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Well Log Analysis
For Geologists
~ George Asquith
With:
Charles Gibson
The American Association of Petroleum Geologists
LOG ABBREVLHIONS USED IN TEXT
 tortuosity factor
 bottom hole temperature
 bulk volume water
 conductivity
 compensated neutron log
 compaction factor for sonic porosity
 radius of invaded zone
 interval transit time of formation
 interval transit time of fluid in borehole
 interval transit time of formation matrix
 diameter of borehole
 diameter of invaded zone (flushed zone)
 diameter of invaded zone
 formation factor
 formation density compensated log
 gamma ray reading from formation
 gamma ray reading from shale
 gamma ray reading from dean sand
 thickness of rnudcake
 absolute permeability
 effective permeability
 relative permeability to gas
 relative permeability to oil
 relative permeability to water
 cementation exponent
 Microlog
 Microlaterolog'
 moveable oil saturation (Sxo  Sw)
 Proximity Log
 porosity
 pseudostatic spontaneous potential
 bulk density of the formation
 density of fluid in the borehole
 hydrocarbon density
 density of the formation matrix
 resistivity of shallow focused log
 resistivity of invaded zone
 resistivity induction log medium
 resistivity induction log deep
 resistivity of Latcrolog" deep
 resistivity of Laterolog" shallow
 resistivity of drilling mud
 resistivity of rnudcake
 resistivity of mud filtrate
 resistivity of Mierospher ieaily Focused Log'
 resistivity of the formation IOO';{ water saturated
(i.e , wet resistivity)
ROS  residual oil saturation ( 1.0 ~ Sxo)
a
BHT BV\\
c
Cl\L
Cp ~r.i ~t ~tf
FDe GR og GR'Tlax GRn", hmc
Ka
K" x.,
x., x.,
m
:\H_ MLL
MOS PL
(I)
PSI'
Prnd
R
R1Lrv RILD RLLej RLLs
R, RSf I RI Rw RWd k., SI1 S."' . S",P
SP SPI SSP
SWd x., SWi SXU SXO
Tr
\" •• 11
 resistivity of adjacent shale'
 resistivity of Spherically Focused Log'
 resistivit~' of uninvaded zone
 resistivity' of formation water"
 apparent formation water resistivity
 resistivity of flushed zone
 hydrocarbon saturation (1.0  Sw)
 short normal log
 sidewall neutron porosity
 spontaneous potential
 secondary porosity index
 static spontaneous potential SSP = K log (RmrlRw)
 irreducible water saturation
 water saturation of uninvaded zone (Archie method)
 water saturation of uninvaded zone (Ratio Method]
 moveable hydrocarbon index
 water saturation of flushed zone
 formation temperature
 volume of shale
Lor: N.\\IES USED Ix TEXT
hulk density log caliper log
('ompensated Density Log
Combination Gamma Ray ~eutronIknsit' Log Combination ",eutronDensit~ Log Compensated Neutron Log
dcnsitj log
Dual Induction Log
Dual Induction Focused Log Dual Laterolog
electrode logs
gamma ray log
Induction Electric Log induction log
Lateral Log
Latcrolog
LaternlogS''
microcaliper
\1 icrnlatcrnlog" (!VI LL)'" Microlog" (!\ILl"
Microspher ically Focused Log or (1\ISF),j neutron log
normal logs
nuclear logs
porosity log
Proximity Log" or (I'Ll" resistivity logs
Resistivity Spherically Focused Luu' or (RSfl ) short normal log
Sidewall Ncutrrm Log
sonic log
Spedralog'
Sphcricallj Focused Log! (SH,)': spontaneous potential log (SP)
Basic Well Log Analysis for Geologists
By
George B. Asquith
Pioneer Production Corporation
with
Charles R. Gibson Alpar Resources Inc.
Methods in Exploration Series )ublished by
fhe American Association of Petroleum Geologists Tulsa, Oklahoma USA
Published try
The American Association of Petroleum Geolozists
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74101, USA ... ~
Copyright· 1982 by
The American Association of Petroleum Geologists All Rights Reserved
Published October 1982
Second Printing (revised), August 1983
Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 8273052 ISBN: 0891816526
For AAPG:
Editor: M. K. Horn
Science Director: E. A. Beaumont Project Editors: A. L. Asquith, R. L. Hart
II
Table of Contents:
1. Basic Relationships of Well Log Interpretation .
Introduction .
Borehole Environment 2
Invasion and Resistivity Profiles .
Formation Temperature .
2. The Spontaneous Potential Log 28
Formation Water Resistivity (Rw) Determined 28
Volume of Shale 40
3. Resistivity Logs 41
Induction Electric Log 41
Dual Induction Focused Log 42
Laterolog* 43
Dual LaterologMicrospherically Focused Log* 43
Microlog* 43
Microlaterolog* and Proximity Log* 44
Resistivity Derived Porosity 44
4. Porosity Logs 66
Sonic Log .
Density Log .
~u~n~g .
Combination NeutronDensity Log .
5. Gamma Ray Log 91
\blume of Shale Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 91
6. Log Interpretation 96
Archie Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 96
Ratio Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 96
Bulk Volume Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 98
Quick Look Methods . . . . . .. 98
Pickett Crossplot Method .
Hingle Crossplot .
Permeability from Logs .
Shaly Sand Analysis .
7. Lithology Logging and Mapping Techniques 118
Combination Gamma Ray Neutron Density Log . 118
MN* Lithology Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 118
MID* Lithology Plot . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Alpha Mapping from SP Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 119
Clean Sand or Carbonate Maps from Gamma Ray Log . . . . . . . . . .. 120
Rock Typing and Facies Mapping . 120
8. Log Interpretation Case Studies 140
Pennsylvanian Atoka Sandstone. Permian Basin
Mississippian Mission Canyon Formation, Williston Basin
Eocene Wilcox Sandstone. Gulf Coast
Pennsylvanian Upper Morrow Sandstone. Anadarko Basin Cretaceous Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. San Juan Basin Devonian Hunton Formation. Anadarko Basin
Appendices of Charts Used in Plotting , 209
References 213
Index " 215
4 5
66 66 67 68
100 101 102 103
iii
Acknowledgements:
The construct 01 this book would have been entirely different had it not been for the creative contributions of Edward A.
Beaumont and Ronald L. Hart. As Science Director of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Mr. Beaumont earlyon recognized rhc need for a logging course designed especially for geologists. His efforts and encouragement led to the development of the AAPG school on basic logging from which the text was derived. The considerable editorial talents of Ronald L. Hart. Manager of the AAPG Projects Department and his assistance with formating and writing figure captions, helped ensure the book would meet its goal of introducing the reader to fundamental concepts of well logging.
Perhaps the most significant contribution of all, however. was by Ann L. Asquith. She helped her husband with both the writing and editing of the manuscript. Her untlagging efforts to improve readability, her assistance with writing, and her suggestions concerning content were an incalculable asset. She was assisted in her editing tasks by Robert V. Brown. who critically read the manuscript and offered many useful suggestions; the text's introduction owes much to his insight. Robert 1. Mitchell also lent his technical CXPCI1isc to a review of the manuscript, as did Edith C. Campbell and Leon Williams. Their assistance is recognized and gratefully acknowledged.
Many charts and figures used in the text were provided by Dresser Industries and by Schlurnberger Well Services. Their cooperation in allowing reproduction of these items. and their unwavering courtesy eased the task of authorship.
By assisting her husband with some of the drafting and graphic layout work, Pearl Gibson helped ensure that the text's complex figures would be legible and easily understood. The quality of the graphics work was also enhanced by Rick Blackburn's efforts on behalf of the photographic reproduction of various charts and figures. Bette Haimes typed the finished manuscript copy: her commitment to accuracy, with a di fficult and often tedious task. docs not pass unnoticed.
IV
Preface:
This book is a basic introduction to open hole logging.
Study of the properties of rocks by petrophysical techniques using electric. nuclear. and acoustical sources is as important to a geologist as the study of rock properties by more conventional means using optical. xray. and chemical methods. Nevertheless. despite the importance of petrophysics. it is frequently underutilized by many geologists who are either intimidated by logging terminology and mathematics. or who accept the premise that an indepth knowledge of logging is only marginally useful to their science because. they feel. it more properly belongs in the province of the log analyst or engineer.
The enormous importance of logging dictates that as geologists. we put aside old notions and apply ourselves diligently to learning log interpretation. The rewards are obvious; in fact. no less than achieving an understanding of the ancient record hangs in the balance. And. it is likely that the success or failure of an exploration program may hinge on a geologist's logging expertise.
In the interest of conciseness. and so that logs used most often in petroleum exploration arc thoroughly discussed. the text is restricted to open hole logs. I hope that the reader initiates his or her own study of other log types which arc beyond the scope of this book.
Unfortunate ly, learning about open hole logging requires more of the reader than a light skimming of the text 's material. The plain truth is that a great deal of hard work, including memorizing log terminology. awaits the serious student; and even then. a facility with logs develops only after plenty of reallife experience. The intent here is simply to provide a foundation of knowledge which can be built upon later. Consequently, many exceptions to rules are left to more advanced books.
It is quite possible that some colleagues will raise objections about the lack of time devoted to tool theory: they may also comment on the paucity of qualifying statements in the text. These objections are understood and indeed there may be disagreements about what constitutes oversirnpl ification. In defense of brevity. it should be pointed out that the surfeit of information available on petrophysics often discourages all but the most ardent beginner. Certainly. many of the difficult decisions which had to be faced in preparing the manuscript dealt with selecting information judged indispensable at an elementary level.
Many in the audience will note frequent references to a book by Douglas Hilchic , Golden. Colorado l:ntitledApplied Open Hole Log l nterprctation (1978). For those who are interested in expanding their knowledged of logs. his book will be a great help. Another helpful book is The Glossarv Of Terms and Expressio/lS Used ill Wi'll Logging: The Society of Professional Well Log Analysts (11)75). which explains the meaning of logging terms by extended definitions.
Finally. a last word  a substantial effort was expended to ensure that a minimum number of errors would appear in the text.
However, given the nature of the subject and the almost infinite possibility for mistakes. there rnuy be slipups. regardless: hopefully they will not be too serious.
George B. Asquith
Pioneer Production Corporation Amarillo, Texas
October. 1982

v
Biographical Sketches:
George B. Asquith: George B. Asquith received his Ph.D. degree in geology from the University of Wisconsin/Madison and has some 15 years experience throughout North America involving geological consulting, prospect development and evaluation. research. and teaching. In addition to independent consulting work. he has held various positions with Humble Oil and Refining Co.: Atlantic Richfield Co.: Alpar Resources Inc .. Search Drilling Company. and with the University of Wisconsin. West Texas State University. and Killgore Research Center. He is presently Exploration Coordinator. for the Pioneer Production Corporation. Amarillo. Texas.
Dr. Asquith has authored two books. Subsurface Carbonate Depositional Models, and Log Analysis by Microcomputer. He has also written numerous articles and abstracts in the fields of carbonate petrology. sandstone petrology. and computer geology. and has served as a reviewer for the AAPG Bulletin. Texas Journal of Science. and Journal of Sedimentary Petrology.
His areas of specialization In petroleum exploration include: subsurface carbonate and clastic depositional models. identification of lithologies from logs. and computer applications to log interpretation. He has applied his areas of specialization to a number of different basins inc luding the Anadarko. San Juan. Permian. and Williston basins. and also in the Gulf Coast (onshore and offshore 1. Central Texas. the Rocky Mountains. and Canada.
During 197919X I. DL Asquith presented short course lectures for the American Association of Petroleum Geologists throughout the United States and in Canada and Brazil. He is currently a lecturer and Science Advisor with the American Association of Petroleum Geologists' Continuing Education Program and serves as an AAPG Visiting Petroleum Geologist.
Charles R. Gibson: Charles Richard Gibson is exploration manager and vicepresident for Alpar Resources. Inc .. Perryton.
Texas. As a geologic undergraduate in 1965. he was employed by the Colorado Fuel and Iron Corporation in their Arizona project for geologic field mapping of iron ore deposits and base metal gcochemistry exploration. collecting soil samples and running wet chemical analyses. Education was postponed for military duty where, at the termination of his advanced military training, he was selected and qualified to serve with the 3rd Infantry (The Old Guard). Fort Myer, Virginia. Returning to the University of Southern Colorado. Gibson received his B.S. degree in geology in 1970, and was granted a Graduate Teaching Assistantship to continue advanced studies at West Texas State University.
Since joining Alpar Resources, Inc .. in 1972. Gibson has been involved in a diverse range of subsurface clastic and carbonate exploration and development studies from the Gulf Coast to the WiJJiston basin and has coauthored several published technical papers.
He has a special interest in applying computerized log analyses to solve complex lithologic and production problems. Gibson obtained his M. S. degree from West Texas State University in 1977. He is certified by the A. 1. P. G. A.A. P. G .. and is a member of the Society of Professional Well Log Analysts.
vi
Publisher's Note:
Because most new geologists come out of college with little understanding of the industry 's primary tool. and because many experienced geologists use logs only as a means to correlate productive zones (unaware of the many other applications of logging). we have published this book.
As with the other titles in the AAPG Methods in Geclozv Series. we intend for this book to become a training standard in both industry and academia. The book is oriented toward ge()l;~ists rather than engineers. and can be used in a class environment or as a selfhelp program. A set of six case histories in Chapter 8 provides the reader~with diverse. yet typical. logbased decisions founded in both geology and economics.
As a special note of thanks. AAPG acknowledges the logging companies and engineers who cooperated with their advice and examples. Because it is important to offer examples in a book of this nature. specific Schlurnberger and Dresser log types are mentioned by name; this is in no wayan endorsement of these two companies. nor does it reflect on the fine logging service companies whose examples were not used. In the text and examples, the single asterisk (*) indicates a mark of Schlumberger: a double asterisk (**) indicates a trademark of Dresser Industries, Inc.
Note also, that many service COmpany charts are overprinted with colored ink to highlight an example. This selection is the author's and the associated service company is not responsible for its accuracy.
AAPG Publications Tulsa. Oklahoma
Vll
CHAPTER I
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF \VELL LOG INTERPRETATION
Introduction
As log!:~ing tools and interpretive methods are developing in accuracy and sophistication. they are playing an expanded role in the geological decisionmaking process. 'Ioclay. petrophysical log interpretation is one of the most useful and important tools available to a petroleum geologist
Besides their traditional use in exploration to correlate wncs and to assist with structure and isopach mapping. logs help define physical rock characteristics such as lithology. poroxitv, pore geometry. and permeability. Logging data is used to identify productive zones. to determine depth and thickness of zones. to distinguish between oil. gas. or water in a reservoir. and to estimate hydrocarbon reserves. Also. geologic maps developed from log interpretation help with determining facies relationships and drilling locations.
Of the various types of logs. the ones used most frequently in hydrocarbon exploration are called open holt' logs. The name open hole is applied because these logs arc recorded in the uncased portion of the well bore. All the different types of logs and their curves discussed in the text are this type.
!\ geologist's first exposure to log interpretation can be a frustrating experience. This is not only because of its lengthy and unfamiliar terminology. but also because knowledge of many parameters. concepts, and measurements is needed before an understanding of the I(Jgging process is possible.
Perhaps the best way to begin a study of logging is by Introducing the reader to some of the basic concepts of well log .mulys.». Remember that a borehole represents a dynamic system: that fluid used in the drilling of a well affects the rock surrounding the borehole. and therefore. al,o log measurements. In addition. the rock surrounding the borehole has certain properties which affect the movement of fluids into and out of it.
The two primary parameters determined from well log measurements arc porosity. and the fraction of pore space filled with hydrocarbons. The parameters of log interpretation are determined both directly or inferred indirectly. and are measured by one of three general types of logs: (I) electrical, (2) nuclear. and (3) acoustic or sonic. The names refer to the sources used to obtain the meusurcrucnts. The different sources create records (logs) which contain one or more curves related to some property in the rock surrounding the well bore (see Society of Professional Well Log Analysts. 1975). For the reader
unfamiliar with petrophysical logging. some confusion may develop over the usc of the word fog. In common usage, the word log may refer to a particular curve. a suite or group of curves. a logging tool (sonde), or the process of logging.
Rock properties or characteristics which affect logging measurements arc: porosity, pcrmcabil itv, water saturation, and rcsistivitv. It is essential that the reader understand these properties and the concepts they represent before
proceeding with a study of log interpretation.
Porositv=ceti be defined as the percentage of voids to the total volume of rock. It is measured as a percent and has the symbol 1>.
Porosity «(f» =
volll1_lle oj' pl~re2._ total volume of rock
The amount of internal space or voids in a given volume of rock is a measure of the amount of fluids a rock will hold. The amount of void space that is interconnected. and so able to transmit fluids. is called cjfi,,·tive porositv. Isolated pores and pore volume occupied by adsorbed water arc excluded from a definition of effective porosity.
Pcnncuhilitvcis: the property a rock has to transmit fluids. It is related to porosity hut is not always dependent upon it. Permeability is controlled by the size of the connecting passages (pore throats or capillaries) between pores. It is measured in darcies or millidarcics and is represented by the symbol K". The abil ity of a rock to transmit a single fluid when it is 100'7.; saturated with that tluid is called absolute perrncabil ity, f:jji'c'lil't' permeability refers to the presence of two fluids in a rock. and is the ability of the rock to transmit a fluid in the presence of another fluid when the two fluids arc immiscible.
Formation water (connate water in the formation) held by capillary pressure in the pores of a rock serves to inhibit the transmission of hydrocarbons. Stated differently. formation water takes up space both in pores and in the connecting passages between pores. As a consequence. it may block. or otherwise reduce the ability of other fluids to move through the rock.
Relative pcnncabilit» is the ratio between effective permeability of a fluid at partial saturation. and the permeability at 100% saturation (absolute permeability). When rc lative permeability of a forrnations water is zero, then the formation will produce waterfree hydrocarbons (i.e the relative permeability to hydrocarbons is 100%). With increasing relative pcrrncabil ities to water. the
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
[ormation will produce increasing amounts ojwat cr relative to hvdrocarhons.
