspBiI1dth.e hole day om aJ::a'· ,oellillh:: studies" eecall!lse~here ,rune have! many op,pol1uniteiS~or stucien1s: 'lo be a very good strude:nt, ll'i'k:e:, 'iJay Iha(V,e a, rfdtlme tospeltd s1lldl~es. also, 1I1ey wJ:n be eHected. byscl1lcol wthern~h:erYDe s'talY rn :S'ClI1oom. aecatlse o~: IlMy peop~~ sta:yil'1iQl in library~ospe:ndnite[r swd!y, IlthlTint ttnar~~ It w]UaaivfsEI' memrollo:wUltieilrl. IMC'JiieoV,el~; sB,linglirnsci'nool is !g:eodfC:rrstud:e1il1.s 'k! ,enro:mngto univers!1y. BooauseUley ,~ail1't h'ave to nnT'nk oomletliAQ ,of outside soUley really haver to thInk of 1iI1eir leml1inQl, thIs is: 8. gooo i~earOirstl!denm to stay .. Besides tl'l:8J1~iffley go hom.e to, study;, U: is: ek, But wh:enyoUi afes~udyiJi1;g' mn your Li1om,e~su:d(jel1ly ~fl!iIr f,aller ,orso:mOOilil9 call you a~: 1tnaJt~ifiliille!, Il~hinlk, you ,are coni[tusinglaioout )I'OUIf siUxfi,.. AnY'Wa~. I S1li III like 'U)speind~he: whole school day en acad,emics:tllttnesu' Beeausetl'lereare !'1,ave ,enou:g:n books ,am::! have :many tl'nfngs tOIUiSl@ in my mowledge. SO' ~I ~Q\le stayingl in soli1oo~1 day to in(ll'ease my koo~~dS'~'.'

Co.nrmn,t

Thls essay~s .~. Qin S:e¥eraJ .. Ievel~. It hi. ,g~jb1e that ·the Wlit~li' dees [I.Ot fuI.y· Md!emt:a:od.e promp:t'I'he wr::i.te:r .~i[!O '!hi.nk ·m.rne. d..alee: .is: betweef!.

• , h .. .. t, '-l '[L_ • .1 ~' ·L. ...L 1..1 d

StaYlfig .at " OJOLe Qi,f 5tayrng Wi. ~(:nOO",. ' I .ne wrl1:e:r fJ!oesn t say Wllly onesnou u, ~e.n

'we whole school day on academies ;iUila does not address why ·m.me pb.ysiad. edUiOl.~ u.o.n would. be bad .. The in:w.rmaOQi.D is fiQit o.rgani2oo moo an. lessay. bu.t lS all One paraguph. There am. msuffide.nt d<!aEoo, ~uppo.n theall.mol's opinion.

FII1lJ8DCY' a.:.nd Cohesl.onl

Th~ ideas ~. unclear and mere. are no cleu[l~llti(lw between. them.

There aFe!)].ui!l:ea .nli!m:be~· of grammar r.luoffi .. In. faa.,w.ere ~e II':fiIDf8 In .. n.eai!y ellfe~ sentence.

II ,agree an opiniDIJI thal stwiel1ltsshouid spend the whole (fay en ,academic stua1:eSi.

lagr,ee WiNl the ,opinionthialstuderntssooliJld s;perndIUmwhd!e day on academIc studies .

• • • 00ey l1a:y,ea.lot "Nma t'O ~en:d slud!es .....

.. .. • ~hey Ihav,ea lot of [me to, sp-end on Uteirstudi:es •....

I th[lnktiElit,_I~MlliI ,advise m:e to, follOW them.

I th[nk:l1at iit will Lmadmsallle, for me: m, t'ollow them.

MIa Bflt3IS&R:!teS eleateEt FR9FEI S~'E!f

Whole opportuniilies afteo'led moreove:r l~eaming

ini,mduc:tion 2,9

9rO Writing fot tn,s TOEFL 18 r

WIRITIING IT-"ATEGIES

1. U~_derstlndth,e: wnlctions before YCHl begi~. .Pocw on mewkn(!i[ me ,direcrloIilS.

],. lrwwe ,iJl.tegm~ed. 'rask" ~:e neees as you resd. This w,wn, he~p you. remJembel me b;y' wOlfJdis.

,3. h¥ me jntegm~ed I$Ilk. as YQU .~.~ 'try~o .~$ whatmelect-urce w~~~ be abom.

,4., mmemll~d,ta:s~·tab: notes as you ~s~eJ]"1;'I the lecture. Th~s willi bdp

yCH1 IIDders~an.d.me .R~a:do<n. ber:wee!l1.me [1:11ding ~ OOid me lecture,

5~ ~. thequesrion aJl'eru~l.y am.d lUlder'S£an.d. what you,are m,do·.

6. Mm 3Ifi Idea map' to help you organi~ ycrUf es§a'.y~

7~ In rhe lrwmgr;.ned [askl wrwl1i~ a;[ least Ollill.e p~tI::agnphabou:t tine reading passage and all; le~t ,onep.agUfb.~u.rt ·~.e [«!WIre.

8~ Wdre .in EngUsh. You. wlllnot harviC dime ti() u .. msmre your ,essaf from, yOm' ,na;tive ,~a:Wlpa~ in~o Engffiish,

9. Use wordsaad ~~a!li' t~a:t YOIY ~e~mu wwdt.

1 O~ fayanmtiiQ.A Iro,rheWne~ Leave a few minures to go oive]' your writing. sa YOIU caillOO.rl~C~ anymws:takes,.

FI:ea.d 'th~1 Ipassa,ge Ustern to~he lectu m Plan

Wlri~a

I ReVJOO

9Ilil'll!u~:es 2' liiI1ir:mtes :3 Hlil'll!utes

~4 minutes 9,lmirrums

tndependent Task

--------

PII~n WrHs' Revise

S IminUiles, .20 :minUlites: 5miwuAes,

The. IIlime re.mai:ruing ~s ,mown onthe [wf]e bar oftheoomp!UJ~eF sc~. ahd the tirne periad~cilly~

SE1lF:..YES,T

Tty ~e Se!f .. Ten for d1t m!!~gmtedmd'me Inde.~ndentI'as:bnow .. P.~tmdyo'u:ar~ 'faki .. the: acwail 'IDEFL. Wet~ as 'YOIll ,srudylfi:is' boo~ ,m:meback t'Orhis sew .. Test and. tab: it :~n,Wh~n. 'yow .i'iiniiSh the boo!kJ .~. d~e: ·t~t eae .~m rune. See how 1lfilJch easier it is. See how .mudl. yo:tthave~earm1oo. ahont p~ • .udng, wrn:ltmn.S:t, and. rev.lgJ.ng~

Inlleglrated 'Task

Give y-;oltse1f'31 m.U1UJ!J~es.~o .read. ,the passage Then li:sten to me ~ccmre: ondle CO .. Th.e leawe w.ill take 3!hol!lt2 mlfiliURS', Do.1l1t ~~t~o,take .nll~es as· y~u' .LteDw.d . . read. Vou sb~llrld.begi~tbirudI!jg; abo~t~Q~['p;J3Dn~ng as~Ul GO mils. 'I'&en w.rlte an essay In :llesponseto ·drequesnollill. within. 20 .m~11!uteS. U~e 'me space ()in. meroUmv-

,.

Utg p.agt.!i.

Div.id~ your wibingrune .. lkeoos~

,St!!p t Stlijl ::I Smp 3

PLAN' :I mu..tes WR.ITE 14 minutes REVIS:E 3 mInutes

Cwloun d'ij)Uit~~,e ph~o.meMl1! .l!mown. assJob.dwarming has

been. - ·;w" c ·tn. tece~t ':'-,,' - ''J:i'~.-,u:s , ,-':-1'., -:ii··, rm·In. ~: -.,:1 . --

. gm .. WIg c ~. ~ ~l1!i«'! _5: --S!.-J& .wam:gl'4Y as

aresalr of human. 3lC£Wity,. Sinoeme b:u.1!w:ttfal RevOJ:-OttiOlO, :~tIImU8 have: adcld·j ·lIl1ifiamJO<1).. ''0. ~t., ,. mh: '. , . c . '. ~.' 1~!1L_. i[;l ,..".:q. __ ..... __ 'I.': .. '5-gr---.--'>!!ll ~O me gree_~_o~e ~es _n wm;: ~m5

. h ~1L__";a\.· •• •• _IL .• JI

a;E!n10fllp'. ·~wroliJlw:.mc~ .Ul acuv.~ues iilUwM oown,g o.~IWfi

W'l1€Sr:s: and. burning fQS·sI[ fuds~ilre oo~ and io.it Groon_b~ui;egases: b.oM. h~il: .m. cltea:tmoSipReft, maIO a. ,cenaiin.en:e.n!tJ their presen.ce i$:natt!Lw. Am. :anificiil iacrease 1m. me :gnO!lUl!rt 'of these g:ases. howw!u~ leads loa rise .~ temperatures .oWl EaRh.

bl dle .midl.t& Q:f me twentieth ceu£~, :scwenmrts ~thill:

Eanh. ~meWngwarllll.e~; ·ThenmeyclUoovered. d:w:t cmJi)o.fi ,dimdde ~evrcls'~n d1e a~osphere: wer:e .wncreasin.g. They m~dm~l!.ere was ar:dauonship' bet\V(Sf!lilf.i.smgrempemt:lill:S mdrismg .. ~MI8 OlE ca:dlO!l!. ,d1oJclde~ Mo'S't Qf&~S! cadlen dioJliide coma .&om OOliss~o'ns from .~[l;dmm.d. acdvlrry aod.ps~e."(IlweJedl miGli'O,f vehicles,.

Earth', ·a!~.Empegm:re im:ttasedl ~.ost l.5""f dY![~n:g ~e

"'_.A {'..~! ...JI_ d".'1'. 1"!~

rwenttcin. OOJil:ttmy. JCleutlllst& premctmat c Uf~Rg me twenty-'I1:f5t

Oe.D1W!.UyJ ~:empe~wm oom:ii:n!lle~D l~e, Wh!3:t mangu ,ooUIDd. It'.I:m bring alb~u!t ofiomFlmer~ Weh.avea.lread.fb~~D' see ch_-F: .!in wea:weF palErru:.,snlJ'w and. jt:i:eoover~ andsea ~v:eI.

S2 Writing fot the TOEFL N3'T

Chang(!S In weamerp. iilKer.m ,may ,~,eOO, t;O inQ'~d :looding and, dmught wQ,ddwide~ as wd]as mo«: :freqUtllilt e:xU(!Jneweaw.er 00[1-

.!I,: - h ~~1 L' 'D:' ,..Ii L _',

wclonssU!,c ',as: pOW>e:tn.unmt.larnes;. wSJ~g ffJ);U;OY tempernm~,may'

also, .result i[![[I~mg wa:oor :sca:r,cicy and, 1l11, eniua:ion of r.UIR'1e1':..

~ d' ~'I " 18' " ~L ':L ::mm b

om pJ;:m:c art. , 3:mmiiJ SpecIes. ,I" 'Ut nOit JU;$[ tne weaj,;ne[ WIl!!i!I ne

,aff~ctoo. C~gesin climate ean ~d, mooonorni.c Ims~", parrloo-,~<1idy :In, me; agri,ill,mmW,3fid,~:spo!tU;.tiO'Q secoo"" OI!!11l reJm!!:'f pmdict:S a PQ~ilb1e 1% drop in ~ss domesdc pmdlua and a:.w%

.:1_ . • '. . .' -!:d".J

necrease wn per capifta ,oonstwm;pnon wOir~ __ WlilJ!e"

TASK

Inlrodur:Uon 3:3

TASK

tntr:oduction 9,5

Revise

Use: the fol.ovring d]jedd~t as a guide .wn. :r.evi.singyoul' essay. ¥oumay not befitmUm, l.n 'Wiimsome of these i:tems!.')Jlw. YOU. vii]] l~_l.f! aJb~u,t. th.em au' as Y'Ol:!. sm.dY ws book.

OO(NTENr'['

A mode! e$Say is on P!;1)ge: 244. YQY!1 essay does UOit h,avc to ma:.~'Ch ~his model. ~[ is Oll1l~Y one of tillan-y pOS!l~bJe~lPOllses.

PART 2

WRrTINIG SKIL:LIS, INIT:ES'HATIED TA,S,K

Step,1PIan

How 'to Take No~es Rea.ding Lis:tening

Outlines and. Idea Maps PClctke 1

Pracuce2 Ste,lWrite

WFi~e a Thesis S.w:~em9t P'om[ of View

lP.EaCtiae 1 CompUieand Con;tWIl:

Pl'aroce .2

Write m,e Supporting Details Paraphras~ng

Pm.edce: .3,

'ra.ctke 4\

Cirdng

l'rncdce S'

Wrire the Res,ponse Swnmarizin -

--- --- - ---- --g

Practice (5

Sm"3 Rerim

Usedle Revision Ch.ecklist Practice 1

Pmo[ioe 2

Check the Spe1lliing and Punttu31Don SpdUn_g

Punctuation

fmcuce3,

f:m:crioo 4

ExWPt3lCtice

P:r,mim ::mce,pamd], Task,

Taldng good .not't':S is an. .important plH£ of p.~an.rulng yom !essay. [n.diJs sectiiO.fi •. re!u willlwn.howoo I~e .ooc:eS on the leadmng: passag:e- aaden the lecmremdyo:u'will I.earn diferefiC ways of !o.rg;mhing yom nores,

Re.adiing

When. YOIIl.rea:d, it is .important Iw!I!tCOil1li-rernf ~Dp.k,. me mmn ideas, and. the suppo~cing deMS, Th~e wiD help you ·UifUkrsta!]jd. ~d .remember what yc!uread, Iden,~ tifywng these demefJ'E'S will aho, he~p you .I)espond.onth~ h:u:egrat~.dwk.

Qnme TOEFL m't ~~..e·re41ding P$sag:e;: .is QI!!the OJmputtl: screen. yg~,l cannot m.adt or bighLigtu w[ as you oould. tif you welle :rm:ng: a hook Ybu mnst :rake·now: (Hli. 3 pie:ee Qf~er, YO!YlwiU needoosu:mm~j~ or .p~p.hwethe ma:in jaw ~d the sUPP(llmng !de~aj]]s. You will need eo ro:mpare ehem mthe lecmre,

wak.1M: the eump~e below ,ofa read~ng passage. The first higibligh~edJ ~n~ence is ·rh.eropic or main idea ohh.e who~,ep3ssage. The erher highUgb.ted words or ph~ a:rt:m.e .main ~d.ea$ of the ~p.hs, Noticewa ~; rome u ,or near the begl~~ rung of w. p~nmra;ph ..

