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315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Lecture 1
TITLE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
• Theory
• Two point charges, N = 2 • Units
• Examples of calculation • Two point charges on axis
• Two point charges, one off axis
• Theory • Multiple point charges, • Three point charges
• Force balancing N>2
• Examples of calculation
• Assignment • References • Summary
Lecture 1
OUTLINE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE



+
Lecture 1
THEORY
+
+
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
v F1
q1
Repulsive
Attractive
q1 v
r
r
q2
v F2
F1 v F2
q2
+ + +

The force exerted by one point charge on another acts along the line joining the charges. It varies inversely as the square of the distance separating the charges and is proportional to the product of the charges. The force is repulsive if the charges have the same sign and attractive if the charges have opposite signs.
Lecture 1 THEORY
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
q1
v v v r12 = r2  r1
Two point charges q1 and q2
v r1
origin
v r2
q2
v F
[F]force; Newtons {N} [q]charge; Coulomb {C} [r]distance; meters {m} [e]permittivity; Farad/meter {F/m}
v kq1q2 ) F12 = v 2 r12 r12
COULOMB FORCE
Lecture 1 UNITS
Property of the medium
v v v r2  r1 r12 ) r12 = v v = v r2  r1 r12
UNIT VECTOR
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
eo
Permittivity is a property of the medium. Also known as the dielectric constant. Permittivity of free space e o = 8.854 ´ 10 12 F / m Coulomb’s constant
1 k= 4pe o
k = 8.98 ´ 10 9 m / F
v kq1q2 ) F12 = v 2 r12 r12
Lecture 1 THEORY
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Permittivity of a medium
e medium = e r e o
er
For air
Relative permittivity
e air = 1.0006 e o
e r > 1.0006
1 k= 4pe r e o
Lecture 1 THEORY
v kq1q2 ) F12 = v 2 r12 r12
FORCE IN MEDIUM SMALLER THAN FORCE IN VACUUM
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Q
Insert oil drop
V
v FE v FG
Viewing microscope
Metal plates
Eye
Q 2
Lecture 1 THEORY
Q 2
Millikan oil drop experiment
Charging by contact
e = 1.60217733 ´ 10 19 C
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY 1. Consistent units are essential. Distances must be in meters, charge in coulombs and force in newtons. If you are given distances in centimeters, inches, or furlongs, don’t forget to convert! When a charge is given in microcoulombs, remember that 1 mC = 1x106 C. 2. Remember that the electric force is a vector quantity. You may want to go back and review vector algebra. It’s often useful to use components in an (x, y, z) coordinate system. Be sure to use the correct vector notation. If a symbol represents a vector quantity, underline it or place an arrow over it. If you get sloppy with your notation, you will get sloppy with your thinking. It is essential to distinguish between vector quantities and scalar quantities and to treat vectors properly as vectors.
Lecture 1 ASSIGNMENT
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Question): A negative point charge of 1mC is situated in air at the origin of a rectangular coordinate system. A second negative point charge of 100mC is situated on the positive x axis at the distance of 500 mm from the origin. What is the force on the second charge?
Lecture 1
EXAMPLE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Solution): A negative point charge of 1mC is situated in air at the origin of a rectangular coordinate system. A second negative point charge of 100mC is situated on the positive x axis at the distance of 500 mm from the origin. What is the force on the second charge? Y
v r12 = 500mm
q1 = 1 mC origin
v F
q2= 100 mC X
Lecture 1
EXAMPLE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Solution): Y
v r12 = 500mm
q1 = 1 mC origin
v F
q2= 100 mC X
q1 = 1´ 10 6 C q2 = 1´ 10  4 C v r12 = 0.5m ˆ ˆ r12 = x e » eo
Lecture 1 EXAMPLE
v F12 =
q1q2 ) v 2 r12 4peo r12
v ˆ F12 = 3.59 Nx
END
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Question): Two point charges of opposite sign are placed in air. One charge (q1 = +1 C) is located at the origin while the other (q2 = 1 C) is at x = 1.0 cm, y = 3.0 cm. What is the magnitude and direction of the attractive force for each charge?
