Cameroon: Dry Toilets

Business 447

Marketing Plan Gagan Singh: 301052531 Cameroon: Dry Toilets

Table of Contents
Executive Summary .............................................................................................................................................. 2 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... 3 Geographical Regions ........................................................................................................................................... 3 Language .......................................................................................................................................................... 3 Religion ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 Water and Sanitation Infrastructure ...................................................................................................................... 4 Urban & Rural Sectors ..................................................................................................................................... 4 Health ................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Public & Private Assistance ............................................................................................................................. 5 Freshwater Source ................................................................................................................................................ 6 Lake Chad ........................................................................................................................................................ 6 Product Distribution.............................................................................................................................................. 7 Roads ................................................................................................................................................................ 7 Railways ........................................................................................................................................................... 8 Seaports ............................................................................................................................................................ 8 Airports ............................................................................................................................................................ 8 Political Climate ................................................................................................................................................... 8 Presidential Influence ....................................................................................................................................... 9 Corruption ........................................................................................................................................................ 9 Technological Advances ..................................................................................................................................... 10 Competition ........................................................................................................................................................ 10 Direct Competition ......................................................................................................................................... 11 Indirect Competition ...................................................................................................................................... 11 Future Competition ........................................................................................................................................ 12 Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................... 13 Appendix ............................................................................................................................................................ 17

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non-profit organizations would be the primary customer for dry toilets. setting up a retail store in the most prosperous region. Communicating with the local demographic to understand which language is prominent in each region will reduce any language barriers. Diarrhea. During the 2011 elections. violent riots have occurred due to the President attempts to continue running for office. Scientists predict that in 20 years. However. composting toilets) use little to no water and do not require any connection to sewage pipes. If another riot erupts. This report provides an outlook of successful introduction of dry toilets into Cameroon and the elements that shape and affect the country¶s current toilet market. English and French are the official languages of Cameroon however very few actually speak one or both languages. and Thypoid severely affect the younger generations and in turn have reduced the life expectancy rate in Cameroon. Lake Chad has significantly reduced to 1/10 of its size. due to climate change and overuse. Cameroon¶s literacy rate is 67. a close eye should be kept on the political climate and the people¶s attitudes. Central Cameroon.9% which will reduce the effectiveness of any marketing materials supplied with dry toilet products and packaging. Emphasizing this fact in marketing campaigns will help promote awareness of dry toilets. foreign competitors will enter the market. waste continues to mix with local water sources which pose a serious health problem to the public.K. Currently African Sanitation (AS) is the only dry toilet provider in Cameroon but they have a limited presence. and ports is the most efficient method of transporting dry toilets into and around Cameroon. would increase our exposure to individuals who are able afford dry toilets. Therefore. However. Lake Chad borders 5 countries and provides 20 million people with means to provide for themselves. Ten regions form the nation of Cameroon. The lack of government intervention has motivated non-profit organizations to step in and improve the sanitation infrastructure. tailored marketing campaigns emphasizing cleanliness will increase the Muslim customer base. If large profits are being made in African countries. A majority of Cameroonians live in poverty and are not able to purchase dry toilets. the water and sanitation infrastructure is not able to keep up. Furthermore. Therefore. A strong alliance with Cameroon¶s government will ultimately bar entry to foreign competitors and can be enhanced by strong brand loyalty and collaboration with the non-profit sector. 2|Page . distributing dry toilets in Cameroon will become impossible. A combination of roads. As Cameroon¶s population continues to grow. The political climate in Cameroon is relatively stable in comparison to its neighbours. Lake Chad will disappear leaving 30 million people without water. each with their own unique languages and religions. Diseases such as Hepatitis A. Dry toilets are the solution to community health and sanitation for developing countries that lack proper public sanitation and sewage infrastructure. Because the Islamic community have specific rules for sanitation.Executive Summary Dry toilets (A. Religion will affect the marketing of the dry toilet because North Cameroon is home to a majority of the Muslim population. Competition with AS is possible if support is received from non-profit organizations. railways. supplying toilets to non-profit organizations will distribute these toilets to Cameroonians and eliminate the need for middle men.A. Because dry toilets are a more affordable substitute then complete sewage infrastructures. The use of dry toilets reduces the amount of domestic freshwater extraction which will prolong the life of Lake Chad.

