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Introduction to the literature: Globalisation and internationalisation today, on one hand take businesses to a whole new dimension, with flexibility to trade and the convenience added by technological advancements geographical distances have reduced. With this changing environment there have a tremendous increase in the intensity of competition both at the domestic and international levels, businesses today are employing various marketing and promotional strategies to retain their consumer base. With the concept of relationship marketing surfacing, the market is completely consumer oriented, and the sole aim of any business today is to serve and satisfy their customers in the best possible manner. The fact that consumer retention has gained precedence over acquisition, considering the cost involved, has made it even more important for businesses to satisfy the consumers and win their loyalty. With the evolution of markets, driven by globalisation there has been significant reforms and developments in the field of marketing practices and concepts. As mentioned by Jain 1987; Czincota & Ronkainen 1993; Assael 1998; Bullmore 2000 in their work one aspect of globalisation is the convergence of income, media and technology and as there researchers and authors strongly believe is that this convergence leads to homogeneous consumer needs, tastes and lifestyles. Consumer behaviour and consumer decision making have significantly gained importance over the last few decades and have rapidly gained importance in the area of research in the field of consumer science Engel, Blackwell & Miniard (1995:143) Marketers today, through various research methodologies are trying to analyse and understand the behaviour of the target market, to best understand their needs and expectations, as understanding this behaviour would help them serve the customers better, leading to their satisfaction and loyalty. As mentioned in many literatures on consumer behaviour, understanding the buying behaviour of consumers / target market is one of the most dynamic of all marketing activities, owing to the volatile consumer preferences, and needs which is affected by multiple factors at one point of time making it difficult to analyse and predict. This has therefore called for the need to continually
study and monitor consumer behaviour for management to introduce and make the required changes in terms of price, product and distribution which would affect the overall performance of the product. Sound marketing practices would always have a tab on this behavioural analysis and ensure that the business capitalises on the competitive advantage associated with it. In the last few decades there have been numerous studies and a lot of literature, theories and models float in the area of research that intend to put forward the intentions of explaining the buying behaviour of the consumer. Area of social sciences like economics, Psychology, Sociology and Anthropology have carried out numerous researches and proposed various models in support of their arguments. This section of the research would critically review these theories and models on consumer behaviour and the consumer decision making process, considering different the influence of different elements like promotions on the consumers buying decision, it would then use the research findings to establish links with the theories to draw meaningful constructive conclusions.
Theoretical framework: The theories of consumer decision-making process assume that the consumer’s purchase decision process consists of steps through which the buyer passes in purchasing a product or service. However, this might not be the case. Not every consumer passed through all these stages when making a decision to purchase and in fact, some of the stages can be skipped depending on the type of purchases. The reasons for the study of consumer’s helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: • •
The psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives (e.g., brands, products); The psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment (e.g., culture, family, signs, media); The behaviour of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; Limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome;
The model recognizes the importance of information in the consumer decision-making process. 3 . using. Consumer Behaviour The study of consumer behavior focuses on how individuals make decisions to spend their available resources (time. It also emphasizes the importance of consumer attitudes although it fails to consider attitudes in relation to repeat purchase behaviour. effort) on consumption-related items (Schiffman and Kanuk. purchasing. or an organization. Behaviour occurs either for the individual. consumer behavior is a study of the processes involved when individuals or groups select. and How marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer. The field of consumer behavior covers a lot of ground. ideas. This model is shown in Figure below. or dispose of products. evaluating. and disposing of products and services so as to satisfy their needs and desires’. or experiences to satisfy needs and desires. According to Solomon (1996).• • How consumers’ motivation and decision strategies differ between products. 1997). Consumer behaviour involves the use and disposal of products as well as the study of how they are purchased. or in the context of a group. because this may influence how a product is best positioned or how we can encourage increased consumption. Andreason (1965) proposed one of the earliest models of consumer behaviour. selecting. services. The official definition of consumer behaviour given by Belch (1998) is ‘the process and activities people engage in when searching for. purchase. money. that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer. Product use is often of great interest to the marketer. use.