Lecture 1
EXAMPLE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Solution): Two point charges of opposite sign are placed in air. One charge (q1 = +1 C) is located at the origin while the other (q2 = 1 C) is at x = 3.0 cm, y = 1.0 cm. What is the magnitude and direction of the attractive force for each charge? Y 3 cm q2= 1 C 1 cm q1 = +1 C
Lecture 1 EXAMPLE
X
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Solution):
Y 3 cm q2= 1 C 1 cm X
ˆ r12
Force on q2
v F12
q1 = +1C
q1 = +1 C
q2 = 1C v r12 = .012 + .032 m = 0.0316m .01 .03 ˆ12 = v x + v y ˆ ˆ r r12 r12 e » eo
v F12 =
q1q2 ) v 2 r12 4peo r12
v ˆ ˆ F12 = Fx x + Fy y
v 10 ˆ  2.69 ´1011 Ny ˆ F12 = 8.99 ´10 Nx
EXAMPLE
Lecture 1
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Solution):
Y 3 cm q2= 1 C
v F21
Force on q1
1 cm X
v v F21 = F12
q1 = +1 C
v F21 =
q1q2 ) v 2 r21 4peo r21
v ˆ ˆ F21 = 8.99 ´1010 Nx + 2.69 ´1011 Ny
Lecture 1 EXAMPLE
END
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Question) A hydrogen atom consists of an electron of mass me = 9.1094 X 1031 kg, moving about a proton of mass mp = 1.6726 X 1027 kg at an average distance of 0.53 X 1010 m. Determine the ratio of the electrical and gravitational forces acting between the two particles.
Lecture 1
EXAMPLE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Solution) A hydrogen atom consists of an electron of mass me = 9.1094 X 1031 kg, moving about a proton of mass mp = 1.6726 X 1027 kg at an average distance of 0.53 X 1010 m. Determine the ratio of the electrical and gravitational force acting between the two particles. Given: ± qe = ±1.602 X 1019 C, me = 9.1094 X 1031 kg, mp = 1.6726 X 1027 kg and r = 0.53 X 10 10 m. Find Fe and Fg. From Coulomb’s law: From Newton’s law:
Fe = k
Fg = G
qe q p r2
me m p r2
Lecture 1
EXAMPLE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Solution) Given: ± qe = ±1.602 X 1019 C, me = 9.1094 X 1031 kg, mp = 1.6726 X 1027 kg and r = 0.53 X 10 10 m. Find Fe and Fg. From Coulomb’s law: Fe = k
qe q p r2
8
Fe = 8.2 ´ 10 N
From Newton’s law:
Fg = G me m p r2
Fg = 3.6 ´ 10 47 N
So Fe/Fg = 2.3 X 10 39 The electric force is far stronger than the gravitational force. END Lecture 1 EXAMPLE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Multiple point charges It has been confirmed experimentally that when several charges are present, each exerts a force given by
q1q2 F =k 2 r
on every other charge. The interaction between any two charges is independent of the presence of all other charges. The net force on any one charge is the vector sum off all the forces exerted on it due to each of the other charges interacting with it independently.
Lecture 1 THEORY
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
5 point charges: Net force on q5 q1
v F35
v F25 v F 15 v F35
v Fnet
v F45
q4 q5
v F25 v F45
v v v v v Fnet = F15 + F25 + F35 + F45
q2 q3
Lecture 1 THEORY
v F 15
The fact that the electric forces add vectorially is called the SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Question) The charging of individual raindrops is ultimately responsible for the electrical activity in thunderstorms. Suppose two drops with equal charge q are located on the x axis at ± a. Find the electric force on a third drop with charge Q located at an arbitrary point on the y axis.
Lecture 1
EXAMPLE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Solution) The charging of individual raindrops is ultimately responsible for the electrical activity in thunderstorms. Suppose two drops with equal charge q are located on the x axis at ± a. Find the electric force on a third drop with charge Q located at an arbitrary point on the y axis. Y Q
r = a2 + y2
q
y q a X
q a
Lecture 1 EXAMPLE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Solution) Q
r = a2 + y2
Y
q
y q X
q
a a Charge Q is the same distance r from the two other charges, so the force from each has the same magnitude:
qQ F =k 2 r
The direction of the two forces are different.
Lecture 1 EXAMPLE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Solution)
v Fnet
q
Y
Fy Fy
v Fnet
qQ F =k 2 r
Q
r = a2 + y2
The x components cancel, while the y components add.
Fx
Fx
q
y q a
qQ Fy = 2k 2 cos(q ) r
X
q a
Lecture 1 EXAMPLE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Question) A positive charge +2q lies on the x axis at x = a, and a charge q lies at x = +a. Find the point where the electric force on a third charge Q would be zero.
