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Introduction to the literature: Globalisation and internationalisation today, on one hand take businesses to a whole new dimension, with flexibility to trade and the convenience added by technological advancements geographical distances have reduced. With this changing environment there have a tremendous increase in the intensity of competition both at the domestic and international levels, businesses today are employing various marketing and promotional strategies to retain their consumer base. With the concept of relationship marketing surfacing, the market is completely consumer oriented, and the sole aim of any business today is to serve and satisfy their customers in the best possible manner. The fact that consumer retention has gained precedence over acquisition, considering the cost involved, has made it even more important for businesses to satisfy the consumers and win their loyalty. With the evolution of markets, driven by globalisation there has been significant reforms and developments in the field of marketing practices and concepts. As mentioned by Jain 1987; Czincota & Ronkainen 1993; Assael 1998; Bullmore 2000 in their work one aspect of globalisation is the convergence of income, media and technology and as there researchers and authors strongly believe is that this convergence leads to homogeneous consumer needs, tastes and lifestyles. Consumer behaviour and consumer decision making have significantly gained importance over the last few decades and have rapidly gained importance in the area of research in the field of consumer science Engel, Blackwell & Miniard (1995:143) Marketers today, through various research methodologies are trying to analyse and understand the behaviour of the target market, to best understand their needs and expectations, as understanding this behaviour would help them serve the customers better, leading to their satisfaction and loyalty. As mentioned in many literatures on consumer behaviour, understanding the buying behaviour of consumers / target market is one of the most dynamic of all marketing activities, owing to the volatile consumer preferences, and needs which is affected by multiple factors at one point of time making it difficult to analyse and predict. This has therefore called for the need to continually
study and monitor consumer behaviour for management to introduce and make the required changes in terms of price, product and distribution which would affect the overall performance of the product. Sound marketing practices would always have a tab on this behavioural analysis and ensure that the business capitalises on the competitive advantage associated with it. In the last few decades there have been numerous studies and a lot of literature, theories and models float in the area of research that intend to put forward the intentions of explaining the buying behaviour of the consumer. Area of social sciences like economics, Psychology, Sociology and Anthropology have carried out numerous researches and proposed various models in support of their arguments. This section of the research would critically review these theories and models on consumer behaviour and the consumer decision making process, considering different the influence of different elements like promotions on the consumers buying decision, it would then use the research findings to establish links with the theories to draw meaningful constructive conclusions.
Theoretical framework: The theories of consumer decision-making process assume that the consumer’s purchase decision process consists of steps through which the buyer passes in purchasing a product or service. However, this might not be the case. Not every consumer passed through all these stages when making a decision to purchase and in fact, some of the stages can be skipped depending on the type of purchases. The reasons for the study of consumer’s helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: • •
The psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives (e.g., brands, products); The psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment (e.g., culture, family, signs, media); The behaviour of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; Limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome;
money. 1997). Andreason (1965) proposed one of the earliest models of consumer behaviour. The model recognizes the importance of information in the consumer decision-making process. purchasing. 3 . that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer. Behaviour occurs either for the individual. Product use is often of great interest to the marketer. use.• • How consumers’ motivation and decision strategies differ between products. This model is shown in Figure below. and disposing of products and services so as to satisfy their needs and desires’. selecting. purchase. According to Solomon (1996). effort) on consumption-related items (Schiffman and Kanuk. services. consumer behavior is a study of the processes involved when individuals or groups select. Consumer Behaviour The study of consumer behavior focuses on how individuals make decisions to spend their available resources (time. or an organization. or in the context of a group. or dispose of products. or experiences to satisfy needs and desires. The official definition of consumer behaviour given by Belch (1998) is ‘the process and activities people engage in when searching for. Consumer behaviour involves the use and disposal of products as well as the study of how they are purchased. It also emphasizes the importance of consumer attitudes although it fails to consider attitudes in relation to repeat purchase behaviour. evaluating. using. and How marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer. because this may influence how a product is best positioned or how we can encourage increased consumption. The field of consumer behavior covers a lot of ground. ideas.