substitutes. complement Constraints Income. A. Berkeley.R (1965 Attitudes and Consumer Behavior: A Decision Model in New Research in Marketing (ed.Andreason. budget priorities. pp.1-61 Information Advocate impersonal sources Independen t impersonal sources Advocate personal sources Independen t personal sources Information storage Price Attitudes towards sources Perceived beliefs. Institute of Business and Economic Research. Preston). Attitudes towards product. physical capacity. University of California. l. Norms. household capacity Hold No Yes Other purchas e decisio Personalit y Select Beliefs Filtration Feeling s Searc h Disposition No action Direct experienc e Wants Want Intrinsic attributes Ownershi p Extrinsic attributes Other customer Decision-makers Key Direct Flows 4 .
and the post-purchase feedback process is referred to as Field Four. was proposed by Nicosia (1976).A second model. makes a purchase. which was developed in 1969. The second stage involves the consumer in a search evaluation process. This model was criticized by commentators because it was not empirically tested (Zaltman. 1973). Looking to the model we will find that the firm and the consumer are connected with each other. 1984). 1996) NICOSIA MODEL This model focuses on the relationship between the firm and its potential consumers. Pinson and Angelman. A consumer is generally thought of as a person who identifies a need or desire. This stage is referred to as Field Two.3. These two features are referred to as Field One. 1974).2. The firm communicates with consumers through its marketing messages (advertising). and the consumers react to these messages by purchasing response.2 (Solomon. and the consumers' predisposition to act in a certain way. The actual purchase process is referred to as Field Three. 5 . the firm tries to influence the consumer and the consumer is influencing the firm by his decision. This model is shown in Figure 2. and because of the fact that many of the variables were not defined (Lunn. on the notion that individuals act rationally to maximize their benefits (satisfactions) in the purchase of goods and services. Schiffman and Kanuk (1997) mentioned that many early theories concerning consumer behaviour were based on economic theory. This model is shown in Figure 2. It is however. The model concentrates on the firm's attempts to communicate with the consumer. and then disposes of the product during the three stages in the consumption process in Figure2. Perhaps. which concentrates on the buying decision for a new product. The model is important because it highlights the importance of inputs to the consumer buying process and suggests ways in which the consumer orders these inputs before making a final decision. a comprehensive theory of buyer behaviour that has been developed as a result of empirical research (Horton. The Howard-Sheth model is not perfect as it does not explain all buyer behaviour. the most frequently quoted of all consumer behaviour models is the Howard-Sheth model of buyer behaviour. which is influenced by attitudes.
The first field is divided into two subfields. The Nicosia model is divided into four major fields: Field 1: The consumer attitude based on the firms’ messages. (1976). 6 .Field 1 Subfield 1 Message exposure Subfield 2 Consumers Firms Attributes Attitude Experience and evaluation Search Field 2: Search and evaluation of mean/end(s) relation(s) (Preaction field) Consumption Motivation Field 4: Feedback Decision (Action) Field 3: Act of Purchase Purchasing Behaviour Nicosia Model of Consumer Decision Processes Source: Nicosia.
