Digital Watermarking

Ò Introduction and history Ò Terminologies Ò Framework Ò Techniques/Types Ò Reuirements Ò Limitations Ò Applications

.?? Ò Digital watermarking is the process of embedding ´informationµ into a digital media without compromising the media·s value in a way that it is difficult to remove.What is digital watermarking. It was probably given because the marks resemble the effects of water on paper. Ò The term ¶watermark· was introduced near the watermark· end of the 18th century. .


History in briefª Ò Was used in ancient Italy for indicating the paper brands and name of mills. Ò Later it was used by Komatsu and Tominaga in 1988. Ò The first example of a similar technology was done by Emil Hembrooke in 1954 for identifying music works. . Ò In 18th century to prevent money counterfeting.

Terminologiesª Ò Steganography Ò Watermarking Ò Data hiding and data embedding Ò Copy protection Ò Copyright protection .

Ò Steganography methods rely generally on the assumption that the existence of the covert data is unknown to unauthorized parties and are mainly used in secret point-to-point communication between trusting parties. work of communicating in a waywhich hides a secret message in the mainª Ò Steganography-is an art. .

Thus. even if the existence of the hidden information is known. even if the algorithmic principle is known. it should be difficult for an attacker to remove the embedded watermark. .Terminologiesª Ò opposed to steganography ² in an ideal world can resists attacks.

attempts to find ways.Terminologiesª Ò Copy protection. Ò Copyright protection. .inserts copyright information into the digital object without the loss of quality. this information is extracted to identify the rightful owner. which limits the access to copyrighted material and/or inhibit the copy process itself. Whenever the copyright of a digital object is in question.

Framewrok Ò Watermarking is the process that embeds data called ¶watermark· into a media such that watermark can be detected or extracted later to make an assertion about the media. . digital watermarking technique for images is to add a visible seal to the existing image. For example.

A general watermarking systemª .

Watermarking techniquesª Ò According to the working domain Ò According to the type of document Ò According to the human perception Ò According to the application .


Spatial domain Ò Is applied to graphic images and text. Ò However. Ò Slightly modifies the pixels of one or two randomly selected subsets of an image. . not reliable when subjected to normal media operations such as filtering or lossy compression.(generally the lower bits).

Ò The watermark is applied to the whole image so as not to be removed during a cropping operation and also to make its verification difficult. Ò Values of certain frequencies(normally low) are altered from their original. .Frequency domain Ò also called transform domain.

.Visible and Invisible watermarking Ò Visible watermark is a secondary translucent overlaid into the primary image Ò The invisible-robust watermark is embedded in such a way that alternations made to the pixel value are perceptually not noticed . Ò The invisible-fragile watermark is embedded in such a way that any manipulation or modification of the image would alter or destroy the watermark.

that the signal has not been altered.Fragile watermarking technique Ò A watermark is said to be fragile if the watermark hidden within the host signal is destroyed as soon as the watermarked signal undergoes any manipulation. we can infer. . Ò When a fragile watermark is present in a signal. with a high probability.

Robust watermarking Ò Robust watermarks are those which can survive signal manipulations. Ò Thus recommended for those media which need to undergo during lossy compressions . Ò Can withstand mallicious attacks and signal processing too.

Some other techniques Ò Text line. Ò Least significant bit alterations. . Ò Boundary modifications.word or charcter shifting.

carry many bits of information. can coexist with otherwatermarks. and requires little computation to insert or detect.Digital watermarking .Requirements Ò The watermark should exibit certain characterstics. .These include that the watermark is difficult to notice.resists malicious attacks. survives common distortion.

Technicallyª Ò Fidelity(imperceptibility) Ò Robustness Ò Fragility Ò Modification and multiple watermarks .

Ò Cryptographic attacks. .Attacks on the watermarks The attacks on the digital watermarking can broadly be classified in two types: Ò Attacks on the signal.

Ò These techniques can rely on the structure of the embedding algorithm to know where and how the watermark was incrusted. . or somehow mask it.Attacks on signal Ò The majority of the attacks are related to the watermark signal itself . Ò They intend to remove the mark.

Cryptolographics Attacks Ò Some attacks try not to access the watermark. . Ò This is quite general applicability and possesses the initially remarkable property that a marked image for example can be unmarked and yet still rendered pixel for pixel in exactly the same way as the marked image by a standard browser. but to modify its interpretation.

Applications Ò Signature Ò Fingerprinting Ò Broadcast and internet monitoring Ò Autentication and integrity Ò Copy and copyright protection Ò Covert communication .

Priyanka Raj charan Cs 5b 0114cs081089 .By .

Queriesª.??? .

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