Preston). University of California.Andreason.1-61 Information Advocate impersonal sources Independen t impersonal sources Advocate personal sources Independen t personal sources Information storage Price Attitudes towards sources Perceived beliefs. l. household capacity Hold No Yes Other purchas e decisio Personalit y Select Beliefs Filtration Feeling s Searc h Disposition No action Direct experienc e Wants Want Intrinsic attributes Ownershi p Extrinsic attributes Other customer Decision-makers Key Direct Flows 4 . A. Norms. budget priorities. Berkeley. Institute of Business and Economic Research. pp. complement Constraints Income. Attitudes towards product. substitutes. physical capacity.R (1965 Attitudes and Consumer Behavior: A Decision Model in New Research in Marketing (ed.
These two features are referred to as Field One. which is influenced by attitudes.3. 1984). Schiffman and Kanuk (1997) mentioned that many early theories concerning consumer behaviour were based on economic theory. 1973). It is however. which was developed in 1969. The Howard-Sheth model is not perfect as it does not explain all buyer behaviour.2 (Solomon. the firm tries to influence the consumer and the consumer is influencing the firm by his decision. This stage is referred to as Field Two. Pinson and Angelman. and the consumers' predisposition to act in a certain way. 5 . and then disposes of the product during the three stages in the consumption process in Figure2. which concentrates on the buying decision for a new product. The firm communicates with consumers through its marketing messages (advertising). The second stage involves the consumer in a search evaluation process. The model concentrates on the firm's attempts to communicate with the consumer. a comprehensive theory of buyer behaviour that has been developed as a result of empirical research (Horton. 1974). and the post-purchase feedback process is referred to as Field Four. The model is important because it highlights the importance of inputs to the consumer buying process and suggests ways in which the consumer orders these inputs before making a final decision. Looking to the model we will find that the firm and the consumer are connected with each other. was proposed by Nicosia (1976). This model is shown in Figure 2. This model was criticized by commentators because it was not empirically tested (Zaltman. 1996) NICOSIA MODEL This model focuses on the relationship between the firm and its potential consumers. and the consumers react to these messages by purchasing response.2. A consumer is generally thought of as a person who identifies a need or desire. Perhaps. The actual purchase process is referred to as Field Three. This model is shown in Figure 2. makes a purchase. the most frequently quoted of all consumer behaviour models is the Howard-Sheth model of buyer behaviour.A second model. and because of the fact that many of the variables were not defined (Lunn. on the notion that individuals act rationally to maximize their benefits (satisfactions) in the purchase of goods and services.
6 .Field 1 Subfield 1 Message exposure Subfield 2 Consumers Firms Attributes Attitude Experience and evaluation Search Field 2: Search and evaluation of mean/end(s) relation(s) (Preaction field) Consumption Motivation Field 4: Feedback Decision (Action) Field 3: Act of Purchase Purchasing Behaviour Nicosia Model of Consumer Decision Processes Source: Nicosia. (1976). The Nicosia model is divided into four major fields: Field 1: The consumer attitude based on the firms’ messages. The first field is divided into two subfields.
