PRINCIPLES OF

ISLAMIC
GOVERNMENT

MS. TAJAR

TO

Prophet Muhammad, the great founder if ISLAM, Imam Ali, whose teachings and practices inspired us in writing this book, Ayatollah Khomeini, whose leadership caused the Islamic revival of our time, And to the self-sacrificing men, women and children who shed their blood and this established the Islamic Government in the 20th century…

This humble work is dedicated. M.S. Tajar Manila, January 11, 1982

TABLE OF CONTENTS Dedication ……………………………………………………...i Introduction………………………………………………….....1-7 Who is Ali Ali Bin Abitalib The First Muslim Ali Multi-dimensional Personality The wrong concept of Education Mass Education Not Lawlessness ISLAMIC GOVERNMENT: AIMS AND OBJECTIVES………………………………………...8-27 Freedom of Man Ali a man of knowledge & wisdom Ali’s Political Reforms Ali as a Ruler and Statesman Establishment of a Just Political Structure War in Islam? Islam Advocates Justice In Society Qualified Islamic Leadership But it should be different The Government of the Islamic state ISLAMIC GOVERNMENT: ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION…………………………28-37 Leadership: Selective and elective Sunni and Shia Schools What about Today? Relationship of Leader and his people Administration Based on Consultation Scope of Showra Principle of Check and Balance The Government Affairs

CHARACTERISTIC OF ISLAMIC GOVERNMENT…………………………………..38-45 Human Oriented Provision of Law and Order A Possible Misunderstanding Society Based on Moderation Strong, Firm but highly Democratic ISLAMIC GOVERNMENT IN MUSLIM COUNTRIES AND A WORLDWIDE ISLAMIC GOVERNMENT………46-54 − Establishment of Islamic Government in the Muslim Countries − The Role if Iran − A worldwide- Islamic Government − The Islamic Movement Today − Liberation Movements Conference in Tehran − Islamic Constitutions of Iran and the Worldwide Islamic Government APPENDIX………………………………………………..ii-VI BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………VII-XIV

INTRODUCTION

It was the year 1979 when a big event of the 20th century took place – the militant revival of Islam, symbolized by the Islamic Revolution of Iran.1 What would be the Islamic Government in the 20th century become everybody’s question. The radical intellectuals, the traditionalists and conservatives, politicians and businessmen, men of religion as well as free thinkers – all were interested in knowing the nature of this phenomenon, or as Ben Bella, The leader of Algerian Revolution put it, “The Miracle of our Age”. 2 Many articles and commentaries appeared in the International Press, but almost all failed to describe it correctly, either because of the lack of information on the subject matter or, in some cases, the intention to distort the facts. * Nonetheless, there were some commentators who got the idea and explained it to their readers. Here are some portions of an article by Mr. Arthur Higbee. After discussing some progressive and humanoriented aspects of Islam, the author writes as follows:
These humane percepts are contained in a letter from an Islamic ruler to one of his viceroys. They were written 1300 years ago by Ali, son-in-law of the Prophet Mohammad to Malik, his new viceroy for Egypt.

The letter, as classic of Islamic Literature, has taken on a fresh timeliness with revolutionary leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini’s demand that Iran be turned into an Islamic Republic. 3

Although there are some little mistakes in this observation, which is expected from a non-Muslim anyway, but in general, he is right. First of all, the letter that the author mentions in neither the only letter of instruction nor the only principle laid by Imam Ali on how to establish and run the Islamic government; in fact there is a thick book called Nahjul Balgha, containing his letters and his political as well as other Islamic teaching. * Second, the Islamic government is not based on what Ali wrote and ruled, but what Mohammad, the founder of Islam, instructed his followers. The only thing Ali did was to put them into proper practice and organize as well as interpret those divine principles. Third, the letter was not written 1300 years ago, but much closer to the era of the Prophet and his companions. It was issued three years after Ali became the Khifa (Caliph) of Muslims in the year 35 A.H. * Before that, there were many other political instructions by him, but this one was more in detail. Based on these, it becomes clear that the letter was written in the year 38 A.H. That is 28 years after Mohammad passed away and exactly 1362 years ago.

Who is Ali? It seems that in history the world there is no personality more controversial then Ali Bin Abitalib. When it comes to this personality the people range from those who regard him as God (Nosairies, Gholat and Ali Allahies) down to those who regard Ali as infidel and curse him (The Nasebies, Khawarej). In between, there are many groups with different degrees of feelings and beliefs about him. There are those who believed in Ali to be an impeccable Imam (saint) who was appointed by Prophet Mohammad as his sole legitimate and uninterrupted successor who regard him as one of the top tem respectable companions of Mohammad and the fourth Khalifa (Sunni Muslims). Each one of these two schools again has several other sub-groups like various branches of Sufis or mystics and other denominations. But this study is not about those groups and schools, rather it intends to give a short biography of a man, whose interpretation and practice of Islamic principles became a guideline for the Muslims to aspire for the re-establishment of the Islamic government – a 20th century version – through self-sacrifices and a bloody revolution.

Ali Bin Abitalib, the First Muslim Being born on the 13th of Rajab 610 A.D. (23 years before Hijra) Ali was the first person to accept Islam.4 When Mohammad started preaching the new religion he began the mission from his own relatives as was ordered by Allah:
“And warn (call O, Mohammad) thy clan of near Kindered.”5 Ali was the first cousin of him and since early childhood he was grown and trained by Mohammad himself. 6

Historian believe that Ali was born in the precints of Ka,aba, the Holy house in Mecca.7 It is more acceptable when we take into consideration the facts that the family of Mohammad and Ali the Bani Hashim, were traditional guardians and Keyholders of Ka,aba and always had to be present in that Holy House and most probably Ali’s mother gave birth to her son while she was in the House. Ali a Multi-dimensional Personality Among the great personalities of history, there are some with a special capacity and talent in one aspect or two, but incapable in the third. The history shows many chevaliers, poets, a philosopher, orators, devotes, justices and rulers, etc. But the thing unique with Ali was that, according to the researchers,* he was the greatest warrior that ever appeared in the Arab and Islamic history while his orations and writings are classified as the masterpieces of Arabic language and Islamic literature, and his sayings, even today are considered to be among the best philosophical views. His devotional life has become as symbol and a pattern to follow, for the early Islamic Sufis as well as many mystical schools existing today. Ali’s political teachings and rules and regulations established during his four years of Khalafat have been serving as the basis of many rightful Muslim governments of the past as well as that of today. To have a better understanding of this great man of Islam and world in general, here are some views expressed by the philosophers and histories who have studied Ali’s life and character for many years. Uztad (Professor) Mahommad Kamil Hatta of Egypt says:
His (Ali’s) personality is very prominent on account of his transcending and high qualities. Each aspect of his life is so lofty and glorious that a study of one phase would make you feel that it

was the best phase of his character and the most beautiful picture of his personality, while contemplation of any other phase will enchant you more and you will come to the conclusion that no human being can attain that height, an a third aspect will fascinate you equally and you will realize that before you is a personality of such great eminence that you can not fully appreciate its greatness and you will feel that Ali was an Imam(leader) in battle-field, was an Imam in politics, was an Imam in religion and also an Imam in ethics, in philosophy, in literature, in learning and in wisdom.8

Another prominent historian who has devoted a large part of his life studying Imam Ali’s saying and deeds is Ibne Abil Hadeed. He has written a commentary, covering 17 thick volumes, on the life and views of Ali. This well-known scholar, who knows Ali better than many others, describes him this way:
HAZRAT (respect) Ali has a personality in which opposite characteristics has so gathered that it was difficult to believe that a human mind could manifest such combination. He was the bravest man that history could cite and such brave persons are always hard hearted, cruel and eager for bloodshed. On the contrary Ali was kind, sympathetic, responsive and warm heated person, qualities quite contradictory to the other phase of his character and more suited to pious and God-fearing persons. He was very pious and God fearing person and often pious and God fearing persons avoid society and do not care to mix with men of sins and me of wrath, similarly warriors, kings and dictators are usually arrogant and haughty, they consider it below themselves to mix with poor, lowly and humble person. But Ali was different. He was friend to all. As a matter of fact he has a tender spot in his heart for poor and humble, and for orphans and cripples. To them he always was kind friend, a sympathetic guide and a fellow sufferer; he was meek unto them but haughty and arrogant against famous warriors and generals, so many of whom he had killed in hand combats. He was always kind but strict with wayward persons, sympathetically teaching them the way of God. He always smiled and passed happy and witty re-joiners, it was difficult to overcome him in a debate or reportees, his rejoiners and retorts always bore high mark of culture, education and knowledge.9

Ibne Abil Hadded then goes deeper to explain Ali’s nobility of character and his gentleness. At the end he quotes a highly respectable Muslim personality Abdullah, son of Imam Malik as saying:
“The Caliphate did not bring any honor or glory to Ali, but it was itself honored and glorified by Ali and it received the status actually due to it”. 10

Ali as a Ruler and Statesman When he was elected as Khalifa by the people, Ali was 58 years old and it was 25 years after Prophet Mohammad had passed ways or 36 years after the first Islamic state was established. The Shia Muslims believer that Ali, who was the most trusted and the most deserving person at the time, was picked by Mohammad, upon the order of Allah, during a ceremony (Al-Ghadeer) to be the post revolutionary leader of the Muslim Ummah.11 The Sunni Muslims (The majority), however, believe in Ali’s outstanding personality and also the ceremony in which he was picked up by the Prophet; but they argue that it was to declare his “friendship” with , and not leadership over, the Muslims. 12 In any case, historically and not ideologically speaking, Ali was elected the fourth Khalifa after: 1. Abu Bakr son of Abi Qohafa (ruled two years and three months.) 2. Omar Bin Khattab (ruled 10 years and six months); and 3. Othman Bin Affan (ruled 12 years). Unlike his three predecessors, who were either elected by a partisan group, compared to the rest of Muslim population, (like Abu Bakr) or only selected by outgoing Khalifa (Like Omar) or elected by a handful of elites (like Osman), Ali was the only Khalifa in the history of Islam (and of the whole world till that time, 758 A.D.) who was truly elected by the people to rule over the biggest existing government of the time composed of the whole Arabian peninsula, the former Egyptian and Persian Empires and a big portion of the Roman Empire, combined. Ali explains his own election this way:
At the moment (elections) the crowd of people (who were tired of the former rulers and rushed to elect Ali) frightened me. It advanced towards me from every side like the mane of hyena so much so that Hassan and Hosain (Ali’s sons) were getting crushed and both the ends of my shoulder garment were torn. 13

One of the factors that made this election unique, was that Ali was the first, and most probably the last, ruler who was ever elected by the overwhelming majority without any campaign and any desire or aspiration for the post, but rather accepted it, according to himself, as an obligation to Allah and His people, which Ali could not refuse. He said:

Behold, Him who split the grain (to grow) and created living beings, if people had not come to me and supporters has not exhausted the argument and if there has been no pledge of Allah with the learned (the intellectuals) to effect that they should not acquiesce in the gluttony of the oppressor and the hunger of the oppressed, I would have cast the rope of Khelafat (rulership) on its own shoulders, (…..) in my view this world of yours is less worthy than the sneezing of a goat. 14

Ali would not agree in principle with any of the past three Kahlifas and always would criticize them, but more in a type of friendliness and guidance rather then enmity and destruction. The reason why he, in spite of disagreement with their ruler in principle, never made any attempt to overthrow them or destroy their image among the public; particular when they were in power, was that he knew very well that a civil war among the Muslims in the early days of Islam would be beneficial only to the hostile powers outside the country (the Roman and Persian empires) and the counter revolutionaries (Munafeqin) and the reactionaries (Mushriks and Kafirs) within the new Islamic State. This point of view could be quite clearly understood from his speech No.5, a part of which states like this.
If I had attempted to pluck the unripe fruit (of Khelafat) then by this way the orchard would have been desolated and I too would have achieved nothing (….) If I ask them to vacate it so that owner (the right person for the post) should cultivate it himself and protect it, they say how greedy I am, while if I keep quite they think I am afraid of death. They should tell me on what occasion did I ever feel afraid, or flew from the battle-field, for life. 15

As once a great Muslim scholar commented, we could see Ali’s heroic personality and real value of him not so much in the great wars he fought and won but rather in his 25 years of great silence and patience, during which he suffered a lot, but for the sake of Truth and preserving unity of the newly established government of Islam, he kept quite. If the ordinary politicians given the same opportunities, would resort to a civil strife or war, Ali did the opposite. He explains his own situation in those days as this:
By Allah, the son of Abi Qohafa (first Khalifa) dressed himself with it (the Khelafat) while he certainly knew that my position in the relation to it was the same as the position of the axis in relation to the hand-mill (….) I put a curtain against the Khelafat and kept myself detached from it. Then I began to think whether I

should assault of endure calmly the blinding darkness of tribulations wherein the grown up are feebled and the young grown old and the true believer acts under strain till he meets Allah (on his death), I found that endurances thereon was wiser. So I adopted patience although there was pricking in the eye and suffocation (of mortification) in the throat. 17

Ali, then lashes out on the second Kahlifa (Omar) by saying:
The first one went his way (died) but handled over the Khelafat to Ibne Khattab (second Khalifa) himself…. This one put the Khelafat in a tough enclosure where the utterance was haughty and the touch was rough, Mistakes were in plenty and so also the excuses thereof. One in contact with it was like the rider of an unruly camel. If he let it loose, he would be thrown. Consequently, By Allah, people got involved in recklessness, wickedness, unsteadiness and deviation…… ……Till the third man of these people (the third Khalifa, Othman) stoop up (….) with him his cousins also stood up swallowing up Allah’s wealth (National income) like a camel devouring the foliage of spring till his rope broke down his actions finished him and his gluttony brought him down prostrate (the people rebelled and killed the third Khalifa) 18