Sample Read Ing IPa.ssage

.Mllch.ll~. 00 been. ,done .tnc"O leaming s~es. Manr edu~rt ~je . at lmdcistiiiligg J~DinO;r-Fl~ GW). ~}:: • nll\! 0 . e wnott g~ on in a~_~_..Q;m OJ: - ·w:mg·,se:ssi~I:ndividwds: who a:r~: awa:re· o.rthe~![ O'wml learrung styles am.beitmr .fOQll;Sm.eilr lea:r.ningl. Poomso:l's and trainers who Ui!Ildmtamld. ~iln learning styles ruebetlref able 1:<:1' design: i.nstmOOon so as ·to reach all ith,ej:rsmd.en:m or tram~.

wrnin_ s ..... 1S MM~~n M~dli ~n .(fir, flent Wll :S. Peo.ple may be d~aibed :asII.U.ll~Ory :leanem~ w.ho .Ica:m best by .[js£ening~ visuil

1 hol bes t, • ki ~L • 'l- --.L-l

earners, wr 0 .weffm ~es[ or see'J:ngl;olf .. nC$i.I~.ellC_!eiUn.e!r.i .• w.~IQ~n

best by dorng. ADc:mefsy .. srem sees so:me p~ople asaetlve learners who pIDcessm.e'W' ~n£Ofm~oinbr doing so.mewing with it Olr usillg: it in some \Vay~ 0 rher~ear~rsare seenas reflle:cd~~prif.rin!SID pm(~S new .imIform.adon by minldn:g about. it rather dum. by wing ~t. Similarly. l~~ers might· b~ de-SClibooas either seq~m:W or global. Sequential ],earne.rsse.e new im:foifmadon.~n~ogtcaIlyoon~ necJtoo seeps, whereas gIDob~ learners tmJd.efStafiJI.d.mings be;E:t:erby looki:ng at the wholcplo1.tLte mm.erch.m. foat!iin:gonme p-ats,.

Un -rnt;J.~ wns"llfllinll es can !mpfa<ve stuufx SJillfs.: Seq:lJ.en-

rial.leamelS~ fot example. ·can. makle a. ha:bit (I,f outUnJn_g new .infOI~ m_;auon, Audico.ry W.UJ1!llr:S canform swdygr!oup.ll so mo:llltth~ can talk wim others abeut die: topia chey are looning, Reflecti::'Ve~.eam~

E~~bu,;a_ mIlm iJa. .. El"CI}' paragnpb'shauld. hwle It main i.dta. 70pk .isam:Kherway oftCftnmgtothc main idea of me wboJc~.

A thifkJtlUDtj~ U

what JGu Plan all wrir~.I!It'-

it is ymu main ~ SEatcment fq.l' the wbQk~y.

42 Writing fot the T05:FL JBT

erscan findW2ysto .reflect on WMtdiey h:a:v:e leal11llGd, by'askWg themselves questions about I!he; material, for example, or by wrld:ng

Ustenlng~

When you. listen to a. ~ecrure or discussion. in 'an academic setting, you listen for ~. same wnfDrmuion. tl1ar you ,do, when you read flOf the 'ropic~ mmn ideM~ and suppOir~i!lg details .. To :h,ti~p you feme;nJJba'wha;t you beat. you an .: r.ab :nowjwt as )I'ou. do when you read.

Usually a speaker wi.U give the main idea ·or his/her opinion in. m.e fiBt mw sentences The supponing details uswilly follm~'. YOU! muselisten for me nuUn ideas and 'we ruppomng: deWJ1s. These wlll .~lp you ~sgnd and. r~member vih.at you hear. They will. also help youwh:en. you wriee your response. ,!(hu will need te ~umma:ri~ or panphrue rn.e main Ideasand 'mesuPP'Oliting; deraUs.

Look at the ~umple bdow 'o,fpwrt of a .. Wecrure. The first .hl.ghl:;ghred phrase is me topic ·or main idea .Clfme Iecrure, The 'omer hi.ghUghted pihta&es are supporting deuj~s.

You can O~. ' .•. n, ,ize ViOIilf noees fDf Imwthe~C'- c.-.: and+e: lecntte "-,

~',~ ... ~- . '. .... _ _ ~ p~ YII m an

outline 011;' on a ,grapbi!;; organi:;rer Si~Ch as ;:m id~ .. ma, .. Use WMWi!faf 'Works hes[mr you to orgmi~ what you .~da:nd.liaefi to~

T:akin.g nQ~es isa lin1edifft!:!I'e~tfmm pIanninm wOOt you "Wi]] say. When, .ymmmke neres, you Wl'it~ down. the rop,ic ,0,' m:dn Mea. For meenWe passage or lectIilre. ~m you plan yO'W' w:ricing., youwrioo a mesiisstatemmt. The mesls ,starem.en.t ls ~m .main 1d~.rorm~ whole ~y.

INTR.!ODUCTION TOPICIMAlN ID.EA

BODY

m,EJt 1

Detail 1 Detaill Detail 3

IDEAl.

DemIl Detai12 Detai13'

IDEA.3 Detail 1 Detai12 Detail,3,

CONCLUS~ON IDEA. t, 2~ and .3

44 Writing for ,'ii's TOEFL 1ST

An oudi.fIDl:! can Iko, look ,fike aJ,s.i~mple COOt. Look at me:reo'udines 3I.f:Idi, noteS foir the saJlljp£e reading pMSage :ood the sample ~e:ctLIJre.

,f Readh1g ~

r---I ~~--~~~-I Understanding leamingl styt'es canl

Topic)Main idea improve' l'eeminQland training:,

Paragraph l' Main idea ~!mprc,ve ,claioorooms and maiming s8Slsions Sup:porUng details C1') WndMduals can ,study better~

(2)1 Piiofessors; and uainers ,oon ins~l1Uc~: better.,

P,arag,rElijID,2: Miain idea [)iI\I'erentways to, describe leaJmlin9 $"Ies Sup;pol'llTng details (1 )1 All.u:lilOry; v,isl.Isl. klnes1ihet!c

(2)1 Doing!, relflactlng J

'(3l SeqlLle"'tial~gl!lllaJ

Su:pporting de~ails (1) Sequefl1ial- make 'OIJ~nnes ,(2) Audlltory~talk, in study groups

1(3) Rie,ftectil/le'- ques~iolls. s,ummaries

Supporting details

,(1) Some' 1hlrngs, haYB to, betauglilt in ee:l'la~n ways., 1(2) Some shitd'ents ,Be 1'lI00t inm:erested' i'nlearni'ngl stY~leSi.

1(3) Some instructors are' not interested iin [Ieaming :stytesi.

UtnderstandiRQ11lell'lmng .styles

does Ino' always [pnwide a solution.

v: ~,'I " tesonld An' id" ," I ~ -'k' I~L_.:L·

reu can a.SO O~ yow: notes ensaea maps. ,', nea map can 100' usetms,

Idea .2

Detail Det3ll Detail Detail Detail Dew~
,
1 3, 1 3, 1 3 Detail 2

Detail, 2.

Deliil 2

46, Writin,g for ,the ~Ot=FL i8T

IDEA MAP'FOR RBADING

ti~~sta.nd;~ I~~", $ly1e,S' ~, r"1P~~ 1SQ.r;~·'!J I~ tra./n/~.

;~r~e. t!iaSiSr.~ Qh!/ CM'~·'!!J';5e;;S'$J~on:S

J,''.f!I'i!!NYit ~ to Je$l!.f";·k leorn~hj

$0/18$ -

iht:li'V;daf)/.s;.... ~u.:o/,k~~

l~r-uet kiter

oSe.,ttutt,;W-1 ~i!!1$ OId/i~

t<!!nl!et~¥~

-_,.~...... _

fd~c.U:~I?S,

$.UP1I"1t'JF .. 'e$

I at/dlrf,<:»y, Vi.suo./ ~~hdk!!

audit~, tall{ ,.1'/

3t.a~ _1p$

tlnJW'.sC~J'?1 lear:~/~ ~/e$ .:ii' .~aI~

a solat;~

6~h~'~ r~jht

.fl'l c!ert.a}~ ~$

.;:Sa.~ ;n.st.,.udaM ~·i I·fll~&:l

,maiJj$~a~;d.

d~ . .nor ~tQ 6~t;~ an tJ#$

't~ ~ordi"j' t~ 't.~'l" ~ $t}I/~:

t~t~ .~·t~

.Readlng 1

mvasiVlll pi:aJliS axe a gPJwing p.roblem. In che UnitOO St:aJWi~ tber~ m:e ove!! oiDern.oil1~'OOdl ,s~e.c:les QiffiOfimnive .-c lanrs til. have been

-' -, -" --,- ,,-- -p-- -' -- - .,-,' ,- p,.- -- ----- --,-,- - ----

iden:tifiiedl as a tbmtro llativl~ planw and mimarns., One way nennad:ve olanrs Me ,iintrodlil.ced lito il!fi a:rea,~th:m1J - ',h,"""', '1'...4- ,eniD· " lIIn, me

p -'-- - "'" - '- - - - - - '-'. g ,6 .... "'---g·- ---

p<l!Sl. pd.el!l~sc!dti.wt~d no.rula:tiv~speciesfo[rood. Ol .mediclne. G'iHd.ene:rs ~d11bring .in.p:J3fitsfwm oiher pMtS Qifthe wodd~ S-Qme,. rim,es because ~ey 'want .hard!.yOf dmugb:[-,resistiullltplan'~i" in ()!w,eil'

b f~L'aJ b 'f " Mfth ell

cases 'ecawe 0' ,UI,C patti! I 'a:t . ~ty 0< ,: SQiID.e· speoes. _, ~ ,_,e '00.0 __ ~

lions arelii:gh:t· in their n'~ cnviro.rnm.ent,.mese nonaatlve planlts can escape me gxden .ann gr{)W wILd .. Many o,f mem. arevety~ggresslve. Then we call them invaSive. They take ()1Y'tfaml. area, pmhin:; ,ou.t me: na:tiive species. They may shade out ~e lo~, p~ant!i~ sC1r.l!ngle them with vine5~ or d'ep1~te .c .dof JJI.u:trieJ.DES,. Tile eff«lt8 00 die local ocolQgy cru::J. he: deY$:tating~ Niltive plan" are redooe:d,~n n~be'.r~ and! mimarns sm>e:r lo®s of habitat and roo:ucti.o.n of food sl.l:pp.~ies.

Supporting details (1)

~~~~~~~~~-----------------------

(2) .. ~~ _

(3)

'---------------------------------------

.Leclure1

®

' ," _ ~: ,"~'. " " "" ':1 ", _, '_ I, I" _, _ "', " , _, ,,__ ,_, , ',_' _ ,,;_, ..' I .' '. " ' , " ' ': ' " ill,

.Listm .tIJ :the Mcture. Wrtht ytJ'ur ,rlO,W on the LetUlte· Outll;fle~

~~~ ,

Main. ,idea

-------------------------------------------------

Su~paning derails (1)

-----------------------------------------

(2) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

1(3) ~~~~~~~~~~ __

Writing ·SkfUs lntegraJed fas.k 49

R-~dill~- ~ ea_-9 ...

1111 ~

D- ~'I , •• '_lr:.~~ ~L_ 1- . .£~ ~ M . 'L h

. (Jell '~e;vj-uon ~ swoo,. peiiu;m1Iam:::e~ ,".' my WI:i~enl . aYe

_~ d ,;1.~" ~il. ~.-- "1111:- - ~-- L - - II .., •• L_L"-

lOUD!' mat ~~ :are stto:_ng 1!!lJDI.:i; .1dl'&'Wee:-.n OOLeli'lSlOfi VlIewtng:rmutts

and dilldrens performance .m .school. Smdies hay,lll s'nown, diM clill.dren who spend a ~o£ of time in front ofdt.e 1Vget lower grades thmtheiI' peers' who watch, litde or no Tv. It: has also been shown,

~L - ..;b~L1__ h- 11. ..• _m _. _ _- " _L' 1._.1 __ . ,~ _

mal ~uit:n W=, 0- :rulVC' 'l.e:Iev:!lstooSt!UJ mtneir I~Ofi1S eam.!.YfW~£

t-est: sceresrhaa clti~dren.witb.liIo,te1.evis~m sets in 'm. bedrooms. There ;3ft those' who sm. TVa apoten:dal edUicatiOmd '~d. Howeve.~, there are aaually very few pro,gl':Jm!i o.R 1V that teach clti1dlren .imPOrtant ,academic or drlnkifllg skilll,. Mofi pmgram,s aimed at ,chiidren, suib 318, ~~ fO,F ~ple) contain lirt1~valua:ble content, Children who .s-pmd more 'time. w8:[:ehing ~ spend. less 'time doing homewoirk 01" jjmera~g with oilier: people" They leanii. to be pMsive mmer than .a~., Research mpponsd!e view duu; pamnJu .in£erested in. suppord_q.gthen" chJldrm'ssu.cass in ~chaol .di.owMkeep d1.J::·oolcvWon mmed of£

Supporting demUs 0) ~ _

(2.) . ~ _

(3) ~ _

lecture 2

LECTt.TRE OUTLINE ~nidea

-----~----------------~-~

Sup'pottingde.mi1s (1) ~ ~~~ ~ (2)

------------~~~~~----------------

(3) ~ ~ ~ _

.Readling ·3,

Smokin~ preven:cio.n am,~ns~panindady .05e ahne:d. at

;~IL~. ··~IL' Of': _n· dth

1OiWl~: peo.pu:!! .lWlvemet \VIm s~wun.ant suc:oessi!.!J :a:r~un. tne

'wl.m£ll'y. The. CIHIm1;: amplig.l topreven.t ~ObiOCO use among teeDS in OUI Qwn . .s:mJte) fO'r '~p]eJ. has aa:d 3! ~umbie positive: oopKt .. 'J'hi;s program. md~es an mvm~[~g, campa1_gml.~me:implemenm~ t1o~ of no~smokjfig poUciesfo.~ p.lI.acesfrequen~ed. by teens" _d1. variollD co.mmumity antiismokmg eve&m. C~o.setol 25%, (lif l:~ifiSSur'" ve:yed saiddlatmq .had.. pa:nic.ipa:~ed in one of ~evwm dm,ing thepru;t YeM;. Moife .sign~:6CL~t1~. over 50%repotte&havif:lJg seen. the mitlsmokiiJ:!!gads. The survey 90 :round ~tdl()5ewhCl .hOlcl seen the .ads welle mum .Iess IDiikdly fa .SWt smo1kin_g: th.an dLo.s:ewbo .h.ad. :1i1I.o,t seen my of the antismoking ads. The public lwabhd~pa:r!!menlt

....:1. ..... .,. • d -d th ,. ~b

.~...M OOIli~m!!1e an . exp_· .. ' . ·ecam:pu,gn so as:~o .r.ea:WmQ!re

jroun_g poopruebo,u,gboutdle sme .. aw;ly~ such. ,campaigns cmgo a lcng way mward addr~;l!\gp'yb[ic Jtealdt .mues,.

