This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Over the past several centuries, many specific elements have evolved, which cover the majority of the situations which occur in mechanical design. These elements are grouped in categories, most of which are listed in Machinery’s Handbook. • Fasteners • Gears and Sprockets • Bearings and Bushings • Shaft Couplings • Brakes and Clutches • Actuators (motors, solenoids, pneumatics, and hydraulics) • Sensors This list may not (yet) be exhaustive. However, it provides 90% coverage. If you master all of these elements, you know everything you need to know to be a mechanical designer. (That’s a little sarcasm, but you will be on your way.)

SYEN4399. FIRST in Engineering

1

**Power Transmission and Timing
**

A frequent task which arises in design is to transfer power from a driving source (usually a rotational source) and a drive source. This task is called power transmission. A task related to power transmission is timing. In the internal combustion engine, fuel and air delivery to the piston cylinder and the spark had to be timed mechanically. A timing belt or chain was used for this purpose. In modern systems, sensors usually determine the timed information. However, sometimes these sensors must be mechanically coupled to the driving source, usually through the same mechanical mechanisms of days gone by. The difference between power transmission and timing are slight. In power transmission, the forces are larger than in timing, and the methods for shaft coupling require more robust design techniques. Timing requires greater accuracy. This usually translates into less back-lash and more expensive components. Methods for achieving power transmission include: • • • • Gears Belts and Pulleys Sprocket and Chain Timing Belt and Gears

SYEN4399. FIRST in Engineering

2

the belt and pulley has many disadvantages.) Lift-o-matic I on the Phoenix Lift-o-matic II on Buford (the removed version) Wall-crawler on Johnny #5 Although straight-forward. SYEN4399. Although machinery handbook gives design tables and equations for belt calculations.Belts and Pulleys (pg. the designer should always refer to manufacturer design information where it exists. This adds to bearing loads in a system. Remember the difficulty with the Lift-o-matic II on Buford. etc. FIRST in Engineering 3 . water pump. Belts wear over time and must be replaced. 2372-2409) The basic concepts of power transmission are best illustrated through the belt and pulley.g. Belt slip determines the maximum power transmission. Belt and pulley must be pretensioned. the belt that drives the A/C. Examples of the belt and pulley system: • • • • Power distribution belts in an automobile (e. V-belts alleviate this problem by increasing the effective surface area over which contact is maintained. Improvements in belt technology and automatic tensioners have reduced this problem.

s1 = r 1 θ 1 . the ratio of output speed to input speed is the inverse ratio of the pulley radii. The belt moves through an arc length. r 2 .Different Pulley Diameters One use for belts is to apply an increase in torque between the driving element and the driven element. assuming the belt does not bunch or slip. The second pulley must move through this same length. ---. FIRST in Engineering 4 . · r1 θ2 In words. Assume the first pulley turns through an angle. Hence. · · · r2 θ1 Differentiating this equation yields r 1 θ 1 = r 2 θ 2 which may be rearranged to determine the gear ratio.= --. any set of pulleys can be devised which give an output speed in any range desired. SYEN4399. θ 1 . Let us perform some rudimentary analysis on this system. If the driving torque is fixed. s 1 = r 2 θ 2 and r1 θ1 = r2 θ2 . Consider two pulleys driven by a belt. This provides a powerful tool for matching conditions. The first pulley has radius r 1 and the second pulley has a different radius..

load on bearings (which increases losses). the rate of winding/unwinding would be uniform and not depend on center distance. SYEN4399. φ . When α reaches the pitch circle. The pressure angle is defined as the angle between the lin-of-action and a perpendicular to the line of centers. As α is varied. the line traces out the tooth form. Pretend that a string is rolled up on a cylinder whose diameter is called the base diameter. The gear tooth form is created by an involute curve. and set up time are solved by gears. FIRST in Engineering 5 . This curve forms the tooth form. line of centers eo lin fa ion ct φ base circle The involute function is inv ( α ) = tan ( α ) – α . If two cylinders of different diameters were to maintain string contact while the string were unwinding on one circle and winding onto the other.Gears The problems with pulleys include slip (which limits maximum power transmission). The pitch diameter relates the number of teeth on a gear and the diametral pitch. it takes on the value of the pressure angle. where α is the angle through which the string is unwrapped. As the string is unrolled (while remaining taught) it traces out a curve in space. The equation relating pressure angle and base circle diameter is D b = D cos φ where D is the pitch diameter. wear (which limits maximum life). called the involute curve.