and how the consumer develops his attitude toward the product. and the consumer will use his experience with the product affects the individual’s attitude and predisposition’s concerning future messages from the firm. The firm will benefit from its sales data as a feedback. Field 4: Feed back This model analyses the feedback of both the firm and the consumer after purchasing the product. and how he perceives the promotional idea toward the product in this stage the consumer forms his attitude toward the firm’s product based on his interpretation of the message. the consumer may find the firm’s message very interesting. which give more interpretation about the attributes affecting the decision process. personality. For example. Apparently it is very essential to include such factors in the model. At this level the consumer does not have any basic information or knowledge about the brand and he does not 7 . which may affect the personality of the consumer. The Nicosia model offers no detail explanation of the internal factors. HOWARD-SHETH MODEL This model suggests three levels of decision making: 1. In this case the firm motivates the consumer to purchase its brands.The first subfield deals with the firm’s marketing environment and communication efforts that affect consumer attitudes. but virtually he cannot buy the firm’s brand because it contains something prohibited according to his beliefs. Field 2: search and evaluation The consumer will start to search for other firm’s brand and evaluate the firm’s brand in comparison with alternate brands.. the competitive environment. Field 3: The act of the purchase The result of motivation will arise by convincing the consumer to purchase the firm products from a specific retailer. experience.g. and characteristics of target market Subfield two specifies the consumer characteristics e. The first level describes the extensive problem solving.
have any preferences for any product. 2. or partial knowledge about what they want to purchase. In order to arrive at a brand preference some comparative brand information is sought. 3. The third level is a habitual response behavior. The second level is limited problem solving. This situation exists for consumers who have little knowledge about the market. and social class). All three types of stimuli provide inputs concerning the product class or specific brands to the specific consumer. and he already decides to purchase a particular product. namely: a) Inputs. reference group. These input variables consist of three distinct types of stimuli (information sources) in the consumer’s environment. the consumer will seek information about all the different brands in the market before purchasing. In this situation. The marketer in the form of product or brand information furnishes physical brand characteristics (significative stimuli) and verbal or visual product characteristics (symbolic stimuli). 8 . According to the Howard-Sheth model there are four major sets of variables. In this level the consumer knows very well about the different brands and he can differentiate between the different characteristics of each product. The third type is provided by the consumer’s social environment (family.
which Howard-Sheth Model tries to explain. However. 9 . The proposed interaction In between the different variables in the perceptual and learning constructs and other sets give the model its distinctive advantage. and are concerned with how the consumer receives and understands the information from the input stimuli and other parts of the model. criteria for evaluation alternatives. such as what influence the family decision? This may differ from one society to another. c) Outputs The outputs are the results of the perceptual and learning variables and how the consumers will response to these variables (attention. which give the model obvious weakness in anticipation the consumer decision. no direct relation was drawn on the role of religion in influencing the consumer’s decision-making processes. Perceptual bias occurs if the consumer distorts the information received so that it fits his or her established needs or experience. and time pressure. For example. Symbolic and Social stimuli. These stimuli are not applicable in every society. In both significative and symbolic stimuli. preferences and buying intentions are all included. the model emphasizes on material aspects such as price and quality. Religion was considered as external factor with no real influence on consumer. The central part of the model deals with the psychological variables involved when the consumer is contemplating a decision. Learning constructs category. The decision-making process. and intention). attitudes. takes place at three Inputs stages: Significance.b) Perceptual and Learning Constructs. consumer personality traits. Finally. brand comprehension. Some of the variables are perceptual in nature. religion. some relevant exogenous variables include the importance of the purchase. While in social stimuli the model does not mention the basis of decision-making in this stimulus. d) Exogenous(External) variables Exogenous variables are not directly part of the decision-making process. information about brands. consumers’ goals. stimulus ambiguity happened when the consumer does not understand the message from the environment.
fast-growing body of knowledge concerning consumer behavior. But it is not necessary for every consumer to go through all these stages. This model. 10 . First stage: decision-process stages The central focus of the model is on five basic decision-process stages: Problem recognition. search for alternatives. which in turn may result in a purchase intention) purchase. like in other models.ENGEL-KOLLAT-BLACKWELL MODEL This model was created to describe the increasing. and outcomes. has gone through many revisions to improve its descriptive ability of the basic relationships between components and sub-components. it depends on whether it is an extended or a routine problem-solving behaviour. alternate evaluation (during which beliefs may lead to the formation of attitudes. this model consists also of four stages.
the search for external information will be activated in order to arrive to a choice or in some cases if the consumer experience dissonance because the selected alternative is less satisfactory than expected. and Miniard. 11 . Blackwell. Attention E Alternativ e M Comprehensio other n Perception Yielding/ Acceptance O evaluation R Y Purchase Situation al Family Influence s Retention External search Dissatisfactio n Outcomes Satisfaction The Engel-Kollat-Blackwell Model of Consumer Behaviour Source: Engel. If the consumer still does not arrive to a specific decision.Input Information Processing Exposure Internal M search Variables Influencing Decision Process Individual Problem Precision Characterist Process Recognition ics: Search Beliefs Motives Values Social Lifestyle Influence Personality s: Attitude Culture Intention Referenc e group Stimuli: MarketerDominate d.(1995) page No 95 Second stage: Information input At this stage the consumer gets information from marketing and non-marketing sources. which also influence the problem recognition stage of the decision-making process.
perception. lifestyle. Situational influences. This model incorporates many items. interpret the stimuli. In this model there are seven major stages. The model did not show what factors shape these items. lifestyle. the social influences are culture. Stage No. acceptance. The consumer must first be exposed to the message. personality and culture. and this will lead to better understanding of the model and will give more comprehensive view on decisionmaking. 1: Processing capacity In this step he assumes that the consumer has limited capacity for processing information. allocate space for this information. and retain the message by transferring the input to long-term memory. and family. which influence consumer decision-making such as values. consumers are likely to select choice strategies that make product selection an easy process. such as a consumer’s financial condition. reference groups. Individual characteristics include motives. values. consumers are not interested in complex computations and extensive information processing.Third stage: information processing This stage consists of the consumer’s exposure. 12 . Bettman’s Information Processing Model of Consumer Choice Bettman (1979) in his model describes the consumer as possessing a limited capacity for processing information. To deal with this problem. He implicate that the consumers rarely analyze the complex alternatives in decision making and apply very simple strategy. and why different types of personality can produce different decisionmaking? How will we apply these values to cope with different personalities? Religion can explain some behavioral characteristics of the consumer. attention. and retention of incoming information. and personality. also influence the decision process. Fourth stage: variables influencing the decision process This stage consists of individual and environmental influences that affect all five stages of the decision process.
2: Motivation Motivation is located in the center of Bettman model. No concern was given on religious motives.Stage No. which influence both the direction and the intensity of consumer choice for more information in deciding Motivation Goal hierarchy Perceptual encoding Scanner and Attention interrupt mechanisms Information Processing Capacity Acquisition and evaluation Memory search External Perceptual search Scanner and interrupt mechanisms Scanner Decision Processes Consumption And learning processes and interrupt mechanisms Scanner and interrupt mechanisms interrupt interpretatio n and response Interrupt interpretati on and response Interrupt Interpretatio n and Interrupt response Interpretatio n and response The Bettman Information-Processing Model of Consumer Choice Source: Bettman. Most of the general theories of motivation such as Maslow’s 13 . which make this mechanism serves as an organizer for consumer efforts in making a choice. This mechanism suggests that the consumers own experience in a specific area of market and he doesn’t need to go through the same hierarchy every time to arrive at a decision. and how religion may motivate the consumer in his decision. (1979). Pp 402 Between the alternatives Motivation is provided with hierarchy of goals’ mechanism that provides a series of different sub-goals to simplify the choice selection.
which is automatic response to disruptive events (e.. If this informations is not sufficient. Stage No. urgency of the decision). Newly acquired information is evaluated and its suitability or usefulness is assessed. 4: Information acquisition and evaluation If the consumer feels that the present information is inadequate.. The second is involuntary attention. The component of this step is quite related to the consumer's goal hierarchy. 3: Attention and perceptual encoding.g. Stage No. thus it is unlikely that the same decision by the same consumer will apply in different situation or other consumer in the same situation.g. he will start to look for more information from external sources. the first type is voluntary attention. or until he finds that acquiring additional information is more costly in terms of time and money. The consumer continues to acquire additional information until all relevant information has been secured. Specifically. which is a conscious allocation of processing capacity to current goals. which may occur during the decision process. and it will be the first place to search when he need to make a choice. 14 . this component deals with the application of heuristics or rules of thumb. and the need for affiliation.g. newly acquired complex information). which are applied in the selection and evaluation of specific brand. Stage No. no doubt he will start looking again for external sources. the need for power. These specific heuristics a consumer uses are influenced by both individual factors (e.hierarchy of needs (1970) emphasize self-achievement. Stage No.. 6: Decision Process This step in Bettman’s model indicates that different types of choices are normally made associated with other factors. 5: Memory In this component the consumer keeps all the information he collects. There are two types of attention. personality differences) and situational factors (e. Both different types of attention influence how individuals proceed in reaching goals and making choices. The perceptual encoding accounts for the different steps that the consumer needs to perceive the stimuli and whether he needs more information.
Katona (1971). the model discusses the future results after the purchase is done. These are functional. 1991). and Hanna (1980). Sheth-Newman Gross Model of Consumption Values According to this model. This experience provides the consumer with information to be applied to future choice situation. and several branches of psychology. Each consumption value in the theory is consistent with various components of models advanced by Maslow (1970).Stage No. (Sheth et al. Any or all of the five consumption values may influence the decision. Various disciplines (including economics. but no explanation was given about the criteria by which the consumer accepts or refuses to process some specific information. Newman. emotional. and Gross (1991) Pp159-170 15 . sociology. social. Five consumption values form the core of the model: Functional Value Conditional Value Consumer Choice Behaviour Social Value Epistemic Emotional Value Value The five values influencing Consumer Choice Behaviour Source: Sheth. 7: Consumption and Learning Process In this stage. Bettman in his model emphasize on the information processing and the capacity of the consumer to analyze this information for decision making. there are five consumption values influencing consumer choice behaviour. marketing and consumer behaviour) have contributed theories and research findings relevant to these values. Katz (1960). conditional. The consumer in this step will gain experience after evaluating the alternative. and epistemic values.
For example. 3) Ego-defensive function. Functional value is measured on a profile of choice attributes." Traditionally. utilitarian. 1973) such as reliability. or physical performance. 160) Katz (1960) developed the functional theory of attitudes. what benefits it provides). durability. Attitude that performs a value-expressive function expresses the consumers’ central values or self-concept. the decision to purchase a particular automobile may be based on fuel economy and maintenance record. An alternative acquires functional value through the possession of salient functional. (Solomon 1996. Attitude formed to protect the person. (1991) the functional value of an alternative is defined as: "The perceived utility acquired from an alternative for functional. marketers can emphasize these benefits in their communication and packaging." An alternative’s functional value may be derived from its characteristics or attributes. Example of this 16 . Advertisements relevant to the function prompt more favourable thoughts about what is being marketed and can result in a heightened preference for both the ads and the product. This assumption underlies economic utility theory advanced by Marshall (1890) and Stigler (1950) and popularly expressed in terms of "rational economic man. and price.The first value: Functional value To Sheth et al.. either from external threats or internal feelings. perform an ego-defensive function. By identifying the dominant function of a product (i. 2) Value-expressive function. or physical attributes. (Ferber. He identifies four attitudes based on the functional values: 1) Utilitarian function. but because of what the product says about him or her as a person. utilitarian. A person forms a product attitude not because of its objective benefits. We develop some of our attitude toward products simply based on whether these products provide pleasure or pain.e. functional value is presumed to be the primary driver of consumer choice. The utilitarian function is related to the basic principles of reward and punishment.