READING OUTlLlNE, .Mam.~d9.

--------------------------~~~~~~~~~~---

S~po.m[l:s d~uills (1.) ~---~

!(2) ~ ~----.

!(,;}

~~--------------------------~~~~~.

LRltlfe9,

® Limn '"the kaure, Wfil< "'''''''''" .... the 1.<,,,, .. ,0,,_, ~4

tEC1'UllrE. OIlTl.l!NE Main idea

OJ

-

Mmy~ea:rclt~rs ha¥e loliked h.l!~,rhe etEkct 'of mood. on con&IUliu'':::1 b~a:vio:r~ .It ha:sb~e.A .. sllowDrthatmoodoUIecu the Sh.Oppe'fS perception (!Ii the score)meamo~:!'!'\!lt of rime: :Spent shoppwng,. and ~he nW1llber of i.mmsp' .. chased, It shoppels mood, ef oo;u~ may be In:A.uen.oedlby m_y~gs. Some,mMng~: !!1n'cofItro!llaJble .asme 'Warner an .uve a gr~[ efrect ,on w.hal[ and how .mnoo..il. pe.rmn b~ys OR. any panirulJrur .day~ A penons work or pers~n.d. lii:~o, ImJ:uc::nces rhe mood W3!iI! he Of she b.dn:gs lifl~o ~eSt.;QR~ an@l. of OOU!ISe" re~i'ljjle~ hal¥(: no ,oonu.oJi (I,ver ,this~ d®her~ But .reu:lillIeliS d.o ,have ,00.D;[[0,1 ~cl'the:ir S~Oal enV~[O<I1IIm.en,[~ andlmisha:s beat sho-wn (() hal¥el greatim...paa: ,on ,shoppeFS' moods and 'th:e~Feon r'he~( beha.:vio:[ .as C!O.Dilumers. Retailers:s:peod a. g.~eat deal O!.feUrOft w:i~ 5uchmin,gs as l~gluilng¥ ,oolots.m1!Jsk~~d!. ,P'l'!:u:!liu:ct disp']ays ,wnan, ,e:ffbf[ IiO ,creaWiUl en.vw!l.OElme:lll~;mail: will ba~. apoolti~e hnpact on. ~hopper'moo& and ~emb11ncretie sales.

READ'DlG OtmlNE Ma.ililld~

----------------------~~~~~~~~~---------

Suppolrdlilg~ls (I) _~~~~~~~~~~ _

(2)

~~~~~~~~~~~-----------------

(3)

~~~~~~~~-----------------------

leeture 4

® Liste"", ",./e_. WS;,. pu, ... ~ •• lb.. L_ Outline. '~~:

Supporting details U) ~~~~~~~~~~~_

(2)

------------~~~~~~~~~---------

(3)

----------~~~~~~~~-------------

PRACTIC

IF" you ;1i(aJ tfUh passage. .tdRe 11,o'k.so.n crhe R£mJing JJea Map. Then list~1;l .10 .the tr.trrespo.'tlJing .kctttNana takt tl'Ott.s .()~ the ~ Idea Mllp_ In your .12'(JteYj.wrik thetopic~,tbe mMrl itk4S" dntirje sul!por:ti'1K ,Jemils. ]0,tj! mayh,av~ .two (W mime' mp-

"otting dttailSi. -

Advmoes .mtdnoIDgy::!i:reU!SU~.y OUSll!mGcl. to ieerease W0rKell: p.ro,d)JIij.odv,~ty~ bUiI:.·Wl is um ,always: me ,cue. Ted:u!loJogy has:m@€:

• ·'IL!I_t:_.re ."1 · I[ L - .' .:1-";1__ d h L

.l~: poss~uw wf emce WOll'.NSf,::'; ~:O' neve:r ,~eave[n"UUi~~ anat ,'epnys-

"_~'I e _!L" ~~dU 1- ..:1-[ d'··

.~.t.iiUOOn$eqUiences ().~wliS ,can a .. )~li[iau.y ealll~O. ,ower pro _I[IIC£l;vU,y"

Rtmainingsea~OOJ. a~ a ,~ik all dar can. lead ~'QI backandneck pain. Comta1il(tl:se of a. compu[e;t onen leads 'Klrepe~tive Stress ,injiuri.es as l\lre~~ as eye ,st!i:a~n. Arrecenl: srurvey round th3im: many offi.ce w>o.~kers ,el,ftmJ r-emM ;at~helrdeSb wt.i.e ,eaIJI:lng .~.und!1. so that d!.ey' anusw.er their i~ma:i~o[ CQln'tin,u~ wooong 0l11li. a. proje,ct. Th.i:S G.n~.y ,exac~teS: dlles~w.adon. Eli'eifi though worrkersmay spen.rl the e~tire w,ork ,emy aJt meiIooks~rhe resu~lflng phys~cal. disoommnhas been sh~wl1l~o leadeo dec~d~,nOt~fiCfeasedj' p.rodt!.oti.viq.

Wha~ can be done ahoutlhis2'First,. ,offic.e wodj.~elCS need '001 be .mfi:f-e: 3:ware~ O'fm.e need. f<>.r breaks. Ge~uiifi,g!illp itQd waloog .around fOil: five minu~~ry hour erse wm~~. g~"Vtl ~m:irbo.es at ;res[., Eacln.g ~ufJ.m ~wa:ftnom ~lh.e ,office WilId. ~ -·R&!~(-.o~&ce m .. in .-,

- . ···f - -. -._ - .-- . __ ' .. ---ps. - -- - .--- ----~.---g;i

rnt'hextb.an alI,warys :r~!fymg'O.D tHnai1 bOlm CJlOO!a_mp dm~ a~y :£oci.m me d!esk:. Seoo.~.d, .m.n~figt.h.e desk. space is ,cmd'al. Use of

• .• '. _L ..:IL '. ,. ~ m_ ... ,,t. . ~_ .' II

e£g:Nlcmuc equ~p.me-lll~:SiU:I;;.n a£'Cli1<li1r.s: afiu, K e , ""QiMW:: Clill.~[~y

reUeve s.fj,:ain ()ume back and neck) .~duc~ng d~S:OOlmfoirn ~!!ld. increas~ng pmductlwty;

'Writing Siems Integrated Task sa

READING- IDEA, MAP

5,4 INrit.ing for the' TOEFL .1ST

'LeelurN 5

Listffl to tilt /mJu,re.w:h'itr yOW' 11,ottso.n ,tht .kttu:re laell.Map.,

. -

LECTURE IDEA MAP'

Read'ing 6

OJ

,Anima1-as~tued, cherapy;, or AKC is 'the use ,of companiou. ;arum:als to help people imprrove 'welr emctlonal and ,physical health, It is

~_L •• 'h 1· d h ..

common [or PSYuiUltrlSfS; psyc lO ogIIsts~ an P" -YSl'Ctans rorecom ..

doetstoeati 't' ".db • al ..:I:.re ... 1· r_..;:~

men pets to' paaents St.1'il1l3mg wtw. emenon _ w:mcwtl.e:l.~,

falf pets appears 110 ba;v;e beneHt. fer physical health, as well.

Pets area good source 'of emodenal support. They' Me wo:ndedW comp'Ml.tl:lIilS for peop,le suHedng from londiness. Boo:ple who,feel Isolated .from. ether people may eUter mo.re eas.Uy into an:b,tiooship wlm. a per because it :is a non .. Judgmental and nOf.i:.-w~enht.g .relationship. Cuing for pets CMIi also ~ve focus:~o 'me lives ,ofpet 'owneD

b 'bJ~_'L~~ d' C ":L.:'I - • __ _II b '..:I~.-

yes:mJ: lsIUfig a nee: [or 3.. aau y rounne <UKI "ryproVIWfi,g opportu ..

]lilies for .nobb,i,e;s and dub am'vides. In addi:ti,on, pets provide oomfon and a ,ru:vcrsion from werries, Devd!opilng a relationship ,of

".,L L _I. '1" 1'''~ . e.; .

tl:'USt wtw a pet can oop re ,I,evepeop' eSuri:¢fmgwu'm a.:rw,ety.

There isalso docum,ent-adon that ,ar,ing fOJ pets mn.inpJ."!(.We physioo health. I~ has been shown.lh.a.tpetting andralking tol a, pet low(lIS' blcfld. prMStu'ie: and .. heart rate ad, improves: S'~wID rares from heut d~e" &I'S pmv1dedie ,oppom.m.ity foil"regmat: ,p'~ysic.il

". 'D. .~.m • ..:1._ ~'L_ •. ~ 'I" ,_u ~_'L

acnrvlty. !.ters i.I:JIIm provtuc tne OPPQ.ttwl lty to p~a:y. It is wdu es~~

m·~L-d th· • _m_ t·, II _J:. h' ) h' 'I ',.] IL~_1th

.111~nt:c 'at annn~ I~mc~uumg .. umans: W. lOp ay uve ~OiD.ge:r~ neal .-

,wer liv~thmthose who do not. III :faa~ pet owners .make iil.tPIlO 20% fewer visitsto doctors:' ,offices man .noll~pet owners.

Pet d1.empy is common praedee in homes forme dderly. These .insdtwtions often ~ep, resident c-a.m and bhdsas pets. VoIIlllil.teers ID.tteo visit we hornes wi. do~ md olrh,er typtM Oipets,ilS well Itis .D.OW beccl'ming: more 'widely aoccpted m,ue- pet thera,PY' can provid.e needsd emotional. suppOrt '00 ,p.c::opl'e efall a,B~"and. mat rhete are physiail! ben.dlts:, as well.

READING IDEA. MAP

Lecture 6

IR.eadilngl 7

OJ

PO!U:UMn of our OOeaIIIS is a serlous proMem., Tne[Je 31f-e dilB'er~t somccs o',oc.eam, poUu!do.f:l~, and. milloo ,of];[ [e5itdm Hom. a.cluiivities that tI.b p~aooon~md.Fn. met. 80%, ~f fjlcea;n polutruo[IJ ,Q:rj,gimDres on .1and .. fo.rexamp.~e~ o~ru ~s Gillie oflhe.majoli S:OIUOO~, ,of oc,ea ~l!iil:[~o~, but o.nly· abo!!,t 12% ,of d:!bi: type of poluciton .mute OOm. 'Dill. s,llsat: .sea Anom.e:r 36% of ~rI: comes .uo.m.was:re mom cities and ,bc,mil'~es whioo. rtavds ttl, me ,oceammrou"'.l, '_ dvers ood.d:r:a.im.

• . I~'~

JRertiUzeFS Meat'Jiot!her seeleus SO!J:llce ,of ocean pollu:lion. Fe[ti~

ers wash off mll:ms and ~a~s and '~~!I!13ny end. up In 'me Oceru::l .• Onoe:m the 'OCle:m~ they allowal:ga:e liD goow~ The !ov<:rgoowm ,o:f aI!,sae dep~eresme. eeean ,of ~'flI and. ~u£rocates other malf1ne plmits. ttSu:ldn.g in dead arerul. There <.lJ:r;e. sev,~ ,~~dead, ,areas' ,run mewo;ldd:!s ceeans, including: du: GmfofMtJcloo Iud. 'me Baltic Sea.

Garbage .ls ano~er .~ of pOi~~lltcio.Wl ,Wn ,am 'OO~lI' and. it: can serio'U.!Sly -hum. marme ~rum~:. One ,or~e: W0:ESt O1!1lpd~ ~s plude. This .matet.~al doesno[ break dow~ e:a8wID.y. Aniimals ofoon mista.:bwit {hm; food. and. 'e::!!t ,~!t. '~O'liStk bags: 'em b~.odlt :an aflima1~s b,reathlng ~age. The p~af!lcruwgsmat.h01d. p~ of am.liogedt:a an ehoke btiM8 mdl ,1)[h.eil:·s.maIlJ.alli.mib.

Tmdc cllem:~~ also came Seri.Oil1S poMuuon pmb.h~.mlS'. Un:£i!I. 'me U"li9'O. : ,...... . .. - . h ':-_'1 .. werec....~; .. ' (hm~ cedi kroo the ~ kt

,~"'I .. S,~ ro:xmC:~S[IIH:; 'eRU~i!i. .n;tx;:~.y c_p "___ __ ._ '_., .

me 1970s.1aws were pmssOO biilIil:I]Jmgiiiu:macDvi:ty~ Ho,wc¥ru'~ [U!n~off' from :mmufuctuI~n:g ad. d!iispod sires as we11 as s;ccideml.ml.~.eaks condnue: ropoUUte QUiII' eeeans wldtlmlic dlemfc:alS. These roc::rnllcaJs; aa:um:~3i~e j [II~hegima1sw~JI;~!!'!:ptmemam.d.mOYe up, ihe :food. maUl. They ~llman, end up' ,~. the ,~d mat w,e eat,

Writing Skills fntegrau~d Task 159

II lMrltJng :tor the' TOEFL. 113 T

'r~e p.Sjdlol:oglcain ~ ~f,oo]or .kwe ~en ,of.in~£:Q poopJle ro[ .~.km~ ·mne. T.he andeJli,t: ·c.._....... tiaM, Cb.in,csel, md. I!odian:s all wed.. ,oo;lo~ as pm ,of .bea!J]mg:~i,esi' The ,psychoffio,BY of ltolor~s

"~Im- f' .. ., ~ ~l "11'._, ~ .- ,...:lb. •. .:II •

Stm!l!lllo ,mems~ m Mma;fm. tIDm.es.nwtCfl>o:r ,ueoomrors:, ,Pi:'-"~c Uiesrup~

~ ~ _ _;Il ~-~.~ ~'I'I' • _, .. _~I )H ... "" f-';II. ~ ~L

m~ 109 '~~-Ifien: <iul:m.oolrpon.tem 1HW!,w;stm~,o .' :wcre..a--

ltionsffirip b~M~ ,00101[' a.d. m.oodlm~o thekwork.· -

'h. "IDooting row, form. m~erW!l: space,! 'tie d,esipe'l co~dets

'L~ . 'f' ~I ""'!!,.t "~m_ ~L" • _. .;b _=:"11-11 'k~

'W.!.Mt: type '0:, mood. lS' compatliliJ1eWliW iIlleaCtl;VlIlle5u!:-<!it wru D!;;

'CiVf.~ed! out im that ,sp.a.ce. At least eae :smdyhas. m.tliDd.dtat 0'£&0(: woilrel1sm able~'O, cGacu'tm:relx:QermKlams~at axpaln:ooa wim 'cOOlblucs, ar dJark greels.'ielow mig&·tbe c.omideKdi swtaMe ,:for a :sal.e.s !ofti:ce became .i:t oo.a;mbm:es m il. posimvemoocl. Health ,C3!R omre,It$" on th,e other hand., ar~ ,o:hmpa:mRdl 'liWth. neu!tral oo[~mJ asl:bese oon~ asense '(lfdea'DJiness and. help, me hea1~ 'wmhrs sta,y. dear and fOatsed •. ResitamEts ~ 'o1mlll.paced. Ommtge er blitgb:t red! as :It: hbelevOO. 'Wt·~ 0010" sdmufuremea.p.~lite.

