Computer Age: Past, Present, and Future

Generations of Computer
The First generation The Second Generation The Third Generation The Fourth Generation The Fifth Generation

The Computer Age 

Rapid changes Four generations over 50 years Trends across generations ± Decrease size ± Increase speed

computers not very reliable  Large air conditioners was necessary because the computers generated heat  Batch processing .The First Generation   1951-1958 Vacuum Tube ± ±  Magnetic core memory Storage ± ± Heat Burnout   Machine language Punched cards Tape (1957) Characteristics of 1st Generation Computers  Computers big and clumsy  Electricity consumption is high  Electric failure occurred regularly .

The First Generation  1951. Programmers   .A set of instructions called Short Code is developed for the UNIVAC. UNIVAC  Eckert and Mauchly completed the first commercial computer in the USA ± the UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) First computer built for business Short Code .

air defense system.S.    . IBM built the SAGE computers and became leaders in real-time applications and used the technology of Whirlwind. SAGE was the first large computer network to provide man-machine interaction in real time. SAGE .Semi Automatic Ground Environment was developed. SAGE computers were used in an early U.The First Generation  1951. that consisted of 27 centers throughout North America. each with a duplexed AN/FSQ-7 computer system containing over 50.000 vacuum tubes. They were fully deployed in 1963. weighing 250 tons and occupying an acre of floor space.

The First Generation  1952. (RAM in modern terms) which would store programs and data. . EDVACElectronic Discreet Variable Computer ± John Von Neumann. designed with a central control unit which would calculate and output all mathematical and logical problems and a memory which could be written to and read.

1952. That activity involved 274 assemblies executing all the system's computing and control functions by means of electronic pulses emitted at speeds ranging up to one million a second.The First Generation  1953. general purpose digital computer begun at the Servomechanisms Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1946. Whirlwind was a large scale. The Whirlwind ± . It was the unit of the overall 701 Data Processing System in which actual calculations were performed. IBM 701 ± The 701 was formally announced on May 21.  1953.

university.The Second Generation   1959-1964 Transistor ± ± ± ± ± ±  Storage ± ± Smaller No warm-up time Less energy Less heat Faster More reliable Removable disk pack (1954) Magnetic tape Assembly language FORTRAN (1954) COBOL(1959)  Programming languages ± ± ± Used primarily by business. government .

The Second Generation          Computers became smaller Generate less heat Electricity consumption lower More reliable and faster Core memory developed Magnetic tapes and disks used First operating systems developed A new processing method was needed. Time-sharing (processing technique) .

. Mini-computer: PDP-8 ± Digital introduces the first successful minicomputer ± the PDP-8.The Second Generation ‡ 1963. ‡ 1964 Real-time reservation system IBM developed a realtime computerised ticket reservation system for American Airways. ± It was smaller than SAGE and was called SABRE (Semi-Automatic Business-Related Environment). It was about as large as a fridge and used transistors and magnetic core memory.

1964.The Second Generation   1964. BASIC (programming language) ± A programming language was necessary that could be used in a time-sharing environment and that could serve as a training language. More than 100 computers per month were ordered. IBM¶s System 360 ± It consisted of 6 processors and 40 peripheral units. .

faster and more reliable 2.The Third Generation   1965-1970 Integrated Circuit ± Electronic circuit on small silicon chip ± Reliability ± Compactness ± Low cost ± Inexpensive ± massproduced 1. Power consumption lower 3. High-level languages appeared . Computers smaller.

Control Data and NCR made two computers using only integrated circuits . .The Third Generation  1965.the CDC 7600 and the Century series respectively. Gordon Moore (founder of Intel). Gordon Moore ± The semi-conductor pioneer.the B2500 and the B3500. predicted that the number of transistors that occurred on a microchip would double every year. It became known as Moore¶s Law and is still valid today.   Burroughs used integrated circuits in parts of two computers .

± The first 256 bit RAM microchips. ± They developed more sophisticated memory chips.  1969. Magnetic core memory was replaced by a microchip.The Third Generation  1968. and later the first 1Kb RAM (1024 byte) chips.  1968. Intel was founded (INTegrated Electronics). IBM System/370 replaced their System/360 with the System/370 that only used integrated circuits. caused the disappearance of Magnetic Core Memory that was used since the mid 1950's. .

The Fourth Generation    1971-Present Microprocessor ± General-purpose processor on a chip Explosive growth ± Digital watches ± Pocket calculators ± Personal computers ± Cars ± Copy machines ± Television sets      Integrated circuits. smaller and faster Micro computer series such as IBM and APPLE developed Portable computers developed Great development in data communication Different types of secondary memory with high storage capacity and fast access developed .

Microprocessor Intel developed the first microprocessor .an 8 bit processor powerful enough to be used as the CPU of a minicomputer 1972.  ± Niklaus Wirth .000 transactions/second. ±  1971.developed the Pascal language in 1971. Intel released the 8008 .The Fourth Generation   1971. This language was specifically designed to teach the concepts of structured programming.a CPU on a microchip. Pascal (programming language) Early programming languages ± It was called the 4004 and consisted of 2-250 transistors capable of processing 4 bits at a rate of 60. 8008 . Pascal remains the most popular language for learning the basic principles of good programming.a Swedish computer scientist .