each with the pitch diameter of its gear. Note that the linear distance in this measurement is one of arc length for spur gears.Gear Terminology The diametral pitch of a gear determines how many teeth per inch a gear contains. SYEN4399. As two gears whose centers are correctly placed mesh.4mm/inch ) ( m ) . 26th ed. a 0. the conversion is: P d = ( 25. ing occurs. FIRST in Engineering 6 . However. Pitch diameter can be calculated from pitch and number of teeth (Z) by D = Z ⁄ P d = mZ . For instance. module is the inverse concept. For instance. For metric gears. the same concept is called module. –1 (1) The pitch diameter is the circle along which gear meshReprinted from Machinery’s Handbook. it is as if two cylinders. were rolling on each other without slip. 32 pitch means that a gear has 32 teeth per inch.7 module means that one tooth occupies 0.7 mm of arc length. It is the number of millimeters per tooth. Since module and pitch are linked to a specific unit.

= --------------------------. and the pitting wear on the teeth was 2 excessive. FIRST in Engineering 7 1 . The only down-side is that the fewest number of teeth available on a gear is larger than for a smaller pressure angle. This means that most of the force will be directed towards turning the gear and little will be pushing against the bearing support. 14 -. However. 2 2P d 2 (1) Forces between gear teeth will be directed along the pressure angle. the original teeth on Johnny #5’s drive system were 14 -. the force will be mostly perpendicular to the gear tooth face. the thicker the tooth and the more normal the force. 14 -. Pressure angles for readily available gears (English or metric) are usually quantized into the following bins.Geometry of Gears In order for gears to roll properly along each other. In a well designed gear.° . 1 1 The larger the pressure angle.° . Custom pressure angles can be made. This results in a lessening of the unused force and strenthens the tooth at the same time.. Although it is still readily available. their centers must be spaced at the distance: ( D 1 + D2 ) ( Z1 + Z2 ) m ( Z1 + Z2 ) L = -----------------------. 25° . this is done at the expense of much design time and design of tooling.° is being phased out and should not be used unless abso2 lutely necessary. 2 20° . SYEN4399.= ---------------------. As an example.

It indicates that direction is reversed for each gear stage. The normal use is to have smaller gears mesh with larger gears. 1. This is a difference from pulleys. FIRST in Engineering 8 . where Z 1 and Z 2 share a common shaft. for a two stage gear train --------. · D in Z in θ out 2. This formula comes from the same geometric consideration as two pulleys.Gear Train Calculations The classic spur gear train involves two geometric rules. · Z out Z1 θ in This formula can be replicated ad infinitum.= – ---------- = – --------- . Note the negative sign in these formulas. · Z 2 Z in θ out Hence. SYEN4399. A large gear and a small gear at a middle stage will share a shaft. Meshing gears have the speed ratio --------. Gears which share a common shaft have the same rotational speed.= --------- ------- . where the direction remains the same. where D is the pitch diameter and Z is the number · D out Z out θ in of teeth on a gear.

In other words. Except for dramatic stoppages. will be negligible when compared with the actual moments. which serve no useful purpose. angular accelerations will be moderate. a static analysis will be fairly accurate under all circumstances. The product of these two factors. During starting and stopping. SYEN4399. except when locking up the gear system (an unusual circumstance). but occur because the pressure angle is not “perfect” -Wt B2 τM B1 Wt φ Wn τG2 -Wn τB2 τB1 Consider the free body diagram of the gears and note the implied direction of W t . there will be inertial “forces” due to the gear’s moment of inertia. In fact. This can be accommodated by applying a safety factor. Small gears have small moments of inertia. Two components of forces are considered: • • forces tangent to the pitch circle.Forces in Spur Gears Assume that gears are moving at constant velocity. which transmit motion from one gear to the next normal forces. Thus. such as when a gear train is locked up due to an external failure. Also. even though the gear system may be moving in space. FIRST in Engineering 9 . the resulting linear accelerations and Coriolis terms will be very small compared to both the forces and moments encountered in a gear system. except under extreme circumstances. the dynamic aspect of gears can be neglected. the tolerances in materials will affect the calculations more than accelerations.