Lecture 1
EXAMPLE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Solution) A positive charge +2q lies on the x axis at x = a, and a charge q lies at x = +a. Find the point where the electric force on a third charge Q would be zero. Q Y
2q a a
q X
The point must lie on the x axis since off axis points cannot have force vectors which point in opposite directions.
Lecture 1 EXAMPLE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Solution) A positive charge +2q lies on the x axis at x = a, and a charge q lies at x = +a. Find the point where the electric force on a third charge Q would be zero. Y
2q a
Q a
q X
Between the two charges the repulsion from one and the attraction of the other would add and give a nonzero effect.
Lecture 1 EXAMPLE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Solution) A positive charge +2q lies on the x axis at x = a, and a charge q lies at x = +a. Find the point where the electric force on a third charge Q would be zero. Y
Q
2q a a
q X
On the left of 2q, the Q charge would be closer to the 2q charge than the q charge. The force from 2q on Q would be larger partially because it is closer and partially because it is a greater charge.
Lecture 1 EXAMPLE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Solution) A positive charge +2q lies on the x axis at x = a, and a charge q lies at x = +a. Find the point where the electric force on a third charge Q would be zero. Y Q X x
2q a a
q
So the only location where the two forces might cancel is to the right of both charges.
Lecture 1 EXAMPLE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Solution) 2q a Q
v F qQ
v F2 qQ
Y Q X x
q a
Net force on charge Q
v (2q )Q ˆ F2 qQ = k x 2 ( x + a)
v v v Fnet = F2 qQ + FqQ
For the net electric force to cancel, these must have the same magnitude but different directions.
v ( q )Q x ˆ FqQ = k 2 ( x  a)
Lecture 1 EXAMPLE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Solution) 2q
v (2q )Q ˆ F2 qQ = k x 2 ( x + a) v ( q )Q x ˆ FqQ = k 2 ( x  a)
Y Q X x
2
q a
k
a
(2q )Q
( x + a)
2
ˆ x+k
( q )Q
( x  a)
ˆ x=0
2 1 = Simplifying gives: (x + a )2 (x  a )2
Inverting and taking square roots gives
Lecture 1 EXAMPLE
x+a = ±(x  a ) 2
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Solution) 2q a
Y Q X x
q a
x+a = ±(x  a ) 2
Solving for + sign:
x=a
x = a 3 + 2 2 = 5.83a
Since x > a, this point is to the right of the q and 2q charges and therefore is indeed a point of zero force.
Lecture 1 EXAMPLE
(
2 +1 =a 2 1
(
)
2 +1 2 1 2 + 1
(
)(
)
2
)
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Example (Solution) 2q a
Y
Consider x  a » 0. Force from q charge dominates.
v Fnet
a
q x
Q
v Fnet
X
Consider x  a >> 0. Force appears to originate from one charge q only. (2qq) (q) At x= 5.83 a x
v Fnet
Q
X
Lecture 1
EXAMPLE
=0
END
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Coulomb’s law: Two point charges • Questions (115) Coulomb’s Law: Multiple point charges • Questions (1630) Assignment goal: Be able to solve the 75% and 100% questions without making reference to your notes. Start with the 25% questions and work your way up.
Lecture 1 ASSIGNMENT
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
These questions are straight forward. Plug in the numbers and get your answer. Being able to solve this type of question ensures you of at least a grade of 25% on a quiz or final exam containing questions related to this lecture. These questions require a few manipulations of equations or numbers before the answer can be obtained. Being able to solve this type of question ensures you of at least a grade of 50% on a quiz or final exam containing questions related to this lecture. These question are quite involved and requires a thorough understanding of the topic material. Being able to solve this type of question ensures you of at least a grade of 75% on a quiz or final exam containing questions related to this lecture. These questions are the most difficult and require a thorough understanding of the topic material and also pull in topics from other lectures and disciplines. Being able to solve this type of question ensures you an A grade on a quiz or final exam containing questions related to this lecture. 100 These form excellent review questions when preparing for the quiz and final exam.
50 100
25
50
75
100
75
25
75
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
SELL EVALUATION SCALE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
25
(1) A typical lightning flash delivers about 25 Coulombs of negative charge from clouds to ground. How many electrons are involved?
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
25
(2) How many electrons are needed to produce a charge of 1.0C?