From his criticism of the past Khalifas’ acts and policies, one can easily determine how contrary to the Islamic principles they might have been in Ali’s point of view. It also indicate his determination to check and correct all misconducts and deviations committed by the past Khalifas. That is why this research work intends to take up and analyze Ali’s interpretation of the Islamic law regarding government: because by comparing his views with those of his opponents, a big gap and a very clear contrast shall arise and will show the true nature of the Islamic Government. Ali’s Political Reforms Before taking up some major political reforms brought by Ali during his Khelafat, it should be borne in mind that in Islam there exist no difference between political and religious or social and moral or other matters, but rather all aspects in the life of any citizen of the Islamic government are to be considered by the administration. Therefore, if a reform was made by Ali or any other Islamic administrator which seemed not to be apparently political but, say religious it is still considered political because here the government and politics eminate from religion and any reform in the basis – religion –

doubtless will affect everything, including the government and politics of the state. Regarding the reforms that his government intended to bring, Ali delivered a beautiful speech on the occasion during which the allegiance was sworn to him at Medina. He began his words by saying:
The responsibility for what I say is guaranteed and I am answerable for it… You should know that the same problems which existed when the Prophet (Mohammad) was first send, have returned to our society today (the socio-political corruption). By Allah who send the Prophet with faith and truth, you will be severely subverted (by my government’s plan for reforms), bitterly shaken as in sieving and fully mixed as by spooning in a cooking pot till your low persons become high and high ones become low, those who were forward would become backward (the former appointments have been unjust). By Allah, I have not concealed a single word not spoken any lie (unlike many politicians)….. Beware that sins (corruption) are like unruly horses on whom their riders have been placed and their reigns have been let loose so that hey would jump with them in Hell (of destruction), while piety is like trained horses on whom the riders have been placed with the reign of their hands, so that they would take their riders to Heaven (of prosperity). There is right and left (wings) there are followers of each … (remember) there are misleading paths; only the middle way is the right path; only the* (…) Hide in your houses and reform yourselves. 19

Thus Ali began his reform of all “deviations” that had occurred in the Islamic Society as whole and the political structure in particular. He removed many governors and officials of the previous governments replacing them by the pious officers; issued firm instructions against discrimination that existed between the Arab and non-Arab citizens of the Islamic government, and even among different Arab families. These kinds of discriminations were part of some antiIslamic and anti-human practices that developed after third Khalifas.20 The Prophet has repeatedly said: There is no superiority for an Arab over a non-Arab or for anon-Arab over an Arab: the honor belongs to the pious and people of noble characters. 21 Ali also decided to take back all the lands and fortunes that were illegally transferred to the relatives and the favorites of third Khalif, Othman, during his 12 years of rule. After resuming the land grants made by Othman, he said:
By Allah, even if I had found that by such money women have been married… I would have resumed it; because there is wide scope in dispensation of justice and he who finds it hard to act justify should fin it harder to deal with injustice. 22

His other plans to reform were: “To make proper arrangement for the security of Islamic state from external threats as well as internal chaos and lawlessness, to establish a sound economic order based on the Islamic principles of “do not lose and do not cause the others loss!” to recognize the public services division and to treat non-Muslim citizens of the Islamic state with deserving leniency and respect. The land survey was carried on by him and he was the first man to introduce the Budgetary System for collection of revenues and for its expenditure. 23 Ali divided the state service into following sections: 1. Public Finance, 2. Army, 3. Central Secretariat, 4. Judiciary, 5. Provincial Offices. The public finance was also divided by him into two sections: (a) collection section and (b) distribution section. Again the collection section was sub-divided into three to collect the three different taxes that were allowed to be collected, namely: 1.) Land revenue, 2.) Zakat (poor rate) and Safaqat (poor fund) 3.) Jezya, a tax from non-Muslims in lieu of Zakat. (The reason for separation of non-Muslim tax was that Zakat is an Islamic obligation and non-Muslims could not be obliged to follow it; but they had to pay their own tax that is called Jezya). There are many more reforms initiated by Ali, based on his knowledge and dedication to the Islamic cause, the details of which could be found in the Islamic history as well as a thorough study of Ali’s own sayings, speeches, letters of instruction and steps taken by him on various occasions during his five years of Khelafat.

Ali, a Man of Knowledge and Wisdom Hardly is there any religion other than Islam that has laid so much emphasis on knowledge and thought. The word “knowledge” and it’s derivatives are sued 190 times in different parts of the Qur’an. Also the words of wisdom and analysis 20 times; “though” 10 times, “reading and writing” 115 times, etc. In Qur’an, God Almighty swears “By the pen and that which they write (therewith).” 24 The Prophet (Mohammad) has come “to teach people the Scripture and wisdom” (62:2) and to instruct man to pray: “My Lord increase me in knowledge.” (20:114). The Prophet of Islam said: “Seek knowledge from the cradle to the grave,” and also said: “Seeking knowledge is a duty for Muslim male and female,” etc. Ali was a man trained in accordance with the teachings of religion such as Islam; no wonder if he was one of the best examples of a “philosopher ruler” whom Plato would aspire to see in his dreams of the Utopian Society. That is also why some non-Muslim scholars and philosophers of the West, regret that Ali is not alive today so that they could ask him the solutions for the unanswered problems of man. 25 “The flood of knowledge flows down from me and no high flying mind can reach mine….”26 In another speech he stressed: “O, people: ask me (re-study his speeches, short sayings and the letters he has written on different subjects-matters. His discussions range from analysis of Islamic beliefs down to political, economic, social, moral, judicial, military science, mathematics, logic and literature. Ali is the founder of Arabic grammar and the first person (after Prophet Mohammad) who began the analytical-study of Qur’an (Tafsir) as the basis for understating Islam. He also trained some bright students in several fields of arts and sciences. Here are some of what he did to develop education among the illiterate Arabs, who later on became the propagators of education in the world:

To Abul-Aswad Doelly, he dedicated basic principles and rules of grammar for the Arabic language with special instruction to concentrate on the syntax of the language. Abdul Rahman Salmi was made to look after the art of reading Qur’an correctly (to understand correctly). Komail Zias was made responsible for mathematics, Engineering and Astronomy, Omar Ibne Salama for poetry (and also) logic, Abdullah Ibne Abbas for principles of Administration and Rheotorics, and he (Ali) himself for Philosophy of religion, ethics (analytical) commentary of the Holy Qur’an and traditions of the Holy Prophet. But actually he was hub of the whole activity…28

When one reads about this educational institution, one cannot but be surprised and ask himself: What is the relation between subjects like poetry and logic or administration and rhetoric that are handled by the same teacher? Although it is easily understood that during those days specialization was not so popular among scholars and almost all scholars of ancient time were skillful in several arts and sciences,* but seems, as it was apparent from Ali’s own practice and word, that to him science without love of God (religion) and art of humanity was a dangerous play, in which science would be a mere tool to produce materialistic thoughts, and to show the ways for more disastrous exploitation of man by man and more destructive wars for domination, in order to bring endless wealth and limitless power to the “logical” beings! Ton conclude about Ali’s ideas on education, it can be said that the rich background in education and training he got from Prophet Mohammad since early childhood, made Ali’s resourceful authority, not only on the early movement of Islam, but on the Islamic ideology and it’s education system as well.

ISLAMIC GOVERNMENT: AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The ultimate aim and objective of Islam, and as a result the Islamic Government, is the true happiness of man. When the Qur’an speaks of sending Prophet Mohammad as a messenger, it says it this way:
We (God) did not send you (O, Mohammad) but as a mercy for mankind. 1

Regarding the direction to which it guides mankind Qur’an states:
Lo this Qur’an guideth unto that which is the straitest (way to man’s welfare). 2

In order to be more specific, we would like concentrate on the following essential objectives of the Islamic government as described by Imam Ali: a. Freedom of man; b. His education; c. The Political structure of the state in which he is supposed to live, and (lastly) d. The Leadership of that state. Freedom of Man As far as freedom of man is concerned, the Islamic government is fully committed to it. In fact Islam announces its mission to be the freedom of man from all traditional or modern yokes, – be they social or political – that are limiting man’s real freedom. Note for example this announcement from the Qur’an which is the charter of the Islamic government:
Those who follow the messenger (Mohammad who…) will relieve them from their burden and the fetters that used to wear, (all the chains of the old corrupt society.)3

What were those “burdens and fetters”? Ali as an expert on Islam and an active member of the early Islamic movement, and one who had observed the past, could explain it better. Once discussing the situation of the people before the coming of Prophet Mohammad, he said;

They obeyed Satan (subjected themselves to wrong) through them Satan’s emblem got flying and his standard was raised in the vices which (as a result) trampled the people under their hoofs, and threaded upon the m with their feet (this obedience to Satan, the symbol of all vices, caused man to oppress one another). The vices stood on their toes (in full stature) and people immersed in them were perplexed, ignorant and seduced. 4

And regarding the mission of Prophet Mohammad in order to free those people from all the chains that were on their bodies and minds, again Ali said:
I also stand witness that Mohammad is His (God’s) servant and His prophet. Allah sent him with the Illustrious religion (bright and clear teachings) effective emblem… effulgent light, sparkling gleam, and decisive injunction in order to dispel doubts, presents clear proofs (to open the minds) administer warning through signs and to warn of punishments (the results of the wrong conducts in a society)5

Not Lawlessness Here may arise a misconception that when we say the Islamic government is the advocator of freedom for man, it means that it does not have rules or regulations which the citizenry are obliges to follow. But this is not the right concept of freedom in the Islamic system of government. The freedom that Islamic government is advocating has a more profound meaning. It is a state of freedom where a man is free from anything under the sun, including his own selfish desires! He is not obedient to any, and slave of none. But he should obey God Almighty to whom he has a natural obligation and promise to listen.6 At this point wee could understand the full meaning of Ali’s famous statement on freedom when he proclaimed:
Do not be slave to any (including yourself) while Allah has bestowed you Freedom.

In short, the freedom in Islamic terminology means a total liberty in which man is rebellious against any power that wants to enslave him, including his own selfish desire – which is called by Ali as the “most dangerous, close and hidden enemy of man”. But he has obey one, that is God. In the other democratic institutions of the world, man is free to do anything he wishes as long as he does not violate the freedom of his fellow being. They say: The individual’s right reaches its limit at the point where another’s right starts.

They provide man with a protection from external threats that may violate his rights, while they fail to provide him freedom from his internal “dangerous and hidden” enemies who are in better position to attach on his right to be real human. But freedom of man in its perfect sense is the first aim of Islamic system of government; and to achieve it, there is a need to educate or better to say re-educate man. Here comes the Islamic system of mass education. Mass Education
He (God Almighty) it is Who hath sent among the unlettered ones a messenger of their own, to recite unto them His revelations (teachings for a desirable and successful living) and to make them grow (materially and spiritually), and to teach them the Scripture and Wisdom, though hereto fore they were indeed in error manifest! 8

As far as the mass education in Qur’an and teaching of Prophet Mohammad and other Muslim Imams is concerned, they can reveal to us countless examples in both theoretical as well as practical aspects of educating the people and opening their eyes and minds to the realities of life in this world and hereafter. This study aims to take up some of those aspects that are pointed out and explained by Imam Ali as a great authority on Islamic Affairs. Here are parts of what he said regarding the education in general and the responsibility of the educated people in sharing their knowledge with the non-educated ones and spreading it among the public. Addressing the intelligentsia, Ali said:
God Almighty did not oblige the un-educated to learn, unless after He held the educated ones responsible to provide them with education! 9

Ali himself was one of the best educators whose speeches are still a very rich source towards understanding the human way of life in general and the Islamic one in particular. His sayings as well as doings are of high qualities of human values and serve as good models for everyday. Ali’s teachings are not limited to one aspect of life (material or spiritual alone) but a beautiful combination of both. In his lectures delivered for the ordinary Arabs of 1400 years, all intellectual of the 20th century can find many points to discover. Those speeches range from philosophy of religion, moral lessons, selfdiscipline, prayers with real meaning up to the creating of the world

______________________________________________________ oppressors, science, philosophy of history, sociology, etc. Except for some very technical matters all of these points were discussed by Ali among common men and women of Arabia. This is what we term as a mass education where the universities and academies are brought among the people. The Wrong Concept of Education There is a misconception regarding education that should clarified, otherwise it may lead to many other misunderstanding, including the misinterpretation of mass education in the Islamic System of Government. To some people, among them some learned man, education is a synonym for “literacy”. Therefore, when they want to measure the educational situation in a country, they give reference to the percentage of literate people. Even the United Nations and its educational arm (UNESCO) follow this pattern of evaluating people and nations. In the Islamic concept, the measurement for education is not based on literacy. Although literacy is also considered to be one of the effective means of education, but as long as Islam is concerned, it is not education by itself. In the Islamic concept, the measurement for education is not based on literacy. Although literacy is also considered to be one of the effective mean of education, but as long as Islam is concerned, it is not education by itself. Qur’an calls the people whop read books but do not apply the good teachings therein, “as the likeness of the ass carrying books.”10 Then what is the meaning of education in the Islamic System? According to Islamic instructions, the education is a light through which man can ding his way to the right path, and the educated man has the responsibility to enlighten the people of his society. Ali pointed to the same responsibility when he said:
Behold, by Him who split the grain (to grow) and created living beings… if there has been no pledge of Allah with the learned to the effect that hey should not acquiesce in the gluttony of the oppressor and the hunger of the oppressed, I would have cost the rope of Caliphate on its own shoulders (I would not have accepted it). 11

From this very phrase we can understand several points regarding the Islamic concept of educating people. The first point to note is that the learned men, by virtue if the knowledge that they have, are obligated by God Almighty to speak out against injustice and wrong conduct in society.

Secondly, Islam does not point to the literate people only but that every person who is aware of the fact, should awaken others and defend righteousness. Otherwise, the “gluttony of the oppressor” does not require one to be a university graduate to know those things. Thirdly, the un-educated people are not merely the illiterates but rather those simple-minded (literates or illiterates) who are cheated by the oppressors and their rights are taken away from them; thus they are “hungry”, persecuted or dealt with unjustly in one way or the other. Fourthly, the educated people should shoulder the responsibilities of awakening and defending the masses whether they like it or not, because it is not optional but an un-avoidable heavenly (from Ali’s point of view) responsibility. Here is an assessment by Ali of what his master, leader, mentor and beloved friend Mohammad did to educate the people of Arabia during the early Islamic movement.
Allah send the Prophet (S.A.W.) at a time when the people were going astray in perplexity and were moving here and there in mischief. Desires had deflected them and self-conceit had served them. Extreme ignorance had made them foolish. They were confounded by the unsteadiness of matters and the evils of ignorance. Then the Prophet (S.A.W.) did his best in giving them sincere advice, himself treaded on the right path and called (the people) towards wisdom and good counsel.15

Taking all of those into consideration we come to a conclusion that the Islamic government does not want to keep its citizens unaware, but rather Islam wants them to be more aware and truly educated; because in Islamic point of view, only through peoples awakeness, can a society avoid exploitation of one class by another or a Ali puts it: “The gluttony of the oppressor and the hunger of the oppressed.” No need to mention that without such kind of public education and awareness, the real freedom of man or any other Islamic social or political concept will be futile. From here we may judge the truth about implementing Islam in some of the so-called Islamic countries, Saudi for example, where the King and Prices have imposed themselves because the people are not ware, that Islam is a democratic system wherein exist no King and no crown Price but a democratic government elected in accordance with Quran and teachings of Prophet Mohammad. Establishment of a Just Political Structure Although the establishment of a government and taking power in hand is not the ultimate objective of the Islamic system of though,

however this religion being realistic, believes that a true reform. Be in moral, social, educational, political, economic and so forth can never be implanted while the power is in the hands of the corrupt people. Thus the establishment of a just political structure becomes a prime target – indirectly – to the Islamic school of thought. To clarify this, here is a verse from the Qur’an that tells us how the Islamic system wants to lead the society:
O, ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the messenger and those of you who are (rightfully) authorized and if ye have a dispute concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and the messenger….13

And what is the messenger supposed to do in the society wherein he is appointed? Here is another verse to explain it:
We (God Almighty) verily send our messengers with clear proofs and revealed with them the Scripture and the Balance, that mankind may observe right measure, and He revealed iron, wherein is mighty power and (many) uses for mankind and that Allah may know him who helpeth Him and His messenger though unseen. Lo! Allah is Strong, Almighty.14

A Muslim researcher describes the above verses this way:
In that case the ideology has tree bases: (1) The Scripture or manifest to guide; (2) The Balance to measure and distinguish right from wrong; and (3) The iron (as a symbol of power) to impose the law for observing justice and right measure in the community.15

In other words, Islam struggles for power and tries to establish its own government; but to govern is not an end by itself rather it is a means to an end which is the implementation of law, justice and a human conduct in the society. War in Islam Whenever the word Islam or Islamic government is mentioned, a majority of the non-Muslims think of the wars and violence that are attributed both rightfully and wrongfully to this religion and its system of government. This kind of concept about Islam is particularly found among the Christians in general and the populace of the western countries in particular, because the church said so. The reasons for such an allegation could be many. For instance, the priests want to accuse Islam of violence so that the horrible treatment

and persecutions of millions of people by the church during the Middle Ages will be considered as normal for a religion.
IF any religion has a change of ruling over England, nay Europe, within the next 100 years it is Islam.16

Most probably it has caused a psychological reaction – that is to face Islamic movement negatively through false accusations. Another possibility for this kind of propaganda could be the efforts of the church to cover or justify its so-called evangelization activities in the numerous colonies in Black Africa, Asia and Latin America during which countless number of people were tortured or killed in the name of Christ the Savior. Or may be the church feels guilty of being the “roller” of colonization and exploitation for the European kings and rulers, for centuries. Whatever the reason or reasons might be, the fact is that the church preaches love and peace in theory, while in practice it creates hatred and suppression. It tells the people: Love your neighbor… love your enemy; whoever strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other as well…27 In other words, the philosophy that teaches. If someone throws you stone, throw him bread, but it did the contrary itself. What About Islam/ In the case of the Islam and its government the historical facts say it is different. Islam neither issued an unconditional “love” for everybody including the “enemy” nor did it practice hatred and violence against the common man. Its policy as declared by the Islamic leaders, including Ali, is that of realism and not idealism. Here are two verses of the Qur’an to prove it:
There is no compulsion in religion (after) the right is made clear from the wrong.18n Fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you, but begin not hostility. Lo! Allah loveth not aggressors. 19

Islam Advocate Justice In the Islamic concept, the reaction to any action should be that which is logical and just. If for instance, one throws you a stone (intentionally), you retaliate it with bread, as the church preaches, but when another person throws you bread, you the same or better (or

worse); in all cases, your reactions are questionable from the point of views of Justice. Bread versus stone as well as bread, is not justifiable because it means the good and bad are rewarded in the same way. It encourages (most of the time) the bad to continue and the goof to abandon his good practices. Bread versus stone but bread plus honey versus bread, is unjustifiable, too; because it shows your “little disgust” and a “meticulous hatred” toward the stone-thrower; that is still a big sin in the Christian school of thought. And if you throw bread versus stone but less for the bread thrower, you have rewarded unjustly on both sides; and nothing can justify that. In Society Now let us bring that plan and apply it in society, Supposed we come to “love” the ruling class and as much as they “throw stones of oppression and exploitation and abuses, and as much as they slap on the right cheek of the people by sucking their blood to get fatter and to color their luxurious lives, we give them the supposedly remaining left,” then does any rational being call this a practice of human society or shall he call it the rule of the jungle? Does any political scientist, nay, any sane person approve of such philosophy of living, except the ruling class? Then what should be done? Anybody may have its own choice, but the answer of Islam for this question is: The establishment of a just structure through any means possible be it peace or (otherwise) ware. The philosophy here is that the garden should be protected from the parasites at any cost, even if that means the uprooting of parasites, or use the pesticides. This is the actual philosophy of war in Islam. Anything aside from that, is ether 1) defense against the attaching enemy; (2) deviation from Islamic rules by an ignorant individual or king or; (3) a baseless allegation by the opponents.20 Otherwise, the word Islam itself means: (1) submission to God Almighty, and (2) peace. Even the greetings in Islam, instead of “good morning” and “good afternoon” is “Salam”, which means peace. Here are Thomas Carlyle and Goethe, the two famous humanist philosophers of West to explain, Carlyle says:

… and then also Islam – that means we must submit to God, that our whole strength lies in resigned submission to Him… “If this be Islam, says Goethe, do we not also live in Islam?”

Carlyle himself answer this question of Goethe by saying, “Yes, all of us that have any moral life, we all live so. This is yet the highest wisdom that heaven has revealed to our earth.” 21 Another interesting point to note here is that the person who has gathered views of Thomas Carlyle and Goethe, namely Professor Ramakrishha Rao, is a prominent non-Muslim scholar. He himself is a Hindu from India, a country that has sheltered the Muslim community as a minority for centuries. He wrote:
“Therefore, the war or Jihad in Islam is just to liberate man from the clothes of the man-like monster and to make them all equal un front of the law that is not man-made to give chances for exploitation of the rules by the ruling class who are also the lawmakers or the lawyers (apparently from among the masses) who will think of the interest of their own group before that of the others.” 22

The law here is made by God Almighty who has no particular interest with any group and who has created all the people and essentially likes all of them equally, and declares that:
The nobles of you with God is (only) the best in conduct. 23

In the Islamic concept the “children of Adam are dignified,” 24 but for those who like “Pharaoh exalted in the earth and made people castes (classes), a group of whom he oppressed… Lo! he was of those who worked in corruption.” 25 Yes in that case the faithful muslims are obliged to do their duty that means to fight the corrupt and must support the oppressed.
Why should ye not fight for the cause of Allah and of the feeble among men and women and children who are crying: Our Lord! Bring us forth from out this town (on country) of which the people are oppressors! Oh, give us from Thy presence some protecting friend! Oh, give us from Thy presence some defender! Those who believe do battle for the cause of Allah (Justice) and those who disbelieve (exploiters) do battle for the cause of idols (ruling class). So fight the supporters of Satan (symbol of evil). Lo! the devil’s strategy is ever weak. 26

And what is the purpose of this Jihad against oppressors and support of the feeble man, women, children? The answer is:

We (God Almighty) desire show favor unto those who are oppressed on earth, and to make them examples (to be followed), to make them the inheritors, and to establish them on earth and to show Pharaoh and Haman and their hosts (all oppressors to come) that which they feared from them (to be dethroned). 27

Now to observe how these orders are carried on to defend oppressed against the oppressors, here is an example from what Ali did. Once during his rule. The army of an oppressor called Moavia Attached a town and looted the people. Hearing the news, Ali asked the citizens to gather and delivered this speech with deep sorrow and anger:
I have come to know that one of the soldiers has entered upon a Muslim woman and a Zimmi (Jewish) woman, a citizen of the Islamic state and taken away their ornament from legs, arms, necks and ears and they could not resist with wealth without any wound or loss life. If any Muslim dies of grief after all this (looting of a Jewish citizen), he is not to be blamed but rather there is justification for him before me!... 28

Ali then orders his men to prepare for defensive war against the attackers. He would fight against oppression and always would say:
O, Lord! Thou knowest that what we do is not to seek power not to acquire anything from the vanities of the world. We rather want to restore Thy orders from humanity and Justice (Islam) and to usher prosperity in Thy cities so that the oppressed among Thy people (the masses) may be safe and Thy forsaken commands may be established. 29

To include, it should be once again noted that all struggles in the Islamic System are to see to it that a just human society in which the dignity of man is preserved shall be materialized. And the nature of war on Jihad in Islam is merely to achieve the following: (1) freedom of man; (2) his “growth” and education, and (3) the establishment of a just political structure to bring about the said goals plus a safeguard for keeping a steady development of these priceless gains. Qualified Islamic Leadership It is well understood that in order to carry out the strategies of the Islamic system of government there is a need for qualified Islamic Leadership. The essential qualities of this leadership are as follows: 1. The Islamic piety; 2. The best possible knowledge of Islam; and 3. To capacity to administer government affairs.

To shed more light on this matter, here is the description of Islamic leadership by the second Islamic government eve established after Prophet Mohammad. Article five of section one in the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran states this way:
In the absence of Hazrat Vali-e-Asr, Iamam Mahdi, * the leadership of the community will fall upon the Faqih who is just pious, knowledgeable, brave, enterprising and respected by the majority of the people as their undisputed leader. If no such person could be found, the leadership of the community will be in the hands of a Council of Leadership consisting of qualified Faqihs. 30

It appears that the constituents of the Constitution for the Islamic Republic of Iran have based the qualifications of leadership on the teachings of Ali regarding this matter:
“You certainly know that” said Ali addressing the public, “he who is in-charge if honor, life, income, (enforcement of) legal commandments and leadership of the Muslims should not be a miser as he would then misled them with hid ignorance nor be of rude behavior who would estrange them with his rudeness, nor should be fearful of the changes and threats (to his rule) so as to side with some (the rich) against the others (the poor), nor should be accept bribe as he would forfeit (others) rights and hold them up without finality.…31

Ali is clearly stating that the leadership has lots of conditions like wisdom, piety and many more virtues and human qualities. He stresses these so that “Charlatanism” and cheat will not be considered as the only virtues in politics and leadership: We are in a period when most of the people regard betrayal as wisdom. In these days the ignorant call it excellence of canning. What is the matter with them?... 32
By Allah, (my opponent) Moavia is not more cunning than I am, but he deceives and commits evil deed. Had I not been hateful of deceit, I would have been the most cunning of all man. But (the fact is that) every deceit is a din and every sin is disobedience (of God). By Allah I cannot be made forgetful by strategy (of the enemy) not can I be overpower by hardship (resulting from it). 33

Two other very delicate aspects in leadership are: (1) Greed for power; (2) Greed fro wealth. Numerous, and better to say, countless examples of atrocities committed by the leaders in general and the politicians in particular, with

regard to their greed for power and wealth could be observed everywhere. Thousands of them massacred millions and billions of their fellowmen, even their own allies, relatives, children and spouses. Only the Almighty knows that how many cities and towns were leveled with ground by those greedy and unscrupulous leaders in history. Sometimes one gets the impression as if history is nothing more than the wars and victories and defeats of the Kings or the rise and fall of the dynasties or anything related to their cruel on one hand, and lustful lives on the other. The same, and sometimes, worst is today! It does not need lots of research to find out that how nay bloodsheds, destructions, invasions, aggressions, oppressions and what not the leaders of the world are doing, just to satisfy their lust for power and wealth. But It Should be Different In the Islamic System of government none of the above vices should exist. Neither monarchy nor the election of an “unqualified” person or anything of that type, is acceptable to Islam and if anywhere there was such a thing, then according to Ali, it could be any system but Islamic. He said:
If I wished, said Ali, 1 could have taken the way leading towards the worldly pleasure like pure honey, fine wheat and silk clothes: but it cannot be that my passions may lead me and greed may take me to choosing good meals while in Hejaz or Yamama (two very far regions in the Islamic state) there may be people who have no hope of getting a loaf (of bread) or who do not have full meal. Shall I lie with satiated belly while around me there may be hungry bellies and thirsty livers? 34 Shall I be content with being “Head of State” (or chief executive) although I doubtly share with the people the hardships of the world? Or shall I be an example for them in the distresses of life? I have not been created to keep myself busy in eating good foods like the tied animal (pet) whose only worry is his fodder or like a loose animal whose activity is to swallow. 35