= – ----. τM r1 Z1 (3) For spur gears. Note: the y direction is always aligned with the line of action and the x direction is aligned perpendicular to this. 0. This yields six equations for the two gears. FIRST in Engineering 10 . τ G2 + τ B2 + r 2 W t = 0 . This might also be a function of the actual bearings. (1) (2) Unless you prepare a model for bearing torques (ie as a function of angular speed or bearing forces) it is best to neglect them in the analysis and develop an experiential model for the friction. B 1x = W t . 0.7 to account for friction at the bearings. B 2y = W n τ M + τ B1 – r 1 W t = 0 .= – --. Hence.Static Analysis of Spur Gears This is a planar problem.8. B 2x = – W t . I normally use a fudge factor of 0. For planetary gears. we can sum forces in the x and y directions. So. B 1y = – W n .. Z2 τM ------. And for worm gears. and sum moments in the z direction. r2 Z2 τ G2 ------.= ( – f ) ----Z1 τ G2 (4) SYEN4399.9.

by neglecting the friction torque. this is erring in the direction of conservatism for failure criteria and is a good thing. FIRST in Engineering 11 (3) ω . the power at the first stage is P = T stall ω1 1 – ----------------- . This is actually a dot product and. This is the force acting at that point multiplied by the velocity of the point. for DC motors. Consider the work rate done at the point of contact. This occurs because power encapsulates both the torque and the velocity. this force will be larger than the actual force. the tangent force is: τM W t = ------ r1 (1) Since this force will be used in failure calculations. Because the force acts along the pressure line. only the tangential force enters into the equation: P = Wt vt = Wt r1 ω 1 = W t r2 ω2 = τM ω1 .Calculating the Forces From equation 2 on the previous slide (neglecting friction). ω no load ω no load SYEN4399. However. the horizontal component of the force is: W n = W t tan φ (2) It is often useful to treat gears through the power that they transmit. ω 1 Noting that. since the entire velocity is tangentially directed at the circumference of a circle. τM = T stall 1 – ----------------- .

However. the pinion’s axis will rotate. In internal gear meshes. SYEN4399. and usually the internal gear is cut deeper and the pinion tooth is lengthened. the pinion rolls around the inside of the internal gear (relatively speaking). From Stock Drive Products Design Manual In most cases. Do not make the pinion too large or interference will result. In the first case. Standard spur gears will mate with internal gears. Internal Gear. In the second case. FIRST in Engineering 12 . either the internal gear will be pinned to avoid rotation or the center of the pinion will be pinned to avoid rotation.Internal Gearing An internal gear is a spur gear (or helical gear if you have some extra cash) turned inside out. the internal gear will rotate about its axis. The addendum and dedendum are reversed. the margin for error (ie with number of teeth) must be considered more carefully than with conventional spur gear meshes.

D = r s + r P = ------------------. ----------------.= ----------------.= ----------------. FIRST in Engineering 13 .. Planet Gear rP D rI D –D 2 Z –Z 2P d m(Z – Z ) 2 Internal (or ring) gear s P s P s P Also.= --------------------------. D = r I – r P = -----------------. I P I P I P Hence. In order for the two circles to be tangent. the center distance between the Planet gear (shown) and the sun gear (not shown) follows the same rules as for ordinary spur gears.= --------------------------- D +D 2 Z +Z 2P d m(Z + Z ) 2 In a planetary gear system.Center Distance for Internal Gears The geometry of internal gears involves a small circle inscribed in a larger circle.= ----------------- Z –Z 2P d Z +Z 2P d Z I = Z s + 2Z P SYEN4399. r P + D = r I . I P s P This yields the first constraint on planetary gear teeth.