and the consumer will use his experience with the product affects the individual’s attitude and predisposition’s concerning future messages from the firm.. which may affect the personality of the consumer. and how the consumer develops his attitude toward the product.g. the competitive environment. the consumer may find the firm’s message very interesting. The first level describes the extensive problem solving. Field 3: The act of the purchase The result of motivation will arise by convincing the consumer to purchase the firm products from a specific retailer. but virtually he cannot buy the firm’s brand because it contains something prohibited according to his beliefs. Apparently it is very essential to include such factors in the model. At this level the consumer does not have any basic information or knowledge about the brand and he does not 7 . and how he perceives the promotional idea toward the product in this stage the consumer forms his attitude toward the firm’s product based on his interpretation of the message. Field 2: search and evaluation The consumer will start to search for other firm’s brand and evaluate the firm’s brand in comparison with alternate brands. In this case the firm motivates the consumer to purchase its brands. HOWARD-SHETH MODEL This model suggests three levels of decision making: 1. The Nicosia model offers no detail explanation of the internal factors. personality.The first subfield deals with the firm’s marketing environment and communication efforts that affect consumer attitudes. experience. The firm will benefit from its sales data as a feedback. and characteristics of target market Subfield two specifies the consumer characteristics e. For example. Field 4: Feed back This model analyses the feedback of both the firm and the consumer after purchasing the product. which give more interpretation about the attributes affecting the decision process.
The marketer in the form of product or brand information furnishes physical brand characteristics (significative stimuli) and verbal or visual product characteristics (symbolic stimuli). This situation exists for consumers who have little knowledge about the market. and social class). The third level is a habitual response behavior. the consumer will seek information about all the different brands in the market before purchasing. The third type is provided by the consumer’s social environment (family. According to the Howard-Sheth model there are four major sets of variables. In order to arrive at a brand preference some comparative brand information is sought. These input variables consist of three distinct types of stimuli (information sources) in the consumer’s environment. All three types of stimuli provide inputs concerning the product class or specific brands to the specific consumer. 3. In this situation. The second level is limited problem solving. reference group. 8 . In this level the consumer knows very well about the different brands and he can differentiate between the different characteristics of each product. or partial knowledge about what they want to purchase. 2. and he already decides to purchase a particular product.have any preferences for any product. namely: a) Inputs.
stimulus ambiguity happened when the consumer does not understand the message from the environment. takes place at three Inputs stages: Significance. such as what influence the family decision? This may differ from one society to another. Religion was considered as external factor with no real influence on consumer. criteria for evaluation alternatives. and are concerned with how the consumer receives and understands the information from the input stimuli and other parts of the model. In both significative and symbolic stimuli. consumer personality traits. The decision-making process. consumers’ goals. no direct relation was drawn on the role of religion in influencing the consumer’s decision-making processes. However. For example. the model emphasizes on material aspects such as price and quality. which Howard-Sheth Model tries to explain. and intention). These stimuli are not applicable in every society. Finally.b) Perceptual and Learning Constructs. The central part of the model deals with the psychological variables involved when the consumer is contemplating a decision. information about brands. brand comprehension. c) Outputs The outputs are the results of the perceptual and learning variables and how the consumers will response to these variables (attention. preferences and buying intentions are all included. Some of the variables are perceptual in nature. Symbolic and Social stimuli. d) Exogenous(External) variables Exogenous variables are not directly part of the decision-making process. The proposed interaction In between the different variables in the perceptual and learning constructs and other sets give the model its distinctive advantage. some relevant exogenous variables include the importance of the purchase. religion. which give the model obvious weakness in anticipation the consumer decision. Learning constructs category. Perceptual bias occurs if the consumer distorts the information received so that it fits his or her established needs or experience. attitudes. While in social stimuli the model does not mention the basis of decision-making in this stimulus. 9 . and time pressure.
has gone through many revisions to improve its descriptive ability of the basic relationships between components and sub-components. search for alternatives. alternate evaluation (during which beliefs may lead to the formation of attitudes. This model. it depends on whether it is an extended or a routine problem-solving behaviour. this model consists also of four stages. First stage: decision-process stages The central focus of the model is on five basic decision-process stages: Problem recognition. which in turn may result in a purchase intention) purchase.ENGEL-KOLLAT-BLACKWELL MODEL This model was created to describe the increasing. fast-growing body of knowledge concerning consumer behavior. 10 . and outcomes. But it is not necessary for every consumer to go through all these stages. like in other models.