A man named Abdullah Bin Abbas, a companion of Ali, says that when Kahlifa Ali set out for war against the rebels of Basra a port city in Iraq. I saw him stitching his own shoe by hand in the army camp. When he noticed my presence, he looked at me and said: “What is the price of this shoe?” I said: “It has no value now! Ali said:

By Allah, it should have been dearer to me than ruling over the people except for the fact that I have the responsibility to establish right and ward off wrong.36

Ali instructs that the rightful leaders should live in more simple manner and not luxurious life in order that there will not be a hell of gap between the rulers and the people; and also the leaders will not forget about the hardships of life with the notion that as if they have come from another planet or they are different from the public. He said further:
Certainly God Almighty has made it obligatory of just leaders that they should maintain themselves at the level of low people so that the poor do not cry over poverty (while rulers are extremely rich). 37

With regard to the second evil that may confront the leader – the greed of power and oppression, Ali always warns the Islamic Leadership as well as the non-Islamic parties. His own nearly five years of Khelafat was the best example of the power that never was used for oppression or abuse; but rather in the service of humanity. Expression such characteristics, once Ali said:
By Allah, I would rather like to pass night in wakefulness on the thrones of Sadaan or to be driven in chains as a prisoner than meet God Almighty and His Prophet (S.A.W.) on the day of Judgment as an oppressor over any person or a usurper of anything out of the worldly wealth. By Allah, even if I am given all the domains of the earth and what not in order that I may disobey Allah to the extent of snatching one grain of barley from an ant, I would not do it. For me your world is lighter than the leaf in the mouth of a locust that is chewing it! What has Ali to do with bounties that would pass away and pleasures that won’t last? 38

History tells us that Ali was not only a good teacher, but also a man of action. He proved by his practice that it is not impossible, though very difficult, to be in power and avoid oppression and abuse. It seems that the world needs another Ali today; but is it feasible? The Governors of the Islamic State To give a compete lesson to the future generations regarding the Islamic State. Ali took a drastic measure in changing the governors and other high ranking officials of the previous administrations.

He even asked his nearly appointed governors to do the same in their areas of jurisdiction, because: The worst minister for you is he who has been a minister for the mischievous persons before you, and who joined them in abuse. In this famous letter of instruction that is rightfully termed by Muslim Scholars as “The Charter of Islamic Government,” Ali gave instruction regarding the responsibilities of a governor. He begins his letter this way:
In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful. This is what Allah’s servant, Ali, has ordered to Malik in this appointment for him as governor pf Egypt, in regard to collection of its revenues, fighting its enemies, seeking good of its people and rendering its cities prosperous.40

After some advices on the spiritual purification and personal disciple, he points out the main issues: O, Malik, I have sent you to an area where there have been much government before. People now watch your dealing as you used to watch the dealings of the rulers before you, and they would criticize you as you criticized them… (former governors). Habituate your heart of mercy for the subjects and affection and kindness towards them. Do not be over them like greedy beasts feeling satisfied by devouring them. They are of two types: wither your brother in religion (Muslim) or (in case of nonMuslim) brother in humanity! They will commit slips and face mistakes. (…) So extend to them your forgiveness and pardon in the same way as you would like Allah almighty to forgive you. 41 If shows the human characteristic of the Islamic system even 1400 years ago. It also may serve as a lesson to enlighten the minds of those who could not tolerate nay other religion and accuse the Islamic System of being what they themselves are. In another letter of instruction directed to the governor of Hulwan. Ali guides him not to follow his passion but pay attention to the subjects: If the actions of governor follows passions, he would be greatly hampered in justice. All the people should be equal in rights before you… avoid the like of which you would not like for yourself… one of the rights on you is that you should protect yourself (from wrong) and look after the subjects to your best. 42 In fact Ali has numerous letters of instruction each being a valuable asset in demonstrating one or several of the profound aspects that Islamic Government possesses. It should be sincerely confessed by

the researcher himself that he was really amazed by this treasury of humane conduct that Ali as an Islamic leader preaches and he himself would perform. Sometimes the researcher found himself among many excellent guidelines and would wonder which and would which one to choose to quote. Nonetheless, to bring this chapter to an end here is a sharp but, at the same time, lovely letter that Ali has send to his governor in the city of Basra: O, Ibne Hunaiff: I have come to know that a young man of Basra invited you to a feast and you leapt towards it. Foods of various types were being served to you and big bowls were being put before you. I never thought that you would accept the feast of people who turn out the poor and the invite the rich! Look at the morsels you take; leave out that about which you are in doubt and take that about which you are sure that it has been secured lawfully. Remember that every follower ha s a leader whom he follows and from the effulgence of whose knowledge he takes light. Realize that your Imam (Ali) has contented himself with two shabby pieces of cloth out of the (comforts of the world) and two loaves for this meal! Certainly you cannot do so, but at least support me in piety, exertion, chastity and up-rightness. By Allah, I have not treasured any gold out of this world nor amassed plentiful wealth nor collected any cloths (as the rulers do) other than the shabby sheets! 43 This was how Ali ruled over the largest and strongest and most growing country in the world, the Islamic government; and also this was how he would check and correct meticulously the problems regarding his officials, be they close or in far away states. And finally, this is how genuine Islamic government’s leadership and officials should act in order to be qualified for the title – Islamic Leaders.

ISLAMIC GOVERNMENT: ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION

The organization and administration of the Islamic Government is highly democratic and it emanates from the people who have a common belief in the Divine Monotheist religion of Islam. Leadership: Selective and Elective The leadership always has been one of the most crucial problems for every society, particularly the newly established or revolutionary governments. The early Islamic Government of Iran that was founded by Imam Khomeini on February 11, 1979 were no exceptions to this rule. To study the ever sensitive matter of leadership, we would like to find and analyze what the people in first Islamic Government as well as those in the recent revival, adopted to select or elect their leaders. The question of whether the leadership of Islam – that includes the Islamic government – was to be announced by Prophet Mohammad or it was left to the people to select, has caused a series discussion and often sharp difference among the Muslim since the early days of Islamic era. Sunni and Shia Schools Historically speaking it is agreed by a clear majority of the Muslim scholars that Prophet Mohammad has on several occasions hinted to Ali as his successor: including a large meeting that was called by him on his way home from the last pilgrimage to Mecca. 1 During that big gathering Mohammad announced: “To whom I am Mowla (Leader) Ali is also a Mowla.” Although all Muslims agree on this proclamation by Mohammad, the problem is that he word Mowla has many meanings in Arabic – almost seventeen. Mowla means Lord, master, friend and even servant. That is why the majority of Muslims – the Sunnis – believe that it was just a declaration by Mohammad about Ali’s friendship with the rest of the Muslims. While the minority – the Shia –believe that “the way Mohammad was Mowla, in the same way Ali is, meaning to say that Ali was also given the authority when Mohammad urged people to accept Ali’s leadership as they would accept his own. In this concept the word mowla was taken to mean leader. The majority – Sunnis – urge that the bigger group among early Muslims elected Abu Bakr as the first Kahlifa. Then upon his death after two years, he appointed Omar as his legitimate successor without popular vote. When Omar was to pass away, after ten years of Khelafat,

he selected a six-man team to elect one among the group as Kahlifa. The third Khalifa Othman, was elected by that hand picked council. 3 After Othman was killed by some dissidents opposing his allegedly despotic rule, then the populace rushed to Ali and selected him while he believed that he was appointed by the prophet to continue the Islamic government since the first day. 4 The majority – Shi-a – believe, however, that Ali and eleven persons from the descendants of Mohammad (and Ali) are Imams or the legitimate leaders of Islam including that of Islamic government, on the basis of apostolically succession to Prophet Mohammad. What About Today? Whether one takes the idea of the Sunni majority regarding election (at least in theory) or the view of the Shia minority about selection, the fact is that both of them at present agree that the qualified Islamic leaders should govern by the popular acceptance if not through a formal election. A great sociologist and Islamologist, Dr. Ali Shariati, whose views helped a lot in the formation of religions struggle and Islamic Revolution in Iran, has a good interpretation of bring close the two schools – Sunni and Shia – views regarding the leadership issue. He believes that it is usual for a new movement – like the Islamic government, that after establishing itself tries to avoid any possibility of reactionary strikes and dissensions against chance to take over the leadership of the movement, thus the founder should, in this capacity as the accepted leader, appoint someone whom he trust most, as his successor, to keep the movement away from any deviation as did the Prophet of Islam-Mohammad. In order to safeguard the Islamic movement for one or two generations in purely Islamic culture, the Prophet announced Twelve Imams (Ali and eleven of his descendants) to lead the people after him. And after that the people in general would be well educated and grown in accordance with pure Islamic ideas (and without vices of the previous society), they could elect the qualified leaders from among themselves. 5 Therefore, it becomes clear that in Islam the leadership is both selective and elective, depending on the time. In the early days of Islam the Prophet was not elected by anybody (like every other Messenger), but was given a mission6 to carry out. After him for a period of time, the leaders were to be those who were announced and appointed by the Prophet before he passed away. When the period of those twelve appointees was terminated, then would come a period in which the people were to elect the qualified persons from among themselves as

their leaders. Regarding the matter of leadership in the Islamic society today, here is what the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran says; When a qualified religions man is accepted as leader by majority of the people… such a leader will assume all the duties and responsibilities of the Faqih (Islamic Leader). That is why Islamic leadership is considered to be selective (in the beginning) as well as elective, to provide appropriate solution for the demand of the time. Relationship of Leader and his People After the selection or election of a leader, the next important issue is the relationship of the leader with the people and vice-versa. In fact the whole controversy over the problem of leadership is to choose one who is supported by the people and who supports the people’s cause as the administrator of the national affairs, taking into consideration the nation’s welfare. Therefore, the process of rights and responsibilities between the leaders and their followers in democratic society, is a two-way deal. Here is the authoritative view of Imam Ali regarding the people’s relationship with the leader in the Islamic system: So now, said Ali addressing the people, Allah has by placing me over your affairs created my right over you, and your right over me. The right is very much expanded in description but very narrow in equitability of action. The greatest rifht that God has made obligatory is the right of the ruler over the people and vice versa…. The people cannot prosper unless the leaders are righteous and the leaders cannot be sound unless the followers are steadfast. If these happened, then right attains the position of honor among them, ways of religion get established, signs of justice become fixed…In this way the situation would improve the continuance of government (to serve people) would be expected and the (malicious) aims of the enemies would be frustrated. Then Ali shows the other side of the pictures by saying: But if the people gain ways over the leadership or the leader oppresses the people… the differences crop up in every word, signs of oppression appear mischief enters religion (the total way laid by God for prosperity of man)… desires are acted upon, commands (i.e. constitution of nation) are put off, diseases of m spirit become numerous and there will be no hesitation in disregarding even great rights, nor in commission of big wrongs. In such circumstances, the virtuous are humiliated while the vicious are honored. 8

At the end of his speech, Ali gives the solution to this problem so that the pessimists, among them some churchmen, will not preach that this is what God Almighty wanted for mankind and it never could be cured, but rather will worsen day by day: You should, therefore, counsel, said Ali, and cooperate with each other. It is an obligatory right of the Almighty over the people that they should advise each other to the best of their ability and cooperate with one another for the establishment of truth among them. No person however great his position in the matter of truth, and however advanced his distinction in human aspects maybe, is above cooperation…. Again, no man, however small he may be regarded by others and however humble he may appear before the eyes, is too low to cooperate or to be afforded cooperation in this matter. 9 A very interesting point that should be considered a unique aspect of the Islamic Government, is that no difference whatsoever exists between the leader and his people in any matter including their presence in court to answer the charges that might be filled against them by any ordinary citizen. There are examples in which Ali during his Khelafat (rule) was sued and ordered by the judge to appear in court where he preferred to sit beside the complainant and defend himself. In one such instance, the complainant was a Jew and won because of witnesses he (falsely) provided. Ali was ordered by the judge to pay the complainant and he complied with the verdict. But this time the Jew refused to get anything, confessing that his witness have lied and he had been so impressed by the equality and justice in the Islamic system that he wanted to embrace Islam.10 It goes to show, in practice, the equality of all, be they leaders or ordinary persons in the eyes of Islamic law, on one hand, and the just relationship between the head of the Islamic government with his people, on the other hand, even if they belong to the religious minorities. In this system the leader is not considered to be above his people but as Ali said, “The leaders are (should be) the servants of the people.” This is the real relationship between the people and their leader in the Islamic Government. Administration Based on Consultation Qur’an, as the basis for the Islamic ideology, teaches that the affairs of the Muslim Umman or community should be based on consultation. It states in two different places as this:

And consult with them (O, Mohammad) upon the conduct of affairs. 11 In other chapter, Qur’an again instructs the stresses that: “Their affairs are a matter of counsel.” 12 In other words, the people who are the real power holders, should be inform ed by the leadership of the Islamic system regarding the internal as well as the external problems and should be consulted in order to make the policies with their consent and permission. To hold counsel with the people in one of the major reasons behind the Jum, a prayer or Friday congregations. Before the prayers, the Imam, who is most of the cases is the Khalifa or political leaders also, shall deliver a speech within which he is supposed to take up the major affairs of the Islamic state within that week. The Preamble of the Islamic Constitution of Iran clearly states the intension to provide “all members of the community” the right to participate in decision-making: The constitution shall prepare the ground for participation by all members of the community in all the stages of political decision-making, so that in evolution of man every individual will be involved in this growth and development of the country. In reality this is the realization of the government of the deprived and oppressed people.13 This point that is called “Showra” or consultation with the people has been particularly stressed in several articles on the Islamic Constitution to show the importance it have from the point of view of the Islamic leaders. Articles six and seven that are about the public affairs and local governments, respectively, plus the paragraph on the function of Mass Media, are devoted to emphasize the role of the people inc conducting the affairs of Islamic government thought Showra, Scope of Showra There exist three types of consultation between the governments and their people in three major schools of thought, namely: (1) Western concept of democracy; (2) Communist democracy otherwise known as dictatorship of proletariat; and (3) Islamic Showra. A.) In the Western type of democracy that was initiated from the Greek City States and Greek philosophy of thought, the people are considered to hold absolute power. They are (at least in theory) the ones who make laws for themselves, directly or through their representatives. Therefore, any time the populace of a country decide to abolish a law (any law they wish) and initiate a new one, they are welcome and

they leaders also, who are elected by popular vote, will have to comply with the wishes of the people. In other words, the people under the western concept of democracy are the master of their own society and every policy or decision (in theory) should be made or approved by them. The word “democracy” is the combination of the Greek word “Demos” that means the people and “krateein” meaning to rule or to govern, 14 thus the people shall decide how to rule over themselves. So many surprising changes in the western legal system legalization of abortion and divorce in predominantly Catholic countries or homosexuality, etc., all prove the fact that in the western concept of democracy there is no standard for the law except the will of the people. B.) The Communist Democracy or dictatorship of the proletariat preaches the Soviet or Council of people that is controlled by the proletariat government. In this concept, theoretically speaking, the people’s Committees guided by the party, are the decision making bodies in the country. The difference between this type of democracy and the Western type is that here the decisions of the council are to be within the framework of the ideology of the Communist Party, and not whatever the populace decide, In other words, this school is not following the people rather it is the populace who have to follow that ideology which gives the proletariat or working class sole power to rule, wile the other classes (in a society that is supposed to be classless) have no such right. C.) The Islamic System of Government, have some points in common with both schools of thought, is unique in that it avoids both extremes. The government in Islamic system is not a rubber stamp for the majority to sue as they wish, not is it merely an instrument for satisfying the desires of the populace, regardless of what it may be. At the same time, it is not the government of nay particular class and, therefore, shall not be approving the proposed views through the councils which are under the leadership of that group or party. Then what is the view of the Islamic System of Government on the conduct of its affairs? Here is a part of the Preamble of the Iranian Islamic Construction: From the viewpoint of Islam, the government is not the product of any class distinctions or the supremacy of one particular group of class in society. Rather it is the political objective of nation that organized itself in order to be able to move forward to its common ideals and objectives. Which is movement towards God. 15

Later on, the Constitution, in order to clarify how those “common ideals” of the nation shall be achieved, says: Consequently, _____ and detailed supervision by pious and learned Islamic Scholars is necessary to ensure fairness in government. The objective of an Islamic government is to prepare the grounds for the flourishing of all human talents and potentials to enable man to grow towards his greater self and reach the reason of divinity. The achievement of this object must be based upon the active and extensive participation in government by all elements in our society.16 Avoiding both extremes, Islam has laid down the pillars and principles that are to be followed by the people who have selected this religion together with its system of government. But one way to implement those principles, the people are to participate, advice the government and criticize it. Here is an answer by Imam Ali to his opponents who were insisting that he should put all the matters, including some Islamic principles, in consultation: When the Caliphate came to me, said Ali, I kept the book of Allah (Qur’an, Islam’s Constitution) in my view and all that Allah had instructed therein for us, and all that according to which, has commanded us to take decision, and followed it. I also attended to whatever the Prophet (S.A.W.) had laid down as his Sunna (Method). In this matter (the clear principles of Islam) I did not need your advice or the advice of any one else. Nor has there been any order of which I was ignorant so that I ought to have consulted you or my other Muslim brothers. 17 This statement, addressed to the opponents by Ali, stated that there is consultation and each group has a right to give his views regarding the daily affairs of the Islamic government. But the principles of Islam (like any other religion) or its ideology (like any revolutionary movement) are not matters of compromise, for Islam is a divine mission that does not compromise on its principles. 18 Therefore, the administration has to inform the public of steps it takes regarding its policies and plans consult and consider their views and proposals, while on the principles of the system that are to guide man in “moving towards God” through the establishment of a society based on justice and equity, nobody – even the Prophet – has power to deviate or change. Principle of Check and Balance

The administration of the Islamic Government is based on the principle of check and balance in order that it may avoid despotism or authoritarianism. This is first of all because of the ever-emphasized principle of “Tawhid” in Islam that requires Muslims to believe and bow to one and only one: the Supreme Authority – God Almighty. Such a belief has led the Muslims to dare many oppressors and strong powers in the turbulent history of Islam as well as history of the world. There exists another principle in Islam that is very closely related to the first one, and that is known as the responsibility of “calling towards good and guidance to avoid wrong” or Amr Bel ma, roof and Nahy anel Monkar__. This principle holds every Muslim responsible toward other people, be they Muslim or non-Muslim, to persuade them into good conduct and try to dissuade them from the vices. This socio-religious responsibility has got so much support that in some Islamic countries, like Iran, aside from the individual performances, there are official boards or committees to carry out the task of guidance for organizations, corporations and the general public. The Government Affairs As it was explained before, in Islam, all aspects of life, be they social, economic or political, are organically related to each other. Therefore, the two principles of “Tawhid” and “call toward good conduct, “ are among the religious obligations that have to be implemented everywhere, including the political structure, for the sake of check and balance. Imam Ali has a beautiful description regarding this matter. Once he said: There is he who disapproves the evil with his hand, tongue and heart. This man has perfectly appropriated the virtuous habits (That a man should possess.) Then there is he who disapproves ht evil with his tongue and heart but not with his hand. This man appropriates only two virtuous habits but lacks one. There is the third who disapproves evil with his heart but not with is tongue and hand. This is one who lacks the two better qualities out of the three and holds only one. Then there is also he who does not disapprove the evil either with is tongue, heart or hand. He is jus dead man among the living! 19

Ali’s speech about the different characteristics and values of various types of people ends with a more profound sentence, reflecting the Islamic liberalistic spirit. And better than all these, said he, is to tell the truth in the face of wrongful authority! (to oppose this unlawful acts).20 In the Islamic system every person has to see to it that all the jobs particularly those pertaining to the government administration and public matters are correctly done, if not, he should correct them, otherwise, he will be held liable by God and his people for disregarding a sacred individual as well as a social duty. The Islamic leader and government officials are to check the behavior of people under their leadership and the people are obliged (not only allowed) to check the performance of the leadership. That might be the reason why the Islamic Constitution of Iran has paid a careful attention to the said matter, which says: Any person who has grievances or complaints against the manner in which the National Assembly, the Executive or the Judiciary are carrying out their duties, may present his complaints in writing to the National Assembly. The National Assembly has a obligation to fully investigate all complaints received from the public and provide answers and explanations to them. 21 It needs no mention that only through a real process of check and balance can a society avoid exploitation or oppression by the ruling class, in order to have a true democracy. CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLAMIC GOVERNMENT The characteristics of any institution including the government, is what gives the real meaning to it and should be the basis of judgment regarding that particular body. In the case of Islamic government, as far as the school and its true teachers and leaders are concerned a researcher like Sarojini Naidu, the great poetess of India, would not hesitate to call it “the first religion that preached and practice democracy… when the peasant and the kings kneel side by side to proclaim, “God alone is great.”” 1 Human-Oriented The main characteristic of Islamic Government is that it always sides with masses, denouncing 1.) The rulers who oppress their fellow beings , b.) The businessmen who such the blood of the poor, and c.) The religious leaders who take unlawful advantage of people’s sincere beliefs.

In this religion, God Almighty has always attached Himself to the ordinary and common mean, with no conflict of interest at all between the Creator and His creatures. He said: Say: (O…Mohammad) I seek refuge in God of the people, the Ruler of the people, and the Lord of the people….2 The same is His religion and government – The Islamic System. From its origin, this system has stood to provide justice to the people and rid them from the oppressors and exploiters on the basis that “God alone is the Master.” * Regarding the people-centered policies of the Islamic Government, Imam Ali writes to his governor this way: Do not keep yourself secluded from the people because it is a king of narrow sightedness and causes ignorance about their affairs. 3 In another part of that letter of instruction he advices as follows: Fix a time for the complainants wherein you spare yourself for them … feel humble therein keep away your army and assistants so that anyone who likes to speak, may speak without fear; because I heard the Prophet of Allah (Mohammad) saying on many occasions: “The people among whom the right of the weak is not secured from the strong without fear,” would never achieve purity (true democracy)! 4 As for the unfortunate, orphans and disabled, Ali asked his governor to pay more attention to them. He ordered this way: Keep Allah in view in respect of the lowest group, consisting of those who have little means, the poor the destitute, the penniless and the disabled… You are held responsible about them by Allah. Fix for them a share from the public funds. Luxurious life should not keep you away from them; life the simple way. You cannot be excused for ignoring small matters because of deciding big problems! Take care of the orphans and the aged who have no means nor go begging. This is a heavy responsibility on the officers; in fact, every right is heavy. 5 One can see how simple, but at the same time, how profound and human-oriented these directions are. Ali himself, during his rule has a routine program of checking the different districts of the city to observe for himself not only the law and order situation but also to look for the possible unfortunate and poor people. 6 In other words Ali, through his deed and words wanted to guide towards the fact that, in the Islamic system, it is the human being that counts and the government is to serve in the implementation of the law for prosperity and true happiness of people and not, as it has been most of the times, to consider the people as its servants or subjects.

Provision of Law and Order One of the primary purposes in the establishment of the government since the early days has been the security of the citizens or people belonging to a community. When the word “government” or “state” is mentioned, the first thing that usually comes to mind is the police power that keeps peace and order in society. Islamic Government considers the establishment of law as its prime target, because without law there will be no Justice, and without Justice there will be mo peace, and without peace a society cannot attain its natural growth. According to Qur’an the lawlessness is contrary to the prime purpose of sending messengers who cam to “establish Justice among the people”, 7 “to purify and provide them with education and wisdom,” 8 and the fact that “God does not approved corruption.” 9 There are numerous cases in the Qur’an and teachings of Prophet Mohammad and Imam Ali that instruct people to follow the law of god and observe Justice and Brotherhood among themselves. They also use the strongest word as “Allies of Satan” for the lawless elements against whom there should be a continuous struggle. 10 In fact, Ali had said repeatedly that the only reason why he did accept the responsibility to lead the Islamic government was to sincere feeling of his commitment to establish law and order in the society. 11 Pointing to the police force of state for both internal as well as external security, Ali regards the Islamic Armed Forces not as a tool for oppression but rather an instrument of peace and confidence for the people. He wrote in his famous letter of instruction to the governor of Egypt as follows: The Army is, by the help of Allah, the fortress of the people (to protect them) … and means of peace. The people cannot exist without them… (the revenues are needed) by which they (The army men) acquire strength to fight the enemies. 12 This fight against the enemies of peace, be they external or internal, is a part of Islamic law that calls for punishment of those who by corruption and committing crimes and malicious deeds created lawlessness that shall destroy religion and state in the first place. A Possible Misunderstanding There are some people, among them prominent lawyers, who consider Islamic laws such as capital punishment for murder and other sever penalties that are imposed for different crimes by the Islamic system as harsh and even call them brutal. But it seems that many of those laws are misinterpreted or exaggerated by some ignorant people, both Muslim and non-Muslim.

Added to this is the fact that they are not a monopoly of Islam, rather some of those laws could be found in the Old Testament that is respected, (though it may not be practiced) by the Jews and Christians through out the world. Aside from that if the law is to prevent crimes effectively in society, then simple comparison between the rate of crimes in Islamic Stated and Europe or America can show the success of the sever punishment over the loose one. More important than all is the fact the Islam puts value on the life, prestige and property of every individual citizen. But if an irresponsible person or a criminal by profession violates the rights of one or more innocent persons, then he is not only liable for the crime alone, rather he has committed an act of aggression against humanity in general by breaking the law. That’s why the Qur’an says: We have decreed for the children of Israel that whosoever killeth a human being for another than manslaughter or corruption in the earth, it shall be as if he had killed all mankind (violated the respect for innocent man). And whosoever saveth the life of one, it shall be as if he had saved the life of all mankind. Our messengers came unto them of old, with clear proofs (informed them) but afterwards Lo! many of them became prodigals (law breakers) on earth. 13 In other words, after proper education and information of the people by the Islamic government, if there were still some individuals who knowingly and intentionally are set to insult the human establishments by breaking the law, then that is the time for them to be punished exactly the same way they have violated the right to live or prestige of other persons and humanity in its totality. Here is further explanation from an Islamic researcher: Quranic jurisprudence prescribes retaliation law as more effective way by which we can prevent crimes in society. This is based on the human psychology of “Do not do unto others what you do not want others do unto you.” In other words if a person knows that in case of murdering someone (intentionally), he will surely die, or in case of other crimes, he will be severely punished, then he will think twice before doing so. 14 One should not forget that the wrong policy of the so-called humanitarian groups for softening the penal code may have served the criminals but surely has endangered more innocent lives and properties. This can be easily observed by the rise of crimes in the countries that

have adopted more liberal policies in dealing with criminals, like the United States and some counties of Europe. Society Based on Moderation The sign of a sound and healthy society is moderation. It can be easily understood by the fact that the principal characteristic of an unhealthy community of man is violence, abuse, bloodshed, oppression, poverty, etc., which are the natural results of extreme differences that may exist among the people. Islam believes that all prophets of God Almighty came to establish a “Balance for people to observe Justice” * and therefore, bring the society to a level which is just and moderate, wherein there is no abuse or domination of one class over the other. Here are some Qur’anic verses to explain more, God Almighty talks to Mosses regarding his mission. First He describes the unjust and extreme attitude Pharaoh (the emperor pf Egypt) this way: Lo! Pharaog exalted himself in the earth and made its people castes. A group (class) among them he oppressed, killing their sons and sparing their women (to prevent his downfall and replacement by another man). Lo! he was of those who work corruption! 15 Then Moses is ordered to go and balance this unruly society this way: Go thou (O Moses!) unto Pharaoh. Lo! he hath rebelled And say (unto him): Hast thou (will) to grow (in grace and change)? Then I will guide thee to thy Lord’s Direction, and thou shalt fear (to disobey His rules). And he showed him (the Pharaoh) the tremendous token (the right ideology). But he denied and disobeyed, then turned he away in haste. Then gathered he and summoned (this forces to protect this rule) and proclaimed: “I (Pharaoh) am your Lord the Highest! 14 (Here arose the conflict and violence between him and the oppressed people of Moses.) So Allah (through the movement of Moses people) seized him (and made him) an example for the (rules) later and for the former! Lo! herein is indeed a lesson for him who think. After giving these historical facts as a proof of the results of an extreme society, the Qur’an says: Such examples We mention for mankind that hey may happily reflect. 17 And through all these teaching, one great purpose is achieved and that is:

Thus We (God Almighty) have appointed you a middle nation (which is moderate and avoids extremes), that you may be examples for mankind and the messenger (Mohammad, your guide) may be an example for you. 18 This moderate policy of Islamic Nation and its government covers all aspects of life, be it political, social, economic or whatever else. Again Ali gives us the best example by describing as well as practicing this Islamic policy in his own Khelafat. When some people had spoken ill of him for equality in the distribution of public funds, his answer was: Do you command me that I should seek support by oppression those over whom I have been placed (the people)? By Allah, I won’t do so till the world goes on, and till one star leads another in the sky. Even if it were my property I would have distributed it equally among them, then why not, when the property is that of Allah (National). Beware that giving of wealth without nay right, is wastefulness and lavishness. It raises its donor in the (eyes of some greedy people of) this world, but lowers him in the next world (the moral human aspect) … then if he falls on bad days and needs help, they (the illegal recipients) would prove the worst comrades and ignorable friends. 14 In another occasion Ali declared this immortal observation: “I never saw a plenitude of wealth accumulated somewhere, unless I saw the rights abused besides it, too!” Within his letter of instructions to the governor designate for Egypt, Ali stresses that importance of social justice which is the pillar of a moderate and sound society. He said: The most coveted way for you should be that which is the most moderate and fair regarding the truth, the most universal by way of Justice and the most comprehensive with regard to the agreement of the public, because the disagreement of the common people, sweeps away the argument of the chide ones, while the disagreement of some wealthy people can be disregarded in view of the agreement of the common people. 20 In short, the Islamic Doctrine teaches that he only way to have a society free of violence, bloody revolutions and destructive upheavals is to base all the affairs of society – its government and social relations – on moderation and fairness, wherein, Ali puts it, “the earnings of hands of one class will not be swallowed by the other!” 20 To achieve this goal, there is a need to eliminate all kinds of oppression and exploitation in the community; that is what he Islamic

government is committed to do in order to reach the standard set for it by that religion. Strong, Firm but highly Democratic Another characteristic of the Islamic government is that in spite of its being, probably, the strongest and the most firm political structure, it is more democratic than any other government as well. The reason behind its strength is that it does not only possess the vote and confidence of the people, but also their religious beliefs which is a confirmation of such government by God Almighty. Here are some verses from Qur’an to show the endorsement of the Islamic Government by Allah: O, Ye who believe: Obey Allah, and obey the messenger and those of you who are (rightfully) authorized.21 In another chapter it says: And whatsoever the messenger giveth you (Islam in its totality) take it and whatsoever he forbideth abstain (from it) and keep your duty to Allah. 22 There are many other examples which can show us how strong and authoritative a rightful Islamic leader could be, as far as this doctrine is concerned. But the surprising point is that this powerful authority is not necessarily a dictatorial rule, but rather highly democratic and humane. The reason behind this is the fact that in Islam the leader does not “possess” the government or the people. The same in the case of people. They also do not possess anything. It is God Almighty that possesses everything: Unto Allah belongeth the sovereignty of the heavens and earth. This the righteous leader of the Islamic government is bestowed a lot of authority but only as a trustee from Allah, while in reality, it is subject to God as anybody else, as it is pointed out in Qur’an very clearly: So rule (or Judge O, Mahammad) between them the way that Allah hath revealed, and follow not heir (selfish) desires (that are away from the truth which hath come unto thee. 23 In this case, the Islamic leader is to follow the order of God as every other citizen, therefore, the power of the governor and the obedience of the people, both are related to God, and God of Islam, unlike those of Greek mythology or Hindi religion, is: “the Beneficient the Merciful” 24 and Who Hath compassion on His bondmen, and therefore, “Allah desireth ease for you; He desireth not hardship for you.” 25

In the Islamic System, the government and the citizens have a mutual agreement, wherein the first one has to sever the true interests of the second, under the order of God, and the second one has to obey and support the first, (the government) that should be nothing but a Godly institution for the prosperity of His people. The two sides have rights over each other as well as responsibilities towards one another, as cited by Ali: O, people, I have a right over you and you have a right over me. As for your right over me, that is to counsel you, to pay your dues fully, to teach (educate) you that you may not remain ignorant and instruct you in behaviorisms that you may know how to act upon matters. As for my right over you, it is fulfillment of (the obligation of) allegiance, wellwishing in your presence or absence, response when I call you and obedience when I order you.26 As one can see here, the government is supported by the masses, provided it carries out its obligation s and none of the people or their leader are rightful without performing their respective responsibilities. Another reason that contributes to the democratization of Islamic Government, despite its being very authoritative, is the fact that not everybody can assume leadership as in the case of western democracy; not even one of the top ten , but only the highest qualified available person has the right and better to say the obligation, to lead the nation. Those qualities were discussed before (in Chapter 2), but to explain further the sensitivity of Islam to preserve democracy and fight demagoguery of politicians, it should be added here that even a small but internal lie may disqualify forever the powerful Islamic leaders, from assuming leadership of the Ummah! To conclude, it should also be mentioned that the lives and leadership of Prophet Moahmmad and Imam Ali as well as other truly authorized Islamic Kahlifas are good examples to show the strength and influence of Islamic ruler among the followers of Islam and citizens of that government, on one hand, and its being highly democratic, on the other. Nobody in the whole history, not even the enemies of Islam, have claimed that the government of the leaders named above has been oppressive, but on the contrary, they have praised then as being, in the words of the great Indian poetess, Sorojini Naidu, “the first religion (system) that preached and practiced democracy.” 2 That is why, by the virtue of being a pioneer religion of democracy, the true freedom of man is the major characteristic of Islamic Doctrine, including the Islamic Government.

ISLAMIC GOVERNMENT IN MUSLIM COUNTRIES AND A WORLDWIDE ISLAMIC GOVERNMENT After the Islamic revolution of Iran on February 11, 1979, once again the question of Islamic revival and its advance across the borders was raised. While it is giving encouragement and hope to the Muslims who, like many other people of the Third World, have suffered centuries of colonization and domination by the big powers, at the dame time, it is a source of great anguish for the domination powers, particularly the US and the USSR. Mr. Zbigniew Brzenski, then U.S. presidential adviser on foreign policy, placed this anguish in its political context: “an arc of crisis stretches along the shores of the Indian Ocean, with a fragile social and political structure in a region of vital importance to us threatened by fragmentation.”1 By this statement the US. political leader referred to Islamic revival in the Muslim world that began from Iran and that which “led to one of the greatest setbacks ever to American prestige”. 2 That Islamic revival was no less dangerous to socialist Russia and the Communist ideology in general, than to the western powers lead by the United States. Russia has estimately 50 to 60 million Muslims today, 3 while the other communist giant, China, has even more; and this Islamic revival has inspired those Muslim minorities so much so that they may rebel against the communist dictatorships at any time. The anguish of the two governments could be seen clearly in Russia’s painful invasion of Muslim Afghanistan that was launched to prevent the Islamic movement from entering its Muslim states of Uzbakistan, Tajikistan, Turkistan and Kazakhistan; later on it could spread among all Muslims of the Soviet Union from Central Asia to Siberia. Today, both Russia and china have stepped up giving some lip services to their Muslim minorities. The holding by Russia of “Tashkent Islamic Conference for 15th century of Hijra” on September 9-12, 1980, in which five thousand Muslims from all around the world were invited, is a clear sign of the efforts by that Communist government to satisfy the Muslims both in Russia and abroad that she respects religion and specially Islam. 4 `The propaganda of China of more religious freedom for Muslims, sending and receiving Muslim delegated to and from China are

proofs of that new policy adopted by the Chinese government after the recent Islamic revival. Another proof is the way those two governments have stepped up preaching Marxism to lessen the effect of religious fervor that may cause trouble in the future. 5 Therefore, at present they are suing two methods to overcome this problem: apparently encouraging religious freedom with a firm control, and also planning clandestinely to eliminate he religious beliefs of the new generation, through bombarding their minds with anti-religion teachings of Marxism. 6 Establishment of Islamic Government in the Muslim Countries One this that most of the non-Muslims may not be well aware of, is that Islam, unlike many other religions, does not refer only to some religious devotions. It is also the name of a wholesome aspect of man’s life and directs him in all problems that he may face in this world as well as the next. “Islam is not, as in Christianity, a church within the community” observe John Laffin, “but a community integrated with religion and I this lies its special strength.” He then goes on to say: The average western person does not realize that Islam is not merely religious but political, economic and legal as well, an allembracing system, code and pattern of life, not just something to which Muslims t8urn on Friday, their principal day of payer. 7 Taking these into account, one may rightly conclude that “then the religious fervor among the Muslims is many times more than peoples following other religion.” This writer’s observation among Muslim communities living in different parts of the globe is that despite all geographical or some other differences that they may have, there is one point common to them all – to aspire for an Islamic System of Government in which all Islamic laws and programs for the life of the individual and society will be fully implemented. The success of the Islamic Movement in Iran that toppled the strong monarchy system of the Shah who was supported by all superpowers and their allies, gave a momentum to this aspiration of Muslims in other Islamic countries of the world. John Laffin writes it his way: Dr. Brzinski’s “Arc of crisis” extends from Iran to South East Asia, taking in Afghanistan, the Gulf States, Pakistan, Bangladesh, the Yemen, and Somalia, all Islamic states. But the area of potential crisis is much more extensive, stretching from Morocco to Egypt and including

much of North Africa; it involves Turkey and the six Muslim states of the Soviet Union; it reaches as far as Indonesia and the Philippines. It covers the forty-four states of the Muslim world. 8 The revival of banned Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and Syria, the activities of Muslims of Saudi Arabia, 9 Iraq and other Persian gulf states and Afghanistan, resulted through a strong moral support from the Islamic Revolution through some of them existed even before. “Our one and only remedy”, declared Ayatollah Khomeini 15 years before the Islamic Revolution in Iran. “is to bring down these corrupt and corrupting systems of government, and to overthrow the traitorous repressive and despotic gangs in charge. This is the duty of all Muslims in all Islamic countries; this is the way to victory for all Revolutions.” 10 Today it is not only Ayatolla Khomeini; but many other intellectuals and well respected open-minded religious leaders in the Islamic world, are of the same opinion. It is no more a question of whether or not, but how, when and in which Muslim-country, the next Islamic revolution shall take place. The fact is that from now on, no change, peaceful or through violence, in the political scene of any Islamic nation may occur, that is not going to be replaced by an Islamic Republic. This, of course, excludes the unusual and illegal acts like the military coup d’etat in Turkey that is believed to have been engineered by the U.S. to prevent the Islamic groups from coming to power in Turkey. 11 The resurrection of Islamic organizations and the rising popularity of Islam-oriented political parties from Morocco to Malaysia and Indonesia, all are indicating one thing – the awakening of Muslim Nations and the Islamic revival. The monarchy systems and remaining Shekhdoms in the Islamic Countries * seem to face the fate of dethroned Iranian Monarch – The Shah. “Islam,” said Ayatollah Khomeini “shall not have kings or crowned prices. If that is a fault, well then, Islam is a faulty religion.” 22 There is little doubt that if a fair and proper election be held today in any Islamic country, the clear majority shall vote in favor of the establishment of an Islamic Government in their country. The Role of Iran The role of Islamic Iran is the establishment of the new Islamic Governments in other Muslim countries is very significant, and

Ayatollah Khomeini believes that: The Iranian Nation serve as a model to other countries and nations. 13 The following could be cited ad effects of the Islamic Revolution over the other Muslim nations of the world: 1. It is the only Islamic Movement ever that has struggled for the establishment of an Islamic Republic with success, after the foundation of Islamic by Prophet Mohammad at around 602 A.D., thus serving as a model for the Muslims of today. 2. The Islamic Revolution that took place in Iran, boosted the morale of other Muslim nations leading them to think that they could do the same if they would unite their ranks. 3. After Islamic Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini restated his idea of United Muslim Front by repeatedly declaring that the Islamic Revolution should go out of Iran’s boundaries and liberate the other oppressed people in general and – Muslim nations in particular. ON many occasions the Islamic leader has called on the Muslims of the world to “Arise! Take up the Qur’an, obey God’s command so that you will be able to return to and revive the greatness and glory of Islam.14 The constitution of Iran clearly states that the Islamic Government’s foreign policy “is based on the complete independence…, and defending the rights of all Muslims…”15 That is why the Islamic Republic has firmly supported other Islamic movements in the Muslim countries like those of Afghanistan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, etc., morally and, most probably financially too.16 The propagation of Islamic movement through radios, television, literature, films and delegations sent by the New Islamic regime has contributed a lot in calling the attention of Muslims in other Islamic states to the religious and political renaissance of Islam. In short, it is an accepted fact today that the Islamic Revolution of Iran has had great effect over the people of the third world countries in particular. This influence will have far-reaching results yet in the future namely the repetition of similar events for achieving greater freedom and revival of religious principles and values in other Islamic States. A Worldwide Islamic Government The most sensitive question regarding Islamic Government which is interesting for the Muslims and non-Muslims alike, is to know whether the Islamic movement will be limited to Iran and at most, to several or all Islamic States, or it is a Universal Movement?