each a centre of unique languages and religions (refer to the Figure 1 in appendix for a map and names of each region). 2010). Newspaper. Because Cameroon has approximately 250 native dialects and 24 unofficial languages. This report will describe the implications of these regional differences and how they will affect the introduction of dry toilets into the Cameroon toilet market. 3|Page .Introduction Dry toilets (A. This report provides an outlook of successful introduction of dry toilets into Cameroon and the elements that shape and affect the country¶s current toilet market. This is best achieved by communicating with and studying the local demographics (Kwintessential.e. Radio. the language and dialect of the region must first be understood before launch.K. If a manual or media campaign (i. Dry toilets are the solution to community health and sanitation for developing countries that lack proper public sanitation and sewage infrastructure. Although English and French are the two official languages. Kamtok dialects vary by geographic location.and French-speaking population. Geographical Regions Ten regions form the nation of Cameroon.A. etc) accompanies dry toilets¶ entry into Cameroon. Language The early 1900s colonization of Cameroon by the United Kingdom and France codified the country into an English. Please refer to Table 1 in appendix for a detailed list of benefits to the owner and local community. composting toilets) use little to no water and do not require any connection to sewage pipes. very few Cameroonians actually speak one or both languages (Central Intelligence Agency. Kamtok (Pidgin English) has become very popular among the Cameroonians as a means for communication.

Religion The religious breakdown of Cameroon is roughly 40% indigenous beliefs.9% literacy rate will impact the marketing materials supplied with dry toilet products and packaging (Central Intelligence Agency. low levels of enforcement of regulations and poor governance. The dry toilet provides convenience to the Islamic people by supporting their religious codes. Cameroon¶s waste disposal and water supply infrastructure is extremely underdeveloped and continues to pose a problem as city urban centers expand. This report predicts Muslims to be early adopters of a dry toilet product and will be an emerging market. Southern Cameroon is most comprised of Christians while Northern Cameroon is home to the country¶s majority of Muslims (Kwintessential. Water and Sanitation Infrastructure Urban & Rural Sectors Due to inadequate financial resources. Cameroon¶s 67. current housing and construction infrastructure cannot meet the growing demand of the Cameroonians (UnHabitat. 2010).2009).5%. Additionally. at places where people perform ablution´ (MSA West. the Islamic faith has codified rules of human defecation known as the Qadaa al-Haajah. One recommendation under Qadaa al-Haajah is ³One should avoid urinating« on river banks or at the edge of water tanks. 2009). respectively. 40% Christian and 20% Muslim. 4|Page . Since many Cameroonians use local water sources as an area to clean themselves. Cameroons city population growth rate and rate of urbanization is 6 and 3. 2009). Muslims are restricted to where they can relieve themselves. Muslim regions will have the heaviest impact on the sales of dry toilets.

the life expectancy at birth in Cameroon is 52. & Readd. Because improper waste management affects children.2003). 2010). Hepatitis E.1 billion 5|Page . Dry toilets have the ability to improve health conditions and ultimately provide for a longer life expectancy. and Violent Diarrhea. These diseases are widespread in Cameroon and particularly affect the younger generations. Typhoid. 2010). Health Improperly disposed wastes are ultimately a threat to proper public health. Improper waste management is a huge risk factor for the diseases Hepatitis A.89 years (ranks 201 in the world) (Central Intelligence Agency. Diarrhea is a leading cause of death of children under five and accounts for 10% of the deaths in Cameroonian children under four (Water Wiki. 2007).5 million toilets throughout the country which will cost approximately US $2. Therefore many Cameroonians are relieving themselves where they please. Forton. Rainfall and flooding mix wastes with local bodies of water and contaminate local drinking holes (Mangaa. 2009). 2009). UNICEF is organizing an initiative dubbed WASH to install up to 1. This has motivated many non-profit organizations like UNICEF and the African Development Fund to begin sanitary operations in the country.2% due to a lack of funds and ranks 148 worst in the world (World Health Organization. As a result. Dysentery. Public & Private Assistance Health expenditure as a percent of GDP in Cameroon for 2006 was 5. The result is a serious public health concern. Dry toilets would also prevent the mix of waste and drinking water thus inhibiting the spread of diseases and death in Cameroon. only 58% of the urban population has access to improved sanitation facilities in comparison to the rate of 42% in rural areas (Water Wiki.

relatively significant considering the country¶s current water infrastructure (Central Intelligence Agency. 18% of Cameroon¶s freshwater withdrawal is for domestic purposes. 2003). Nigeria. leaving 30 million people without means to provide for themselves (Virgo. Freshwater Source Traditional toilets are supported by freshwater sources such as lakes. This ultimately supports sustainable growth of Cameroon¶s food supply by not affecting agricultural supply. Several non profit organizations are trying to ³save´ Lake Chad by either rerouting water into the lake basin or educate the locals on proper water use. Cameroon. Dry toilets highlight the ³price´ factor of the marketing mix and provide a cheap substitute for complete sewage infrastructures. dry toilets do not increase the domestic proportion of Cameroonian water usage and limit the financial and resource impacts of a running water sewage system. 2009).(Bongben. Dry toilets allow the reallocation of funds for other projects operated by the non-profit sector. 2008). Most of Cameroon¶s freshwater supply is used for agriculture and food production. Forecasts has predicted that in 20 years Lake Chad will disappear. Lake Chad has shrunk approximately 90% between 1963 and 2001 due to climate change and overuse. These organizations are potential customers and will save millions by using dry toilet products. Dry toilets limit the use of freshwater from 6|Page . rivers and streams (How Stuff Works). 2010). 2009).6 million to improve access to drinking water and sanitation (African Development Bank Group. Lake Chad Lake Chad borders Chad. and Niger and is an economically significant body providing water to over 20 million people (UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. The African Development Fund is spending US $61.

Product Distribution A majority of Cameroonians live in poverty and are not able to purchase dry toilets. therefore. in comparison to the other regions. Cameroon is part of the Trans-African Highway network that allows distribution to its capital and neighbouring countries like Nigeria and Chad (Jane's. railways. ports. In addition. 2008). Because Cameroon¶s unpaved roads are not accessible year-round. 2008). However. Locals on the Lake are also predicted to be early adopters of dry toilet products and are likely an emerging market. the government has been paving heavily used roads that are located between commercial shipping centres and agricultural areas (Encyclopedia of the Nations. railways. and airports are the most feasible methods of transporting dry toilet products into and around Cameroon. 7|Page . Because no information on Cameroonian toilet distribution is currently available. the rural areas located near commercial centres and urban centres located near the Trans-African network will be the easiest areas to distribute dry toilet products by truck. Central Cameroon. This benefits dry toilet distribution from shipping ports to rural areas. has the highest household expenditure rate and is the ideal location to open a retail store (refer to figure 7 in the appendix) (Euromonitor. a special distribution system utilizing roads. and seaports must be developed to supply products around the country. Refer to Figure 3 in the appendix for a map of the Trans African Highway. Supplying directly to these organizations reduces our dependency on middlemen and ultimately reduces the end price of the dry toilet.Lake Chad and reduce dependence on its water supply. 2010). non-profit organizations would be our primary customers. Roads. Roads Although only 10% of Cameroon¶s roads were paved in 2004.

is the country¶s busiest seaport. 2008).Railways The 1.008 km of railway extending through Cameroon help connect major and minor urban centres (Encyclopedia of the Nations. only 11 had paved runways (Encyclopedia of the Nations. Cameroon has a relatively stable political climate relative to its neighbouring countries. Therefore. In 2001. 8|Page . Douala is the ideal location for a central distribution warehouse. as shown in Figure 3 in the appendix (The World Bank Group. due to the proximity to the Trans-African Highway and the seaport. Douala is a key port to import product by boat that has been manufactured overseas. Douala. 2010). there were 49 airports. Political Climate Cameroon is a unitary presidential republic. These railways are crucial to supplementing dry toilet distribution where roads are inaccessible and large quantities of product cannot be trucked. 2010). 2010). Seaports Cameroon¶s largest city. Flying in the toilets is a feasible mean of transportation where no other means of transportation exist. Other main river ports are as an option for importing dry toilets to inaccessible areas when they are active between July and September (Encyclopedia of the Nations. of those airports. the presidents¶ power and the level of corruption are still considerations regarding the marketing of dry toilet products. Airports The main international airport is in Douala. However given this stability.

It is believed that the President¶s 2006 corruption elimination campaign was unsuccessful and TI says that. Although Cameroon is not known for violent riots. customs service and educational sector are [still] rife with corruption´ (Irin. Dry toilets must be carefully marketed near the October elections if the political climate and the people¶s attitudes precipitate another riot. 9|Page .Presidential Influence Paul Biya is Cameroon¶s current president who assumed office in 1982. Biya created political tension when he sought to remove term limits from the Constitution of Cameroon (AFP.4 in damages. (BBC News. police. 2008). Cameroon corruption was ranked 146 worst out of 180 countries. Biya is not allowed to run for an additional term in 2011 as limited by Cameroon¶s constitution. ³the judiciary. Corruption According to Transparency International¶s (TI) 2009 Corruption Perception Index. individuals who wanted to voice their concerns about Biya¶s intent to revise the constitution joined the strike (GharteyMould. Another riot has the potential to shut down roads and halt the distribution of dry toilet products. Biya won by popular vote and was elected for another seven year term despite another accusation of fraud. The strike rapidly escalated and led to one of the most violent protests in Cameroon¶s history that killed 40 people and cost US $23. but opposition parties boycotted both elections and accused Biya of fraud (Mbaku & Takougang. 2003). 2008). President Biya has also won the mutli-party polls during the 1992 and 1997 election. During the 2004 election. the urban transport union held a strike asking for lower petroleum prices as well as better working conditions. Simultaneously. another riot is anticipated from Biya¶s favourable revision of the Constitution. 2008).

Technological Advances Dry toilets have not advanced much in the last few decades. Competition Although no other dry toilet manufacturers are based in Cameroon. 10 | P a g e . This extends the competition to three different forms: Direct. Nigeria (Dada. bio-gas technology used with toilet waste has seen significant improvement in the last two years. has begun construction of a biogas plant in Lagos. extra costs will be incurred in order to ship product across the country. 2008). DMT Toilets. Bio-gas would dramatically impact the Cameroonian dry toilet market if a plant were constructed or if waste were transported to a Nigerian plant. along with the Nigerian government. Cameroon has better control over corruption relative to its neighbours (refer to figure 3 in appendix). Indirect. Applications for business licenses and other activities involving the government must be absorbed into the selling price of the dry toilets. and Future. However. The presence of bio-gas in Cameroon would drive dry toilet demand as Cameroonians are conscious of cooking gas prices (refer to figure 6 for rising cost of cooking prices). Biogas plants convert sanitation waste into cooking gas that is sold at a very affordable price. Emphasizing the bio-gas potential in any marketing campaign will spark the curiosity in many potential buyers. 2009) (Vanguard. Nonetheless. however. foreign companies have the ability to import their toilets into Cameroon at their own will.2006).

AS already has a competitive advantage with several non-profit sanitation projects such as WASH and South African Toilet Organization. Indirect Competition DMT toilets is a Nigerian organization that provides portable toilets (A. 2010). agent commission. insurance. DMT began supplying toilets to parties. religious activities and other outdoor events. they have a limited Cameroonian presence distributing 4. 2010). However. emphasizing the ³waterless´ factor should help increase dry toilets market share. 11 | P a g e .Direct Competition African Sanitation (AS) is a South African company provideing dry toilets to several African countries.A porta potties) to areas that are lacking functional toilets. For the specs sheet of their toilets. The homeless are hired to manage the portable toilets and dump the collected waste.510 dry toilets to Yaoundé. but has now expanded to urban and rural areas. 2009). The prices for their toilets vary from US $315 $375 excluding. Marketing communicators must be prepared if DMT jumps over the border and begins supplying in Cameroon. DMT has an inherent competitive disadvantage because their toilets still require water (DMT Toilets.K. customs and VAT (African Sanitation. Another toilet manufacturer can compete with AS (or enter the Cameroonian market) by lowering their prices and finding other non-profit organizations for distributive support. freight. each project supporting AS distribution across Africa. They are the only toilet manufacturer in the West African region. please refer to figure 5 in the appendix. According to their website. DMT currently limits distribution to Nigeria but Cameroon¶s market potential is attractive for a DMT entrance into its market (Nubian Cheetah.

but because of their resources they are not to be disregarded. None of these organizations have publicly discussed entry into Africa.Future Competition Envirolet. 12 | P a g e . A profitable African market will make foreign entry inevitable. A strong alliance with Cameroon¶s government will ultimately bar entry to foreign competitors and can be enhanced by strong brand loyalty and collaboration with the non-profit sector. Sun Mar (US) and MullToa Waterless (Sweden) are the other global dry toilet manufacturers.

(2008.5 Million Toilets to Improve Sanitation.bbc. from African Development Bank Group: http://www. Cameroon government raises violence death toll to 40. Retrieved February 6. from Google News: http://afp.html Central Intelligence Agency. 2010.com/2009/01/07/nigeria-dmt-mobile-toilets-toproduce-gas-from-human-waste/ 13 | P a g e . January 15). 2010. April 21). (2010). from BBC News: http://news.google. Retrieved February 7. Retrieved February 6. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved February 6. (2010. (2008. 2010. January 28).cia. L.html Dada. from The World Factbook: Cameroon: https://www. (2008. Protests against Cameroon's Biya. Nigeria: DMT Mobile Toilets to produce gas from human waste.afdb.wordpress. Retrieved February 5.com/pages/802976930/map-direction.com/article/ALeqM5jJqZqCOmhiBm7XKvnTzefuzqvNMQ African Development Bank Group. March 10).com/stories/200810171140.stm Bongben.co. 2010. Cameroon: US$ 61 Million Funding for Water and Sanitation.softpagecms. Retrieved February 6. October 17).org/en/news-events/article/cameroon-us-61-million-funding-forwater-and-sanitation-4275/ African Sanitation.Bibliography AFP.asp BBC News. A. 2010. from All Africa: http://allafrica. (2009. 2010. Cameroon: 1. from Sanitation Updates: http://sanitationupdates. January 7). 2010. from African Sanitation: http://africasanitation. (2009.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cm. Products. Retrieved February 8.uk/2/hi/africa/7358201.

from Encyclopedia of the Nations: http://www.Transportation. Retrieved February 2.lib. Retrieved February 5.htm Irin.irinnews. from Irin: http://www. 40 people killed in Cameroon clashes.ca/Portal/ResultsList. 2010.org/innerpg. 2010.aspx Ghartey-Mould.portal.upeace. (2010).afrik. Retrieved February 6.).com/Africa/Cameroon-TRANSPORTATION.monitor. 2010. from How Stuff Works: http://home. 2010. July 7). (2010). How to Repair a Toilet.DMT Toilets.html Euromonitor.com. (n.com/HOME. from DMT Toilets: http://www. Retrieved February 2010. 2010.com/home-improvement/plumbing/how-to-repair-atoilet3.howstuffworks. 2010.sfu. (2008. 2010. January 26). W.org/report. from Peace & Conflict Monitor: http://www.com/article12792. from Passport GMID: http://www. Cameroon Income & Expenditure.htm Encyclopedia of the Nations. Retrieved February 6. New Anti-corruption Drive Leaves Many Sceptical. Retrieved February 7.aspx?reportid=57951 Irin. 2010. March 10).cfm?id_article=432. Home. January 27). Cameroon . Infrastructure (Cameroon). (2006. Retrieved February 5. Jane's. Retrieved February 9.dmttoilet.d. from Jane's: http://www.proxy.nationsencyclopedia.html How Stuff Works.janes. (2006. from Afrik: http://en. December 18). CAMEROON: New anti-corruption drive leaves many sceptical.euromonitor.com/extracts/extract/cafrsu/cames060.html 14 | P a g e . (2008. (2008.

The Worldwide Governance Indicators Project. (2009. Culture. & Readd. The Leadership Challenge in Africa: Cameroon Under Paul Biya. from Unhabitat: http://www. The Prescribed Prayer: Chapter One.Kwintessential. Trenton: Africa World Press. (2009). (2007). Waste management in Cameroon: A new policy perspective? Amsterdam: Elsevier. from Governance Matters 2009: http://info. MSA West. A. Cameroon . 2010. 2010. Retrieved February 6. & Takougang. DMT Mobile Toilets. Replenishing Lake Chad. Cameroon: Improving access to water supply and sanitation. (2003. Retrieved February 4.blogspot.com/islam/fundamentals/pillars/prayer/prescribed/pp1_2.worldbank. J. 2010. Customs and Etiquette. Retrieved February 5. March). January 14). Retrieved February 4. 2010. (2008).. Retrieved February 6. Mbaku.za/2003/march/chad. 2010.unhabitat. (2003). from Nubian Cheetah: http://nubiancheetah. Retrieved February 8.html Mangaa. (2009).kwintessential.org/content. D..asp?cid=3243&catid=183&typeid=13&subMenuId=0 15 | P a g e .html Nubian Cheetah.htm UnHabitat.uk/resources/global-etiquette/cameroon.org/governance/wgi/index.asp UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.com/2009/01/dmt-mobile-toilets. from Kwintessential: http://www. Forton. J. from MSA West: http://www. V. O.scienceinafrica. 2010. from Science In Africa: http://www.msawest. (2003).co.html The World Bank Group.co.Language..

from All Africa: http://allafrica. (2010). Facing the Water Challenges in Cameroon: A WWDR3 Case Study. P. December 18).Vanguard. Retrieved February 7. Cameroon. from All Africa: http://allafrica.com/stories/200812290223. 2010. Cuts Prices By 15 Percen. December 26).php/Facing_the_Water_Challenges_in_Cameroon:_A_WWDR 3_Case_Study World Health Organization. from Water Wiki: http://waterwiki.html Water Wiki. October 17).com/stories/200912270080. (2009. 2010. Retrieved February 7. (2008. 2010.int/countries/cmr/en/ 16 | P a g e .net/index. Retrieved February 7. (2009. Chad: Drying.html Virgo.who. 2010. from World Health Organization: http://www. Disappearing. Retrieved February 4. Nigeria: DMT Builds Bio Gas Plant. Drying.

org/wiki/File:Provinces_of_Cameroon_EN.Appendix Figure 1: Regions of Cameroon http://en.wikipedia.svg 17 | P a g e .

wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Map_of_Trans-African_Highways.PNG 18 | P a g e .Figure 2: Trans-African Highway http://en.

org/governance/wgi/index.worldbank.asp 19 | P a g e .Figure 3: Political Stability in Sub-Saharan Africa http://info.

asp 20 | P a g e .org/governance/wgi/index.worldbank.Figure 4: Control of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa http://info.

softpagecms.asp 21 | P a g e .com/pages/802976930/Home-Page.Figure 5: SA Toilet Specs http://africasanitation.

lib.portal.proxy.com.euromonitor.sfu.aspx 22 | P a g e .Figure 6: Cost of Cooking Gas http://www.ca/Portal/Statistics.

ca/Portal/ResultsList.Figure 7: US Income per Region http://www.lib.euromonitor.portal.aspx 23 | P a g e .proxy.sfu.com.

If future water shortage or system backup problems occur with conventional systems. greywater systems are possible. and swampy ground. and Environment http://compostingtoilet. All these difficult site situations can be accommodated with a small amount of alteration to the basic system design. there is not much that you can do personally about it. on-site composting and greywater treatment has less impact on the environment: ‡ Large effluent releases into watercourses and oceans are avoided. Reduced Greywater Loading Where composting toilets are installed instead of septic and minitreatment systems. Less Environmental Impact Compared to sewage systems. environmentally sensitive. Damage Limited Miscalculation in individual composting systems has a much smaller impact than the same mistake in a large centralised system. the solid end product is a valuable humic fertiliser that can be utilised around trees and gardens. lawn clippings and grease from you grease traps and greywater systems can be composted back through the toilet. rather than how best to situate the blocks to make pipes run straighter. It is also easier to rectify and return to normal operation. This results in more oxygen being available in the water and a return to improved activity of marine life. housing developments can be designed with more emphasis on environmental and social considerations. If development does not go as planned. Local authorities will be increasingly paying rebates to households who own composting toilets. close to running watercourses. Pollution Detected Quickly Without sewage systems to flush away wastes. Flexibility in Estate Planning By eliminating the planning constraints of the sewage system underground piping and infrastructure. Food scraps. The high headwork and treatment costs of conventional sewage systems must be borne by the community ahead of development. a significant cost. there is a large reduction in the ³loading´ on the effluent treatment system by the removal of ³blackwater. End Product Recycled While only small in amount. Community. It also enables decentralised water sources to be used. On-site composting systems are much more flexible. ‡ Disruption to soils systems through pipeline installation is eliminated. no water storage. Table 1: Benefits to Individual. BENEFITS TO THE COMMUNITY & THE ENVIRONMENT Odour Problems Reduced The suction air flow in most composting toilets takes toilet and bathroom odor out of the room and acts like a constant extraction fan. ‡ Leakage of raw sewage into groundwater through pipe deterioration and breakage is eliminated. the annual clippings can also be composted. less maintenance. Water Use A reduction in water use allows the large capital costs of dams and reservoirs to be spread over a greater population. Rocky sites. This will only increase if the demand for sewage system upgrading increases. Lower Household Maintenance Costs Sewage rates and water rates (metered) can be in the order of $500 per year. Reduced Marine Pollution Nutrient load on streams and rivers is almost negligible.org/compost_toilets_explained/the_benefits_of_composting_toilets/index. Recycling The composting toilet possesses the ability to recycle much of your household waste. If you choose to put in a reed bed greywater systems. paper. There is no wastage in this system.php 24 | P a g e . Flexibility of Planning Composting toilet systems are built only when the need arises. then money is wasted.BENEFITS TO THE INDIVIDUAL Waterfree A significant savings in water storage will result if the household is not on reticulated water supply. It would be easier to ascertain where toxic wastes are being leaked into watercourses. Unusual Sites Composting toilets can be installed in many different situations which would not accommodate other systems. Industry would be more willing to rectify these problems if it were easier to identify the sources. high water table.´ Smaller. they are easier to fix and have less damage potential if operated incorrectly. Other on-site systems have annual maintenance costs that are obligatory. Independence A household with a composting system is independent from potential problems of the waterborne sewage system.

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