Witter saturationis the percentage of pore volume in a rock which is occupied by formation water. Water saturation is measured in percent and has the symbol Sw'
. S) formation water occupying pores
water saturation (, w =  .. :~
total pore space In the rock
Water saturation represents an important log interpretation concept because you can determine the hydrocarbon saturation of a reservoir by subtracting water saturation from the value, one (where 1.0 = 100% water saturation),
Irreducible water saturation or Sw irr is the term used to describe the water saturation at which all the water is adsorbed on the grains in a roc k , or is held in the capillaries by capillary pressure. At irreducible water saturation, water will not move, and the relative permeability to water equals zero.
Rcsistivitvis the rock property on which the entire science of logging first developed. Resistance is the inherent property of all materials, regardless of their shape and size, to resist the flow of an electric current. Different materials have different abilities to resist the flow of electricity.
Resistivity is the measurement of resistance; the reciprocal of resistivity is conductivity. In log interpretation, hydrocarbons, the rock, and freshwater all act as insulators and are, therefore, nonconductive and highly resistive to electric flow. Saltwater, however. is a conductor and has :.J low resistivity. The unit of measure used for the conductor
is a cube of the formation oue meter on each edge. The measured units arc ohmmeter/rneter, and are called ohmmeters.
R =___r:__><_~_ L
Where:
R = resistivity (ohmmeters) r = resistance (ohms)
A = cross sectional area of substance being measured (rncters)
L = length of substance being measured (meters)
Resistivity is a basic measurement of a reservoir's fluid saturation and is a function of porosity, type of fluid (i.e. hydrocarbons, salt or fresh water), and type of rock. Because both the rock and hydrocarbons act as insulators but saltwater is conductive, resistivity measurements made by logging tools can be used to detect hydrocarbons and estimate the porosity of a reservoir. Because during the drilling of a well fluids move into porous and permeable formations surrounding a borehole, resistivity measurements recorded at different depths into a formation
2
often have different values. Resistivity is measured by electric logs.
Conrad Schlumberger in 1912 began the first experiments which led, eventually, to the development of modern day petrophysical logs. The first electric log was run September 5,1927 by H. G. Doll in AlsaceLorraine , France. In 1941, G. E. Archie with Shell Oil Company presented a paper to the AIME in Dallas, Texas, which set forth the concepts used as a basis for modem quantitative log interpretation (Archie, 1942).
Archie's experiments showed that the resistivity of a waterfilled formation (Rn), filled with water having a resistivity of R; can be related by means of a formation resistivity factor (F):
where the formation resistivity factor (F) is equal to the resistivity of the formation 100% water saturated (Rn) divided by the resistivity of the formation water (Rw)'
Archie's experiments also revealed that formation factors can be related to porosity by the following formula:
where m is a cementation exponent whose value varies with grain size, grain size distribution, and the complexity of the paths between pores (tortuosity). The higher the value for tortuosity the higher the m value.
Water saturation (SW) is determined from the water filled resistivity (R,,) and the formation resistivity (Rt) by the following relationship:
where n is the saturation exponent whose value varies from 1.8 to 2.5 but is most commonly 2.
By combining the formulas: R,) = F x R,
and Sw = (R,,IRt)lin the water saturation formula can be rewritten in the following form:
_(F x Rw) lin S 
w R,
This is the formula which is most commonly referred to as the Archie equation for water saturation (Sw). And, all present methods of interpretation involving resistivity curves are derived from this equation.
Now that the reader is introduced to some of the basic concepts of well log interpretation, our discussion can be continued in more detail about the factors which affect logging measurements.
Borehole Environment
Where a hole is drilled into a formation, the rock plus the
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
fluids 111 it (rockfluid system) are altered in the vicinity of the borehole. A. well's borehole and the rock surrounding it are contaminated by the drilling mud, which affects logging measurements. Figure I is a schematic illustration of a porous and permeable formation which is penetrated by a borehole filled with drilling mud.
The definitions of each of the symbols used in Figure I arc listed as follows:
dh  hole diameter
d.  diameter of invaded zone (inner boundary; flushed zone)
dJ  diameter of invaded zone (outer boundary: invaded
zone)
.lq  radius of invaded zone (outer boundary) hOle  thickness of rnudcake
RIll  resistivity" of the drilling mud Rme  resistivity of the rnudcake
ROlf  resistivity of mud filtrate
R,  resistivity of shale
R[  resistivity of un invaded zone (true resistivity) R"  rexisti vity of formation water
R,,,  resistivity of flushed zone
Sw  water saturation of uninvaded zone S",  water saturation flushed zone
Some of the more important symbols shown in Figure l are:
Hole Diameter (dh)Awell 's borehole size is described by the outside diameter of the drill bit. But, the diameter of the borehole: may be larger or smaller than the bit diameter because of II) wash out and/or collapse of shale and poorly cemented porous rocks, or (2) buildup of rnudcake on porous and permeable formations (Fig. I). Borehole sizes normally vary from 7 7/8 inches to 12 inches, and modern logging tools are designed to operate within these size ranges. The size of the borehole is measured by a caliper log
Drilling Mud (Rm)l()day, most wells are drilled with rotarv bits and lise special mud as a circulating fluid. The mud helps remove cuttings from the well bore, lubricate and cool the drill bit, and maintain an excess of borehole pressure over formation pressure. The excess of borehole pressure over formation pressure prevents blowouts.
The density of the mud is kept high enough so that hydrostatic pressure in the mud column is always greater than formation pressure. This pressure difference forces some of the drilling fluid to invade porous and permeable formations. As invasion occurs, many of the solid particles
RcSlstivity (RJ =_r_,<~ L
R  rc sistivity in ohmrnetersrmerers (ohmmeter) resistance (ohms)
A  c'm" sectional area (meters) L  le ngth (rneter :
(i.e , clay minerals from the drilling mud) are trapped on the side of the borehole and form lillie/cake (Rille: Fig. I). Fluid that filters into the formation during invasion is called mud [iltratc (Rrnr: Fig. I). The resistivity values for drilling mud, mudcuke , and mud filtrate are recorded on a log's header (Fig. 2).
Invaded ZoneThe zone which is invaded by mudtiltratc is called the invaded zone. It consists otailushcd Z.OtlC (R,o) and a transition or annulus (Rj) zone. The flushed zone
(Rw) occurs close to the borehole (Fig. I) where the mud filtrate has almost completely flushed out a formation's hydrocarbons and/or water (Rw). The transition or annulus (Ri) zone, where a formation's fluids and mud filtrate arc mixed, occurs between the flushed (R,o) zone and the uninvaded (Rt) zone. The uninvaded ;:one is defilled as the urea beyond the invaded zone where ajormation 'sfluids ore uncontaminated bv III lid [iltrate .
The depth of mud filtrate invasion into the invaded zone is referred to as the diameter of invasion (d, and dl: Fig. I). The diameter of in vasion is measured in inches or expressed as a ratio: d/dh (where dh represents the borehole diameter). The amount of invasion which takes place is dependent upon the permeability of the mudcakc and not upon the porosity of the rock. In general, (III equal volume ojmt«l filtrate C(/II invade low porositv and high porositv rocks If the drilling muds hove equal amouuts ofsolid particles. The solid particles in the drilling muds coalesce and form an impermeable mudcakc. The mudcake then ads as a barrier to further invasion. Because an equal volume of fluid can be invaded before an impermeable rnudcake barrier forms. the diameter of invasion will be greatest in low porosity rocks. This occurs because low porosity rocks have Jess storage capacity or pore volume to fill with the invading fluid, and, as a result, pores throughout a greater volume of rock will be affected. General invasion diameters are:
d/dh = 2 for high porosity rocks: d/dh = 5 for intermediate porosity rocks: and d/dh = 10 for low porosity rocks.
Flushed Zone (R,o) The flushed zone extends only a few inches from the well bore and is part of the invaded zone If invasion is deep or moderate, most often the flushed zone is completely cleared of its formation water (Rw) by mud filtrate (R",r). When oil is present in the flushed zone, you can determine the degree of flushing by mud filtrate from the difference between water saturations in the flushed (S,,,) zone and the uninvaded (Sw) zone (Fig. I). Usually, about 70 to 95% of the oil is flushed out; the remaining oil is called residual oil (S", = [10  S,,,l where Sro equals residual oil saturation [ROS]).
Uninvaded Zone (Rt) The uninvadcd zone is located beyond the invaded zone (Fig. I). Pores in the uninvaded
3
BASIC RELAfiONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
zone are uncontaminated by mud filtrate: instead. they are saturated with formation water (Rw)' oil. or gas.
Even in hydrocarbonhearing reservoirs, there is always a layer of Iormat ion water on grain surfaces. Water saturation (Sw: Fig. I) of the uninvadcd zone is an important factor in reservoir evaluation because, bv using water saturation data, II geologist C(/II dct crurin« 1/ reservoir's hvilrocarhon soturatinn. The formula for calculating hydrocarbon saturation is:
S" r: hydrocarbon saturation (i.e . the fraction of pore volume filled with hydrocarbons).
\v = water saturation uninvadcd zone (i.e . fraction of pore volume filled with water)
The ratio between the uninvadcd zone 's water saturation (Sw) and the flushed zone's water saturation (S",) is an index ofh\"drocurholl ntovcahilitv.
Invasion and Resistivity Profiles
Invasion and resistivity profiles are diagrammatic. theoretical. cross sectional views moving away from the borehole and into a form.uion. They illustrate the horizontal distributions of the invaded and uninvudcd zones and their corresponding relative resistivities. There are three commonly recognized invasion profiles: (I) step, (2) transition, and (3) annulus. These three invasion profiles are illustrated in Figure 3.
The step profile has a cylindrical geometry with an invasion diameter equal to d.. Shallow reading, resistivity logging tools read the resistivity of the invaded zone (Rj), while deeper reading, resistivity logging tools read true resistivity of the uuinvadcd zone (R1).
The transition profile also has a cylindrical geometry with two invasion diameters: d, (flushed zone) and dJ (transition zone). It is probably a more realistic model for true borehole conditions than the step profile. Three resistivity devices are needed to measure a transitional profile: these three devices measure resistivities of the flushed, transition, and uninvadcd zones RxO" R" and R,: (see Fig. 3). By using
these three resistivity measurements, the deep reading resistivity tool can be corrected to a more accurate value of true resistivity (R1). and the depth of invasion can he determined. Two modern resistivity devices which use these three resistivity curves are: the Dual Induction Log with a LarcrologS" or Spherically Focused Log (SFlY' and the Dual Laterolog'i' with a Microsphcrically Focused Log (MSFL)I.
An annulus profile is only sometimes recorded on a log because it rapidly dissipates in a well. The annulus profile is detected only by an induction log run soon after a well is drilled. However. it is very important to a geologist because the profile can only occur in zones which hear
4
hydrocarbons. As the mud filtrate invades the hydrocarbonhearing zone, hydrocarbons move out first. Next. formation water is pushed out in front of the mud filtrate forming an annular (circular) ring at the edge of the invaded zone (Fig. 3). The annulus effect is detected by a higher resistivity reading on a deep induction log than by one on a medium induction log.
Log resistivity profiles illustrate the resistivity values of the invaded and uninvuded zones in the formation being investigated. They are of particular interest because, by using them, a geologist can quickly scan a log and look for potential zones of interest such as hydrocarbon zones. Because of their importance, resistivity profiles for both waterbearing and hydrocarbonbearing zones are discussed here. These profiles vary. depending on the relative resistivity values of R; and ROlf' All the variations and the ir associated profiles are illustrated in Figures 4 and 5
WaterBearing Z(}ne.\·~Figure 4 illustrates the borehole
and resistivity profiles for waterbearing zones where the resistivity of the mud filtrate (ROlf) is much greater than the resistivity of the formation water (Rw) in freshwater muds. and where resistivity of the mud filtrate (Rmf) is approximately equal to the resistivity of the formation water (Rw) in saltwater muds. A freshwater mud (i.e. Rml > 3 R.) results in a "wct " log profile where the shallow (R",L medium (RJ, and deep (R1) resistivity tools separate and record high (Rxo)' intermediate (Rj). and low (R,) resistivities (Fig. 4). A saltwater mud (i.e . R" co, RIIlf) results in a wet profile where the shallow (R",), medium (Rj), and deep (R1) resistivity tools all read low resistivity (Fig. 4). Figures 6a and 6b illustrate the resistivity curves for wet zones invaded with both freshwater and saltwater muds.
HvdrocarbonBcaring Zones~Figure 5 illustrates the borehole and resistivity profiles for hydrocarbonhearing zones where the resistivity of the mud filtrate (Rmf) is much greater than the resistivity of the formation water (Rw) for freshwater muds. and where Rmf is approximately equal to Rwfor saltwater muds. A hydrocarbon zone invaded with freshwater mud results in a resistivity profile where the shallow (Rxo), medium (R;). ami deep (R1) resistivity tools all record high resistivities I Fig. 5). In some instances, the deep resistivity will be higher than the medium resistivity When this happens. it is called the annulus effect. A hydrocarbon zone invaded with saltwater mud results in a resistivity profile where the shallow (Rxo)' medium (R,). and deep (R1) resistivity tools separate and record low (R,,,). intermediate (R;) and high (R,) resistivities (Fig. 5). Figures 7a and 7h illustrate the resistivity curves for hydrocarbon zones invaded with both freshwater and saltwater muds.
Basic Information Needed in Log Interpretation Lith()logv~In quantitative log analysis, there are several reasons why it is important to know the lithology of a zone
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
r i.e sandstone, limestone, or dolomite). Porosity logs require a I ithulogy or a matrix constant before a zone's porosity «b) can be calculated. And the formation factor (F), a vari,lblc used in the Archie water saturation equation (S" = \T x R"IRtL varies with lithology. As a consequence. water saturations change as F changes. Table I is a list of the different methods for calculating forrnation t'aCl(lf, ami illustrates how lithology affects the formation factor.
Icnipcnnurc olFormariollFormation temperature (Tf) is also important in log analysis because the resistivities of the drilling mud (Rrnl. the mud filtrate (Rmf), and the formation water (Rwl vary with temperature. The temperature of a formation is determined by knowing: ( I) formation depth; (2) bottom hole temperature (BHT): (3) total depth of the well (TO): and (4) surface temperature. 'rilU can determine a reasonable value for the formation temperature by using these data and by assuming a linear gcothemlal gradient (Fig. 8).
Table I Different Coefficients and Exponents Used to Calculate Formation Factor (F). (Modified after Asquith,19RO).
_ .. __ ._
general relationship Where:
a = tortuosity factor'
m = cementation exponent (p = porosity
for carbonates
for consolidated sandstones Humble formula for unconsolidated sands
for average sands (after Carothers, 1958)
for shaly sands (after Carothers, 1958)
"F= I'w'. ttF= n.RI I(be "'"F= (). 62 '<be 15
f"= .65$1 JJ
for calcareous sands (after Carothers, 1(58)
for carbonates (after Carothers. 1958)
for Pliocene sands, Southern California (after Carothers and Porter, 1970)
for Miocene sands, TexasLouisiana Gulf Coast (after Carothers and Porter, 1(70)
F = 1.0/(/ll'.1I5,0) for clean granular formations (after Sethi. 1(79)
'limllO';ity IS a .unction of the complexity of the path the fluid must iravcl throuuh the rock.
" Most conuuoniy used.
The formation temperature is also calculated (Asquith, ILJ80) by using the linear regression equation:
y = mx f C
Where:
x = depth
y = temperature
rn = slopesin this example it is the geothermal gradient c = a constant=in this example it is the surface temperature
An example of how to calculate formation temperature is illustrated here:
Temperature Gradient Calculation Assume:
y = bottom hole temperature (BHT) = 250°F x = total depth (TO) = 15,()OO ft
c = surface temperature = 70°F
Solve for 111 (i.c. slope or temperature gradient)
y  c
III = 
X
Therefore:
2500 _ 7()0 ru = I 5 .oo 0 ft
111 = 0.0 I TIt"t or I .2° II 00 ft
Formation Temperature Calculation Assume:
III = temperature gradient = 00 12°/ft x = formation depth = X.OOO rt
c = surface temperature = 7()"
Remember:
)' = rnx + c
Therefure:
y = «(J.OI2) x (R,OO() + 7(j"
y = 1660 formation temperature at X.O()O It
After a formation's temperature is determined either by chart (Fig. X) or by calc ul arion. the resistiv ities 0 f the different fluids (Rill' Rmf. or Rw) can be corrected to formation temperature. Figure 9 is it chart that is used for correcting fluid resistivities to formation temperature. This chart is closely approx irnutcd by the Arps Iorrn ula:
Rn = R(cmp X tTempt 6.77);(Tr + 6.77)
Where:
RTf ,~ resistivity at formation temperature
R'clllp = resistivity at a temperature other than formation temperature
5
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
Temp Tf
temperature at which resistivity was measured formation temperature
Using a formation temperature of 1660 and assuming an R; of 0.04 measured at 70", the R; at 1660 will be:
Rwlhl> = 0.04 >< (7(H 677)/( 166 + 6.77) RwlM = 0.018
Resistivity values of the drilling mud (Rm), mud filtrate (Rmtl. mudcakc (Rnil), and the temperatures at which they are measured, are recorded on a log's header (Fig. 2). The resistivity of a formation's water (Rw) is obtained by analysis of water samples from a drill stem test, a water producing well. or from a catalog of water resistivity values. Formation water resistivity (Rw) is also determined from the spontaneous potential log (discussed in Chapter H) or can be calculated in water zones (i.c .. S; = I OO''1c) by the apparent water resistivity (Rw,) method (sec Chapter
VI)
Fundamental Equations
Table :2 is a list of fund.uucrual equations that are used for the log evaluation of potential hydrocarbon reservoirs. These formulas are discussed in detail in subsequent chapters.
Table 2. Fundamental Equations of Well Log Interpretation.
Porosity:
Sonic Log
Density Log
Bm!l__ _eg._ Pilla  Pt
NeutronDensity Log
Formation Factor:
F = a/(blll
F = 10/(/)2 F = 0.81/(p2
F = O.62/¢2IS
General Carbonates
Consolidated Sandstones Unconsolidated Sands
Formation Watcr Resistivitv:
SSP =  K X log (Rmt/Rw) Rwc ...... R,
R =~!l
W F
Willer Saturations:
water saturation uninvaded zone
S,,,n= F x (RmtJRw)
s, = (~:'J~'J 11625
water saturation flushed zone
water saturation ratio method
6
BIiLk Volume Water:
BVW = ¢ X S;
Permeability
K" = [250 X (¢J/Sw irr)!2 oil
K" = permeability in millidarcies
K, = [79 X (¢3/Sw irr)]2 gas
Sw irr = irreducible water saturation
~ __  
"n = saturation exponent which varies from 1.8 to 2.) but most often equals 2.0
Review  Chapter I
I. The four most fundamental rock properties used in petrophysical logging are (1) porosity; (2) permeability: 13) water saturation; and (4) resistivity.
2. The Archie equation for water saturation is:
=(F X Rw)ln
Sw R
t
Where:
Sw = water saturation of uninvaded zone F = formation factor
R; = formation water resistivity
R, = formation resistivity (un invaded zone)
3. Where a porous and permeable formation is penetrated by the drill bit, the drilling mud invade, the formation as mud filtrate (Rmf).
4. The invasion of the porous and permeable formation by mud filtrate creates invasion zones (RXD and R,) and an uninvaded zone (R). Shallow, medium, and deep reading resistivity logging tools provide information about the invaded and uninvadcd zones and about the depth of invasion.
5. The lithology of a formation must be known because: (1) porosity logs require a matrix value=sundstonc , limestone, or dolomitein order to determine porosity: (2) the formation factor varies with lithology; (3) the variation in formation factor causes changes in water saturai ion values.
6. The four fluids that affect logging measurements are: (1) drilling mud, Rm: (2) mud filtrate, Rrnf: (3) formation water, Rw: and (4) hydrocarbons.
7. The resistivities of the drilling mud (ROl), mudcake (ROlJ, mud filtrate (Rmf) and formation water (Rw) all vary with changes in temperature. Consequently, a formation \, temperature (T f) must be determined and all resistivities corrected to T f.
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
D o 6
Resistivity of the zone
Resistivity of the Water in the zone
Water Saturation In the zone.
Figure 1. The borehole environment and symbols used in log interpretation. This schematic diagram illustrates an idealized version of what happens when fluids from the borehole invade the surrounding rock. Dotted lines indicate the cylindrical nature of the invasion.
ADJACENT
BED

 

.....
,/ ,/
/
(
 __

lINVASlON
OlAMETERS)
BED
ADJACENT
~~ ~~ .....  ....  ....  .... 
_.,j 
'1 dhl
HOLE O\AMETER
• lor ;1 stepcontact InLaSiOIl profile (ic' IHl tr.muuon /llnL' or annulus
1()IlL')_ d. d ,.
Courtesy, Schlumberger Well Services. Copyright 1977, Schlumberger.
7
bASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
8
COMPANY
WELL _
FIELD
COUNTY
__ STATE _
RANGE
Elev.: K.B. 3742
D.F. _
G.l. 3731
Other Services:
I
z >
~ 0 z
;: •
z ~ • ~ "
OJ U ~ ~
0 w 0
U ~ g ~ u FOC/CNL/GR HOT
Permanent Dalum: GR~~NO LEVEL _; Elev.: 3731
log Measured From __ === ....:.l....:....l Fl. Above Perm. Dalum
Drilling Measured From KB
*BHT = Bottom Hole Temperature
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
"igure 2. Reproduction of a typical log heading. Information on the header about the resistivity values for drilling mud (Rill) and mud filtrate (Rn1f) are especially useful in log interpretation and are used in calculations.
NOTE: Sometimes. as in this example. a value for the resistivity of mud cake (Rille) is not recorded OJI the heading.
9
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
STEP PROFILE
>
Borehole Wall
V

If)
If) Q) a::
Ro •
d" j
Distance ; ...
TRANSITION PROFILE
ANNULUS PROFILE
Borehole Wall
I~V
Rao
> ~

Borehole ~WOII
~ I b
I ,
,
>
Rt
>

>
Rr

If)
If) Q) a::

If)
If) Q) a::
Ro
d· J
d· j
Distance .
Distance ....:;~~
*
Ro • resistivity of the zone with pores 100% filled with
formation water (Rw). Also called wet resistivity.
10
~.~~~~
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
Figure 3. Typical invasion profiles for three idealized versions of fluid distributions in the vicinity of the borehole.
As mud filtrate (Rmf) moves into a porous and permeable formation, it can invade the formation 111 several different ways. Various fluid distributions are represented by the step, transition, or annulus profiles.
A. Step ProfileMud filtrate is distributed with a cylindrical shape around the borehole and creates an invaded LOne. The cylindrically shaped invaded zone is characterized by its abrupt contact with the uninvadcd zone. The diameter of the cylinder is represented as dj. In the in vaded zone, pores are filled with mud filtrate (ROlf): pores in the uninvaded zone are filled with formation water (Rw) or hydrocarbons. In this example the uninvadcd zone is wet (100% water and no hydrocarbons), thus the resistivity beyond the invaded zone is low. The resistivity of the invaded zone is Rxo. and the resistivity of the uninvaded zone is either R, if a formation is waterbearing. or R, if a formation is hydrocarbonbearing.
B. Transition ProfileThis is the most realistic model of true borehole conditions. Here again in vasion is cylindrical. but in this profile, the invasion of the mud filtrate (Rrnf) diminishes gradually, rather than abruptly, through a transition zone toward the outer boundary of the invaded zone (sec dj on diagram for location of outer boundary).
In the flushed part (Rxo) of the invaded zone. pores are filled with mud filtrate (Rill!)' gi ving a high resistivity reading. In the transition part of the invaded zone, pores are filled with mud filtrate (ROll). formation water (Rw), and, if present. residual hydrocarbons (RH). Beyond the outer boundary of the invaded lone (dj on diagram), pores are filled with either formation water, or (if present) hydrocarbons. In this diagram, hydrocarbons arc not present, so resistivity of the uninvaded zone is low. The resistivity of the invaded zone" flushed part is R"" and the resistivity of the transition part is Ri. Resistivity of the uninvaded zone is R, if hydrocarbonbearing or R, if waterbearing.
C. Annulus ProfileThis reflects a temporary fluid distribution, and is a condition which should disappear with time (if the logging operation is delayed. it may not be recorded on the logs at all). The annulus profile represents a fluid distribution which occurs between the invaded zone and the uninvaded zone and denotes the presence of hydrocarbo ns.
In the flushed part (Rxo) of the invaded zone, pores are filled with both mud filtrate (Rlllli and residual hydrocarbons (RH). Thus the resistivity reads high. Pores beyond the flushed part of the invaded zone (R,) arc filled with a mixture of mud filtrate (Rmf), formation water (Rw)" and residual hydrocarbons (RH).
Beyond the outer boundary of the invaded zone is the annulus zone where pores are filled with residual hydrocarbons (RH) and formation water (Rw)' When an annulus profile is present. there is an abrupt drop in measured resistivity at the outer boundary of the invaded zone. The abrupt resistivity drop is due 10 the high concentration of formation water (Rw) in the annulus zone. Formation water has been pushed ahead by the invading mud filtrate into the annulus zone. This causes a temporary absence of hydrocarbons which, in their turn, have been pushed ahead of formation water.
Beyond the annulus is the uninvaded zone where pores are filled with formation water (Rw) and hydrocarbons. Remember that true resitivity of a formation can be measured in the uninvaded zone because of its virgin nature. True resistivity (Rt) will be higher than the wet resistivity (R,,) because hydrocarbons have a higher resistivity than saltwater.
.
II
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
L
12
RESISTIVITY PROFILE  WATER ZONE
INVADED HORIZONTAL SECTION
ZONE THROUGH A PERMEABLE
WATER  BEARING BED
UNINVADED ZONE
Rt
Sw»60%
RADIAL DISTRIBUTION OF RESISTIVITIES
R xo    .+..,. ... ~
:;fs fCf)
Cf) w a::
I I
I Ro
   ~  _.    :"1
I I
I
FRESH MUDS
Ro 
:;f
> i= ~ Cf) w a::
4
MUD CAKE_) I lllNVADED ZONEI
I FLUSHED ZONE: rr. I I
I
I
I
I
I
UNINVADED ZONE DISTANCE _
SALT MUDS
I I
: :
l !INVADED ZONE FLUSHED ZONE
UNINVADED ZONE
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
Figure 4. Horizontal section through a permeable waterbearing formation and the concomitant resistivity profiles which occur when there is invasion by either freshwater or saltwaterbased drilling muds (sec Fig. 5 for resistivity profiles in a hydrocarbonbearing formation).
Note: These examples are shown because freshwater muds and saltwater muds are used in different geographic regions. usually exclusively. The geologist needs to be aware that a difference exists. OR) find out which mud is used in your area. ask your drilling engineer. The type of mud used affects the log package selected. as we will see later
Freshwater MudsThe resistivity of the mud filtrate (Rmt) is greater than the resistivity of the formation water (Rw) because of the varying salt content (remember. saltwater is conductive). A general rule when freshwater muds arc used is: Rmf> 3 Rw' The flushed zone (R,o)' which has a greater amount of mud filtrate. will ha vc higher resistivities. Away from the borehole. the resistivity of the invaded zone (Rj) will decrease due to the decreasing amount of mud filtrate (Rmf) and the increasing amount of formation water (Rw)'
With a waterbearing formation, the resistivity of the uninvaded zone will be low because the pores arc filled with formation water (Rw)' In the un invaded zone. true resistivity (Rt) will be equal to wet resistivity (Rn) because the formation is IO()% saturated with formation water (R. = R" where the formation is 1()()C;~ saturation with formation water).
To summarize: in a waterbearing zone. the resistivity of the flushed zone (Rw) is greater than the resistivity of the
invaded zone (R,) which in tum has a greater resistivity than the uninvaded zone (Rt). Therefore: RXl, R, R,
in waterbearing zones.
Saltwater MudsBecause the resistivity of mud filtrate (Rmt) is approximately equal to the resistivity of formation water (Rmf = Rw), there is no appreciable difference in the resistivity from the flushed (R,n) to the invaded zone (Rj) to the uninvaded zone (R,,, = R, = R): all have low resistivities.
Both the above examples assume that the water saturation of the uninvaded zone is much greater than 60'7<,.
13
BASIC RELAT[ONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
RESISTIVITY PROFILE  HYDROCARBON ZONE
~
INVADED ~
ZONE
HORIZONTAL SECTION THROUGH A PERMEABLE OILBEARING BED
UNINVADED ZONE
Rt
Sw« 60%
RADIAL DISTRIBUTION OF RESISTIVITIES
>~
> ~ rn
sn w a::
I I I
I I
I I I
I I
I I
I I
Rxo . +"""""!7 I
I I
Rt r b!
Ran ~~ 1
I IRani
I I I
I I I
I I I
I I I
I I
FRESH MUDS
>~
> ~ sn
sn w a::
MUD CAKE JI ~ :INVADED ZONE: ~ i UNINVADED ZONE
: LFLUSHED ZONE: L!ANNULUS
rl~I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I I
Rt  ,.,
I I I
I I I I I
SALT MUDS
Rxo
1 IRani I I I I I
t_INVADED ZONE \_ UNINVADED ZONE
FLUSHED ZONE ANNULUS
l __ ~_~ __ ~ ~~ _
14
Rt
Rt
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
Figure 5. Horizontal section through a permeable hydrocarbonbearing formation and the concomitant resistivity profiles which occur when there is invasion by either freshwater or saltwaterbased drilling muds (see Fig. 4 for resistivity profiles in a water bearing formation).
Freshwater MudssBecause the resistivity of both the mud filtrate (Rmf) and residual hydrocarbons (RH) is much greater than formation water (Rw)' the resistivity of the flushed zone (Rxo) is comparatively high (remember that the flushed zone has mud filtrate and some residual hydrocarbons).
Beyond its flushed part (Rxo)' the invaded zone (Rj) has a mixture of mud filtrate (Rmf). formation water (K,,). and some residual hydrocarbons (RH), Such a mixture causes high resistivities. In some cases. resistivity of the invaded zone (R,l almost equals that of the flushed zone (R",).
The presence of hydrocarbons in the uninvaded zone causes higher resistivity than if the zone had only formation water (Rw). because hydrocarbons arc more resistant than formation water. So. R, > Ro' The resistivity of the uninvaded zone (Rt) is normally somewhat less than the resistivity of the flushed and invaded zones (R", and Rj). However. sometimes when an annulus profile is present. the invaded zone's resistivity (Rj) may be slightly lower than the uninvadcd zone's resistivity (R).
1() summarize: therefore. R", > R, Z R, in hydrocarbonbearing zones.
Saltwater MudssBccause the resistivity of the mud filtrate (Rillf) is approximately equal to the resistivity of formation water (Rmf = Rw)' and the amount of residual hydrocarbons (RH) is low, the resistivity of the flushed zone (R,o) is low.
Away from the borehole as more hydrocarbons mix with mud filtrate in the invaded zone, the resistivity of the invaded zone (Rj) begins to increase.
Resistivity of the uninvaded zone (Rt) is much greater than if the formation was at I OO,!(, water saturation (Ro) because hydrocarbons are more resistant than saltwater. Resistivity of the uninvaded zone is greater than the resistivity of the invaded (R) zone. So. R, > R, > Rxo.
Both the above examples assume that the water saturation of the uninvaded zone is much less than 60%.
~~~~~~~~~~~
IS
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
................. ~!:.~~ .. L .L __ .
170,0 30.00
____ ~ .J!1~l_ ::::
160.0 40.00
'~~~
11 f
1.. I
I
1:
L'.l +·t~
;. q\f t: , .
j +;
+ 1t +
1
+
.. ,
.1 +
:t:. =
I :
t •
L+ + .., ..... :.,~r .. +... 'T' 1" ~t
1; . i :;" :~=:;:===
, . I.
""p~l: cu 'Il
5.~ RrnJRT:_::: =
'.' ..~ .
i t
. ,' :.. ,.1 __ ++ __
... ,.. .. ~=
1_1
1 t
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: l~=
,1
....
r'
f. .,
. " Ii, '
IC'r !
:i J' Li~:i::~~ rl_L  1 !iL.l' ' 
L .. ~ __ . .
16
5970
r __ . __ . .!..'=E_(.2~M~2...   
0.2000 2000
..... _ _._ _ _ .I.!'M .. (Q!:!M.~L _ _ __ _ _ _ ..
0.2000 2000.
SFLU JOHMM~
0.2000
2000.
5870
::::±: __ .ttit  t : ~_l_' tt
rllt
+: t.
I + ••• ff
~t:rt
~. ~~+.i+ '"', . '1)' + I I .• j
+ __ t > i 4
5900
.__
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
Figure 6A Example of Dual Induction Focused Log curves through a waterbearing zone. Given: the drill ing mud is
freshwaterbased (ROlf> 3Rw)'
Wcve seen that where freshwater drilling muds invade a waterhearing formation (S" 6()%), there is high resistivity in
the flushed zone (R,o). a lesser resistivity in the invaded zone (R). and a 1m,. resistivity in the uninvadcd zone (R,L See
Fi gure 4 for re view.
Ignore the left side of the log on the opposite page, and compare the three curves on the right side of the log (tracks #2 and #l). Resistivity values are higher as distance increases from the left side of the log.
Log Curve R'LDDeep induction log resistivity curves measure true resistivity (R,) or the resistivity ofthe formation. deep beyond the outer boundary of the invaded zone. This is a measure of the un invadcd zone. In waterhearing zones (in this case from 5,870 to 5,970 ft), the curve will read a low resistivity because the resistivity of the formation water (Rw) is less than the resistivity of the mud filtrate (Rlllf)'
L(lg Curve R'LMMedium induction log resistivity curves measure the resistivity of the invaded zone (R.). In a waterbearing formation, the curve will read intermediate resistivity because of the mixture offormation water (Rw) and mud filtrate (Rmf).
Log Curve RSFL Spherically Focused Log* resistivity curves measure the resistivity of the flushed zone (R",). In a waterbearing zone, the curve will read high resistivity because freshwater mud filtrate (ROlf) has a high resistivity. The SFL* pictured here records a greater resistivity than either the deep (Rlld) or medium (RIl.,,,) induction curves.
17
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
18
LLD (OHMM) I TENS (LB)
20ci6.         200000110000. 0.0
RXO (OHMM)
____ _f~L.!. .Li~l_ _
6.000 16.00 GR (GA PI)
0.2000 2000.
....................................... _ h.!:2.JQ.I::!!!!M.L. _ ................•.
0.2000 2000.
____________ ~~~~~~l _
100.0
0.2000
2000.
0.0
, . ~
~
. 
t L: r ....
f I J 1
It·
I !
! :
: ;S:;:
C:$. ;\:
li


.

!.. I ,I
?' :\
. \ . . t· 1 . 'L
"1>'"
• . r .
~_. . . I :
~~): / :
~ . L
 .j.

BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
Figure 6B. Example of Dual Latcrolog"  Microspherically Focused Log (lvlSFL)" curves through a waterbearing zone. Given: the drilling mud is saltwaterbased (Rmf = Rw)'
We 've seen that where saltwater drilling muds invade a waterbearing formation (Sw 60%1. there is low resistivity in the flushed zone (Rxo). a low resistivity in the invaded zone (Rj). and low resistivity in the uninvadcd zone (R,). Because RJI1f is approximately equal to Rw' [he pores in the flushed (Rxo)' invaded (R,). and un invaded (R,) zones are all filled with saline waters: the presence of salt results in low resistivity. See Figure 4 for review.
Ignore the left side of the log on the opposite page. and compare the three curves on the right side of the log (tracks #2 and #3,1. Resistivity values are higher as distance increases from the left side of the log.
Log CUrYe LLDDeep Laterolog* resistivity curves measure true resistivity (R,) or the resistivity of the formation deep beyond the outer boundary of the invaded zone, In waterbearing zones (in this case from') .830 to 9.980 I'll. the curve will read low resistivity because the pores of the formation arc saturated with connate water (Rw)'
Log Curve LLSShallow Laterolog* resistivity curves measure the resistivity in the invaded zone (R,). In a
waterbearing zone the shallow Laterolog+ (LLS) will record a low resistivity because Rill I is approximately equal to Rw'
Log Curve SFLMicrospherically Focused Log" resistivity curves measure the resistivity of the flushed zone (R,o)' In waterbearing zones the curve will record low resistivity because saltwater mud filtrate has low resistivity. The resistivity recorded by the Microspherically Focused Log* will be low and approximately equal to the resistivities of the invaded and uninvaded zones.
19
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
20
8748
........ _ _9h.~.~ . ..\ L .
170.0 30.00
1. 51: _l':1..vl __  ,;:c
160.0 40.00
.·.,t.· ,:'r
0 T::
: ~.,~~
=!
f .
~~ ~l ~!.' (: .. =!=:
;2r ~t±=
 __ _. .. ~
8700
• __ +0' i.;
. • l1Q..l..9.!:!M.M.J _
0.2000 2000 .
. _ ..I.h.~.JQt"!M~.J. _ _ _ .. _ .. _ .
0.2000 2000.
5FLU (OHMM)
0.2000
2000.
i n ,_+++.
f=~:j_±: t __J ~ll 'f+   .. + +Jl,
~.ct , tt+Ht+
h: H'  /,
Depth 10085 Rmf at meas temp. 21 at 650 F
+~ r~~
~! Size 7 7/8 Rm_c_Q'_m_e_Q_,_,e __ m__c_p+_cQ_' ==_O_FI
~_pe Fluid in hole F G ~ ~ax_ Rec. Temp. 160 0 F
Rm at meas. temp 067 at 670 F
____ L_ ~ L ~
f+I:
~l~t
 t i;


......
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
Figure 7 A. Exampk of Dual Induction Focused log curves through a hydrocarbonbearing zone. (liven: the drilling mud is frcshwaterbased (Rmf > 3Rw).
We've seen that where freshwater drilling muds invade a hydrocarbonbearing formation (Sw « ()()'!'.). there is high resistivity in the flushed zone (R,,». high resistivity in the invaded zone (RiJ. and high resistivity in the uninvadcd zone (R,). But. normally, beyond the flushed zone some diminishment of resistivity takes place. Sec Figure 5 for review.
Ignore the left side of the log on the opposite page. and compare the three curves on the right side of the log (tracks # '2 and #.'). Resistivity values arc higher as distance increases from the left side of the log.
Lo;~ Curve ILDOeep induction log resistivity curves measure the true resistivity (R,) or the resistivity of the formation deep beyond the outer boundary of the invaded zone. This is a measure of the uninvadcd zone. In hydrocarbonbearing zones (in this case from 8.74S to 8.774 rn. the curve will read a high resistivity because
hydrocarbons are more resistant than saltwater in the formation (R, R"l.
Log Curve ILMMediu!11 induction log resistivity curves measure the resistivity of the invaded zone (Rj). In a hydrocarbonbearing zone. because of a mixture of mud filtrate (Rill,)' formation water I Rw). and residual hydrocarbons (RH) in the pores. the curve will record a high resistivity. This resistivity is normally equal to or slightly more than the deep induction curve (lLD). But. in an annulus situation. the medium curve IILM) m~\y record a resistivity slightly less than the deep induction IIlD) curve
Log Curve SFLSpherieally Focused Log resistivity curves measure the resistivity of the flushed zone (1<'",). III a hydrocarbonbearing zone. the curve will read a higher resistivity than the deep (IlD) or medium II LM l induction curves because the flushed zone (R",) contains mud filtrate and residual hydrocarbons. The SFl.J' pictured here records a greater resistivity than either the deep (IlO) or medium (lLM) induction curves.
21
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
r
CALIPER . ,_ I. Inc ....
e ________________ ~_
• GA ..... RAY API unit. 100
~~ ZOO
f, ~ I
t ~, ~L r f 
~ f:!;:
t ~ f*= f t
f
f t ~ t
t ~l + l . fl
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t
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9409
RESISTIVITY ._. II!'"
IIICROSFL
[Q.~ I..Q___ 19 .JQ2_ ....Ill.!l!li.QQl;
SHALLOW LATEROLOG  LL.
C.2 11.0 10 100 1000200
DEEP LATEROLO~  LLd
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9306 ~
tb::
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RM ot me u s temp 056 01 740 F
RMC at rn eo s temp at   0 F
_._
MAX REC TEMP Thermometer Broke
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
Figure 7B. Example of Dual Laterolog*  Microspherically Focused Log (MSFL)* curves through a hydrocarbonbearing zone.
Given the drilling mud is saltwaterbased (Rmf = Rw)'
We 've seen that where saltwater drilling muds invade a hydrocarbonbearing zone (S; « 60%). there is low resistivity in the flushed zone (R,o)' an intermediate resistivity in the invaded zone (R). and high resistivity in the uninvaded zone (R(). The reason for the increase in resistivities deeper into the formation is because of the increasing hydrocarbon saturation. See Figure 5 for review.
Ignore the left side of the log on the opposite page. and compare the three curves on the right side of the log (tracks #2 and #:.). Resistivity values arc higher as distance increases from the left side of the log.
Log Curve LLDDeep Laterolog" resistivity curves measure true resistivity (R(). or the resistivity of the formation deep beyond the outer boundary of the invaded zone. In hydrocarbonbearing zones (in this case from 9.306 to 9,409 ft), the eurve will read high resistivity because of high hydrocarbon saturation in the uninvadcd zone (R().
Log Curve LLSShallow Laterolog resistivity curves measure the resistivity in the invaded zone (R,). In a hydrocarbonbearing zone. the shallow Laterolog* (LLS) will record a lower resisti vity than the deep Laterolog" (LLD) because the invaded zone (R;) has a lower hydrocarbon saturation than the uninvadcd zone (R().
Log Curve SFLMicrospherically Focused Log* resistivity curves measure the resistivity of the flushed zone (R,o)' In hydrocarbonbearing zones. the curve will record low resistivity because saltwater mud filtrate has low resistivity and the residual hydrocarbon (RH) saturation in the flushed zone (R,o) is low. Therefore. in a hydrocarbonbearing zone with saltwaterbased drilling mud. the uninvaded zone (R() has high resistivity. the invaded wne (Ri) has a lower resitivity, and the flushed zone (R,o) has the lowest resistivity.
23
ld'l.SIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
ESTIMATION OF FORMATION TEMPERATURE
20000
E 8. '00 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360
60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340
mean surface temperature OF
temperature 24
~~~ .~~~~.
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
figure 8. Chart for estimating formation temperature (Tf) with depth (I incur gradient assumed).
Courtesy. Dresser Industries. Copyright 1975. Dresser Atlas.
Given:
," .
Surface temperature = 80° i
Bottom hole temperature (BHT) = 180° Total depth (TO) = 10.000 feet Formation depth = 6.000 feet
Procedure:
I. Locate BHT (180°F) on the 80 scale (bottom of the chart: surface temperature = 80°F).
'1 Follow BHT (180°) vertically up until it intersects 10.O()O ft (TO) line. This intersection defines the temperature gradient.
3. Follow the temperature gradient line up to 6.000 ft (formation depth).
4. Formation temperature (140°) is read on the bottom scale vertically down from the point where the 6.()()() ft line
intersects the temperature gradient.
NOTE: In the United States (as an example) 8Ct is used commonly as the mean surface temperature in the Southern States. and 60° is used commonly in the Northern States. However. a person can calculate his own mean surface temperature if such precision is desired.
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
o.
o ..,
o OJ
_ .:Io':;L 10 10~/UIOJ~ 4' dd
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BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
Figure 9. Because resistivity varies with changes in temperature. you must adjust before calculation. Use the chart on the opposite page.
Courtesy. Schlumberger Well Services. Copyright 1972. Schlumbcrger.
Given: Resistivity of drilling mud (Rm) equals_I_:J. at 75°F Formation temperature (Tr) = 16(}o. Procedure:
I. Locate the resistivity value. 1.2, on the scale at the bottom of the chart.
2. Follow the vertical line up to a temperature value of 75°F (point A Oil the chart).
3. Follow the diagonal line (constant salinity) to where it intersects a temperature value of 16()OF (point B on the chart) .
4. From point B. follow the vertical line to the scale at the bottom. and find a resistivity value of 0.56.
27
CHAPTER II
THE SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG
General
This chapter and succeeding chapters (III through V) introduce the reader to specific log types such as SP, resistivity, porosity, and gamma ray logs. The text discusses how different log types measure various properties in the well bore ami surrounding formations, what factors affect these measurements, where a particular curve is recorded, and how data arc obtained from the log using both charts and mathcmatical formulas;
The spontaneous potential (SP) log was one of the earliest electric logs used in the petroleum industry, and has continued to playa significant role in well log
interpretation. By far the largest number ofwellx today have this type of log included in their log suites. Primarily the spontaneous potential log is used to identify impermeable zouc s such as shale. and p' ,'iill'~lhle "",',,:, such ;to sand. However, as will be discussed later. the SP log has several other uses perhaps equally important.
The spontaneous potential log is a record of direct current (DC) voltage differences between the naturally occurring potential of a moveable electrode in the well bore, and the potential of a fixed electrode located at the surface (Doll. IY4X). It is measured in millivolts.
Electric currents arising primarily from electrochemical factors within the borehole create the SP lug response. These electrochemical factors arc brought about by differences in salinities between mud filtrate (Rll1r) and formation water resistivity (R,,) within permeable beds. Brcaus« a conductivctluid is 1I1'I'Lll'd ill the boreholefor the SP log to operate, it cannot be used in nonrondiutivc (i .e . oilbasc.l) drillillg nuuls.
The SP log is recorded on the left hand track of the log in track # I and is used to: (I) detect permeable beds, (2) detect boundaries of permeable beds. (3) determine formation water resistivity (RwL and (4) determine the volume of shale in permeable beds. 'An auxiliary usc of the SP curve is in the detection of hydrocarbons by the
.}suppre"sion of the SP response.
The concept of static spontaneous potential (SSP) is important because 5SP represents the maximum SP that a thick, shalefree, porous and permeable formation can have t()r a given ratio between RnjRw. SSP is determined by formula or chart and is a necessary clement for determining accurate values of Rw and volume of shale. The SP value that is measured in the borehole is influenced by bed thickness, bed resistivity, invasion, borehole diameter, shale content. and most importantthe ratio of Rlllf/R", (Fig. l Oa).
Bed thickllcssAs a formation thins (i.c. < 10 fed thick) the SP measured in the borehole will record an SP value less than SSP (Fig. l Ob). However, the SP curve can be corrected by chart for the effects of bed thick ness. As a general rule whenever the SP curve is narrow and pointed in shape, the SP should be corrected for bed thickness.
Bed resistilitrHigher resistivities reduce the deflection of the SP curves.
Borehole and il1l'asiollHilchic (197R) indicates that the effects of borehole diameter and invasion on the SI' log arc very small and, in general. can be ignored.
Shale cOl1tentThe presence of shale in a permeable formation reduces the SP deflection (Fig. l Ob). In waterbearing zones the amount of SP reduction is proportional to the amount of shale in the formation. In hydrocarbonbearing zones the amount of SP reduction is greater than the volume of shale and is called "hydrocarbon suppression" (Hiichie , 19(8).
The SP response of shales is relatively constant and follows a straight line cal leu a shale baseline. SPcurve deflections are measured from this shale baseline. Permeable ZOIlCS arc indicated where there is SP cicflccti,», [rout the shale baseline, For example, if the SP curve moves either to the left (negative deflection: Rmf > Rw) or to the right (positive deflection: Rmf < Rw) of the shale baseline, permeable zones are present. Permeable bed b.uuularic:
arc detected bv the point ofinflectionfrom the shale baseline.
But. take note, when recording nonpermeable zones or permeable zones where ROlf is equal to Rw' the SP curve will not deflect from the shale baseline. The magnitude of SP deflection is due to the difference in rcsistiv ity between mud filtrate (Rmf) and formation water (Rw) and not to the amount of permeability.
Resistivity of Formation 'Vater (Rw) Calculated from the SP Curve
Figure II is an electric induct ion log with an SP curve from a Pennsylvanian upper Morrow sandstone in Beaver County, Oklahoma. In this example, the SP curve is used ttl find a value for R; by the following procedure: After you determine the formation temperature, you correct the resistivities (obtained from the log heading) of the mud filtrate (Rmt) and drilling mud (Rm) to formation temperature (see Chapter I).
Next, to minimize for the effect of bed thickness, the SP
THE SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG
is corrected to static SP (SSP). SSP represents the
max imum SP a formation can have if unaffected by bed thickness Figure 12 is a chan used to correct SP to SSP. ThL' data necessary to usc this chart arc: ( I) bed thickness. (21 resistility from the shallowreading resistivity tool (R,). and 11) th.: resistivity of the drilling mud (Rill) at formation tc m perature.
Once the value of SSP is determined. it is used on the chart illustrated in Figure 11 to obtain a value for the R:nIIR"c ratio. Equivalent rcsistivitv (Rw.,) is obtained by
di viding Rill! by the Rmt/Rwc value from the chart (Fig. U).
The value of Rllc' IS then corrected to R". using the chart illustrated in Figure 14. for average deviation from sodium chloride solutions. and for the influence of formation temperature _ A careful examination of Figures I 114 should help you gain an understanding of the R" from SP procedure. But. rather than using charts in the procedure. you might prefer using the mathematical formulas listed in Table 1.
It is important to remember that normal ly the SP curve has less deflection in hydrocarbonbearing zones: this is called hvdrocarbon supprcssion. and rcsult« in to» high a
Table J. Muthcmatical Calculation of R" from SSP (modified after Bateman & Konen. 1977).
Instead of charts. some individuals may prefer using these formulas. especially if they want to L'(llllpUlL'rize the procedure.
  
Rml at 75°F = Rmllemp' x (temp + 6.77)/81.77 Correction of Rml to 75°
K =, flO + (0. UJx: Tt)
Rm!" = (146 x Rill!  5)/(117 x Rm! + 77)
R,1I1c formula if Rml at 75°F 0.1
Rm1c formula if Rm! at 75"> O. I
R" at 75" formula if R"c < 0.12
R, at 75°F =  [0.58  10111 b9\RwcO C.JI]
R" at formation temperature = R" at 75°< ~1.77/(T! + 6.77)
RJI:i'c'IlIP = Rill! at a temperature other than 75°F
~tThe c subscript ( i .c Rll1k) stands for cquivnlcnt rcsistivitv.
29
"'7L2nJ~)j\lANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG
30
RMF>E>Rw
~ ALL SANDS
~ ..J
~
..J
~ ~ (/')
THICK CLEAN
(/') ;§ WET SAND
SSP
RMF = Rw
SP THIN SAND
.
RMF>Rw PSP THICK SHALY
WET SAND 10A
RMF:::t>Rw
THICK SHALY GAS SAND
SP
THICK CLEAN GAS SAND
RMF<Rw
PSP
SSP = K x log (RMF/ Rw) 108
THE SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG
Figure 10. Examples of SP deflection from the shale baseline.
IOASP deflection with different resistivities of mud filtrate (Rrnf) and formation water (Rw)' Where resistivity of the mud filtrate lRmf) is equal to the resistivity of the formation water (Rw) there is no deflection. positive or negative. from the shale baseline.
Where ROlf is greater than Rw. the SP line kicks to the left of the shale baseline (negative deflection). Where Rrnf greatly exceeds Rw. the deflection is proportionately greater.
Where Rmfis less than Rw. the kick is to the right of the shale baseline. This is called positive deflection. Remember. the spontaneous potential log (SP) is used only with conductive (saltwaterbased) drilling muds.
lOBSP deflection with resistivity of the mud filtrate (Rmr) much greater than formation water (Rw)' SSP (static spontaneous potential) at the top of the diagram. is the maximum deflection possible in a thick. shalefree. and waterbearing ("wet"") sandstone for a gi ven ratio of RrntjRw. All other deflections are less. and arc relative in magnitude.
SP (spontaneous potential) is the SP response due to the presence of thin beds and/or the presence of gas. PSP (pseudostatic spontaneous potential) is the SP response if shale is present.
Note at bottom of diagram: A formula for the theoretical calculated value of SSP is gi veri. SSP=  K X log (Rm/Rw). where K = (.133 x Tt) + 60.
3 I
TnE SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG
SPONT ANEOUS  POTENTIAL
MILLIVOLT5
rrT~:( rl
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f , 8:
f t 
t 1
I
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7442
C ONDU CTIVITY
",ilhMOI/fIIII jQQQ
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INDUCTION
1000 5?0 0
1500 I 10QQ
RESISTIVITY
o 16" NORMAL
___l 50
0 ___l 500
INDUCTION
Q _________ L ______ ~O
g_. ______ J ______ _?Q<2.
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_. .. r r
j r ~ r   r
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,
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D[ ,.Tl1 8007 OM OHT 0.94 at 13!1 0 F
 c
"T SIll 9 .... MOT 0.!l1 at 13!1° F
_.
Tr",: III UIO IN HOl £ Oil E",,,"ion 'U'C IHT 121 at 1311 0 F
1.  
... . , ..... , ... , 'l99 .. 620 F .... 111ft. TU',. 13:10 F
~ 7450
.j (]I
o o
THE SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG
Figure II. Determination offorrnation water resistivity (Rw) from an SP log. This example is an exercise involving the charts on Figures 12 through 14.