There are many Muslims who may not know the answer or believe that he Islamic Movement is just a limited type. But the fact is that his movement, like any other ideological movement, is not, and by its nature, cannot be limited to any region or race, for it belongs to all mankind. The Qur’an explains mission of Prophet Mohammad this way: “And We (god) have not sent thee (O, Mohammad) save as a bringer of good tidings (for true happiness of man in this world and the hereafter) and warner (of the results of wrong human relation) unto all mankind.” 17 In another statement that is repeated in three different chapters in Qur’an to stress the firmness of the decision, the Holy Book of Islam declares that: “He (God Almighty) it is Who hath send His messenger (Mohammad) with the guidance and the religion of Truth (Islam which is so principally sound and right) that He (through sending it to mankind) may cause it to prevail over all religions (or ideologies); and Allah sufficient as a witness. 18 Speaking on the ultimate goal of Prophet Muhammad’s mission, Imam Ali, being his closest companion and working with the Prophet since early childhood, said: “Allah send Muhammad (S.A.W) as a warner (against vice) for all peoples of the world and a trustee of His revelation (that shall tell ht truth without fear or selfish desires), while you people of Arabia were following the worst religion (beliefs and human conducts) …19 All these go to show that The Islamic Movement since its first day was established on the basis that it would be universal mission. And that is why Prophet Mohammad, while still under attach from Arabia’s tribes or the people of Mecca, who would besiege the small town of medina where Muhammad and his followers lived as refugees, did not forget the universality of his mission and sent several letters to the kings and emperors of Egypt, Persia, Rome, etc., calling them to: submission to God Almighty by following Islam and setting aside the unjust conducts they had with their own people. 20 Later on his followers carried out his mission and within less then half a century the Islamic movement could knock down the two oppressive super powers of those days – Persia and Rome. The Islamic Movement Today Today’s Islamic Movement is even stronger potentially and possible more active than during the early days of Islam – thus its results are far-reaching and more profound as well.

The reason is not because Ayatollah Khomeini is more canny than Prophet Muhammad, something neither he nor any other Muslim could claim or believe; but rather because of the fact that the Muslims today, is general, are more educated, numerous and better established than before. Or top of these, lies the fact that the Muslims of today have inherited a history as old as 14000 years of ups and downs, glories of ruling over the world, from Spain in Europe down to Eastern Rome, Egyptian Civilization and most of Africa, Persia, India and parts of China and Russia. The point here for the Muslims is not only the military conquest, but rather bearing in their hands the torch of science, education and civilization and taking it to Europe which in the words of Ayatollah has been “so primitive that there is no recorded history of it, when its inhabitants were still wild:” and liberating millions of people from the clutches of Persian and Roman despotic Emperors. “At a time in the West”, wrote Ayatollah Khomeini, many years before the revolution were so primitive that there is no recorded history of it, when its inhabitants were still wild, and when America was still a land of half-wild redskins (Indians), the people of the Persian and Roman Empires were forced to live under despotic oligarchy, favoritism and absolute rule, without the slightest particular or right to participate in their own government, it was then that God, through His Prophet (Mohammad) send us the laws whose scope has amazed mankind.” 21 The present situation of Muslims on one hand, and the painful experience of colonialism in the hands of the West, that repaid them very badly, by tearing into pieces the Muslim Ottoman Empire and Muslim Persia in the first World War through treacherous means like those of Intelligent Service agent Lawrence of Arabia etc. on the other, has given the Muslim masses a very hateful impression of their former “beneficiaries.” Since then they look at anything Western with suspicion and fight against western influence by any means at their disposal. This can be very clearly seen again in the words of Ayatollah Khomeini and the way Muslims of various Islamic countries have reached to the West, before as well as after the Islamic Revolution. The taking of the American embassy staff as hostage on charges of espionage in Iran (November 4, 1979) and the following antiAmerican violence and demonstrations in other Islamic countries and even in the Philippines by the Filipino Muslims, 21 all could prove this reality. “The homeland of Islam,” wrote Ayatollah Khomeini, “one and indivisible, was broken up by doings of the imperialists and deposite and

ambitious leaders. The Muslim people, one and indivisible, was broken up into several people. And when the Ottoman Empire struggled to achieve Islamic Unity, it was opposed by a United Front of Russian, British, Austrian and other imperialist powers which split it up among themselves.” 23 Regarding some treacherous secret plans of the he West to colonize and exploit the Muslims, the Ayatollah comments that: “Then came the turn of those even more damnable representatives of Satan, the imperialists. Within the last three centuries or more, they have invaded every Muslim country, with the intention of destroying Islam. They have been aware ever since the Crusades that only Islam, with its laws and its faith, can bar the way to their material interests and political power. They send missionaries into Muslim cities, and they found accomplices within the universities and various information or publication centers, mobilized their orientalist scholars in the service of imperialism all of which only distorted Islamic truths.” 24 All of this goes to show how the Muslims today feel about the super powers and some religions, particularly Christianity, that was used as cover or tool for “distorting Islamic truths” and “breaking up the homeland of Islam.” And as a result, taking away the Muslim’s glory and putting them in chains of colonialism or controlling their lands by establishing puppet governments – like the coup d’etat Shah to power and other similar cases in Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Oman, Pakistan, Turkey, etc. That is why it is believed that the present movement and revival of Islam in the twentieth century has more potentials than that in the early days of Islam. For this time, the Muslims not only believe that they have a “heavenly mission to defend the oppressed against the oppressors25 and to be a nation that invites to goodness and enjoins right conduct and forbids indecency,” 26 but further, this time they feel that they are betrayed by their arch enemy – the West. To those should be added the invaluable experiences of the past that are the best guides for their future, in order not to repeat the mistakes but adopt the right strategy and planning. Liberation Movements Conference in Tehran To materialize the Islamic unity and to build a universal front against imperialism, the Islamic government of Iran has held many conferences inviting different nations and groups to participate. The most significant of them all was the six-day world Liberation Movements’ Conference that was inaugurated on January 6,

1980 in Tehran and was attended by representatives of 16 Liberation Movements from different countries, around the world. The hosts of the meeting were the Muslims Students adhering to the Imam’s Line, who held the American Embassy staff on charges of espionage for 444 days during the Iran-U.S. crisis of 1979-80. In that conference almost all liberation movements, like the Polisario (of Sahara) Eritrean Liberation Movement, Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the Liberation Movements of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Fettani (Thailand) Algeria, Uroguay, etc., were represented by one or more representatives of their movements. The conferences opened its sessions with a message from Ayatollah Khomeini. Here are some phrases of that message to show how they Ayatollah is trying to persuade the people to establish a universal front against imperialism of both capitalist and communist powers. Should I begin with the difficulties which the superpowers have imposed upon the deprived people of the world? (….) or should I complain of the Muslim Governments which have the weapon of oil a their disposal and other resources… but who themselves do not use this weapon for freeing themselves from the yoke of there imperialism of the West and East? Rise in revolt: … tell your governments to rescue themselves from self-imposed lassitude and subjection. Tell them all to turn to Islam and to Islamic brotherhood. O you impoverished masses of the world: Arise in revolt and rescue yourselves from the claws of the enemies of humanity. Do not continue to submit to injustice, for God will aid the oppressed. 27 Islamic Constitution of Iran and the Worldwide Islamic Government Based on the Qur’anic injunctions regarding “Brotherhood of the believers” 28 and the “Oneness of the Muslim Ummah (nation)” 29 the Islamic Constitution of Iran declares this concept as a major principle of its Foreign policy: “All Muslims are one nation and the Islamic government of Iran must strive to achieve the political, economic and cultural unity of the Islamic world.” 30 In another part of the constitution, under Mass Media the Islamic government’s duties are further explain this way: “…in the creation of an Islamic society in the hope that such society can be held up as an example and a model to the rest of the world.31

When it comes to specify the foreign policy with regards to other people of the world, whether Muslim or non-Muslim, the constitution announces the responsibility of the Islamic Government of Iran in supporting “the deprived people of the world against their oppressors.” “The Islamic Republic of Iran” states that constitution. “regards the happiness of man within the community of mankind as its object, and recognizes independence, freedom and justice as the rights of all men. While refraining from interfering in the internal affairs of other nations, the Islamic Republic shall not withhold its support from the deprived people of the world against their oppressors.” 38 The oppressor here could mean anybody, be it the group in power in one country or the international oppressors who subject other nations to exploitation and abuse, for their imperialist plans. Therefore, it should be concluded that the present Islamic Movement, initiating from Iran is following, in principle, the same policy of the early movement of Islam that was declared by the Qur’an as a Universal Mission. It is not satisfied only with liberating the oppressed people of Iran rather as long as there remains any oppressor and the oppressed in this world, the Islamic Movement is committed to continue struggling. This is the principal plan of the Islamic Movement in bringing the long forgotten justice and brotherhood to the society of man, through a non-stop effort and struggle which gets its guidance from God and its elements from among the oppressed people of the world.

REFERENCE

CHAPTER I Time Magazine, New York, April 16, 1979 Ettelaat, Tehran, January 30, 1980 * See for example: The Dagger of Islam, by John Laffin, (London: Sphere Books, Ltd, 1979). 3 Arthur Higbee, “What Would Iran’s Islamic Republic Be Like? Bulletin Today, February 11, 1979, p.6 * This book has been printed many times in Arabic, Persian, Urdu, etc. A good English translation is published by Center of Islamic Studies, P.O. Box 12. Qom, Iran, in 1975. * A.H. stands for After Hijra meaning the migration of Prophet Mohammad from Mecca to Medina. 4 Ali Reza, Seyyed, Nahjul Balagha (Qum Center of Islamic Studies, 1975) p.12 5 Qur’an 26:214 6 Ali Reza Seyyed, Nahjul Balaha p.12 7 Ibid; p.14 * The English translation of Nahjul Balagha gives a list of Muslim as well as non-Muslim Scholars who have researches regarding this matter (N.B. Center of Islamic Studies, Qum, Iran, pp. 9-12). 8 Hatta, Mohammad, A review on the Character of Ali (Cairo, Neel Books Ltd., 1970) p.40. 9 Ali Reza, Seyyed, Nahjul Balaha (Qum Center of Isalmic Studies, 1975) p.11. 10 Ibid 11 S.V. Mir Abmed Ali; The Holy Qur’an Full Commentary Vol.I (Karachi, Pakistan: P.E. Trust Publications, 1979) p.608 12 Ibid 13 Faizol-Islam, Naqi Nahjul Balagha p.52 14 Ali Reza, Seyyed, Nahjul Balaha p.134 15 Ibid, p.148
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Shariati, Ali Maktab (Houston, Texas: Book Distribution Center 1977) p.10 17 Ali Reza Seyyed Nahjul Balaha p.134 18 Ibid, p.148 19 Ali Reza, Seyed Nahjul Balagha (Qum Center of Isalmic Studies, 1975) p.162 20 George Zaidan History of Islamic Civilization Vol. I (Cairo, Dar Al-Kotab Publications, 1960) p.160 21 Ibid, p.165 22 Ibid, p.57 23 S.M.A. Jafaray Nahrul Balagha (Introduction) p.57-60 24 Qur’an, 68:1 25 Opinion expressed by Mr. Narsisian, First Secretary of British Embassy, in his speech at Islamic Center Baghdah, December 15, 1970 26 Faizol Islam, Naqi Nahjul Balagha p.46 27 Ibid, p.761 28 Faizol Islam, Naqi Nahjul Balagha p.56 * Note for example Omar Khayyam of Persia (Iran) who was an astronomer, philosopher, mathematician and one of the most outstanding poets in history. Another good example is Abu Rarabi (Central Asian) who was a great Philosopher as well as musician, etc.