TheJJ'eu some ,eseauh .. indicating mat ,cOlo.! .mayMw all ,effect on '!llh~ booy .aiSWell. Som~ ,sclenmu be1iieve Dt blue -s't.J:)W\S. Iihe ~t 15atit and reduoes: bleed pR-SSun:.Lcl, 'QlIltAe ,otherhmd~ is: believed 110 ~treaseb!wc& pressl.m&

WhIe them is a.gfJmt .~. ,of m.mMSt m the psydl!j)J~'of,ooloJj,

•. ...•. . :" t........ "-~~ A~~L .,.;!!. ~ ~a:..~. _.C 1

mmy samtlSu .~m.wl .s'''''- .... t:''tl~, • .n~utoU:~we Ql.wt w' ,00",00: '0,0

MOOd! has hee~,observed. mmJlf ases;j. I~.be sh()wmmat ws dlta ms e<EtmtGWp.OfailY~ In addi®CiJl,ollilse:rved psydwk~gjca1. ~ ola.pamailar o~ot'll1Iary not hJl[d up ac.ross ,cLmIDftlRS~

6:2 Wrfting for the TOEFL is T

READING IDEA MAP

WrWng Skills Imegr:ated Task 63,

Lecture :8

® Lm.n to the k=. ""';,.,. ....... tes ... the La_Itlt" M"P'

TtlK1l9

t:ECTURE. IDEA MAP'

64 Wrlting tortiJe TOEFL Isr

W~RITE A. THIEllS; SlATEIMENT

YQmdresi:s: :s~emeJ:J!1! is w.bat you plb~:O' w.ii'OO abollt. It i:syour mii~ ida snremeot oorfhe whole ~a,.,Fol' the: lllIegmud 'I~ yQlK'mesi& smtement ,mUSil:: r,mr tethe

• WeasfiOO.t. mJh., ~'. ',' '. '. .._:j .. L_.I~ , ,l. .'L ':Ii.._ d.~

m.Mll __ ~ ._~g..:_ ~ !w.!,_:__e ~_._.:_:_qg p~ :tmig, !!l!M1' ~ct~ ,ang m:wt s~y w!~e~!!:' ~

ideas am s~mnar or O!PP08~te; •.

Point DfV:i.ew

In bodltke:reading pmagemd. the lGctl:.U'~ a po.iut ,of view' Is ex:p~amoo.Wh.en.fO!lJ, wdre your re'i!P'G]ilseoor the [nt~ed, Task you.wil have 'Klmolltatemese poinu of wew: ¥Oll an .Iook at lihe .malin ;,df13. m<!it yo!.! WF:OiUl in, 10ur :IJIO'tts. 'IlllB SibOldd, 'be a re$,iiUement: 'Of s~ ~f the majifj. point ofwew ~~amed in .~ rea:diog: p~ orilhe leame.

Whe.m YOU,re51U.t:¢ ano,tberper.'lonts~deasll you use lIepomn,s ·verbs .. Hc!te uealew oom..m.on re:po.rdng; ve!i'bs.

R-g., ~ .111 ' .·1 ItariJa -,P'O- -_og .~-

descrIbe

lEX.AJdPIES IkmJi··l ..... ~.

ThealJdlO[lqp~jlim: mat: und!e.fStandi.ng leunin.s stylGS can improve le.w~g: .. dcmining .

. UttNrt 1

The 's~r :~ts iUucm1lde:rs£mdlio.smn.ma sgles does .nm: aMYs

p:f"fiv.~de31 soluUon., .

looj ,(It t&mn'in .~ it: th, _tel""" Wl10ft ,in Step 1; Pian, .IttJaice· ,1,tlna,2 ,(}~:ptJgu 4fJ...65 .. Rewritt e«h iJm as; 0, m14remmr o{J)'omt of :view. UetqDmtJg verOl.

'~4 neamm()[ ~ --------~,

LectlHe4 The speak« ~

Rea.&_g.5 'The atWhOI ~----------------~ I.ecrure ~S; l'me speaj_ker .~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Readi.mg 6 Tire auilior , _

Read.ing·1 The au~()r _

.Lecwre 7 The speaker _

ReadID", 8 'The ... thor _

ItJ

Lecmr-e :BThe speakeif _

66 Writing tor the TOEFL f,B T

Compare and C'onllrast

When. youwr.it:e your Wiponse &.>1: £he mt'eg;r;u:edl Task1 you will. beask.ed. to compar,e the ideas In, the ,readLng pWSi,ge Mtdthe ~~ iFth.ey are s~milar in some way.¥olll, may be IiIsked hQW' t:he- [~rorlwu:ion in, ~he ,Iecrul:leadlds[~, sllpporu~ or e;;;IP,].iins '(he info,rmatL-on, i:n. the read~ng lpassage. Here ~. some werds you. can '1.LSie: when, you ~o;mJpa:re ideas ..

Compare

like

similarte

also

and

"'I_~["

sum.utry

You will be asked! 'W conerasc me ideas in ,[he ,~~ding passage aad the lecture [f they are dif{-el',enl!: Of OpposltJe toeach othem'. You. :mar 'be asked. how the information :i n the lecture ,ClSt:s doubt on 'the information in. the .reading pasmge.. Here are seme words YOilII, can, use when YlJU, cofitrilS't ideas,

Contrast

I------------~------~----------_r----------------~

however onmc' other band bue

In PmCDGr! 1 on page 65, you .reswed me .main point of view of each readin,g passage and. lecture, When you wriite yourmesis :sta~emcnc, you will pill! these two ideas together and, say whether ch.ey are simi1v or opposing poin'ts of v~ew.

Look at ehese ,exam;ples from Prn.crlce: 1 ,onpag~ 65 .

. EXAMPlES ~1'

.'~----,-'g'

TL h 'L ~ IL ~ _L d· 'l . 1 . 'l '.

ne autr of expI31l11S trurt unuerscan - mg . eMmng ,Sly es canLmp1\t"t!i"~ . ,~w:ug

and r.tammg.

L«t.ttR 1

The' speaker 5ou~rsm.:I!!t: uuder-S1mndin:g learning styles does not always pi!oviide a s'olu!Qg'n.

These ideas are ,opposlre~ meacb. ,odre:r. Wh.en. you write thethesls sta,tmnefl,t~yo!U willconJrtlSt: them,

EXAM:PLE Thesis: si'lltemmt

The aathor aplai os ~-ha:t understanding l,~ning styles can. imp.rove ~earn.ing and. training. 'l:'b.e, sp~~r, hOWlve-r~ suggests dim.: tUld.erst-andin:g laming nyJeS does no{ .uwarys providea sOlutiion. ..

This ~1!ple usesthe wo,rd[ h~l)o s.h.ow dJa:r the two points ,of view oppose each ,odier.