Blackwell.(1995) page No 95 Second stage: Information input At this stage the consumer gets information from marketing and non-marketing sources.Input Information Processing Exposure Internal M search Variables Influencing Decision Process Individual Problem Precision Characterist Process Recognition ics: Search Beliefs Motives Values Social Lifestyle Influence Personality s: Attitude Culture Intention Referenc e group Stimuli: MarketerDominate d. 11 . Attention E Alternativ e M Comprehensio other n Perception Yielding/ Acceptance O evaluation R Y Purchase Situation al Family Influence s Retention External search Dissatisfactio n Outcomes Satisfaction The Engel-Kollat-Blackwell Model of Consumer Behaviour Source: Engel. If the consumer still does not arrive to a specific decision. and Miniard. which also influence the problem recognition stage of the decision-making process. the search for external information will be activated in order to arrive to a choice or in some cases if the consumer experience dissonance because the selected alternative is less satisfactory than expected.
attention. and why different types of personality can produce different decisionmaking? How will we apply these values to cope with different personalities? Religion can explain some behavioral characteristics of the consumer. and family. and retention of incoming information. the social influences are culture. acceptance.Third stage: information processing This stage consists of the consumer’s exposure. perception. Individual characteristics include motives. and retain the message by transferring the input to long-term memory. interpret the stimuli. reference groups. 1: Processing capacity In this step he assumes that the consumer has limited capacity for processing information. such as a consumer’s financial condition. allocate space for this information. Situational influences. 12 . Fourth stage: variables influencing the decision process This stage consists of individual and environmental influences that affect all five stages of the decision process. lifestyle. To deal with this problem. lifestyle. The consumer must first be exposed to the message. consumers are likely to select choice strategies that make product selection an easy process. Stage No. In this model there are seven major stages. This model incorporates many items. also influence the decision process. values. The model did not show what factors shape these items. and this will lead to better understanding of the model and will give more comprehensive view on decisionmaking. consumers are not interested in complex computations and extensive information processing. Bettman’s Information Processing Model of Consumer Choice Bettman (1979) in his model describes the consumer as possessing a limited capacity for processing information. and personality. He implicate that the consumers rarely analyze the complex alternatives in decision making and apply very simple strategy. personality and culture. which influence consumer decision-making such as values.
Pp 402 Between the alternatives Motivation is provided with hierarchy of goals’ mechanism that provides a series of different sub-goals to simplify the choice selection. which influence both the direction and the intensity of consumer choice for more information in deciding Motivation Goal hierarchy Perceptual encoding Scanner and Attention interrupt mechanisms Information Processing Capacity Acquisition and evaluation Memory search External Perceptual search Scanner and interrupt mechanisms Scanner Decision Processes Consumption And learning processes and interrupt mechanisms Scanner and interrupt mechanisms interrupt interpretatio n and response Interrupt interpretati on and response Interrupt Interpretatio n and Interrupt response Interpretatio n and response The Bettman Information-Processing Model of Consumer Choice Source: Bettman. 2: Motivation Motivation is located in the center of Bettman model. This mechanism suggests that the consumers own experience in a specific area of market and he doesn’t need to go through the same hierarchy every time to arrive at a decision. No concern was given on religious motives. Most of the general theories of motivation such as Maslow’s 13 . which make this mechanism serves as an organizer for consumer efforts in making a choice. and how religion may motivate the consumer in his decision.Stage No. (1979).