16

CHAPTER II Picktthall, Marmaduke The Glorious Qur’an (Tehran: Salehi Publications, 1974) 21:107 2 Ibid, 17:9 3 Marmaduke Pickthall, The Glorious Qur’an (Tehran: Salehi Publications, 1974) 7:175 4 Ali Reza Seyyed, Nahjul Balaha p.131 5 Ibid, p.132 6 Picktthall, Marmaduke The Glorious Qur’an 7:172 7 Statement by Mohammad Ali Jinah, founder of Pakistan, in his speech delivered at Karachi on the occasion of the Independence of Pakistan, September 14, 1947 8 Picktthall, Marmaduke The Glorious Qur’an 62: 2 9 Ali Reza Seyyed, Nahjul Balaha p.140 10 Picktthall, Marmaduke The Glorious Qur’an 62:5 11 Ali Reza Seyyed, N.B p.134 12 Ibid, p.258 13 Picktthall, Marmaduke The Glorious Qur’an 4:59 14 Ibid 57:25 15 Ammed Al Qommi, a Brief Study of Qur’an, Iranian Muslim Student Association, Manila, Philippines, 1979, p.10 16 Rao Ramaksrisna Muhmmad (Mnila: Far East Young Muslims Association, 1980) p.9. 17 See The New Testament, Mathew 5:38-45 18 Qur’an, 2:256. 19 Ibid 2:190 20 Rao Ramaksrisna Muhmma p.11 21 Ibid. p. 12 22 Ibid. p. 12 23 Qur’an, 49:13 24 Ibid. 17:70 22 Ibid. 28:4
1

Qur’an, 28:5-6 Ali Reza Seyyed, Nahjul Balaha p.179 29 Ibid. p. 304 * The awaited Imam that shall appear later. A belief (common among almost all peoples and religions that their leader shall return (e.g.) “Jesus Christ shall return,” that is the belief of the Catholic, etc.
28

27

Ministry of National Guidance: The Iranian Constitution, Tehran, Iran 1979, p.4. 31 Ali Reza Seyyed, Nahjul Balaha p.408 32 Ibid. p. 127 33 Ibid. p. 419 34 Ibid. p. 190 35 Ibid. p. 425 36 Ibid. 37 Ibid. 38 Ibid. p. 448 39 Ibid. p. 532 40 Faizol Islam, NAQI Nahjul Balagha p.993 41 Ibid. p. 993 42 Ibid. p. 1044 43 Ali Reza Seyyed, Nahjul Balaha p.158

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CHAPTER III Amini Allama Al-Ghadir (Nejaf, Iraq Al-Ghadir Publications 1968) p. 125 3 Faizol-Islam Naqi, Nahjul Balagha p.50 4 Ibid., p.146 5 Ali Shariati Ommat Wa Imamat (West Germany, United Islamic Students Ass. Persian Speaking Group 1976) p.95 6 Qur’an 62:2 7 Iranian constitution, Article 107 8 Ali Reza, Seyyed Nahjul Balagha p.279 9 Abid., p. 881 10 Motahhari Mortez Dastan Rastan (Tehran, Enteshar Publications Inc., 1972) p. 90. 11 Qur’an 3:159 12 Abid., 42:38 13 The Iranian Constitution (Tehran, Ministry of National Guidance 1979) p.5 14 A.M. MacDonald, Chambers’ Essential English Dictionary p.130 15 Iranian Constitution, Preamble, under “Methods of Government in Islam.” 16 Abid 17 Ali Reza Seyyed, Nahjul Balaha p.423 18 Harold J. Salemsoh Sayings of the Ayatollah Khomeini (New York: Bantam Books Inc., 1980) p.15. 19 Ali Reza Seyyed, Nahjul Balaha p.648 20 Abid., p. 702 21 Iranian Constitution, Preamble, under “Methods of Government in Islam.”
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CHAPTER IV Rao Ramakrishna Muhammad p. 14 Qur’an 114:1-3 * This is the first sentence that every Muslim or newly-converted to Islam should proclaim, namely: LA ILAHA ILAL LAH 3 Torabi, Rashid Hazrat Ali’s Famous Epistle to Malik Ashtar, Governor of Eqypt (Qum, Ansanan Publications, 1972) p.9 4 Abid., p. 10 5 Abid., p. 11 6 Ali Reza, Seyyed Nahjul Balagha p. 539 7 Qur’an, 57:25 8 Abid., 62:2 9 Abid., 26:90 10 Abid., 4:76 11 Faizol-Islam, Naqui Nahjul Balagha pp. 52 & 112 12 Torali Rashid, Hazrat Ali’s Famous Epistle to Malik Ashtar, Governor of Egypt p.20 13 Qur’an, 5:32 14 Ameed Al-Qommi A Brief Study of Qur’an (Manila:Iranian Muslim Students Association 1979) p. 23. * Refer to Chapter 2: Under the topic Establishment of a Just Political Structure. 15 Qur’an, 79:17 16 Qur’an, 79:18-26. 17 Abid., 59:22 18 Abid., 2:142 19 Torali Rashid, HAZRAT ALI’S Famous Epistle to Malik Ash,tar, p.25 20 Abid., p.16 21 Qur’an, 4:59 22 Abid., 59:7. 23 Abid., 5:48.
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Abid., 1:3. Abid., 2:185 26 Ali Reza Seyyed, Nahjul Balaha p.205 27 Rao Ramakrishna, Muhammad (Manila: Far East Young Muslims Association, 1980) p. 7
25

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CHAPTER V Laffin John, The dagger of Islam (London: Sphere Books LTD., 1979) p.5 2 Abid., p. 6 3 Abid., p. 4. 4 Muslims of the Soviet East. Official Journal of Muslim Religious Board of Asia and Kazakhistan, No.3, 1980, p. 11. 5 Hong Kong Muslim Herald Vol. 3, Nov. 1980, p. 3. 6 Islmic Republic (Morning Daily) Tehran, Feb. 4, 1981 7 John Laffin, The Dagger of Islam p.4. 8 Laffin John, The Dagger of Islam (London: Sphere Books LTD., 1979), p. 5. 9 Robert AZZI, Saudi Arabia National Geog. Mag. Sept. 1980), pp.279-298 10 Harold J. Salemson, Sayings of the Ayatollah Khomeini (New York: Bantam Books Inc., 1980) p. 3. 11 Ettelaat (Evening Daily), Tehran, August 12, 1980, p.3. * Muslim countries still under monarchy system or sheikhdom are: Saudi Arabia, Oman, Morocco, Malaysia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain and United Arab Emirates. 12 Harold J. Salemson. Sayings of the Ayatollah Khomeini (New York: Bantam Books Inc., 1980) p. 10 13 A statement by Ayatollah Khomeini, Founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran, in his speech delivered to the Muslim Ambassadors in the Holy City of Qum, on November 3, 1979. 14 Abid. 15 The Iranian Constitution, section 10 16 The Islamic Republic (Morning Daily, Tehran, February 12, 1980) p.4. 17 Qur’an, 34:28. 18 Qur’an, 48:28;9:33; and 61:9. 19 Ali Reza Seyyed, Nahjul Balagha p. 178
1

Sheikh Abss Qommi, Montahal aamal (Tehran: Elmieh Books Ltd., 1960) p. 95. 21 Harold J. Salemson, Sayings of the Ayatollah Khomeini (New York: Bantan Books, 1980) p. 8. 22 Bulletin Today, Manila, Nov. 30, 1980 p. 1. 23 Saying of the Ayatollah Khomeini p.8 24 Abid., p. 9. 25 Qur’an, 4:75. 26 Ibid., 3:104. 27 Selected Messages and Speeches of Imam Khomeini (Tehran: The Hamdami Foundation Books, 1980) p. 90. 28 Qur’an, 49:10. 29 Iranian Constitution. Section 1, Principle 11. 31 Abid., Preamble 32 Iranian Constitution, Section 10, Article 154. * Ali Reza Seyyed, Nahjul Balagha p. 486
*

20

Ali Reza Seyyed, Nahjul Balagha p. 520.

APPENDIX

Appendix I A LETTER OF INSTRUCTION ISSUED BY IMAM ALI When Imam Ali appointed Officers for collection of Zakat and charitable money he wrote for them this instrument of instructions. We have recorded as few portions of it here to show that he always erected the pillars of pillar of Right and created examples of justice in all matters, small or big, delicate or serious. Move on with the fear of Allah who is One and has no Partner. Do not frighten any Muslim. Do not pass over his land so as to make him feel unhappy. Do not take from him more than Allah’s share in his property. When you go to a tribe, you should get down al their watering place instead of entering their houses. Then proceed towards them with peace and prestige till you stand among them. Then salute them and do not fall short of greeting them. They say to them “O people of Allah. The vicegerent of Allah and His Caliph has sent me to you to collect from you Allah ad His Caliph has sent me to you to collect from you Allah’s share in your properties, is there anything of His share in your properties? If so, give it to His vicegerent. If someone among them says NO, then do not repeat the demand! If someone speaks to you in the affirmative, then go with him without frightening him, threatening him, pressuring him or oppressing him. Take whatever he gives you such as gold or silver (coins). If he has cattle or camels d not enter upon them save with is permission, because their major part is his. Therefore when you get there do not enter upon them like one who has full control over them or in a violent manner. Do not scare any animal, do not tease any one and do not let the owner feel grieved about any one. Divide the property into two parts and let the owner choose one. When he has choose one do not object to it. Then divide the remaining into two parts and let the owner choose one. When he has chosen do not object to it. Then divide the remaining into two parts and let him choose one and

when he has chosen do not raise any objection. Continue like this till only that much remains which is enough to satisfy Allah’s dues. Than take Allah’s due from it. If he disputes your action allow his view, then mix the two (separated) parts and repeat what you had done before till you take Allah’s due from the property. Do not take an old, decrepit limb broken, sick or unsound animal. Do not entrust the animals (for custody) except to him who you trust that he would take care of Muslim’s property till he hands it over to their chief who would distribute it. Do not entrust it to anyone except who is well wisher, God-fearing, trustworthy and watchful, and who is not harsh (on them), not makes them run too much, nor tires them, not belabors them. Then send to us all that you collected and we shall deal with it as Allah has ordered. When the trustee takes over (the animals) tell him that he would not separate the she-camel from its young and should not milk all its milk because that would affect its young and also that he should not exert it in riding. In this matter he should behave justly between it and all its companions. He should allow rest to camels (who are tired), and drive with ease those whose hoofs have been rubbed off. When you pass a water spring stay the camels there for drinking and do not take them away from vegetation growing land to barren paths. He should allow them rest now and then and give them time near water and grass. In this way then they would reach us they would be fat with plenty of narrow and would not be fatigued or distressed. We would then distribute them according to the (commands of) Qur’an and the Sunna of the Prophet of Allah (S.A.). Certainly this would be great source of rewards for you and means to secure guidance, if Allah, so wills.*

Appendix II Another Letter (When Imam Ali came to know that the people of Basra invited Usman bin Hunait, governor of the place of to a banquet and he joined it, the wrote to him): O, Ibne Hunaif, I have come to know that a young man of Basra invited you to a feast and you leapt towards it. Foods of different colors were being chosen for you and big bowls were being given to you. I never thought that you would accept the feast of a people who turn out the poor and invite the rich. Look at the morsels you take, leave out that about which you are in doubt and take that about which you are sure that it has been secured lawfully. Remember that every follower has a leader whom he follows and from the effulgence of whose knowledge he takes light. Realize that your Imam has contented himself with two shabby pieces of cloth out of the (comforts of the) world and two loaves for meal. Certainly you cannot do so at least support me in piety, exertion, chastity and uprightness, because, by Allah I have not treasured any gold out of his world nor amassed plenty of wealth nor collected any clothes other than the two shabby sheets. Of course, all that we had in our possession under this sky was Fadak, but a group of people felt greedy for it and the other party with held themselves from it. Allah, is, after all, the arbiter. What shall I do: Fadak or no Fadak, while tomorrow this body is to go in the grave I whose darkness its traces would be destroyed and (even) its news would disappear. It is pity that even if its ____ is widened or the hands of the digger kept it vast the stones and clods of clay would narrow it and the falling earth would close its openings. I am always trying to keep myself engaged in piety so that on the day of the great fear it remains peaceful and steadfast in slippery places. If I wished I could have taken the way leading towards (the worldly pleasure like) pure honey, fine wheat and silk clothes but it cannot be that my passion may lead me and greed may

take me to choosing good meals while in Hedjaz or in Yamama there may be people who have no hope of getting a loaf or who do not have full meal. Shall I lie with satiated belly wile around me there may be hungry bellies and thirsty livers? Or shall I be as the poet has said? – It is also a disease that you lie with your belly full while around you people may be badly yearning for dried leather. Shall I be content with being called “Imam Ali” although I do not share with the people the hardships of the world? Or shall I be an example for them in the distresses of life? I have not been created to keep myself busy in eating good foods like the tied animal whose only worry is his fodder or like a loose animal whose activity is to swallow. It fills its belly with its food and forgets the purpose behind it. Shall I be left uncontrolled or to pasture freely. Or draw the rope of misguidance or roam aimlessly in the paths of bewilderment. I see as though some one of you would say that if this I what Ibne Abi Talib acts then weakness must have made him unfit to fight his foes and encounter the brave. Remember that the three of the forest is the best for timber whole green twigs have soft bark. And the wild bushes are very strong for burning and slow in dying off. By Allah if the Arabs join to fight me I would hasten to catch them by their necks. I shall surely strive to relieve the earth of this man of perverse mind and unclothe body, till mud particles are removed from the grain. Get away from me O, world! Your reign is on your own shoulder as I have released myself from your ditches, get out of your share and avoid walking into your slippery places. Where are those communities whom you had enticed with your embellishments? They are all confined to graves and hidden in burial places. By Allah if you had been a visible personality and a body capable of feeling I would have awarded your penalty fixed by Allah because of the people whom you deceived through desires and the communities whom you threw into destruction and the rulers whom you consigned to ruin and drove them to places of distress after which there is neither going nor returning. Indeed whoever stepped on your slippery place slipped, whoever rode your surges got down and whoever evaded your shares received inward support. He who keeps himself safe from you does not worry even through his affairs maybe straightened and the world to him is like a day which is near expiring. Get away from me, for by Allah, I do not bow before you so that you may humiliate me, nor do I let loose the rains for you so that you may drive me away, I swear wherein I expect the will of Allah that I shall train myself that it would feel joyed if it gets one loaf for eating, and be content with only salt to season it. I shall let my eyes empty

themselves of tears like the stream whose water has flown away. Should Ali eat whatever he has and fall asleep like the cattle who fill their stomach from the pasture land and lie down or as the goats graze, eat the green herbs and enter their enclosure. His eyes may die if he, after long years, follows loose cattle and pasturing animals. Blessed is he who discharges his obligation towards Allah and endures his hardships, allows himself no sleep in the night but when sleep overpowers him he lies down on the ground using his hand as pillow along with those who keep their eyes wakeful in fear of the Day of Judgment, whose bodies are ever away from beds, whose lips are humming in remembrance of Allah and whose sins have been erased through their prolonged beseeching for forgiveness. “They are the party of God: Be it known verily the party of God alone shall be the successful ones” – Qur’an 58:22. Therefore, O’Ibne Hunaif, fear Allah and be content with your own loaves so that you may escape Hell.*

On the Blessed Occasion of the Anniversary of the Islamic Revolution of Iran

Printed by: Iranian Muslim Students Association, Philippines

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