Given:
Rmf = 0.51 at 1350 (BHT) Rm = 0.91 at l3So (BHT) Surface temperature = 60°F Total depth = 8,007 ft
Bottom Hole Temperature (BHT) = 135°F
From the Log track:
I. SP = 40mv (spontaneous potential measured from log at a formation depth of 7,44() ft and uncorrected for bed thickness). It is measured here as two 20mv divisions from the shale baseline. The deflection is negative. so the value (40mv) is negative.
, Bed thickness equals 8 ft (7.442 to 7,450 ft).
3. Resistivity short normal (Rj) equals 28 ohmmeters.
4. Formation depth equals 7,446 ft.
Procedure:
I. Determine TrUse Figure 8 to determine the temperature of the formation (Tf). Use BHT = 13S°F, TD = 8,007 ft , surface temperature = 600E and formation depth = 7,446 ft. (Your answer should be 130°F).
, Correct Rm and Rmfto T _rUse Figure 9 to correct the values for the resisti vity of mud and of mud filtrate, using Tf(130"F) from step I. Use Rm = 0.91 at 13soF and Rmf = 0.51 at USOF (Your answers should be: Rm = 0.94 at 130°F and Rmf= 0.53 at l30°F).
3. Determine SPRead directly from the SP curve in Fig. II. It measures two units ( at a scale of20 mv per di vision) from the shale baseline. The deflection is negati vc , so your answer is also ( 40 rnv) negative.
4. Correct SP to SSPCorrecting SP for the thinbed effect will give a value for SSP; usc the chart in Figure 12 to find the SP Correction Factor.
Given R/Rm (or RjRm) = 28/0.94 = 30. Bed thickness (read from SP log) Fig. II equals 8 ft. Correction factor (from Fig. 12) = 1.3.
SSP = SP x SP Correction factor (Fig. 12) SSP = (40 mv) x 1.3
SSP =  52 m v (Your answer)
5. Determine Rmt/Rwe ratioUse the chart in Figure 13 (Your answer should be 5.0).
6. Determine RweDivide the corrected value for ROlf by the ratio RmrlRwc value.
Rwe = Rrnt/(ROlriRwe) Rwe = 0.S3/S.0
Rwc = 0.106
7. Correct Rwe to RwUse the chart in Figure 14, and the Rwc value in step 6 (Your answer should be R" O. I I
at Tt).
NOTE: The term short normal describes a log used to measure the shallow formation resistivity, or the rcxi st i vitv of the invaded zone (R). Short normal resistivity (Rsn) was used in Procedure Step 4 above, and its lise as a logging/resistivity term is common.
33
THE SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG
SP CORRECTION
100r.~~~~''~,,
90 ,_+iitl '~~_T+_L 1 P From Log
I ! !: ' I ! i • 120
80 ' 'I'!· I ' i
::KtI+l+ f =~Fr ::
T'II I I ii' 80
50 H+__;_: ~_l____L__~L.+ 70 SP Correction Factor
i_J.J 'rl , t j  
. I I'
40 IH_+ii : +'~n. j i~
i: 1 I j ~; i~
30 It++!H~ 1 ~t"j
• t . I  4~
; I:' I
20 I++'I~~' r++LIJ_~ L _
 1 c,__!  r !  t
60
so
40
30
20
IS
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
1.0 1.5 J _____...___. . _
3
SP correction factor
34
SSP 20
30
40
51.
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
J....
___ L_
9 10
THE SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG
Figure 12. Chart for finding SP Correction Factor used to correct SP to SSP (see exercise, Fig. 11).
Courtesy, Dresser Industries. Copyright 1975. Dresser Atlas.
Defined:
R,= shallow resistivity
ROl = resistivity of drilling mud at formation temperature
Example:
R;lROl = 30
Bed Thickness == 8 ft
Procedure:
1. Locate a bed thickness on the vertical scale (in this case 8 tt).
'") Follow the value horizontally across until it intersects the RJRfTl curve (in this example R/Rlll = 30. so point will be to the right of the 20 curve).
3. Drop vertically from this intersection and read the SP correction factor on the scale across the bottom (in this example, a value of 1.3).
4. Multiply SP by the SP Correction Factor to find SSP.
For the exercise in Figure II:
SSP = SP x Correction Factor
SSP = 40mv x 1.3 (40mv is SP value taken at 7,446 ft. see Fig. I I) SSP = 52mv
35
GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF THE SP EQUATION
spontaneous potential (millivolts)
36
1
THE SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG
Figure 13. Chart used for determining the Rm~Rwe ratio from SSP values.
Courtesy. Dresser Industries. Copyright 1975, Dresser Atlas.
Example:
SSP =  52mv (from SP log and Fig. 12) T, = 130°F
Procedure:
I. Locate an SSP value on the vertical scale (in this case 52mv).
I Follow the value horizontally across until it intersects the sloping formation temperature line ( l3()OF; imagine one between the lines for 1000 and 1500 temperature lines).
3. Drop vertically from this intersection and read the ratio value on the bottom scale (in this example, the ratio value is 5.0).
37
THE SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG
1.0
Rw FROM Rwe
R; ohmmeters

THE SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG
Figure 14. Chart for determining a resistivity value for R; from Rwe.
Courtesy. Dresser Industries. Copyright 1975, Dresser Atlas.
Given:
Rwc is calculated by dividing Rmtcorrected to formation temperature (Tr) by the ratio Rm!Rwc' From the exercise example you can calculate Rwc = 0.53/5 or Rwe = 0.106. Rmfat Tf = 0.53. Tf = l30°F.
Procedure:
I. Locate the value of Rwc on the vertical scale (in this case 0.106).
2. Follow it horizontally until it intersects the temperature curve desired (in this case 130°F between the 100° and 150° temperature curves).
3. Drop vertically from the intersection and read a value for R; on the scale at the bottom (in this case O. II).
39
Tc.:E :;:J ><iAf\)EOUS POTENTIAL LOG
value for Rw cnlculaud from SSP. Therefore, to determine Rw from SP it is best, whenever possible, to usc the SP curve opposite known waterbearing zones.
Volume of Shale Calculation
The SP Ing can be used to calculate the volume ofshale in a permeable zone by the following formula:
PSP I .0
SSP
Where:
Vsh = volume of shale
PSI' = pseudo stalic spontaneous potential (SP of shaly formation)
SSP = static spontaneous potential of a thick clean sand or carbonate
SSP =  K >< log (Rmf/Rw) K = eo 1 (0.133 X Tf)
The volume of shale in a sand can be used in the evaluation of shaly sand reservoirs (Chapter VI) and as a mapping parameter for both sandstone and carbonate facies analysis (Chapter VII)
40
Review  Chapter II
I. The spontaneous potential log (SP) can be used to: \ I ) detect permeable beds; (2) detect boundaries of permeable beds; (3) determine formation water resistivity (Rw\; and (4) determine volume of shale (V,h) in a permeable beel.
2. The variations in the SP are the result of an electric potential that is present between the well bore and the formation as a result of differences in salinities between Rmf and Rw'
3. The SP response in shales is relatively constant and its continuity of amplitude is referred to as the shale baseline. In permeable beds the SP will do the following relative to the shale baseline: (I) negative deflection to the left of the shale baseline where Rmf > Rw; (2) positive deflection to the right of the shale baseline where Rmf < Rw; (3) no deflection where Rmf = Rw'
4. The SP curve can be suppressed by thin beds, shaliness, and the presence of gas.
CHAPTER III
RESISTIVITY LOGS
General
Resistivity logs are electric logs which are used to: (I) determine hydrocarbon versus waterbearing zones, (2) indicate permeable zones, and (3) determine resistivity porosity. By far the most important use of resistivity logs is the determination of hydrocarbon versus waterbearing zones. Because the rock 's matrix or grains are nonconductive. rhe ability of the rock to transmit a current is almost entirely a function of water in the pores. Hydrocarbons, like the rock's matrix, are nonconductive; the refo re , as the hydrocarbon saturation of the pores increases, the rock's resistivity also increases. A geologist. by knowing a formation 's water resistivity (Rw)' its porosity (¢), and a value for the cementation exponent (m) (Table I), call determine a formation's water saturation (Sw) from the Archie equation
( F XRtRw )1,0
Sw =
Where:
S~ F
water saturation formation factor (aJ¢m) tortuosi ty factor
a
rn = cementation exponent
R~ resistivity of formation water
R, true formation resistivity as measured by a deep reading resistivity log
n saturation exponent (most commonly 2.0)
The two basic types of logs in use today which measure .irmation resistivity arc induction and electrode logs (Table ). The most common type of logging device is the induction tool (Dresser Atlas, 1975).
An induction tool consists of one or more transmitting iils that emil a highfrequency alternating current of constant intensity The alternating magnetic field which is created induces secondary currents in the formation. These .condary currcms now as ground loop currents
, zrpcndicular to the axis of the borehole (Fig. 15), and create magnetic fields that induce signals to the receiver iils. The receiver signals are essentially proportional to mductivityt , which is the reciprocal of resistivity (Schlumborger. 1L)72). The multiple coils arc used to focus
the resistivity measurement to minimize the effect of aterials in the borehole. the in vadcd zone, and other
T conductivitv = IOOO'resistivity. Conductivity in rnillimhos/rneter: :siSlivity in ohnimcterv.
nearby formations. The two types of induction devices arc the Induction Electric Log: and the Dual Induction Focused Log.
A second type of resistivity measuring device is the electrode log. Elcctrodc, in the borehole arc connected to a power source (generator), and the current flows from the electrodes through the borehole fluid into the formation, and then to a remote reference electrode. Examples of electrode rcxixt iv itv tools include (I) normal, (2) Lateral. (3) Laterolog". (4) Microlatcrolog". (5) Microlog", (6) Proximity Log". and (7) spherically focused logs.
Induction logs sholiid 1)(' usrd //1 /lol/.\/1II.\IIIII/"(I//'(1 drilling muds (i.c . Rmf 3 Rw) to obtain a more accurate value of true resistivity (R). Borchotcsfillcd 11"/117 saltsaturutcd drilling nu«!s (Rmf co., Rw) /"('9I1ir" c/l'("/r(!i/c logs, such as the Larcrolog' or Dual L.aterolog* with or without a Microsphcrically Focused Log*, to determine accurate R, values. Figure 16 is a chart which assists in determining when usc of an induction lug is preferred over an electrode log such as the Latcrok.g
Induction Electric Log
The Induction Electric Log i Fig. 17) is composed of three curves: (I) short normal, (2) induction, and (3) spontaneous potential or SP These curves arc obtained ximultaneouxly during [he logging of the well.
Shint NUr/llul·The short norlllal tool measures resistivity at a shallow depth of investigation which IS the resistivity of the invaded LOne (R,). When [he resistivity of the short normal is compared with the resistivity of the deeper measuring induction tool (Rd, invasion is detected by the separation between the short normal and induction curves (Fig. 17). The presence ofinvasion is im portunt !Je('wis<' it indicate» u./iJr/lIUlio/l is pCl"lncuh/c.
The short normal tool has an c lcctrodc spac ing of I () inches and can record a reliable value for rcsixnvity Irum a bed thirk ncss of four feet. The short normal curve is usually recorded in track #2 (Fig 17) Because the short normal tool works best ill conductive, high resistivity muds I where
R[l'(: .3 Rw), salt muds (where Rml Rw) are not a good
environment [or its lise. In addition to providing a value for Ri, the short normal curve can be used to calculate a value for resistivity porosity if a correction is made for unflushcd oil in the invaded zone. 11.) obtain a more accurate value of Ri from the short normal curve . an amplified short normal
.~~~  ..~'
41
Table 4. Classification of Resistivitv Logs.
 .. _ ..       ' ..__
INDUCTION LOGS (measure conductivity) ELECTRODE LOGS (measure resistivity)
A. Normal logs
B. Lateral Logt
C. Laterologs*
D. Spherically Focused Log (SFL)*
DEPTH OF RESISTIVITY LOG INVESTIGATION
t'!UY~I'(l!()ne (R,o) Microlog*
M icrolaterolog'
Proximity! Log Microspherically Focused Log"
  .
E. Microlaterolog (MLL)*
F. Microlog (ML)*
G. Proximity Log (PL)*
H. Microspherically Focused Log (MSFL)*
lnv(/de~f Zmll'_JJ1) __ .. Short Normal H Laterolog 8*tT
Spherically Focused Log+tt Medium Induction Log Shallow Laterolog*
Uninvaded Zone (Rt)
Long Normal Lateral Log
Deep Induction Log Deep Laterolog* Laterolog 3* Laterolog 7* ________ __.:cIc_:n=duction Log 6FF40
tFor a review of how to use Lateral logs sec: Hilchie ( 1(79).
ttWhen R,,,, IS much greater than R., the Latcrolog  8* and Spherically Focused Log* will have a shallower depth of investigation (closer to R ) than the medium induction, shallow Laterolog*, and the short normal. '"
curve is sometimes displayed in track #2 along with the short normal curve.
illducliulI The induction device (Fig. 17) measures electrical conductivity+ using current generated by coils. The transmitting coils produce an electromagnetic signal which induces currents in the formation. These induced currents are recorded as conductivity by receiver coils. Modem induction devices have additional coils which focus the current so that signals arc minimized from adjacent formations, the borehole. and the invaded zone. By focusing the current and eliminating unwanted signals, a deeper reading of conductivity is taken. and more accurate values of true formation resistivity (R) are determined from the induction log. The induction log has a transmitter/receiver spacing of 40 inches and can measure a reliable value for resistivity down to a bed thickness of five feet.
The induction curve on the Induction Electric Log appears in track #2 (Fig. 17). Because the induction device is a conductivity measuring tool, an induction derived conductivity curve is presented in track #3 (Fig. 17). The track #3 conductivity curve is necessary to more accurately determine the R, value of low resistivity formations. and to eliminate possible errors when calculating true resistivity from conductivity. Because the induction log does not require the transmission of electricity through drilling fluid, it can be run in air, oil, or foamfilled boreholes.
• C, _::_ I(X)()/R( where C[ = conducuviiy in rnillimhovrneter. and R, = true formation n.:sistivi!y in ohmmeters
42
Dual Induction Focused Log
The modern induction log is called the Dual Induction Focused Log (Tixier et al, 1963). This log (Fig. 18) consists of a deepreading induction device (R1Ld which measures R). and is similar to an Induction Electric Log. The Dual Induction Focused Log (Fig. 18) also has a mediumreading induction device (RILm which measures R) and a shallow reading (Rxo) focused Laterolog* which is similar to the short normal. The shallow reading Laterolog* may be either a LaterologS (LL8)* or a Spherically Focused Log
(SFL)* .
The Dual Induction Focused Log is used in formations that are deeply invaded by mud filtrate. Because of deep invasion, a deep reading induction log (R1Ld) may not accurately measure the true resistivity of the formation (Rt). Resistivity values obtained from the three curves on a Dual Induction Focused Log are used to correct deep resistivity (R1Ld) to true resistivity (R) from a tornado chart (Fig. 19) This tornado chart (Fig. 19) can also help determine the diameter of invasion (d.) and the ratio of R,o/Rt• An example of the procedure is presented in Figure 19.
The three resistivity curves on the Dual Induction Focused Log are recorded on a four cycle logarithmic scale ranging from 0.2 to 2000 ohm/meters (Fig. 18) and correspond to tracks #2 and #3 on the Induction Electric Log. Normally, a spontaneous potential (SP) curve is placed in track #1 (Fig. 18).
RESISTIVITY LOGS
The deep induction log (R1Ld) does not always record an accurate value for deep resistivity in thin, resistive (where Rt:> 100 ohmmeters) zones. Therefore, an alternate method to determine true resistivity (R,) should be used. The technique is called R, minimum (R, mIn) and is calculated by the following formula:
R, min = (LL8* or SFL'") X RjRmf
Where:
true resistivity (also called R, minimum) resistivity of mud filtrate at formation temperature
R" re sistivity of formation water at formation
temperature
LL8* = shallow resistivity LatcrolugS"
SFL* = shallow resistivity Spherically Focused Log*
The rule for applying RtrnIn is to determine R, from both the Dual Induction Focused Log tornado chart (Fig. 19) and from the RI rrun formula. and use whichever value of R, is the greater. In addition to the R, min method for determining R, in thin resistive zones, correction curves (Schlurnberger, 1979. p . ."'455) arc available to COITect the deep induction log resistivity (RlLod) to R,.
Laterolog*
The Latcrolog" is designed to measure true formation resistivity (R,) in boreholes filled with saltwater muds (where Rmf = Rw)' A current from the surveying electrode is forced iruo the formation by focusing electrodes. The focusing electrodes emit current of the same polarity as the surveying electrode but arc located above and below it. The focusing. or guard electrodes. prevent the surveying current from flowing up the borehole filled with saltwater mud (Fig. 20). The effective depth of Laterolog* investigation is controlled by the extent to which the surveying current is focused. Deep reading Laterologs" arc therefore more strongly focused than shallow reading Laterologs*.
Invasion can influence the Laterolog>. However. because resistivity of the mud filtrate is approximately equal to the resistivity offormation water (Rmf '''' Rw) when a well is drilled with saltwaterbased muds. invasion does not strongly affect R, values derived from a Laterolog=. But. when a well is drilled with freshwaterbased muds (where
Rill I 3 Rw:'. the Laterolog can be strongly affected by
invasion. Under these conditions. a Laterolog* should not be used (see Fig. 16). The borehole size and formation thickness affect the Laterolog". but normally the effect is small enough so that Laterolog" resistivity can be taken as RI·
The Latcrolog' curve (Fig. 21) appears in track #2 of the log and has a linear scale. Because saltwaterbased mud where Rmf CO" R; gives a very poor SP response. a natural
gamma ray log is run in track # I as a lithology and correlation curve (Fig. 21). A Microlaterolog* is sometimes recorded in track #3 (Fig. 21).
Dual LaterologMicrospherically Focused Log*
The Dual Laterolog+ (Fig. 22) consists of a deep reading (R,) resistivity device (RU_d) and a shallow reading (R,) rcsisitivity device (RLLSJ. Both arc displayed in tracks #2 and #3 of the log on a four eye Ie logarithmic scale. A natural gamma ray log is often displayed in track # I (Fig. 2:?)