Torode developed hardware to connect a diskette (floppy disk) to the CPU. 8080 Microprocessor. which could perform all the functions of the 8080. MARK-8 Johnathan Titus (a chemist with an interest in electronics) ordered an 8008 processor from Intel. ± He built a computer with six(6) circuit boards which had 256 bytes RAM. . CP/M (Operating system) ±  ± The first operating system for microcomputers was developed by Gary Kildall and John Torode.   1974 ± Motorola¶s 6800 processor developed a processor ± the 6800.The Fourth Generation  1972. was released .it made the development of the microcomputer possible.

MOS 6502 processor ± MOS technologies announced the development of the 6502 processor. ± It was used in the design of the Apple II .  Apple. 16 slots were left open to include more RAM when necessary.Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs founded the Apple Company . an 8-bit processor with very few registers and 16-bit address bus. 1976.January  Altair 8800.  256 bytes of RAM was available. ± The motherboard was a single circuit board and held 4 Kb RAM. It used the 8-bit Intel 8080 microprocessor and was made available in a complete kit. including all components and assembly instructions. ± They built a microcomputer motherboard that used a 8-bit processor.The Fourth Generation  1975 .Popular  Mechanics published an article which announced the development of a true personal computer  Developed by MITS (Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems).

±  1978 Intel¶s 8086 processor that contained 16-bit registers and used segmented memory addressing. Motorola¶s 68000 processor which was used in the Apple Lisa and Macintosh computers. It could therefore be used with a wider variety of peripherals and programs.  . It was cheap. ± It was sold with a keyboard.The Fourth Generation  1977. a power supply and included 8 slots for peripherals. Apple II Wozniak and Jobs released the Apple II. All x86 processors had to be compatible with the set of instructions. 1979. had 16 Kb RAM and was ideal for playing video games. first used in this processor.

Intel announced the 80286 microprocessor. . ± This was used in the IBM PC AT (Advanced Technology).an Intel 8088 processor 1982.   WordStar ± 1981.Word processor The word processing program WordStar was developed by Seymour Rubenstein's firm MicroPro and became the best seller in the CP/M operating environment. IBM PCIBM announced it's first Personal Computer the IBM PC .The Fourth Generation  First spreadsheet : ± VisiCalcDan Bricklin and Bob Frankston of the Software Arts Company developed the first spreadsheet program for use on microcomputers. namely VisiCalc. It was distributed by Personal  Software for use on all Apple computers. Intel¶s 286 processor.

Apple¶s Lisa ± Apple announced the Lisa.  1990.77 MHz processor speed ± Double floppy disks ± MS DOS version 3. The Lisa was the first commercial computer to use a Graphical User Interface (GUI)  1983. .0. a computer that used a mouse to move a cursor on the screen in order to select commands.0 (operating system) ± Microsoft released Windows 3. Windows 3. Memory was expanded to 640 Kb and it featured: ± 4. IBM announced the PC XT (eXtended Technology).4th Generation  1983.3 ± Later versions also had 10 or 20 Mb hard disk drives available.

based on the observations it made of its environment.g. Intelligent systems that could control the route of a missile and defence-systems that could fend off attacks. Word processors that could be controlled by means of speech recognition. a video camera) and could be programmed to carry out certain tasks and should be able to decide for itself how the task should be accomplished.The Fifth Generation   Mid 1990¶s Intelligent computers ± Artificial intelligence ± Expert systems ± Natural language Applications for 5th Gen computers     Intelligent robots that could µsee¶ their environment (visual input .e. . Programs that could translate documents from one language to another.

 Superconductors .a superconductor is a conductor through which electricity can travel without any resistance resulting in faster transfer of information between the components of a computer.many processors are grouped to function as one large group processor.5th Generation  Some technological developments that could make the development of fifth-generation computers possible. capable of recognising dictation and entering the text into a word processor.  Speech recognition systems. are already available. .  Expert Systems helps doctors to reach a diagnosis by following the logical steps of problem solving just as if the doctor would have done it himself. include:  Parallel-processing .

The Fifth Generation AI ± Artificial Intelligence  How computers can be used for tasks that required human characteristics .

g. the set of states reachable from x with one action 3. Cost of a path is the sum of costs of individual actions along the path 6. The solution of many problems (e. chess) can be described by finding a sequence of actions that lead to a desirable goal. State space . Path .  A well-defined problem can be described by: 1. Initial state 2. Path cost . noughts and crosses.test to determine if at goal state .function that assigns a cost to a path. Each action changes the state and the aim is to find the sequence of actions and states that lead from the initial (start) state to a final (goal) state.all states reachable from initial by any sequence of actions 4.for any state x returns s(x).Problem Solving by Search  An important aspect of intelligence is goal-based problem solving. timetabling. Goal test . Operator or successor function .sequence through state space 5.

The Fifth Generation Expert Systems Software used with an extensive set of organized data that presents the computer as an expert on a particular topic  .

The Fifth Generation Natural Language  Humans communicate with computers in the language they use on a daily basis .

The Fifth Generation Robotics  Computer-controlled device that can physically manipulate its surroundings Robot development firm Speecys Corp. of Tokyo developed a small humanoid robot. powered entirely by easy-to-replace. THOR on display and demonstration circa 1981 . environmentally friendly fuel-cell batteries.

The Fifth Generation VR ± Virtual Reality  Engage a user in a computer-created environment ± User physically interacts with computer-created environment .

The END .

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