g.g. There are two types of attention. and the need for affiliation.g.. Newly acquired information is evaluated and its suitability or usefulness is assessed. no doubt he will start looking again for external sources. The second is involuntary attention. which is a conscious allocation of processing capacity to current goals. newly acquired complex information). 5: Memory In this component the consumer keeps all the information he collects. Stage No. Stage No. The perceptual encoding accounts for the different steps that the consumer needs to perceive the stimuli and whether he needs more information. The consumer continues to acquire additional information until all relevant information has been secured. which is automatic response to disruptive events (e. he will start to look for more information from external sources. Both different types of attention influence how individuals proceed in reaching goals and making choices. which are applied in the selection and evaluation of specific brand. this component deals with the application of heuristics or rules of thumb. thus it is unlikely that the same decision by the same consumer will apply in different situation or other consumer in the same situation. The component of this step is quite related to the consumer's goal hierarchy. These specific heuristics a consumer uses are influenced by both individual factors (e.hierarchy of needs (1970) emphasize self-achievement. the first type is voluntary attention. which may occur during the decision process. 4: Information acquisition and evaluation If the consumer feels that the present information is inadequate. or until he finds that acquiring additional information is more costly in terms of time and money. and it will be the first place to search when he need to make a choice. Stage No. Specifically. personality differences) and situational factors (e. the need for power.. 3: Attention and perceptual encoding. If this informations is not sufficient. 14 .. Stage No. 6: Decision Process This step in Bettman’s model indicates that different types of choices are normally made associated with other factors. urgency of the decision).
Any or all of the five consumption values may influence the decision. and several branches of psychology. The consumer in this step will gain experience after evaluating the alternative. Bettman in his model emphasize on the information processing and the capacity of the consumer to analyze this information for decision making. 7: Consumption and Learning Process In this stage. and Gross (1991) Pp159-170 15 . there are five consumption values influencing consumer choice behaviour. emotional. (Sheth et al. conditional. This experience provides the consumer with information to be applied to future choice situation. and epistemic values. Five consumption values form the core of the model: Functional Value Conditional Value Consumer Choice Behaviour Social Value Epistemic Emotional Value Value The five values influencing Consumer Choice Behaviour Source: Sheth. and Hanna (1980). Each consumption value in the theory is consistent with various components of models advanced by Maslow (1970). Sheth-Newman Gross Model of Consumption Values According to this model. but no explanation was given about the criteria by which the consumer accepts or refuses to process some specific information. 1991). Katz (1960). Katona (1971). marketing and consumer behaviour) have contributed theories and research findings relevant to these values. These are functional. Newman. Various disciplines (including economics. sociology. social. the model discusses the future results after the purchase is done.Stage No.
but because of what the product says about him or her as a person. Functional value is measured on a profile of choice attributes. or physical attributes.. what benefits it provides). 160) Katz (1960) developed the functional theory of attitudes. By identifying the dominant function of a product (i. This assumption underlies economic utility theory advanced by Marshall (1890) and Stigler (1950) and popularly expressed in terms of "rational economic man. Attitude that performs a value-expressive function expresses the consumers’ central values or self-concept. Advertisements relevant to the function prompt more favourable thoughts about what is being marketed and can result in a heightened preference for both the ads and the product. or physical performance. Example of this 16 . functional value is presumed to be the primary driver of consumer choice. Attitude formed to protect the person.e. perform an ego-defensive function." An alternative’s functional value may be derived from its characteristics or attributes. We develop some of our attitude toward products simply based on whether these products provide pleasure or pain.The first value: Functional value To Sheth et al. (Solomon 1996. For example. 2) Value-expressive function. He identifies four attitudes based on the functional values: 1) Utilitarian function. (Ferber. utilitarian. either from external threats or internal feelings. An alternative acquires functional value through the possession of salient functional. durability. and price. 3) Ego-defensive function. A person forms a product attitude not because of its objective benefits." Traditionally. 1973) such as reliability. (1991) the functional value of an alternative is defined as: "The perceived utility acquired from an alternative for functional. utilitarian. marketers can emphasize these benefits in their communication and packaging. the decision to purchase a particular automobile may be based on fuel economy and maintenance record. The utilitarian function is related to the basic principles of reward and punishment.
. Choices involving highly visible products (e. embarrassing consequences of being caught with underarm odor in public. clothing. jewellery) and good service to be shared with others (e. socioeconomic. sex. An alternative acquires social value through association with positively or negatively stereotyped demographic. products used in entertaining) are often driven by social values. The second value: Social value Sheth et al. This need is often present when a person is in an ambiguous situation or is confronted with a new product.. Even products generally thought to be functional or utilitarian. For example.g. (1991. gifts. structure.function is deodorant campaigns that stress the dire. or meaning. occupation).g. socioeconomic (income. (1991. ideological segments of society. cultural/ethnic (race. religion). Some attitude is formed as a result of a need for order. Consumers acquire positive or negative stereotypes based on their association with varied demographic (age. lifestyle). Social value is measured on a profile choice imagery." 17 . 161) defined emotional value of an alternative as: "The perceived utility acquired from an alternative’s capacity to arouse feelings or affective states. 4) Knowledge function. 161) defined social value of an alternative as: "The perceived utility acquired from an alternative association with one or more specific social groups. An alternative acquires emotional value when associated with specific feelings or when precipitating those feelings. Emotional values are measured on a profile of feelings associated with the alternative." Social imagery refers to all relevant primary and secondary reference groups likely to be supportive of the product consumption. a particular make of automobile is being chosen more for the social image evoked than for its functional performance. The third value: Emotional value Sheth et al. or political. are frequently selected based on their social values. and cultural-ethnic groups.
sadness. the fear aroused while viewing horror movie). an alternative that provides a simple change of pace can also be imbued with epistemic value. contempt. and fear) or by the structural dimensions underlying emotional categories such as pleasantness/ unpleasantness. or calmness/excitement. For example. or has a desire to learn (as in experiencing another culture). Emotional value is often associated with aesthetic alternatives (e. and consumers are sometimes said to have "love affairs" with their cars. Entirely new experience certainly provides epistemic value. and exploratory needs offered by the product as a change of pace (something new. and guilt. He measures emotions using ten fundamental categories: interest. An alternative acquires epistemic value by items referring to curiosity. Goods and services are frequently associated with emotional responses (e..g. fear. The fourth value: Epistemic value Sheth et al. (1991. joy. is curious (as in visiting a new shopping complex). disgust. joy. and knowledge. religion causes).g. Izard (1977) develops the taxonomy of affective experience approach that describes the basic emotion that people feel. However. However. knowledge. and/or satisfy a desire for knowledge. more tangible and seemingly utilitarian products also have emotional values. surprise.Consumption emotion refers to the set of emotional responses elicited specifically during product usage or consumption experience. for example.g. 18 . shame. The alternative may be chosen because the consumer is bored or satiated with his or her current brand (as in trying a new type of food). A number of different attempts have been made to identify the various emotions that people experience. This approach has been used extensively by consumer researchers. some foods arouse feeling of comfort through their association with childhood experiences. novelty. Westbrook and Oliver (1991). as described either by the distinctive categories of emotional experience and expression (e. anger. provide novelty. relaxation/action. different)." Epistemic issues refer to reasons that would justify the perceived satisfaction of curiosity. anger. 162) defined epistemic value as: "The perceived utility acquired from an alternatives capacity to arouse curiosity.