This unit vector rotates with angular velocity θ p k . The ring gear can be fixed.θ p u t . Assuming the sun gear is being driven at a rate θ s (i. 2P d ˆ ˜ Since the planet gear is both revolving around a center and rotating. The planet gears are constrained to move between the sun and the ring gear and serve as the output motion. FIRST in Engineering 14 .e. The position of the center of the planet is r p = ---------------------. 2P · (Z + Z ) · d ˜ SYEN4399. where k points out p s . several planet gears (Zp). determining its surface velocities is not as p s -ˆ easy.u t .ˆ ˆ of the page. The velocity of the center is v p = ---------------------. or driven at a desired speed. moving. where u r is the unit vector directed from the center ˆ 2P (Z + Z ) d ˜ ˆ ˆ of the sun to the center of the moving planet.u t . The sun gear serves as the input element. where u t is the unit vector in the direction of travel. counter· Z s θs clockwise).Planetary Gear Systems A planetary gear system involves a ring gear (ZI).u r . and a sun gear (Zs). the pitch velocity is v s = ---------. 2P d ˆ ˜ · Planet Gear Internal (or ring) gear ut ur The velocity of the point of contact between the ring gear and · ZI θI the planet gear is : v I = --------.

ut = ---------------------. 2P d ˜ Planet Gear v I/p ˜ The velocity of the point of contact is the same for the sun gear and the planet gear: · Zs θs ( Zp + Z s ) · Zp · · · · -ˆ .ˆ ˆ v I = --------.θ p ut – -------- θ s/p u t or Z s θs = ( Z p + Z s )θ p – Zp θ s/p 2P d 2P d 2P d ˜ (1) The velocity of the point of contact is the same for the ring gear and the planet gear: · ZI θI ( Z p + Zs ) · Zp · · · · -ˆ .θ p u t + -------- θs/p u t or Z I θ I = ( Z p + Zs )θ p + Zp θ s/p 2P d 2P d 2P d ˜ · Z · Zs · (2) s Equation (1) can be solved to determine θ s/p = 1 + ----- θ p – ----- θ s .ˆ ˆ v s = ---------. ˆ 2P d Zp · v s/p ˜ vp ˜ · θ s/p ˆ The relative velocity of the planet point of contact with the ring gear is vI/p = -------- θ s/p u t . FIRST in Engineering 15 .= θ p 2 ( Z p + Zs ) (3) SYEN4399. when substituted into Equation (2) yields: Z p Z p · · · ZI θI + Zs θs --------------------------.u t = ---------------------.Planetary Gear Speed Ratio The relative velocity of the point of contact of the planet in contact with the sun is v s/p ˜ · Zp · = – -------- θ s/p u t where θ s/p is the angular velocity of the planet gear about its axis.which.

on the other hand. where k ∈ [ 0. which yields. FIRST in Engineering · · 1 -------------.= ------------------.∈ ··ZI + Z s ZI θs θs ---.or ---.= θ p ZI + Zs · θp 1 The most common situation pins the ring gear. 1 ] . · · · ZI θI + Zs θs --------------------------. the ring gear is free to move.= θs ZI + Zs · · (2) If the internal gear is turned such that θ I = kθ s .+ 1 Zs (1) If. 1 ZI ---. + 1 θp kZ I + Zs Z s θp ---.. it will turn with θ I = θ s and equation (1) becomes: · · · · ZI θs + Zs θs θp = --------------------------. ---.= ----------------------.= -------------.Planetary Gear Ratio Since Z I = Z s + 2Z P .. ·ZI θs ---.+ 1 Zs SYEN4399. then ZI · · k ---.+ 1 Zs 16 (3) .

