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Evolution
p Probably evolved from
Peripatus(î  - like
a Peripatus(î
ancestor, which in turn
evolved from a
segmented worm
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ëetamerism(3 
p ëetamerism- body is segmented.
Exoskeleton and metamerism causes
molting
Exoskeleton(x 
p Exoskeleton- body covered with a hard
external skeleton
p Why an exoskeleton?
p Why not bones? Exoskeleton good for
small things, protects body from damage
(rainfall, falling, etc..
p Bones better for large things
Bilateral Symmetry
p Bilateral Symmetry- body can be
divided into two identical halves
ointed Appendages
p ointed Appendages- each segment may
have one pair of appendages, such as:
p legs
p wings
p mouthparts
0pen Circulatory System
p 0pen Circulatory System- blood washes
over organs and is not entirely closed by
blood vessels. 0ur system is a closed one
^entral Nerve Cord
p ^entral Nerve Cord- one nerve cord,
similar to our spinal column
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p Ñobsters, crayfish, shrimp, and others


p Primarily aquatic
p Free-floating larval stage
p 26,000+ known species
p Branched appendages:
p gills on legs, for example, in a lobster
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p O  means hundred,   means legs, so
"hundred legged creature"?
p X pair of legs per segment
p Usually shiny, reddish brown, less than 3
inches long
p ëove rapidly, often found under logs; some in
homes
p Can bite
p have poison claws- modified Xst pair of legs
p supposedly feels like a bee sting
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p ?icks, mites, and spiders
p No antennae
p ?wo body regions: cephalothorax and
abdomen
p Feeding appendages are chelicerae ëost are
carnivorous
p ?hey hold the prey with chelicerae, and pour
enzyme-rich salivary juices over the victim
p Digestion is mostly external
p ëost are terrestrial
p 57,000 known species
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characteristics

p 3 body segments-
head, thorax
(chest, abdomen
(stomach area.
p Insect means in
(into sect (cut.
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p X pair of antennae
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p ?racheal Respiratory System- composed
of tubes, with holes (spiracles through
the body that admit air.
p So, they do not have lungs at all.
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p Wings-    


 
    
 No other class of arthropods has
wings. (Have you ever seen a flying
Ñobster?!
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p 3 pair of legs, Xpair to each of the 3
thoracic segments.
p Compound eyes, with facets (ommatidia
â .
Insect mouthparts
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p Insects develop from egg. Eggs come in a
variety of shapes and sizes.
p ?hey hatch from the egg, and begin eating
p Sooner or later they become too big for their
exoskeletons.
p ?hey ëolt , or shed their skins. ëolting is the
shedding of old cuticle and expanding into a
new and larger one.
p Changes in the insect may occur with each
molt. ?his is called metamorphosis , or a
change in form.
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p Partial metamorphosis (gradual,


incomplete
p Complete metamorphosis *most
advanced*
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p Îradual change in appearance. For


example,wing pads grow longer with
each molt, and eventually into wings in
the adult.
p Immature forms are called NYëPHS
p Îenerally have the same food source as
the adult.
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p Immature is called a larva , with larva
perhaps having separate food source
from the adult.
p Ñarva and adult may have radically
different food sources,with very
different environments.
p Example: Butterflies. 0r, they may have
same food source: bees.
Harmful effects of arthropods

p X. Direct harm
p a. Annoyance-flies interfere with your
p work and rest.
p b. ^enom-stings of scorpions and spiders
p may even cause death.
p c. Parasites-Fly larvae may cause
p myiasis, scabies and mange are caused
p by Sarcoptes scabiei.
Harmful effects of arthropods
p 2. ?ransmission of diseases:
p a. ëechanical transmission.
p b. Biological transmission. Pathogens spend
a part of their life cycle in the arthropods.
p a Propagative
p b Cyclopropagative
p c Cyclodevelopmental
c. ?ransovarian.
p b Cyclopropagative-?he pathogenic
organisms undergo a developmental cycle in
the arthropod with multiplication and change
in form. Plasmodium sp. In anopheline
mosquitoes.
p c Cyclodevelopmental- ?he pathogenic
organisms undergo a change in form without
multiplication. Filaria in mosquitoes.
p b Cyclopropagative-?he pathogenic
organisms undergo a developmental cycle in
the arthropod with multiplication and change
in form. Plasmodium sp. In anopheline
mosquitoes.
p c Cyclodevelopmental- ?he pathogenic
organisms undergo a change in form without
multiplication. Filaria in mosquitoes.