gifts. jewellery) and good service to be shared with others (e. religion). (1991. ideological segments of society. This need is often present when a person is in an ambiguous situation or is confronted with a new product. embarrassing consequences of being caught with underarm odor in public.g. The third value: Emotional value Sheth et al. socioeconomic.." Social imagery refers to all relevant primary and secondary reference groups likely to be supportive of the product consumption. An alternative acquires social value through association with positively or negatively stereotyped demographic. 161) defined emotional value of an alternative as: "The perceived utility acquired from an alternative’s capacity to arouse feelings or affective states. structure. or political. lifestyle). and cultural-ethnic groups. Some attitude is formed as a result of a need for order. For example. a particular make of automobile is being chosen more for the social image evoked than for its functional performance. Consumers acquire positive or negative stereotypes based on their association with varied demographic (age. socioeconomic (income. (1991.function is deodorant campaigns that stress the dire. products used in entertaining) are often driven by social values. clothing. An alternative acquires emotional value when associated with specific feelings or when precipitating those feelings. 4) Knowledge function.. Choices involving highly visible products (e. occupation). The second value: Social value Sheth et al. sex. 161) defined social value of an alternative as: "The perceived utility acquired from an alternative association with one or more specific social groups." 17 . are frequently selected based on their social values. Social value is measured on a profile choice imagery.g. or meaning. Even products generally thought to be functional or utilitarian. Emotional values are measured on a profile of feelings associated with the alternative. cultural/ethnic (race.
and exploratory needs offered by the product as a change of pace (something new. Izard (1977) develops the taxonomy of affective experience approach that describes the basic emotion that people feel. Goods and services are frequently associated with emotional responses (e. surprise.g. However. The alternative may be chosen because the consumer is bored or satiated with his or her current brand (as in trying a new type of food). provide novelty. joy. A number of different attempts have been made to identify the various emotions that people experience..Consumption emotion refers to the set of emotional responses elicited specifically during product usage or consumption experience. shame. and guilt. for example. and consumers are sometimes said to have "love affairs" with their cars." Epistemic issues refer to reasons that would justify the perceived satisfaction of curiosity. joy. This approach has been used extensively by consumer researchers. He measures emotions using ten fundamental categories: interest. For example. Entirely new experience certainly provides epistemic value. is curious (as in visiting a new shopping complex). different). an alternative that provides a simple change of pace can also be imbued with epistemic value. 18 . contempt. more tangible and seemingly utilitarian products also have emotional values.g. knowledge. or has a desire to learn (as in experiencing another culture). Emotional value is often associated with aesthetic alternatives (e. The fourth value: Epistemic value Sheth et al. fear. as described either by the distinctive categories of emotional experience and expression (e. and/or satisfy a desire for knowledge. anger. disgust. 162) defined epistemic value as: "The perceived utility acquired from an alternatives capacity to arouse curiosity. Westbrook and Oliver (1991). anger.g. religion causes). and fear) or by the structural dimensions underlying emotional categories such as pleasantness/ unpleasantness. or calmness/excitement. the fear aroused while viewing horror movie). relaxation/action. An alternative acquires epistemic value by items referring to curiosity. some foods arouse feeling of comfort through their association with childhood experiences. and knowledge. (1991. sadness. novelty. However.