= an integer . Note: there is a third law regarding interference among the planet gears themselves. and sun gear occurs.Second Law of Planetary Gearing In order for the planetary gears to be in mesh simultaneously. failure to satisfy it will result in the gear teeth not meshing smoothly and correctly and can result in excessive stresses and poor fit. if you are pushing that limit. SYEN4399. It will be ignored here. you might want to rethink your overall design. a restriction on the number of teeth in the ring gear. This condition isn’t unbreakable. However. Just don’t make the planet gears too big. Although it is not necessary to have the planets in mesh simultaneously. ( Zs + ZI ) --------------------. this may result in imbalance in the design and care must also be taken to insure that gear tooth stresses are calculated more carefully. FIRST in Engineering 17 . However. N Planet Gear Internal (or ring) gear where N is the number of planets (usually 3 or 4). planetary gears.

A free body diagram of the sun gear shows that the tangent forces of contact with the N planetary gears (3 are shown in the FBD). the magnitude of the tangential force is divided by a factor equal to the number of planetary gears. SYEN4399.Forces in Planetary Systems In a planetary system. are evenly distributed around the circumference. In other words. FIRST in Engineering 18 . The net force created by the tangential component of the force is also zero. the sun gear is in contact with three or four planet gears. it does not provide any load on the bearings. The moment equation is the only one required to determine the magnitude Solving yields the following relations: τ M = 3r p W t Wt ˜ j ˜ i ˜ Wt ˜ Wt ˜ τM ˜ rp Hence. the magnitudes of the forces are equal. By symmetry.

This last assumption is known to be bad. 6W t L σ = ------------2 Ft (1) where σ is the axial stress at the base of the tooth. However. This information may also be available from gear manufacturers themselves. To this end. Y. the mid-point of the tooth. It is convenient to remove the difficult to handle variables and incorporate a fudge factor which accounts for the tooth’s non-rectangular geometry. SYEN4399. the Lewis Form Factor. F.Stresses in Spur Gears An estimate for the maximum stress in a gear tooth can be formed by treating the tooth as a rectangular beam of tooth thickness. and tooth width. and L is the theoretical length of the tooth. where the force acts. W t is the tangential force (computed earlier). FP d (2) Note: in the modern age. is created. considerable literature exists based on this assumption and it gives a more conservative failure estimate than the actual worst case contact point. FIRST in Engineering 19 . Equation (1) can be rewritten as: 6W t Y σ = -------------. t. Tables for this factor for many conditions can be obtained in American Gear Manufacturer Association (AGMA) standards.. these approximations can be replaced by using a Finite Element Model of the gear tooth.

Pd Pd Pd π ------The tooth thickness at the pitch diameter is t = -------. However. Note. In the AGMA standard for designing gear teeth. lacking more accurate documentation. FIRST in Engineering 20 . which is determined by the yield stress of the material. there are about 10 different safety factors. safety factors are applied based on loading conditions.= ------------------------------------2 π 2 Fπ F -------- 2P d (1) Although this last equation is not standard. it can give an estimate of the actual stress in a gear tooth.If you don’t have a Lewis Factor chart Z 1 Z+1 The tooth length is approximately the pitch diameter plus the addendum. The maximum stress in a gear tooth must not exceed the allowable stress. L = ----. Using these values in equation (1) on the previous page yields: Z+1 6W t ------------ 24P d W t ( Z + 1 ) Pd σ = ---------------------------.= -----------. this is a smaller than the tooth thickness at the 2P d 2 root.= m ( Z + 1 ) . SYEN4399.= πm . Normally.+ ----. it will predict a more conservative value of the maximum stress and somewhat compensates for the fact that the tooth is not a rectangular beam.

It is similar to a helical gear with a very high helix angle. m n is normal module) zw zw mn d w = ------------------. or four threads. You cannot mix a right hand worm with a left hand worm gear! Worms usually have one. Pd = Pdn cos λ ..= -----------P dn sin λ sin λ (1) where z w is the number of thread starts (or teeth) and λ is the lead angle. z P d tan λ Normally the pitch diameter for both worm and worm gear will be given and calculating it is not necessary. The lead for a worm is L = -------------------.. For calculating center distances. the pitch diameter of the worm is ( Pdn is normal diametral pitch. two. is normally used and d w = ----------------. Worm and worm gear systems come in either right hand or left hand varieties. The number of thread starts can be seen by looking down the axis of the worm. The worm is similar to a rotating rack.Worm Gearing A worm mesh is composed of a worm gear and a worm. the diametral pitch. SYEN4399. πz P dn cos λ w In English gears. This angle represents the back-drivabilw ity of a worm/gear mesh. FIRST in Engineering 21 .