a number of researchers during the 1970s investigated the predictive ability of situational factors (e. epistemic. and conditional values have little 19 .. Social. and switching behavior. Based on the concept of stimulus dynamism advanced by Hall (1963). and variety seeking motives have been suggested to active product search.g. An alternative acquires conditional value in the presence of antecedent physical or social contingencies that enhance its functional or social value..g. Howard (1969) recognized the importance of learning that takes place as a result of experience with a given situation. Conditional value is measured on a profile of choice contingencies. who contends that individuals are driven to maintain an optimal or intermediate level of stimulation. greeting cards). For example. For example. (Howard and Sheth 1969). or a consumer’ propensity to adopt new products. trial." An alternative’s utility will often depend on the situation. Hirschman (1980) has advanced innovativeness. and some are used only in emergencies (e. 162) defined the conditional value as: "The perceived utility acquired by an alternative is the result of the specific situation or set of circumstances facing the choice maker. Recognizing that behavior cannot be accurately predicted based on attitude or intention alone. novelty seeking.The concept of epistemic values has been influenced by theory and by several important areas of research. some products only have seasonal value (e.. Howard and Sheth (1969) then extended Howard’s earlier work by defining the construct inhibitors as no internalized forces that impede buyers’ preferences.g. wedding dress). a consumer may decide to purchase coins as an inflation hedge (functional value). hospital services). (1991. One of the most significant contributors to the study of the optimal stimulation and arousal has been Berlyne (1970). and also realize a sense of security (emotional value) from the investment. Several areas of inquiry have also influenced conditional value. The Fifth value: Conditional value Sheth et al. Exploratory. The five consumption values identified by the theory make differential contributions in specific choice contexts. Sheth 1974).. The concept of inhibitors was more formally developed by Sheth (1974) in his model of attitude-behavior relationship as anticipated situations and unexpected events.g. some are associated with once in a life events (e. Finally.
influence. social values (friends are also buying homes). such as time pressure or store displays. emotional values (the consumer feels secure in owning a home). to a first-time home buyer. Of course. the purchase of a home might provide functional value (the home contains more space than the present apartment). and what are the environmental consequences of this act? Model of comparison process Source: Solomon (1996) Pp33 The figure explains some of the Issus that is addressed during each stage of the consumption process. Solomon Model of comparison process CONSUMER'S PERSPECTIVE How does a consumer decide that he/she needs a product? What are the best sources of information to learn more about alternative choices? MARKETER'S PERSPECTIVE How are consumer attitudes toward products formed and/or changed? What cues do consumers use to infer which products are superior to others? How do situational factors. The ‘exchange’. and conditional value (starting a family). in which two or more organizations or people give and receive 20 . epistemic value (the novelty of purchasing a home is enjoyable). a choice may be influenced positively by all five consumption values For example. affect the consumer’s purchase What determines decision? whether a consumer will be satisfied with a product and whether he/she will buy it again? Does this person tell others about his/her experiences with the product and affect their purchase decisions? PREPURCHASE ISSUES PURCHASE ISSUES Is acquiring a product a stressful or pleasant experience? What does the purchase say about the consumer? Does the product provide pleasure or perform its intended function? POSTPURCHASE ISSUES How is the product eventually disposed of.
Much of marketing activity. Organizations can also be involved in the buying process. He also suggested that consumer behavior involves many different actors. have been from general marketing theory Stimulus-Response Model of Buyer Behavior Middleton (1994) presented an adapted model of consumer behaviour tourism. concentrates on adapting product offerings to particular circumstances of target segment needs and wants.8. which was termed the stimulus-response model of buyer behaviour. which have been presented so far. is an integral part of marketing. The model is shown in Figure 2.something of value. The definitions and models. People may also act as influences on the buying processes. This model is based on the four interactive components with the central component identified as 'buyer characteristics and decision process'. they suggest. The purchaser and user of a product might not be the same person. It is also common to stimulate an already existing want through advertising and sales promotion. rather than creating wants. Stimulus Input Communication channels Buyer characteristics and decision process Communication filters Range of competitive produced and marketed by the tourist industry Purchase outputs (response) Motivation Advertising Sales promotion Brochures Personal selling PR Learning Demographic economic and Social position Psychographic characteristic Product Brand Price Outlet Perception Friends Family Reference Group Needs Wants Goals Experience Attitudes Post-purchase and Post-consumption feelings Stimulus-Response Model of Buyer Behavior Source: Middleton (1994) Pp 104-112 The model separates out motivators and determinants in consumer buying behavior and also emphasizes the important effects that an organization can have on the consumer buying 21 .
process by the use of communication channels. 22 .
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