and switching behavior. wedding dress). Exploratory. who contends that individuals are driven to maintain an optimal or intermediate level of stimulation. some are associated with once in a life events (e.. (Howard and Sheth 1969).. Several areas of inquiry have also influenced conditional value. hospital services). novelty seeking. Howard (1969) recognized the importance of learning that takes place as a result of experience with a given situation. a number of researchers during the 1970s investigated the predictive ability of situational factors (e. some products only have seasonal value (e. For example." An alternative’s utility will often depend on the situation. The concept of inhibitors was more formally developed by Sheth (1974) in his model of attitude-behavior relationship as anticipated situations and unexpected events. 162) defined the conditional value as: "The perceived utility acquired by an alternative is the result of the specific situation or set of circumstances facing the choice maker.g. or a consumer’ propensity to adopt new products. and variety seeking motives have been suggested to active product search.. Howard and Sheth (1969) then extended Howard’s earlier work by defining the construct inhibitors as no internalized forces that impede buyers’ preferences.g. greeting cards). and conditional values have little 19 . and some are used only in emergencies (e. a consumer may decide to purchase coins as an inflation hedge (functional value). epistemic. Hirschman (1980) has advanced innovativeness. Finally. Based on the concept of stimulus dynamism advanced by Hall (1963). (1991. An alternative acquires conditional value in the presence of antecedent physical or social contingencies that enhance its functional or social value. The five consumption values identified by the theory make differential contributions in specific choice contexts.g. One of the most significant contributors to the study of the optimal stimulation and arousal has been Berlyne (1970). Conditional value is measured on a profile of choice contingencies. and also realize a sense of security (emotional value) from the investment. Social. Sheth 1974).g.The concept of epistemic values has been influenced by theory and by several important areas of research. Recognizing that behavior cannot be accurately predicted based on attitude or intention alone. For example.. trial. The Fifth value: Conditional value Sheth et al.
social values (friends are also buying homes). and conditional value (starting a family). a choice may be influenced positively by all five consumption values For example. Of course. and what are the environmental consequences of this act? Model of comparison process Source: Solomon (1996) Pp33 The figure explains some of the Issus that is addressed during each stage of the consumption process. to a first-time home buyer. epistemic value (the novelty of purchasing a home is enjoyable). Solomon Model of comparison process CONSUMER'S PERSPECTIVE How does a consumer decide that he/she needs a product? What are the best sources of information to learn more about alternative choices? MARKETER'S PERSPECTIVE How are consumer attitudes toward products formed and/or changed? What cues do consumers use to infer which products are superior to others? How do situational factors. emotional values (the consumer feels secure in owning a home).influence. the purchase of a home might provide functional value (the home contains more space than the present apartment). such as time pressure or store displays. The ‘exchange’. affect the consumer’s purchase What determines decision? whether a consumer will be satisfied with a product and whether he/she will buy it again? Does this person tell others about his/her experiences with the product and affect their purchase decisions? PREPURCHASE ISSUES PURCHASE ISSUES Is acquiring a product a stressful or pleasant experience? What does the purchase say about the consumer? Does the product provide pleasure or perform its intended function? POSTPURCHASE ISSUES How is the product eventually disposed of. in which two or more organizations or people give and receive 20 .
Much of marketing activity. He also suggested that consumer behavior involves many different actors. which was termed the stimulus-response model of buyer behaviour. The purchaser and user of a product might not be the same person. which have been presented so far. have been from general marketing theory Stimulus-Response Model of Buyer Behavior Middleton (1994) presented an adapted model of consumer behaviour tourism. Stimulus Input Communication channels Buyer characteristics and decision process Communication filters Range of competitive produced and marketed by the tourist industry Purchase outputs (response) Motivation Advertising Sales promotion Brochures Personal selling PR Learning Demographic economic and Social position Psychographic characteristic Product Brand Price Outlet Perception Friends Family Reference Group Needs Wants Goals Experience Attitudes Post-purchase and Post-consumption feelings Stimulus-Response Model of Buyer Behavior Source: Middleton (1994) Pp 104-112 The model separates out motivators and determinants in consumer buying behavior and also emphasizes the important effects that an organization can have on the consumer buying 21 . This model is based on the four interactive components with the central component identified as 'buyer characteristics and decision process'. is an integral part of marketing.8. The model is shown in Figure 2. Organizations can also be involved in the buying process. they suggest. The definitions and models. People may also act as influences on the buying processes. concentrates on adapting product offerings to particular circumstances of target segment needs and wants. It is also common to stimulate an already existing want through advertising and sales promotion. rather than creating wants.something of value.
process by the use of communication channels. 22 .
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