INTRODUCTION TO HRM/PM:Origins of personnel functions in India- personnel role today, Characteristics of today's work force, job design

, analysis & Evolution of personnel planning, recruitment, induction, performance Appraisal, employee training and development , job rotation & Transfer promotion policies, career planning, compensation Management, factors influencing wages, salaries, incentives, fringe Benefits & their relevance personal philosophy trends in participation Management personnel manual.

FUNCTIONS OF HRM Managerial Function Operative Function

Planning Organizing Directing Controlling 2. Human Resources Development ‡ Performance Appraisal ‡ Training ‡ Management Development ‡ Career Planning& Development ‡ Organizational change & Development

1. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Employment Job Analysis HRP Recruitment Selection Induction placement

3. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Compensation Job Evaluation Wage & Salary Administration Fringe Benefits

Operative Function

4. Human Relation

5. Effectiveness of HRM ‡ Organizational Health ‡ Human Resource Accounting, Auditing, Research

Employment a) Job Analysis b) Human Resources Planning c) Recruitment .FUNCTIONS OF HRM I) Managerial Functions a) Planning b) Organizing c) Directing d) Controlling II) Operative Functions 1.

Human Resources Development a) Performance Appraisal b) Training c) Management Development d) Career Planning and Development e) Organisation Development .d) e) f) Selection Placement Induction and Orientation 2.

Human Relations 5.3. Effectiveness of Human Resources Management . Compensation a) Job Evaluation b) Wage and Salary Administration c) Incentives d) Bonus e) Fringe Benefits f) Social Security Measures 4.

Robbins: ³A process consisting of four functions-acquisition. directing and Controlling of the procurement.´ Edward Flippo: ³Personnel Management is the planning. motivation and maintenance of human resources. Decenzo & sttephen P. development.HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS David A. organizational and societal Objectives are accomplished. development. organizing. maintenance and Separation of human resources to the end that individual. compensation.´ . integration.

Achieve High Productivity 3. Improve Quality of Working Life (QWL) of Employee 4. Industrial peace 2.OBJECTIVES OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 1. Obtain and Sustain Competitive Advantage through Empowerment .

D.R.ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGER / CHALLENGES FACED BY H. MANAGER 1) Enlarging the scope on personnel Management 2) Focus on Knowledge and Skill 3) Structure and Size of Enterprise 4) Globalization of Business 5) Managerial Skill in HRD 6) Number of Employees 7) Quality of Employees 8) Sustainable Competitive Advantage .

9) Empowerment of Employees 10) Government Intervention 11) Social Orientation 12) Reservation Issues 13) Manpower Costs 14) Future Challenges .

A) JOB ANALYSIS DEFINITIONS According to Edwin Flippo. Responsibilities And accountabilities of a job. one that is used to define the duties.´ According to David A. Decenzo and Stephen P. ³ Job analysis is the process of studying and Collecting information relating to the operations and responsibility Of a specific job. ³Job analysis is a Systematic exploration of the activities within a job.´ . It is a basic technical Procedure. Robbins.

´ an organized factual statement Of the duties and responsibilities of a specific job. Job description is. JOB DESCRIPTION MEANING Job description is a statement describing the job and Gives All necessary details of the job for which the recruitment is to be made. and why.COMPONENTS OF JOB ANALYSIS 1) Job Description 2) Job specification 1.´ . It should tell what is to be done. How it is done. DEFINITION According to Edwin Flippo.

job specification is ³a statement of minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job properly. JOB SPECIFICATION MEANING: Job specification refers to a summary of the personal characteristics required for performing the job in an acceptable manner.´ . DEFINITION: According to Edwin Flippo.2.

USES OF JOB ANALYSIS HRP Recruitment & Selection Job Description Job Analysis Job Specification Training & Development Job Evaluation Remuneration Performance Appraisal Personnel Information Safety & Health .

PROCESS OF JOB ANALYSIS 1) Collection Of Background Information 2) Selection Of Representative Position To Be Analyzed 3) Collection Of Job Analysis Data 4) Developing A Job Description 5) Developing A Job Specification 6) Developing Employee Specification .

JOB DESCRIPTION & JOB SPECIFICATION IN JOB ANALYSIS JOB DESCRIPTION a) Job title b) Location c) Job Summary d) Duties e) Machines. tools and equipment f) Materials & forms used g) Working conditions f) Physical skills g) Responsibilities h) Communication Skills JOB SPECIFICATION a) Education b) Experience c) Training d) Judgement e) Initiative .

Interviews 2. 85) . rao pg no. Direct observations 3.TECHNIQUES OF JOB ANALYSIS 1. Critical incident technique (s. Maintenance of long records 4. Questionnaires 5.

In terms of techniques. & on the Relationships that should exist between the jobholder & his superiors. DEFINITION: According to Michael Armstrong. on the methods to be used in carrying out the job. . ³Job design is the process Of deciding on the contents of a job in terms of its duties & Responsibilities. systems & procedures.B) JOB DESIGN MEANING: Job design involves conscious efforts to Organized tasks. duties and responsibilities into a unit of Work to achieve certain objective. Subordinates & colleagues´.

STEPS IN JOB DESIGN 1) The specification of individual tasks 2) The specification of the method of performing each tasks 3) The combination of tasks into specific jobs to be assigned to individuals .

FACTORS AFFECTING JOB DESIGN I ORGANISATIONAL FACTORS 1) Characteristics of task 2) Work flow 3) Ergonomics 4) Work practices II ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS 1) Employee Abilities & Availability 2) Social & Cultural Expectations .

III BEHAVIOURAL ELEMENTS 1) Feedback 2) Autonomy 3) Use of abilities 4) Variety .

TECHNIQUES OF JOB DESIGN 1) Work / Job Simplification 2) Job Rotation 3) Job Enlargement 4) Job Enrichment 5) Autonomous / Self Directed Teams 6) High Performance Work Design .

2) JOB ROTATION: Job rotation involves moving employees from job to job to add variety and reduce boredom by allowing them to perform a variety of tasks. A given job is divided into small subparts and Each part is assigned to one individual employee. the job is simplified Or specialized. .1) WORK / JOB SIMPLIFICATION: Job simplification technique.

. 4) JOB ENRICHMENT : Job enrichment involves adding more motivators to a job To make it more rewarding. Job becomes enriched when it gives Job-holder more decision-making. planning and controlling Powers.3) JOB ENLARGEMENT : Job enlargement refers to the expansion of the number of different tasks performed by an employee in a single job.

An Enriched Job Has Following Characteristics 1) Direct Feedback 2) Client Relationship 3) New Learning 4) Scheduling Own Work 5) Unique Experience 6) Control Over Resources 7) Direct Communication Authority 8) Personal Accountability .According To Herzberg.

guiding. developing and motivating employees 5) Integrating the newly enriched jobs into the daily work routine of the organization .STEPS INVOLVE IN JOB ENRICHMENT 1) Selecting the jobs 2) Identifying the changes 3) Changing the contents of a job 4) Training.

.5) AUTONOMOUS / SELF-DIRECTED TEAMS: A self directed work team is an intact group of employees who are responsible for a µwhole¶ work process or segment that delivers A product/service to an internal or external customer. In Many organizations. 6) HIGH PERFORMANCE WORK DESIGN: This technique acts as a means of improving performance In an environment where positive and demanding goals are set. such high performance work design does not Work efficiently.

PERSONNEL PLANNING / MANPOWER PLANNING MEANING Human Resource Planning is a strategy for the a) Procurement. c) Allocation. Areas of Human Resource Planning 1) Forecasting 2) Acquiring 3) Developing 4) Maintaining . and d) Utilization b) of an organization¶s human resources. b) Development.

utilization.´ .PERSONNEL / MANPOWER PLANNING DEFINITION Coleman has defined personnel/ manpower planning as ³ the process of Determining manpower requirements and the means for meeting those Requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the Organization´ Stainer defines manpower planning as ³Strategy for the acquisition. Improvement and preservation of an enterprise's human resources. It Relates to establishing job specifications or the quantitative requirements of jobs Determining the number of personnel required and developing sources Of manpower.

Facilitates adjustment of vacancies 5. Facilitates manpower development . Facilitates the control manpower cost 2. Promotes cordial industrial relations 6. Facilitates proper placement 4. Facilitates recruitment of suitable manpower 3.FEATURES OF PERSONNEL / MANPOWER PLANNING 1.

Scientific recruitment 4. Development of manpower . Availability of manpower 5. Optimum use of human resources 2.OBJECTIVES OF PERSONNEL / MANPOWER PLANNING 1. Meeting future manpower needs 3.

NEED OF PERSONNEL / MANPOWER PLANNING 1) To meet the manpower need of business enterprise 2) To arrange for the replacement of existing manpower 3) To meet growing manpower requirement due to expansion 4) To meet the challenges of changing technological environment 5) To adjust staff requirements of departments 6) Recruitment and selection of employees 7) Placement of manpower 8) Training of manpower .

Regulates cost factor 5. Ensures orderly working and growth of an organization 4. Encouragement to the existing employees 6.ADVANTAGES OF PERSONNEL / MANPOWER PLANNING 1. Raises effectiveness of HRD programmers 3. Prevents sudden disruption . Facilitates recruitment and selection 2.

Future manpower needs are uncertain 2.LIMITATIONS / PROBLEMS OF PERSONNEL / MANPOWER PLANNING 1. Shortage of skilled labour turnover . Time-consuming and costly 4. Surplus manpower makes HRP redundant 3. Inadequate attention to environmental changes 5.

Manpower motivation . Estimation of manpower requirements and recruitment 2.SCOPE OF PERSONNEL/MANPOWER PLANNING 1. Manpower allocation 3.

PROCESS OF PERSONNEL/MANPOWER PLANNING 1. Modify The Organizational Plan 9.Evaluation And Control . Retention Plan 10. Analyzing The Organizational Plans 2. Supply Forecasting 4. Estimating The Net Human Resource Requirement 5. Development Etc. Action Plan For Recruitment. Forecasting The Overall Human Resource Requirements 3. Action Plan For Redeployment. Forecast Future Supply From All The Sources 7. 8. Redundancy/ Retrenchment 6.

FACTOR AFFECTING HRP EXTERNAL FACTOR 1) Government¶s Policies INTERNAL FACTOR 1) Policies and Strategies 2) Level of Economic Development 2) HR policy of the company 3) Business Environment 4) Level of Technology 5) Natural Factors 6) International Factors 7) Internal Factors 3) Formal & Informal Groups 4) Job Analysis 5) Time Horizons 6) Type & Quality of Information 7) Company's Productional Operations policy 8) Trade Unions .

Edwin B." a process to discover the sources of Manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective Measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate Effective selection of an efficient workforce.RECRUITMENT DEFINITIONS Recruitment is defined as. Flippo defined recruitment as ³the process of searching for Prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization.´ .

FACTOR AFFECTING RECRUITMENT Internal Factor a) Image of Organization Factors b) Quality of work life c) Company¶s size d) Company¶s products e) Role of Trade Unions b) Industrialization c) Labour Market d) Employment Rate External Factor a) Demographic .

Disabled .SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT INTERNAL RECRUITMENT 1) Present Permanent Employees 2) Present Temporary or Casual Employees 3) Retrenched or Retired Employees 4) Dependents of Deceased. Retired and Present Employees .

External Sources 1) Campus Recruitment 2) Private Employment Agencies/ Consultants 3) Public Employment Exchanges 4) Professional Associations 5) Data Banks 6) Casual Applicants 7) Similar Organizations 8) Trade Unions .

A formal definition of selection is it is the process of differentiating Between applicants in order to identify (and hire) those with a greater Likelihood of success in a job. .SELECTION MEANING Selection is the process of picking individuals (out of the pool of job applicants) With requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organization.

STEPS IN SCIENTIFIC SELECTION PROCESS 1) Job Analysis 2) Recruitment 3) Application Form 4) Written Examination 5) Preliminary Interview 6) Business Games 7) Tests 8) Final Interview 9) Medical Examination 10) Reference Checks 11) Line Manager¶s Decision 12) Employment .

´ .INDUCTION MEANING: Induction is a systematic and planned introduction of employees to their Jobs. ³Induction is the process of receiving and welcoming an employee When he first joins a company and giving him the basic information He needs to settle down quickly and happily and start work. their co-workers and the organization.

. and promotion. It Includes initial assignment of new employees. transfer or demotion of present employees.PLACEMENT Placement refers to the allocation of people to jobs.

belief and attitudes necessary to perform Present and future roles by realizing the highest human potential With a view to contribute positively to the organization. DEFINITION: ³HRD from the organizational point of view is a process in which the employees of an organization are helped/motivated to acquire and develop technical. managerial and behavioral knowledge.´ . skill and abilities and mould the values.HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOMENT HRD is enabling the employees to acquire technical. Managerial and behavioral skills and knowledge.

4) It is multi-disciplinary 5) HRD is embodied with techniques and processes .FEATURES OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 1) HRD is a systematic and planned approach 2) HRD is a continuous process 3) HRD develops the skills and knowledge.

NEEDS FOR HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 1) Change in economic polices 2) Changing job requirements 3) Need for multi-skilled human resources 4) Organizational viability and transformation process 5) Technological advances 6) Organizational complexity 7) Human relations .

DEFINITION According to Dale Beach performance appraisal means ³the Systematic evaluation of the individual with respect to his Performance on the job and his or her potential for development.PERFORMANCE APPRAISALE MEANING: Performance appraisal is a systematic and orderly Evaluation of performance of employees at work by their superiors.´ .

improving performance (follow-up measures) .PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PROCESS 1) Establishing performance standards 2) Communicating standards to employees 3) Measuring actual performance 4) Comparing actual performance with the standards set 5) Discussing actual performance with the employee (Appraisal Interview) 6) Offering guidance for .

Forced Distribution Method .Paried Comparison Method .Psychological Appraisals .Management By Objectives .METHODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL -Graphic Rating Scales -Ranking Method .Assessment Centre .Human Resource Accounting .Checklist Methods A) Simple Checklist B) Weighted Checklist C) Critical Incident Method -Essay Or Free Form Appraisal -Group Appraisal -Confidential Reports -Behaviourally Anchored RatingScales .

Incentive To Grow And Develop 4. Human Resource Planning And Development 8. Assistance In Self-improvement 3. Cordial Employer-employees Relations 7. High Employee Morale .BENEFITS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL 1. Employee Communication 9. Suitable Placement 2. Introduction Of Sound Personnel Policies 6. Effective Training Programme 5.

Training and development need= standard performance .actual performance .EMPLOYEE TRAINING MEANING: Training and development refer to the imparting of Specific skills. abilities and knowledge to an employee.

³training is the Act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee For doing a particular job.DEFINITION: According to Edwin Flippo.´ INPUTS IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 1) Skills 2) Education 3) Development 4) Ethics 5) Attitudinal changes 6) Decisions making and problem solving skills .

FACTORS ‡ Technological Advancement ‡ Organizational Complexity ‡ Job Requirements ‡ Human Relations ‡Top Management Support T PURPOSES Improve productivity R Prevention of Obsolescence A I N I N G Improve Morale Preparation for Higher-level jobs .

Case study .Conference & Discussion .Coaching .Vestibule Training .Job Rotation .Programmed Instruction .TRAINING METHODS ON-THE-JOB METHODS OFF-THE-JOB METHODS .Role Playing .Lecture Methods .Job Instruction or training Through step-by-step -Committee Assignments -Apprentice training .

TRAINING PROCEDURE/STEPS 1) Identifying training needs 2) Setting training objectives and policy 3) Designating training programme 4) Preparation of the learner 5) Presentation of operations and knowledge 6) Implementing training programme 7) Follow-up and evaluation .

MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT Management development is a systematic process of growth and development by which the managers develop their abilities to manage. . It improve managerial skills and knowledge to employees.

IMPORTANT STEPS IN MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS 1) Analysis of organizational present & development needs 2) Appraisal of present management talent 3) Inventory of management manpower 4) Planning of individual development programme 5) Establishment of development programme 6) Evaluation of the programme .

Job Rotation .Incident Method .IMPORTANT TECHNIQUES OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT OFF-THE-JOB TECHNIQUES -The Case Method .Simulation .Under Study .Business Game .Multiple Management .Grid Training .Role Playing .In Basket Method .Lecturers ON-THE JOB TECHNIQUE -Coaching .Conferences .

´ Career Planning stands for the forward-looking employment policies of the organization. ³A career is a sequence of separate but related work activities that provide continuity. .CAREER PLANNING According to Edwin Flippo. order and meaning to a person¶s life.

SCOPE OF ORGANISATION CAREER PLANNING 1) Human Resource Forecasting & planning 2) Career Information 3) Career Counseling 4) Career pathing 5) skill assessment training 6) succession planning .

BENEFITS OF CAREER PLANNING PROGRAMME 1) Quality production & employee loyalty 2) Employee motivation 3) Linking of individual career goals with organizational goals 4) Facilitates managerial succession 5) Facilitates career success 6) Job satisfaction to employees 7) Reduces turnover and absenteeism 8) Understanding of career opportunities 9) Better image in the employment market .

STEPS IN CAREER PLANNING 1) Analysis Of Personnel Situation 2) Projection Of Personnel Situation 3) Identifying Career Needs 4) Selection Of Priorities 5) Development Of Career Plans 6) Write Up Of Formulated Career Plans 7) Managerial Planning 8) Implementation 9) Review And Evaluation 10)Future Needs .

IMPORTANT POINTS FOR EMPLOYEES CAREER DEVELOPMENT 1) Identification Of Employees Needs And Aspirations 2) Analysis Of Career Opportunities & Supplying Information To Employees 3) Career Counselling 4) Motivation Of Employees 5) Internal Publicity To Career Information 6) Making Career Planning A Continuous Activity 7) Providing Services Of Experts 8) Career Development Workshops 9) Continuing Education & Training 10) Periodic Job Changes .

COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT WAGE & SALARY ADMINISTRATION: MEANING: Wage And Salary Administration refers to the establishment And implementation of sound policies and practices of Employee compensation. .

JOB EVALUATION MEANING: Job evaluating means determining the relative worth of a job In an organization by comparing it with other jobs within the organization and with job market outside. ³the process of analyzing and assessing the content of jobs. Flippo. within the organization. . DEFINITION: British Institute of Management defined job evaluation.´ According to Edwin B. so that differential wages May be paid to jobs of different worth. ³Job evaluation is a systematic and orderly Process of determining the worth of a job in relation to other jobs´.

6) To minimize wage discrimination . responsibilities and demands of a job with that of other jobs. 3) To determine the hierarchy and place of various jobs. 2) To compare the duties. 5) To ensure fair and equitable wages.JOB EVALUTION OBJECTIVES OF JOB EVALUATION 1) To gather data and information. 4) To determine the ranks or grades of various jobs.

PROCEDUCRE OF JOB EVALUATION 1) Analyze and prepare job description. 5) Maintain the programme. 2) Select and prepare a job evaluation plan. . 3) Classify jobs. 4) Install the programme.

Ranking method 2. Factor. Job-grading method II. ANALYTICAL METHODS 1. Point-Ranking Method 2.JOB EVALUATION METHODS/TECHNIQUES I.Comparison Method . NON-ANALYTICAL METHODS 1.

JOB ROTATION MEANING Job rotation implies systematic movement of employees from One job to the other job. BENEFITS OF JOB ROTATION 1) Raises intrinsic reward potential of job 2) Beneficial to the organization 3) Worker becomes competent in several jobs 4) Improves inter-departmental co-operation 5) Motivates employees 6) Remove monotony 7) Develops wide skills among workers .

responsibilities. Skill needed or compensation.´ .JOB TRANSFER DEFINITION: Yoder and associates have defined transfer as ³a lateral Shift causing movement of individuals from one position to another Usually without involving any marked change in duties.

PURPOSES FOR JOB TRANSFERS 1) Variation in the volume of work 2) Providing training to employees 3) Rectification of poor placement 4) Satisfying personal needs of employees 5) Meeting mutual needs of employees 6) Meeting organizational needs 7) Solution to poor performance 8) Avoiding fatigue and monotony 9) Removing poor personal relations 10)Providing relief and to punish employees .

TYPES OF TRANSFERS 1) Production Transfers 2) Replacement Transfers 3) Versatility Transfers 4) Shift Transfers 5) Remedial Transfers PROCEDURE FOR TRANSFERS 1) Intra-departmental Transfers 2) Inter-departmental Transfers .

and authority. and a higher rank. Better status/ prestige. which commands better pay/wages. hours of work and facilities. . DEFINITION: According to Edwin Flippo. ³Promotion involves a change From one job to another that is better in terms of status and Responsibilities. Responsibility.PROMOTIONS MEANING: Promotion is an upward advancement of an employee in An organization to another job. better working environment. and higher opportunities / challenges.

Benefits of Promotion to Employees: 1) Higher salary 2) Higher status 3) Incentive to work efficiently 4) Psychological satisfaction 5) Change in the nature of work .BENEFITS OF PROMOTIN A.

BENEFITS OF PROMOTION TO THE MANAGEMENT 1) Raise the morale of employees 2) It reduces the rate of labour turnover and absenteeism 3) Ensure orderly functioning of the organization 4) Creates a sense of loyalty 5) Develop cordial labour-management relations. METHODS OF PROMOTION A. Promotion by seniority B.B. Promotion by merits .

FACTOR INFLUENCING WAGE & SALARY STUCURE AND ADMINISTRATION 1) The Organization's ability to pay 2) Supply and demand of labour 3) Prevailing market rate 4) The cost of living 5) Productivity 6) Trade union¶s bargaining power 7) Job requirements 8) Managerial attitudes 9) Psychological and social factors 10)Skill levels available in the market .

employees standard of living.COMPENSATION (REMUNERATION) Remuneration is the compensation an employee receives in return for his or her contribution to the organization. . status in the society. Motivation. loyalty. and productivity depend upon the Remuneration.

COMPONENTS OF REMUNERATION A. FINANCIAL BENEFITS 1) Wages and Salary 2) Incentives 3) Fringe benefits 4) Perquisites B. Growth prospects 4) Supervision 5) Working conditions . NON-FINANCIAL BENEFITS 1) Challenging job 2) Responsibilities 3) Recognition.

FACTOR INFLUENCING WAGE & SALARY STUCURE AND ADMINISTRATION A. EXTERNAL FACTORS 1) Labour Market 2) Cost of Living 3) Lobour Unions 4) Labour Laws 5) Society 6) The Economy .

B. INTERNAL FACTORS 1) Business strategy 2) Job evaluation and performance appraisal 3) The employee .

1) MINIMUM WAGE: The wage which must provide not only for the bare Sustenance of life. the minimum wage must Provide for some measure of education. For this purpose. but for the preservation of the efficiency of The worker. medical requirements And amenities. .

LIVING WAGE: Living wage is one which should enable the earner to provide for Himself and his family not only and bare essential of food. including education for his children. requirements of essential social needs And a measure of insurance against the more important misfortunes. FAIR WAGE: It is the wage which is above the minimum wage but Below the living wage . Protection against ill-health. clothing and shelter But a measure of frugal comfort. including Old age.

per fortnight or per Month or any other fixed period of time. workers are paid according to the Amount of work done or the number of units completed.TYPES OF WAGES 1) Time Rate: under this system workers are paid according to the Work done during a certain period of time. at the rate of so Much per hour. per day. irrespective of the Time to complete a job. 2) Piece Rate: under this system. . per week. the Rate of each unit being settled in advance.

ADVANTAGES OF INCENTIVE PAYMENTS 1) Motivation of employees 2) Financial benefit 3) Reduction in the cost of production 4) Increase in production capacity 5) Beneficial to employer 6) Better utilization of resources

LIMITATIONS OF INCENTIVE PAYMENTS 1) Possibility of quality deterioration 2) Labour cost may increase 3) Dissatisfaction among employees 4) Neglect of security rules

PREREQUISITES FOR AN EFFECTIVE INCENTIVE SYSTEM 1) The co-operation of workers 2) The scheme must be based on scientific work measurement 3) Indirect workers should also be covered 4) There should be management commitment 5) There is greater need for planning 6) Reward should be clearly and closely linked to the efforts 7) The scheme should operate by means of a well-defined and easily understood formula.

GROUP INCENTIVE PLAN MEANING In the group incentive plan, the entire group of workers will have to work efficiently in a collective manner and also share the benefit collectively.

ADVANTAGES OF GROUP INCENTIVES 1) Better co-operation among workers 2) Less supervision 3) Reduced incidence of absenteeism 4) Reduced clerical work 5) Shorter training time .

DISADVATAGES OF GROUP INCENTIVES 1) An efficient worker may be penalized for the inefficiency of the other members in the group 2) The incentive may not be strong enough to serve its purpose. 3) Rivalry among the members of the group defeats the very purpose of team work and cooperation. .

³ any wage cost not directly connected with the employees' production effort.´ . in addition to the compensation paid in the form of wages or salary.FRINGE BENEFITS The term fringe benefits refers to various extra benefits provided to employees. performance. Balcher defines fringe benefits as. Service or sacrifice.

disability and health insurance b) unemployment compensation c) worker¶s compensation IV. Legally Required Payments a) Old age. Misc. Payment For Time Not Worked By The Employees a) Holidays b) vacations c) leave with pay and allowances. III. Benefits: a) Travel allowances b) company car and membership of clubs. . II.TYPES OF FRINGE BENEFITS I. Contingent And Deferred Benefits: a) Pension payment b) group life insurance benefit c) sick leave.

OBJECTIVES OF FRINGE BENEFITS 1) To create and improve sound industrial relations 2) To boost up employee morale 3) To motivate the employees by identifying and satisfying their unsatisfied needs 4) To protect the health of the employees and to provide safety to the employees against accidents 5) To provide qualitative work environment and work life 6) To create a sense of belongingness among employees and to retain them .

FACTORS INFLUENCING FRINGE BENEFITS 1) Organization financial ability to provide the benefits 2) Employees deficiencies or needs 3) The bargaining strength of trade unions 4) Employees significance to the organization 5) Tax benefits to the organization and individual employees 6) Organization's awareness and policy towards social responsibility .

The concept of workers¶ participation in management crystallizes the concept of industrial democracy.WORKERS¶ PARTICIPATION IN MANAGEMENT The concept of workers¶ participation in management is considered as a mechanism where workers have a say in the decision-making process of an enterprise. . and indicates an attempt on the part of an employer to build his employees into a team which work towards the realization of a common objective.

NEED OF PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT 1) Giving higher status and psychological satisfaction to workers 2) Cordial labour-management relations 3) Creating uniform approach of employer and workers 4) Raising industrial production 5) Creating platform for direct negotiations 6) Creating responsible approach among workers 7) Removing grievances of workers 8) Raising employee morale .

METHODS/WAYS/TECHNIQUES OF PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT 1) Participation At The Board Level 2) Participation Through Ownership 3) Participation Through Complete Control 4) Participation Through Staff or Works Councils 5) Participation Through Joint Councils and Committees 6) Participation Through Collective Bargaining .

7) Participation Through Job Enlargement and Job Enrichment 8) Participation Through Suggestion Schemes 9) Participation Through Quality Circles 10)Empowered Teams 11)Total Quality Management 12)Financial Participation .

Flippo.´ . ³A policy is man-made rule or Pre-determined course of action that is established to guide the Performance of work toward the organization objectives. It is a type of standing plan that serves to guide subordinates in the execution of their tasks.PERSONNEL MANUAL Personnel Policies According to Edwin B.

PRINCIPLES OF PERSONNEL POLICIES 1) Principle of scientific selection 2) Principle of fair work environment 3) Principle of training 4) Principle of individual development 5) Principle of participation 6) Principle of fair remuneration 7) Principle of incentive 8) Principle of labour-management co-operation .

managers and supervisors .PERSONNEL MANUAL A document/ booklet which contains the details of Personnel policies of an organization is called personnel Policy manual/personnel manual. It is a comprehensive document which serves as a guide to or reference book to employees.

BENEFITS OF PERSONNEL POLICY MANUAL 1) Gives clear explanation of existing policies 2) Useful tool in supervisory training 3) Document of company¶s faith on fair personnel policies 4) Act as readymade guide to personnel policies and procedures 5) Training manual for supervisory staff 6) Avoids indecision on personnel matters 7) Avoids unfair employment practices 8) Acts as a communication device .

personnel policy manual 3) Appointing to small committee for manual preparation 4) Interviewing supervisors for information collection 5) Preparing first draft of policy manual 6) Circulating first draft for review and recommendations 7) Final printing of manual 8) Periodical revision and updating of the manual .PREPARATION OF PERSONNEL MANUAL 1) Taking firm decision to prepare policy manual 2) Giving suitable authority to in charge.

Voluntary 1) Quits 2) Retirements Involuntary 1) Discharges 2) Layoffs 3) Retrenchment 4) VRS 5) Rightsizing

EMPLOYEE STOCK OWNERSHIP PLANS (ESOPs) Under the Employee stock ownership plans, employee are offered the company's shares at a concessional price. When the market price of the shares increases, the employees earn substantial capital gains

MERITS OF ESOPs 1) Enables a company to retain efficient employees 2) Linked compensation package closely to employees performance 3) Encourages the employees to work efficiently. 4) It develops a sense of ownership and responsibility. DEMERITS OF ESOPs 1) Can be used only by profit making companies 2) Employees will suffer loss if the share prices are falling 3) Unsound stock market fluctuations cause inconvenience to employees 4) Lack of transparency may lead to criticisms on the ground of favoritism

Maintaining and retrieving data needed by an organization about Its human resources and various activities that are relevant for their management. .HUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEM (HRIS) HRIS is a systematic procedure for collecting. storing.

derived from a number of stakeholders. ‡Broad based and comprehensive ‡Rating committees ‡Self appraisal method .360-Degree Feedback The 360-degree technique is understood as systematic collection of performance data on an individual or group.

Earnings vary less proportionately than output a) Halsey plan b) Rowan plan c) Barth scheme d) Bedaux plan . Earnings vary in the same proportion as output a) Straight piece work b) Standard hour II.TYPES OF INCENTIVES I.

III. Earnings differ at different levels of output a) Taylor¶s differential piece rate b) Merrick differential piece rate c) Gantt task system d) Emerson¶s efficiency plan (Aswathappa) . Earnings vary proportionately more than output a) High piece rate b) High standard hour IV.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HRM AND PM 1) Meaning/Nature 2) Function 3) Evolution 4) Rules 5) Initiative 6) Speed of decision making 7) Motivation of people 8) Conflict handling 9) Training and development 10) Behavior norms (vipul 16) .

IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF TODAY¶S WORKFORCE 1) Composition of Workforce 2) Employment In Factories 3) Industrial Labor Growth 4) Roots In Villages 5) Limited Education 6) Absence of Unity 7) Labor Turnover Among Industrial Workforce (vipul 22) .

TECHNIQUES OF HR DEMAND FORECASTING 1) Managerial Judgement 2) Regression analysis 3) Work-study techniques 4) Delphi technique 5) Flow models 6) Other forecasting techniques (Aswathappa 83.84«) .

84«) .TECHNIQUES OF HR DEMAND FORECASTING 1) Existing Human Resources 2) Internal Sources of Supply 3) External Sources of Supply (Aswathappa 83.

INDUCTION METHOD Formal Individual Serial Investiture Informal Collective Disjunctive Divestiture (Aswathappa 83.84«) .

8) Supervisor clarifies the doubts of new employee about the work (subba rao 151) .INDUCTION PROCESS 1) Reporting for duty 2) Welcome the new employee 3) Introduction to the organization 4) Organizational head introduces to important employees 5) Departmental head introduces to all the employees 6) Supervisor concerned introduces to his co-workers 7) Providing information about the duties .

CAREER STAGES 1) Exploration 2) Establishment 3) Mid-career stage 4) Late career 5) Decline stage (subba rao) .


³ Industrial Relations deal with either the relationship between the state and employees' and workers¶ organizations or the relation between the occupational organization themselves.DEFINITION According to the International Labor Organization (ILO).´ .

IMPORTANCE 1) More production 2) Industrial peace 3) Encouragement to collective bargaining and labour participation in management 4) Better treatment to workers 5) Prosperity to employer and employees (subba rao) .

APPROCHES TO INDUSTRIAL RELATION 1) Unitary Approach 2) Pluralistic approach 3) Marxist approach (Aswathappa) .

PARTIES TO INDUSTRIAL RELATION 1) Employees 2) Employers 3) Employees Associations 4) Employers Associations 5) Government 6) Courts and Tribunals (Aswathappa) .

. Though the terms employees and employers are used.TRADE UNION Trade Unions are voluntary organizations of employees or Employers formed to promote and protect their interests through collective action. when we say trade unions they generally refer to employees.

cultural and political and social life of members 5) Functions on democratic principles 6) Acts as a collective bargaining agent for its members 7) Basically concerned with the problems of workers 8) Leally recognized (Vipul 308.309.FEATURES OF TRADE UNION 1) Voluntary associations of workers 2) Pursuit of common interests 3) Trade unions act collectively 4) Trade unions are concerned with economic.310) .

Functions of Trade unions 1) Achieving higher wages and better working and living conditions 2) Acquiring the control of industry by workers 3) Minimizing the helplessness of the individual workers 4) Raising the status of the workers as partners of industry and citizens 5) Providing a worker self-confidence 6) Imbibing sincerity and discipline in workers 7) Taking up welfare measures for improving the morale of the workers (subba rao) .

recruitment and selection (Aswathappa) .Strategies and tactics for remaining Union-Free 1) Effective supervision 2) Open communication 3) Effective personnel research 4) Healthy and safe working environment 5) Effective employer-employee relations 6) Effective remuneration 7) Effective training and development programmes 8) Effective personnel planning.

PROBLEMS OF TRADE UNIONS 1) Outsider political Leadership 2) Small size of Unions 3) Low membership 4) Poor financial position 5) Inactive functioning 6) Victimization 7) Political and outside leadership (subba Rao) .

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