2. Contrast ~g 2. and Leetuee 2. po.ints IQfv.~ew~ Thesis state.n1ent:

~~~~~~~~~~~~~----------------

4. Om.!.pare Rading4 and Lectuee 4pomu ofvjew'~ Thesisstatement:

--------~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~----

5. Co~u:~t Reading 5 and Lecture .5 pornmofv:mew.

Thesis Sh"l::~m;

----------~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~--

6.. CompaEe Reading G and Lecture , pob:u:s ,ofview~ T~ :S£<1!!!~Jlti

--------~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~--~

7. Comptie Reading' and Leetuse 7 pomts Qfview;

Thesisstatemena ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ __ ~

WAlliE. THIE SUPP·OA.TING IDETAILS

Paraphrasing

When YOIl1 pM'a[p~J.Y;OIlll.lSC you Ici'wII, woms fQ. ~ess wh.atomomer peliOOlJI wrote 0' said., "Wheo,y:ou ,~phrasea sentenee Qr grog" ,0,[ sen:te[!.~ i . lookfO!ifhe most ,impottant pamirs., Look. atth.e. foll()wing:~p].es;.

OrigiMi

Peale mru 'Ii.~. dttibed!- ::lUru"D '.' .. ' ~eamet -who l:eMnL~~~ b .l.is~-A"=:"-

___ 1' __ --- --1 ~ _es ---- - 3;5 " - ry 5~ -- --- -- --~ m;::;;L -1--- ........... ~

Wsua1lea:r.nW'S:, ·who 1~ b~.t b¥ seeing; or km.estb.edc l~ners~lwho learn best b . d .-'_ c

-1 --,Q.~D_g.

11t1'!!pl;.uJS£

Some poop~e .ream mO.m eaRy by llsU:iIl~ othemby s~g)md, .stil, omen by ,doing.

flriginal

AlH.ub~ .systemsetM. som.epeople .a!j. active lesmers w.bproooss 11I.e:w 1n:fotm.:adan. by do.ing 50medITljng with. it or uslllg itm som"c way~ Other 1~ are seen :~~ldVeJ pc_~g'oo p.~ new imbfmaoo.n br ~in'king about 1!

.:IL ",Lf.". • •

mmeru13D ':'.'llUSJngM:.

&.~

Active leai!n~t:!iS!.mdencm.d, Re'W' informa;tion by .doling osomemingmlth,i,t. ReRectlve le.nn.ers 1lll&mand .. mfOrmatlO:D. by ~g abm~t .~t.

OrigiN

S~iliUl~ leam.msmight be desa,iHld as ei:meJ: SI:lqumtial 01' glohaL Sequenmd leamc:rs see newinfomlaJuo.l] m lOigi.oal1Yl5O:mlec:red. 8k:pS~ whue3l'l giGhal leamc:n unders.truld things betel' by ~oo;.l!ing at 't'hewhole picm[ll ~.e!!:' d'ru:Ml .MtIlMllg, Oin.rn,e· patt8~

,Pamjdnw4

SequenookMnem look. :axin£orm~oD as :3) seri.e!i of St-ePSJ but glob~.~ea:rn.ers prefer WI .took at ·tffile whole; ramer thmme paRs,

R.eadlng 1

1. In. tbepas~"gmieners! oulttw.tedl OO!llrultive .tpccles fur rood ()if medicine:. G~ defiers .Scm. bring in .pknmffom otha parts ~. ·thewo:r~Klnlelimes beeaase theywanm: .hiUdy (!f dl0Ught-resismnrt pJlm~~ m orner ~ hOCi!Me ofth.e par--

licWar bea;u,ty of some species. - -

l!~

(A) In the past, garo.eners .~ :1Il00nadve plants for food and medlelee, Now

~ey do not becau.se 'db.ese. pb.nts are namer: hudy~. ,dw~t raiis(g.~ nor beautiful.

(B) Ga:rdmem&om :at'Oundthe wodd .. inuoduce 'each. ,odrerm diH'~rent speeies o£'plmts. Bam :gxden!l;J:u1es msndlElheb.ardi~ most ,drougAt,re.mmnt~ OifDll:OO&beaut1.W plmr in:l!ibewoIiJd.

(0 G~ets have iDttodu~1Il0Wl.m~plartts fox ·foodand .. medicine. They mayooopbntdlem. because they. are .hud)1 drought K£_~tant:, ,OF ~utifu1"

:2. ·'I1ha.we cal. ·them. invast--ve. Theyta;k:e .Q.:ve£' an .~pushing out ,w.e mtti.ve ~es. They may sh.ad~ ~utthe Local phli.ll·cs, Sl'Dngliemmn 'widl vm.esJ Of

depleRwe ~oiil·of aument'S. .

P4rllJ!lmtsl

(A) Invm¥tpbnr.s marm :IiII~ I.~cles: byshadins mtml out., s~g mem, OJ!: mrng up· allthe fill1trients in me sol.

(8)' Many lcallpi-.u grow ()in vmes. ad .. inw:de an area With shade.

(C) In ometID ,g~.m\i'aSwe,lanQ requi.R: p!efityof made and. soil rlch .. in . . bIg'Ulent5.

3. The e.ffetts Qib ·the l~cd ~~ogy emile devasta:ti1lJ. Namvc poom are .~nced m. n:um~iI(;,andl animals .~·lo\9S QfhaJbltatOOld .reduction (If food supplies.

PIU.4Jrkw.r

(1\,) The ~ocal. ecology de~wes ~eplmm and EOO,UOOS: moo. 5uppll~.

(B)~:= h~~:::~emU&e there He fewertiOve plmfSamd ~

~C) La:rp .nwni:Jers ,of nMivepilanrs and .mim~sulfer a d~~ loss of habitat.

Reading :2

4. Mt.has rum been .shOWfi thar dd1.m;etl. who hav~.re~mslnn.seirn in their bedrooms earn Ww¢itest: sOOJJeS than childref.!. with nQtele:vis~o:n ~ts intneirbedrooms.

Pm:gpl117t1#

(A) Chi1d:ren. who. haille TV 8~CS inmeir bedrooms g~t Jaw grades in schoo~. h~they do .oo[ get lenough .~p ..

(8) ChlMre.n. who ha'\1'(l TV sets Jntheirbedmems do, :IJ.ot do as W'eU in. sroOQI. as ·thei!!:' d~mue!i.

(C) Chl:l.dren who spend:. ill. JOlt o.f !tim.e. W3:limmg TV spend. ~esst~meplr,epari~g (lO[meir si_hQo~l)ests.

5. Then>: are those wh.a~eTV Ol$ a PQitent;at ,edu.cationil mel. Howe¥er,~le.ilre ilauilly 'Very few pro~s on TV mat £eadl chHdren imponmtacademic or .JLinIci ,kiPi. ~JiMtr, s .alJmedl ilif: Children cartoonS for ,exa;m-.le Ii.l!L __ ng: s __ ~s. ;!'VL __ p'_o,grarwL --------- _ -- -'. '- __ ,~. .-, PI'

ceatain ntiJe valUiab~e oontefli[.

,~Jmm

lA) Samepeop:Je ~Ink of TV" :as edl1.caciomaL but most ,chldrerl(ll; p1iogl;a;ms acwally doaee ha:ve mach ·wJIl1.l:!thh~o!l:' educational oon:rent·.

(B) 111 Is, not a useEul amdem~c tool because educaroes do n.ot bdI~ d:'Jat chU.dren. should. 'W~~ih. cart!oons.

(C) Childre!l 'wuaJIy prefef[0 W'3:lich. cartooins becau.serh.e academk oon:~e:fn of tlCbJiC3Il:i.o.nru, pro~~ms ~rhem. wnk too, haul.

6. ChHmn wtl~8pel'.id M!.lJ:'lllnme watdring TV spend less time doh1C§ .homewoik or i:nootacti~ wlm.odl.er people. They learn tobe passive .rnlffiIe:r thanactlee,

l1attfl,htJ1$it!

(A) T\twatclllng isa.pass~~ activity wh~le domg hQ.mewoik is !,l!ct~ve.

('8) Ch:ildren shouillid keep ~e TV mmed offwnen they-are doingr:heIr homewcrkor inteiI:aCdng wmh other poop.~e.

(C) TV takes time aLway &om imporrarnt ilI.cd~jdes like doIng ftomr;:wo.ik Oil' bciDiS with am« pt§op;]~.

7. ~ SillPFo~ts~e viewth:l!~ parents .~n:lie.rest-e:d in supponifIJgthe.ir d:til~· dred.s success In ochoo~ .• otlildkeep the relev.l:S:Lo.t;:Iwmea of[.

&lItp/~t1M.

(A.) Parents canhdp rtheir children. by m.rrdng ,off me velev.i:s~.on.

(B) Parents should ,d.o moreresearch .mOUlt !ichoo:fs:uccessmd.tclCV:iruon. (C) .~ts are Qfre,n. interested in ch~Mreds tekvls~on pm~"

Writing Skills In.regratedTask 71

Readl'n:g3,

8,. This pmgmm, indudes anadlvenising campaign, me bnpi]ementtt1,OIQ. of ne.smoking PQlides for pJ.ac~ fruq,uenltedl byreens, ~d,vacioWi: co:mm:umiqr an.ti .. smoktrngevenJu.

&raphmse

(A) The progra_m frequen.dy inCluded, teens who lmplemented a variety of events.

(B) The poogtatn included advertising, .fio-sm.okin:g policies" and iUtt~S"mokinB; (Nefits.

(C) The progcun implemented advertisi,ng:in aLwriety of places throughotur the' Wm:m.Wl.ity.,

9. Close '00 .25% Q,f,teens su:rvey,ed said that 'chey had, pardcipated hI CIne of me Sf' events: during the past year~More signifi,cmdy. oy,er 50%r,eported haJ:v:ing seen rhe ancismoking ads,

P4r4tihr4S1

... ,

(A) Many teens pa:rtwcipated in, 'mE evenesand m.any more ~ the ads,

(B) AJlmoot 25% of teem had surveyed the progwn and heard shcut ch,e ev-ents. (C) .A signifiCUl.t number ofte~ns participated in. atI.acl.vertising cam.p~gnand,

,oopcu:~:d. on 'me eve,fitti"

I O. The publk heslth depmmen:t plMS, '~o OQuciUlRl and. ,~pan.d thecsmpalgn so as to reach :mQ're YOlung people thmu,ghont the &t:ue; C[early~ such ~paiWlS cang:o ;110n, way w:w,atrl ,addr,essing public health issues.

PfJrtl:phrlllf

(A) The pulblic h~th department will continue ~oask yOling people rhrough-

out dle nate about public beald!. issuesthat alf",ect' them.

(B) The pu.bl~c' heilih d~partmen[p']allsm address: miD": p'ublic h~dl issues coli:.Cle'J:mling ycrung people.

(q The public h~th departm.en't 'Will continue w~m[bjs successfuJ. campaign '00 improve pu.hUc heallth a:mon,g you.ng poop[e in 'the state.

'1.2 Writing f'Or the TOEFL is 1

Read'ln··· 4 . ····S .

11.. A sh()lppa~s;m.oodl., of ,o\ure~ mruy be InB~'JlJ~d.b, many IdUngs a, Somed:wi:ng OilS WlOOlltroUaJble as.rhe we-ather .0<1:0. have .3L great effect (lnwhat and how mud. a penon buys on my pa:rdculat day. A peroo.n's work Oil" personam ~:ire also wfiflu.cncestl::u:mood.Wc he or ,she bd:n:gs~:rwQ the ·store" anA of OOY.!I'lie~, lChi~ea have no control. over this, ci:m~r •

. Parl11JbrllSt!

. .

tA) A sbiOppe:r .may feel he or she has .no control O,yer .hLs lmEe when. the· ~er

is bad. crwhenthere am problems a:t:wQik,.and Chill pUIttS :rotaile.rs in 2. bad mood.

(B) A s'hop~Iw:uilly does nee buy m.umfiom. retailers whenthe wea:tiu:[ lS bad. IO~ when mere 'are proMems at work or at .home,

(C) Alihoppers mood m~y b~ mlh.lm~d by' dungs d..a:trecmers ,QIUl()[ lOOliltf:IQ[, su.ch. <lIs&e wea:mc:r or personal Oil WQirk pro1blems.

12. BUJt:IX.'uileT'-'l do have control over theirstere ,e:mdronme:rniT. and. this ,has been shQWn.r~ hsve a great im;pacJ[ aim snopperS' .m.oodsan.d mlC'oomre on du~ir behav'io.r as CQfiSibj,m.ftS.

Pargph.msl

(A) .R.J!tsJiIers CM.I . .l!]!f1n!l.en;ce ihoppers' moods: by OO!:W~gm~s;oo.r.e: env.it«'~T. (J3,) .R.~c=lilers feel dlle lmp~.cc .of cofiJ.i:ume:r~:~be'h~vlol' Inrhesrcre env1:r.oIl1ru.:fit. (C) The behavior of n1JQQd:ys-hOpipe!S has a great· impact (lome :S~Qre ,m.vi-

fOfl:m.e:fU:.

13,. Reui].efS spend. iii J¥eaJlt deal. of effort wlth such thIngs: mllLgffiIdn:g, oolots.~, mmk"

.d rod· dis·]' ffi .. ~L "Ill h

,an:. p= ... oc,t ..... [;".ay;5im an f!J"'QJ1t to cr~t:e an. ef.!V~roll'rulnen:ti;!u;t WI .. ave a pos.~

i:ti.v.e illJipaCi~ ,OWl shopper mood and thereby In.crell.Se sales ..

Pam,pbmre

1.

0\) It~¢S a. lot of eff'o:rrt 1:0 creato€:aFi0.5iti.ve le.~v.i.ronme!]jrra:f\ld. increase sales.

~. . - - r

(B) Shoppers 'buY' more when rerallees usel i..ghdn~ .ooJlol'land musk: m improve shOlppttmoQd.

(C) Marc: effo.u: is needed to determine dle impact of dle :f~[aml eWlvlminrru;:nt on. stJ1oppe:r mood.

1.. Gadic m~$taOO is i31.proMem. In sevea:l·a:reas In me Ufil~ed. S[3;res.~t'$:il.OOO] ~~In pla:n:~'J Mooming iB m~d:siP.ring. mE's, rep~adng several ,o~her splmg."ibl'oom':' ing: spectes because it comperes widli.mem.OOil' U,gh£,~:u1itJdern(S~ amid, spoe.

&~(

2. The West V.irglllla whdte bnnerilly ls alse theeatensd by th.is i:~~lve p~an[.

Ga:rtic musf.d, pwhes ,o~toe:r~ajn n:a:ti¥e 5pedes of .IDY!Smdi whkh ch__.e bY!lm!!.~ :I:1y relies OD, for: 31. feod seurce,

Ptu41yhms;e

3. Galiicm;uStald, was Brit Inmoduoed m,die United States inrbc nineteenth ccntury as 31. :roOdSOlUa:. 1[; ·WMfir:s[ f1:oo~d.on.long: Man.d bUrl: norwmd.ves ~ffilrotl!gh.o:y;crhe eas~erf!. <'lind midw~mn Uro.i~:oo!. S't.!!J1!& •

.EamtJiltfJS'£

t~

4 .. TV ,c;m ~pose chi~drenmnew ideas .d~nformailii.o([IJJ ~ffil:a:t ~hq might Qtbe![~ wise [10,1 have' ac~ to.

Sonl~ sctI~~ mdrn:l~ dJipses {., .).,1h~ ~k~~ 1mJl~ ..vaNs were Idle fmt.~Sen· t.ma::l:Usc bVe: ~«is in braGkJ:~ ([ ]) •. ~

WlJRl.$ were

I ~ddcd for SC!1lse.

~ ,

14 'Writing for ffle TOEFL IBT

5,. The by heee is the amount of'dme speDt in ,CroBt: IQfrh.c11l .PaT!apbr4!€'

6. Cbikken who, spend du:-ee homs :3; day or mo.re in fro.D't of 'me. TV do pom1r in ,s:obQol~ 5(iodng lowe.r 'on bodt mathand ,reading'te!rs 'dum cbi1dmn who, wallm som.e, but Iess" TV.

~ecture;3,

7., Su:nreys mken fieaii:tb.e end 'olibis camp~gn" in Maflob. ofLm ·~.showed. ,that well 'O¥e[ .half oftho&e surveyed wen: aware of me amJpUgn " .. and.dw: 40% rep€H'fea diatdiey we~ wdi_ke1y to.uy smo,king.

&-.br4E€'

8. JUSt dureemontbs Wr' the campaign ended, this, :&gure ChanpdlldmmatiaiUy~ l1_hraM

$I'. At ime end of JUDe, 58% of sW'V~ puticlpaursrepooedl rhat ibey ~ {<wry ,~i1remyl 00 s:moke ,in t:h.enext year. At !he same time,} ~ess dtm. 30%1(~orted awueness ,of ' me musmQkinglcampa1P..

Ettm;kmg

10. The reRalCh.ers irlooddimt .~~tPl1::frQns who .heam music wji£h o:!l s]ow oom.pote.nd~d 100 oomam at me ,~t lo~r thaRpatroMwbo,b.~fMt Rl~ic. • ... .they ,[~o] pl:tt~ .ore foo'l. wrucm ,of OOWi'Se is 'me le.ffea d~:mcl by 'the .0000tlJUmftt' owner~

Pnm;pM

11. The smd)y subjocts '~., • ..oollege students. Some: of dIem heard. ~n.t1y popular him: 50!ft,gs wMe shopping-die {ffanUli~ mw;iCi---',wb.iJIe <JmeE'S meaI'd, MtBlc .nru:maHyaime.d at :g. ,o1:du :age group.,

&m{}h.rdS~

~ uk ~

12. [The smd~nts] who neud :fim.li]iar rn~kstayed In.e s~ore .~.ofigef than mrue J:me'rung [() Wllfa:ml:iH nlWlh::. 'They also expressed ,mom positive 'opinio.t!!s of' me pmdl1cts ,0iOO:ood wr s:;d,e.

PIJMpl1r.tJSf!'

CITIN:Q

Somedm~ w.h.en you, p.maphuse anodter pC~OOlftl~~ Id.eas~ you, maJ want eo include an 'exactwom. 'O[ pMa.se ma:cthc pe£SQnm,dl. \{O~. need. to be ~.w:.b,en. 10111 do dxis'. You dion.ot\lllSlfi~~O copy someoned!se!:s WOifds and, pll'~d, mey are: yow:s. If you pjagi~ (ropy (I!:h~rl woil'dls) ,on 'd'l_.e TOEFLiBT Writing rsection" your paper wDln.o[ be :SOQ,red.

You. an .a:vo~d r.1Us pooib~em. You 'can. admQwkdge ~a:t you are uSllog SOimefin~ else's ideas. You ca:.rn cite this perioD astbe 01'.tginaJ. author of d:1.eidea.. When. you are mofue.f' :pruson's wonis~ yo,u do Mo,dl'in~,:

m. You let we fead~r lamrwwM®e WO.MS they are.

2. You. p~lt 1'I!1Q!mtio:~ marts a!:'Qund.tbe: worm:tM ·dIe. pernOifil sMd. 'Of WW[Je:.

MiMtofthc n,ljm:r~i,ng ve~bs ~ foL!DWetI. by

3: tiMI da~.¢. ,~DII:t«ifM fs ~£«n 'MI!;iW>tid" by,~~ Dbjeor, md;,an. «s dause 1'1i1£1~.) '1i!11 PO .~i,ui" must havel.an :o1l-j,¢(;f bdbt'e rh4J'.

TI.e Qlp10 i'~~ir IIJT!d ie1'liJl~ CI!IS"i' mm.uU1m:soo' to d~at(lpmdd I!lc!~ neen qIJQ~f;!j. Glil"llm"OiIil words do m:JlliiSllillly ,~qUOEei iJJJ!ll~l1'Io/used in S0me uoillS"i5J way.

.EXAMPLE Q,;igir14l

:Seqll.e:ndall~f;SJ.ror,exampl~, em makea.,rumit ofoudming new WiO~tiOD .

. E_b_· with d"rird'umf.-{

The :;l1.:nh(l{r proposes dtat sequ.entiallea:r.mers '~:m.cake 31 .. haibltof oudinms nt!'rW' mrorma:do.n .. "

Report~ingVerbs

claim

think

Import

EXAMPLES Chi.·· .. · .•. ' ". 1 '~

People may be desCJ:.ljbed.as: audic'Ory lcuneES, who learn best by.mrming.

Pargilmg;W£th dttd_~:a

111£; .au~f[WI5 us ma.twdim.ry l~:me!iS "~eam. ~t by~istemn:g~ ~

D" l ADM

Global.leuners unnmtood .. tbi rngs bener by lOfiking attt.~ whole pkw:re.

f!m;aJAbMS£~wiWJimtl~

Theauthor explains £!ha:tgwbaIlearners prefer t"O look at '''the whole pi~.,jj

Original

It isalseteue thar many ~w.d!efim 8l1mplyar.e nM i:rnuresmd in. fm.diing ,outabQut.

. .~

mejr 1~arning style.

.Hz JJ . 'jj -mi ~

~f41LOO~ WItts t:i~u:0c,e'

Tb ~ .......... m...... ~l.'ggr'''ts that ''' ..... ~~''' ... "'~'~;,,~ .... pllV' ... , .... .;'" ::·.",- .... ~-d!(l< ~n ~, ... Il:r._~,~"'"", . .iJ.C 3~iL ts_u~w_~;, W· :'!" ~l~'u!~llt~~J;l#.l! iol!UJII..L,~:I:' R..L~ . .Il:..IJll, ~:Ij,~.~~~~. ~ ~_~U_.I d!!1j,;.u~I..:W,

aboar learn.mg .styles.

Po, each paraphn:& bewWj. qJJ ,41:: t1fpmpritm .teptJffing VB/;. Then: p~.t qwtMion mor.ks .aroutul the· t:.tted w().m t)rW(f~dt.

Mrutprogr;ams:aiimOOla:t: ,mildren,. 5u.dh as grooonS,k>f eumfle,

.• '-11~~_1 ~ 1 ~'Ui --

'oon'~ .!i!ill!tJ,ev;;uuot:.U.~e Qon~mlt,

The a:Ulthillli .~a1tmos:t ,ch~;s TV pKlgrnl!ilS ,do, no! baJ'l!lle valiuable ,ooorenI,

Smo!k:i.rng p<reve!llriO!fi caJnpaiglThs.l.pamclllaily those Bmeda:t -yoli.[twSpGopteJ .ha:w mGt w.ru,m s~gnii:ficaftt.SUOCf;SS alatoWld the C»1DItty,

Tib.(;ru.nho.r .tha!t~:w~o!k:i~__g: ampaignsfor teens

have had s~i.flcant S~ •

• •• offi.ce aMlism:mJl:.S ,cam ,d.evoreme~~\ves 00, m:m.elwb .. Offi~: ,c:an eperate wi •. {ewell:' as5is~:lilllm~ ·th.U:S spending: at :~.t deaiiess (t:lil ~Mies._d bene:fim;.

The I.puke!" thM: offices sayemOill:cy hecMJSe

office woibrs: ,can now devote du:mSld.v~~o otbe!!!'~asb.

The .factis.~ .wseard:w. shows: that ch~M!IIen. who 'l!Va;J)moo houl!' or :so,of'I"'V daily ... ,. aotuaUy ,d.o, bette~ In. $dloo~. dun ,dilldrenwh.o do .ootwa~m TV ia:tdt

The: speaiter .dimlt when. ,children watdl. ~ ~eyactuall, .aJo· beeter in.smaot

'111 •. _~_'II - L·I'· ":1. _ _m ~IL :.-- ~I- (. el d··1L_ II h 1"",--.

Jlt lsweJJ esmW~M-ruW. matmUmtmi<Ul. _UL_ID__g: ~lYlm~) WOPibiy

live longer1ileatl!lhiier U¥eS m .... &me who do .ROie.

Thel audl()l' .mM play blips poop~e ~rve~Oi1!gef~

healthier lives:,

H·~th cue OelJfUS) ~li'tdle e mer hrutldl~ are oml[pamted with .llGUtrniI. colors,. ,as ·th,ese oon¥~ a sense Qfd~~lness ••.

The audu)[' mat .neumd oo~ors are ussd run health

f· ..:m I::_

Cill1Ie ,cenlier;s~o GOn:vey a sense '0 ~.mJW\!es$,

78 Writing fot tha TOEFl: ... i:ST

WRITE THIEA'ESPONIIE, Summalllzl'ng

A summary is·a.short dmipaon of the .. mam .iclea .: md.sUPpo:n:iOfiS .mfgrmaoo.~. in al FWage,.When you write me oospoue for ·dlle. Jfi~e.pacced Ta&~ you wiI. ,summ~ me .. main points ofth:e~ng.~ and dl~: lectllm:md.,oompaJ'!e Qfoonmutdiem ..

Yom notes will giVe you me fOliW:darti(!1l~iQ wn'Ne ;; concise ,summary and. oom.~ p.arlson ofmedlHcren:t: id!~ pil'~red!. YeH] eaa :1J!Se the. OOEe5 you. WlOR .D Sep I,

and ·~theS1s st.1J£'em.en.·· 'll: md.re·,'~d senten.ces ·-fiUJ. have w'ttm', t , Si.'il '1, -

. . .1;1.--- - - - y - - -... ..!r1 m .... ep ~~

l.ook.at the foLwii.J!lg:uw: fU:the: umplereadLngpassage and leooJlle.

_p1 Pilln Il'ADINGNOTES

TQ:piidMaim .;d~ Undetstmdin!gI~lsty~can. mplG\fe leamIng: andaainmgi.

~phl

Malm .. wea SUJl'POR~ng details:

'1'._ 11- ~___ . o!I .. • .' •

uupm¥e C~.m6 da. ~ se§KlD.'S

(1): Lwlvlduajs c;g. smdr ~uelT. (2)'Pm&.ssOirs and. 'll':3iner-s: can instrua

better;

Mab:t .idea S:uiPport~ de£aih;,

.Main.idea Suppa.lcing detalb

LECTIm.E NOirES

'[.opicll\.hin. idea Un.dexstmding lea:r.mn,lstyies does,flot ,alwaysp~de a &O~lIl!rion.

Su,porting d~WIJs (1) Somedrln~: haIR m,be taught m ,c.emtUil waF.

(1) Some students are nor mmr:es~ed .in ieamin:g sty~,. (3.)' Some Ms,ttuaots. 3l''eDO['mJteesed In leaming ~tyles.

Now look at theway.eno!lf~:were used t~writ-e a. wsbstat:C:D.a:t aad p&a~ p~.Doon~.

Writing SkiNs tn.tergrated Task 7'9

Slep 2 Write THESIS STATIEUENT

The au~ho.r ,~p~~ifiS that un.d!ctStandtng IWE!.i:ng styles canJirnprow _ning and. l:m.rning·, The' .sp~r" hOWevel. :!i~gge:ns M.a[ undcrstandh1.g ~eamhl:g!ity.les ,d.oes: not al\Vays prov,ild.e a. ~ohldon.

P:AKAPHRASED SENT.ENCES R£aJin;g

- Un.d,e',1:'l~ailldin,g ~eam.~ng styles be,lps .~:ndlwdua~s ~ea:r!nl belttel' and. professors and. tra.lneJ".sin~tmcf bett~r~

- Some: :people learn mOre ru~Jy by ~jsteriing. 'o~lhe.rs by seeing" and srill others by dolug.

- A.cdviC learners under:statild. n.ewinfO[fflaJU'iO.fill by doil'!!g sQme~hjng with ,wt. Reneed.V'c: learners !l:mders:tarndl ~nforma~m:n. by d!:Linkin:g aibOluJ[ ~t.

- Sequentialleamers lock ar Informa:doil] as il. sel!l'i~ .of :!i~eps, bu.tgtobW! ~earn,ers preferlio look:. at the whder:a:[her ,t.b:anme parts,

- Se(Illen[ial ~eamers,~.uditory Lea:rl"l.et1i.a:nd.rellecti:v:e ~W;l(j::l'S~ fall' ~p~e~ can

each.tho~e the smdy methods; that best s~;d~ rhe~f indlviidlll£'d 1e:3IlrJing S'1ffies.

Utffl'f(

- Some 8libjecfS .h.ave to be ong~r In (:ena:in v.m:ys. M::l!m has 'to be IttUght 5eqtte$lria.Uy~

- The speaker sum'CSisrltl[ sEud~liIii[S "'slmply a[en~r .i.liln~r1!Sted>.! ~n ~nw.!!"maJ.lio·.nJ

about ,I.ealfm.ng sty~es.

~. Some !professo1'8 are not hueresoocl. in [w.nlng s~es.

ftnally!.read dills summarywhiib· ,oo.r.nrasts mereadin,R p3.I'Jsag.e .lln.d the .1.eC;[u:r~.

SUM:M:ARY

Thea:ulmor expl.ail1islbalt u[;uiLersloo!clingl.earning· O'ityiles can] :i mpKliVe .lea:rJ,iliog andttah!!i Olg', The .spm.e~i, how:evel'~ su:gesrsdi .. u un.dersrnndi rig ~aarn~ng stylil!'S does not ;aI.ways provtdle ~ sO~lUJclon. =

T.h.e a.mh(H' stac:esthat 'undltrntanding l~n:g ,sty~.es he~p8i.l::ldi;vid!~S' learn better a:n.dpm€essor.ll and '[rninerslruuuct betcer. He expJains d~fferel1~waysto describe ~earnirog styla;, Some pro'p~e learn more lC<lS\ily by li:s~~nln.g, mhern by seew:g, md sdll o,ua.ers by do~!fig:. .Actlve 1ea:r1l1,:e;r5 lJ!~ldlersta",d new ~nfQ!l'ma:tkm by doing some,udng with wr .. LfWctiive ,1~II'liIIe~Uifide:IS~and~niO,fm~don b'Ythi.nk~ ,j ng aboutt I!t'. Sequential leamers leek alt wnformalriolliJi.as a .£e',ri:es Qif s~epsi but :glo:ballear.ncrn p',refer [0 ~ook at dlewffil.ole .r.lcliterth:m:me pans. The amih.Q.F bel.~eves 'mMYinderS[!lJlrung ~earn[ni! styles CUll ~lT\Ip,ro!le study ski1~s, Sequendalleamers, a.uditQ.ry~eam.e.rs~ and retlecl::tve. learners:, .forexamp]e~ca;n each choose ·mc sUldylt'leil.ods ma:c 'best suit ~ei[' iW'l!dliv1dual ~eamifl:g .'l:ryl.es.

The speu.c't p.re.seF!t!i a different pO~f!t of view. Fil'st,.wfrle sub- = ject~ have to be cilugb1t ~n oe:lt:amn, ways. M31dl. .bas ro be l~u.!tght Siequel1itlaJly. In addition. the speaker :S'~esitsltha:[ S[u.d.~u 1~SJ.mp~.y 3iJren~~inteK~;wd" in ililrorma:r.i!o~ abeur learning styles. S{).me profes~ s().r:sa~eIJlOit .b:rlJe.res~ed In ~eam~f1~ s,ryks,. e~~her.

,fkpltmittd SI!'I/;ttnm fom Brad/hire

NOTE

Formal ,miril'g

I"gm~ doe.$

npt use CDIl~