since the axis is rotated. The velocity (gear) ratio of a worm/gear mesh is · zg θg g = ----.wD = -. This increases the requirements on the bearing system in a worm/gear mesh. Further. which may not be present in planar gear systems.+ z g = -----. ---------. FIRST in Engineering 22 .= ----·zw θw (3) SYEN4399. m n is normal module) zg mn zg d g = ----.= ----------Pd cos λ (1) The center distance for a worm/gear mesh is: mn z z zg 1 1 . They also allow the turning of the drive axis through 90° .( d w + d g ) = -------. they are not as efficient as spur gear systems. thrust loads. Because worm/gear meshes involve both rolling contact (to transmit the loads) and sliding contact.+ ----------- 2 2P d tan λ 2 sin λ cos λ (2) Worm/gear meshes can generate tremendous gear ratios in a compact space. are significant.Worm Gear Quantities The pitch diameter for the helical worm gear is ( Pd is diametral pitch. ---------.w.

λ . is the coefficient of friction between the worm and the worm gear. 20° . must be chosen. Buford’s lead angle. λ = tan – 1 ------------ . the worm/gear mesh will possess self-locking capability. Since the normal condition is for the worm to drive the worm gear.Self-locking of Worm/Gear mesh If cos φ n sin λ – µ cos λ ≤ 0 .” In the case of drive systems. The variable. because the motor can drive the wheel. with a four tooth worm. µ . this is nice. The gears in the Stock Drive catalog have lead angles of 3° – 10° . φ n . self-locking is usually expressed as the inability of the system to be “back-driven.20 (poorly lubricated). but the wheel cannot drive the motor. 30° ). was rather high and did not “self-lock. FIRST in Engineering 23 . Lead angle. is directly proportional to the number of teeth. 25° . small lead angle.” SYEN4399. This means that the worm gear cannot drive the worm. Therefore.g. This number is usually kept small (especially with lubrication) and varies between values of 0. The formula indicates that for self-locking. and better self-locking capabilities. is the normal pressure angle (e. The variable. fewer teeth results in P d d w zw smaller lead angles.01 (well lubricated) to 0.

If the pressure angle is φ n . F a2 = F u1 = ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )F n . which is φn in these notes. F u2 = F a1 = ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ )F n . per Newton’s third law. FIRST in Engineering 24 . then the normal force has components F 1 = F n cos φ n and F r1 = F n sin φ n . The thrust load on the worm gear’s bearings is provided by the worm’s axial force.Forces is Worm/Gear Meshes In a worm tooth. µF n . Fn . Note: γ is the lead angle. (1) Worm and Worm Gear Teeth Forces (from Stock Drive Design Catalog) Note: αn is the pressure angle. which is λ in the notes. summing the components of Fn and µFn in the driving direction gives the relevant driving force: F a1 = F 1 cos λ – µF n sin λ = F n cos φ n cos λ – µF n sin λ = ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ )F n . (2) The driving force on the worm gear is provided by the worm’s thrust force. The thrust force is F u1 = F 1 sin λ + µF n cos λ = F n cos φ n sin λ + µF n cos λ = ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )F n . there is a normal force. Note that directions are reversed between the worm and worm gear. Because the worm is a helical shape. and a friction force. SYEN4399.