The Microspherically Focused Log* is a pad type, focused electrode log (a pad type focused electrode log has electrodes mounted in a pad that is forced against the borehole wall) that has a very shallow depth of investigation. and measures resistivity of the flushed zone (R""J. WheIl a Microsphcrically Focused Log (MSFL *) is run with the Dual Latcrolog" (Fig. 22), the resulting three curves (i.c. deep. shallow. and M SFL*) arc used to correct (for invasion) the deep resistivity (RU_d) to true formation resistivity (Suau et al, 1972). A tornado chart (Fig. 23) is necessary to correct RU_d to R, and to determine the diameter of invasion (d) and the ratio of R/R",. The procedure is illustrated in Figure 23.
Microlog (ML*)
The Microlog+ (Fig. 24) is a pad type resistivity device that primarily detects mudcake (Hilchic , 1978). The pad is in contact with the borehole and consists of three electrodes spaced one inch apart. From the pad. two resistivity measurements are made; one is called the micro normal and the other is the micro inverse (Fig. 24). The micro normal device investigates three to four inches into the formation (measuring R",) and the micro inverse investigates approximately one to two inches and measures the resistivity of the rnudcuke (Rmc)' The detection of rnudcakc by the Microlog" indicates that in vas ion has occurred and the formation is permeable. Permeable zones show up on the M icrolog" as positive separation when the micro normal curves read higher resistivity than the micro inverse curves (Fig. 24). t Shale zones are indicated by no separation or "negative separation " (i.c. micro normal < micro inverse).
tPoS:.livc separation can only occur when 1~IlK Rill Rill!" "R) verify these
value» if there "any doubt. check the lo!, heading for resistivity values of the n.udcake , dri llinz mud. and mud filtrate"
Remember that even though the resistivity of the mud filtrate (R,ut) is less than the nxi st ivitv ofthe mudcuke (R"" l. the micro normal curve will rcud a hIgher resistivity In a pcrrncuhlc zone than the shallowerreading micro inverse curve This is because the filtrate has invaded the Iormuuon , and part of the resi:.tlvity IllL'<t~ured by the micro nortuul curve is read from the rock matrix, whereas the micro invcrc curve measures only the mudcuke (RJllc) which has a lower re xixt ivitv than rock.
43
LUGS
However. in enlarged boreholes, a shale zone can exhibit minor, positive separation. In order to detect zones of erroneous positive scparat ion , a rnicrocalipcr log is run in track # 1 (Fig. 24), so that borehole irregularities are detected. Nonporous and impermeable zones have high resistivity values on both the: micro normal and micro inverse curves (Fig. 24). Hilehie (1(j78) states that resistivities of approximately ten times the resistivity of the drilling mud (R'll) at formation temperature indicate an impermeable zone,
The Microlog" docs not work well in saltwaterbased drilling muds (where Riffle Rw) or gypsumbased muds, because the mudcukc may nut he strong enough to keep the pad away from the formation. Where the pad is in contact with the Iormar iou , positive separation cannot occur.
Microlaterolog" and Proximity Log"
The Microiaterolog (MLL)* (Fig. 21) and the Proximitv Log (PLJI (Fig. 25), like the Mien~sphericallv Focused L;)g (MSFL)" arc pad type focused electrode log~ designed to  measure the resistivity in the flushed zone (R,"), Because the Microlatcrolog" is strongly influenced by rnudcake thicknesses greater than 1/4 inch (Hildie, 1(j78), the Microlaicrolog" should be run onlv with saltwaterbased drilling muds. The Pro x imiiv Log~, which is more stronulv focused than the Microlater\;logl~, is designed to investig~a;e deeper so it can he used with freshwaterbased drilling n~uds where mudcake is thicker.
Resistivity Derived Porosity
The minerals that make LIp the grains in the matrix of the rock and the hydrocarbons in the pores arc nonconductivc. Therefore. the ability of rock to transmit an electrical current is almost entirely the result of the water in the pore space. Thus resistivity measurements can be used to determine porosity. Normally, measurements of a formation's resistivity close to the borehole (flushed zone, R,,,, or invaded zone, R,) arc used to determine porosity. Shallow resistivity devices, used to measure R", and R" include the following: (I) Microlaterolou=: (2) Prox imitv Log": (3) LatewlogHI': (4) Micmspheri~ally Focused  Log": (5) short normal log: and (6) Spherically Focused Log" .
When a porous and permeable waterhearing formation is invaded by drilling fluid, formation water is displaced by mud filtrate. Porosity in a waterbearing formation can he related to shallow resistivity (R",) by the following
eLJ uati. ms:
Where S",= 1.0 ( 1 O()7r) in waterhearing zones.
44
I.()=~ V I A R;,;
square both sides:
1.0 = F x Rmf R,,,
so I ve for F:
remember F = a/¢m therefore:
a '3'\1
<DOl Rmf
solve for porosity (m)
¢=
Where: <b Rill I
formation porosity
resistivity of mud filtrate at formation temperature
water saturation of the flushed zone
resistivity of flushed zone from Microlarcrolou
Proximity Log". LaterolosS", or ~
Microsphcrically Focused Log* values
a constant
a = 1.0 for carbonates
a = 0,62 for unconsolidated sands a = 0.81 for consolidated sands
m constant
rn = 2,() for consolidated sands and carbonates m = 2.15 for unconsolidated sands
F formation factor
In hydrocarbonbearing zones, the shallow resistivity (R,") is affected by the unflushcd residual hydrocarbons left by the invading mud filtrate. These residual hvdrocarbons will result in a value for shallow re sistivitv (R ) which 1<
. ' \0 ......
too high because hydrocarbons have a higher resistivitv than formation water. Therefore, the calculated rcsistivitv " porosity in hydrocarbonbearing zones will be too low l() correct for residual hydrocarbons in the flushed zone, wutcr saturation of the flushed zone (S,,,) must be known or estimated. Then, a formation's shallow resistivirv (R ) can
he related to porosity by the following: ,,~
S _~Rmf
xo  X 
n.,
now square both sides:
remember: F = a/mOl
I. Resistivity logs are used to. ( I) determine hydrocarbon versus waterbearing zones: (2) indicate permeable zones: and (3) determine resistivity porosity.
.2. A formation \ resistivity can be measured by either induction or electrode t Laternlop". normal. Lateral, spherically focused logs, Microlog". Microlutcrolog' , ami Proximity") logs.
.3. Induction logs (induction electric log or Dual Induction Focused Log) should he: run in nonsalt saturated
drilling muds (where Rlllf 3 R,,).
4. Latcrologs" or Dual Latcrologs' with Rxo,houlu be run in saltsaturated dr il ling muds (where Rlllt = R,,)
5. By use of tornado charts. the deep resistivity log on either the Dual Induction Focused Log or the Dual Latcrolog" with R", can be corrected for the 'effects of inv.rsion to determine a more accurate value of true formation resistivity (R,).
6. Most minerals which make up the matrix of the rock and the hydrocarbons in the pores arc nonconductive. Therefore. the ability of the rock to transmit an electric CUITent is almost entirely a function of the water in the
l roc k \ pores.
;
Figure IS. Schematic illustration of a basic twocoil induction system.
S' F .R_rn[_
x() = X R
xo
solve for l:
F=
~",2 X Rxo Rmf
Therefore
sul vc tor porosity «(p):
[at R. t/R. ) ] lim
. __ !!l_ __ __X_Q_
.s., )2
Where: (~ Rmt
formation porosity
resistivity of mud filtrate at formation
temperature
Table 5. Percentages of Residual Hydrocarbon Saturation as a function of hydrocarbon density and porosity
t rnodificd after Hilchie , 1978).
_A_!:'_tQravi_ty __ ~~H_S_o/,_c __
Cas
High gravity or! 40 to 50
Medium gr.JVity oil 20 to 40
40 to 5
60 to 95
10 to 5
90 to 95 80 to 90
20 to 10
Low_gra_\I_it:'_oil. 1_0_to_2_(_1 __ 3_Q__t(_l _20 ZQ_t_c)__§_O_
Powsity_q 25 to 35 15 to 20
___ ~ BHSo/c __ ~'o(,7('
.30
70
15
85
i' AMPLIFIER AND OSCI LLATOR
I NOUSi,'JG
~
;i RE~~,~ER
c==~~
c~
RECEIVER '1r
t, AI.!_f'_L_I"~_~ II IGR~~~~
~ _ 'S' =:=:::: ::::J
FJI !CAU,_ T ~, zzr: I
rUI~R~~n I II I
C C [I I' I FORMATION
____ ~TRANSMITTtR lit,
TRAN',MITTER _./CO'L i~
OSCILLATOR /
, BORE HOLE
RESISTIVITY LOGS
resistivity of the flushed zone
constant
a = 1.0 for carbonates
a c= 0.62 for unconsolidated sands a = 0.81 for consolidated sands
constant
111 = 2.0 fur carbonates and conxol idutcd sands 111= 2. 15 for unconsol idatcd sands
water saturation of the flushed zone
S,,,= 1.0 minus residual hydrocarbon saturation (RHS). Sec Table 5 I(Jr exumplc».
F formation factor
a
J11
Review  Chapter III
Courtesy, Schlumbcrgcr Well Services. Copyright 1972, Schiumberger.
45
25
20 l
..
~
0

>
'5 ~

(J)
0
0:::
0
CL
'0 46
INDUCTION LOG PREFERRED
ABOVE APPROPRIATE R w CURVE
LATEROLOG PREFERRED

Rmf/Hw ..
20 30
~i ''r+L~~W _=_ ~ _ ~ M _~
~~~~+ ++~~~~+~
~
I ~~=O.'.QM
51+I+++++~T1 rF~ ti _: ;;
USE BOTH LOGS
I BELOW APPROPRIATE Rw CURVE
o L..5.J...L... • ...l....7 .....l...I_...I,_. ___L_____.L2 . ~3. 4. 5. 7. '0.
RESISTIVITY LOGS
Figure 16. Chart for quick determination of preferred conditions for using an induction log versus a Laterolog" (Schlumbcrger, 1972)
Courtesy, Schlumberger Well Services. Copyright 1972. Schlumberger.
Se lection is a function of the ratio of Rmt/Rw and, to some extent. porosity.
47
SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL
MILLIVOLTS
J ~+~+.~t; 
I t'
 
~ . .l.:::::.T·"r' ... .~ ~ It. i.i_
f~.. . ~1 +H.~~j
 i ~ C +~r~
... :J~ i l ~
~.  j .. ~r+ ~ 1, .
, _._+
rt+j+
 ...  +
 ~~ zf
 +l
t+
trr+  +~~ f+  ~r
_. __ ._._
48
milillWtol/'"
.m
CONDUCTIVITY
1000
1000
o
1500
1000
RESISTIVITY
16" NORMAL
o I 50
o I ~O
INDUCTION
Q~. L ~O
9. J .?QQ
1
':::!:~' i __
~T  ::: .+~ f
f+'
t= .....
e4t
. f
~.
 f
_ .. 
.
+ tr++ft_~+ __ + .. _+ ...
f '
7446
,
__.. ,
r W
f '''_
(7' r= 
'  ..  ._


.I UI o o
~~.~ ~0~0~7_r.~N.HT+0~.~~~.'~13~~0F~
.,T sal 9 " .. " "T O.~I at 13~ 0 F
~.++.+j
TY,I[ nUID IN .tOl!: 0i~'I_Em_II .. ~ __ +"= .. :::.C'."HT_+'L2=I~at;I~:.:....0F:_t
... ., _.so '.11.","_, __ LL_9_9_"_62_0_F_~"_'_',_._I_C._T_'_"_ •. _ __._1_3_~ _o _F '
RESISTIVITY LOGS
Figure 17. Example Induction Electric Log. t The purpose for presenting this log is to illustrate the different curves and to give you guidance on picking log values. The Induction Electric Log is normally used when ROlf» R".
Note that log scales are shown horizontally at top of log.
Track #I~ The log track on the far left contains the spontaneous potential (SP) log. Typically. each increment on the scale equals 20 millivolts, so that the value at the sample depth of 7,446 ft is about 40. Because the deflection is to the left (negative deflection) the log value is negative. or approximately 40 mv.
Track #2~ The middle log track contains two resistivity curves. One measures shallow resistivity (RI• 16" normal or short normal electrode log represented by solid line) and the other measures deep resistivity (R,, an induction log represented by dotted line). The scale values increase from left to right. but two scales arc present: The first scale measures from 0 to 50 ohmmeters in increment values of 5 ohmmeters. This first scale contains both the RI and R, curves. The secondcycle scale measures from 0 to 500 ohmmeters in increment values of 50 ohmmeters. It contains no curves in this example because the secondcycle scale is used only when the resistivity curves in the firstcycle scale exceed the maximum scale values.
At the sample depth of 7,446 ft read a value for the I ()' , norrnal of 28 ohmmeters. This is counted horizontally as almost 6 increments of 5 ohmmeters per increment (28 is nearly 6 x 5 or 30). The induction reading on track #2 is counted at 10 ohmmeters. or 2 increments of 5 ohmmeters per increment.
Track #3~ The log track on the far right contains a conductivity curve measured by the induction log. The induction log actually measures conductivity. not resistivity. but because conductivity is a reciprocal of resistivity. resistivity can be derived. This is done automatically as the log is recorded in track # 3. However. the conductivity curve can be used to convert values to resistivity. In this way. track #2 resistivity values can be checked for accuracy.
For example. to convert track #3 values to resistivity the procedure is as follows: The values on the conductivity scale increase from righttoleft, and two scales arc present: values from () to 1.000 arc marked in 50 mmhos/mctcr increments for the first cycle. and values from 1.000 to [ . .sOO an: marked for the second cycle (second cycle values are not necessary on this log). Therefore. at a depth of 7,446 ft. track #3 shows a value of I ()O mmhos/rneter, or 2 increments (from the right) of 50 rumhos/rnctcr for each division.
Because resistivity equals 1.000..;. conductivity. resistivity = 1.000/100 or. in this case. 10. So. conductivity converted to resistivity from the induction log is [0 ohmmeters.
tOn this and all subsequent logs in the text. each small division on the depth scale is equal to 2 ft.
49
QLRA ( ) 160.040~00
GR (GAPI)
0.0 I!lO.O
SP \.!!.Yl
'=i60:O _ ..0.00
.S' {"' r'b?;=~
c··t
. ....
so
_.__.__.__
ILD (OH .... )
6:2000··    2000.
. . __ . . _J_~'!cI_i Q!'_~ .. J _
0.2000 2000.
SFLU..10HIUU
2000.
0.2000
t=±
 t
r ~ l
r
~ .
c· f. ..
~
n t
~DEPTH 138~~ RMF at mea •. temp. 0." at 800 II'
BIT SIZEr;=~R C at mea •. temp. at
~~ FLUID IN HO_I,!: _!!ARITE X. REC. TE"p. ,",,19~1 O~,F __ 1
RM at meOI. '.",p. 1.19 at 80° ,
RESISTIVITY LOGS
Figure 18. Example of a Dual Induction Focused Log. Use this log to pick values and determine ratios for the tornado chart exercise in Figure 19. The Dual Induction Focused Log is normally used when Rrnf is muc h greater than R". and also where invasion is deep.
Track # I in this log suite contains a gamma ray. SP, and R",/Rt quick look curves. The gamma ray. SP, and R,jRt quick look curves will be discussed in subsequent chapters.
The resistivity scale in tracks #2 and #3 is a logarithmic scale from 0 to 2,000 ohmmeters. increasing from left to right. Note the following logs.
Deep induction log resistivityThe dashed line ILD represents R1LJ and measures the deep resistivity of the formation. or close to true resistivity (Rt). At the sample depth in this exercise (13,590 ft), deep resistivity (lLD) reads a value of 70.
Medium induction log resistivityThe dottedanddashed line IUVI represents RILm and measures the medium resistivity of the formation, or resistivity of the invaded zone iRl). At the sample depth in this exercise (13,590 ft), medium resistivity (R) reads a value of 105.
Spherically Focused Log* resistivitythe solid line SFL* represents RSFL* and measures the shallow resistivity of the forrnation , or resistivity of the flushed zone (R,o)' At the sample depth in this exercise (13,590 ft), resistivity of the flushed zone (R,o) reads a value of320.
The following ratios are needed for work on the tornado chart (Fig. 19). and the values arc picked from the example log:
RSFL/RtLJ = 320nO = 4.6 RILm/RILd = 105nO = 1.5
51
52
DUAL INDUCTION  SPHERICALLY FOCUSED LOG
Ild  Ilm  SFl*
Cl a:: <,
_J u, (f)
a::
1.2
1.3 1.4 1.5
1.7 1.9
RESISTIVITY LOGS
Figure 19. Dual lnductionj Sf'L") tornado chart used for correcting R'LJ values to R,. as an indicator oftrue resistivity. Log values used in this exercise are picked from the example Dual Induction Log in Figure 18.
Courtesy, Schlumberger Well Services.
Copyright 1979. Schlumbergcr
Given:
R'Ld = 70
R'Lnt = 105 RSFL = 320 RSFL/R'LJ = 4.6 RIII,/R'LJ = r.s
Procedure:
By using the tornado chart. pick the following values:
R,IR'LdPlot the ratio values for RSFdRILJ and RILm/RJld by using the scales on the vertical axis (RSFliRILd) and horizontal axis (R'Ln/RILJ)' Where the values cross. read the R/RIl.d value from the tornado chart scale depicted by solid. vertically oriented lines. Note that the scale decreases ill intensity from left to right (from 1.0 to O.1l0) and that the R/R1LJ value falls just to the left of the 0))0 I inc , giving us a value of O. 1l2.
dj"~Find the diameter of invasion surrounding the borehole by locating the same point used above. on the d, scale of the chart. The scale is indicated by the dashed. vertically oriented lines on the tornado chart (note that the \I, scale is given in inches across the top of the tornado, and is given in meters through the midpart of the tornado chart ). and the scale reads horzontally. In this example, the sample value is plotted midway between the 6() and 70ineh value line. so we determine that the diameter of invasion (d,) is 65 inches.