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
25
(3) The electron and proton in a hydrogen atom are 52.9 pm apart. What is the magnitude of the electric force between them?
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
25
(4) Two protons are fired directly at each other in a vacuum chamber. What is the force of repulsion at the instant 1.1 X 1014 m apart?
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
25
(5) Two pointcharges of +0.50 mC are 0.10 m apart. Determine the electric force they each experience in air.
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
50
(6) Two charges, one twice as large as the other, are located 15 cm apart and experience a repulsive force of 95 N. What is the magnitude of the larger charge.
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
ans : 1.259 ´ 10 5 C
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
50
(7) How many excess electrons must be present on each of two small spheres spaced 15.0 cm apart if the spheres have equal charge and if the magnitude of the force of repulsion between them is 5.00 X 109 N?
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
ans : 698 ´ 10 6
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
50
(8) A proton is at the origin and an electron is at the point x = 0.41 nm, y = 0.36 nm. Find the electric force on the proton.
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
ˆ ˆ ans :  5.83 ´1010 x  5.114 ´10 10 y N
(
)
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
50
(9) Two tiny spheres carrying the same charge are 1.0 m apart in vacuum and experience an electrical repulsion of 1.0 N. What is their charge?
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
ans : 1.055 ´ 10 5 C
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
75
(10) A very small conducting sphere in air carries a charge of 5.0 picocoulombs and is 0.20 m from another such sphere carrying a charge Q. If each sphere experiences a mutual electrical repulsion of 2.0 mN, find Q.
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
ans : 1.78nC
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
75
(11) Two equally charged small spheres repel each other with an electric force of 1.0 N when 0.50 m apart, centertocenter, in air. What is the charge on each sphere.
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
ans : 5.27 ´ 10 6 C
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
75
(12) A 9.5 mC charge is at x = 16 cm, y = 5.0 cm, and a 3.2 mC charge is at x = 4.4 cm, y = 11 cm. Find the force on the negative charge.
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
ˆ ˆ ans : (14.24 x  7.36 y )N
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
100
(13) Earth caries a net charge of 4.3 X 105 C. The force due to this charge is the same as if it were concentrated at earth’s center. How much charge would you have to place on a 1.0 g mass in order for the electrical and gravitation forces on it to balance?
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
100
(14) Compute the gravitational attraction between two electrons separated by 1.0 mm in vacuum, and compare that with the electrical repulsion they experience.
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
100
(15) Two small spheres with the same mass m and charge q are suspended from massless strings of length l , as shown in the figure. Each string makes and angle q with the vertical. Show that the charge on each sphere is
q = ±2l sin (q ) mg tan (q )
k
l q q
l
m, q
m, q
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
25
(16) Three small negatively charged spheres in vacuum are fixed on a horizontal straight line, the x axis. One (12.5 mC) is at the origin, another (5.0 mC) is at x = 2.0 m, and the third (10.0 mC) is 1.0 m beyond that at 3.0 m. Compute the net electric force on the last sphere due to the other two.
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
50
(17) Two charges +q and q reside in vacuum on the y axis at location of 1/2 d and +1/2 d respectively. Determine the force on a third charge +Q located at a distance of +x from the origin on the x axis.
ans : Ftot =
qQd æ 2 d2 ö 4pe o ç x + ÷ ç 4 ÷ è ø
3 2
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
50
(18) The figure shows three tiny uniformly charged spheres. Determine the net force on the middle sphere due to the other two. Take q1 = +5 mC, q2 = 4.0 mC and q3 = +10.0 mC.
q1 2.0 cm
q2 6.0 cm
q3
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
ˆ ans : 350 Nx
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
50
(19) A 60 mC charge is at the origin, and a second charge in on the positive x axis at x = 75 cm. If a third charge placed at x = 50 cm experiences no net force, what is the second charge?
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
ans : 15mC
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
50
(20) A charge 3q is at the origin, and a charge 2q is on the positive x axis at x = a. Where would you place a third charge so it would experience no electric force.