dOM. The':wnple R!i:I~·:fOr rhe I~T.uk use: cOnmmoM only in maMmi I:i~u WllQth" ~.~Dttacdon;:arc. of «!~~ Bi.rQ in $ppken~. ~bl&idy fabrod sitwlion's.

l&pltm!(:J,$m~lICffJ ftom ,i.«Utlt'

80 Writing for ttle TOEFL. IBT

.l,()f}k oj thae n'Ous. tb,eris .st.aJem'tnts~. and repbras!td nnrenus ftom t:m pm,,-ti,re cxn'Cues. Ute them· to turit'l' .!umm4ri~$ compming IW ,cl)t);'t7m#ng tAt' main 1{)iNts in: t:",~ ~otding pllSS4gt tJ,va kctur.-e~. 'Wi--it;t ·on 1.tJur ,romputu or "J,t], the pagepf()vided.

Surmmiary 1 I.EA.DING 'NOTES

MoUn idea In~iv,e p:J:a:n:m harm n~uive pbnu:.

Suppomng d.erni;ls (1) They ·areilJl{l1odut:ed. to an. area ~iUjOllgh, ga:rden[[l.g., 1(2) They esca:pe &om Lhe: ,~ern and grow wildt

(.3) They prncb, eur ~.arlve8pedesl,c:iltLSi I:lIg d.elli'lL'lmdfig effec.t8 on me lQ~ ,e<dogy.

lLECTlJRE NOTES

,M.a:i:n. Idea GarliCmlliltaOO ~s aa i:ll:vil:liiIve I'lpedes [hair C3iililSe.<l pmh.l!l!fWl.,

Supp~rting details (1) It comperes w.idl Qime.!i ::ip.ring';bloO!ming sp(lcies.

(2) The West Vitgffinia white b~treW'fly b: tfl:t:e3:tetwoo. b:y ·clm pWlr. (3) GaJrlicm'~rdwa:!i i~.trod.ucedw the U!!1i~OOI. States asa 'fo.od, source.

THESIS STAT.EMENT

The :;lIJ!,UihOl states that inv:a_sive plants buml:u!.t~Ye pm:;t[!ts.andth~ speaker ~pl.ai!.1s that ptii.c .mlWswd Is: an .. itn:v:as~ve species rhin CllUi8C8pmblems.

PAMPURASED SENTENCES Re:aJing

-, G3im~ners .h3.ve jl1iltroo~d fiOIlJlJacmw planrs for food and medicine., The-Yillay abo plem rbem beca:us:ethey are haxdy. dwygh~ resistant~o:r beauti_fu!l.

- lrwvasiive plants harm fia[r:v~ species by shadm.gm.em Oln~ .s;f['lll1gUng d:lem~ OF I!lsingup aU ~!helflu~tieD!ts in the soil,

- Th.e ,I.G~ ~. - Suf&.iiS' he~e diere am'!: .fewer .fiati:ll,ep~aJJlrsand .. animals lose

food.

L!&mre

- Gar.lic mustard dl rearens ether sp.ring-!Moomlfig p.~al':lts by Eakins; up llghr, natrien:ts:,anil :!ip~re,.

- Gat1ic mustaad also ~hrearem IIDheWes[ Vh'g~fii3i w.hille 'buuedly. It roompel:ie8 w~th ;another type of .hlmta~cl. which i~ the b!jtt~dlr~ food seurce,

- GarlJc mWlrnm~s£iBtgOOW[J. Oil]! Long :m:s~Mldlfo.f food and has :dncc spread. ro other 1J:R:aS of dIe OlIWItry.

:82 Writing .for the' TOEfL iST

Summary I, RPAD'ING NOlES

Main. idea ']v vi:eWin_g hcas negative ~. on ,clilldreds. scllool ,pe...rformanoe. Supporting detaj15 (m) CbHdre;11 'who wa:tcll.~ ~D!lt ,of TV get lo,wer :gr:ades and. lte5't

SOO'17eS.,

(2.) l~ew TV .p~og"amsreach. academic ,.of drlnidng; ski!Us.

(~)'" -Whc-.c .. hi"lj"-'~'d" . __ L:_ 'A' .. 1:....... d I

J nea (; 'c'- 'uWn SpeD' [lime W3!WIWliJ; J&. 'f, iW. .... r ,~pen.:_ •. ess

dme (J.1][ hOilliiewor'k;., with other 'poo:p.~e. md beln§; acd.ve.

LEC11JRE NOTES;

Mai:u ,~dea 1V w;au:hU:!;s am acwlilly.improve sdtoolpe:rformmce. Supporting derails (m) TV ,expo~ ,ehUdiren [0' newtdeas ~e1.mfo.rma.ifrli.oo.

(2) ChlI.dlu:n ibouid wat,ch. sO.me "rv; bu~: not 100 much.

TH.ES1S STATEMENT'

The ~uthor beUevesdlail: TVviewiin,g 'has :n.~I:ti~ ,e:EreaS ,on chJcw-ms doolpe!l:foifmiWlOe. The speilm.i~,on. ~e ,~)'thcr hand.pro'po,se8 d~3![: TV wa:trdhIDg (;g, aowally iJm,p'mYe school petroifnl:iUilCe.,

PARAPHRASID SENTENCES

I'll ~.J~ Jf\:eamn,g

~. OMMren who, have 'N sets ,jfi 'rne~li'bedriooms do ,D__.O,t d.o as wcll, In 'i~dux)l, as 'Eneif cmssmate8"

- SQnJ.e peopte d!Jink .of TV as ,edl!lcationM" but most chUdren'Spfllgtams aowaUy

dn, nO'[ have ,m!:Wh valiuabk Q.[ ,oolJcationaloon'l)efic. -

~. TV 'takes: ,tlm.eacwayliom .Wmpi).Ii"tOO'I: accii.vities ~ikc' diobi,g .h.o,mewor.kor be~ng mdi Od:l~ poop~e.,

- Parents om help,~h.emr chlldren by' rurnin,g off the television.

Lec~re

- Cbildren em. ~.eam new' dJ.~i!l_gs &aim W.

- The amount ,of time speD:tW3Jtthing TV is impOllmfl t,

- MOf~ than. three bours.a day ofTV' w,atobiing .resu1m in .~ower· reading; mdma.lh

test S:OO're$ ..

Summary 3 READ~NG NOTES

Mai.1iiI ~dea. A partiouLarsl:iIlo.ldng prcv~'J]jrioin Olmp~ign :a:irncda:t yeJl!:!ug people has been S~!u:()~ml.

(l) M,UliiY ~eeifiS p~IHk~pSilted.~n Mt~s:m.oki.f.!g e,ve!'lilh ~nd.many say!"a:n~smoltingadjs,.

(2) lt~ns who sa'wmc ads m l~ Ul(dyro stan srHoki ng~

(3) The pulbJic health diepanm.cmwiU contl l:iI,llte and. ~pand dl.e CiilImfaign .

. LECTURE NOTES

Mai!il. idea Yuppo[dn.g ,d.e[ill~lls

'I'lt~ inil~ia[ results of pill!bHc .hea!lldlcan'Jip'<1iWgns alil. ben:lislead~ng. I( 1)< Suneys taiken neuw.e ,e'IH,i {l{f 03inan:ttsmQking ,c;m.1!paiga showed 4U% ulfIUbJy [iO nY'~.mok[ng ..

(2,), SliIrveystaken m~m()!I]J(h.s: la:r-e:r :!ilhowed 58% ve'fylikdy

~I.!·

ItO try SUH.'IKI~ ng

THESIS $TATE:MENl'

Theamhof tells usabear ill. pan.k::uJlar smo:klng frn.,'Vcn~~on cl!!mpi[!liigm.dmoo at yQl:lng poop~e tllilOlt has beea suecessfal, illn col]jlrra:s~~rJDle Sipeab.r wa:r.ns us ~ha[ ~n~il:li~f'eSulrs of piltb~iG h~rh ,campaigiD5: ,CliII1 he m,~s1eadJ.f1Ig ..

PARAPHRASED SENTENCES &ading

_. Tllil.e PJ10gf;lilll .iu.du.d!oo. aclivenismg"t:ili)Sm.()kingpQ]i.ci.d:, ~!!l,d. ant!.s:moki ng events. ~. .M:afllyrecRs p;lr~idpar,ed in the events and. many :mOire saw th . e ads.

- T.h.e plllbMc heslrh dJepanrnen,t wiM ,ooifitirrurue w~~:h lh.rns .$uc.c:essfl.d CJ;mp>1!:!gn ~Q ~mpro¥e pubHc: hC;lj~~llil among y01!I.ng poop~e ill dll.c stare,

lecmf"(

- SUirv~; Made a!~. ~jhe end of arecen[antismokhllg al!l\p~igWl shQwOOrha:t 50% mew about d'!!ecalW!paign and 40% wo:U!IDd p.robahly nor .':!mok.e.

- Three moerhs j~~JEel; ~ffi1.e' numlbeir"S had. ,C:h.angw ..

Ma~y mO~~jid ~hcy weuld "J:lobabiy smok:cOlI1l.d. mrurlY fe~ii' sai.d.me'"ybt.ew about the campll~gn.

Be ml'll~a ~ .I.

_It --- ---11"-

READING NOTES

Makn 1dlea. A goad mood .makes shoppets buy more.

Suppoumg daail$ (1) Mood ·tan. 00 Mkc~ed by weather~ per,son~ life,. and. nOire e.nvk-onmem.

(2) Retlile.rs create ~ .~j\e envmonmen~oo havea. _positive impil:Ct on mood and thereOOR on sales,

l.ECTURE.NOTIS

Main .id~. Studies SOOwthal mood taf!. mal«: OOhSUIl:!.e'rs s~nd more 'Ilme shDpplng~

.sup'pomngdewlls (1) Wh.e!!llisfening: to .slQwmmk .• {·€:Stamant pattQiM remained. longelfornd purehased morerood. a,

(2) 'When lis~eningw! &minu mU$k~.ihoppe:rs suyed .in a sm.re longer and expre!lsOO :IDOil'e posiriiw ·opinions aibout the Pi[Od:UCt!i.

lHESlS S.TA'I'EMEN'I

The aill1mo!t p.ropweSWat a.gpod. mood makes SMpFl'S buy mG:lie. Similarl~ ~ s·~ apl~ns-d1!.ar :liwd!ies:show that .m~ic .~. makeoomumeq spe.nd more time .sh0p'Pmg~

PARAPHRA8EOSENTENCES: .R&adinK

- A "hoppeis .m.ood. m-ay be irnf1liUif':ru;ea byrn:lf:lg,~dt:at :r-etaUcrs cannot conmd. such. as the weather 0.[ per.w.n~ 'Oil: work .pr.oblems:.

·n. ~~:I r.; CI ~L" .;!.h". m]'",i.e •

- fietau:e~ can .. iJIll[UenCe moppet'S mo.ods ~'i C{)[ltro~ lUg: tne .S;,WR ·el1.Vlronmen:t.

cJL b· L . ail· [0 h" . .'~. d •.

- ~.oppers ··!!:If merewnea eetauers me . ~g~~nng,. cgUgF~ M:l!L mUSlCOO· iEnprove

&hopper mood.

Uat/irt

-Research ihowedthM slow .m:m~cc.a:u:sed. QlSttlm.eJS 00, !lcar a:&: (heresUlil:rm~ .~Qfigeil'afid o.r.der .mof~ fooo.

- Some of the st!.!!dy s~bjiootsl' oo~~ege seudenrs •. beam .. p:opI!.11a~r MU!!lc .in the ImreJ :l:W].di. OWf:f:8 heard O:~d.ei!'mru'li.c.

- These who! heard &mW~iH .music sbopped IQnger 3!liI.d .. ~_j becJrer w~~ abouttb.e ~{;()re'~ FHl0ducu.

USI! 1iHIE! A:E,VII:Sil:ON CiHlECKlIST'

l TQpks ~t suP,Ott 'd1_,e'mesis

I M:a:m .. ~~

Read. we foil.owin,g model IWks ... Notice .ho,w ,~.c.h. tli5,k: mallmesm.e ~~1!)1inS ,on. the ·cAecldLs,r.

Model Task 1

S~1:nma,fia the main points of thf retitling P4Sf4_g6 and ,apOOfJ. ~I) t.he poin:i$ .flmIk in t1M'kt:~ fJ.ppl!~' them..

l'he-3iuihol ~tD dlat ado.van~_m t:.eclui(lI egy Qa .fl.Ot ii.1way;t leaJ - .]

~a in~rw~, poo ... ·dUCf~1t}' •• n:. sp. eak ... e~, ~n. .eolum"b ... .su~~ .thaf wnk9 I)n t(!pir:

ln~eQ,t m[ec.b.I1t1_· I.! pmd. h.a€k 11} .In.€~ mdu.a!Vl . I

, .~he au~or explaills _~~ beC3~e .of~cbno~ogy,,~()~ken. '()~eJ11 I

sra.yattheu~ desb all day I' bUlt thms does nOt lesdeo .lflCf!!a!ltlcffi p:r!O-

du.clti.vity. Itt: ean C3!1:1se b~ nedk..JI and. eye pai~. Th~s i.svery uneem-

ro'rmbrue and. acwdy .1.ower"S prod.u:ccivh;y.Worke:r.s need (0 take: t:r1'1lidi~g S'ummttry

breaks mose often and g:o QUit foil': lY!!!ldl. They .~, iho.u:J)d have'

[lfl!!:edn,gs in. pel;'.StHl: twt.'lo!ad. o;fus~n:g e-mail .. In. addJimoD.!, companies

,can bllY s(p!lc[al eq:uip'menc that ismeee oomfoiitable ~Q use,

The .speaker has the o'Pposlrepoint ,ofricw. She he1ieves that tech- - :ne~ogy i~ poodl.!l.ct~vity" Ph:OKlOOPYIDaChirues. f(l!F ,~,Ie. ·am. copy~ oothne. i'lnd.sm[\lle mUiCbist..er ...... ;1. pcm>n.BeC3ilu'Se of 'mi:s~ wo~..ers an spmd 'their ~ill1l.e dciing 'omeFth~l!;gs,.ldso ~tn ,offi{ie

·h· J"~ .. ~ ]' d ~ ~ m· WFb. I ~ lertt~.,~ !lilil11.m1IJ"lJ ..

C3fi'~ire rewerpC!o!puc: <In s<l'Vf:,:lliIo,ney ,on~i:iiID'jes:.wfu.'!:r1l PeoPIiC com- -_,

mUfliicatt by ~~mail.mey denet h<1i:v>e oo'ga' 00' .so IDalWY mee:m!.ngs.

Th.ey can .. 5Jpendmoifcdme WOM~f.lg.. TMre spea~e.[ does not m~~~oill

m~ physial painsrha:t ti~g ~d!lotQgy cancause. Clead,.~ wchn.G,l~

ogy sol~es SOiDIlle probruemsj, bmit (:.ameso~ei['S.

Content

Mal:n ideas

-------

V ,CHECK FOR THESIS: STAT.EMENT

11I.e .mode~. essay has amesis st~remen,T that shows undeifs~aiIdmn:g of the task. The task asbthe wrioor [0 summarb~po!in:rsand. '~p~awn.hc,wthey ,oppose eaeh o,thef~ djat~s.1 eo CO'JltWt memo Tm'flrs[ f'W\O. sentences are rhe Ilhes_ils :smtemenlt. T~.ey

'90 Wriling to" the To.EFL .iBT

summariu I[he maio idea ,of the reading and of the lecture. The trafiSldo.D. words: ,,'n, tontrtl# let ;he reader know Ihalt these ideas are iD, epposhion to each (.'idler;,

Tssle SWl'lImarfMpoin,t,s and. exp,~Mfi how they oppose each Qch.e",

CmltItMlt words: in t:()'ifltrmt

CONTENT

Thesis Statement

Main ideas

,FLUBNCY'l\ND COHE,s,ION

II CHECK ,POR 1UPICS THAT SUPPORT THE THESIS

The syppor~;wpkli are the: main ,~dea, of the reKLing: ad the main, ida of the lecture, They are prcse\fU~ed in ,thethesissta:~m,!'i::n:t., The, owdel may summ.arizeswe main pomts of 'me readin,g and ,of die leall:re a:nd 'ex;pbJ'm how ~he <lUd:iIO,ils l,deas con'trut whn: the speakers' ideas,

'I 1i " . :d

' ransumn 'Wor s

I Gram:mar and Spelling

Sentence variety

M"'"d f''':I.,-, ~~Jii: d 1

am l' ea ,0, me ~.iqing m _ ecnne