RxufRtRatio of resistivity of the flushed zone (R,u) over the true resistivity of the formation (uncorrected, R.). This ratio. derived from the chart, is used in later calculations. The scale is represented hy the solid. horizontally oriented I incs, and the scale values arc shown as whole numbers midway across the lines. In this example, the plotted sample falls on the scale with a value of 7 .0.
Finally. with values taken from the chart as outlined above. calculate corrected values for R, and R'(l .
(R/R1LJ) X R1Ld = Rt (corrected)
(Ratio value from chart) x log value = R, (corrected)
0.82 x 70 = 57.4 (R, corrected. or true formation resistivity).
and
(R,,,!R,) x R, = R'(l (corrected)
(ratio value from chart) x (corrected R, value) = Rxo (corrected) 7 x 57.4 = 401.8 (corrected resistivity of the flushed zone)
53
RESISTTVTT'''. ',,~JGS
S4
RESISTIVITY LOGS
Figure 20. Schematic illustration of a focused Laterolog* illustrating current flow.
Courtesy. Dresser Industries. Copyright 1974, Dresser Atlas.
As cited in the example. AI (above) and A2 (below) are the focusing (or guard) electrodes which direct and force thc current from the Ao electrode into the formation. The monitoring electrodes (M I ._ M I' and M2  M2') are brought to thc same potential by adjusting the current that emits from the focusing electrodes AI and A2.
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56
RESISTIVITY LOGS
Figure 21. Example Lateroiog' and Microluterolog" . The purpose for presenting this Ing is to illustrate the log curves. and to give you guidance on picking log values. These logs arc used when Rill!" =0 Rw'
Track #1The log track on the far left in this example is a gamma ray log. Gamma ray logs are discussed ill a later chapter. but they commonly accompany Latcrologs".
Track #2 The middle log track here is the Laterolog" which measures the deep resistivity (Rtl Ot' true rcxixt ivitv or the formation. Note that the scale increases from left to right. in increments of 5 ohmmeters from 0 to 50 on the rirst cycle. and in hybrid increments from 0 to »: on the second cycle.
At the sample depth of 3.948 ft the Laterolog= value reads 21 ohmmeters.
Track #3The righthand log in this suite is the Microlaterolog" which measures the resistivity of the flushed ZtlllC (Rw)' Note that the scale starts with zero between tracks il2 and #3that is. zero for the ivliuolaterulog' is no: the same point as zero for the Laterolog* farther to the left. The scale r~lIlges from () to 50 ohmmeters in incrcmcut, of 5 ohmmeters. There is no second cycle recorded.
At the sample depth of 3.948 ft the Microlaterolog" reads I () ohmmeters. or the depth line intcrccts the 1()!2 curve at two increments from zero.
Note: In order to correct (for invasion) the Laterolog* to true resistivity (R,). do the following t usc the example at _\ _'J.+S fr ):
R, = 1.67 (R,,)  0.67 (R,,,) (Hilchie. 1979) R, = 1.67(21)  0.67(10)
R, = 28.4 ohmmeters
Where:
R = resistivity of the uninvaded zone
Ru = Laterolog* resistivity (21 ohmmeters at 3,948 ft )
1\,0 = Microluterolog' resistivity (10 ohmmeters at 3,948 tr )
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RESISTIVITY LOGS
Figure 22. Example of Dual Laterolog= with Microspherically Focused Lug (MSFl)'i'. Usc this log to pick values and determine ratios for the tornado chart in Figure 23. These logs arc used when Rlllf = R; and invasion is deep.
The resistivity scale in tracks #2 and #3 is a fourcycle logarithmic scale ranging frorn 0 to 2.(01); the values increase from lefttoright.
Deep Laterolog resistivityThe dashed line LLd represents RU",J and measures the deep rcxixt i vity of the formation. or true resistivity (R,). At the sample depth of this exercise (9.324 tu. true resistivity (R,) reads a value of 16.0.
Shallow Laterolog* resistivityThe dottedanddashed line LLs represents Rl.Is and measures the shallow resistivity of the formation or the resistivity of the invaded zone (Rj). AI: the sample depth of this e xerc isc (9.324 ft), rcsisti vity (Rj) reads a value of 10.0.
Microspherically Focused Log (MSFL)* resistivity> The solid line SFL' represents RMSH'i and measures the resistivity of the flushed zone (Rxo). At the sample depth in this exercise (9.:124 ft). resistivity of the flushed zone (R,,,) reads a value of 4.5.
The following ratios are needed for work on the tornado chart (Fig. 23). and the values represented are picked from (he log as shown above:
RujRMSFL* = 16/4.5 = 3.6 Rl.u/RLLs = 16/10 = 1.6
59
60
DUAL LA TEROLOG*  Rxo ILld lls  R.o
RESISTIVITY LOGS
Figure 23. Dual Latcrolog=cMicrosphcricallv Focused Log" tornado chart for correcting RLLd to Rt. Log val ucs in this exercise arc picked from the example Dual Laterolog*MSFL* in Figure 22
Courtesy, Schlurnbcrger Well Services.
Copyright 1979. Schlumbergcr.
Given:
Rt.Ld = 16.0
RLLs = 10.0 R!'.tSFL* = 4.5 RLLjRMSFL" = 3.6 RujRLLs = 1.6
Procedure:
Plot the values for RLLjRMSFL* (3.6) and RLLjRLLs (16) using the vertical and horizontal scales at the side and bottom of the chart. Determine subsequent ratio values from the tornado chart.
R/RLLd The seale for this value is represented by the sol id , vertically oriented lines. The scale values read across the top part of the tornado chart. and range from 1.1 to I.S. Our value falls between the scale values 1.3 and 1.4. so we assign a value of 1.35.
djThe diameter of invasion around the borehole is picked from the chart: the scale is represented by the dashed. vertically oriented lines. and the scale values read across the top of the tornado chart ranging from 20 to 120 (inches) or 0.5 to 3.04 (meters). Our value falls between the scale values of 30 and 4() (inches), so we assign a value of 36 inches.
R/R", The scale for this ratio value is represented by the solid, horizontally oriented lines. The scale values read from bottom to top on the left part of the chart. and range from 1.5 to 100 Our value falls between the scale values 3 and 5 (much closer to 5). so we assign a value of 4.5.
F '111 <1 Ily. corrected values for true resistivity of the formation (Rt) and resistivity of the flushed zone (R,,,) arc determined u~;ing these ratios.
(RtiRLl.J) X RLlJ = Rt (corrected Rt) (ratio) x log value = corrected R,
1.35 x 16.0 = 21.6 (R, corrected. or true formation resistivity).
And:
(corrected R, )/( Rt/R,,,) = R,,, (corrected Rxu) (corrected R, )/( ratio value from chart) = corrected R,,, 21.6/4.5 = 4.S (corrected resistivity offlushed zone)
61
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RESISTIVITY LOGS
Figure 24. Example Microlog* with spontaneous potential log and caliper. This log demonstrates permeability two ways: positive separation between the micro normal and micro inverse logs in tracks #'2 and #3 and decreased borehole size due to mudcake , detected by the caliper log in track # I.
Examine the log from a sample depth 5,146 ft to 5,'238 ft.
Track #l~Note that the caliper shows a borehole diameter of approximately II inches just above the sample depth, but the hole size decreases to about 8.5 inches within the sample interval (the caliper measurement is shown by the solid line in track # I), thus indicating the presence of rnudcakc and a permeable zone.
Track #2~Note the positive separation between the micro normal log and the micro inverse log: the separation is about '2 ohmmeters. Positive separation is indicated where the resistivity value ofthe micro normal log (shown hy the dashed line) is greater than the resistivity value for the micro inverse log (shown by the solid line).
This higher micro normal resistivity value is because the micro normal curve reads deeper into the flushed zone. The combination of mud filtrate, formation water and/or residual hydrocarbons and rock in the flushed zone gives a higher resistivity reading than the rnudcake (measured by the micro inverse curve).
63
RESISTIVITY
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RESISTIVITY LOGS
Figure 25. Example of a Proximity Log" with a Microlog and caliper. The Proximity Log!' is dexigncd [0 read the resistivity of the flushed zone (R,o)' This particular log package includes: a Proximity Log'" to read Rxo, a Microlog" to determine permeable zones, and a caliper to determine the size of [he borehole.
Ex amine the log curves at the sample depth of 4,144 ft.
Track # ITrack # I depicts both a Microlog* and a caliper log. At the sample depth of 4,144 ft note that micro normal (shown by the dashed line) shows higher resistivity than micro inverse (shown by the solid line). Note: on this example. the resistivity values for micro normal and micro inverse increase from righttolcjt . Micro inverse has a value of about 1.:5, and micro normal has a value of about 3.0; the Microlog indicates a permeable zone. The caliper log indicates a borehole slightly less than 9 inches.
Tracks #2 and #JThc Proximity Log' measures resistivity of the flushed zone (R,,,). In this example the scale is logarithmic. reading from lefttoright. At the sample depth of4, 144 ft we read a proximity curve value (R",) or 18 ohmmeters.
6:5
CHAPT":.R T"i
POROSITY LOGS
Sonic Log
The sonic log is a porosity log that measures interval transit time I ~t) of a compressional sound wave traveling through one foot of formation. The sonic log device consists of one or more sound transmitters, and two or more receivers. Modern sonic logs are borehole compensated devices (BHC"). These devices greatly reduce the spurious effects of borehole size variations (Kobesh and Blizard, 1959), as well as errors due to tilt of the sonic tool (Schlumbcrgcr, J lJ72).
Interval transit time (~t) in microseconds per fool. is the reciprocal of the velocity of a compressional sound wave in feet per second. Interval transit time (~t) is recorded in tracks #2 and #3 (example Fig. 26). A sonic derived porosity curve is sometimes recorded in tracks # 2 and # J, along with the ilt curve (Fig. 26). Track # I normally contains a cal iper log and a gamma ray log or an SP log (Fig. 26).
The interval transit time (~t) is dependent upon both lithology and porosity. Therefore, a formation's matrix velocity (Table 6) must be known to derive sonic porosity either by chart (Fig. 27) or by the following formula (Wyllie et al , 1958):
Table 6. Sonic Vclocities and Interval Transit Times for Different Matricics. These constants are used in the Sonic Porosity Formula (after Schlurnbcrger, 1972).
~tlTl"
(~sec'ft)
VIlla ~Ima commonly
I lt/xcc) (~seC!ft) used
Sundxronc 1 iI.OOO (0 19.50() 55.StoSI.O 55.5(051.0
Limestone 21 ,(JOO to 23.(1)(J 47.0 to 43.5 47.6
Dolomite 23.(J()() to 26.000 43.5 10 38 . .'1 43.5
Anhydrite 20.000 SO.(J SO.(J
Salt IS.OO(J 66.7 67.0
Casint!
(Iron) 17,SO() S7() 57.n (Psonic ==:
Where:
(Psonic
sonic derived porosity
66
~tma ~tlog ~tf
interval transit time of the matrix (Table 6) interval transit time of formation
interval transit time of the fluid in the well bore (fresh mud = 189; salt mud = 185)
The Wyllie et al (1958) formula for calculating sonic porosity can be used to determine porosity in conso I idatcd sandstones and carbonates with intergranular porosity (grainstones) or intercrystalline porosity (sucrosic dolomites). However. when sonic porosities of carbonates with vuggy or fracture porosity are calculated by the Wyllie formula. porosity values will be too low. This will happen because the sonic log only records matrix porosity rather than vuggy or fracture secondary porosity. The percentage of vuggy or fracture secondary porosity can be calculated b) subtracting sonic porosity from total porosity. 'Iotul porosity values are obtained from one of the nuclear logs (i.e. density or neutron). The percentage of secondary porosity, called spr or secondary porosity index, can be a useful mapping parameter in carbonate exploration.
Where a sonic log is used to determine porosity in unconsolidated sands, an empirical compaction factor or Cp should be added to the Wyllie et al (1958) equation:
¢sonic = (ill~~" _ il~:a ) X lICp
Where:
<Psonic = sonic derived porosity
~Lma interval transit time of the matrix (Table 6)
~tlog interval transit time of formation
~tf interval transit time of the tluid in the well bore (fresh mud = 189; salt mud = 185)
Cp = compaction factor
The compaction factor is obtained from the following formula:
ilts'h x C Cp = ~"'~
100
Where:
Cp iltsh C
= compaction factor
= interval transit time for adjacent shale
= a constant which is normally 1.0 (Hilchie , 1978).
The interval transit time (ilt) of a formation is increased due to the presence of hydrocarbons (i .e. hydrocarbon effect). If the effect of hydrocarbons is not corrected, the
POROSITY LOGS
sonic derived porosity will be too high. Hilchie (1978) suggests the following empirical corrections for
h) drocarbon effect:
¢ = ¢sonic x 0.7 (gas) ¢ = ¢sonic X 0.9 (oil)
Density Log
The formation density log is a porosity log that measures electron dcnsitv of a formation. It can assist the geologist to: (I) identify evaporite minerals, (2) detect gasbearing zones, (3) determine hydrocarbon density, and (4) evaluate shal , sand reservoirs and complex lithologies
t Schlumberuer, 1972).
The density logging device is a contact tool which consists of a mediumenergy gamma ray source that emits p"mna rays into a formation. The gamma ray source is either CobalthO or Cesium137,
Gamma rays collide with electrons in the formation: the collisions rcsul t in a loss of energy from the gamma ray panicle. Tittman and Wahl (1965) called the interaction between incoming gamma ray particles and electrons in the formation, COIl/pion Scattering Scattered gamma rays which reach the detector, located a fixed distance from the gaml11a ray source, are counted as an indicator of formation density. The number of Compton Scattering collisions is a direct funct ion of the number of electrons in a formation (electron density). Consequently, electron density can be related to bulk density (Pb) of a formation in gm/cc.
The bulk density curve is recorded in tracks #2 and #3 (Fig 28), along with a correction curve (.~p). Because the modern density log is a compensated log (dual detectors). the correction curve (.11'; Fig. 28) records how much correction has been applied to the bulk density curve (Ph), due to borehole irregularities. Wheneverthe correction curve (.1,,) exceeds () .20 grnlcc, the value of the hulk densi tv oi)luillelifi'o/li ili« hulk densitv curve (Ph) should he consi.icrcd invalid. A density derived porosity curve is sometimes present in tracks #2 and #3 along with the bulk density (Pbi and correction (.11') curves. Track # I contains a gall1111a ray log and a caliper (example, Fig. 28).
Formation bulk density (Pb) is a function of matrix densilY. porosity, and density of the fluid in the pores (salt mud, fresh mud. or hydrocarbons). To determine density porosity, either by chart (Fig. 29) or by calculation, the rnatri \ density (Table 7) and type of fluid in the borehole must be known. The formula for calculating density porosity is:
\\'here:
('>,kn = density derived porosity
matrix density (see Table 7) formation bulk density
fluid density ( 1. 1 salt mud, 1.0 fresh mud, and 0.7 gas)
Pmo Ph PI
Table 7. Matrix Densities of Common Lithologies. Constants presented here arc used in the Density Porosity Formula (after Schlumberger. 1972).
 
Plll,,(gm/cc)
Sandstone Limestone Dolomite Anhydrite Salt
2.648 2.71 () 2.876 2.977 2.032
Where invasion of a formation is shallow, low density of the formation \ hydrocarbons will mcrcasc density porosity. Oil does not significantly affect density porosity, but gas docs (gas effect). Hilchic (1978) suggests using a gas density of O. 7 grn/cc for fluid density (Pt) in the density porosity formula if gas density is unknown.
Neutron Logs
Neutron logs are porosity logs that measure the hydrogen ion concentration in a formation. 111 clean formations t i.c . shalefree) where the porosity is filled with water or oil. the neutron log measures liquidfilled porosity.
Neutrons arc created from a chemical source in the neutron logging tool. The chemical source llIay he a mixture of americium and beryllium which will continuously emit neutrons. These neutrons collide with the nuclei of the formation material, and result in a neutron losing some of its energy. Because the hydrogen atom is almost equal in mass to the neutron, maximum energy loss occurs when the neutron collides with a hydrogen atom. There fore, the maximum amount of energy loss is a function of a
formation '5 hydrogen concentration. Because hydrogen in a porous formation is concentrated in the fluidfilled pores, cner,gy loss can be relutcd to the formation's porosity.
Whenever pores are filled with gas rather than oil or water. neutron porosity will be lowered. This occurs because there is less concentration of hydrogen in gas compared to oil or water. A lowering of neutron porosity by gas is called gus "ffeer.
Neutron log responses vary, depending on: (I) differences in detector types. (2) spacing between source and detector, and (3) lithologyi.e. sandstone, limestone, and dolomite. These variations in response can he compensated for by using the appropriate charts (Figs.)O and 31). A geologist should remember that neutron logs (unlike all other logs)
67
must be interpreted from the specific chart designed for" specific log (i .c. Schlurnbcrgcr charts for Schlurnbergor lous and Dresser Atlas charts for Dresser Atlas logs). The reason for this is that whih. other logs are calibrated in basic physical units, neutron logs arc not (Dresser Atlas. IlJ75).
The first modern neutron log was the Sidewall Neutron Lou. The Sidewall Neutron Log has both the source and detector in a pad which is pushed against the side of the borehole. The most modern of the neutron logs is a Compensated Neutron Log which has a neutron source and two detectors. The advantage of Compensated Neutron logs over Sidewall Neutron logs is that they are less affected by borehole irregularities. Both the Sidewall and Compensated Neutron logs can be recorded in apparent limestone, sandstone. or dolomite porosity units. If a formation is limestone, and the neutron log is recorded in apparent limestone porosity units. apparent porosity is equal to true porosity. However, when the lithology of a formation is sandstone or dolomite. apparent limestone porosity must be corrected to true porosity hy using the appropriate chart (Fiu. ]0 till' Sidewall Neutron Log: or Fig. ] I for CO~lpensated Neutron Log). The procedure is identical for each of the charts and is shown in Figures ]0 and :II .
Combination NeutronDensity Log
The Combination NeutronDensity Log is a combination porosity log. Besides its use as a porosity device. it is also used to determine lithology and to detect gasbearing zones.
The NeutronDensity Log consists of neutron and density curves recorded in tracks #2 and #3 (example. Fig. 32). and a caliper and gamma ray log in track # 1. Both the neutron and density curves are normally recorded in
l irncstonc porosity units with each division equal to either two percent or three percent porosity: however, sandstone and dolomite porosity units can also be recorded.
True porosity can be obtained by, first. reading apparent lirncsronc porosities from the neutron and density curves (example: Fig.]2 at ().324 ft. (P" = R% and </)1) = 3.5'1t). Then. these values are cro ssplottcd on a neutrondensity porosity chart (Figs. ]J or ]4) to find true porosity. In the example from Figures 32 and ]4. the position of the crossploucd ncutrondcnsuy porosities at 9,]24 ft (Fig. 34) indicates that the lithology is a limey dolomite and the porosity is 6'Yr.
Examination of the neutrondcnxity porosity chart (Fig. 34) reveals that the porosity values are only slightly affected by changes in litholouv, Therefore, porosity from a Neutron~Density Lo;~an be calculated mathematically. The alternate method of determining neutrondensity porosity is to use the root mean square formula.
68
Where: cb:lD
~
(Do
neutrondensity porosity
neutron porosity (limestone units) density porosity (limestone units)
If the neutron and density porosities from Figure J2 at a depth of lJ .324 ft are entered into the root mean square formula. we calculate a porosity of 6.~(""0. This calcularccl porosity value compares favorably with the value obtained from the crossplot method
Whenever a NeutronDensity Log records a density porosity of less than O.Oa common value in anhydritic dolomite reservoirs (Fig. 32: depth 9.328 ftJthe following formula should be used to determine neutrondensity porosity:
Pki + (Dn 2
Where:
$,,D neutrondensity porosity
~ = neutron porosity (limestone Units) cbD = density porosity (limestone units)
Fiuure 35 is a schematic illustration of how I ithology affcc~s the Combination Gamma Ray NeutronDensity log The relationship between log responses on the Gamma R:.l) NcutronDensitv Loz and rock type provides a powerful tool for the sub;urfa:e geologist. By identifying rock type from logs. a geologist can construct facies maps.
Figu;e 35 :dso illustrates the change in neutrondensity response between an oil or wuterbeuring sand and a gasbearing sand. The oil or waterbearing sand has a density log reading of four porosity units more than the neutron lo~g. In contrast. the gasbearing sand has a density reading of~up to [0 porosity units more than the neutron log.
Where an increase in density porosity occurs along Vii ith a decreasc in neutron porosity in a gasbearing zone. it is called gas etIi'l·f. Gas effect is created by gas in the pores. Gas in the pores causes the density log to record too high a porosity (i.e . gas is lighter than oil or water). and causes the neutron log to record too low a porosity (i.e . gas has a lower concentration of hydrogen atoms than oil or water). The effect of gas on the NeutronDensity Log is a very important log response because it he Ips a geologist to detect zasbearina zones.
~ Fisure 36 is a schematic illustration ofa Gamma Ray Neut~onDensity Log through several gas sands. It illustrates how changes in porosity. invasion. hydrocarbon density. and shale content alter the degree of gJS effect observed on the NeutronDensity Log.
tSlj~hl vuri.uions of [his formula may' he used in some .irc ax. .v!.o. S01l\e log ;nalysts restrict the use of this formula [() gasheal'illg Iorru.irion». ,IIlLi lise (bN.D = (,b\l + 'bD)/~ in oil or w.ncrbcarinu lorrnationx.
POROSITY LOGS
Review·· Chapter IV
The three types of porosity logs are: ( I) sonic. (2) density. and (l) neutron.
::: The sonic log is a porosity log that measures the interval transit time (~t) 0 f a compressional sound wave through one foot of formation. The un it of measure is microseconds per foot (fJ.sec/ft). Interval transit time is re luted to formation porosity.
_< The density log is a porosity log that measures the electron density of a formation. The formation's electron density is related to a formation's bulk density (Pb) in glll,\:c. Bulk density. in tum. can be related to formation porosity.
4 The neutron log is a porosity log that measures the
hydrogen ion concentration in a formation. In shalefree formations where porosity is filled with water. the neutron log can be related to waterfilled porosity.
.5 In gas reservoirs. the neutron log will record a lower porosity than the formation \ true porosity because gas has a lower hydrogen ion concentration than oil or water (gas effect) .
6. The NeutronDensity Log is a combination porosity log. Porosity can be determined from a NeutronDensity Log either by a crossplot chart or by formula.
7. Additional uses of the combination NeutronDensity Log are: ( I) detection of gas bearing zones: and (2) determination of lithology.
69
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9400
POROSITY LOGS
Figure 26. Example sonic log with gamma ray log and caliper. This example is shown to display the scales of a sonic log, and to be used in picking an interval transit time (ilt) value for Figure 27.
Track # IThis track includes both the gamma ray and cal iper curves. Note that the gamma ray scale reads from () to 100 APr gamma ray units, increasing from lefttoright in increments of 10 units. The gamma ray scale is represented by a solid line.
The caliper scale ranges from 6 to 16 inches, from lefttoright in oneinch increments, and is represented by a dashed line.
Tracks #2 and #3Both the interval transit time (~t) scale and the porosity scale are shown in this track. Sonic log interval transit time (ilt) is represented by a solid line, on :J: scale ranging from 40 to SO j.Lscc/ft increasing from righttoleft,
The sonic porosity measurement (limestone matrix) is shown by a dashed line, on a scale ranging from 10% to + 30% porosity increasing from righttoleft,
At the sample depth used in Figure 27 (9,J 10ft), read a sonic log interval transit time (,~n value of 6J j.LseC/ft.
71
POROSITY T_(~J~b
POROSITY EVALUATION FROM SONIC
POROSITY EVALUATION FROM i
V t " 5,300 ft Isec
¢= 1 1ma x _I
1 f 1ma Bcp
40
40
30 ::i
::i
a. c..
> >
f I
 Vl
Vl
0 0
n: n:
0 0
n, 20 o,
& & 10
1, INTERVAL TRANSIT TIME, microsec/ft
Vma (ft/sec) ;f me (microsecl ft)
Sandstones 18,00019,.500 55.5  51.3
limestones 21,00023,000 47.643.5
Dolomites 23,00026,000 43.5 38.5 ~
72
POROSITY LOGS
~igure 27. Chart used for converting interval transit time (.:1t) values to sonic porosity, using values picked from a some log.
COUnTS), Schlumberger Well Services. Copyright 1977, Schlurnberger.
Given:
V ma = 26,000 ft/sec where V rna is the sonic velocity of the matrix (in this case dolomite: sec Table 6) . .:1t (from log) = 63 j.isee/ft at a depth of 9,310 It (see Fig. 26)
Procedure :
I. Find an interval transit time value (.:1t) taken from the sonic log in Figure 26 (in this ex ample 03 j.isec!fl) on the scale at the bottom of the chart.
2 Follow the value (63) vertically until it intersects the diagonal line representing 26,()OO fl/scc (dolomite, in this case) .
3. From that point, follow the value horizontally to the left. and read the porosity value from the porosity scale. In this case, the value is 16.5% (¢ = 16.5%).
_______ c_A~I_(.!..Nl ______
6.000 16.00
GR (GAPI)
0.0 100.0
I Pt· f.;L c 1
,;.. 
I I r
,. k L ,
.d"'

"
I>
I.G 9400
3.000
______ .~~~?_~i~~ 1
0.0110 0.4110·01
_______ . !!..O_~H~!L 
1.000 ~ 10000.
RHOa (6/CS)
9300
74

2..000
If
._ .. ~
POROSITY LOGS
Figure 28. E xarnple of a bulk density log with a gamma ray log and caliper. and formation factor curve (F). This log is presented to show you the scales of a density log, and is used in picking values for Figure 2<).
Track #IThis track includes both the gamma ray and caliper logs. Note that both scales read lefttoright: the gamma ray values range from 0 to 100 APT gamma ray units, and the caliper measures the borehole size from 6 to 16 inches.
Tracks #2 and #3The bulk density curve (Ph)' correction curve (~I»' and formation factor curve (F) arc recorded in this track. Thc correction (~p)' formation factor, and the bulk density scales increase in value from left to right.
The bulk density (Ph) scale ranges in value from 2.0 grn/cc to 3.0 grn.cc and is represented by a solid line. The density log correction curve (~pl ranges in value from (l.05 gm/cc to +0.45 gm/cc in increments of OJ)) gm/cc , but only uses the left half of the log track. The formation factor curve (F) ranges in value trom I to IO,OO() (discussed later) and is represented by a dashed line.
At the sample depth used in Figure 29 (9,310 It) read a bulk density value (Ph) of 2.56 grn/cc.
75
76
FORMATION DENSITY lOG DETERMINATION OF POROSITY
FORMATION DENSITY COMPENSATED POROSITY DETERMINATION
~
ci.
~
!:: 20 (f)
o
0:
o
Q_
© Schlumberger
2.6
2.0
2.31 Pb, BULK DENSITY, gm/cc
EXAMPLE: Pb
2.31 gm/cc in limestone lithology 2.71 (limestone)
1.1 (solt mud)
25 p .. u.
Pms Pt
SOLUTION: CPD
POROSITY LOGS
Figure 29. Chart for converting bulk density (Pb) to porosity (1)) using values picked from a density log.
C'OUIteSY. Schlumberger Well Services. Copyright 1977. Schlumberger.
PITI" = 2.87 gm/cc (dolomite; Table 7)
PI = I. I grn/cc (suggested constant fluid density for salt mud: see text) Ph = 2.56 gm/cc at a depth of 9.3 10ft (from log; Fig. 28)
Procedure:
I. Find a value for bulk density (Ph) on the horizontal scale at the bottom of Figure 29 (in this example 2.56 gm/cc).
2. Follow the value vertically until it intersects the diagonal line representing the matrix density (Pma) used (in this case 2.87 for dolomite).
3. From that point, follow the horizontal line to the left where the porosity (rp) value is represented on the porosity scale at a fluid density (Pr) of 1. I. In this case. the porosity «p) is 18'70.
77
40
e
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a:
w I<:{
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x 30
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(5 20 Z
a:~ 0_ LL c
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t:~
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°
a: 10
~
w ::> a:
I
78
NEUTRON POROSITY EQUIVALENCE CURVES SIDEWAll NEUTRON POROSITY lOG (SNP)
MAY ALSO BE USED FOR GNT NEUTRON LOGS
o
i ~=L' t I ~ I I I I ~
1.1 !tL ·r=L. ItTL I I I
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I I
L. ; ! 1____ . _~_ + . _"_. __ ~__ I i V I 1/ /r7 ._!___:_~
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::::=c "TT)+  EF= ~ ," '7 , VI i V ,~ ,_. 1=1H rTi'
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. LI:t.~~~ ~7 ~+i t.L. _;___j_j
=+ I+J! . , , ! _' .L L_~_
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© 1969 Schlumberger'
f i i ! I , i . I I , I I J_ I ,i ' ~
1/ i : .: , I . I I i ! '+H . ~,LI i
[//i I I iii I I I I i I i ; ; ·'r o 10 20 30
SNP NEUTRON INDEX (¢SNP)C (Apparent Limestone Porosity)
CORRECTED POROSITY (¢sNPlc
40
30
LOG DERIVED POROSITY ¢SNP(%)
POROSITY LOGS
Figure 30. Chart for correcting Sidewall Neutron Porosity Log (SNP") for lithology. Note: this is a Schlumbcrgcr example: do not use this chart with another type neutron log (see text)
Courtesy. Schlumberger Well Services.
Copyright 1969. Schlumberger.
Given: The lithology is dolomite. Also. {he apparent limestone porosity is 15%. The value for apparent limestone porosity is read directly from a Sidewall Neutron Porosity Log (SNP*) A Sidewall Neutron Log (SNP*) is not shown here; instead the value is given to you.
Procedure:
1. Find the value for apparent limestone porosity (read from an SNP* log) along the scale at the bottom of the correction chart. In this example. the value is 15 %.
') Follow the value vertically until it intersects the diagonal curve representing dolomite.
3. From that point. follow the value horizontally to the left. and read the true porosity ((,6) on the lefthand scale: 12%.
7Y
so
_J
<{
a::
w
~
<{
~
X30

a:: ~ <{
~
o w
~
u
o 20 z
a:: 0::LL C
~ U > ....
'=~
en 
o
a::: 10 o
a.
NEUTRON POROSITY EQUIVALENCE CURVES COMPENSATED NEUTRON LOG (CNL)
1972 Schlurnberger
o L __ ~~ __ ~ ~ ~ ~~ __ ~ _' _' ~
o 10 20 30 40
CNL NE UTRON INDEX (¢CNL)C (Apparent Limestone Porosity)
POROSITY LOGS
Figure 31. Chart for correcting Compensated Neutron Log (CNL*) for lithology. Note: this is a Schlumbcrgcr chart: do not lise this chart with another type of neutron log (see text).
Courtesy, Schlumberger Well Services. Copyright 1972. Sehlumberger.
Given: The lithology is sandstone. Also, the apparent limestone porosity is 2Wlt . The value fOi apparent limestone porosity is read directly from a Compensated Neutron Log (C;..rL*). A Compensated Neutron Log: (eN!_'!) is not shown here: instead the value is given to you.
Procedure:
!. Find the value for apparent limestone porosity (read from a CN L" log) along the scale at the bottom of the chart. In this example, the value is 20%.
'") Follow the value vertically until it intersects the diagonal curve representing litholugv tin this case. sandstone).
3. From that point, follow the value horizontally to the left. and read the true porosity (b) on the lefthand scale.
Porosity = 24%.
81
CALI (IN)
11:000   111:00
QR (UPI)
0.0 100.0
'
...,.
.....

;;;>
::>
...... 16
.... 82
9400
8300
Co I TENI (LI)
r 5000. 0.0
DPHI ( )
, 0.100
NPHI ( )
    
0.3000 LIMESTONE 0.100
_


~
I e ,
 _
.
~, 

_





_ ,
c

_
~

_
 
 
 _
_.
 
...
~

_ =
  
__

 9310
, .. ." ....
POROSITY LOGS
Figure 32. E '(ample of a Combination NeutronDensity Log with gamma ray log and caliper. This log illustrates the log curves and scales of a combination log. but is also used here for picking values for exercises in Figure 33 and Figure 34.
Track # IThis track contains both gamma ray and caliper curves. Note that the gamma ray scul« reads from () to I ()() API gamma ray units and the caliper measures a borehole size from 610 16 inches.
Tracks #2 and #3Both neutron porosity (WN) and density porosity (d)[)) curves are in tracks #:: and # '. The scale for both is the same. ranging from  10% to + 30S1c: in increments of 2'k. and is measured III I imcstonc porosity units. On this log the density porosity (1)0) is represented by a sol id I inc. and the neutron porosity (IbN) is represented by a dashed line.
Figures 33 and 34 are charts and examples for correcting NeutronDensity Log porosities for lithology. Because salt versus freshwater drilling muds can affect the porosity values, two different charts are used. Figure 33 is used to correct porosity for lithology where there is freshwaterbased drilling mud (where RIll! > ' Rw); and the other (Fig. 34) is used where there is saltwaterbased drilling mud (where Rmf = R, J.
At the sample depth of 9.310 ft. the neutron porosity value i q)N) is 24'7c . and the density porosity value (,bJ)) is 9%.
83
84
POROSITY AND LITHOLOGY DETERMINATION FROM FORMATION DENSITY LOG AND COMPENSATED NEUTRON LOG (CNL)
FRESH WATER, LIQUIDFILLED HOLES
<..>
<..>
<,
E
01 2.4
~
r
ef) 2.5
Z
W
0
~
__J
:::>
CD
..0
Q.. 2.7 40
35 ~
r
ef)
0
30 0:::
0
o,
w
25 Z
0
r
ef)
w
20 ~
__J
r
15 Z
w
c::
~
10 a...
<t
(!)
0
5 __J
~
t
O ef)
Z
w
0
5
10
15
20 30 40 CNL NEUTRON INDEX (<PCNJC (J\PPARENT LIMESTONE POROSITY)
POROSITY LOGS
Figure JJ. Chart for correcting NeutronDensity Log porosities for lithology where freshwaterbased drilling mud is used (where
Rmr 3 Rw)'
Courtesy, Schlumberger Well Services. Copyright 1972. Schl urnberger.
Given: fir = 1.0 grn/cc (suggested fluid density of fresh muds: see text under the heading: Density Logs). (bN = 24 (;{'. and rD[) = 9<?c at a depth of 9.310 ft (from log: see Fig. 32).
Procedure:
I. Locate the neutron porosity value ((PN) on the bottom scale (24%) and find the density porosity value ((/)Il) on the righthand scale (9';'0).
'1 Follow the values until they intersect on the chart. In this example. the values meet 011 the lithology curve for dolomite. and the intersection shows a true porosity value of 16.5c,{ .
85
POROSITY LOGS
86
POROSITY AND LITHOLOGY DETERMINATION FROM FORMATION DENSITY LOG AND COMPENSATED NEUTRON LOG (CNL)
SALT WATER, LIGUIDFILLED HOLES
2.2 r
(J
(J
<, 2.3 c
E
0'
>
..... 2.4
en
Z
W
0
2.5 
~
_j
:::J
(1)
2.6 ~
.0
Q._ :0
2.7 r ;. ~ ..  :.
.  ~ .__.  .
. ",' 1972 Schlurr.berger _, r 15
. . __'_j ~i tr
~O~~_L~~~~~~~~
o 10 20 30 40
CNL NEUTRON INDEX (¢CNl)C (APPARENT LIMESTONE POROSITY)

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