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
ans : x = 5.45a
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
50
(21) In the figure take q1 = 68 mC, q2 = 34 mC, and q3 = 15 mC. Find the electric force on q3. Y (m) 4 3 2 1 q1 q2 1 2 3 4
ˆ ˆ ans : (1.642 x  1.474 y )N
q3
X (m)
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
75
(22) The figure depicts three small charged spheres at the vertices of a 345 right triangle. Calculate the force exerted on q3 by the other two charges. Take q1 = +50 mC, q2 = 80 mC and q3 = +10 mC. Express the ˆ ˆ forces using the (x, y ) unit vectors. Y q3 40 cm 30 cm q2 q1 50 cm
ˆ ˆ ans : (65.49 x + 12.99 y )N
X
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
75
(23) Two point charges are located on the y axis as follows: Charge q1 = +3.80 nC is at y = 0.600 m, and charge q2 = 2.50 nC is at the origin (y = 0). What is the total force (magnitude and direction) exerted by these two charges on a third point charge q3 = +5.00 nC located at y = 0.400 m?
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
ˆ ans : 531´10 9 Ny
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
75
(24) You have two charges +4q and one charge q. (a) How would you place them along a line so there’s no net force on any of the three? (b) Is this equilibrium stable or unstable?
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
75
(25) Two point charges are placed on the x axis as follows: Charge q1 = +3.00 nC is located at x = 0.400 m, and charge q2 = +5.00 nC is at x = 0.200 m. What are the magnitude and direction of the total force exerted by these two charges on a negative point charge q3 = 8.00 nC at the origin?
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
ˆ ans : 7.64 ´ 10 6 N [ x ]
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
75
(26) Four identical charges q form a square of side a. Find the magnitude of the electric force on any of the charges.
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
1ö q2 æ 2+ ÷ ans : 2 ç 4pe o a è 2ø
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
75
(27) Three identical charges +q and a fourth charge q form a square of side a. (a) Find the magnitude of the electric force on a charge Q placed at the center of the square. (b) Describe the direction of this force.
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
100
(28) Two identical small metal spheres initially carry charges q1 and q2, respectively. When they’re 1.0 m apart they experience a 2.5 N attractive force. Then they’re brought together so charge moves from one to the other until they have the same net charge. They’re again placed 1.0 m apart, and now they repel with a 2.5 N force. What were the original values of q1 and q2?
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
100
(29) A shown in the figure a positive charge +Q is located at the origin and an array of equally spaced negative charges (q) are placed along the x axis. Obtain a compact expression for the total force on the charge +Q due to all the other charges when: (a) N = 1, (b) N = 2, (c) N = 10, (d) N = 100, (e) N = 1000, (f) N = infinity. You may find it instructive to plot total force versus charge number N. q a a q a X
+Q a
q a
q a
q
q a
q
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
100
(30) A shown in the figure a positive charge +Q is located at the origin and an array of equally spaced alternating sigh charges (±q) are placed along the x axis. Obtain a compact expression for the total force on the charge +Q due to all the other charges when: (a) N = 1, (b) N = 2, (c) N = 10, (d) N = 100, (e) N = 1000, (f) N = infinity. You may find it instructive to plot total force versus charge number N. +q a a q a X
+Q a
q a
+q a
q
q a
+q
Lecture 1
ASSIGNMENT
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
(0) Textbook: U. S. Inan, A. S. Inan “Engineering Electromagnetics” (1) J.D. Kraus, K. R. Carver “Electromagnetics” 2nd (2) Reitz, Milford, Christy “Foundations of Electromagnetic theory” 4th (3) M. Plonus “Applied Electromagnetics” (4) R. P. Winch “Electricity and Magnetism” (5) P. Lorrain, D. Corson “Electromagnetic fields and Waves” 2nd (6) Duckworth “Electricity and Magnetism” (7) J.D. Jackson “Classical Electrodynamics” 2nd (8) F. Ulaby, “Fundamentals of applied Electromagnetics”
(0) Inan p. 246  255
(1) Kraus p. 12  15 (2) Reitz p. 27  31 (3) Plonus p. 2  4 (4) Winch p. 258  266 (5) Lorrain p. 40  42 (6) Duckworth p. 5  8 (7) Jackson p. 27  28 (8) Ulaby p. 7, 143  144
Lecture 1
REFERENCES
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
v F1
q1
r
q1
v F2
v F35
q1 v
r
q2
q4 q5
v F25 v F45
F1 v F2
v q1q2 ˆ F =k 2 r r
q2
q2
v F25 v F 15
v F35
v F 15
v Fnet
v F45
q3
v v v v v Fnet = F15 + F25 + F35 + F45
Lecture 1
SUMMARY
SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE
Lecture 1
END
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