&.ading Ad.van.ces, In technology do nor always: leadto ,incfeased prodUC!tiv,ity.,

T -~~.- I . -':L 1 " id b _1_·" -.I' d ..

~T..lM't mvestme:nt in WYJDloogy' IS pal ',aJ!:K mmcreases pro: uctrvJ:ty;

Thesis Srawmel1lt

V Main ideas

Su~pporting deealls

II CHECK FOR. MA~ IDEAS

The second paraJP''3:ph in the .model essay supportsthe rea.wng mai!n. idea by snm-

•• ':b, • • f'th ..10 'T' 'h ..jL~,;I h ., _1. d I

mal1Zlil'i,g Uii,emlJ:npomts JO '. e rea,UH'Ii.g., .. ~e WJiIf-a. p~p; m tne roo ~e~ way

SQ'pPOil"tS me .~eaure main. idea. bysumm_iZing ilie; main po,incs Clf the leorure.,

Main i*a of the reading Detrdoped Nrtber

and Icetum ja ...

A~, .in WCMO~~g,gr do Patagn.ph:2

rnotalways ladfl:l' m,CIDeas.ed

productIvity.

Technology means work:ets ,stay art :me.ilf· deSb all day. This eaases disoomfort.

Investment in m:clmolo,1}" :is PaQgraph 3,

paid. 'baCk in .mcreased

productivity.

PhotcQropy machines and e-maH make work. faster and moee ool1lvement.

';' C,HOCK FOR SUPPORTING DETAILS

"Ihe~phs' in Ihe model essay harw tt!picscml1e.n,ces and su.ppomng details. fu the bod,,' oflh~ R'.'Sponse, me mp.k sentences of ~e par:agtaphs ~tththe ,topics inttod..ucuIJ, if], dIe ,~'~f; 'ntlre· ,c···· ;-.Il.,

. UQ. ,r~agmpu.

'1!L,_,_ ... L 2' .~ I" ·'.L

... ":""''"Y- ',~ 11'1lUn ,fU<4

. , • becawe of tOCImo],ogy'" wotkem often. smy at tb"eit desks all £by, but this does nat lead to .ktc:reased produttivity~

SuPPfN'tmg tktails

-Thls is wry' Wloomfortible and acmaJly lowen producuvrty.

- Wo:rkers need to • br~ mere often and gpOUt: for .hmdb,.

~ T.hey alsoshowdhaveQleeti~ .in pecoolJl mstead, of us.~ng e-mail.

=In additiion"COOlpmies can, blq s,pecw ,equipment that is: mm'e ,oomfo\rtalbleoo ase,

P~plb 3= M:I1in iJea

" .. , tedmo1ogy in~ ,pr,od'llctivity .

.sUMJbttin·· tkmi&

T£ .:g .... -

~ Photoccpy machines. for Iecam:~e, can copy~ ooUa:li~,and staple much &slier 'than it person,

~ When, poopl,e comllilwUeate 'by I~mail~ .~ do not balVe to go to so many meeeiDgs"Thq can ~peOOl meee 'l'i.me wo,rkillJg.

CONTENT

Main .i.d:ms

fluency and Coilesion

IV' CHECK FOR. TRANS:ITFONWOIDS

Tmmh:ion_ WOullS shOlW how the .Meas Ht ro~:e'[her. The: :m.odir!l, essay includes ,ilPP'I'!:)~ pri::u~ ua:rm:ciou'WQrds.,

Transition Wold

. __ ""

CONTENT'

F.LVENCY .AND COHESION

11- CHECK FORGRAMr-dAR AND SP'ELUNG

There Me' mo' gramm:a:r {I'I:" !ipd~lngerrors lrnm.e .rru)del essay.

Writing Skills Integrated Task 93

CONTENT'

M· id

_ !Un l,e,as

SIiti'-Cp .. O-~'''I: detail~ p - -~, ...... ~g -- ---~

PWENCY AND C0HP.S10N

'Iransitien words

V" ICH.ECK .fOIl SENTENCE VARIETY

The model essay 'Uses a, 'variety of sentence 8U'UCtu:r;es.

Series

_ .. ~ - -.. ..c • -,'

it C31II, ,came back') ,neck, ~dl

eye pam.

LJ addiitio;n; CQ'm:pames can buy $pet:1d. equ~.pment 'mat Is mQre oo,mfiOrtahle '00 use.

P~ph3

When peeple com:muniam by e-mail" they do OO[ haee ro go 'tom manym.eet~ngs.

Paragraph 3

Th d moreti

'ey can spen ~ more ume

WO((king~

Cfearl:~ 'wCMolo,§" so~; some prob1eIml~ but h; ,muses onu:rs.

M,odel Task ,2

Summtlria the main poi11:ts of the NaJingpllSSflgt. ,and aplain how the)' an' SUPPOffta by the .m/o.T1'!l4tifm pmen;ud' in the kt:Jt~rt.

- . .

[-- TL:i-e:au_-arexpl.mu-mit,' . -assw__ i:liCtiify Ui JJ8 - 10 iMp.mye

wriJ~J on' top,it: emotional and p~im Ii'ealth, and ~ ~ WI&: us :aOOut;Q SJUdy

lhat sbpwed lt1ve e~ of . .uwnm:sru on hd.dt.

: Th,e~uthI1r ex:pJains, M' pets ,improve bQ,di CW,Q,tIiona1 healtlb, and, physjcd noo'llh .. Pel'S Me .good. ICCfillpWO'Jl!i :fol\' ~one1y people. 'They abo

giVle:WW mwers things 'WI do, lihe hobbies or duhacnVities. !In addi-

RdingmmmafY' dOD, pets are a, commrt' t03.lWoWS' or wo;n:ied people. Pets are gpod fur nhm:ical heam.rn~ as M1l ThP.V hdll'!l N'('Il'Ile Mth .hi ... ". bIDood lI'Ir:e.sSure ;md.

.Ii ." ...... , --./- r .f."---:IJ- IfiW.I .r

IL lUI Th:'1 'L~~I J 'L ·--1ID .' Th .,

,liiImJit pro1U~'~' , ,e}i'lWCllpl poop C smr pl~f5lUJ y aanre. ,. - ey ,gJvc

peopl1e a chance fO pla~ FmaDy, pet therapy is w:ed wmlih e:iderily peo:ple.

The ,speaker suppOffS pet 'mempy;, He ,describes a smdy where pem nada, pO.lidve ,eFreet 'on the he;Jdt of heanpaJlLmenitS., H,a!)f £he' piliaelli.m bad. III :dcg ~o m care or. The omerhal" ,o,my ,go,ttra.wofial~ ..

kt:~rt summa" moo.t. Mer slxtnQnms. ithepatienm with pets .had lower blood pres/'"' sure. and. 'they had lost raore wemglu:.,thm the other pilluenrs. 'They Edt happWtj, liDO. 'These'are d~. ,Ih~~: that can, affect hwt disease, Tim is a ease that: :il!hows how pelf u.le:rapy wo.r.ksoo impllO'lle physic:albealth.,

CONTENT

EttmNCf'ANDr COHESION

T~itiOD 'wolds

Grammar and. SiDe .·nline

, I

1/ CHECK FOR THESIS STATEMENT

The ,model ,essay bas a thes~s sw~ment diat sh.ows undcrSlr.mdi.ng of the wk. The task asks 'the writer Eosumm.ar.~PQiint-sand. explain, how one supportS the owe£, Ithal:~S'~, to oom.pmmcm. The £i,me seatenee is' dte thesis smmem'ent. Ir 5'Winmar~ both. dJ.e m~n idea ,of '[he .rearullig m.d 'of' me: lecrure, The tf;usirlo'n word. and lets dle reader lmnw dU!.lthese ~deu are sJm,UairliO eaCh other.

Task:

'Cc'mpue wO'ld:

Surnmar,~ poJlI11.15 andexplain hewcae sapports the other tmd

CONTENT

FLUENCY AND COHE!UON

Main idea of the r-eading, md.1ea-ure

R~tl4i7tg Animal.-assistedmcmpy is usedte Improve emotic\n;d and phys.kal

beattb"

A study showed positive ,effecrs of pee ownership Qn health.

Thesis SCiltement

_.1 M·. ':,-11

r _ au!. wea5

SUp-nonht", clewIs

I. ,Ii ",f!!

FLUENCY'AND CO:HESION'

" C.HECK FOR MAIN IDEAS

The second,pi3H@;~h in the model essay SUppOllU the reading main idea bym:n:llmar:i1m,g me ,main. poInts of du~readi:ng, The ~hh'(l, ~-pb in the moat! esmy supports the, lectur-e main. idea by snmmatiziing 'me main poin:m of me .lecture.

De¥tloped. further

I Main ida of. the l...;::..··n·-abd~

.

1& ....

~'iS prliovwae oomp'.l!:niollShip". Qomfon,. hobbles~ physical ~cthdty.

An~.-assistedrnetap'y is usedto Lmp:rovc e1nou{'Lmii. and phY.o!kal.bea1th .•

As:rudy sho,wedl positive effucrs ofpe.t 'Cl"i.'lln.e:rship (Ill health,

I

H' Om _.eut p:lneDts Wl_·~

pel'S impl<owd their healclJ n:lOle dum .. hem paciel:ilt'S witbo·U[' pets,

.. I

Gta:mmat a:lld _::g~:. ~

Senrenee v:arlety

aI' eHECK. FOR SUPPOR11NG DETAILS

The patag,rnphs in. 'me m.odel essay have 'ropwc sentences and supporting; details. In we bod, of the 1te5lPonse, me rop.~J:: se:rn:tenctS ,of the. p~apJl:i.:S match the topics; intrednced in. tbe first ~ph.

~pb 2: M4m iMIl

• • • pem .i.m~illO¥e: borh emo,u.ona1 heallli.mdphyslCitil. herulb..

. - .

Supp~rr-i'ngtkmi!s

.-~t8 are good. ,oo.m.po:w.Lo.ns.IDl' lo.nelypeople:.

~ They ~S!O gjivecheir (lIwners thhg;g'Soo do, ~ilre habbie50r club aot:i.v.irjes. f:e,ts are

aJilloo a. co·mron:to amc:knlS 10.11' wOfr:i~d peopil.e •

. ~. They help poop~e with high Mood .p'.~m~re and bean proMenu:. -They help peeple stay phY.'lj~ly acdve ..

. ~. They gwepoop[ea chance ~o pm~y~

-Pi:l:llaUy~ p~tdu."l'apy wsusoo.widl elld.e~]y poop~e.

~pb. 3: Main Wt,l

.•• sWdy where pets mda positive e£fect. on. the heaJjdl of .b~ ,MieifitS

Suppor:ting details

~ -twf the patienrs .had.a doS; to rake care of: Theother half (,.nly sot tmdino.u:1 n:atml~nt.

~. After • i:x .' onms the -c. -tienJ~ 'Wi.th-ers had. lower bloOOn!fessm:ce.

____ L_ II!. ____~ ---pa ' .. -- .-- .. p ... -. ....1"

- They.had abo lost .mo.rewewghtth.an. m.e othm: pade~m.

~. Th_q ftk h~pp.~erJriOo.

- ThfJie am aU ~pmat can afl'ect beartdi;s~.

GJ:alWlIlU and Spelling

II'CRBCKFOR TRANSmON WORDS

,[_mns.i:dOidwo«lsshow ho~f' me .ideas n~ t(lgether. The .model. lessay includes appropdare~m:wijdO:iIl. WQrdi.

Transition ward

FWittioA

Pamgraph.

I also

I

lIn lltiJitir.m

Concludes

91 Writing ~o.r th'e TOEFL is T

v' CHECK FOR 'GRAMMAI. AN:O S:P'EU:ING Thereaseno grammar Oir spf:~~h:1ig ,er'loq in the :m.odel essay.

Ii CONmNT

tI' ICHECK. FOR SENTENCE VARil1ETY

Tille modelI ,essayues ;Jjv<U'~ety of sentence .sr:r~es.

Pel'S are good comp.an;oIDsror .Ionelypeople.

He ,deoo.r.~bes a studywhe.repellS .had. ai. poSli:t~¥eeiFectofithe MaMl of h,cafm pa:d~n:rs.

Aft:.ell: :six mondlS. ~be p~£ments wIth pers had .lower Mood. pirasU!re~ and mer badl.loslt .ma~ weLghtthoo the ·oldl,et paden,fS.

T!hiis ~s a. casernu ShOM how pet ILh<!!:r:a:py works: ~Q ~m__'u)¥e ph.y8kal.h.9~h.

MlDdel Task 3;

;SUTnWtl1'izt t»l .mainpoin.ts i1J: the rt.'flding ~ge anJ ~,ltJitJ h,tJ,w ·rIu .info.~n lm~ud in tke ~mre mM to' H1tw.

The au.WI0f·mm:s ~t, ~a;n plLucioJ1, ig ~"WdOWi pEDblem. 1m. dre ]

same . W3J. the spaJlmr ~'.m.s how plasdt garOOg~ m~ns S~ :fQJ"i1tl M ftJpk

, -.~.;_----

The OliJllmorexplalinswait difmmnt thmgs ,came ocean polh.!l!tl00. ' Oll from ~des. :and cides:mtem me ooeanthrou.gh. fivern and ~. SimUaly~~rs _h inmdl.e ooeaJl~ and tlu\y caWie.large ~wths of •. Toxic Chemicalls comi1tooro pgUllttrne.oceaA~ as

~. T,neR am ,laws ~ dumpling these ,chemlals:J Dutm,e dLem,~ruJittg ffl11JtlIilJ'Y i~ .stillleik .iRoo, 'me ,~ •. ~ eat dlem~ Mtd wh~ 'Vll\eeat

s~~ we ea.tdlese memlmrrJ wo., Tbere is alI.m a lot of prbap~n,

,th~ !oceaD.JP.~~c .is die worstfdnd '~it does oo,t break dowID.

qwcldy. Ammah .~. i[ ~'8tliOod. They e<\[ l't and dlO.~ .oD if.

While £h~. au:dro:rgi¥es an. overview of ocean poUution~ the ,s~ specifical1y de:scrioorneproMem .o.fplastic garOOl~. FOO'p.~e roduce blm" - iM of 1], dsf, lasde a r '-. I,and a.1ot. cfdrise.ndl'll'l'-

,p__ _ __ _~_mL __ p_unL '0_ .p= ~ y~ . ~_:p

,mtRe ooean.Thc 'WHe.rud, wind, 'break, la:l':ie pii.«es ocplas£ic :~D:ro

smalll!er pieas.1lI.mal_nimaJs tty to eat there pieces. ADamimal may k:c~. mm~

clio-Ire ~£iI, plastiC.Et may staree ~mme it does .nm .feeJ. blll11PY m~r

,eaUagp1asti~ .Am1mals.are. ·Q·iel. cwglilt .in.tlJoadn_g p]udc. T,me, are

a!lw ~~d. 'by it. Them ar-e many typesofpOIfuti!o.n ,mmeooean.

Plasdc. ~bage i:!! Cine M tire WOt$t elWnples.

OONTBNT

.FLUENCY,ANI) COIUSION

., CHECK: FOR T.HES.IS 8TATmdENT

The Mod~ essay .: ~. a~esis summen! that shows undeEStM!di~g Q·fthe 'msk. Thewk arsb d:te vmJfer~Q s~ pomts mtd. exp~m h(IfW one adds to 1heodIef~ that .is,. to oo.mparetbem. The .bGt·CWO Slmltenas arethe wesis smreme~t. They s~ize the

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