= ----.= ---------------. ---------------------------------------------------------.= g tan λ . and the loss due to tooth-tooth sliding can be computed directly. z w pn zw dw -------------π sin λ (2) Thus.= --------------.= ( fg ) ---------------------------------------------------.= ----.9). The torque on the driven gear is τ D = ---. Using the definitions of pitch diameter and gear ratio.. F u2 . 2 2 d g ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ )F n d g ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ ) τD -----. FIRST in Engineering (3) Worm and Gear (reprinted from Stock Drive Design Guide) 25 . Fu1 . the bearing loads can be estimated as the usually 90% loss (ie f=. The coefficient of friction can be estimated. ---------------------------------------------------.Driving Forces of Worm Gears The relation between the driving torque and the worm’s force is τM = ----. zg pn --------------z g tan λ dg π cos λ ----. ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ ) τD -----. ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ ) τM SYEN4399.tan λ . (1) d w ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )F n d w ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ ) τM dw dg For determining the worm/gear mesh efficiency.

Fn = ----------------------------------------------------------.or d w = ------------. 2 M Since Fu1 = ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )Fn . d w = ----------------. τ M = ----. the normal force is: z m sin λ 2τ M ( P d tan λ ) F n = ----------------------------------------------------------( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )z w (1) or 2τ M sin λ F n = ----------------------------------------------------------------------( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ ) ( z w m n ) (2) SYEN4399.. - dw 2τ ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )d w z P d tan λ w w n Using the expressions for pitch diameter. F u1 ..Normal Force The normal force can be calculated in terms of the driving torque. FIRST in Engineering 26 .

9 ) ( 5 ) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. lead angle ( λ = 18.Example: Worm/Gear Mesh Consider a left handed worm/gear from the Stock Drive Catalog which has the following parameters: General: pressure angle ( φ n ) = 25° .43° ) + 0.43° ) + 0.tan λ = ( 0.= 120lb ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )z w ( cos ( 25° ) sin ( 18.43° ) ) ( 4 ) 2τ ( P tan λ ) –1 Worm Axial load: Fa1 = ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ )F n = ( cos ( 25° ) cos ( 18.43° ) M d Normal force: F n = ----------------------------------------------------------.43° ).43° ) = 3.tan ( 18.8 . maximum drive torque: τD = 10inlb Assume a coefficient of sliding friction of 0. FIRST in Engineering 27 .43° ) – 0.43° ) )120lb = 100lb .05 cos ( 18. pitch ( P d = 24 ). cos ( 25° ) sin ( 18.05.= -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. SYEN4399.05 cos ( 18. Tangential force: F 1 = F n cos φ n = ( 120lb ) cos ( 25° ) = 110lb · Worm Gear Axial load: F a2 = ( cos φn sin λ + µ cos λ )F n = ( cos ( 25° ) sin ( 18.43° ) + ( 0.05 ) cos ( 18.43° ) )120lb = 40lb . Worm: 4 threads Worm Gear: 20 teeth ----Velocity ratio: g = 20 = 5 .43° ) 2 ( 10inlb ) ( 24in ) tan ( 18. which hardly seems worth it. 4 ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ ) n D Drive ratio: -----.43° ) – 0.05 sin ( 18.= ( fg ) ---------------------------------------------------.43° ) ( cos φ sin λ + µ cos λ ) τ τM cos ( 25° ) cos ( 18.05 sin ( 18.

- Machine Design II
- Transmission of Motion & Power3
- DTS Two Marks Q&A
- Belt and Chain Shaft Transmission
- ME_3031
- In a Sliding Pair Minimum Number of Degree of Freedom
- MES-POWER TRANSMISSION final [Read-Only].pdf
- Power Transmission
- 90131353 Design of Transmission Systems
- Med2 Marine Transmission-01
- TWO_MARKS_DTS.pdf
- Power Transmission.pdf
- DTS_MJ07-QP
- kom_A10
- AE2201 2marks.pdf
- KOM Lab
- MIT2_72s09_lec12
- Kom
- Mechanical Systems 2
- [Brian_Bolt]_Mathematics_Meets_Technology(BookFi.org).pdf
- KOM 2 Marks - Edition 3.pdf
- Mechanical Actuation Systems
- Me Kinematics of Machinery 2 Ma
- KOM 22 Marks - Edition 4.rtf
- DTS Two Edited
- Chp Specifiction
- Spur Gears
- Lufkin
- theory
- Design of Transmission Systems 1
- Gears

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd