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Cambridge FCE Scills Grammar and Usage Sb

Cambridge FCE Scills Grammar and Usage Sb

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CAMBIRIDGE IFIRST 'C.

ERTIFICATE Grarnrnar and Usage

I NEW EDITION I B,ob Qlbee

Map of the book av

Ackllowledg~DiI1(:lTrrS VI

Intreductiun 1

f'cnwfir;huioll unilr J

1 TIM:: present 7

2 Medals 1 '1 s

:3 Adi(;ctivtiS and adverbs 1:5

4 The Pi!!iSI[' 3;]

5 Artie les and determiners 4 A

6 Dependent preposit iOI, s 50

7 'rhe }U~~~I~t perfect simple and conrtulllJ,OllJiS tenses 58

S Relarive clauses 68

}I Verb ami 0 biect pa rterns 75

]0 COI.1lp.lnu:i.ve:li and superlatives 32

11 The !lItlllit g 51 ,

tz P!I'epositUQI'Hi 98

13 Modal:;; 2. 106

14 nit passive .~ 11 t

[.5 Word fonJ11at LOlli 1119

16 Conditional sentences 126

1 i Verb a[uJ saarcncepartcrns n J.J

13 Review II rti ~ ]41

Who is this book.for7

This bonk provides gremm9f and US<ll.g.e pl'act~oe :for S[II..I.Gte'Jlts, p:repllidflg fco['[il~lper .3 of the 'Cill.l.lilJbrg~c FelE exam .. It C.!jlj~l also, hQ~¥el,i'er. be used as ,~gej1er.aJ] gl1U'UilJfliLaJf and llsag~ workbook {lo[' students 3,ttilis level, [t al:m!!, to combine bothge:l1er.~] corn.ml.1JflkaJlt:iv~ gra.mfMIt work with exam tf,~II]II~g, to :sel'Ve :S:l!udell:~$ as a v.~~~lable gra'rliIllIl~tI:· reference resource 1ilii1.d" thm~Jgh i:ES task-based appl:'om::h, to ]mpmve students' gil'l:UUlllaJf ~eam:il1g 8llfOlte,gies,

How is the book ,organised?'

Tlte book is o,rganis~(1 inre ~ighiilee:D1J. llU]~ES",Each unit focll!ses on a. p;au:uculal' gra[J~mnar ~:rea 'duu i~ 1i k,d}'~o be: [,e.sood in IPI!l.p~r 3 of the FeE e'X'am.

IH·· " '.. . : Ir' I --"'t'. ,--- anised? ow liS eaG~!1 UAiI! 01"'9------- __ ,_

Each ll)nit is d.i'l'i,Jeilill1~o, £-our sections, 11,'13: uair stafU\lI.·i'l;h <Ii Lea,cll-3In ~ec'ttii\)nwh±c:h ineeoduces the l .. ngu;agf;l area 00 !be loeked at and ,gel's !Olt:ilIdenrs :p.['ob]em-soj'i'i]"l_g tasks d~!:'oli.!tgl1 \vbich I;h~y ,('=.a!FII hegin r.o i1xploliOO some OF d"l~ grOll"lllfllii:l!r ,<m,dn~ge issues,

This is, tl'J..fj:]] foUow·ed by an irJire!:,3~ti!,l'e !lekiieil1.c.csoc[i.og~ wh:ich. ~i! W~I.I<'iS, bigM.igbtill1g~he !k;ey gIOI.ni(]iJotIt poi:rn:~s .8ifILei i.'isas.e conerases, ['~q'iLiI.iIfCS sh.J:d~lits t;O {iJI .i:lll. t.able.$:tI1I1.d1 g;ri.ds, cO]"l.lplere !;;lil$ 0'£ eX;;lLmlP:.~~ and c/O aJ variety oJ e'X!s;rcise$ SOlnat th~li' beoolllel!f]'!l{l:~vedun t~.£' COlmpi'~ing ().:fth~ir O'WI:'ri reference resource.

The third sectiea is for Coml'llll~Il~C"ll:i,ve rlu:aiC'tice., ShldeBt!!; are !.::iIilcot'irag.ed to use rhe language which has been i.1fI,tll·Qd~]o~d IDll the t\;VO p:re"!!'iom; sections ~hrollgb a wide ",ad,cry of lively !lind e~gi!;lg task fra f]i(.C"I"'Qfk~ .. The tm:slbs i~vo~vec(m.'tJelr!:Ii·!!; which em:ol!ll,r~ge stndcnrs eo c:llg.uge mere pe!:'so:ll!jljHy~7I!'ilh l'h,¢ ~ ~rritl;Jlilige. ib:y t3Iki:rra:g,albnuii' experiences and Sh~lfi:il1l:g Opi:l1i.OflS. deductioas and. wh1;)'I: they kD1\Qw' of rhe world with ether smdents,

The unitends wj~h the. Exa:m f,OC!JlI$ $~,ctti.on, In each ullit oae orewe types o~ e:;;~u.l1l question from :r~p-er .3 are looked ~n, The W<liY~ i:r:r. .",hic;n The Ia.ngu~ge can he tested by each

questten type sre presented ,i!rlci students sre given l1i$e~lIl'~ exam rips O!i11 Im.ow ro tackle

~ad1 queseea, The b~l'n focus q~le~tu(llD'l;~ can be dOIil.e bli class orse home and all the

Exam focus seceioes r,!like:nttQgleuher I?m!.l'ide~ho.rongh ,~xa]1ii lr;.raJ~ilij]g~ol:' rhe U:!l.!1l oJ Bbglis:.h Sll:ctio,m. o£ the Ca,lubddge Fj~st CeJ't'if:iJc~te exa,mi:luuioQi~"

IHlow slhouldllllhe ImailB:riall be, used?'

The ceurse caJi] ~hh,~r be used ibll strict tllrir $~qti.~.~le~ 0.[ in .t'IJ diff-a,re.rm.t Ol.'deE to coil1cidewith a iLfl<ll.th~es maln OOl11:'Se pi'Lo['~fies and aime,

Ea,dl. unit I?ml,!'~des ;ap,IlIl'GxilrrUlleiy lwom.,OI,l:rs' elasswerk, There is seepe for f1.exihiUty ln Ir;il:u~ngs as ce;ruin tasks intb€ R.e'fc:re'rric~ sections and tasks in the Exam focus seenens Can be see for nomewlJll'i:;, The Tca,chel"s Book a 15.0 gives :sevenlillsdlli~. ideas :FQ[' fo.l~o\".....Uip tasks ro ma ill easks,

~I

nbatspeeiial':ealg'Ets· !Plrelhe,el

.. The. Ib;()ol< begiR~ with ;a. !Foumd3[liQ:n !lluwlt 'Wh~,c~ e]ILOOll[~;g;essrlll.cleflt$ eo dl:ink a,bo'Y;~ dldr 0\N'1'I gr~ml'na!:' JeO!r.niri;g p.r.io.r,il.',i~~i)!s they ,approach l'lfi,fl ~::l:a,if:I, and raises .sOJJ1l,c,key issues abQiI!.U lear!'!]!)!!! g!!:3.ml1Iil;~[" a:D'l:d k~!lipi t1g gr;]KI]jJjlirIlOt!!is.

.. Ettd.1l r~llif IJcgi.1I!is wilr.h :1!1 SiU!mm~~ which nighUg[1tsEhe g:!'atTI!1mu [poi'l!lu .u!JJd >e..x;;Inrn ql.!te.s~l)(lns eo Ill': cevered,

,I· The bQolk:inch:n;i.es !lWlI1Iil.ei[oU:sIl3;X3,l[lll Ti.p$.wh~,ch :iifi.di.caro to s!r.u:de!lt's ~ow best eo tackle the diHere'.-lWtlypes of exam. ql.J:~.stiJol:'i .•

'. The bootie !:;ul1Ir.ai]l!J;s o,!,,~:F. w.rt}' s'r.i:iJ!lfIllilat.ing COmmIiJEtiC3it~ve' prnct~oc activities 1!10 ",rumat·e th~ gl'a:m:mar le .... r[I~.l1Ig experlenee i:1!l1 th~ claSS[f!iOi.m.

i' The book 1iJcSCS lit gmea:t' dea i o~ 3urhellJtk ~na:te!:'i~] ~o ·that stIi,lJd]ent'S canlearn gF~mrtl!aJ!' throlighgeflli.iJi:rle· W.iWre:;:,t;S,

'.. The Tga((IlJe',f'S Dool p.I'O'\lidell, Ilml;lS ontyp~.c..a[ stl.1d.e:rI!f problems. wid1 each ]3I1,gll.aJg:e area covered, praclliiC'all s~gg~~'lt.iClns Oil! how D€$t to iftxpJ!oitdJe· Il!ilaJir.e:r.i<1:I. a no ;g~i.deljnes on "tliHUI1:g.

• The :ooo[k ~.i['i:ii!ilfi.cs W":i~l\t a Reriew Uil~t: wllkh IPfoil,ddes. ,Ill fh(ii!'o~gll\t tcvi:s;io'D1I! S~ssi(lill! Q!:J! each

,of rllte ma iDil. ~iJ:(;s:t~Qi:1 Ir'ypes in Pilpii::r :3. '.

Each lwn~tiJIIi ~lIIi's ffi)I)O't i!)~i:liIs with .3, Le3.d~~tl section wbiich wiU e:!lJOOl!!!l'ag;e yO'UI to ,e,xprnQIrC'

""b ... "!: y(l~. aik.eady [kIi!JI)W abl)~U the ~marmm3jf ~~ be covered in .~ 'lW!:t. -

:rttO'-ad ~:h~ qUJcstwoms beillow Mid cheese Jlr:he ~!'.lswe": ~lfIal~ :m3iI(;IlI.mol;·~ d05C~y Y~IJI" ~~~lill1gll <libOiUIt: le3ii'il~ilg gfam:rm;lU". Them. pllio~ },!OIl!!I M1swen o~ tlibe grap.h by dlr.a.will1jg; ,ill. cioo~i!l: ;arQuilJicl the ]e~l~w o:f yM!i'ams~e:rs 3m,d, ~;oiiJ1~lnJ,g d:ruem ~o,g~d'ler ·\l!'i~h3. ~ine .•

1 C.r,1nUmar]s

A aeeessary bl!,u bowitlg, B chalJengLlI!,g and {~n:

LE'AD .. lIINI

.2. Maldng gwa.mmrnf mistakes

A is the wotrS'[EMug a lea rnee can do, Ill. calli oftoell~elp you ro ]e!llr.n 5,oll'lJe:[hillg,

3, .le.am:ingm use g;riUnm<lifCOnccdy means

.A dOit.l@·,grs.mmal -:x:erclSes,"

B $P~aJlI:.lI'iI;g:a1b1Ji1 wnnng,

4 The ~QresyQllI make on gr,s!lllDma.r

A carl never be as good ;;:'1.1$ .0'1 [,dc~el:'lc~ book BrnLayl1J1a.ke rules and eXilI.mpl.e;'l, meee meraorable,

,5 The~~l w.<!J}' to, l.ea.mgr,aimliD<lr ]$

A to' I~!lu'!r!i !Jfil!,lles by heart.

Bto see g!!'al]il!flI];!1I!i' w'Q:l:'ki:~ i:11i re-alll~iLI!!lig.e s~tD1ii!1t',iO:l1is;

6 GliatnlTh!1ir ls

Aoo~d! aad :mathe:llla:t:iJc,<lIl. B war,1'I1iI and h~1.'':!M.n.

NolVI~ drr<.Jw t~~ si]tapf: of rlIDis: Umeli)'CifWeelD! ~i!ItJl~ 'x' .and !y' ~t1.t&~ 1f'al1Ol':,

WhaJ!: dees tlruis teJll yC'!i, iiiibo,wtyOillllr feelingS! :aJboru,t ~mml!li!:'~ :If rO!!l:!:' a[lswenw~lt~ ;;1iU A, OIl:' Ii 'm~~tllllJ:'§l: (I~A a:.!J!d. )B" .. im,~giflewhat y.!I)jjrn; f\lcmJlfe w0:UI]d look lik~ if they we:!:'~al B.

C!l)H1pi3Jr~ }'O!il:r pi01iUti'C wjlth thai .of. alilJo~her' :sU!d~m, Dws(:Ys$ ~h:~ s~tt1i]<1!ririle:s Q:lild differeuees befweem dIem.

fA A
A A
.A A-
S B
e Ie
[9, 8,
i 2 ,3 4 :S
QtI'1.!'~ai!.lJ.l:ll ,g, 0),

REFERENCE

The Ilhi"CIi''I;l!lcc' soo'!:iQ:m!l in dl~s !boot wiU gi.ve you eeaeise ,exP~:il!HJ~ltiolftLcS ;amillll '~ots 'Ilf Kl{3:m;p,I~l5 0'£ specific. :EW~ml]lla!l' [[t!oiEiu;.¥oiIJj WiiU ailg,o,s;[ oelrt:iiillll]Y., however, WaHl! III)' kG~p '~'O'ulr ,Ow!!l !j1;J:amm;ll!J: :!:iI!ot~boo[k as: yo.u work iO'Wa.r~sib.c: '~:ii:m,.

B,~I,(Yw ~r'C <tXtucts takeD !Ern:m rn,!l'iO S'tlU,dlem~$~ grn!l1lrnJ3!f notebeeks. for each oJ' the g~mmar po:i:n:ts" dJecidc wlfiilidlliUil)l,cl!em~: yO'u dllllllk ]I,as I'I1Ila.d!e !l:lfle ilP.euciF' notes a!Ild ~himkalbo!i!~ whiy, D~SCUiSS ~l\Cillr answers wid~ ~:I1I:Q~!h;~r nud>e~mI,t,

CO'MMUNII:CATIVE PriRAC1iICE

TlliI.11: Co!ntltmlnni:C'ati'l'i~ ,:r.ac~~oe 8~(~'iOin.sim. ~hi:s: b>llok w~Ll LHi'\iiQlvc y.ou ~!:l ,oonIDp~edlllg 011',(11)1' tlitrec t;'l~ks 'widfl otlrm:r stl:lde'c!rut~" In d(l{ill1,g these tasks 'you wi:im hnve ~tl O~iP'O"u!f:l.iity 1'(1 plfa~ti:5le tlil.e lamguage .I,o(lbd lIirilf1l eaelier ,soori,!I)t:I!!,illl ~~m:m,'Uln~c3mi""e :s~tIlI:3~:io:tru!'i,

1 Grall1i1llRar activiit'ieis ,and 908118

As a, st~def]t who is keen ~;@ [learn gmmMliI1I' 311JdI as OiRe ~o is a:ppl!"Q!ildi'irung; the ~Ir$t Cen'ificaif~ exam. cheese .fro!m. tffiilQ: [1>5:1 heliQiw itbe fii ... emos~: ~mponalvllt d'l~ngs fg:r y'(lIJ.

W R~!I'ising gr.,unliflar .fVJles: and loaking ~t: exarneles.

Z S.ecing ho:w g!"~!mmaE works in real eexrs and oontmtts, J Tip's On hew t-o ]earl'l gl':amflU'I1:' f:romref.e:re~' books,

<I Leafni:D'iIg how spec.ific grnnlil.'IlJ!!i:i poinrsare reseed ·ill ~!he: Fil!i'sv (~enifk'al;!I;' exam" 5 Com.rnnl:lk~tin:g i1l! spt!!lilirtlg and ,,,,dling, t~s~ng the !era mt..1]"!J1I!f yol,ll bave [eamt, 6 Gel:1ill(g specific: eips On hew ro '~ilJcikle grn.nun~r qlUle'S'tiIOIlS in Ila.p~r 3.

} DlOiwg gr.l'lnnrl3l:' pr1llcl!':i(le e:x:~rdse$"

8 lP:racEisi:lligllxa.m.-type que-SJtio:l1J$.

9 C~.ecki:lfIg how HI~jC!~, gll'am·mal'YOLu ~~,reilldy'k[la::w.

10 T!li1k~llg ~bO:l,llt y'Oll[se~f~ othe:!" peopl~ "g:J)rj d'lG wo'rld arousd us iil't &gQish.

N'il:!lIlI' dlitlik 3ibOI!JrE y~ll!l' dD!O~~.Do, dl!q t\ilil. ~l!I il!Uli)i'!lhLIl(g ~:bo!i!'~ yO'lIIr :s;rr:engtliJ$ aJllJid weaik'Jrue515li,1:si!Jii! a, teamer of Erntilisb? IDislCiU$S yO:jjjil' ohok~-s w~d}. a:!l!(liil-ru~r· is;tl1d!~rll~· to see iif }"Ol!] ,~s:ref.

,2 US'ill!lgl ihiis book

As yoU! W(I!il ililtO'llgill, dille ~.l1Iiirsiln! drni.ti: !book, yOll~IJ be do~rrug ;SJUthe: 'ilidtrlgs In!mtlOlTlJiidi wn

Task L wok b::ackaii: dwe t-@._I'l! lliP~ ~f a,c~i'l'jlrl!' il1l T;'I~k 1..W~~ih aI!:IO'tbe!l' !itmllcllem~~tfY ~nd work QUi~' will~ch tl'p~$oi 3!CI;i.v~t,. },QI!I.'H be ,d01lilg .il~l ~3!clru s~'Ct:i()i!]J (ilead,=irru" Re'J~JieJ]joe, eOlilllil'll,!lilli(:ali,,"1.'l pmcti.~ ~:H!d ]Exa1iIlioct:ls). YO'LIi lrurUgh~ ~ib m moolc3J!: UnliJl: J. ~5 a ~a'mpl,~

ulnit., You mary WlIiflilt to iP'1ill{ dle Siilime 3:ctilv~(}' iiliU)O moeetban {!oil,'!: section,

le'ad-i!!1l~ " ",,,_j_ ,,,,",,,""'

Reference, CQIhmUlli'iicati:!.I'e p!'"<lctice:

E:-~aJ~iIitl fOCIllJl:

Y Q'lJI sh>iJurnd now ha¥e 31[1 :id!!l:a o~ ~j'l.etwlbe' book '\!'O~k:S1 ;@nd how be~l:lo litI~ke :i~ work .ioi!:' 'yo!U,

l'li!ilts; ~iul!I. o~eacll ![l1l[i;m: foCU!le.sOl!1 ~wthe l~fl,gg,1!ige area p[~s~n~ ~,n ~Ili~ !l,!l:l'Iijt is Iiik~]y to be 'iitl:Sted il1l du~ ,~;jJ[DIiL In cacih secrio~,.(ll!lJe, or. ~wo CX3!1l\l;;!ty!pe "iIlilest~OR~ wjn be ioobd a~: 3lnJd lIIse[ll!l] tip:!i li'l'i~11I >®I1iII how ~OApiP"O~Qh the (ijJUe~:\lfjO:_IDi •.

Ques'~ontypes

The :fiy·e £omLow~Hig tfp;es of qUle:Urnollfl Q1OC11I.f ~nlJla:per :3 of tthe FiFSt CeJ:'tru€i;c3~e ~x3Jm. Leek .am ea,Cffit ~:yp.e of 'II~CS[tOfi tliflld. dwsclls:swiitih <lJnmher' stJ!l!dent ·exacdy wllil.aJt )~t:I b3Jj,i(i to do ~.!I! ·ea,e1li1 OiHie. ·Woii:ki.wg w~tWi. Y·Olilf p:l'lr~'D1I~r, wwtc in5i(1riU!CI~Oi1:5 mOl: each '(We o.f ,qti,GS;j:jOIIil ~IlIAI dl!.~f'l c:O'rnlP.I~~~ t!h~ to'isilk'll;.

Part 1: M:~ldl?l.c9::~oi.ced'QZ.le· (b<ils~d 0I1ii ~texrt:)

H€I'nl;:ierl Fr~in, w@s m .. I~~. at the ILJl1iversuty o.f Nonilnglilam" He mowdilO' lthe United States iill 'Ul50 ;[I1iIc! t'l~ ... _ ....... - .... - .. -- up 31 POSt at West·gl:)r~:e College If! 8altiillnon~_

~ A llearnt 8. educated C ie,r:1!Ulffldi ID pa~$e;oI

2' A got 8· went C tQd.k· ID lootedl

[P~.i:'t· 1:: 0iPGN. doze l[b<l~iJI O!J! a t'ex't)

Th~ IfI umber of people who 'Wanted tojo:in U'I,e navy \iVllI$ 'IfflriY high, outtthe ou moor applying l~ join~~, airfOite wa~ (1) .. __ .. ~." ... higher. ~t is. diUiwlr[~O say e'.:o:;Cctlv why this was the case !bUll OI1B re.aS<l1'l! ~21 ...... __ .. _ ... -·.·-· halVe beerl tMt conscripts. W'ers tlhil'llc;ingl of career oppg,r~unitj~s afl!ef SelfVi:OGi ..

[)~ 1:'~·3·~ KeY·\l,ford ·t1'8 [!!~ro!;,ln<ll~iol~

] llua'l'tnh heOlI.a from DilY sister i:n ages,

It has ~."'~""~f~~.J heard fll'O~l !TIY S~S[~'l:'" slaee 2: Themeeeiagtook plaice ilm. Fr:aJr:u:e last we~l,(.

Th~~£eir.i['ig .. __ .. __ .. __ . __ ..... ",,,,,,," Fr~iIlce last ~~I,;:.. lfiJ~ld!

fan 4~ Br:rQf correceioa (based Oil 3. rexI')

-1 Mly fi~st day alt my new college in t:!l'!gla I'lId was a little 1jri rigrl"

2,:!!''!d frusu.athng! both .. I arrived! e~rly b€c:~u$~' w~ had to' go ~ 3: 31nd g9t oor HmetabJes and sort OItJ'I: '~hiflgs such I ike ~egistr\al~iOIfi

4. for e;,.;;~jra English classes. (l1'll~ i~ilflil1glthe lilbl'ary.

[[i'ii.rt 5 ~ WOl'd fO:D'DfilatiQ'fi ~ ba~ed 011 .tlI ~ei<:~)

We have. always tbeellil p<irrtiollll1'lInly {1} .-- .. p-~ ..... of the ,Qomrmitmem we slt'1Qw ~ur CIJL$1Om~.rs ~ndl the {2} ...... ""." .. , __ ,,~hery give IillS il'illret!.lFllil,

!!,OYAI..

1 The 1rC'.'<[ ibclowis aibowl tl1,e :imcreas'flg iI1Itlmber' of' ,e~pLe ~1hart are lbeoomJi'mlg;vC~~lQ:ri<lJn$,.

B efere yO/1m r,tl1ad it ,alrl$wi$r~hese qJuesti.olDls.

- Aretle'~ any vegtt\1,fkl!~l~ ~1lli'OUl!!, OOI!1:!T!UY?

- Are more peop]e in !i~ou:rOOIi.l'ntI1' bocomi:D'lg vegenu;i<iln~?

ni;~~l1!$$ d1esc(jue$!tWJlI$ with aIfIDOlfh~[ smdeat,

WhatalFC: tffiteMO matllliki filds of [Casons ~Oli" pcofile bcmg (!I:I:'beC0i!11~f1g ... eg.ert~rian~ :in rQI!I:m: 'OOI]f.i~:ry? 'Ob,oOi$c~m, this ]ist. Them, compare ')!'m.I!f ,3i1l1.s:wers wt~b aootllteir siI;!.!!dernc.

eeoaomle mOlall l:'eljgi,Q't:!s l?oJ~tilci!li]

:he1llh~l Wf~ght !'lO'Jlie ofthese

.2 Read ~hie i~ext: \1,n:dth.eqil!l.estto!]lS albllJ~ntbe DU~.J~~dJ eX4!mpill~~., Ch:Q~ ~h:(;: rrngh:t i1IlfISwen:.

IHealthy e,ating forve'getarians

lQ~aIy mO!Ie m, mGOO p€Oi:P']e (I) ,atffl ~ieMm:iJlg oom>Ce'moo, ;ibmdmru -t ~neml :fiiness, and. life&1yl~'~II(2) ire

hilm:irlp'" a""""'''', '~''''11';> ~ .. "'., -~ ..... .,..., "'.;;i""'IjI."". '.'" , -.,.. --"''''l .!!!! ........ ""£'!!III, a.IW, ""''' ""~'_''CI ''''

I)oo:k :f.Or ~ea]thyi3!it~ma:!ID'I!'eS" For soone, be:oo.rruiqg ill vep)e!flr.iatli\ has fW'vidied o:m <lnswtr" V~aib1es, fruit arn,d_ :puih)le$a!fe hIMID!:l1y ECiOO$wbkh can be made ii!lito hudreds of tasty ~j :~.y ~ ($)~¥It J{Q1!t pl~[!!!:y ,or '~l-'!l'gy andlliHali:~kI .ktep

• li'ffi!I. ~ ~u,g~t lh.e d~'.

II rOiL! (4) af.e ~~iiil1ting 00 ~~km.g 'lhil': p.h,1rnge:.l!hJ~ll you might be iIilt:eI>~~d1 .in. B! ulSeful Eea:letprodJu:ooo by (la~d!l..e]o~

ff_ml~fty El'JiI'ng .fot Vtgdil'fiIlill5,. wirrlch g1'!1eS prameaE h!iinils omrjj lips Q!il boo(1!OO_ID,g 11 '\f€!g.~ta_[i.;lJl" '[FQrh1I1!!l!l:ely. '~is 1~5) dOe<sG/lt ifiie,m, .hows ,0£ SLfivmg IiIiL me' Idtcl\en .. itOl lots of mmu pl~~. ThJ! hvo <b:!lidol!J$: g<!:d!ooolo~'" '{oj ~<lI_kII':: ~ ~ l@1lim:irJru!tes 1:0 prepare.. Batdtei.oES (1) p,rudutle lots, m mfll~nje['d .aiI!a$ty ~oeds" ~Ol' thosew~lo (S,)I don!t 'tat m~t - jiust look ,~utfOr '!he 'If ~¥HlI~l em p<i~ ~¥hl.c-h. m.earu; ~'w, been appro,wed 'bylhoe Veg,e'l';1iJian Soci~ty . i!llciuilo(!'s (9) ilR' ,aDS(b' offetimiS ifO:F iliis, mQ'.l1lh oFily, ~.o peI OOi!lit ,off <dl v,egei:arilln prod~dii;"

1 11'1 lExampi~s 1 aDlld 2 the presene cO'JiUiflluI)UiS['CI:'IS'C is used because tffil.e wE:~m[' is t,t!lrk~ng about'

A :a pernrutl:ltiiClll!i.t si:~l1a;tdon"

B :3. C'.q~:!]~i!1l,g I cleve] opjn,g :s.irrl.:l3~ion,

2 lftlEx!llltple:il 3~ J and 6 f'he pr~L'::~['Siim.pLeten~ is il!D;sed bec-allls:et'h..£: wljre:r is tai]l;dng 1IbO'IiJtI'

A. gtil1er.;i~ tmt.!ns.

B :;>omedtil'lg: dl.a~ h.aplPems eV{!:fY daJl'.

3 mmll h:amp:~e 4, ,the present COll'li.IJJUULill.S tense ,is, usedbecause '[he wrirer is, it'alk~lng ilbc1Jj.'~ A ... ~pearedQ:! llabit1Lld ac~i'QIl.

B 50!ilL'il'cf.hin;g hap;PoCi!!I il!llg ,~:!()iU!nd iCh~ dn'fi~ (ii·f wr.iti!l{l<

4 Emil .E:,;; .. mllpl~ 7 [be' l,')iI'esem: sciml,')~e Ii;;e"!l!se :us used [because the wriseris rn~:kil1ig abeut AOI permanent s~tmqatuO'.ffit,

B <I developi:n:g, siruarien.

C ij] OC:FttlIHl[:i!lry' siruanon,

S [11 Example :B rhe prese~'i: si:mple tense is U;SlOO boc:.aU:5~: tl'n.e wr.iter i;~ l!;aJlk~ng abO!lIJl A a t~mpo.r.tl.iI'y si!;Uat~ofl"

B .;)1 [\epe1i~e(l or 1:13 binral action,

06: In :E:!!::a uirD.ple 91h-e lPillUs~nJtt ((J\l1itill1iU!C!llS tense i;s.l[Q,~edl becaru$e t~(;; w:drer is taUdng abotlt A 3. pel'ma!lt£'Iti[ Siil:U3,tioll. ..

B ;)! 'tel'l1lpoJaIL'Y s:itIiJ1ltiol1l.

,e a odl':vclopling siwani(m.

IPtHtllU $impl~ A/fimJti!illc

1.lm'll',e, S,bil ]i,wts. eec,

QJlg~tio.H

!D.>Q l/''O:!,rJ.li,,'t'.?

N~gm~fle

[ d()OQ.Q~ (don't) ]ive~ :she dees fl;or (doesrI't), li!fc,. ere,

Sb'01't IlU:ltlWers

y~s, [ do. No.1 1 don>!.

·Aff'i'l1n4tive.

J ana f~·m)h.\I'i:nJ&, etc.

N~gaU!lfl

[ am ~.o.t {l·mn.ot} ]ivjn,g'~ ete,

QIle'stiM

Ar~: you ]lvil,g~

5hZYr& amW:eT;5

Ye.s,. I am. No, rro nar,

*-"""---

OItT' meeliH'gS don/I H'9lt(llly skirt Jmtit abotll4.U.

I

I T~ t8'lk ~bolll:~ ~cti~I'!S wn:kh ili~t in p.i"og~~ss, :lIt er 3.OO'!lU'Id the hrn,}e of speQ!klliillS.

I lwk! Tift .m~w:l#g ;$' .$taYJ.ittg, We'd lumr go it.~.

To uUi:: abou,t :sifUUio:ns wIdell are :I,'!efmaneot or last fur a leung. period of tilnUl.

'Wbftrti M you itiOdti"

'.IfQ6r1i: fot S«tI~" !1 firm. th.u makes m:e,dw,nl'cal toys.'

To tslk 3.00111.[ ,gent'!~a] tnu:iI:s I facrs l sGiel'!riilU'G laws.

PI(lmsilo not gmw weil if thry Me kept in (he dark.

To t,alk ~Ib(ll1t ~jtJua.tjQI'Iil wbich ;m,'l' t'eInpora:ry. bue not I:lece.~;.s.u·.i!f bap:peniIllS ::!tth~ time of :spealo;h~g.

'Wh~~ tlit'e you W01'kin_g Oilt lJt ,the ,I.'J:Iument?·

• A reporl for my 60$$;, •

T (I talk aOOl~;t ShO!;,!riOM'rW.h.idll are ~m t'hn~ .~, of dlr\!'.~:h:!ipiilg o~ cbaqgirn,g. MiduU'1 is gmwil'jg $() quidlty ~. W'01i1't ;r€l.'1{)gni~e him tin· ntxt time )I'm!! see him.

.. I~k~. want, wisilil

'. agree. bdi.e'll'&, caJre~ koow, m~an. fClilllemmr., ~pporse,. 'U~i!'f!mnj.i • lOQk®reseltlbLe" seem

·'belmlg, cont;Jllrl'll" :n.ee[l" ,owe" own

'.hear'. ~Jl'e. sraell, taJSll';. "

W"iili:b theverw liteat'. ~ smell and MS,tE, ,cat'I IS: used togi,v,~ the idea of un a ctiQ"" f:tl p.r.T;~,

Can ,~ ;tMt~ '(I)e 8~l'it'c in the soup:? (Nbt1 Are yo.u~ll1.s:til1g " • n The wifuua:nMn Is ~o dirty 1 ca", 17(1,rdiy' see the road~

1 'Gi .... e aSbO([1 deil'llidol], of ~be w.ords: ~1Q'w, Il!iirnng ~",efb f:rit).m lhel~!lil: ahQ,'!'e.

EX3m:pl~: '.R.t!grc't.i:s the le.e!i:l'lgyof<1 h'al'lt! ~vhen J'O~ wi.sb tl,.,ings had happened diffe'l1r!ndy.

1 'P.rope:rr.y" is, so:mc;:thi:11i:.S , .. ", .. " , '"" , "_ __ __ , " " .. , '"" m, __ __ .. " __ "'"_""""." "_ .••••• , ••• , .. , ,'.n ••• , '"

:2 'Col'lltofl1l'tS' are th~[h]!1gs that, __ ... __ . . __ __ .. _ " .. "., , __ . , __ __ ... __ . __ __ .. "_ .... " ... , " __ . ,.." _". __ .. __ .. __ .. _.

3 <liard] o~ h~a.riililg· deserlbes s.o.lnoone ", "".,, .. , , " .. , " .. , , .. , ,'n •• .", __ , •••• " __ ._"., ••• , •••••• ".,'

4, • A debt' Will S'olnerh:ii:tg ., .'m."" _""_,, __ .. , __ .. , __ __ •• __ __ • ""., _", _". __ ... __ •• __ • _ ... __ " .... , .. ,,' __ •• __ •• ", ""., " __ ... _ ... • __ ...

5. j'.fl;@jY,olll:!"! is ",i.~;a~ S()ilT~.e:tthi,l1ig •• , " •• , ••..•• " •• ,' ••..••.••• , " ••. " •..••• , •• " •• ,' , ••• , ••• , "", __ ", •• " n _ ••• " ••••• , ••••••• , ••

'] <A. d:iff.ar>t:ilIoe of op~!"IiQn" is: will,e;n ~O' .-- .. --, .• _ . ., .. -- .. --"'". _,. ,,, .. -_. --., •••.•• ,,' •• " , .••...•• , , •• , •••..•• , ••• , _'" •• " •

. s, • A s,y'nO'Jli'l":!fI:l is, a ~rd . __ " ,.,,' .... , ••...• _ .... , .... ".", .. ,' " ..... , ... , ••.... _. ,,,.,'''' , . ., .•• _. . . __ ". "" ., ...... __ ... __ ... _ ...... __

Time word. and ph,_". 1 Th~ time wurd or phrase ina 5et!ttJ1Li!re is wry ~:Il. a due to vnl'tch tense to '1.1.00, The words and phrases in the box below are Iru~;Jrly a.lways Med witb m.e 1,n'e$etJl simple 'IlC!Il$e toml.k a,OOUI' (,:resent I!:im.e.

as aJ .ruJ~ ne-~[' usu.:ali1y

eam /ll!l(fly lim~ rt!vcr

1l0000000ily eaee <Ii (-w«k}

~enlllly tandy

bow often •. ,. ? ~dy

always mostd.1ys som~iwes

-'

-

The bus wuallY artitleS 41 ten PlUl- the hout.

OQt hrddl does "Qt,. a.s tr"tule. Cdtet for weddings.

:2 Whn. taJkillg aoout present tim.t. the fo1Lowing WfJrds and pfu.ases. usually indicate that rlte presellt Cl)ntinuo~ eense, I',a.tber than the ,resent simp'J~. should be used.

:at the hIlameJIt dl]Jis, ~.m.Qi!'tl.imlg)

cut.mlltly tOlhy

for die time being

atp1'~nt ~mpo.mi'i~:y

QKr ,Phone i.s~·'t working ,at; t:h~ mr;H:f'tnli. '.

~- ---.--------------~--~--~--------------~~

,2' '[]liiid:edi:1II:11i dlU"l 'li:..miG ,~xp~~;sjo:m ~n ea;eih (lIf d]e~e.ml:eo~-!, bemow an:d' dlCillIi ,om,.I~tI1l tiEtfln] b,y [pu,t/ti,ug ~!h:1li v~rb 'in hr.;"lcI:\:J~,t;s m~o the: ~O!i'"!1-eCtt:eIilSle'",

1 .beh tim~ I " ---- - .. -- .. her' t.o ~.Q QitlJ!:, she 'CQme~ upwidl SOMe clever cx,o-~~.

(<1s'k)

:2 M'f sister " ...... " •• "".---" ..... _---- $OJ'Ii'I1f !TI(l:Jte.y :3JSiiI ~jf,~g,l:.Ia!I'd :iU dlC Il'llOmenl!" ~:rJitil ske: SMF.iI::S

11Iilive.rsi.t:y" 1~(U\it'''l~

3; We d~d:n't 1tb~flk Tony would' ibe .bO.Me " , , iI'I,c __ , .. _., ,,,. ~Qday?

(woi.k ! [lot) -

4- . ., ." ~e a.lway~ -- , .. _.------", bill!Olempel" like' flh.at whe:n !ID_,e,!s I.osing a

g,,~c? Oio~e)

5 nlf: bank .. " ... "" ...... " ..... . .ilio.llmally .. " .... __ . __ ._, ... " .. , .... .. ,(lipan ehis late, hl1llt'we're:

'\'V'O['king dififu'f:ent ~Oijj~$ lI)l.p~o Qrl$tmtlis. (i!l1t1iy I 001;) -

6 We . __ .. ."._. "._", ...... """" .. ". f.(I[' [10'1';.' ,_ we've doe(jded we cau't a:tror,d irr.

(move' ! nor]

7 She "" "" --- better- t!Il;:IIne'\l~r: rhis sea;SQIIl. ~1;!.]11~

g ---- " ".-.-- -.fO'U e,"¥~r ." " .. .,,, ,, .. ,,, ••.• ii:ilythiIng oUir (!If the O[\d~mlry?

(do I nat)

ICOMMUN~CA:TtVE PRA.CTIC:E

Looik se ~iluJe ~.wo oo.lumfils of words bCI~V!~Ii::Ciii\ ~Ju,: pkJtl!!res. M~(:dli 3J word 00 tiJrue ~eff. to 0:llIe 0111. ~ihe liiigbt to mak·e ;!iII nCWIilIOIllJru .alm.d then. maseh ·tlliis phraseto oae of :r.be d!efLlI!l'Ii.oos bc~ow.

[parity sun rut:ne5S telly Irl~cik homo(; social

climber:!! fa:rliatics birds

gQe~s p.uilkJ~r:$ i:lIclcli.cts '\\ylJRhippe['!l

1 "_,a~, .. _" "_ .• __ .. __ .. __ .. __ .. _ .. __ .. __ .. __ .. __ aJ~'G peop.lewl:iogo out Ito p8i:r~ioes and .soc~11I1~;se :s .. let,

2, an: peop:le who W3Jlf to ]tnpl"Q'I!'e d:'!,eii: social position,

3 .. __ .. __ . . . __ .. __ .. __ .. __ .. _ _ .. __ ,. . __ are peop.~e , ... ho sp;fll'ildl aJ I.m or [:ume t8l:Il!i.tI!illlg rhemsefves .

.. " .. " .. " .. " " t'lire peop:~e who $pe!lld a lot of {:~&d[" fnetil:l1!e exercising,

S .. __ .. __ .. ,_", __ ., .. , .. ",_" .. " .. " " aire peop]e ", ... ho lol,'"C: toO U<'.i'l',tll. :Ii.!'J!d '~efl; 11m,;, places,

6 " " " .. " .. " .. " .. " "." are peeple who do !IltOt~l~il1g bur s;ilr andwatchtelevision,

7 , " , " .. " " " are peop]e who !lpe~tdlluo:S;1 ,of thei~' t~me at hilJ,Hlll;l ..

look ;:il[; dl.'~ ,i(~.iI!m:f\~ and, whm. al!li(li;1ihi~r' ;su1d~['; try aif:illd\1I'nr.k OU~ who is, filI3:rri~d. ~)O win.o;m, [.ook Eo:r two peopme who ,c'le.;J!_df have ;$QHlctih:img :ilDUJ roQ1_;_II!I_R:I1l!.

Exam:pl.e':

M 1 think tb~ maii'lwhQ i~we~:ri1ilg ff1e 1m' ,'Oat and w.bo looks ~ if he's 1~t1vi~' a t:tQ'ily

good til'l'u;; is prob,ably- '"l.arric(fr..o tb~ l)oo.':!'liijt ~vhri!J'!; bolcHI'll! (1 drink.

R' \'Vb,at ,do they .':JQ'!t!,i~~ 'O:J"':J1:!'(l~? t\~ ~y like: gioi;ng to fJ~rU'q~',

I!O; yea.r~,. #~e.'jt·r(!. probi4Uy the "p~r'y g,oer:s',

11

look a:i tbe:mNilp OIfi:bc wo~ld3n,d dil.c:pIICI~~" Wor:kililg w.i,tb~u~Jo~·h~f ~'Tt!l;Jtfl\!U. fimdi YOD'r 1111';)1 ali(Htl1ld min!!: wod.d as i~iIilkkll''' as YOn1l.c:1),n. E,x,l3iifll~bc '(:;Ui:>{nQil, cQ:JTIEleclecl wit'h :1Il!e pi.C-iIi:Ulre ~1fI (la.dh CO:liUJitrry dil3it)'IiYUJ pass tilll'o:q.1lt,

E;:.ramp!~: In C-m.ttula E'sk.rm'05 rub, nose« tl5 .(j lfreeti;~g (m:a' a $.Wj~·()f aflccti()J1.,

i EXAM TIP ~1 - --

I _ _ _~ _

Li!!1es afl]d ~e~t~ll,oa:

Rea.cl d:te 'wh,ole p3SS9i~~ :int'h-e' enol[ correctiontask in Pain 4 ~hr~~fint to :g.et rI'Il idea. wl'a!li~ llit is about .. 111~h~u::; task 'you bave re decide wherher each line is correct or COfirtil.if:iJ$1liTii. ilIrtlr.uecc\SS!l:ry word. You must; howl;¥er,. rMd each Hne as parrof the $enh!~,~ilt is in to docidewhethe:r an 'li.ilflnGOe$Slal"Y \,I()rd~aJ8 ibeen used. (!It noa,

Read the: ~~~t: be~ow .:1'1'1,(11, ~l)kCiil!refully ;~~ ea(Ji, ~i:Il~. SO:W1~ (iii the ,lru[jJe!li]"~eOrfeCt~ alltld ~ol11!e bill!'VlIl; a w'ol'd wlililch sbogildl ~O~ be rhe'"" If a rniJIDe lis: ,OO,rrGCI. Il'UiI: 3, ~ick byi~:,rn~' a millie ha:s ill wo:vd wlil~d!! isho'uld ~ot betlh.eiN'~ wri~e ~he WQ!:d at d:'l.'i~I!lJd. of ~:h:~ ~Ll1ie, Th'~ i!lili~ 1"'''0 e"a:l!Ilpw~ at ,the' 'be,~inWng (0 and I]{}),.

Mr,' hOomS! 'tO~IJi!

o My home <~OWlrn' is >81 smalll \i'i~I.a'ge in Hne south&rirn Alps O~ Franoe caned ./

00 M)QJiltp;:!S$e~ ln the past rn;ost p&Opl\Si welf,~'f,tllriTIe~5 but t.oOOf1{ p;eople' are eam ~,

~heir li\,liFii~ f~om 1.oulrismeJn.r!i srnsll businesses, Mofttpasse is being a lPieay :ill,own wi!h an cold t:astle, <!i'iId wOF'lder~1j1 views of ti1:e mounU,lirns" Th~ sun

3 S.!hines the' most d:a1ys, even in willle r Wh!!'~'rl the wI3'3Wl1lcr les ~erfe<ct It1t skJ.ing. 111 II i'sa glf,e~t, pl.a,oe to grow up a\S i81 ,cln il(!l, lhlt~~l$ are wonderful fieldls ()if com

5 w}~ere can childllen play ~md b~au~if,ll,!Illy cl~lr streams and Irivers jrtJs~ ol!JrI:$Jid1e 61itne tOWIFil where do you see' fish jumpingl out @f the WoE1:err. On .a hot summer's 7 day the cool wa~er- of 1lhOSofi :streams a FIId riv.ers is looking Ii ke all oasis. Mv

s: i<!"l()1[J r~te. oh;i~dl1ood rnernones ,arre' O'~ ,5!J10~ ahemoons with my frii;)\I1d\s. The

9' wlmJ9r SpOr1'5 are 'i-antastic '[100 andlal p:aiif of skis t:Si@1i VOi!J Inl9rve n~eclfO'f

lO bours oflun, I ha'I{Em"t b<eep back 11;) my villag,a ~Qr I1j while bl!,lt aliI have to

11 "11 do itS tllil"llk 001i hOm€: arId I d6al'mQ~t t1Jl~~e ~he he:;itli :ai~ andlf,ee~ the ge I'iItle wlind, TI 2 181m livilng in England ohe n nOlN OOCBI!JSe of my wCliMk, I W()uld love t!i:l go

13 home this :Sl.imme~ arK! 5lt)end IO'!i!g! !1ailVd!a,ys, IJY the riv,em. I hil'M'e not the'

"14 mon~y; ifsa questiolli off rndill1g~h€ lime W g~~ awaIt I am ::HiPPQS'e ~ all

U; miss the' plaoe we gr$W !Up inSlftd w~ all want~'O go b-ack Mme '~ime,

- EXAM TIP 2 ' .: " . , .. :-'

Do'n~c distnct me~

Inthe rn:!.I!['tipk-,C'.hQ~oe eloze eask ~n

P,<I~~t 1 only one O!IJ~ of fO'll.u :p'o$s~b]e answe'lS is eorreet; rhe oth.er rJiil.l)ee wJ:long answees are called 'dli:s~nlc[·Gln'. Whe;n yM, cOlmlil.p.lete r.~l,is, rask )"0Il need Ir,c}d:l~f'lk abM:[ i) wlu'lIt p!1iirS or speech llJ'tdd fi.t:iitl rh.e @;iiIIP and t~efii[) whieh :il1~ru'n;ju~",e fun, ill!l the OOllOO'X[ of rhe text. If you cD:lIs~der each po~illtl,le aJI'18W'e.[ fr:om beththese poilnit'S ofvi:~\iV" )'011] ars I~S:$ .llik.e~y reba disrraered and more I~,kcdy to pick t!he OOl'l'eGI ,~l:IliI!S!'\'iler.

0 A poitlt S' e>:;emise' C use' D praetiee
1 A liira1 nittc!l1'1 S tl1iDld C Ire main 0 ~ry
:2 A have B lI'iI'iIa~e; C succeed D do
:3 .A Clw.alre S reaLise C irldica~~ ID W()nder
4 A IiIqpes B INisl1!;es C sees D make'S
5 A lefl:s S' rnakes C caus>I1!S D i'o~oes
6 A hacV!<i B do c m.aIK-e D gell
f A havingl B tl"lil'l~illlgi C m.akJing 0 aniving
8 A mOOIrilS B tells C seems D prel'end~
9 A cOlfllpar€-;S It! is: C oontairlls; D Iiflf!lolves
"10 A ~ikilf19 B sayimg C toe~'iIl\9 D m~al'ilin,g 2 III u litiiple-Ciholi,cec.OZ81

../ Read, rrhe iIlexi: bcloOwa!l1d dlecldt!: wlil.1cb3.!!lSWe.l: J\" D~ C ,orD bt:,ufiitseiJ.dll, S:P30e, 'There ~s ~D ,eJ[3mrJCi3it ~he b~~g ,~O~I,

Ad"li1iiHiilfi;tIiiU:

P,ef(nap'~ tile most ,crij!<ltiv~ '~m ._ ... _.v§t_ ... _", of language ifill newsp.aper,s is in ~ihe ~d\,l'eniser:ti'lents., The wrilters hillve 1\(} OCillCh and m -_._--"- .... ,,,-- .. .the r~<lcfer's aneriIU~n, ilhey

oUe;rll (2) , , "' tillis wlith a p~ay O'n \iVOrd5, You r€lE,ld the' w,ordS:~lIIld ILmd'erStal'l!d them

one way ;end 'lhenSlWadlenly you (3) .. __ .. __ ", ..... " .. _. thililtOl!notMr imeiIP~,e!I:a~ioi'i lis po.s:siibl~_ 'l'h1'OU-gfi th" .. tBlii'l\'lbi,gliJ~W liJhoa O1!ti.venh:;oemem h8isc~ugh~ yQ~~ a.ttentl.Q!i'I - 2100, 'tl1e adMenLs.'er (4) ... - .. _ .. _-" .... ,., '':{Qu'll iJ;!lJY~M prOOy.Ct

Under tne pf:C'~lJIre ·af ill new car a relhe WoOIrOS: 'NOt a!l!Oljherfami~ &alloon', Tlhe dua~ irnt:erpr~"nion of that pl1ra~ ls delpe'l'1IdeJ1lt Dill, Inow it is prOMllllDffild_ IMisr'eadi It Ib,y plJiuingl the stress on the sscond W'Ord~'he~eiby" p~GJOOlliflgl ,@j m~:5sag:elheady,ertnSler would ~te<lriv nQitt want, i!'ll'1!dd'!ls {.~~ , ..... - .. __ .. __ .. __ . youl look agairc'llal"ld pay COr1$ci;;;lLIs ~~.tel1~ion ·OO·!ii'l!6 al~:erll'l!Ol'liive ffi!t$iSage"

Aliv9rlfisirngoopywrilil!rs freq,YEmtly (6~ ., - .. __ ._-. IJS!~ ofl idi'oms, Olle acfrverdsemeru

showed girlS, we::ui!'l!g cM1e~ent CololJr'ed ~eilli15" but Mne' '~l'iie traditiMa~ ~Iue O'J'l~.$ .. UI"u;ier!'1!e'.SIlh wer,e '~hie-wOrd$: 'J@!lililIU:S IS ~?r--,,- ... : ....... --. ~deas"liit 0'1' 'tlfle b;~jhl"l' on~ l'lilve\;~

~ _-." ____.-. (----- . -.

j'8~ _._ ', ,_. Ulie jearil:5 ~re not ardfnary b~U!e jrilitlns bUlt: ones in iii! r.;!ng:e of co!oms.lBut there

is, also the ;S,Ulgg:eSlioPl th'43ltt theee new j!B811:S: are a sud.defil lJiec~ .of inspirarlJion. at stroke of genius. "()tilt of 1lhe bille' IS ,lim id~m which means iq'Jlt:e. I.Inexp'ecte>dIy' :andlg:enius oft.en

'(9} .• "."' •• " .. " __ " geuil"lgl.a brilliaM tde.a suddenly" Tn~t"s very ole\i!e:r. but lit's iIiIot quitethe end of it, b~Ul$e if:s rI(l't ger'li~$.lihey ,ne ~l'O~ ._ .... __ ,._ .. __ .. __ .. .about but je,arnilW'5, That ls iii!no~iher p,1ay on W'()rds; the' proLi'.uct thery a re se~lin(i. crfflef alt is a pai r ol jea!!l~,

(a.&,,~rOO fi'@!n ,Ui'ld~ and R(I~f fl;3l~J~. 1.1~ Di.ctivJJtlry 9{ldio.,.u$,)

LEAIDIooIN

" iRca~1 tbe jo~es!'lli1di;,wiitih (!![!Qther SI11!!,d!eIU'j :fbJld (he lllliUJlfJlChlim.e = ~It!ll,""i,bdow ~ ~:ha'[

!l;iolEJpl,,~~es e:adll jol,ke. -

Dt!l:ing :a lesson Oil tl11,e ibem'u~Jiu O[MI!L!lg hea.lthy foed 11111 9ril:lJJsiaSlt:k [1!alche:r asked, "C~n iI.ny.onc name fiVle Itlflings tl1i:],1t OOllrraa:iru 1iE'D:iUt?'

1 A mowfi&t .amld ili:'): W][f had haJt1!lJ qiU.:.\lJf['d :and k'i'lid~'1I: &poik..e]l fer hours, St!ddeJ~L}' the n'l!!ll~ s;a:w' !J d.Qllk.ey ~un :11, Jie~!d., <Mn!>t be arda;t~!,I'e @f yQu:rs~' he :sai!Cill,

J Ail: a buffl'i~ d~:aIInel.'a, hlllsband. said eo his wife, 'YO:JiJ,ca~'t be ~oilililg ba,ci!; (,011' dessen a;t:aln. That ,IJl:SiIkJe;s five times, Aceu't yOU! ,alS:h,~Hied?~

4 Alt ;the sight of a submal'i'l1i~ a ba:by sardiee ql]iGk~!!I' Ilkl b~h~r.td ~ts, ItnJorher. 'YOIll n.eedDl't be !l!!~ni!d~' she said,

S O,r:Jii.1lir.'rj,.'irnug hoa,if hoM,j ! <11 br~g~tilly~otoll:red. ~g,a h1lD.sba,'lulailliied.

'\"i:l!llia.t dio }l'!Y1.li '~bilink I _' ~. ha'!i'l! here l!m:th_b cae I k~ve OOSitr

6 A. s:ttu;ggli:ll_g [!e'l;,\lspSJ~~T: I.'epo.n~!:, ,~slbe'41 )i$ ed:iw.r" "I!)o YOIl ,tihink I olUgln: to pUll: more fire .imn:to my st'Q!I'uesP

I A m1lths,teaclu.'~r wj!;!::xpilaining to stndenrs w.ba:~'lhey }n,ald. eo clio to gG!t the a.nSwoLtr eothis pirQbleim: "You ha:'I!e ten ~]ng,eJ:',s, SU~~PQserOli1 had~h~e I~. 'What would yon IllaJvd"

:8 A bookslop assistalfllt~ eager: tfo.r a qJukk ~1!!~e~ apiP!ffiaJch.ed a stU!!.tlIDtE' a:lilJds8Ii(t, 'I guar!nilte~ I!hat lhis, book can do :Il,~]f your WO[[,I.;: for 'YOIl,,'

:9 Aitel;" he;;rrill1!gm:uch 'll'elliliil'lJg!lilild scte.ami:iig,ilI ra:tliel butr,sf into Ih.is, SOtlWS' mom ~Jo,fif!!d dn.'~iIil fighr]i:lg On, d'i.e Boor. 'iOkay. who :filfa!:red fIds?' he asked.

a) ']t's(H!lI.ly <3! can of people: ]till <No. vice versa."

e) 'You d~d, Y.ou told [h:im he cOIJI~d hit me ba.cc_k~.' .lieplied. the!: eI:cl!er son,"

do) <Burt~[,~ ,~:a:IiIiI .• cheese and two 00\;'1/$,' e'~ <NO' music ]esso~s.'

f)'Not ~Lly. I ~1t1iSt say t'hai!: Pm genilll,g h Coa: you;

g)'Cigars;, !t'3z;,Or blades a:Dl:d a new eleerrk ddll'

h)'Y,~, bym;3.['!i!.ia~e.' i~I'G_[\eat'.ll·I]~a,ke rr.wQ' ·of tne:rDiI."

.2 na.dh. 01£ tbcjokies ~I:I T:ask m ~oiITl:a;in$ 3: ~~'OdO!l :!1e',-b,. Mod~l verbs. au used ~n ~m!rU ,of due l1IU!:<Irurl 'It'ilM run iii, SCI:U)il'Ja:U. TII,ey C!1iI:'l. ,exp:res:s ~cle3:S: sil.l:dru ~s t~lJ~ pM$i.b.irnilly, nec~S:$h!i' Qf

'O~l .. iin!ty of ;;lJnactioil1J halP'pii!llIii:D!g.Looik b3Ck at the jokC5all1.dQ.llnd,elP]il1le ~be :J1ItodaJv€m ~Il ,~ach '(lI1IC;. 1.'llu~1I1 check )"~UiIr3!1rlSwe,rs '\:vid].3~U)I!I1~ stlld.emtt.,

Examp.le; Gt~. "I',I),one ~ame {iIAe rhb1.gs t.hid rontab~ 1"lilJll

3 Ntrw ~i:sCI.IISS withaill:olt&er s:~l.I!de~t Wb~iOh o:flle meaiDl11illgli bellow is c:xpres:;~d by i:iID~ :m.odaJvem ~tle3,dll. jolli.e'. Wd~e ~he flumbel'of d~e mO]!,;je: ne~~ [0 olil1.>e.of dille Ilil,C3inillJJ.gs.

1 aibility (of a pe!:SQillfjJrthirl.g to clio (S!omet~illg,~ 2i!lJ!.1'rI:e:ss;uty (Ds ~t n:~ceSSrlJy 001: l'lrll;iu:::cessary?)'

3 pti:',~ is:5~o(f[ l.lsthe person al lowed! 'to do sO.!1;l!ething? l 4! pOSlsib~lity IHQ'I;1,I sure: is the SP~EiI~if.'J:~)1

REIFIEREN'CIE

ForM Aifirl.'n(;'th!{]. ~ can, etc,

(

QuestiarJ Can VOlt?

Negative

1 eannet (call"1i:)" 61r£.

Sii'O(t :l!iij.SWC.rs

Yes, I C~I'I, No~ I ea~'t.

1 M@<it'll[ verbs de not c~ange form. They do !llQ{mdte: <lin IIlItxmliarl' II!l!heqrl:les:1!:iul'l a!!FI,dj negat~ve: forUl,

a ModOilI. v'~rb$ ;lire u)I](fWfld hythe ililii~nif~j,1e w~.thol1t M. ¥oo mf~t amue ,Q.~~ time.

Y01~ ""e;dn"t ho.tber.

3. Wec3Dnm use t:lNO modal ve.rbsro~~t~1f: fDr il:xamp[,e nor S/M Sh9Uld can go, The ~co:rn:d i.Gel'll is cxp.ressed by a phrase s~c.h. as be ab!c to or bcaUow;efiIOo.

She should' be~lrJe to go..

Uses

M.oela.l '~'lbs (j!XJU"~S: a :i:'lIIiIJiilbe.l." of dif£ereDit k:imlds ,orme!llliil.imt;;. O:JtfL~ verb ca;n Q,;h_C[l express m.o.oc t~olili'l. Q:.:I)e k:iill.d of m.eaJiI1:irI~. For ~!lltlllPl~:

He,~it.l~ pkiy r:e.a'lly :w,eli. {'Slb.ilIJ.t:y)1

Gt:In 1. Gome in. ~o.W! (penni:s>sioIJI) You CillJll't be serious. (poss~bU~ty)

11 First S~~ llI'owm~III.'YQtf ~In:~ soeiluenees 'yOiLIJ c:aIlliOODilipillete by ch.oos~g ~h:e CM.!!oct I:liOIj:W" ~m the ... ~r'b~ ian. ~J:~u;Jket:i. 'Thens~JuHlly $r.::.cliol'ls .A al!1Jd!B, and dteddc Oil yO'Ul£ .imal :!JJ]!!iwei!".

:I .stll:p:~<lifll.iG """ " •••• , ", •• " he~:ll SO.mte>O!J!fZ <,!plproad:iij:n:g 9:ndq~Jj!l;:kWy hid

behind th,(: door. (w~s .. ble to l ool:a~d)

" 'CQ1uld] i:lOI'!.'OW fne ear, Ds!d?" ·No.yol[iI. """"""""""',. '"'''''''''''''''' .'

~ca!1'r I couldlJi'\t} .

1 11:lc' ~i:f:eg.Ui.['d a~xiv.ed ,a~dl '.,,.,.,,, .. , .. "' __ __ , __ .. ii •• " ' •• ,,, sav,e w.

ICiOu~d J m;ii:rli3~,ed I;;Q~

4 .. "." ".", .. " .. """ "" ".,, your I Siwyer g;o w~tll fO'l.!. }~est:e!!"day? I~COilil!ld.n't ! CoIl~dI)

5: No one "" ..• "._ , .. " .. " .. ",., .. _ ;se£~:Im,e J!.risi!)[IJ~[· $I:rn:ce:f:dcla}'.

{cQlLild I h .. s been, al]olW"edl TiO}

I:) Th.e people tlllaJrt had ~~en q'~,eillJilll,g o:tusidethe shop ... "" .. " .. " ...... ".""'"" .. " ... " .. "".,, ...... ~(!! in

'ffiiady. ~ool,J!ld Iwel'1~aJUowed to)

- I . ., .. " .. " .. , .. ., "." " , "" make ,a!!!1:Y pll1mll'e c.alls far 'I'l{era~ h'Otlf.

(Ci!!J!l"1:: have: I k.aJvel~~t' be(':tIJ :llJlli>lelo)1

I) A5 we ca:p'p!.'(i! .. d~ed >,,!!!Ie "" " " .• ., , StlJUleli. SQ.m,ethili!g g.oodl c(:ioki:l,g.

('C10IUM llj,!,fere ~ble i:'O~

it Cam. and ~11i1JQ,11 can"t are more oomm.Qruy ~ ~o tillk aoout abi1i.ty ro do somethimu:g lnthe p'ttS.tlllt than be ~f!m:) able kI .

. M~r.m an"t drirt~ /;It t.hee m'Q1:nenJ b'l!MN5& her leg is i1~ plosie,r, The; d~jctor ctm see 1,fJU ri.gkt away" if you h4.v:e the time.

1 Tetalk ilittout som.eoo,e'S 3.bU~ty 16, do iSOJIDil~thl[lg :il1 the paSl We uile iCOuM,. ht abl~ Ul :ilJ'lld m3~~e fio as £0110'",$:

S.~diic;i!i:l1Yity

~t>Q d~, something (I,1i'IJ Q[!~ oC(asiojtt~

rOowd oollldn'i!: ~OUiJd.yO!U?

1 alu'ld ,milt b.efore l' OO'lt4'ld ~~~:,

C014liJ )'o.Jl realt-y tun t;b,at. fast 4t gdJOQI?

Gel'l.!.TI1I:i abiUty

(to do mm~~illg i!lit 1 !JJny time)

(lOlllh:ln'\t was f were (11m) able tQc {mot} managed ;0

1 ;~ ~bk to !&r;~~hg ,eJ;,u:$01' witbout an a,jmintm'€Nt .

. Did 10# iflnzn• ro pJ'K)<n(! d~ .bos$ ,~his moming?

(riot: c:o,jii!ii)

1 oo,utd,,·'t jo;~ lhe .sa#ing dub th..e~ - llllfls toot! y.oun:g;.

NOTiE: Th.c: vtihs ~, lriea]')~el;. smc.ll~ taS'lie and, I!mder:st'and are aneX!Clepll'jo:!1. and are ~ISf:dl wir.h ~Uldw falk ,il! bout: specific :ab~U~.

Th'e guard C6uld sme,lE smoJu but didn''t, kt.l!Jw U!btre ftw,as rl'YiJ'm·

:3 To laJlk. about ability wjd~ perfect and ruttllrc iOInls., 'rile he: ahlc·to stl"UctUR is \IiS'edI.

Thfl·lJolr.celMw Hot betm ,{Jbk to idemify .the bmlyyet.

When w.illlu &e aWe .t'Q. tlQ,me home, ,decf,ot?

J'1.' ~' .. - {

. , ~

i .''''

1. When a:skfung forpermission m the presenewe usuaUy use eaa and eeuld. Conld: isless d~r~rharn can. May caR be used ~ul! is qlillit~ formal,

WhengivDtg ,pel'm~:;si,011 W~ 1!I,¢adw alw'\1!Ys use CMI~ A.g.a~n.ll1ia,y can be 'used butE.. sounds raiD:her iQ'Ef1lI,<ll

"CQ'Jlld 1 '"riMe ,~aTjy ,t1::i I'se SOl: ,an inJltwiew?" 'Of OOUji'S~ )I"m ,can .' Ca,111 ,cali 'yau back? I'm i~~a ln~f!,'ti~ t:I~ th~ n:l'oment.

May 1 .f/se )"Qi/!rr' fJ,b(})~f,e. pi'eastl

Whe:n.ral.ki;w;ga.ootlii: whethes sOOilGthhm:g is p~fmri:'riIed or norwe il!iS1ii can I ~rn't and !be {UIJl) aUo,wUIi m.

GutS" ~{ln fe:r1;Me rmir keys at r:ereptionc 0' 'f:.fJlt.e them wiffl. inCRt. Don',t you k.I'U'JW }ll!1t.1'·Nl'''QI allowed m 5ml()k~ durit.tg tPke·Qff$

2; To mLk al~!lt pcrmi5Sioti. Lt:lilhJl:c p~ut~

OO'Iilidil cOlllldn~~ was J wac {not) i!lnew~, to

As ~ ,"bild J Gould aJ~ys Slay Ht late.at we£.kienDcs.

We :~n"t altawd to w&:if wba~ ~ 11hd tel, sdJoo.l w~ toe U'eTe ~n:Z1

Wol!O: I were {not), ~nOW'C~ .w,oowdn't

The, t:al1didau W4 allOwed to ask a few qu'tllioHS. (not: oould) The Str:urfty polic.'1!' MM U~ we ~." w4it ii~'SJd'e ~1JrJe.

air/XfFl becrms~ SOmeotll!' imporfant runs 4ft'wing"

PCl'W$5;lon ift is;ptCJft<: sjroarlOiill!>

3 Wbel1 ~Alking abo!lif penni.£situl with fiJ hire and pedeJ;t fotms he alliI)W,ed to ml1st be used,

¥or.will not be allowed to br.in.g~'OU~ imo the exam. n~'$ n.efltf· htren allowed to f:fll'tleJ aJofllt.

,2mma:.glJJlc· :;(lillIUiOliJI.(l i:!i[iiillkiing :Sib~UitrJoi.llIigi)(j; 3i m~!li!ll!il;' '",bitch aJ ~e;JI!{l1)!Jce fFO~~ltilitJe: COlliURlR

Oin ~he We~ ~Q one en du;: riig$n whrnch ,rorpl!arnns h. .

~ You 0tl~d'll~ eo ,go. a;) II' would bea W,;l,St't OJJ :riml€ lOr Y'OD ro ,fjO'

.2. Y Oiljjl ]t'i.'ilSt' go. b) Th a r's [be oomrpiliily rule,

3. 'VeNI!1 .it!llv,e te be '[here, c) No· Oii1Jf: is fot:t~I]g :v,on r,O £:0' .•

4 Yeru d!Oill'~ have 00 g,o.. d!) That's an ceder.

5 YOllJn~I1"t' ;go. e'l 1[\¥Quld. [,'e~d~y h.etp you.

t; Ycmt'li'lll'lSI[']il't: go" f) b'WOILI.ldliil'tt: b~ !I".ighir".

No,,' ·Chedk Y01!lI' Si!lSWeo~ by :l\eadiq ,tlilc~ :LlJli'O(fIJll;3Wioo beJ!,],w,

M.Ul.st is iI1O.rmaUy used wh.mt the sense of obtigaticmc;omes fm:m.the :'lpm1ker I WIre:r. You :must. stop smok~'ttg for the ,aks of your heakh.

------~~~----~~----~~----~

Hau ,i'O is u~ when ("lie o:b.IJga:t:iil'.fi co.~es lEam :S'O:mOOfll:i else Ot all. e::der.l"m.1 ,au:r&Dri;~~. We htJfM ro be ,out o/,tbe room by 12.00 = tb'dt"s the h",uJ rule.

H:ave 'tojoh:Qwever. has to' be used whel'l mmk~llg abou:t {lbJig.ltl"jonw~. future, p~,~r ~~d pedeot lIDea.l]ings.

T.b~rlJ :w:ere ".0 sease left so S017J8 of the QJ'4dj<1metl had M sMnd .. We'u:til~ h4ve to be goj'W now i~' ita'S(} it r12il1.s.

Htls bad to gjve 'lIP his job fm' health re:a5Qtt5.

2, MUil!m~tis used. tQ eocp'r.'eSll $l'!o:llg d.isap~l, 'Q!r that sl1l~thilig ~s fot'bid:den.

Y.o.fJ :lftu'Sm"t keep t:1n:1"U))\mg yo,UT lathe.". He i$ ,t't'ying to UlOrk.

DQ-n;'~ ilaVte M is used to e:x;p.res5l dm i.dell! that mere [oS :ilIO law. rule Qlf r;eq'lliutme[lltlDo make you do something.

1 ~'dor:c &rttmJ~., mo'~ings wh~ J don't batte ;taget up forwm-k. Ne.~1 ,expresses rAe speake.r,ts Qpini.QI'l'tl1;:;lit S.Qm.ethl.ng ~Slil.'t IIli'lCe5S8l'}'. You n,erdn't Ul10rry about t'he boat trip ~ It onlyfa,stoS ten mimlJ'es.

:; Shoutd ,;;liM ou.dnw t:xpre~ Rlilder -oblil!;l'ItioD.; they are o:he-m used when g'Wllill{l aJdvic.e 011' taJkim,g albout pe()pli'~ respoo.si.biUftes.

j realiy ~tfo be getting home - my dAu,ghter if ,e~pe'(,ting :P1'I'e. YQ~~ ,Wcn"ld always keep receipt'S ;itllJim youb'f)! la,rp ,,'ems.

3 O:l:Inp~~i'1il eaeh 'o~ d~11l mles below a.ftdliil.etr :9co(l!ltlp.;'lllyi_ng examplies 'W'ilit!h a '~l'olid ~11iI the bo"."

m.uiU' ca(iIIl<lY ~1iIl't .nuighi~ 1101.' oOtllid ,roiLlldin't:

(a) ,(!J.H.,.f.k .. " ls ii1~.d1 ".ilru~flI d'lt:sl?ca.ker is ,ceUU.iiiiil. dffi1it Siom(l'd:t~i:'lgis U'~e,

{b) (;_~:{J.lt ..... is used vihe:n the speaker be:lieve-s ~Q~'Hedung. is ~n[pos;S.:ib~~ oris Gerraillll. dilJl!ii!: :'l.o.f.tle~b~.ng rnsll't tirU!lIi.'l.

TI1.f1~ {c) ,(.1~? .. t .. , be~he Pari'S tMfJl = J~J5 I,J'O~' .d~j'e tow hours, . . f (d) Et./!!. :t.t ..... bl! missh1.g .a page - this J,'OCIS1j'J! 'I11.aliJ:,1? sense.

1 S:hjou~d alfild o'llg'h~ to can ,exl?l"e-s~ r~e idea th~~ s;ome-~hrnng is pmb:,1!Meot ~:i~~Jy, yO!~ .sl~'()"tld be :re;;:;civi~~g a c.h(:.ql~e from ~f$: I", a feu) days..

3; (3.) ." ...• """." .. " .. ~s used to ralk ,aJbol!i: the genera] pru.s:ibi'li.ty af Siolll~~h]ng.

l."ea~ ea'rl'j! as th'e roatis (0) "" , bit e:s:plf!d'alfy b~f:SY tj't· t\.h.(J'~ h""~.(!' •

. M:a},., mi:g~t and couilcl! areasedte elli:IP~s.~ n::heidil!l3. !Of p06Sibi~irry 1.1:1 specifk si~uadons.

(c) " .. , call. i:ndir-aoo stlloligelpo5sib~l:il!'Y than .rni,s)r.11 or (d) .. " ,., ",.,,' and is

!:l01: used ~O!lisk questions.

119

M::IiYflCil1! and m~~tIilQl an~ used to express tile idea Ii:h3'l: :iii: ~s PQssiibt~ th.u :soltleth;ir.g is: uot tflUli;l:. Cor!.dild nermesns itllll3i1: .in your opinio!Ul sornGth~r.lg ii~ not hY!pothetk .. I~!i' possibl~ ..

¥o,u .,nay well be right ~bo,ut the cr;;tt bJtt !':,n $,tiU goi'ltg,

1 (e) .. __ .. _" .~. ,. __ . ~~oit be 2,QiJ~g to see /'Jet now t·hal, SQmethf:ng)s W~le ,up,

(f) " " he be I,j\$i},!;g' ~~r crtdit arr,dwit~out YOr;i:rbowing!!'

4 Comp.I~1Ile ~~e if!l)J'loWJmg: :sent€iIlces wi(ih ;;LTIi ~P!l?J}op:r~<I![e Hl..odaJ y€\W ~(o:rm.

m You ,. __ ._ __ _ p05sibly go OUlt' I,ooking :~ikl~ that,

2, YOU1.'friCIDI..d! _ .. __ "".,, _ .. """ 00 able eo g~t'$e~u l'!!'i.thor!l[[· too mu(in tl!QubJe,

.3 You ,. 'borMl.e:r pho!]~ngJ' jlt!st tl,!!i['!] u~ abo1;l,t si:xjs~ .

.;I .n ••• · _-_ .. __ . --· •• n· ,- YQU ll'ell.l]y bu.ya house that ch~apl.yul1. ·t!'ITI.'O$~ da.y!"~

5 I'm.afraJid~: ,ge!t petty cash rreqllJ..eS"i:S apP.[,>C!V1ed! by~ll~ ma:n<lg.er.

6 He ,. __ . . __ "., ,. __ .. be jokil1l..g! The CalF'S f10,1l wort~ anY~7!lhere near. ~h:all: m!u.c:h.

f ]1.)5: not a geed dm~ Imo· '!,i'~sitB.ri.l~ibill, The wea:the'r -- , tJ~<'iwf1ll'I;tIit dds rime

oJ Y'ittO'if. ('

S Ql:dy rhe P[\e&8 ,. __ ._-_ ,,_. vi;si1t th,e C'.J:';lI!!l~. s~te" ye-S!De.roay.

9 yOU!!:, ,It'a[\~)iI'8 -_._-_ .. _ __ "- :$imp Y'OU goifll,fl.[:o. ~"h~ CO:lll.c~[t,. a.ir[h01Dgh 1 !l:31l 't.lilliden,taJ1IiI,d

IoVll}'~beyire·~vo'~ .• .ied. -

H) M~.rlillli .. __ __ .. __ ,"~., !:!Ie~dI tile c..ar,. \Vh" dOD."t 'you ask to boDtf.O\J)jI' it?

,COMMUNICA1IVE PRACTiCe

to(l~. at the map ~ppo.s;iille and 'Ild dme ,I:ace ~aJb.~Jjf~ "S:tart' here'; 11llGlllFo[J'ow ;the il!1.Stlfilll(ll;itJ.ns ollliltil!r~ d.G~I.!I[me:ftilt beww wbkhi was w.!:'itum by P.iotl! :Sc~. 'They wwU tell )'~!.W Ito,", t~ fi1l1J~ :tilliS blUlllCd tteaS'Il[\e.

Look ~~ ~h,~ p~cill1ITes b<Lrlo,w wm£llfl iilil.IJ!luale e,£gJht d_ilf~\ooillt SiJiUi!l<tiIo:msin Brit!1i:r!l!., TIID~ifi, 1001{ at 'fil,c pllrn!i.es ilill drne ~O"i'I:mu]l~ wud~ ~n~lher s.de!lit.,deci,dle \l;'1I1i(;:11 IPJhJ[,M~ 't:elk y'O!iJj, :soOile{ffiljJ!]S3~i1U~; i:h:e maw mil eae~ s~t1!1:aJriO(R. Th,eJru ~[!'l: O~:I' whatt dle:tiilw f)ligill;l be.

U$ef_~i l(J.np4:ge whelt t'aikill'S ,ab'()~t the I~w;

ha:",~ ro/dQrJ!'1!: h:~'1;'~ eo ~fiOt:} be alllowoo to

Ie,gal :liD'l]i;r I HClincc

age of h~ 0,1:' 18 70

a;@e of 'f7 ~l:x m,OJilith$

.litO Law :ig;il,'; ,of lli6

E:l:3:fliilpl,e: Pict~~re 1-, licmce.,

'YQ.~ h(fve ,tu btl)' Ii: leJ:gr;r$r011 ,liC,flru;.e e;a,ch ye:tiT rlya~ Ol'un Ot' Tent a te:leu,r5i'Ol't.

1

2

~

!!OJ'

'1

Now FC"'.!I ktiOW ~:ke rna,w in ,iB;r,illI<!iio, ,dlisalss ,v,idIY'O'Ulf !paxm,er wb,ed1:~r ~It L$ djffer{eo~ (]Iii:' m~ Sa:m,{l: [rru y"Orw: C'O'U.!ltty.

22

't[helli~hel!'eis. a. gap in iii. ,doi'.iia; e}le!i'C~s~ vibiQh. y01!il ,~ is a modal 'V'eiDib" t~'}" n'afld"iI):i!Ffiigt~1,'l; <idJe,a:" of 'ga,p inte a ~ol:lg.er pb.J1ue $I[l!cn ase iiI: ii$

~sacy J ilt: ~s poss~b~c I ,c~r:u,in J "you) 3:1'~ :!I!'b~e , I hl'(l(l!!,) ,1.!~'e .aUo:wed 'tl), Thi;s: \V.iU 111.e:]p Y'OllitQ

:: eus on ,~ smaljer JD:uinlbe!t 'cd~ reaiQ!!l<l!~Me ch'oi:ces,.

R"emembell'lhalt words suchas an:I.·t !emlil.otl wuild!mij~ I woo'il'. eec, olnlly OOUillitt U ol:l.e werd and ~__.mI d"l.ere'klre g;Oo in 'ill! gap wlli'i.~approp.wiaJ~e.

DiE text' bcIDo'w ~, ~d~p~edl uOlIna, beek ca!h::d ~ .H!ip a,nd' 'T'h~gh Di'C't. Here 'dale aw.dDlo:r ~s ~1P·la:itJIiiilllglilon'V· ~(lliI':lie d~e die.t al'ld i~ilJJblllg aMlilt tJI~ f.e:;;uiJ,rs }ilO!U caiR ~pecr.,

lliJes;dltbe 11;:;11.1 tlimd. ~:1wmik(lf dWIi; wOfdwllitkb. bes;[ :fit~ 'e--aJdl! Ispa~",. Usc 0:mty' oneW(ill!)di :ilii. (i3idh ~iilJoe. n.JCln! dt,fi(~ y(i~1i' a!IiISWJen.wii~!h al1<ilJitbeF !Uil!iJdell~. n:li(r'C i.CS<'iifi. '~l\':am.p~e atthe ~i:1'LrruiD,g (0).

1'IiIe Hi.p' and Thigh IDi'et

We thi"l'lIk you ~O) ~ .. ~:shqtJld. .... initi:a1~ 'follow the manu se:lectiQ!il~ p1'o-vf!dedl here asa ooS!ic '9uid@ Ol,llt ~s, you becom.e mo:re '~almilffir wi~h 'Iihe fat COrflOOM ,ofClII~'ooos ye!i.J1 will soon be

m ~ ~~ .. ~~. to maloo' 'tfil your C1:tNf! sS'~cHoWl:!o.

You h~ve (2) ~ ~ .. g~\!ien a Ilisf ·of striC'liy forb:idden '~OOd!5 5'0 11~iM '!(O!J ~3~ ~~ .. ~~. ~~~. ~~ ~

ffiililkoe Cil definit~ r,e$or,l,lI~io!1 be'("Ofe YDl!! Ibegilrl tM die/I.: 'I 14} ~ oorn them tma~ly firom

my life!' If y·ou aregoill'lg 'I!.(l cM'dlt ,ililnd pUll 001"$ of Ci~Qoolil1~~ 00:1' Ipackets. or salitedllpearfl.l"its iil"ll~'O

yOur cupl:iQ;ard~o 'eet when 1101 one's areundtnen you ~eiilily n~~ ~ ~. to ,glve~tnis oooik to

some"One else, This d&!ijt. ~6) ....... ~~ .. ~~.~~ .. ~~ f.oiJ!O'INed property. wUllrlellp YOUI toaJchieve the: kind O'i

ff'9u~e yOu never dr'eameti po.s5iibl'e bUll tih,ere [5 oQl"lly one persorll who (7) ~ ~ ~ .. actua'ity

make it. w~rk 'for yol,:l = Bind tli'iat.'s· 'YOU. YOl!.!i'nettle, one-lt..1It ~S, ., .. ~~ .. ~ to stkikro, it.

You ¥ViII probably Ibe very plefisan'llIy smpri:l>OO :all: the ~m01.lnll:0'f'to.oc1 yOl!! are 1iiIlOWed bv the

diet. YOili11 fiM yourSielf on. a strict delt wirlhol!!l {9} .~ .. ~~, to slJffe:r il'ii~:liie proces.s. My

volum~rs [really" Iwed it and thev nO) ~ .. ~~ ~~ ~ ~~ no't belie;VlB 'LlI'ieyoo!JlldJ .flCUW!!iilly loS/e, weight

yet eat so much,

oil :R!lil:ad. SC~Ul~iiLOe:s 1 ~:o 1'[1 ~nd ~bimk a;ou!)Il whi.dh :mG~a!] 'y-e~b HI tlll,C box bQ{t.:w~' e",,..i1~ It'blli $1'ilitlC id.oea !.liS d'te boJld phase· iii!! ea~h :SiecPItellt~,. Thel'e f!jia!Y b~mol.(~ ·tb,aIflQl:'ie poS!sibh~ al'iSlll'l::f.

shO'tlkl .h~."'e 00

ll.eed.n1.'[ 1llI'llst

ml.gQ:ir .1iI)Q<~ ! be,a:M.e toO

.!coul.d don',[ n~'!'c' ~o

! b,e.~ <il:JJo!{Wi1d If:O musm:'t c!l:il'it

O!.iSh,~ ItO (be) .I!.err Oli~lowtd to

Examl,)~ei Th~:jO a chai];Q~ thl;; !hUirdC1lJl1,c wm h[tilo,rth~Ui t{)wm toenoreew, ,m~~ ] The.F(!~s mlO :n:~,~1 f~iI:'youl :[0 b.rr-illg :1!!, preseneaa 'i.!!!e;j~!.

YOiIJ •• " .. ,,, •• ,,, •• ,,,,,,.-,,--.,,.- bJ:i'~ ~ iP·n~l!le~t as \\ldL.

2: I'm $I,lrp:rised p~ntI~S:;~Qn. was gt'll'!!!]. {or .Mrs Jou:esro h:1verile d ... yofi, I'm snrprised Mrs jlone!O ... - ... -_ ... __ ., .. _.,-_.,-_ .... - .. have the d3·yoH.

3 There's lWD'O 'I;arw th:;lJife\'liIil~Ii~S dd::'l/eirilOO \...e;:u :5Ie:3iit b",dtil. Imilty oollmry.

Dt.iv-iJ'.rs .. " .. " .. "." se$;r bdrs: il~ lillY OOtl!l:try,

4 I suppose il'S p(I!!:!i~blll: 11~'f pElLoll'lei.s<iII''t w{)I.'Ik:ing.

F Stl.ppose her ,,, ,, .. - - woxld:.!lg,

.5 ]:e~ essc{!d~11 th~~ aU ,w!'Upeti~:ors ~[!"t~ve 00 r.iJ'llfl.

An (;umpeti~o:f$ ._ _ _ _ ofltiM(,;.

6' Did rll)liImIflla:llIag.~ to get .. !!:OPFor it.~I$ mo'r:.ni:Dll;~·S p:;]p~!."?

Wf!te n set f! copy of tlli,is m01r1i1ihlg's paper?

"1 h~!i9dvi,s~!!)Je 'to h3'\i'e m~dI;iCit!. ~ns,u:r.aJlilcflwhen you trav1.A.

'¥c)liJ ..• _ we(Uca,! lasueance W.liL'Cf.lYOtr. '[[':j;}·v·eL

8 II's film:~,of>s[ble :~or Oil penon. i!:O ·~O~ so milch weigkt so qllicldy, ..

Aper~oQ. .- ... - .. --,,---,---,-_ ..... - .. _- so mu,c~ 'i'reigm·t:SQ qu:iddy. 9' If~ :!I:k.~lr ['I:II.a Richard is Oll: ~lj:S; W'a;y here .IlI:Ol'!i'.

Ri.ch.~rd - - -".--, -. on hi~s 'i.-"'~'i I~.~r-e 1Il.Q'W,.

10 Y,QI!iI arrc; stf.icdy p:lJoll~b~icd: from smoking D'n8Jltly part o( t~,e b1!.likHl'lg,

YO~j ~l1a!'jiy i'llirt Qi! il'he bp;ldhl~.

b NQ'w (lQmp!etc dlf' 5e£OJi11d seneeace sO' thOllt ~[ i]a;s .ill. :Si_ImIJawf1~ea~.il!lfl tQ' th~ '.n:i~ ~1rI~'(; tI$~ng ~rrue ot dl.e p[IU~~5CS .in dlle box .. YOII.I dl!l)I]'(~ have to use aU ~ilie pilrnt~~s: ~r:! ri~!,'~ b>O\:

SG:I'l'ttJ(.': (IIi d1il~ phl:.Ilse5 C.a!!1II be used mO.re d]a!D euee, YO'l:ImilJs~: c{I!!JlIP:Jere d'te ~eoo!1d senr.e:l1cc lli!!~ng betwc!l:1lI two aed fffivc: wo(rds. Corn.u3.cnio!lllJs OYlUI~ &is tWQ· woilXffis,

E;(;;}mple~· T.ber:e~:!l a: C'h~l!cc' the h'tiffiC<i!1e\\vW :hi~ i!1onlem ;riO\.V'J'lS~{lmottm v,

TIM burrican-e c~ld "it fl·()rlbtfrfll:aWI1~tm/!'Qr.rm,q.

!k !Sit tffil~ t\!!'liJ :!!i!i:1I1IrenCes below :ii!IIl:d say w'ha.'U iPO!!I:'JS IO~ -Sip~~ch ;lJto(l: IJ~Jdlllrl:il]lL'ldl • .1 Sheill<l's.;lJj bea:v}' smoker bllliT S'[iJ[ allll~ndsi'eglnil<\lir fitiiltSS, s;~ iliSSfS,_

Shei]a's a h,eavy s:mo,ke:r but stiU m_c:ods· f~me'Si da~s "gtdatly.

Xnrl!i" complete tlrle!l~ g,encrnl.!!,l,de-s fellP :tclJ'~iUJi'l'ie-s and :il!l;\I!l',~bs"

~'\diectiVr~s aJl'e I~YJ"i,(;aUy used wiJl:h ",."aJ!il,d! adverbs 11:00: used w.id~ " " ,

To fOHn ehe adserb {[['Om rth:e: adj:ec[iv~ we ~;l>U3Uy add "."""',, .•

Th:e~e ~('e;. bowe-vell. variO'llis 'ilPi!O!~IU~OIl'l$ ~i!) th.ca:b!!)ve 'lWrO rul.e:s:.Look I.U lillie drureCl: kinds o~ l~iP![j(!j(1lI in thebo:x .an~ thenread tbii.Q:~gIh il:h.c .d~~i~1:l3,ry '~IJitt:iCS((!l, tIlilild aI~: ~e"a$~ iiiwo

re examples Wr eseh 'bolX.

Ill' ·Wirr.h serae 3.d~ecfh!:e5. ,1$ rv~I.1 <l~1'Id:d.iI1.l:l; ..Jy 00' form ehe a/cl\lleih~ :~_h:efe is .1150 .a c-h:1'il'lgf' ill spel~.ing, e,g, iPl'Ob~lbrn~ ~P:to:b:.a:1;IJy_

.. ~ J

REPEA:E:NCE

Adjmives are ilyp:kal~l used: 1 b e:f1Yn: 1l0Pl_1l S

2 !l!f,u!er celj:ra~[!ve;r'bs"

Adj.etiive. belaN nouns

Wiiere StWefal] :adj~Ct1;"~S, are' used :1m. f;ront Oi.f a :l'J01.!t1TIi there aile: dear roles abou'l; the olrdJer ~n whk:kthey :shoil:ddcome.

1 Desc,rip'l:Lve ad;j ectives eeeue i:!']! the f6]l.ow~ng ordc.::.

size ,il§e share CO~~O'lJ!r o!l:".igi!H m~ilIieria~

My cou:.tii!;l fi'l!.''es i;!;l: ,a l'(j~ QJt1 Du.tch (;(1nal boa.t.

The. ~cto,!, ~ lwear';»g N: long ·r:e.t sill:, sentf.

.:2 .Adj~cd",1llS t!1;!lII[ C'xpress rOlllr opjnmo:rt a bOlll1t 90medting uS:-nl:a:illy oome loofo:fe <iidljecr~v¢s

rhaJ~ descrfbethe noon:; r

The rrecklace W(;l$ made of h¥trtliful flint gltls$.

U ~o jopilni.~!l· ;:,jJdjeCt~lo>es aee I:!~~ tle mo:r-e genera] one oolil1es first. Ul:e: ren:twd a "ke ,qui'tt oottag,e. by thee .sQl'"

.3 AdJei!:t~l'cS" t!:s:ed bet art J}1}(U!JiS a:l"e'o!lll1y j!Jilled with I'lilld. w:ljjf'nme ad:tecr.hresa.re Q.f tnc s::Iwe 'type. e.g n'VQCa~olUrs,

The 17kck and tobite r(¥:ket YiJ(:-Q;d u.fJ' into thedtmdci.

1 .R:~ad' du:e SClili1,tCIi'lCi&S ibel.arw :amd ,ut die adj'mivc5iNli trOll'!I: of dtc IflQ:Uin in tile Wff6C( ,(lIrde:r., '1 The IHUS.e1li11li1 housesseverel (JilIJpJi['les!l: J seone '·all:cielYlt) Vii'IISfS ..

2: The d .. i~V(;s used a (rlli\j:l1. I k1i.l1;S: I win~ book. roo O[~en~M doer ..

3 My gffin.(kl~d kepr his mOrley lin a ('~i,ftI f fllll!lflY I ol.ClI it'~dJ. can.

4 As me opened dte cel~ doo:[ I[iler,e '!!.%'IS a fbi il:ll.di:1Th,g f whi1i:'~) fill;'l£:.it of I.igh~·.

:5 My morher always S!li)'S 'tiltH ~ was :aherl]rirty baby 'With (1.;'Irg.e I blllJle /1.'(l'Ilx[!dl eyes,

A.djectiives after certaillli v,erbs. Il After the Eol~oiW.iili1g ·\i'eths "We: 1l5,e 3dje(:tives~ 110(' adved:ts:

feel

This ,alJpie t&tufunny. Did YO;ff,~'$h itf

I ha,w~ 'il hg.a J1fu,cb de.: thcat's wiry l' ~k :W!awfo.,f..,

The dri~,e.r becertUe rMily angJJ! wh~, I rfJfo,Jsed ,t(Jml)ln?

~o,fe:ll1JJoit1i'e,'\l\er~. rha.it some of these verbs can also 1X:' used with ~dv,t~tb~!L. ket w.utffil the!IDllBan~Q!1'; Df 'lBolYdll' OIndi'lli the phf.'illse feeJwdi to t-a]li; tl bmlt Eileahh 311id

iUness", "

Tt.",!! dicu:..t(lcr felt her inj.ured ,a:rn~ ,f;are/Utt.y.

f :really do~'t {edwe'" ,_ it mu:s.t be the _h.~l,

- 10rik w'~rh. the mmli:lii:~ of':stllldy I tftK'~iS f.h~ ""~SOIl,'.

The referee ,loUtt] 'fui'c,kl'1 til h;~U}.tite:b. ~smclYI'

_, ;ai'-p~;lltwil!h. t:h,e [mea:l]lrlIg of "!;;()I.I1;le'l:mrto view',

Sh'e aHedrtd $udJeno/i1:t fIre door.

~l*i€:, keep sad find!:lloc ~]~owed. hy;;)dJjGctiv,~s when us~d ln the fO]Low]llg £;[riIJ.c~~r,e: "l\ie.rb+ obliOCl: . .j;. adjreerive·.

I find it diffiml.l~' to' beUe'lI\t tlmt she. di:dn',t P~'O#.t. Tlte a.cddem: $houlrJ.mQ'IM' him ;Jtjo.i'ie Oiute!.r;i tU::.d tJ,ne.

I W~(~ 'l'Ierbs{

T"htl /}i';)lr.r;-cmoved (l'U'k-ldy tosto, ,a pght beJf!nenthe fQ~'l,

1 lemre adj«1:ivtl!s:

The Divan Hatel hru Mfl50nably ,prioed -rooms.

], 1k.ro~ otbo~, advot:h'S·.

A'b iMn.{ri""J,' reJJ~ied ,to 'tty first Je~tM' i'nCRJJbf.y 'i,uir:kly.

.. Before preposition~l. phtra:sle4~ )

Tbe pJa"e shook and ,ti~n W!t;l;i;! £:MItpkMQ! om ,of«mt.«JE.

"r,ming adve:rbs

1 To torn'i .~.d'I,I'Cjj'k frem .ad:jecl:uve~ we U:SiWl,!'!U1'1lIdd ... Uyw the adjecli!l'e~ iJOiw - S:lwwly~ .!i1moo,th ~ smoolbly.

1 Good is t!he olnly t'lidjecriwe w~rilit 3, CQ:mpi.ctel}r jil'regu[ar adverb: MilL

3: .iFota,dljectivei which. :iIi~lJe.ad.y end in -Iy~ e.g. friend]}" oo,"~rdJy,;. sill"; ugly, the ~dvt\rb fOE-m is e:x.pr~sed b,y the pbrarie; ~n a., , ""''a!Y,

rite :stflit(ger lfskitJt~ ,(I friettillf~Y if fJ'e; lJou'id Sf:liiy.

4 ,][wo othee kinds o.f 'e:li:iceptiOIil. ro th~ tllJ]~ are adjecr:i'!l'cswMlkh haye: the same 3idve:rb £lJnn ~Wid ,tho~e wJacl[',e thare is a :s~m.n;g ,C:h3l'iige w(o.rm tllile~ adlveib {se>E1: talYJe 01'1 nexe PS!Jg.e)··

,2 p~~ ~!h!): aJdjle~i'\\'c!l 'bcicrwLtliU), Ihe cou«J1:00x,i.1J! 'lh.etaJbh~, Tl'liem :add the l!IdV~fb :fQ!t"1lIl: of caclfl ,~dje(:rIDye~ T'wQ lIl;av!2 ifl1.~3dy IbCl~lli dOI1.€ for rOIll.

eas,~siTIlfugJ'ht s~mr[le good ordunary t:el:il'~b,le

f~:r. comle ~~:n! spedficb!S"t h.l!I:;ky

:3 N()!w'by l(lo(l!ci~g a~ ~he Clm"'J:r:ge. (Jf.8JMJ~;ng bcee w.llili~ tW(}1ii10~m~es ]~ke tffilf' I).me' 'be!loll'.'. i '\Vim. ~,dj~ti¥e.s t:Ill.dltlig [fJi 'y~, rlle 'y' ls rep]~ced' bY' 'j'.

2:. '''' ".,' " •• , •• ", •• , , , " , , , ...• """', ....•. , ........••....•• " ...•••...• , '"" , , .. ", •• , " •. , '""' .. " , , ,

l .. " , ,., , " , , .. " , .. ".", .. " .. , " .. , .. " , , T'''' , " " .. , , .. " .. ", , , .. , , , , , , .. , , ,

Poa.itionof adverb. 11 Adverbs normaUygo aJfc:er the ver:h.

He 5',,"01\:'$ h.e4~;b.

1 An. :ildvetFb de~ not ruumaUy come bettwee:lla verb and Irs direer object •.

He studied' -ebe. book: -carefulfy. (IiIOl: He shtdwd wrefuny ~"'e book.)

1 If t:'W'O OJ' mort adveebs are' iJse~[lM.-y u~lla:ny co:me in the {u:dC~t

manner pLaoecirne

The p/.mw land~d smoothly ri;,t on thIu.

Did,i't the team play well away (tvm home last wulmutf She'~ been swaying hard atlwme aN ~~

Non; The exception!. 00 this rille are verbs of .monon ~ e.g, go, oome~ amve ~ W,ftt":re the adve.rb of p!;lccrends to (omr; hriQu the ,d!'i"et& of ma:n~~l+

'sh~ ~t ",ps,tgin .lJ.Ii.inly.

4 co.linp.mcl~ eaeh SfJU€Jl!I~''W.~rli! o;!!!e of d'lltl 'W'o'lids: given at the Ifl'niil of fllll,e- $e.!1¥le~oo. Tw~ [p'Ossibtcp:ositi.o.llIs iM ~be word are SIltO:Wlll. Oolyone: is CORea.

l The tif:oi1!l'Q plays , " :1Iit~OQil~ ", , {~oo.i I welll)

:2 No D.ne· ,!mild! :!:-a:i.d .11Ru:ch: bllt PoilIl:d se!l3'med " •• , " " .. " •• st;ra.lilige!r " " .. " " ..

[quier l qlJli.eflIl.y)

.3 J'Jite po.liii:'c [oulIl.d .. , •• - , , ", , h~\!i Story , , , , " to :be.li~!i'lil. (hard I ~nUy~

26

& U'e'r,e ]ookimg: .£lJ1I a ",.".,."., .. " .. " .. ,.q!l.:rier , , " ", .. , " .. place 00 SEa.},.,

nice I [JuCil!ly)

.::: The'le);a!m locked "'"'.,'"'""r.U' ...... II.IIIIlUI .... II •• ' :~t i1fS·t •. II •• ,n.,n ...... "'r=~:,.-···--··, b~m IiI'm. sure ~: did ,~ell, ~l)~gh I if,cmgMy}

~,tJOs:t of cur atlfl.leoo:s: ran., .. ,,_., .. __ , . __ ... , __ .,. this: moit.llLi!liJ;g " ••.•• _ .. __ "_",..,,, .. ,, ••.•••

511l~.tb I S'lliperiblly)

1'1:'11 looki.r.I,g fo.l squier, but .. " "." .. ", .. " I!!XtI:tcd " " .. "." , .. " flat iUlJ the

Heil~s:I,ey area, ,tcelll:t1l',]] ! liJellJrriillUy)

The f.o!r.'es:t :fin: sp!read " __ ", .. "" .. ", .. , ... , ... ,",,. ~:n:c!:',ed~My ,.----- ... -""" ... ,,,,,,,,----." .. 'qJuid< 1.qIJ]ck[y~'

took at dloQ umfmisihed :5IetDiten(~$ helow3i1i1,d! ~he US[S of a:djie«t¥tsam.di adVle!:'bs dlaJl ~]illow 'dI;€m.Wldll.afliQfh~ stlld,Cflt. W't)t:k (liUi,t wlruidh ;!d.~ tliOOVC er adv,eib 'iiJlIllJ~1iI tJm be used t!!) ,p)m'Jil,e~! ,e;1,dil. SIl:i:'iillMtt. TIte--n draw a nrruil: cOii'lllIDeelirl1ilg alilllhc wordls whIich dio 11:0~ !fit (~I!I. 'dilll: 'roluell app~~!~'. llHl:E1 draw a ~~lfid lill'l.e:pal'al~r~l to, d'l!(l: UI o,i:i~., F!I!>l' ex;arnp~e;; (b!l:') •.

.. -c ',//'

~ -

.r.

1 ] fO{II.I:ml i'~ . , •

2 1 £dt ....

.; ] m;~de it ....

29

... PD.--i It. - Adii" ~,-

<IE:. ,&;11,._ UA 09

Leekat th~ >dliagt.3m, ,3lWd lI1i,e ~bme biil(l!!w. Thtl! d:i.a;g;r;am $hcrwil~h~lln~ of the pa1m, arilid Eh.e tabille :shows ~:be name amd sigWl:itfliC3JnrE:fccll'tl.'!:r.eS. of eadt ~in:~ .. W,orltin:gwi,th .:tl'illo~liIe.r :S;llIldiCI'DJE'. ;try ~iO wo:r~:

Q~n what ,e~eh HII1~(:3n ~~n Y(iiiUi, The :fir$[iI)lltl.e, has Ib~ den ef!l);r 'Y'OU ..

A ~O\Di,g line

A hooalk i]]l, the i:ine

A ~O'.ng Ui1Ie •••

AIIl ~n:b.oo,k:erlli~e ...

A long liee .. ,

T,iUll clesenesato dle l:u~aiU 1~lru~' ••• The ,111!l.uill~:m,rof smmJll :lillJeS ........

A l(fi~g oilu'ved ]OO~ ~!];d!itill~S; ••• A de\ip~,'f~dl!]~iroo. im~ ...

T.heR~:mbe:r or :sm,al] ]i.iJ'iIl!S C'0ili1~ii18 from tLt ........

AIQI'IJ~: I~~.e' •••

The· p]aotl: \\V,h.eore iJ~ begrns, •. " .

" ,;0111 ~;@J"'C d1l6deed '~iJj' ,!,!!IiI,S;We:i'.~ 'Whhy~u[" tea~het, .~ r,ead:img each oth:~fj!l:p31ms. I m:~s;~ read ~'h~ :I'ight h2li!ldl aS1 ~I1IQ'wfiIJ jg ~Ih.e d:i~aJm.

__ :r.I,~,e:

l"cru'",e goin,'g ro ,h.ave a to't.lg mold hlNJ~th"j .tife, w#ho'U;,~ behtg ~eri{)ill~ly iii. "~R },'a~f ,SiJl:re?

le:cj, .Look at. ~0iW. .rO~7g jIOfjil' life litu.!' j!; - a1iii ,~beT~ are iilO b'rMks in U.

'"II'"IL_ .,

III Dlfee qu:ecSuQ:l1$

-!Xc,e are ehree thL~ ;'loY. haV'~ to tts:k )'lOi.iJi'sdf .a'I d.o,il!1gi1l! wom focma:t'i,o[l.q'il1eS'~ioll:

w"bar '}JfJ'fl ols{J$;{!(:h 11$ needled In :the gapJ' '!';'iil i c,ha~!lg ~he '1'if!O!!'d fur.llIi'O,I.l'Ie a ,c-hange of ~fJ'eilin;g?'

does a pr:eflxls~tfi'x need lQl b~i:lJdlclled?

II 'Wo,rd'o,mlatiion

Rml'il drue i~ext bC~OW3i1'Did use the wom, gi.v~l:lilfDJ capitals, at d1e,cnd. of' eac~ ~iilU!e tof~li"m a 1iqf.a ~"b1: :fits ht ~lIDe s,a,!;: :in ch~ s~i'ilIe ~~[i~. The.[le ~iI1ali1, cx~mph:: ~t:lb beginnmg (0).

liJinefJne

~~~m m k.rww what:s 011 in ~ IrxaJia:z.z clUt~. ciJlem~. :ltle8tll'6 or ,.Fa!'S an rv this week?

-"'~n 't WOLJlld be OO~, f~~~ to inil3iS out on Un.eOlle.

::·om local~p m !isti!"lgs~024 ihoUl~ 1Ii~'!.vs Qlnd SPOfl~ 'hom !'i

:;;ompr€:n~IIiiSw.e encydoped'la ~:o <1'!!11 il1istant gukle to (2) , .. "final'lce

- aH ~:} , updta~'e~, Lill1~Ofl@alsCl .o1f19r'S M-J!n-& sl1iO'pp,i:i'ilg. ,8

4) ,. ,c;lirIan:g~fi'9 menu of JUri! adNivies:for ,al~ the faimlil;Y and fast

",CC$S$ ~ '!he w.on:oers of th~ Ilnl:eu'iet. ~5:~ ,., .. _ , .. ". ~-maill.

Joint~ (8) ." Oiy 8,ritisn lel~QOm and News lii'llterll'lHlltlonall LineOne

c$the mcst comj:)reJhel"lsi'l!'e< OOI-!nne source of nrnformatlQili about whi1U's

Mp!)er'ling uri 1111, UK. It's: ealsyt,o WIse, too, lit's: an 1.7.1." " •• :seU-oontaineodl

area, ,on the IIMernet COMeot'eo (i3l .:':':":":'::": .. ' t'O "(OUI' ~elfSonal Computer, $'0

vou Cil!IiI"I !hop ~~1ween LineOIfli€: area,s t~n " Wihat's mere, ,our uniQuo

lil'leOl'lle II1~ellige:Fiit .Agent \lVi11 ('101 " .. " sl1Jlggel3.t IflH9v\!'th1ngs to loot ~It

Lil'leO,f1Ie ealfll help you get !more tiroffi YOllr' IF'C ,and more eut oi' m,e,

l:ad:llp~,~cl :r[(lm. an Oi!!dv.e~riseJj:rumt for' lille'On~ lin lhl.1' Sm.rd~yrim\lr& .M~%i.rJll}

INCl.!UD:E

D!RECT

R.fi:~d Elke ~xr belo1['" ,a.nd~b~(JlJk of dill;: weed w'i"a.idili. b:es'[ fhs ,(l'.@Jch ~~~~e, Use o!lily O~le WQ tin. ea.cffit siP~(le.

Uigiltniilllg strlilbes

r~ m~1'Ii WhO hQlds tlf1.e retoro tor be;ng, 'Struck. by ~iginli'lii"l'9 the moM. times is e""'i)a"nik ~QIi'i.~i

IRoy Sulliv'1HlI. Mr Sulri"tal'l 'f'O'l,lInd lightlfl!il1l91 m to!o1voki: he' was SUliJclk bll' it. 'On

s~n (2~ ." " .. " .. Ci>CCaiSion51llilrougnom his, lif,e. wi'! ich W'elf\e as, (3) ." ". ,<:I$:

35 years: aparl,

fhe f~rM Ifflcidem in, 1942 was I!I~~ QFilly one \!Yhe:fe he W{lS not ,t4.~ " " i!'lJlJft}ci- n

olflly IOSlllis bignoen~il. On all o()~lher oceaslens. he ~ol1!ld ~.i5~ .. ,.",." ea!i!l!ily ~e lost

his M·e. IIi'I ']97"2 '~ihe 'human, l'igh~1f'lIrr'ig oonduc!(lt' of Vlir9lilrnrai', iflS he was ~nO'Wn. had his hair {€i} ..• " .. " •• " ••..... on fire: blitl: was rlJ~ky Elfiough to :SUli'll'ive, onliv to Ilose' .a,1I hitS new hair

in the same w~y a ye-ar ,later. It 11$ n;!!lrl:i to b~j~e\f@ toot h tnerVelr ,10&( his. enlh uslssm fOf

m .. ,,,.,, .. ,, Ihlobbi~s and! p!Jirstii~s but wlh,en ~igrJil!l'1ilng s.tl\lol\: t,o-rill I'~fd :ll,z~nlh

time in 1977 Ihe was ha'p'prlyliishing~cornpl etely (8:} .....• , •• " •• " •.... that he was abo IJ~ t.o

enter The G!I.iinness Bo.ok of fi1'eO:lrcis. Cln this Oocas.ioii"l Ile ICti!Me 19) ." " .• 110 deOlth

becauseofs'E!vere' chest and s!:om.ac~h1 burns, Roy SI!.! IliVal!1 died in ~ 9~ but was: lfIot klilled by mgnIDrning. !fie wiilS (100~ .. " ..... ",." 0 ... • UP$6it .afuel' bei!'1lg reJec~ed ili'l love and is saicit,o have t.al<ie:n hieS own Ue.

I(a.da .. p!led from nr~ GI1;'~me.~,l: [l'{l!ok of R,r"ord", f 98 '1 @G1:JJuDl1Ie'$s rl1ibl~dliril!!lli:d 1.:5

1 A difHcl.Jlt :2 A v,ariom. ;3 A IOf'llgl

4 A ve,i'V

s A we:11

6 A lit

f A o!!,l'sid'e

8 A I,Inkni;lilNn 9 A dOSe"

1 I) A ~trong'lv·

32

IS i",practioal IS s.epar~lt€i

18> wide

IB hig,hly

B ]<'llr

B set

IB OUiIV;,i',ard

IB !JIl'lb~~iev.able B i'iIe!i>::(

B. h.mily

C nwessi'll"y' C Slingle

C many

C ooriouslo/ C qUiite

C pm

C om-door

C uruhin kungl C !'leanly

C deeply

D :Sl,lit~ible· DOlpart

ID fa r

D poo1iy D rrwdl'il

o got

o outskirts D 1J1i'I.ldwam D almost D highly

IID.~C t~'1I) :s:hQnp.3$:!i3!~~ abOr!ll:[ dle'rainy seaso.n i_!I]j SO~lh-Eiil:S'1: A:!:lta. a:n:d t~.n CODlIP.]cr,e

~kl[,~ruow,. . .

-~ rrver was rtsl i'lIg s~l!1l.adili!{ when '~e~1!U elfloed, !t was, $MI po:;;stl;Jle to olrroe through the :s:tireets. uala Harrl'llU, Ibm dwell\ers iIiIe<ffiirtne liver's edge tlCS!.d taken '~o~he r()o'i"s· .:)1I'Id the bela~lr had hadl ~ ::;jOSoe dCWJtl_ IlJp-SU~11'irIi tihe rain 'ti'ltii'lderJ9d and soen, In 'Ulme 'for OtiJris:trn1iis. Kvalra ~alfl!l;l,J

_ d resound t~ the whip-l~tShi'ngs .of' the' Jrenziied sky"

(;1idlil:~I:(,-d (['Q'Ji'UIi !'\nd'iU)II'IY E-l!nceSS, T1M t(tJI,g Day Willie.:!}

~rl, Oii'll a hOlt. alHerli'l!O'tm~ W'e felt ;ell he~!tn bre<e;;::e hiitliin:gl our fa!l;;,g,s- Sm6l~1 w.aI'JleS lNer~ Ibegliflfling ~ ::rump ·the boolt. The wind hiad (:~JngEid aile! tthe fislll lliQ!d baigulfIll!n,eur an'llIual mig ratJlO:fii -o:1hwa~d. TilE! ImQIlSOo-n that hS:d been blQiNiflg censta f1!tlyhom 'l!he Ind'ian Oce:an,frOni May to Sis1:l!ember now gOii'lltway te th~ dri€'r (:looter monsoonfram Mongolia, The rainy season was ":,.~r, .An '~'xd~('jd yilllag~ r1emarlcied mat OQ'!N i.he crabsElfi'ld 'i"lr'(lgfs. WOlJto!;aIS:~a beller,

13till'ipto:;g, Ji~oril'(T!l_,Q[!1t'i!S O'N .. il1. "11Iw M~k,Qii'og Ri~'" N~UQlr;f11 G!ID,gil'~,f)b,it:l

~. [Iillc el,j1elillS J1CU!JflJtiOlited iinei1lc!lt ,.ai!;:sa:geQn il:he 'lLlnoe tifte:5 b~JJo!W. as ~ntffile ex.(1!!mlp~.,~, I"~:ge If

d~le rUlsirnl;goi Ithe riYi0r

• ~Qyirn£w rh'e roofs: t~eclosil!lg of the bazaar

P~age'2

e~Jd ofte~m.

d)I;;aJ~n u!p~n,re~t.n e')I~g~l!tti[D:g iFt!. Kl'l~laH:aI:1.ttl

u I waves around r~e bon! ) I ci1iil1~g,e ia the wiillidl

: mlgratlon o·f ehe fis:h

eae hm:llfi~i'llOO[!

d~ H1»,n$(:Iun fl.'Oiftll dlli~ Ind~a1ili Ocean e} ~.he!,l'!illlage[;1'5 l'etn1l,1li:rk

:0 IrJlstie'!:' crabs aad !illQ,gS

Form :Affi'r'~Mi~it!~

I worked, ere, ,

Ne.g~tilAe

I djd not (d:id~mL't) ~vOirk~, etc"

Q,ue,sti():t1: $J}C'tt t1tt$,wers

Dud you world Y6" 'ill d~d" No, I, didm.'tt:.

s,oDil{l l!'iru'bs have ,i.'!Jn :ll'l:'egWalr' .affllicma,1:ive 'f,o:rlRl~ For a, cClrrn:r,lete Ib:;,t o.flhese gee the baek olf rheb@cJ!.:..

Use

Well.lS~ the past s.iwpJe tense to mlk r3&OUIt co~~plet:ed. 3!Cfio[Ui:' m; habits. ~Il the' pasr, We use jill wh~ so:me defm~te point OJ:: pe:rio~, :ID dme is meonrioned of!J.IndersJ'ilOOci,

MJI! /,.J,:IslMJ,I'd a~d J MOlt i" #18 kwt 1'Mr()f $cb(u:;tl:

Whei!\l I !ws: m t'l'}'(! marbt t~),rs ~~rni:!1!g I s.ad/ Pat. (iil;'5 now i.'IOOrJiloO:nJ) ,As a mj~(J 1 ff,~!I'er smy'e>tJ, up io$er /:11.(lnntiJ'll!l! 0' c-lQ'Ck.

NI,)m~ III dn~ ~a8t ~~!I1~le~ we' ~olJld U$C' Illiil'l: pffitf;1iS~ used fW tot .. ll; aboll!it put habit [rl!stea~l

A:s ,Ii ,fnYd I nwerused:l di'dn~' :i'M'e 10' ,stay 1~P .•.

IFQ'J'lQ A,ffimttlb!7e'

I W'lt$wotkillli®f etc.

guestic!~1

\Vere you wotrk ing~

Ne'tl~~!1e

[ was not: (WaJSlll't) wor'kiilllg. &1'C.

Shorf. 4nc~~I'S

y es, 1 WaS'. No~ I W'iIH!:ml:~t.

Uses,

11 We usethe post' OO!'lt:m!xQ~!S renee to()~~dk abQl;n alcrio:!1-'S ~n ,rogre~s in the past OITO!l~ a pi:1lnicilldaj'p~mc mliD.e,

1 Uta'S probnbhJ' ;wo1illl;in:g il~ ,~h{l garden wh>ett )'ou :r(j\Ng.

My fa~'ily wa;s: livri'~g jTI GcmMJ'>y atth'e' t"me; the Berlin W~J'I ;Ctj'n;lQ dmiJIl.

The ,~ctiomll;s al!'~ !liIStl.ilUy ]omtg;il:['. mrhe:r d:l!'IlII sho!i!rel" !'IllIirl \W 11I['t Il;()[' m,oflll3Uy inl"e~es«:d in when t~e tpaSt coli'il'l:if!ltl.(Yl.[~ a,~r10]l st~~ or finiShed.

2, As wt:J~ as ta.IlkJug ,:'lioout oae geBeI<l1 idea. ~ a pa;s>t <lelian in progress) it .is ~f!l!. to thjnik, a,bo:lJjr.rh.c uses or i:~e lP'astC:Oill'l:ElllUOUS '~eJtseihat are listed .in the FoUowing e~e.E!clse,

34

1 Look. 3:EEh.e descriptilloillS of uses :in Hand maf~ch ·~00l. to eaeh ]>arur of e~~rn:p~~ sent'fmj~~S i .. ]1=4.

a] ro pwyjd.e' ~i;:!.;;gJ:'lou~d d~s<:ripti on or. d~raJil. ~f:I;lJi $t'O.ry

b) fO' d~${:f'~b~ acdo!!1swhich ;;:i;reill1:eeJ'rupre.d

c) 10' talk about ·reoolP(i.!."~ry situati,ons; inthe pasr

d)t~}talk :about two ]O'Jlgetl" ac,tiof!!!l 'Wh:iichli!:ti.pp~i:'i. 3r the S,Uilil.¢ dome

,] Saurah wail ta_U,mng ~o ,S(lWI5(HiII.e O]JJ the pbene as I 'Wa]ked in,

The fiilm. wru jiUSll gJ!t!l;llfi;g iifil!i'(l[''(l!ltiRg'!,l;hen tihe rJCtliu.'e W'CliIt.

-2. We beeh bad friends who W\eill!'!: s~a.y.ims: i_n Sp:ail'lJ llhaE' Sl1I:nme!:',

I ~1!>lli~J]!l' seaeked f~e shd'!"eS but m W~!> woI)H..;)rng, at dlL'~ cheek-aut !!hatweek .

.3 l'iIDe c~i~dliio,ticsd tEu;3!c the mall. Was holdilmlg an Urlli.!!8ll!a.J stick,

Th,~ :rain was b~liitig dJOW1liI QlJ!ui,ideand duo: druLld,['Ie:A fromt'h.e f11li.t ftl;eMf door WeJ'~ tl!umi:n;g and ,SC[\~;lmwllg i~t.h~ haU,way.

4 ] wars 'trying to work wbile SO[ltle(:!i!1J!e oUJfs~de Wi!l$ drilmLiq; ..

The poUce di-dn'[' killO--:w tllil.at:[lfuJe !!hu:rde:re!:' w.as ,siniir:lgin. j:~i~ accused {ld thefl; ill 11 the lime t'l~y Wt[\~ ~ooking rO,rMilI'i ..

;2 Colttlplete the iSrJlDlY !;do,,", b'Y PlJltt~~g ~he verbsin iIlr:aclwu ,into, eit'l:rucr t~,c: P!ast simpl{l: 0:1: pa:s:r ~Oi.J1!J~IJ!i!s:(e":Sie.

A yo~ng IEII1Igiishi l~ngUlag9' $'G!Uld~IM who m _." .. , ... , .. ".""._ .. __ .. __ .. _ .. _ ~spend} the summerr illl

Brit<lli'l"l, '12) •• " "." " " .•• " ~d\ecide' one· d~y ~hli~t he' wourd ii~e ttl, ~sit a friend! i FI anot11u~r

town, HalVlingl just oorilea unit inl hi! cQliJrseOOQK em 'pUlblk transport', he en ... _ .... _ .. _-_ .. _ .. __ ... __ ._-_ .. -

hhink) it would !be: a good idea lO t?lk.etrte trairJl" H,e' ~4) " __ .. __ .. __ .. __ .. _." !g:et) ready to

~&.aJV€: w\herliltlie slLfiddeillly j5~ _ ... __ . __ ... _"_ ... _ ... __ ., .. ".,,._ jlre.alis~~ tnat tl"l;ere w,as one im:po!'UI1rilt

)

phr-a&e ~hat me, co:urseibook he (6) " .. " ...... " .. _ .. __ .. _ .... " .. ",. (I.!se~ at SChO(l1 n-ad fIIOt taught h:im.

&-lei') .. _ _ ... _ ... __ . __ .. __ .. __ .. __ .. __ (t:al<.el OUI his alctionalry ;81 11 dah,a'Fa short seard"!J

~8) " .. " .. " .. "." .. ". !find' lihe phrase 'return ticlt1ef. ,Nrivillgl attne llrailfl statiom!; he

~9~ .. _ .. __ .. __ .. _ ... _ .... _ .. __ .. __ .. __ . {w.allk:~ Ibor,cty ~p' oo~lh9itic'kQt office anti in hii5 best Eil'l!gi'i$h~ooent

saidl~o the main """mo (~()) __ .. __ .. _ __ ,, __ ,. !$i~) !)It the ,des!;;:: 'I'd m~e a returlfll tieket,

pte~se: The man (1 U ." .. " "- .. -_ .. __ , .. ,,,_ Istare) at. h~m for 091 mOment 'ClrueBtiofi"ling!y andl

~hie-n ,~12~ . __ .. __ ... _ .. __ .. __ .. __ .. _ __ .. _. (:a:sik):'Wlrne:re to?' The ;s'tleld~n:t. who was used t:o his lteachielF

di!!ildngl him SU(;1'i questions ee ,c~eck that he I~all,y i(1:~U .. __ , .. " " .. " •• , . ~Ulnd'e~·stillnd) ~he

me~l!'nil'l!g of [he words he 1(11 41 , _ _." " _ M~el, ~ooked1lXlnfideliitty book at ~he' marl

snd ~,epliedl: 'Ba~1< here, ,of ,oomse.·

Form Affit##it'iw

I b.:IlJd (r~) WBJfkoo, ere,

Questjw

Hiiicl yOU! worked?

.Ne,gat:itte 1 bad nct (b~n'r) worked, 1$:.

511,01"1. ,affSwP'g

Yiii:5~ I Iir3lc. No. I lUia,dn·~,

Uses

1 'W'h~:l1. al:ready $aik~n~ abO't!t .~ past we U~t 'the p:a.s;r pcrieot ttl ·tillk abo/ill' ~m. earlser paM' time.

Hi'$ /ac:e UHJ£ f_(jmili~r. 1 had met him iWJ1J~iilIh.e.a. heliJ"e.

Th~ hotel W'4$?I't p4r,ti'CldtJ,-ly gGod but J Imd $~ i~ many .that were lQ()1'5e.

2: Vel! use the past perkct rense W!n1lID ona p.as:t action is dos>tly GOl!1:fl:~ed to 3JJiOith:er 1:0 s~uwwhi:~b ena happened f.irst.

We~dy Jmarr"t feft rhe:. key 50 J dimbed thmJIgh a wi:ndQW.

Thi~ .. laSe :i.j"'e~ C.(iom ~n with fJ!'i1I6 'ii'ortls. 3J1d phi.aJses such as~

Mo~:~ of d,e g!l'ecsr,s 'n~d refit l~y ~.~ !tiiPne I ,g:o/ ,~be"~, It: b.egan eo rm'n just q,fter the fUll!;] hil sMrttd.

NOTE: The P3:!>l" sUi!.li!ple (mot the pase peiifec~~ .is il[loodif O~ action is a:11 .i • mediare :re3!Clt0I!'1 to anorher,

lJ'hc~~ he S;!ilW' J}j(J: (i1lCe (It thll t'I,dl1doifV •. be fQ,inted.

Tht1 chiid ~ped (:ryi'!l"JgI1~ $OO\l'la~ 3he l'tISlgbt .:s;~h·t Q.fher' m!Otblf)'f.

Form

Alfirmat.ih'fJ Negative

J bad (I'd) been W'mk~ngj. etc. 1 had no! ~.h3.dltl;if." b~D!I wo!!'ik.ing~ ere,

Qu.es,tr,Qn

H!'iId YOy been working?

Short .a1t'5U!er$

Yes, l h;a,di, NQ~ .~ hadl'l'f,

/

U':S!6 'WeUlse ebe pas1) peJ.ifect (:c(lotin:!lofl!ls tense 'l:Q tall abO"Uil an .. etten w~lkh h3!d been lliil. !progress: befoee aJoother ..

. 1~d been quf_e$/Yr.e4J!'ng t~~p" before the.~rr{lJ11 C'O\tl\lp4rtmQRt filled ,r.i/,'.

I,:uke, the past' ,OOndilitllio:u.s,. it is used to t3,IIk a,bQut the' lenger, ba.ck,ground ev~lit$ ~n3i ioory. I'd bun 'Ws,ftmg d()"to~$ for sev:e.rQ! yeM'5 tJlim M'8 :same 'm~fJh1ijJtt bqfJ!t'e itw.tU oo,"IJ'Ctfydiflg!J'O$(fd,

The p,hli'tiM below are :f()]!lcrv.r~d. by :a :spGcI,3Ji pauenl of reJitS~: the ~n s:impEe when them, is a p['{~ent focus ['otlits Slll[1.i~ilI:CS,. and t~ past f!eF.f:e:ot wh~[I~he« is I( p~:S1)focl15",.

P!:le~~n!focus

- It's ;ti~ we werit/we.re gt;Ji~g i:N:nne. (I 1:h~nk we~bollAld go.) 11'01$./;' YOR d~;"t h,(l'!le t@ go, {Y Q~ Jru!1V~ 'EO go w.hi.ch makes Jill_£; sad.) l~d' ralh~r UM ~1:l't t;og:etb'6'J'. (lmanl:: il:jS,j i~d :p[1~fcll' 00 go 'tDg,e~h€]'F)

!Past focus .1 U)i'!lh he btiJnjl, ~me. (fm not lILa,p!!' {:il!alI Ere C!ol'mlfl'.} J'd mthi'!t'JiIJ:e hadn't 5,¥-yed so lillo. (We Sil:!2!~ Iarerthan ID waneed to.) 11 ;f).tJiy' :vou Imdn':~ i~ft. (l"mt l!un;ha:PIPl' that ytJUi left.)

--~----~--~.~~~~----~~~~------.~ ..

3, M.3iEth i!l1:n~~lU;ces m=6ro the ,exp~~mldon~ gjJV'eR WI} a-~,

] It's time wehad a, :ho~li.daJy. il} Thisene I:!;: il'~ill1y d,itl'ity •

.2. I wilsh w~ had had more 'l:iJlIle" J b) J !feaUy W3nlfioo u) SMy .•

3 I w:ish we had a few more days:, '.1 Tile (:rlrn~&ire kmb awful,

4, I'd mrhcf y,re. stayed ]11 a hotel, • d) Irwas v,e.ry expensive.

5 If on~y wlll"d roli.llnd a. he:~tell betel, e'j, I'd ru3.lIy Li.lk,e to see SQ!1J1Je mQ!ru sigllii.r.s ..

6: I'd ui'lli.!i::r W\l: hadn't S'i'..8iy,ed S'oIO:I~g. f} W;G deserve ~.i:mei;1Jk,

,4, Leok a~ ~h~ (\OU(¥!, jiDg p:arirs o~ :seiu:eilli!t.,(iil, 3iiiid d~sclJs:!l ~lke pO$s[b~e djHeJ)e;liIIo~..s: :un. meamting wrutllil. a:Iili(l~ltier $1ii!i.dl~iIDE.

Ex~!lnp~.,e:

;tj~ Wh,e'~ 'IN€' gQ~ ito. the cornelf~ M~Uhew waited ..

T.l1i$ '\!:I~al':l\$J <MaJ!t~J'C'~v wn'~ ,with. Iiils ,(J"'ld w:{u,m: U!\!l' ~ot toO' tbe. COt~~eil' l!t,e s,~'Ot)'pe.J'.·

b i When Will gmmo rlfrl.eCiode:r" M3tth,L;l'WW.:iI!l wa.i.~i:[Ig,

Th.is means: "J!,jIat,th!!!1V was n,ot ({lith u&. Wh~n 1m! giOt' tv the comer he ~. there .W.tlili~g (ow :tiS,. '

1 a) I 'W~u;: roldtbat my bjenGs !~i1I!di'JJ"t W8it~d Wi' me,

b) I '!'<'!J!!S: 1t~Id!tha~ my friend~ lillgIJgn"E been w!1drung f():n" me.

1 a' TI!lJe' ,ct.d~d[~nw~nlt eo bed wln::IITI. their p.u'ents! g.(:HI l!lome.

b) Tifue ,tlli'i.dlr(l:!:! bad goolril' iljQ bed whc1il ~tlieir ~!re!'n$g(:lil' lH.!Ilm!t..

.3 31) .Mary dkln'r dr]vc' SO S~fte didn"l: llave: a. !C31, b) M4I.ry hadn't· dr]vetfll so she d:id:l1,'\t bJeve a car.

4 a:~ !~tgtl~d wlM. rny wHe winc'.I1IliI.cf parenit's c'ana~,

b) .W was 3.rguing w~m lIlY wife when llite'l ran~:!1rr$ came,

5 a) ,[.l!)cy hadn't !been .deepj:!'l:g well .!:'llt all before !I':heinl1)ef!,i'i~w, b) lucy djdl!rn't :dm'lp wei] aJli all b~{'Ot.e rl'l,t; rnnteT:v1.m'i',

iii a) rd .r~ther Yl)'J[g, d~id:A'\r, come '!i.vitll us.

b) Pdr.aJt'her Y'O'!Jll1ad:n'ir COMe wilith !.I$,

,ill S~ Ih·.... ..... 11..-"

I~ '::' __ .O'~ s"ory ~llngo

'[mol: o:frwQ, unu$;.utrlolf a~:U$\i:ng IhiitIDgs tti::la;[ h3.¥~ In "lPipened ·to }'iOlil in d1e iP~I'1'iWld,I!ii;1;I1k ofboiW yO:ll. cam 1l(d~lillesc ~toI',ie!l" .lo!l)i( at the woffil~ wothe b:ii!l!1:(1 bl]c1'ije51 beJow i!'.o heltp },O!l!l. r;C)lDlill'ID~J:'~ 3Jh:lu:lI.1gh ~lli JII11l.lst [lQt lillie these w·oro.s ~fJ lCmn.g yow:' :'iihon s:~IJ},d~:,

NO'i:V tl11inik abo:H:t Siomc (Jf the v1l!)ca~fwlMf. you 'Wifi11 need ro reJI iii(lllllff !ltOrtC's,

r - ,f

T'aik{l: it .lntUr!!!IS MI teU !{Q:UIl" st(lf.je~ t'O, ~he class,

B~lmv .;1100 tllrol bj!!1;'go cams. y!O~ 'Willl:l he giJ'IiI'C!1l 0\1;1& of ill1emiO· .ifi,tn:K otUi~lIIr ,cant .As YOIl ~:Stej] to ~hJ~ :S!I:·ora:e-s i.[iom. of.!IDtr Ini'Ul:m'bcrs .(if tthe claiSl!l li'illfiiiJl1II X ~ti ·tffii.(l box OillfOllr ,card il€ yO!\! m.~<l!r· .1'!!!1. ~'O"eIl1!l' oriiflj~id~mtr :illt a S;EOI11' 1:11111[' ,oouM be ~ei~i"e:dl ib'yo:!'l.e of dlJe pJllica<S~$,

Wben}'!OIl_ila'lic .af.u)lriz(i!l1lta:l~ li'Jl:£hcaJ '1;1.11' d~agotll"<!!~ ;Uirlie iI).f tm-tee p~:ra:!ie!i. S:IruOilJ:l 'B~mgo~' .. Y.OtlI wUI. inllJe:n ii1I3¥~ ;tiO ~pt3illll to' dte.ies{:or[ ~lIDe class wihic'll~h[\~e ~1!I.~~l!Iits or eve!1flll :maJtd]~jb~ l'i!UJf,all~ :If,O!.'! harvel ,lmJi<!r1:ed,

Tile, :t'iir.s~ ([le~f)I'Jru~(I!' .g~jt 1t1;,~O QO~Ct. liiITt¢s. i~~ Jhie wirl1Iile!'.

:B

Work: with ~:\Vlll o~;her s'~Udemll!!i •. IIlI '~our :gr.€HJI(l' dcc~de llipO'R 1ili story to ~:erul dille ~-!i:l of du~ eless. Tbe :smty has eo 'be :aib('wu: S(]Jlmu:l~b~mg il:hil.t hils hafliPe'J1ecil(l) o~e member ,oE' ~ihl,.': gro~1P. 3:r.ld. ~t'miI!lS~ be: illte·.

\1I'1li.e!i!'i. Yi!)U bave decilif@icJ on 3. s~lOry.~ dhdde: it Up' so ~hal[ {):1iI1i; pe;r"$Oiii. tcn~ druc li~lliliniiijifig. !ilJIOt!~!~'f P'eifSOD dl.e middle ~!ld! ~he d]!!xd pell'solft ithe end, M~~~ $1)1" iN~ry :m.i.lmrn,,(lt elf th~ .gKi'IlIP' has :aIlI. It'Ji,e: f~ct$: the!/, ueedto ~~]~ Ilheiir p.3rt of tllitoe ~tnJ:y.

W.lrneli'ltclUog ~hc :stoiFY to. Ilh:~ fC$i!: oJ rille class. ea~bm.e:m!bu of dll.C!l!Imulp Hllil:sllelll j~ a!!i d:lolU;gh ~[: WeFe: .I1IWhcrs:['O(rll' (1!lI~~iII1S:tffilJe lP:Cfi'Ol'Iil pm'![)I'IO~Ii'lS .3M PO$s.~:ssi'l'ie ~di.ecli.\!e~ .t. :t',tl\l1', 'lIY, orw. ~i,I;.). Terullrh~ ~noifya$if you W·~M [1~3;lilly ~r.ndved lin ",ball bappe!ired a!!'!d ~:ry a:rrud gi\IC YOilliflrn$t:CliI.em:il:

- the il}ackgrc!UJ!J!d shl!l!ainoill .! :>cltLIW,gJ

~ iHlIP>ort~ll~ di~"!,ript:i:ve ~1il~fofllitl:art~(IIil. a'bolalt'thc ,c'h!il;r~lCili~ J e'Ii"eiltUi' - .a. sense o~ !ilj~tfci~iIi:iO'JW in '?iI'3iii:l'nIg ~O!i' dle: end,

Af~le:r each. ~!JQO' dl~ lI~Sit '01' the dlJiSf~ C~1i! .!!lsik tl~ ,~I)I.e-Sti.o;li'ls to amy p_jc!:llbciI" of ~:true gmru .. p ~bGtrut dle s~!llI.rlf'. n~, rC-SII: o{[b,c class wilill til.en bv,e; eo {!ll!1es$wlHt(l~c s:towyi~: was.

EX_AM IFOCUS

Read tlhe ~:exl helow .3i1ld '[hrunt (l1.f 'tbe word wlruidh b~i;[ frulS ea.cili!. Sf;1lce. U!i~:QiIlly Q\I1:!] word i:l'I. cadi. S'P3£:C.

Ad'ol1l'1ifi'tiUne j,n 'Chi'IlIB,

-) - - - - --

At 15.'000 f~t on th;e ~lal~al!J o'~ il~~ lin China Ul@'l'l;! ~:s Ir!iOWhe~,e '(0 ,hide. The· snow flew

lite~m,O"N'S. 'fine Tibml'1llher(je~ Mer,ga, w~o' m _ .. .. _. fmciflQlihis IlIcws,ethmUigh

~he storm. se:8lrched in vain 'for :sheit~r. Whe:t1I v,lslbllity dropped 1:0 n~r zero all we co:uf:.d do

{'2) 510iJ) ~hd oluMh IUp the tnO~$Ie£ .. Huddledroge'lirner, h@€ioS bO\Nedl, we

let:~he storm lJeal,Q'i'iI us,

My goo I was to' travel the h,lt1Igth 'olf tine Melllol'1lQ. the world's tws:IUh l(jfl~e:M niver. T'Q ~eaCh this: pltlQe~ ~ ~3) ........ _ ...... __ . __ .. __ ...... ~rdYellied a thousand miles by old army jeep from X1ning,

N!)'IN, as we $h'€i!l~eredi oohilldl our horses. I \i!iOnder,~d j~ we 141_ __ ih<'l'!lB t.o turn

~()k. Them, the st'Jrm lifted. as suidde;rnt'l" as it (1O~ _ beg!!JJl, leaving a bruisl1l{:i

grey sky.

We rode ,e,riIotiher hour vol __ .. __ _. (;omiingl~o, dl so3il:alry, cone.-.sil1!pedllrlllli. 'The

holly mountain.' IMeigl!! saMt lie r,ea:dilledi iru·o .i1II sacldh~~bag and 1J1J11€'d out a stack of coloured IP~pem IPlir'l'ted wiID Buddhiis'l: sC:if11pll:lre. He shouted anc:lfrL!nrg lIhe p~ayeffi htglhi in.l£llih~ air .i3I1'1d

'watched 'I1_appiiv rn .. - -- .. - -- .. -- ~M ~nd s.w~p~ them awaV.

We rode betliiind the rnolUf1Itain a riid fOUlnr:l ,a sheet O'f ioe SOil'i"ie 300 Yiirds long ~ shaped (8:} .. " •• " •• " •• " •• " •• , •• " •• , an Murg'lass. Cmu:ching dO'\l¥ll'n .on til€! hQz~n $urf~C!!),. I

(9) heal' Ibelow a Mcldie of water. It was the beigill"ining notes Cif the'

Mekong. Mike anti I flO) beoome,. as[:ar as I can discover. ttie f~rM

WeMemjol,!!rn!ldfl$~s to Ile~r ltie'm"

(adllpt~d.rrom. IbO:I'IfI<ls O'Neill" 'Th~ M.do~!I1i JlA,,,,c:,,'., N!!I!tj,o~~1 Grogrllph,j,")

r

.2 Eirrol!' ,CiO'l'ir,ee,tion

~ Tb~ $~:telil.ces helot" are .nOlI: grnmm::1ltcicaUy ,CIlUetf. T,IIC}' ~dJ 'OOIHI~lI1JHOIfl:e tliIl.11:eoen.ary WGP" WQ(r:ici!rlJg M~]m_ iIiII:'iOi[h~1i s~-dI!,'(lIIt, idl~IID['iify the o::tii''aI Word 3J1id cress it ou~~.

1. I!M, rea/d. the book ,thell I >saw the: fjh:n.

1 Ii~H1V{:: tlo~d the po~ic:e e!;'elytilhi~lg W know ,last! week. ,3. I WaS, rrl.~sbed my f(,lcay fMough tllil,e door,

4 A lat of peo])!'e had ,Ief!: a:l1 ~ gO[ there,

5 The HiOJ~ was bei.n:g Iilli\i!1I;'(:d. ,a lCl~~g tim.e ago.

b NiO·w d~$clJ~s wrutffil your ~:Sil;'me.r ~lI)wY'!Xu ,ooll[d(\~place the words im, ila]ics '1",~i!1:lriaW'lO'tll,cr wQ!r-di rn.:r pJitirntic 'lio :ITIIUlte: the SClI1t<e:mrn"M CCif'.I!~,. WIDtItiJO'I.U: mikin!g 3lilY oltherdma~s.

EXti,m,pl.e: U ~ 1 h~d r'eaii' t/~e book: ~ 1 SIJUI rh.f! fiim.

e lead ,the 'tl1:X~ lil<eIQI,,,.. ;:;'IlJid ~oo!k caJl)efl!1n~ at e;;'!;ehlilQc" SOH'i~ ·o~ [ffit<: llii~!l'.S; ilili:lQl: (ar.(\e~t" 3il1lid S:!lJiO.J~ :b~ve ;~ worn wlt!iJCjh slli.,QIllM net be ~'be.!.'e, If ~ Hr. ..... is OOIDf(l:C!U,Pl.!lt aJtilik [by ~t.,n ,~, line' b!J51 ~\l'Q!i"-d1 w'hiid1. !iilJloliIM no'!: be ~bere~wm"~ret&~ W(!ifd;;ltl: th:~ c!I1dl o:f rffile l:iil1.e. Tm..erc ;a(\e two. cx:m;mpi~ :;'!it t[,.c: begL~..fiI~ (0 <\lind! 0:0).

.0
00
2

~.
5.
16
"7
:8:
9
Ul
11
12
13
14
. ~!5
410 A br'e!:llk·ilrll

TlI~ere are SQr!l'i1! things yOU! don't 'forge-[ ,q/lJliG~ly aM ,oO\mrlig hom~af~~r Oil "" .

break·in is Ibeing 'O:lleorth~m. I lived in iii! Sim a iii nat. lin IBrii$n(l1 at tM' tim€ .bei~ iQ had h~ppened. As I op€riied~tlie door I i mmedi~h~liy h¢w thail sO\m¢~hing

was wrong because .of the c{)ldl air eemi ng hom the, b:ro~~:n wilfldO\'!!'" The th~€v~$, I $Up,p05.e~lhene wer!$ moOr€! H'~ln. Olfl;~. had been emptiedl ,ewrytl"iii"lig

Qii'tlt'O the floo~. My cl!o'lhe'5. my booksalfld ~he' co ntsnts Of <III the dr<JJlN.ers

lay dO"Nn in hont of me ,iilS I walked lin. ihey Ihadtak'~n low 0''1 pllF,oorml

thillgs~h .. [ I wishaft.r!lf IlhiBd Milk/en eut wi~h me that OBY'. Ir~ is. net that you

millld ~osingl ltiWe: '~[rii9$ like ~ n'ldilO' or -mhl& sm~liarnou"'t of c:a~hyou klee;p

iii! the hQ!!J~ but it is the way burgliars ofl1~ril iiFl'~Ii!!J~e mt(l oclihe.r peopJe's

I~i;r:-es. The thieves had ·gon>e lluclLJgm ,all~ the' cupooards in thl) bedroom

and 'WIer!:! tern alii my clothes" They ,eVl:lill took my cornpl!.Jteli ~mdl all the

disks, which rl'le8Illi~ I WOIU Id h@<i te s~e!1!d weeks lrepl~cing my wonk. I

repQr~ed ~h!3! bUl~gll~rv to ~he 1001 i~e, who w@r-e very sYIir"IIPa.th,ettc; .. al[ho!J.gh

th~y lhave i nformedl me 'that tlt~re wa$ not much chance til~;;U I would :s.ee

my possessions, again. I WillS used tlO' be quite Q9iSiue!l about secL!rilly but I am more cautioilJi5 m:!lW bet .. mse, I hadl hate to thin!!:: of i'l h.8ppeninglt'o me again .

ll[AD-IN

1W:idg, aJ[!g.1he[~tlll.ldelltJ 100k :at it:he words WB tle hex be'luw ~~dI d!~ud~\Vhe~l&.~r ~:IID~lI' ":1)[> likel,)' 'to be used-as COlltJtabk IilOUlIilS !(whha, pruumL w!:m) OF f,fnctJl~:hii'ab,r:e n~!.lI[j:S (wi~h;QIiII ,;1 pl,I.!!!r;d ~Q(fml).' \l:.lii:lt~: 'c' OI' "II.!~~ Iil'e:l!t to eacffil .I1B>Il.f!I. Cille:clk Y'0ur i'!(!]J$we.liswitl:. alriiO~IID@J p;liiir Oif ~il!ldeillts.

history pan~:ry

bal1kirng doc~~~,-Dt~

wo!:'ld dQQ\!'

goM '~r i!'ll£Qnl'!a:~iQn

ooiFeiglfil. c!lII.r.l'emcy oolLe'CtiQ:ffi)

,2: The werds amd p~'tf:'as(l!l in boL~ prilllt ilil tllct~xiIL "'~~o:w aJ[\~ i0x:al!t:lprnes oflmw arrtkles are:

Ils~1 ~niE[lgl:isllt • .llead tile teXJi: !J!ud CO;mphjlh~ dAte; 'lJ:se ~f ,a~fi,o~~5' ii:abrue I/,Jy maulcliliing al least '(Illie I.'lX3mp~(': to eaeh ru~e.

Thee JJnnkof&glgnd M'ti$lmNt

~~g~sh aR;:1!'I1~~ Sir John Soan:e. has,n ~13C()llStl'iijcted and (11) ~ videos '€live

!lin ~ 12~ the ~ of the natiorl's central banI<. (l3) Uve j ...... 8 ' info:r'Wati:onabout ssG!Jptim. ,~nd f141 foreJsn GIJ~ is 'Il1ven at a deaUng desk. which is ieentieal to 1bQse 'ill dailV q&& m ~ ~k. and vi$jtorsC81'1 imogioe themselVe~ in tt:1e

w~dJ)f highfiflalfloo" '

2: 'Theis II.l:s~dI widlmiU 001!l!:DS· wh.ellli da..e reader .S1I.rea.dy kll:o,~ dl!e p~it't:ik;iIJLa[!' rlIing we are tl:llLkjr,s: !.!iboUit. l.e, h: has 1:l~!J mem~]Q!:l!ed bd(l~,

iEJ.ai:mple: """ .

I :] The ls I:l~d Mil! all [iOIJIIlcSW t<ll.k ollboitif pal'tlciliar tbi:ng.~ w.1ID~1il .: ~. sa.}' which Gili'm/ones w,~

:::pl.esi ". '"" ~ , ,,,., .

'] A I 3:11 .i:'l!l.lsedl Wilt.&i.C:QIlilIllUl,blt nouns Wi:le:iiI. ~o!Mlethi;lllg ls 1:llentiooedi fuil"~h~ fi~sl!' ti:ltl:ll!. w!hert Wl'! mean '(dl!f::r·e is)on~·.

Examp.~e: , , , ,'''', " " ..

l A./iiliil. is used ",~id] i;:QI!:!I'l!u~Me' IlQU:ITI,~ tQ sa.)' whalt ~Qmethimg Q!:, someone is, e.g. gjv:ir.Jig a defiltitWM. of oo.!lJ!efrll]ng~ QII' sa:yil1_gw,h;a;[ SQ!rJbeO!tle'!l(H:'Otressio[l ]S,

E~IlI[l~p]e: ., ." .. ". ",. "., ... , .... " .. " .. " .. ,'

1 No ;'i['tide is: ased wirr.~ phl!!'a] .UilJ. 1I11:00;J)l!tlN.bie 1l0~;m:il .. \!!~e:11 !,\\I\e'i1!!ret\'lrnki!Jgaj)Ql,l!t~.llLil'lg;s, ill general. whe_rt ''lie .IT:Ie.aflJ ·.aW ..

EX!lJm:p.~e"'s.: •• , .. "" ...... ".'" .. , ..•• , .... " .. , .... ,'

lz NQ ~ni.de ~~ used ·w.uthp'ill!r.al. ~Ild I!IIIU(;OI.Jin:ti1lib~ noums,w~.cn s)Q!m~~Mng is Im.~nt~.onoo ircl th(j;

ov •. -,,,l",, . "It,,: (i""," .,;--->: ,woill.. ... ~ Wi'!' -m; .e:!litli ') .. '1 · '." I ~:""',~"'.- -- -"-

.",l'(" ].vE ._~ ,"".,' •• ,:m!l:._U""',._"'. ' \~~_ be ,"""1 ... OoHle ,

EUlnpiiC:!i' " , .... , ....... ,." ... " m, "" "'" .' ...

REFERENCE

" DJS!C!I!!:5lS Wii~'h!i!II1_t;Utite,F sli:ucdenro: wh~rlll,clr dl,¢ ~-I)l[Iowimig $t!i!!t~m~ni!:S a1!)e t_rue er false .. 'fh~il ohedk }'.OUf <I!_ID!:;;W'e!i':5 by f-e~d~ng Sec~i:l)t:I$ A atJild .18. '~Io·w,

1 A $i:n:g~lar ccu:lnnlb.le [II01i1n~ a.g, iboy., caa be used with :11:0 .1lt[ide. 2 The w'fird tlJ~w.si!S used w.ltm a. si~Ja,r verb fonlli.

a In the (onc)wIing ~1[~nClebolt~ aleernanves 3['1('; gi'81lfr1lfr1atrucrd~y CoOl'I!'Gct:: I t/~inJ!. J need a ctJff.g~ Is'C)me tXJffee.

'" We ca:ll~ilIl~. ~bollt a p,reet! ,01 ~dlJic;f? and ,/J piece o/eqJlip.mf1wt.

1 Cauatable ",Quos ale those tba:t ha ve both a. pll1fa( and singuhll( form: things J persQlilS t~a,t we can count'.

t1 pt:)./it'fmJ4Jt two p.aliamm Mf amuhaiT set1el-ai armdwirs

1-_"";;"

42

.2 Sh'igula:r ro!1.J1n1~Me oo;u!'l;$ 'N1uSJ be used !W5taJan artid\t or :!ijnw~.I' word, The :heardrnasw needs a VlofJt."lwr W berp'.,

E'veryvo.lunteeT is welc,ome.

:3 Plural, cotl._ntabh~ noww C'aJl beused W'i!tb no a!:tld~ Qf" w~tjh so-me 0r any.

Prieu Me ,fl.WlSr#lliy h~h t1#5 ;tEal'.

S~1ffe boo,b .IulW gone- mj'&&'i~ /T:mn. th~ Ubrtiry. ArenJ:e there' aIt1 o,.eili/JeT 'th'Oes lc{t:?

-----

t UAooollnta ble 1'I0'l.!I.rt'II!l, do nor ha,ve ]!I p~ural form an~ are ~lwa:ys, I.lsed. .. l'il'!i a S.illgl:l~M' ~rm of the 've1b.

T.he WM:fhe.r .has bun "arty 'terrihJt lauly, The informl1rion isn't ron,I.pk.U.

2. U[loo'l!lfiUbie nOIlW'lS cannot be l.IiS$d with Ih~ il'ld.&ii[ll!;¢ atticle la I an)" Th,¢v can be

used with .som~ a~d :lily 0,< no alttfiJIli. '

T.hne i'SHOt an:r milk left.

,Bread and wafs' ar« .in short supply,.

3 5o:metint.es, howe:v:e.r. 'We' do wisb to ta]kabout 'qllil!lmity~ with IllnO:;llllttalblc nOUIil!! and rm we: h:a!V'e to use a special st.r!,l!!l:rure~

I n~oe,d a bar' of 5(),ap. tnot 'a, sna~)

My {lfmily ,~it-.s fout" lo"w:.s of bread a d4.,. (fJ.'!lt 'four brei!llds!)

4 Ute nOOlls below are UROOlultalole in E:ngl!iJSb but read to 1l'J.e, countable in otlter la!lgua.ges. All me nouJR;S in. boM pr.m:{ can be used with I:Rc phr~ II! pie(:1! of.

. 1

An jmpotU~t. pieq:: (if fUJl4ipmfm ;$ nW$:iJ!g.

dfol:ma~ equiprrumt,ev:ideru;e

knowl\edge: lightuDlg ]Ueaa:8.c

rese~b thundtrr.trnubie

fwniuuc:

Dews

00vite

harm p,~Sll

app.lal!l:!if: infMmacr{UII proof

S Spme neuns can be beth cotlnt.abJe and. uneQtlnrab~~ e.g, materiels and. subseances, ~ding on hnw we use tbemt

ski~

C4ii IlMl.lfJ tl C4ffu~ (<1 CUip Q{ ., .. J Wg!"Jm:!\Un QUt of co{fu,

:sk~ln ['U?~1l8,

l~d!ea ~dvi.ce

timer eustomer

:,t!ll~i!lt'3Ii'iJt rcol

eq'!jj,ipm~llt .repOrtS

43

2. HtliYeU'l'iIl )101M go~ i!()illi,g'~ ,,, .. , .. ,, .. ,, .. ,,, .. ,, .. ,, ?,

3 I'm 3fm:id \!,!'e can't serve '" .. ,,, .. "' .. " .. " .. , beil''Ore sb:@·d(I;Ck.

4 '''--''--'''''''-'---' .. ', .. " Qf the s:itla,;nii!J1l! in A:f['i'C;I!~:t1 'I\'Ol:'se each da:y',

.5 You nseda diH~reJi:[ " " , .. " .. ", Ito do the [ob proPel:~,y"

6 ConJtr1l!ct an e:Dl"I'pJoymellt a:gl;:m1ICY to get an ,-- .. --'---, ... , .. _,--"- .. , .. abo~f how ~TI1:lch e:xu<'i :!It;:!iff

"!lii~ OO-Sf." - -

7 ~~'\I'e hearda p~OCJe o:f ." __ " .. ",.,, , , ,. '~hat m~l],t iilil,~er~t you.,

a Yot! ea:I1"ri!1o.':p,ecl: 00 S'.<J;[rjsiye\!'l;lFY •• " ---, •• , •• " •• " .. " .. , ,aU :rlli~ tl,m;e,,,

,3 Comple!!Je drue SJi)~te.rnoes bel,01"!' ~y cliloo!lilll_g lili~e co~Jt :3J1!merni!nil""~ of ,the t'o""O gp.r\lal ~1Ii hmclc:eIS. T,Ii1,€iIl check yOWi'" ilOi!>Wer.S by rea,diiBg tOO:'OiH:E;rn., S~O'.rI$Ca:nd JD.

(The: ~i1i;e ,-- l!tlea:Jls;~o ,ilIi.rcide'.)

1 n~e book oO:llJ~:!i]ned Vie.r)" , •• ,,, •• ,, ... ,, •• , ••• , ....... , •• 'llJs-efl;dirl:fom'Q:uu1ion.

2 ,""-----',..,'--'-'-"--"'" f!relllch have <'I, gr'e$llt fOl]tbal]~'e8nl ,at tb~ rnomeer,

,3, I)'d. Beerlliow1'Il ev«r. com,posCl! for ... " .. " ... , ... " .. , .... ,. gU~b:i,!:? (a Itille~~

4, .--,-."--" ...... ,,-- ... -,."" prices fell d~ri11l,g t~~~ se(l:QrI~ haU .of I!:h~ ¥~<'i~[. (,Mos1!: 1,Lt,"ilS)

Hew I [inl~) (~ll'~~)

j I'm llfra:id !t:~C:l:'e' i.sl1·t it'~1.l1~,¥' ... ""._,, 0 ..... ''"_,' __ ,,0. ;advoce[ coaill.gi:ve, (much! another)

if) ••• " " •• " •• " clg.a~~ftie$ aren't' ;)lS; ro.pijj.~a:r as die)' us-eO! to be. (~I The)

:II Th'fi is used with an B'O;l!IIlS:

a. whenlihe Iisre.ner/ceaJder a]~ady k.mKIws 'the person I thing we ar:e tailing about.

I C~N't give jIOu ~ five pONnds bIJd.

b when we say exa<:rly wh:idt person I thing w;e mean.

Tb8 gItus ~ just ~ '* is cratked:. The !qmoU$ (utr,essChe.T was tbere,

c when the~ is only QIl~ (iJ th~ rhiAg W~ are talking abouc. 1"he emlinmmml is in great dang:er.

d and witffit l'h~ c3.tegorjes.u,f ncn,ll'\ to ta~k about ~he tb~Qg in ~act'al;

Rrusita.l Instr\!lm.enu ani-rna]!! plants in'VtIU:LO:f1S !I'i.MiouUtics,

1 fllay We gtUMrqu~'te w.ell.

The' Sp.a~i$h 'J1tQke tile bes'(:'IF-afads.

Z A I an is, used. wi:~h Angular ceunrable no.uns~

,II when rrre:llIticming 'iiomemim!g I someone fOI; thefi['sf rimCl:.

Th~ mtisemn tlls.o has_', roit~ scul(fh.te.

ib 10sa.y wb:at s.omeOlile I somfthii.l!Ig is.

My un de' .is if. teacher:

------~-------------~~

44

c to t'SJlks.boll.1i: a :pe:[$Ofi l thl;flg LIl. :gener:a.t A (:flr is n'G' fU'lgGr ('ofJsidetwi a luxury"

3 N~ iittide js used withphnr.a:~ i1I!!11,d. l!llin~(lU:llirabk [JOllntS:

3i whe:n we menJtioftJJ 'the d:liillg .I thjngs for rJliiR: fin,t> lime.

Food' a~ddriNjis will be :se.ttled lQ/;(:!t.

b wlreDiL we ralk ,00i:'l>l1!lt ike tbilWg J tbil;lg>s :i1l~:rb.eJi<!Jt Life i~ the deVieloping 'W(Wld IS u::JUgh. ~ Cd15 las: fiv.e too ". "' }'Mrs.

:I 'The fo]lowil'lg det'€:lmm.ers are all used with &ing,l,1~a.r cO!l;lnuM~ nQlll'Is. Those in bold 'p![htt ,can o~i')l be lIlised. wl.ths~n!1;1ill'3!l:'. ooul\tabk nOi!lns.

E!l'e1)!' J~'emher r.vasgimma free pass.

2: The fo~luw!:l!Ig dene:rJ!l1:i!fle~ aile an us~dwith p]llu[ C0111]i1iraM~ notlil'l.s. Those ilil 'fu!;pk~ !p!I'.iItlJll can ,oO'!ly be used wllitn. pilEI eal (:O'lJJnralb,l~ nOuns.

~ew J~H3!I

~ew~r mau~

Se,iJIjt:af ga~i;Si o,rTlrtr;d after the ~,",h~. 3 The following dl~~ermmer5 ;aIm aU I.!l£t:d W.itliL l.Ul:col!luuabLe noUl!'ls. Tl1os~in. hold. p1rimlI cal'l(J~'ly ~ used WlIlillt 'l!!bl'COlllil'~abJe noons ..

, ;ll~

I ;mooo

any Hrfb

mfi1l1[ no

enoug[l ,(ub!!'

TiJ'e $fJe'(JJ.~i;'MJJiI;'.il!r~ 8',i;vcnvery Jirde ti'~'Io(!,

.. Many is; 1115&<1, w.ida. p'IJI[lraJ~ c()tll(lmlb,J~nOlijjits. l!rUlm W'lirh lillloountable neuns, There nren'e m'any lak'eS in. Greee».

flow mu:cb aid had Qiireat/y reach-ed Me an~a?

BiIDt th.ey are Ii1n~y used in questioas ~[ld!m-e;galthiE $tat~m~I'II[S •• In a:ffur.lllatil'e S>M'~~me]ltS \\1I6 ~S:C' a roc of,

.,4, latof.~r.pm't:nI ~va!S' .damd'gred by th'8li~'.

:5 Utde.l a. little are used widil 1lil1ootlnti1.hle nOllins.

Little momry ha$ betm giv'elf. ~o f(31'. (~Of lnudd A little monq would help a lO·l. (s!Jme)'

6 Frew I :Ii few are used wi.llh p~und eQm:iI!ta.bI;e nOlJlIl:s."

'Ve:ry (ewoountnesg.,",ow tdl tJutrr' aw.n fo:oii. (nO[ m3fi1Y) A .few ~,fehmJ(! ~'trMdy be~t.! .il1fo!1"71'ed, (sOIme)

Wffitllt a!liIothcr :s:tu.dte',1l!t look .;U: ilhc types O:~ f'00d ,3m1JiJ dlrimk in tbe bo~ a::md decide wWcih w,m"a1.s 8E [I,sed ,::'IS! ~!liOOl.illl:~a:bJe' t.lQ!lf.R!I 3rJ:d \vhiich ones <liS ,COtiifiM;bfe .1I,ournS ~lhM :r.al:ms: 300l!lt !the food a!IlId dftoik ~n geffiWra~.

i,.'l:iilmpJe':'W4IQ' fJ (l WI,mtab~~ ~,fm~~1 •.

Wf:!i~le Ihe W!!(u\dsin Ithe talblc: bc~ow. ,~.TiI1,e: fili'\'l:j: o:mc has been d~m(! :fil)F·Y'I)'!.II • .)

Now dJ~jde: wlfl~cb eae of' ~:he~ t-yp-es, of £00<1 ~f.!d: dri.nk flits ,8i~I. t[h;e ca'te,go:ri!0s be~ow. Theile is (U,l,~ onl.! liigJll'talilSiwer.,

QH ,~ff.'e;c-l.' ~yo~;r ,sieep

~n~ml Ji<it(f $e;e~h

C!;rj bil' '~'Qll'lJt·ed' #k~~().(1"

.It.~ Of rJS I~irl: i~l1,mlfl#m~, 'OIntsf,r.om ti)t $Ou#'ern ih~mis{J.h,~r~

Qinrn4ke j'I{lu more udtit!ble 'Oil" ,~/l?,rt

LC0k !lilt ~,e: Ca:J:'tCooS, Si)rn;~b~g is :miis~d.mg ffom, 'elllchi O'liiie-.Wi,~ an.o1b.e!:' ~rud~~l resd ,!he ca,tin!l tbt gll-e~S \W~.h each ,_t(D:O:Il. 3m,d 'llrya!l1Jd work OiUit w.llut~: [~e missimg pMts oO~' 'tih,~ piom!:',)! ndght be.

E,XAM F-OCUS

'f~! .sortj(!, t>ll~ I §hi'l:lk ,JI'I!ll' /Otg;Otla/l :Jl!'.w"J:!<:i!!\1!~,·'

- - - - - - - -- -- - -- --- - - - -- - -- -- -

~M~5 ,

- - ----- --- ---~

Spo~~~ng ~h,e' g:r,;1IJmmar ipohu

~~, iW!i'll'l'iC& ~be ql,ll'e.Stl:o![ls in the muhi:pl.e~cho~oe d.C!~~ gJltdng ;~he .a:m,,,,er ,right depends Of! sporrri~ fJi!~ gr,<Ji:!trlrIl3,rpOitIJ{ in the H~Xi!' thO!t w,i]1 .h~lp }'Oitl {D elJi:m:loate JiIl1o:n~ ,if not '!1!]l~ ,Qlf rhe \~r'OHg aJ!!ls'!.'l'ie.rs. JJ1I q'lI:eiltion:!l i!)!jIiolvID,~g '1,('m~f$ rOll ShOI]l:ld finiIL spot w~,efd~~!:"yoo! are d!e.r:l~ilU:g wili~ a

I OOUf1J1[,i.'Ilb:ie (Ii!:' U!]iCol!u!ltabl:e ~QYill,"

1- ----- - -

41

TifI,e ilIdf'.renj!i·cmen~: b~mo'Vi' ~s fr(lm. ito ;air:l~n~magO'i:zilii1Ei.. :FiJ[,!I~ d,~C'idie vihetll'i,ciI" ilhe. iIloOl.UI you ilIfe ;i.v'e!JQ\r ;J:I'[; tooi\:illlg [C'l is; >COlilln!1;ii1Ib<]e 'c) or t:i1ilCQ'Urnr!;<lb](i (iJlil.),. '1'liJJillill d(icidJ(!: will1ch . il!n$W~T A,!B~ COE D be$~ r.~iS e;lJ~)! SiPil,C:c.

ArI~ yO\! enjOyin!;l1 Y'O'I.l~ fligil'l with u$? Then w,lliy 'not thinkao.oul iOinhg IYS? We aae ,a h~end loy

company, proucl of tM ~erYiCe W~ offer p,a$$enge~5 on m , , .. " our $checfiJIled andl

charter flightS. We select IOu r calbin crew \iVi~h ·great (:21 ".. - you wouldn't be just a

r!U!rnber. you ~l!ld be an import~l1t 131 Oir Q'I"U te~m.

Mlf!imlUlm reC!ili!jr.~ments:

You mI!!S·l; ~e 1:9, to 34 ye~rs old .and 1130 em to 87 r;;mtall (!Nith V!.!\~iglht in propt:YJtio:t1I to

heigl'nj, YOl,Jnru,lstl1~ve ac~i$Ved a geM .. (Al , of ec:h,IICl1!tiolll, be ·ceipable of (.'

swimming 23 me·~re$i and be m'€idic.all¥ ·fit.

HIO! re ar'e some typital QjLlesaiOi'lls that. our ·cab;ln crrew a I'\e as ked!;

~t htlUil':S do rDu work?Very \larffid. We do shih ~5) wl'1ic:h i!i'il@;lves e.:!rly

morning~ afternoon or fligh~rlig'lilts.

~ttHi'.t i$tl'le b:esl aiing aoout the joo'?' E:llety ,dlay lis diH:erent :CIFId r ndh/,idiual. A FleY\I' dary, OJ new destimatiol'il. We never take our work home wi~ilti us and when I he fliglhtl: lands ills the

e~d of that d,aI!fElnd tM' (6' ·'~'ight \!VI~' be tlJ"iJ1iHy diU!9Fi9nt and ume(al.ed.

VVh:8f 00 y<w expact '0' earn? A ery respectab'le m Tnere'~~flyil"lg alh:wlI'anc!tl: (lOr

Ute ow I1ltion O'! yO!,!,!" ,clay. allo-w$nces 'foi' languages, nur.siing skims ilIlld commis$i'O~,

What rromMlg.is fll;ed~d? Five int.emsl';!'e weeiks. It irwolves cabin service, [:8) "" .

(including' 'fir, f"g)"ltinQ. ~irCJfart ,evacual'iciJ(j. ~nd IiJII;l ra1rt skJI1:!) .arlO ~j,st ~k:L !9j , ,of

tne '~raiJ11ngl is iin the ClijiS$~Llom; ilol!Never,ti nne is. :;;penrt in cur mock aircn8lf"1;clIIoin .all h,ead QHice in LI,Jt.OIriI .

. Do you tI«id.r;mYMfSgnat (Juaii1ie:51),0l,li l'1e.ed to ,00 ca~rn anda~roooh8Me and enjoy

waltin.g witlhi the (iI m , . . .. .

l je/l.m;' 2 'IC/Un~ :3 IC/Ym} 4 IcJYIil~ '5· IcAlriJ} 6 '~oIt1nl ] '[C/lln} 8 IcJun} 9 IcJulfl}

'HI £cllJ.I'li)

Ai e~lhe,r A sf/'arch A piece

At. evidel"iC:~ Ii. job

A Utext

A pay

A safe'ly A MaiQ;~ity

A IP:assenge'r

Beach· B C<li~~ B· part S ptr.:tof B 'INQ~k B O1Iher

B ei'J,ming 8 disaster IS MOfe

B t'()iI.!ITiis·t

C bDlh D any

C time [) e'x~minatiQn

C item [) !>irngle:

C o1lohie"!eme:flIt [) standOlrdl

C heur [l empl\)ym.ent

C offle D every

C salarry D mOffl ey

C acrcid:erl't Ii) eme'r{lency

C Most. ID Severnl

C people ID lPubl~c

- -- - -

! EXAMTIP6 .:

Uil1u.ile:rs~a:llid]n~ the ,COrnlil::ex.t

·Wh.eil1l. ]"O!U do ~he eifoor eoreeenen rask ~f] Part 4. [t'sim~orm:m: flO 1:lii:l:!!k abeur the context' carefully. Wh,aJ~ :11:1;1)'1 Lock rnikie co.r.roctEll,gilSlh

a:t firsf~liItil.y nor be correcr i il lhl5 COJ'Ibnrt. The 1.IS'e Qir articles, io.r CXlUnlP~ej, itll3:Y d~pll:l:'I.dI 0111 \"'~e'ther SOllilletlh,ing has been mel'1i1.ti.oned be'fo!:'·~. Ik'JllC:lfibili:[ t:hiilltt we often dOB"t use ~n.icilles when we 'n~allil <:so'line' or "an".

IJ!i R.ea.do the tell:t:b€ruow alilJd.lJook caf:\~fUnY'3.'I: €aihi 1iitU2:. SOH!,C· of rhe WiQ;M ;;'Ir~ CCifI\!2'a and s)Qm~ ha¥~ <li ""'(1M. w:i1:id. sffitOl'lIDdDGl b~ il:he.r'g, If a Hn~ is C"O:rllOOI~. llil!l ;~ tmek ibjf iit" Un ~iin,e h~~ ill ~d wll~~1li :::iIlQ'lIIMl ~Q( b~~ih~-.e~ write dJe wom-d aC ~lJtI! end of d]ei~[J(;l. There IH\~ "¥Qexa:m:pL~cS a:t d!l,e 'b~gi~:Oii:m:s: (1[1 ~~d GO).,

A. vi!lill: till' Spain

(II The firs'l lime I vi~i,ted S:pa!in I ~ol!lldln''l spe!i!~ a W'O~d {}~ the Sp:;JIl'li;Sh, My tN.

00 money rain O!!Jlt ,a"er alfe'iN weeks so ! hadte come iJ p witn a qll,li(:k way of .I 1 m.al<irtgtM cas!hl if, I was· goilf1lg~o ~tay i"1'lI ~he ~OlJlntny- l!hild ~ihought '[hat i

2 omJkj pl~ the guitalr, but II seen read isoo flat ill, the Ihome of tl't€! clas5ic-a~

3: g,urmr my busting skills wOlillcl Mt be; !!'1! demandll! I had or1,9 luggage II ~ould sell .=I out dh!3' money {iroOm that wou~-d oniy.I~$t me-for a few arnother days. B ut, I

5 @ICH luc:ky. f\ew 'f'Oreigil"terrs ge~ t!h§l o1uanoett! wor~ Olil .91 Spanish ~arm iin win~ef, 6 i:I~~'hou,gl'l there ,are same jobs during ihaNE!'s.t time" but I did, Bytniil chanoe

7 ~ m9t Luis wurking i"n astl',eet m<8iM~et, He was se!lirlg a~1 huiit and vegeitableG 8 on his fat~er's st~jl. tHe W~!$, mill" age .and soon notiCed thst i was O'li1llE'riIgrish. 9J He $~Edl it wa~, Decati~ tlhie EngliSoh ailmys look IIJncarmo:rlable irl! (me biU:stll!9

i oo,~ 1;lie milirklet :and never ge1t. served 'r,ir:st. iiilla Ct~d of 1he I)eople. lU~$ ha'ol

~1 w.antecl1lo ,go to iEngland] Jo:r some ·~ime to limpmi!;'"9 fIlis E!ngrisn bu~: Ihadn't been ~2aible~o ,afford it l/IIhel'll lhie i1:~ard ~ neededloormE!lWiherel'O stay he said I

i3 OO\!kj s:my wi,ij1 hi$familrv Mil:! he'iD cut with Job® like cla~l1ing few f,arrning l4 equi~mEH''!t I '@::iigerly ~CCep'l,edi, The bOlrn liIis ~rents V\!'ilj~ \!VOlild'ertui {O m~ i 5- ;amid IIIO\i'eo lite on the' '['dlnm, ~ h;:lol a little tim~iQ lieam Spanish! tlti.OIU;gi"!

because luis spoke English all thielimel

b1"hc iIi~fiI mii~t;1~Cl$ wll.lines ·m-lS ~r tl!l.'iii: tl.1~t ;Sib()lv~ :aIDil aU c~ifIDnei!:t:ed witlllliifliiiiil'ci!il3lit!di d!i:~itrm:i~~r,5.W·O\rk" wiltih a pa'l"lllcr.lo>ok baC:k :lid cad millstak:e' IJR cQ:l'Dtex,t. Can )llO"l.II c~pl;1Ji_1!i! why the !~jt:il}!lrs oc:clJD1ld?

1 AI~t:IT.~ is a comttllPle);. :penO<.1ll w.iltlru mU1m:y d~€!l':erem.t cll);,llfa,C'I,fffi\!i;rjC$. n~llic af£f slil,ocw.llinlf.hc tt!MI~e 101 h~5m:ind b~low ,. wwdl (posi'dv(! ,cltarncteli'~slrnCS 0:m d[,~ ~dl: a:mt~ ~ega~'i'e o:ntl\~ O<Iru~~e "~igbil:.How~v:er, ~he ,r(ilPlJs~n!l)rn$ ~ITIJ these dC!lC[D.:phOnS [h;llve ::li1] b~el1l 1lJ),i$Sll\~ (Io!li!"~ ,",n,d where f.lley ;!lire m~siiffJ,g ;rbere are g<lIPi$ in IJhewaUs of the maze,

V:lo~killlll :liIII. a gmrup. sil:ut kl. i:he WIll~d1dille o.f dIe: !llazc:3In!cli try 11:(1 ge~ (iI:tIt d!lwugh the pOI>~tti'!l'e !Si.de by cllio;(}!sbrug [he co~c~: pt"1;.'Po5llit~OIilS;. [For cxamp~e, 'g,of.)(ia!l: hidirntg feelimgs/ wUW8i[l(]iW Y0'iJj I~O go w:hrro~I:gm., th~~ g3i1'. You oruy iIlJ~dj rIlO g,o ~:bl[1(1)lllIgh ,one SillP' ~D each. walt

Vlrnn~ dQ,WIlIi dlie p.I\~pollj,1~.o!IM' you choose. almd: wtbJeril you h8i'lf~ fio'ull.di ::'I way >otU: .• !eUY'OIlIir rtel1~lrner. [f yOrDi[ iPr'~:I)o:;~[iiOM allC li1Itl,cott.(!c~'; yOU! ha.l"li1: w.o.I:'l.I~ !JQih },!i)!i;I.IiQ!Js·t W3~I:tQ< tty i!lgtliim ~Ilfiitiiil rullcltb.er gmtlip' has Mr.l:dk!ed Itbei:r iP.'rql'O:S~lruO:l1.s willlh the ·~~ilI(iI1!C!!:.

Wb~!!) Oille:gl:'OI!:!P hlliSWiJ!il1 do, druc S'ame wj,m~be'~~S<iltii'V.Q: siide of ri1.emaze.

:2 Look bilCIk :;Jf({\he, mJ3:Z'C .and] wn'tll: ~~ ~he borx !below allY .adJectives to do wi~h .ability (h:o."" :SloodVii:mtdi $O,In~om~ :i~:).,

Leek back illIC I!'h~ !ItIa~ !Jlild.wmrtei:nll. ~he b~.x bcl~Willilllf .adJjett;iv~-$ ito dlo with pea'Ple~$ ,be.h'au~Q~r h){~rds tI~;~l,g$o I olherpoopie"

IREFERENCE

Compk«; the serond exampJem c~ OJ»[ !leO ehat hi is a. ",I.e .s~,.uement ab(mt 'yll'llne~t I t At is used a~ dj~!ies of abHky:

~wfU!l bad elrll:elkmli: ,good.

ter,rJble

M)' SQ"";S' ,~(); .s'Q' ~ (lJ nt-Q'iihs,

I'm refilHy ...

1.2: 10 aru10f are: used Mtb adje(:ti:~ describlRg beh:<ilvi~llfi

i creel h:i.e.ndJy heLp(wl kind nasty nice ~i{fen,s<i'lle

pol:ite

rude

To lefc:rs W r:ae 9hjecl of dTI! acriorlH She ww nrJe IQ h.er f(.lther,

)

" __ . ,'--_'.n •• , , __ '" . , ,_, _,_" n.', ... , ... , • __ . __ '" __ " __ . " __ " _"_, • __ . __ " • __ " " •• , ".", •• ,," ••• , ••• , •• "" •• , " •• , •• ,' to rMe.

Of ln p:htas.es with an imp!!:rsollal s.ubj~ (iit/that). ,ltlthed was 'ftally kimJ ofYrlu.

I

I

bored disgl,Sted impr¢:!iStd fle:·s wry P4~ with tht d;ddnn~

l 5:Dd witb, are used w,' ith adUKl~~&:'SU, :ibit1, , S. ructions ~peQiplek-:enUI;

ned embal.'rJSiI~ pO:!inttvt wotrl1l:d 3bQI,u oomethlnJl: I romeQfle

• :de,. is al~ abo", our "row Pffi8,IW,

•• I n."1 •••• " ~ •• I ,,_,. """ I " •• 11 ••• .L " I I I I "'_ I I g UI "_II.,, I "" ~ OJ •••• ~" I I I ~. ~ I II II I I • ~" I .1 : ~~ .. , _ ~ .. 1.":11': • "'_.I I '" ~ .. I "'.I ••• ". I I •• , I g._.: I 1111.1 I

•• "._ ••• _ • p __ I " •• 1111 I ~. I I "Ii ••• _ •••••• _.,_ II.~ I •• " I ._. :. __ • " ••• _._ ••• __ ••••••••• __ •• , __ ••••• ,, __ , •• , I n •• I I I •••• ' n •• I r.~ I ".'1' , r

aogry annoyed ruriQ'IU'I upset

.EUtI' got rIfJtiM wj'tb me ('(J,' not calli",.

with somebody I a'boUf something

T' ,,'. - ••• I •• I I .,-- • - - - I ""'11 • r-" ~ •• I " •• r I IIlI ~ I If •• I I - •• -.,- I n'l • I __ • _ .. _ I ~ : ~ • "--.1 _ : - - 'I • _ "11"" If~ .. I I -.. I g I n I I " •• I I ..

d~iSap,!X'Jaitcdl hilp'm' plea!KJ, wid! ~:me:oody I abo!'U' an eVCiiill f with ;Ii sit:l!l:iition

l"m ti'Oit pfu,uJ, with l'h~ w.tly j'U}' WQrk 1$ goiJ~g. '

He's uery hatJl!Y 4btntt being $.ilec~J to pIay OJ~ $otrt,r.Jay.

5 NOUl; SQme:t:ime5 words :lim as m,hremedj w,orric.d~ 'III'psec atlid ,e,mbana$~ ai'(l:

Il~d as p~~t par~idfi~e ~~rR'ls. Wheil used in :a pM!Fi'V'e cofll!!rmcrion tl~f w~1\ be foHQwed byditt. P"iPOsn1Q[I b:r. 'My cmtsi:i>J is fri.gbHn-ed tJ{'spid'.ers. (a[w,ays'

My oCo.usi:rJl'VQ5 frigh,mml by a spider runni"g ",ros£ th.eflo(!'f. ~trus :sp~det fciJgJllium~d him)

4 Of lsused wirth GCJ'iro.iw. .adjeai'\i'cS describing mru,~ Lasfing te:eiin,g81'

!lJf:ra~d<!SlhalE.Gd fullLd. frigllli~ru1.cd i~3JOll$ SU!iipieiO'U8 limil WQJry'

Wh.o'$ #he &ad so afmid (Jf?

1"'\1'6 never,.." •• ' .. .",.", ,"" ••• ' . .." "', ,''" .• .".", '" ••• ".,,""'.n • ..,' "" •••• ,"" ... " "., m """ "''''' " •••• , " •• " ... ", •••• ,,' .,," ." •••

r

13: Dependent prq)o'sit:i'(Jns ,aft~r verbs

Read the JnJiormariol!l lIIlltiie boxes be1QW and complete tlte second! s'C.fI.temcof ineath bON: W make a tru-e: swterment about yoOU and the PCE eXal1l. This oou1d' be aboult p.r'eparingror 0".[ :Sitting the cxam~ or abO-lit get;ting me rts~]ts.

1. At is used after ct:tt3in ~1ihs to show r:he object of IIrte[uion.:

aim fjr£ laugh look lPomt SCU'OlRll sh.OU;1i: :smile

du:ow wrus!Le 'y.ell

Oil!'" 'if:e~tbbaur Qfun.'S1~,," atltte th.rOllgh the window,

I 2

Fwi5iLq:SG~ after cen!lill verbs to inftodl,l~ the py,rpose o~ the action.

apoJop hope look JO!'l-:& Pl~!I' search W:liif

We"8 baphfg {()r b~tter weadm this rime.

It is :SiOO used weith oerta!in traosirive Vtlrbs't:h:is way:

ask b~1l1111l fO'rgi.v.cl pr~.tt

Tb~ re.sJ Qf#~6 t'e02m bll.mud me fM! the misrake. Sht]. 'f, nelJe.Y' f~tJe#i me (M :1;1:01 telling ber.

i :3 Abourt is I!Isea ;a'Me!:' (c__rt:ai~ verbs of speech to mtrod1l:!ce me ropk::

<lsk complatfl e,.;pkli~ lie t.\1~ tell war.1lL

Wel.s the dri\l.~" 'ly,in.g about ,hi's o.ld,.e:s~?

wonder

, ... ,'" ... ", .. ", .... --" .. ,' ,,_., --". - .. " .. "'~ ... ';"" ... , ,,-" ,,--" ,,--~ ",., "." _."", -_ .. --, " ... , " .. , --_, .,," ''', ....... , "'" .... " .... , '''''' "_-,.",,,,,

-

-

---

~. To is; !;1sed a:iitte![ oent:aiilll.y:el'b~ of Sf~ch 00 int'l'(lrdl!,:!~ >o~Iu.!f:i!'people~lIvl)lved,

,~pologi$e e:;,;:pJam hsi:e;n speek :;'u.~r taJk wd~

Has: )'Ult'r boes;'$ apr').logiup._ ~ yo.u yeti'

L

S' Om. :i!i 'llIS0;l aJt.e:r cenai:1l 'verbs rO~I'IrU'·od!UlCe the IJibi:ei!::l~ Q,f die :tIcri.O:IiI.:

ch~k OO:l'l.oe.MI:t'r.il'~~ OQlIlillt depend. insisr .re]y

Wt ~an"'l: Mly ~i!l! my parl'lNt~ coming m get Us.

lli:1I 'wti~ili:1lg :t~e eSS3iY·S •.. " •• , • ." , •• ", •• 1 , ,."" , ••• ,." , ••• ", "."." , " •••••• ' ••• "m" ••• ' •• ,,, .

I , FrQ~ ls u~d ,atter oemil'} '¥e'rbs whleh .b3'11e the !11i.Aamn,s (iJ\f stQPpitn,g ~~Jmldhi~g:

d~~~.'!j:!l!ge .dji5illi.bolide keep p'.l'ev,~nlt: :smp

The g;fl4r.d~ preueltJed m~ from le~lf£rl;glhe WO'ln,

N'Qm~'Ulg , __ . , .. ,., , _ .. , ,' " , " " .. , •.. , , n"""'" " , •••• """ ••• ,."'. " •• , < ',," -. , ''', ..

1 AM.e'f ill dependent :pl\epooil!'ioo we U~ an -in:g verb form, .M" b,rr;th.et is l1(r'iJid of /Jtt()lp\le laughing' flIt hiJ~.

A.tt!h:·t 01#' 'I,reigbbVlm, ta,lk,ing 4bou~ ,m.f}ving abroa.d?'

'B'intWlrm some adjl~~iv;&i we- can -d_ro]Y the PJi~o~'itiQ;n and use :!ttlt lliifi!l'ii1Iti'!.:ne '~I}swad. She~s il'fmid tog& ()il-d aio'lte"

'We :o.'!i!cs()·pse ~:n iniiititivewrn.CliI an a.dje(~i\(¢ lis, used wiil:b rolli', The c-hildr..lMls too ;fflnb4.mi~~d 'to p<erf!J'nn. •

.2; The object: pIlM.O'InIIl .(Ielar1ng wo,.illI fQI ~(li''I.'l.ill'lg "crib tomes between trliLe d.e.~mdelflrt prepoo~tiO'.rru.aWld t:h~ =iBg Wm.

Aren'r' yo.u horeJ. with lrim: tl'lJking about hims,e/f?

3< T.h~~:l .DCt and "never ~ruso ceme brtw~eii the depl1:lilliWllit p:repo~:i.'tiOI'l ~lI1Id the .. i.rn!,g to.r.lllil,

TiM tMti6~l apoiog.iseil far-not hing on lime.

4 WllIcllt(l, is a dcpcndl1i:IUt pr~iPOSilfi,m!lirt iis: f@]LO'wed by :.lin-jag form~s, ill! the ~D.I~iilW1r1g; words I' pbl:'3ses:

kid!. {Ql'w.ar.d tQ poofel: , " , to

bill opPQ~dto gm'libe I,lS~ t"(l!

adm.i,t to object to

1. t;re/t,. ge,tting up earJ0.r to ,dayil;g D:i'1 l(lt~ (Jt tDOI'k.

MJr so~;~s never re,'(.dly been dedicated to b~nd", a dO(tOF.

(See Ulltit 8 fur depeiid.e:iiu: pll"(lpooiciQJI!il<limid nda.tl.\I'$ clauses .. )

'1 Do,FiJ';r y,ou le.hi:l1!kwe S:ho~ddoomffi'~a:i:l\ 1 Why den'r Y'OI,1~xilP"lajn

3 S:~OI]]dFil,'t: Y{IU QOIi'ICCili'lU3:~e 4 W'o:Eilh: s;iIDe lbeOOo upsee

,5' A:~!Ifil't yOiU, [i["(~d

6 Didll,~r Kim:!lpo[.ogist 7 Does; K~i~hblliLme

8 A.J:'e1!!''!: YO'!il, [pJe<lsW

9 Hasn't he ;:;iJreaJdYals:kJM

10 Do},ou ltli1irrak :~hey'J~ (I,bj!BCili

!l,~ WS8i': iil(!,YQ'lI~?

b~ y~Ui fOil 'wl:a~ h<B!p'pe'.!1odi? ,c) f'O![ dii!! d'eJa;y? -

cl~ iil:!lO h~['~

e)ongetr1Qg beu~[!", l,<I~her d13J:} ''VOi],,::? FJI w['rb. yOUir' !l'es,,:.'Its?

g) of [lot having !l!!['!,y free ~ime? h~ro d'l:e:11!!I abo'l.n ba;!,I'~ngmo wait?

~) '~,~ 1.1$ G.Qil1,g OIV,e['t,]n]jf;;V:~""""", ,"

JI) you iOf sorae mo:!)e:y?

I~O.III.I.R-U- ~.I-C-Cc'A,"-I-Vc-E -P,D':a.,CT-: C-::-II~i~ ~. !!!!'IJI..-IIL 111', .. ,", III ' r ~r'._' ",,~

~nlQJg1l:le ),'Ol!!I1Sel.f :1111 !two' olf th:e :s!iulIa:lKIII1JJ!!l bd~\1I. Wdle a'bolll[ hOow yo~, f.ern~ irllli c;@jeh 'QIfI,C~ uswng ~f ~ea:n: ~~l'O or rih.J.'l~1;l o.f ~he ladjeCliI\I~ ifro1L'UJ ~lrue U'aid.=imt llit.ld. 1t~f~J)~lD!o~ $e(:tiiiQ~'~'

E~.u:np~e: (1" l' ft.' was 'T(1,ali'y tvro,ng of hb1J to do ,tfj'nt' •. .I {'elt so (lmiJarrac'Ss'ed ,abG~t. italt$j~, thne alld' l'>taUy ann:o,Ytd wit'll IJ,i~~ ,aft~t~ya'td$,. Hit W8:5 pl'9'ir~g lvithp,f!.ople·s fee1:il'lgs ,(md be'in:g cruel to both' of U$.

ill Afri,effi\dI t!if'r','U:lgedi ill blind dn'~®for you '\!'!'i.d:'lsocmeoM t!i.!I.'ice' (O:,1f h~~ij yom: ng.t, 2: ':i,on WIM::e cal:!g~~IJ1::looki1l;g a~ semeene else's ,;:'lIillS!r:\',er p!lipeJ: djl,llring all exam •

.3 Oliil II walk rlr@illI.gh a :iol:'en 'You ,got' st:pa:r!iJ~:d from du~ re-slt. Qlf the g!t:orup •

.01, Ina bl1~Y dep~['lLM.ej'a;t'!lito!re }'IOU were wro~giliy accused of sho:plifrring by ~ store d~IeC(~\\'e'"

S Y C:l'il.~,r friends laughed. at YOlli when YOUI told. r:1l.CiiIl tlTI,!liii: yOlJ.! had app1i,edi rol:"!!i mud]

bl!l'rre.'f jloil.. - "

6 You 'W'~l1!t O!il.t one n~g11lt 'WiJi:b .. gl'Ol:rp of ffie,_nd:'), <lm,d yOl1l ended lip IbrIllJ}dng mosr ,of the d~l!lh,

7 YQ!.!!\'1I'\em 00 see jour bo~ aL'lO'li,Iif ,91 personal pmbl.e:m and h~$he smJ[,d~nar 1l.el:$l:Ie didn"t havenme 'DQ >di.ocu!:!s ~tt.

3 YOIli were ;ei1ocmedl.slil!!del1!t Oil ithe yea:!: i1Yyte3(he:rs and [ltrud eo gi.ve :aJ .speech lO f:~~ whok

sehcol,

Thelil sbo,VI' y,o~r. d,~~pti,!llI:jjJ!iiO' ~w,o ,otilt;Qt' s,tllldenU aifid! see if ,they iCaJ.B gJI.I~S ~i,clh sitiiilhitliOllUt$ you h~Vle: WI,ilneD abOllt. DO' i'i,~t describe: W:lill:lt h3:ppe!1ed~ ollilly lEtocw peop~$ uaa'~aifidl how yOI.l~t~['.

Disclils~ OOW '(he: two O(!ruei!:' smcleliU;ll m you~gtUl!lP {'e~~: ~f!II[Ml.elirimag:iifi<l!ry :s:i~1!JilI~l(!il,D!!!. "li1!llig~~ }lQ'Ui feeltille sarme wa!y~

L::i!dy St1ipbJO!rDl'ie CilitolJtJi:SWll!l'th d~~ [fORI. kllissi1li!.g ::i! ]eM~r 'W!tiJtt~[J witb :poisooed iriik. R,~d ~h,e ~nfurm"'li,{lJ] below :altlom Lady Stl1l[[l':h;;lllli:ieO!liIidl~b(l p~op']e 5iUiSpcctcd of heJ:' R1Jili:[~el'., Th.e!l~ l!L~ing~h~~s O!'l. tll1t~ a!rr(lW$~~I)v.r., di'5CUSS wbb a'llliO~'!;ir S'l:liui.em bo,'i'!' ~jii.e ;c!&!<'!!!1'ai~e-,fs fe~t :ab"",u~ e;,u~m. o~her'~!lld1wJ~o; mighil h:il¥e rlfilllU)diel'llld[.a!i:y SV.c<pbaro1e.

"or: exa;m,pl.~~ witfi ('O'l'pW On ~hi~ O'l!fiiO'\V from :lLoFd! Cb3:USVi"Oi:'th. ~I!)' ·ad.}' Si~p.ha:filiL(!: you ,ooiillldil :!i:~y, '.LO(id, CIID3:ns.vronh f.iJrga~e IMIS w~€l.1! foil' Il.cii': ;aiff~ij[ wi~ih dlie blil!del;,'

lOlrd. Chami,wonh :1$3 SCVl;ll!lty" ll'car·o.ld !Il1al~on;ai_re. He wa~ d:~ply U~f.:tr-y hicswlf:e's aH9!ii!'WLlh r~.e blmtl:.r, Cr'il!~g \V;;l,~ke!:. and 11::1.$ sacked MJ:

Wa[ker,

bd1y Sir;ephanie CI~3:trS\'i"olF!d!l! '.vas a very .. trraenve hn:!'ty-ye3r~6M"\I'oJmo.

She was '!'Ie:ry fond of 1iI_£'f '&uIsband" Lord Cl.li3trsW(lfdlj but fd I m:a!dly i~. ]O!l'lC \1l']t:~ dte btlitiller at' CI~!ltls,W'anln Mmu)'r;, C!:'aigW~]bilt,

She died! aift£l [ldsliicil:'lg~he poisoned pienne of a recloo~e,

Su~anl:le ,Qu\l!rsw()!i:'fh ls Lord Ch~tr$W'Olttl'S oill'l.ly dJ~l.ill:Jlr,er. HeJ: Dn{)l~her,~hc fi.fst bdy' C:l1.aJu!iwo.rth~ di.oo th!!'~~ }"ea:rs a,go~ alld Slte d:id QQ~ wam't' her father to ma:r:ry ;;aga in. S~e 1t1iv,e-s: ...... "!Ii .. !I"" ~_i="On,~. go;"tt;)=.(j=' == th~ lite 'Q'J !'l~gh ~Q!!;:ietj' a:nd5jpt:mds .

aU !:i.e:!: r.i!TI~, "rid ."'. Lot of ]l'iai1Jey~

Oil. g,oin.g 00 parties,

Craig W~~kell' .is a. haJ~dso:ll1e Y'!!)II,JH'G, rn~uli! 'Y.Ifi,o had never wQrked~)$: a I~n~~ef bcf'(i!Ii:e oom~.qg eo Chareswerth M3l'n:or. ~~ was -Lord Chami,'WO.rrk's

,d .. ug;~tel'> SI;l~ilInnc. who e!'l!OQlln::aJ~ed 'iri,eT father to ,ei..lWl:pLQY bJIltI. No:w~e: lliI.:.\ts lo~r IIijs job he I)eil.'~ts dli:(: ~Ha]ir w~tih SrepiW!,i1l!nie,

'111 OpeD cll!O-

ill. Re;m:d the: ~~:X:I: b&~,~W!'il'tdi tlili.l1Ik 0:£ ~]~e p.r~po!l~r,iQIII1. whi.da. be:s;r £hs each SP!ll:;OO, Use (lonm), '!l;It.I"e p\Nr05H~OIl 1:1111 ead:l $P"'~

~t was geuing \l\e:ry ~at~and slle Will'S \i'ii'Otneo 0) "."."._ .. __ ."." S~eve. He l'iiC:d!Crd Iher SOMething ~2~ _ .. _ .. __ .. __ .. __ .. _- a Man, he would l1,arv€: ~Q wait f3.~ _ .. - .. "." '" " .. but lhad rus!hed Clurf Oil~n~ door be'[me she cOl!Jlld a~k allY fl't01e. You ~Qula1 iW5lJlaliv J~~ (4,1 ."." .. _ .. --,,--

Stev'e to 00 bt"lflk and henest bUll he had changed Oi' late and A,nie olljec~€d (5~ .. __ .. __ .. _ .. __ ,,,,, him beillgl'S'I) $ecr~h.le_ &omethrl'llg or .SL!Im€;OIlf3! wassroppillgl him ~6J .,,_.,, __ .,_ .... ". ,ooming cl\ean_ Shie was tir,ed {1l . __ ... _ ... _ .. __ .. __ . all the prffi!eMe and promi!Se,cI hen~elf!ha~ ehs woul'd ask him (Bl .. _-,.- ... _."." . a lho:rougl'il !ilxp!a.n:aWon as. soenes he' walked Hlirougl1, the door,

b Read 'i:h~te:!!,';~ l~~QW :1a:.rnJd tl1ldnk >ilftih~'!fN'{iI'J:ld '\vbkh be!!:t' £wts c"lcffil. :!ipace. U:s:e. (11111])" cJ'te ?;~o,rdlil1l e~dbspii\oe,)!ou wlit ~~ ~ usev~rlol.lJs types o~ wOEd:; tvemSl" 1I'(f'GiPQS~tUJOgSI' iilJeg;1:E~V~S~ cir)c,) wt'an dliC mjSS~i'ig words "~a'lle ~il $OIil1C ,\:j,IO'iy~o di{;'gl;.~i!l!"~r c"Qvl1lred rn

~:bis iU!i:iit.. r -

Thais; are Mlliurrally luieriol,y peotJ1e' arrid will ;".vali't to nfI'8'ke VO!W1f,eell alt ltiome' , There <J re 0iI1 (lew biI<SliC runeS y.!]U snotild obsewe', tlO~\l'Elr, Do not point your fe>e:t directly (1, ..• _., .... "" .... a iha~ ~'It is ~ep~ oU~if!sWe (2)o. "",_ ... - ...... ~U'lem. A!w~ys ~;hes'S dlscfeie.t~ in ;!I, wal ~telilprG] and remelll"llber~ne~ y(lU w~li no1l: be forgi\,l\€rii ~[gMlyf,or ~3) -_ .. -." ...... " ",takingl on )®liJlr shces. irtI:ais are InOW (4) ." .,, __ .. _ ., __ .. _ to seeing tOLjrlsts barllhe to;p!ess, ,ol,lliflude b~t!'lll'1!g is d'.efinitely uln~o:::eptable.1i1h!lis greet each other ~SJr .- .... " •• " ...... " .a palms-:roge'U'ftergiffi$tur,@; i'~ VOU do likewi&e YOlll will give COrisid,afable pltetlS!JJr'e_ Thais ~rre OlJlftQU$ people, so will 8:$k ytlU qu@S[i(JIliS that. westerners:wouldl riot oolffially a>s1k -16~ _ .. __ .. __ .... " .. ". y.om salCliry. for eoo:Impl~_

D{) 'nert 00 (l,UeMed en .. __ .. _ _ ... _ .. __ . th~s" tt IS 'Mrmat to ba.~m ll(\ lha.i~!i!nd ;M'\d l'halos w~U rlflt

'get uf)Set sbcut you ~S~ .. " '" "._ ..• lor money @if=about 15=20 per celfliL Urs1ily. ,eirlJOy

yours1i)~f.~l1Iat's .a \!\ery ih;;;Ji~h[ng tQ do!

EXAM TIP '7

- ----- - -- -- -- - ------- -

Theee ca:n'~ 'be rlgh~

"rm.,e :st!,l!dellts~h3:l do th,~ mu'~t.i!Ple·dloice doz,eqlJJ.est:i.u[l~he Ill0st !;l~,cl;;essJIlIUy al'~ ~he eneswho eliltr'i!unatethe' tm~ wrong ans'l. ... ers l'.:IIt!i.(;r than Ii!:Q'~~lg St\t'3 ighl!' for ·the 'one' rnq,tll:uI11 ~s .r,ight., mn !(F~ti.(IIJi!i imrQlvi~ depe'J1dl';[It p.re'posrntiom.s: try and work o~rtt wha~ p!."epQ.sj~ioo 0[' alternative serecture (infi]lirt:ive, etll:,.)(:!I]l four opt~ons rake before {tccidifJ!g whi.ch oillie :~srlght.

(.(II\IIN!I E!l!91Iisf!, ilil lB:ritaiilil

Over 000,000 s,~ud,entSOQnrii'~Q Blfil:ain each year~o leam EnglfiS!1'iI and immerse tnemS!91Iv9:s m -""" .. " .. "." .. a compl:ete cuJlwral ,e;<pe;r,ien!l;:!9. lt's a gr'S'artt p'iaoe~Q$!H:ldy of'f-ering rn.any anra~QnS 'iI\!1hi(:h a:l!'llnot: lbe found! ,all'l~l3ire eli$e- Why not ~lJ .., .... __ .. __ .. __ .. _ yjJl,Il" ;$~tiy v.ii~h visits. to CJi~hlijr ElJrope'~n ooufiltrieiS whiC~ ean be !t~lsity {3~ _ ...... _ .. ",, __ .. __ hom BnMin?

\N€: h~e e ~~(!,~,'tljI at excl'liflr;. ?~;);ces :Lf!iWl!\C'n to sw-d'jl ~ '1)!)'Sm~'t~fI 'c'lt:,es,uadiflo,na\ cer'lfJ'Jes of ~1!f~m'r1ig, ooaSiIa' .r'il!:sor~,$, b(1t<,;ll,Jltifi.J1 hrstOf.t~ tOWi"lS, "O'ie chojce is y.-cn,iiI'!Ji"

S:CClfarl'd.:T3IrUillii, bagpipe'S, whi$~, mowntfllf1s andlisland~ IiIre jl,.l$t some of lhe tl"liI\9s~o,' W"hi~h Scotland is: j:41 .. __ .. __ " ........• , , Visitor5i3We 15) ., .. _ .. __ ... _ .. __ .. _ro, Sooll<lmd's spectaoular ~Qlm.lriul sce'Fueii)'o TM Soonish Borders, with ,gweellli rolling 'OOufililf'lfflic1e, w~nd'ing lri'!;"tm; ,Cllllld woodlanclSi'lr-e likely to ,(til' " •• " .• "_,,._". __ . to w,all"'er;s" Th~ ~cghl:alld$lis ,m ,a~ea of wild beauty 1.7.1-- .. -- .. _ ... _ .. __ .. - i.ilI witdlil'e and! rare plaints. with MI9~h~'r ,oo,ve.r~d moorlands aru:j 'r'as,'~. 'iilOONingl

NOf1twmbria"' MOl"thl.!lmbria bo~sts more castles arne! fuins rhsn allY mhe~ El'1Igl'ish ~egton.

Along Ihe emi~e wieUh of lIlor1lhienn Emgland (B) " •• " ••.. _., __ ... _. H\a,di'itii"i's Wllil, built by 'the' ~ai1'Sl"O {9:1." .. " ...... " .. , .. the Scots hom crosSi,T'i9tne bortier, WCirt"'umbrls~&l' h&5 mile$. Q~ o8au:tifullsandy besehes.

LotJ(iibn: The cepiil~ I oUe r-s, .$Iupe[u, :sMppingl; OxfOI',di Street, R,ege nt SUil"e~1 .::II,d Knigh'M!ibl'ilOge are i!lU kr!,own ~.~ 00 . __ .. _ .. __ .. _ ... __ .. their f,amouS S10r&.$ .. II'f you are r,oo~ir'ilgl

n 1) ,, __ .,_ ... _ ... _ .. __ .. un!!.lC$lual iilams" IHI[lr~ods in Knighisbridge boal51;$. th;a~: lit (<lil metar arIYthiflg In the woi~d. Fo:r those It2), , ..... ".,,'_"'_" nn sports, 'the~e"$ ~l1liUliis art Wimb~ooon. c~ooket at Ioords end rugby at "Twic:k~riIh~1r!i1J >F1lS weUas many other 'Well known events·,

(mllillp,ted JI":"{)m ARELS, WJ'1~ EugJl"h h.r. BIr.iM'IIJI)

, A of B in
2: A join
. 8 ,o1ivi:de
3 A got B psssad
4 A 'faffiloUi$ 8 INOrthy
s .A lP~ea,*d B aUr;<!c~ed
6 .A $eafch B .a!tU,act
7 A '[Iulll E! ~xoolleil'llt
8 A Ipa:sse:.$ B starts
9 A Jnev~nt B su~perndl
H! A as lEI by
TI"1 A arouilld B ail:
'2 A good B interesteil'l C at

C oomb:lrve (; tralve~ledi C amaC'~jve C eruthusedl C apiPe.ad

C 'f,ond!

C ruM

C r.efu$.>e c mf'

e c ... er

C oool!.lpie<i

Dfm

D m:mcenlirale D rea;ohedi

D Ipleasam

D deligiht.edl

D fatSciiil,all'e

\D riehl

D f1oilN£ D d~~t!ool I)wi~h

[JofO:r [lfornd

Unit 7 The present perfectsimp~and ,cont:inuous tense's

Il..EAD .. IIN

1 TIll.e Ell:X:ts belmv show i!1iru[1~~ dm~[\~iii[: uses of :the p,l'eselll!~ ~ed~ s:illIllP']elelJlse. R~~dI dm~ It~X~'(l; and, aotethe ,ci_ttm~clI iPe:tf"ect l:GiflS.(lS;. T'l!m ]o();.ka~: ~he £Ol)l~ :lit~$e~n whi:ch 101]1ow., Tiline of tl:kem acclIIrl:iI:lely dle~crilb~ tlu;~ iIj:S~ !If the .PCi'tkCiI: f,eJ.!Ii~e ~ntffil,e; ~~:ts; ~l11ie lis "I:$ie. Tiek tb.e· dlNflll ,til'iU!.~ :Il~.i1!iIi~:me[l,t$ fO:f ll:'U;~r iIIJ)S'Q:.

IIIE PIRDITS: gf a tee.agar 'illig has, SllJr. ADO cars; llast nlgM Iplladedl tOil IhllBlo be ,Eo... J I ~ ........ - :-anD!!!if ~e

g~"'lIInll. UIIIlr,",a _!~ _

de: ill one _!to

Th~:; .rll!Uc he mi.g~~t kHI ,:iomOOi.li~ ill be eM'ries· 'O,ll w]ilb, iilli:s Ii'fG ,elf cirlme, i!u~d

S~jy ~ockiil1rg bin 1!D.p is tbg, 'oo]y wtI¥ to SLOp' lmim.

The, ]5~e:ar=olt ~eaf .. wa~ - ·wl!i.>I): : ,as s;u :fa:1" la_te._n C!lL1'S w,onlti .. mere thar! £~ iiiiililkm, ~ is due· to be rele@.~d m ii!i. few w~s ,after seJ'vm:g brut hjs youMh clistody tem;m,

The present pe<rfect si Ill!'lple tense is used here totalk ~,I:)I::F~t A ~ 5~liU;adofil whi.chlbegan .ifll ehe ,[M!iSJ1j,

B, 3 SWruii!JtIO!1i1I which c(J.r:rlitiiti.e:> up r.o the present, C 3 $~ru;]jtjO~1 whi,c;&ifi:D1lis,I\i,flldi ~ome~iWl.e.O'!iS,OI.

n ~ period of tim,e f3dlCF t:1\i,<iJ!fi III sptJICHk POlig'i~ :ill ~]IfI~.

The ptescJfI:r Pfl'ri~cr: simpJe' renee is .]~ed hen;l[(l' talk ;@J!bom:

A :a eecent P:9S1 ,~Cti(Il1!.

B c%8icdy \vhel] the atil:io:n h~:ppellcd.

C an 3cr,l.on the spe;;l.keriwri:ler bel leves eo be ~ews:.

D :a past aceloe 'l,lVhich has SQn~~ p'tt'€SCilfiIt df'Gcr or ['~$ijj~t.

58

IRlO.silIlln1l111;jJd Rlrdilardmfil lit> the author of ~e\IIei'all bDOk;!j~ and p(rekl:efll,ter O'~ ,8:BC

. TV':s 'IDi:SOO\!"l!!will1cg PatmworlC 'O\!'li"Id OO-p:r'{!,5enbl'r ow ISBe lV's 'I[:iisoovl!!ifilng iHedgel"'ow,$'.,Cib~ ha~ ~liQ:Q_Itjnj).a, short ooo~ery seml:~;s ~ofBBC Ea5t andla, s~~~eson, the uses ,0T hemcs fm .Ang~ia leo' e'!ltl!iJ,on. .. @5e 'halS: bee!)a regular ~orirtrl!blJt.o;; to· B!~C FtadiLQ Calinhliidgdli'lire.

l[fromRoo<llfl'nmdi R1cthtrdwl], Wge,t~ri~", Mj;qJ~) The pl:·esmii: pedfl>Cii: s1H1ple tenseis UlSJ~ ~e:l.ie to 1L~1!r; .. bOil!i1!

It an ;1!.~tion/e'!l1ellt w!Moe!'!. h'l\s fimsb.cd.

B exa~f~y w~e'§!J the actlow hiillppe.flItid.

C au actiClIl wh:1:cb ha.Pl?en.cd at some rime hlt:f.c~i'i~ HO·W.

D ~$~ ex:~e.l.".itncl! OOJlli1eCu.-d ~o 'wha:t' w~iilIrutltlkim:sabout: ~O\lr,.

ZIt'r:em Wh3,t 'fCJiI't h,1\'Ji''e s~ti:'iinT:!is:k 1~ ' .... ,/hJ.dl,il.W>O ofl!h,~ thi"~ !lil:3.~>Q..'Il.tSi3!t¢ tme .0,:£ ~Ll UH!lCS of ta.:,~ pi'Cl'Slml pt\r&(~ $~iDP~~ ~~ie~'

1 Thie [p'.re:s.el1J!f per~cl: !lillllp~e Carll OIl]Y .~ used rota'!k tl.bout, the recent past

2, The [present peil"rei;i!: s:lInplc :1$ nor. l'liSCd[Oo ml'k tlbOUf C\I(i!l.C[tll' when 3. PaJs!t cvent happened.

3. The rres.e]1J:[' perfece slmpl.e JIS !,lIs(ld ro tgdkail!:t-Oil:lt: JM'lS,~ ~V()::llfS, w~Jch have serae COIll!JI_ect~on W~.dL j;·l1!cpreSel'lf.

Fo"" Af/irtMtive

1 have (l!uj decidoo, etc.

Question

Have yon decidcd~

Negative

I hall'f! not .(havtll:'t) decided, ete,

Soon ~Ul'm'S

Yest r have, No) l b'ventt.

UR.

I 'l1u' present perfect s.imp]e ls ~SW: to: rafk abQut an aalol'l which bepn in. rhe past and continues up teo the pres¢M.

"-- f. _;..J rk' . in'" - il Ii ._1.

~ ~ ~ IS pam . my fmC~ 11_ . W6trKi.

TheteSQrl bas chan.pd a [lOf in rec.mt YIN1!$. It 1tasIt't ;tai..ed hQ8 for~k.

The 'time ~pre!!sions in box 1. are commonly used widil dlis meaning o.f the presenr perfece simple.

Box 1 frl.(C

H:o~---brei,.

sLiCe ('Tuesday} .-tip to flO'W

aJl {day) .f<>r ,a_gee$ for (two) YUE'S

over the ~past :few weeks) recend

'_

.2: For I siDce I ago

For and ,inu are used eoealk about the tiime betw'een '[llte ltan: Q\f a si.rua:ri I!I. and now. The sliituation is 'Oot that continues up to the moment of Sj,leaiking.1 w![iting.

For is rumdl tou.lk about the length Of period of tinu:, i,e.the nu.rn'ber of bour~ I days,. Sinee :is used. to Ita. a'bouif the period of tiim~ fmm the point:at which ~t be.gaJn.

A,p is used eo il'aJ~k .AOOU!t the time ail: which a situation ~gf!ln in we past. The past sjmpJe :i5, used.

i.x .. mi?'Jt.~:

A: Your {ax arri~J tJl!o days ,ago, •

B·: You mea" th'tJt you've had it for two day5 dnti haven"t reptied?

A: I'm sorry, but'.1 hallen',· been to the offid siHa Monday a"d Pve o~'''Y j~st'l!:en: it.

1 Compl<&tlli (!ric foWlowi!il\g sel!ll~n:OOf)'. w":iith eiith,er ~:he present perlecm: shnp~~ fir [tbe pasl simple

so ,.bat tblo1}' arr,e true :abO'~~ y'Qlln;eU. .'

1 ] have lived .,._-, , ,- __ ._--" __ _-,-_ " .. " " .. , ,,,-,-.,, ,""',,, , _ ,, .. ,. __ _-_ .. __ __ .. -. ,

2: _", ••..•• " •• " •• ,. _ _.,' • __ . . , , ••..•• , , ••.. -_ .. -- , .• - --. ---. -_., , ._ __ __ . --_ .. _.""',, •.. __ .. __ ..••..• r,ecelm;tl:y,.

3 I've ROt been ._.",." ,. __ . . , _,_. . . _., " "., .. ' " .. ,' m,--' , ••• , •• -. __ .. -.,' ,,' --_ .. -_ __ .. _-, •. ,

-4 _. , __ __ .. _ _ , . __ "._ - __ .. _ _-" -- .. -_ .. _-_._-_. __ .. _ 'for a long time.

:) , .• "._,. __ .. _.,. __ .. __ ...•• , , .••• , •••.•• , - •....... _ , , ,,, •• , ••....•. __ " SOlllf nme a.go.

3 The ~t perfect simple is \1;5:00 when a past action bas some present effect: or result.

M:)!' wtJtch "'" $wfJ1Ud. (It might be later thim we rthink.) II," 8nyQ,M seen my Ctl!r keys? (If you have, I can lea'¥t.)

NOTE: If we use II definite past rime c'xpression, as in blJ'JC 2-; the past .simpl,e tense must be: used as these is no longer an')' idea of l'l:efient eHiett. (See Unit 4 for more.

information about tbe past sim.plt:.) -

80')(2

pr J.) ,

Ui6ufS~ ago In tM~y)

at (six) last ~ week.)

belore (Tuesda/r~ during (the ho]ida.y) earlier

on'IMonda)'} t ;he ot:ru:il: day / this l'morMifg}

60

f.:omlP3rc the '~ :responses ~111 these 'two clIialogues; A~ J 'vt J'ost m)l'w:ti~~e;t

&: nQ" 't ponre. It :mrm he~erlt samewil:(!fe.

~, H,,~e yOj~ had 0!1 g{.lod dDY?

!.it: No, I }ru~fnY umJle:t th,;s. mumrng.,

4 We use the p~t perfect: Siimphl1iO ta,& about TiUmgs tltat have or haven't happened

~ all; some. tmme belorC-file rime of speaking f wriitil\:g bur we do not say exaaiywillen.

Has QQ:)'(jHIt! ttl! d~l[! class beef': to' 'he museum: hefore~

l"ve P:(J':Ml!:d .my drIving ust but I'm wQt't.iHg f.ur my li'U~ce.

The tbne e)ril?'l'ession~ Ja ibo':l'" 30 a~ OOl'Olli!cW)' ~ with drls ,meafllim:g, of the [present perfect' s~mpl.¢.

never :Sitiill

~]rjmh y~

m,id·pwfJ,i'O'fI aiJf!t.rbof' :already always ever

e.ni~(lQ1ir'ion #Ju«bsI aJwibial phnfuis. be.f.o~

NOTE: SJtillis il'3:[bu llilllltSllal ~[\rba:r it can also come bd'or,e the wboJe verb phras.e~,

--"",",""

2: Jjllu!~ tbe words; ~[! tihe. j!l!mbilled ~eu['e!l!.ces be~owm:t(ai dil:~ ctt!:tOOl: ~deF. l'b~[illk: ,carefuUy 3!bolil't Ilhe POSltlo-H ~,f du~ t~m.e a:dvec!:'b.

1 t\llciir IOIfl,CC' I ~.:a!l ! !before I i:!ili'liaded 1 !:iiIl'I:tIy

,,,:II,, I,::_ ••• '_~. 11::: __ • ""' .. I L::~. __ •• __ .11 ~"'., •• __ , r.": . _=~, 1:= , __ •• _~. L::':: ::_, •• __ III a.,1 I ":11,11.::. I ~.III "",II, •• I •••• 11 .111 lIl "" .. , " I.·" " •• ! .. " .. , .,-_. " _ •••

, .--, ••• , ."" , .. _, , ••• , ..... ,. , " •• , •• - .. ,. , ••• , _-. , •• , .". , . -" " •• , ."" . -j' , •• , ... ~ ...... --, ,_." , •. , .. _ ...... , " ... , •. ~ , •• ", •• , "., , , •• , " •• , ••• , ." , , •• ,' .. _ ... , , .", ..

3 you J been l tbe .I to, I haJv,!': f yet lb.aJak I,?'

. .

Uae.

The u:!i~S ,of eb,e present perfect, Cl1lmJlmuzyul!ilaile' best seen in compa r.isonwith the uses of the pl.'~r: pErrea S][I'IIP!(l:.

Form Affirmtltive

I have (l"v,e' 00mt work~qg~ en:.

Ques,fioilil

fmve )"Oll been working?

.N:e;ganw

] have not (ha:"''e!l'l't) been w~rkiiIiDg~ etc. Short: ,Qn;swers

Ye:!l~ I bave. No~ 1 have-n't,

The prc:selllil peri~.ct: conrtiJllI!ucms I£> ,often UJS;ed w!helll. rhe effc::.c~, 'of alit 3(;19.00 all'e Slt.fil[ yi[L~i,~[iB..

Lo.ok. It's been' raining.

Usinglhe presenr pei.'fe.cit COJl'iit"JIlUOl.l.<S' m.ay mean that diL¢ action is nOf finish~, W.,:'vebee,n p,aiAling rh'C hoost h~t stilr haw a lQ,~ ru,io.,

The pil'es.elltpe'l'f~.tc~ti"'i(JQI,IIS is IlS00 .00, 'Milk aboor riM len1:~h of irjmle ~,!}

llOfuvkll' haSi~O in progress,

.How long h~'N11i1)u b<een tealt!,i'lgr

The P;ji,estfU pel'kc:t: simpJe is ~~ed wil(l:n the a:ctiOJl !If siw!l!ti'OJlt is l~l1Jjshoo,

We ',!I\e p:aift'uJ ~he iQho$e hQfI,se both

f ill$id'e ;'~li tm~,

n.t W'I::e!ieJ:u:pelriectt sim'ple~s IiI!lOO. ((),t!lJLk j

&bom th~ r-e-&I,!l~'t oJ a:1iI! a:e;l'.ivi~l'. {l.,g~ W'bJel~ .1

, 1i:ai:Mng ~bculil qlihl:nJ~id~Qr da:s~all:ccs.

HmtJ ,nd\ny S.;lhOQI! ~Wl;il YOM l(fught l:~lr

Th'@ plie$elil!t ];Il"fJUt 'Ul1tumlLlO'I.IS i~, l.IJ~d~ij blk abQlIJt~e:mpo:rnry s;uto:;Jrtiom:.

lb~ stJ,op h.asn:'t beett ",,~'Ilking tJ'fly In(jn~ *elX11,t:ly.

ThQ: PI"~;!;ll!ilJl pcrf~Jt iimpJe is 1JI!>~d to talk 3:bout :Si~tm'ltiolil!s ~.h::iil: a]1; kUlI£t~a5ti~g 'Or pertnancnr.

'lhe. ,shop blils rN!1J,(!r t.J<MldeanJ' 1110J1lt'Y.

The p£,~efJi[: per€eclt sillillple is used 10 tallk .%bOllil dle. SmU (1:[ 'mrIdJIIllig ()if :1l1il .l<IlZlioll.

NO':I'Et The pft$CiIllt perfecr C;l:)ntiilllll.o1ilS is okn used wl:r,il rhe time' l'IQve!l'hs in 'BOiX :] lnllt neverwlrb t.hose im. Ik>~es; :2 and 3.

:3 COmiP].eK lie f'oUowirq:$l},()'.i't dlaruogt:I!::~swid, ~Ih'e qLte5:liliom whi.c1hJ ~il)odJ1!!,oedi D·s f~p(jm~.

'1 ,,Ii,,: How :~Q'mI:g . __ ~, "~'" _ •.. __ . . .. __ . __ .. _~, .~'" .... , .... , •• , , .•• , .... , ._ ... , __ , , ... _. . __ .. __ ... __ .. __ .. ", _~,. __ , • __ , ' •• , ••• , •• , ... , ...?

iii: Since L~:!i,1 m.ondl. af tElis school and rwe 'Y'ear,s .ail!: an iEngHsh la~,l~ase co~LoEge .il!'il. ja.p<lilii h~tore r&:ar.

2 /I'. 'How nn.!!;;h ... - ... --, •• " .. ,' •• " •• , , . ." m, -_ ... -- ... -- ...... , ••. " .. , "'.' •• -,.-_. -- ... --" ... _, ,.,' .. ,.-- .... -- ... --. -_ .. __ ... --., •• ,,,.,,, •• ,, •• , •• 2

~~ A'lh-ol1iffol!ry-:fivepQ'I:I:~dls so flu • btu ]'ve' sl!;iU gor q1a.ilrre: ill bhlerr..

. :3 A: 'What have' ".·" .. ,.n, ••• , •• ,,' " •. ,' •• " •• , .... ,.," -- ... __ .. -_ ... --.-- .. , .•• , ... , ••• , .... , .. ,' .. " .... " .. , •• ,' •• "." , .•. ,' ... ,._" , .. ,.n, ••. " •• ?

~; Mem;i.i~~g~he cal" a~in,. That$ why lleok such .i1IJ me.$$ ..

, , , , , , , , ,., ,,,.,' .. ', , , , , .. , ,Don y.et:~'

Yes, I saw h~f11l: 'rhi,1) morning, He looks fune.

.,' m ... " .. "." •• " ... , •• " ....... , ... , ... ,m, "," ••• , ... , .. " " .. " •. " •• ,' •• ",." .. ,' ...... " .. , " ...... , ... , ..... ne-~' a I] :Y(:N,I!,r ,Ii fe?'

:B:: No. IIIU1Dved h~re ,;1 bou~~ol,1l" ycai!'$, <lg,Q',

,6 A: 'HaJv,e yO'U .. , ,,, •• , , •• ,m, , .n, ••• , .. , " •• , ••• , , , .. , , , , ••• , , .. , ••• , ••• , ,,,., , •• ", .. " .. ,' •• " •• , "",' , ?'

:S: No~ ~O{ long. J had my fin;!! cigilli!'eoe w:~~efJI I ''1I!!1S eigh;r,een.

4 A~
Ill~
5 ,1\: COMII'IIIUNIGAl'IVE: PiRAC1iICE

Leokat tlii~ pi}~iJI[c o~ tllitG: 1Ji;Oi.U:1li ib~l((wi!iWHil f~;lI!d tlti~ ~lil[iOO mIliU • s .. Where do. )'ifl.ll dj~IJI" ~hey w~r~ :I(itlit:~' Mark l:k~ p:Iil;W Oifill thepi,~tllli'e.,

\Vhy a.r:.e:pFe.:;CIflt :pgrf'e(:thClIil:!l~ used mn m:~S!iill@e5! Uke ,thii~:~'

No'ow willite a, iIllmibr m,cssttg-e albo~n i.li pSr'riClI.I,I'i,l![ ob,w~~t ia die ~kmiUir,e Oil the DlQilASe blQ!( d'o 1l00t uall'iilii!:. R~aJdyl:)i.ii[m.~~!l;;Ii~~ .::lii'id ~~I '[b,e :f)~s;t ,of dfI;~ class m SIiJ;ess wht: ~t'i;s.

1-

A~sk~itliO(ih~,]' !iiwd'e[lit q;!lIles;rmO:Jll$ ;s:b(n~lt dl'll:tfiilfofmarti.OO :I11l1. ~h:ei[[ &ox: to 'ad; alii{ m()~ ;abl!Jura ~h:~m f.ouir y~<l!a'lii .3g0 OIlr!.d sinee the:lliI.

Elr11lI;'hpl~~:

. t

!!~ Wbere' did you gOOIr:l: hiOlida:), four YEats tJ'gO?

:fl.:; I!iIM?l1it to Spain u;jtb '1;1)" fami~y"

M Have 'you bee.nb,f.l~k tihere since then?

II!~ Yes, :~""e've been going ooery ~~" sin,CIt th-en b,ut. we 4~'~$ 810 to a diff;er;el~i resort.

Tliiltill~el] .31~O~!k(tl' pSi~r o~stJbjide.ius a:bOlJri' Y1YI.W.l' pa:rllfle~.

lR.eadlbeseI1I1'eDc€~. 'bcIDow and, w~idIl ;amli~n_r nu:dcnil:,. cOrnll!i':]ete, >eadil oae:wrutlh d]t['ee :adlvems or :adverb~aill p.bu~e51from.~:h}egddl. F~IIId! 1~I!(!e thil "'''C!.U'' ilD! aJ hori:l)orntaill~ Vlerl~C3~ or d~i!l~.aJfil1m :row.

I .in M~y_·. __ I ~;aiely

yet:

EXl1li'np:le: Ha~ he dOJ<~e the dea.l1:iJ~g be/'Or.i2 :r

t.ht5 'Lueek

'1 O!!lJr neighhouli:s. have " •• " .. " .•• " •• " .. , .• " .•• ", •• "'" ,, ••• , !:lJi(!!v,e'id! ,in nex[ diewil:'.

2 I s~w the 1Dea:ciltM:' .l;\e~]~.·y·l.ose lis, tempe.tt' " .. " , , , " .. , .. " .•

.3 Tlhal :S1tlI,,:lent .. " .. " " " .. " .. " .. " .. " CalJlItte: eo class ai~:r r:..el:!lki~"g a,oddeIDD~.

4, We'!'!!;:: been ha'v:ung :pro!bJemtS wi.th !iJ~'!: car .. , ", ,,""" ,

;5 Oliaf 0055 has had ;r.he ar .repa]red ... " .. " .. " ""." .. " m ••• ".,"." .

E:XAIM FOCUS

11 l(,ey'-wolFClL 'tra nsf.o,F1maliion

'~_~ mJpl.le~e Ilhe~Cl:oo:md_sel1f1je'~'o~ so ~ha;l i~ h~s a. s~m~a'r PJlelJlJ:dl1!j ito ,th~ IlIDr~~ $¢III~~Jli~~ ~!]g one of the twokeya"'V{nU!i gJ;!i'e~ l(onIDy o'nJe l1!'!I~1 heW.p' ye:u to w'f.!t;eth~ se!I!ilJe'c_~oe

·Qo!!'-~ectilly),. yo~, InIlSI[ ,!.liSe lbetwee!lIWO and fJ¥e w'ords1 :i~c.hJdlLG1:,g: tihe ~:e'Y.ward. Note: 1m. this pau of the '~3m. }'Uti are o;w_I:y gwveil't (I~lle keY·"\II'IO!:'d.

Exil'i m._ple .• The b:s:tlirn£ I :sa':v he!:'wa~ at "et-e'r's pa.rty.

I,Mwtll:l'~ S@I!!'I~ he. si,lc:e J?et'er'8 /J(I'rty.. after I siaee

Cmfn~ra.ctions SiL1~h':i$ IIIJIV{!m't eoum as 'rv."O words. Thi$ means 'd];lIr. in the ~'i~tlimp~e

abeve, fiue words hill:",e been Ilse(l,rhc mnximl1lifi1. liil.i.llmlber 3i~I.owed.. ..

1 ] haven't :oocn llii~!D'E be~.r,e.

lt's t!he .. , " " .. , .. " hel:'e!.la~l1te l sLDI!Oe

2 It"s ~!!)es :'l,il1<:el1i1l:Y sister was ]~sr here,

My si$[~r .,_".," .. __ " ..... " ....... rlgt\'$. i~f:I~t llruasfil~t

J M:r' £\tt~~~l(l:r b0gii:t1 $rno!-di1g when he ''iilaS ~~g:l'n.iiWt\n."

My f3du~r 113:1> ." .. , ...... " •• ", ••. " •• , •• " ••. he W:ilS eigllilu!®e:nJ. !i~llce I wlheJil

41· He starred \!l'or.ki fl(g here liIlf!e>e: meaths ago,

He -"." ...... ".,,, ...... ,,,.,.--- three ITho!'lJvbs. s:lpc:e 1 fQ:!!:, .5 Wllctrll did he' staU pla:yrul1g(Qr I[Jrlil!Deid!~

Hew , , ' '0"" •• ' TO.r Unuood.? pma}'cd./ p~3yiilIDg:

,6 [ha:ven"t: spoken to her :l'lortwo weeks,

The ...... , ... " ...... " ... ", ..... , ". Imo het W!l~ two weekssge, East 1 p!:'eriQm

.

'f He' we:U ]11 on Fr.ida:y [UllOll1!l;ll,g,

He --- " .. " .. ,'---- Fsiday ~lo,mt!:l.g, wacS11 h~!>

g; I'"'~e be.g~l!l work Of! {:h!f;!: book n ... o monrhs '~Bo.

He . -".- ... -- ... -, .. ,," ... Oim! ith~ 'bQo:k :f:Qr'~wo mO:l1it!~$. w(!i!rk,ed j wor~:il!1g

~M~8 '

- - -------

E,,.eJrY sef!l:rem(G has a verb

AI_lsel1r~ul,ces h01!ve verbs, and inthe key'·\V'Oro t_l'ilI:l'Lsfo:rOl;aJl;iClrJ! qll!e!,;!;]Ql!!;sin Pan 3: it~llil] ,oft£~!1J I}~ rhe verb phesse dun you ha.velocili!l"l1g-e in !lO.m.{:: way .. A.Jwa:y:s.cbeck 11ll~t you have n-]",de 01.11 dUliIlH6(;eSlla!:y ch~!lge,s:.

Examp]t:: I'm $Ulf~ hef,o:rgoif. abeur rhe i,lPPQ:Ulllf_rIilLC::IlI!t. ..

He wArat' h(:l!lL(w:gQiJ,t-eJ;tAb/J:lIJWe aPPQi~l'miell,t. :I.n:u,$t'

= ..

b W'Qftli1lg, Wltb. afillo~ih:er sll.:l!iC'rtW[ dedd:e w:iwkilt by~wo:rd, }''!ilI1.:I w~lrn :l1leedl Hom ~helo>O'.x bllil:ow to oo:m,iP:leoo t!lt:~ s~CioIl!di S{;iHJt-emoc so th~[: it has: ~ silllfi~l:l)i!i me;truq tIJ' druefir.s:t., Th~.l comp:jC~)Q tlh,e, $.~I1*~IilO~. 'YCillli :1iIu.ii$.~ llI$e b~rttlI'IIi~~Hi 'two' and liv'e wlJidls.lind!ld~ng, the :klry-wQtd.

[!,,!: fi:rs:~ &~!t beciii:fi1te i'i£ve.t !l,iii'i'~ '1 He h;1~[!'1 hald! a hO:j~d<l,Y ifo.r Y'i!l:<lirs.

Irt's ••.• ""' , "., , "" Jt!l!d. a: JilJoJidalY 111'1, reillir$,.

1 TIle lase I!:ime i~ rained here 1!1!'a~ ~1'Ji May.

III _" .... __ ,"_ .... , .. __ " ... , .... , __ ,~U:il¥.

3 Me has !ID.e'f!i'! P(lf:s;ide'.I1i[' fw si~' .!'Il!QIlrJis now.

Six moaths ._" __ , ... ,. __ . __ , . ."._ ... ,~"' .. Pr~idcm. ,4 HQW I,on£; n,<liv,e they been in8.1:'!ied.?

Wilen __ "_", .... __ ".,., .. ,' __ ., .. , .. I~'ul.rl'i.ecl~

I

He '""' __ " __ '''', __ .. "_"'''_' __ '_ ai'll C;K'afil befor'e, 6 [haven't seen JaJne !l~l]cehe.r wedclillg.

nle I 01 sit. ti:me .... "_" •• , .... " __ .. ' •• " •• "_., herw,ed!d:ullg.

- -----

EXA,M TIP 9

I ~ril the c]':mr co.rf'~1!i,{)lllask i:n

ran oj! yot! bave to If~;].d tile teXi!: c~r-dul1y ,ro .looJk for wOl:'ds which

I sbol.l!kill nee be there - 'iVOrds,whlcb

de nor f~t in ebe coneext of rhe te%[.

I YOllilll:'e nO![' Jooidng Jo.l:"wm,ds ,tba.t'

(:'01,dd Ine rCIft!iovoo. o~L'Y[h0'3e 'w[rir.::il 111#;51' be, eemeved because'

tih.eJ!i'liif: mool:'J:'ec[: in ~e.,j'm!> of g,ranUll!l.r or meili'llng.

-:

(

a. Readtlite: !~~r 1b~1.mv amd rnoOik 'C1lirch:1illy :iIIt ,elu:b. Hille, SOIMC: oil the li.rlJcsll[[e ,OOlfwect .;'I:nd !lO:fMtC haIvf:3. w'Qrf~ wh~C:1rJi $i:ruOilil]di no~: be tb.eilif, Ua ~n:!l! iis eerreet, [i;lllWt a, flick: by iii:. n a ~iJfi!e Ilu~iii a WGf!d vib~~l11 ~lriould lItJot: be dle~. wr.i:le me WOfd. 3ft dIe 'Mdoi II:he iWe •. 'IliIg[\~ :Jitl~ two .examJpl~$ ll!t [iiii': beg:imm~ (0 ~nd l]iO).

DearJlolln,

Q lit hiles been a long liime :sinoe· I wro~e to you ~.arSt II :snollJ lid Ii!SJ~ ,,/

.......__

Go. w1l"iinen soO:Il!e:r but: II've ~en Stlctl bli.lsy with the house andl haven't S~

1 had time to PUll pen 00' pap!i:lr. Af;YOI!J csn see 'from tih:e .a,jjd~e$s alb~.

:2 I h.r\,ile I'IQW m,.o.vecl if1i~o ·tlne II1€:W hOYSlel .. I've beef! making 'l!!f1packing

3 since I !IlIl1iv1ea aildl still harven't fiiilishedye;t lit's been heCt~ oocal,J$~

4 I have movM il1.at lhe' Wrelel!;)end ,and be..gan painting on ntesday. I

'5 Ihave 1i'1.0t been ·at WlJrk for the past f!!3!IN ,cI:a,ys bec.aluse II al~ ?~il'lesJ 6 to get ~velY~hingl f\~~dy by !jjljJnlimer. I've been realty busY' all P"lSl '!Neek

f try,ingl to gelth~ng!S. done, lbut lt's nOl ,easy, They hawn'f beefl CO'IU1€iC,te.dl ~, the phon~ yet so no one cain ringl. II 'Uliliiill< you h~ :said! in your l'ettf3'F

91 'that yOu Ih~,ve been here omoe: beii:Orer, but: I can't reii"li'lembe~ for Sl!.Ji"€!L II know 1 (I y.ou have ,e'r,fe~w,aniledto u,aNlel arollJtldlrlrils part oJ Eng~lllfl<i so· why Mil:

1 i conn€'! anc!Slaiy w~ me? The SPOl,re reem, wrnich I ~. jllJst being 'iiNiished 1:2 tPain~ih",g, has al W()nderfll,ll VierwoftlMe ses, I still harve to arrange a!llthe

13 ·fumit.ur€< yet but if yCl'ltve got ·&0ffiI~ ·fr.ee tjme,~hen wrl'iry net oome aM heJlp. 14 w;ith this ~inleio.b,~ I've 009:rn dying to show a friend ereund 9vef slnee

15 I got here 5'0. I'd ICI\l'!e t'O see you if yOiJI ~aYe'rn't mad m.roe pl!Jns for

Y.Cl1.U holiday.,

j

b The cOifrre(i!: ~il:illes in the ~l:aM~ also cOi!];hd!8 O',n!li\ wo.!."dwb.ii~b~Of~ld be rtmo,¥,oo witgu~ $~gIrliifi:ca:[lit'Jy changmg liilrue m.ca.g (nil ibe '~e:xlt:, Look l!);1Ic'k:a,t 'the 'OOiif~C.1 Um.es aadsee i~' youail't ~de!lltify ~~eW'01'd m e:aiCih ease,

fur_.ulJ!p]e~ (I~fle 0) ra~t

Unit ,8 Rellat:iv'e clauses

1 n,c:e.x~iU',('Ict~ bcWcl\'i' are !fr,ollll The Gr~i~I!,""$$oBcok of'Reoord:S" w:.hiic;l1. ctlil1ta:ill1!S! iillf~!."lna;doo on 8JW WlOrLd! J:'eol)J'ds. B~mJ',e f!e'<l!dwng d~ern" d~sctl$$ wid'!! ~u!Qithcli' $fiI.IJcll~f1IIf 'O!i'ha~ ~he recous Ui[l,d£1. dte CIOUMV.iRg headL~gs: im~hit be :~'bi)U!t.

WORKING CAREER 8IE:ARD Q,r 81~ES STANDING HUMAN COMPUl.E,R

Now eead t\h_£, ~]a~~ag,es belew to' see H rou were :righl!: •

it LONGEST ON A RAE

The I~li"igest fecordea survival <1"011& on a ratl. is 1 33 days by Second Sl:ewSld PlOOf! lim oi\'I\e UK 'Merc~al!l 'l'4a~. wno,se ship IIWS ~'OIiJedoed if! the ArlatJ'tfc in 7942.

The Imaii'll who had visited more Go,l'J!f!ftie.s tiJ..rn i:l!fly;olle was Jesse Haft Rosd1all (1914=n~, Of a'll the :ffiep.a raitely

admin istered ceuntries and te,rri~o;rie,5; lis,ted in the' UN' Population' :R.egot:t,. lie had visitedl.all. excelP'tirfl9 orflly NOrthi KOftili and U~ F"~nchAnita rt'I/iC H'iirritonieili_

S STANDfNG

.

,2 \VORJ(_mG CAJtEE;R

flhe Ih;)l"Ige.$:t V!l()fi!;;ing l'fE nas besn ~!1i1r[ .0<1' 9$ years by Mr IZI!J mil wl'Jo begEn walk herdmg animals ,at a SlIJgai' min ai' ~ser:i:, Totuna,snrma,. Jap'a() in ',Em!. He retirEd as !ill :s,ugar CBIfI~ ta~me~ in '1970 agedll 05,

The l!1'l!im~ile be.arrd of bees was .ac-hieved by Max. Becf\i, :2TI I' of Al'Cola. USA, 1l'I'I1.o, in t985, managed 1,0 attract 70: 000 bees. weighin~l ~ to hi$ borf,!~

Mrs: S!halkunt~ltal nevi of In.dia d~ monstnneo ~he m,!,.II~ilPliC'atlom of two 13-digit 1ll,Jll1r'IiOers, 7,e8S.3ij9r, 77.4A~70 x 2.4815,000'.14$,'779. which wer~ .fJic1r.riJd al' tandomor tll~' Computet Depari,mem ·of Imperial COf!€g8 tonootl in J'une ~ 980.. in 28 :seoo;n~ ..

Thle liofl:gest perioo On record rha'l' atly.o.ne has oontin,l:lofls/ystood is '[or more than SieV'em,eeFli yeiil~S in 'the ease, cd Swam:i MauJgiri Maharij when perform! mgl the Tapa~ 0 r pelfli! nee lrcm ~ 9J)5 to Novembe~ 19:73 in Shahj:a,h!aflpLJf, IIfICr.aI .. Whem s~eepung he 'l.vollid leillfii agai ii1st a plank., He di-ed agM 85, in 198(t

'(ada,ploo hom ~ Gl'tr~r,m~G.s Book QrR~ooFt1s 198.7 ~'Id :f9:94:~' G .. ~n:lfiJess Puh~ushir~g Lrd 1!5I'.s:6 !llfI!d 1~93)

68

,2 Th~ gram:matffica). '[~rm :fol ~e ~~ ~f t~~xj'tsin. ~ti!llii(:$ is, fC'4urtt d(UI$f!!5. 'The two, rypes of ma:ti;'I\'l! di'lililSCaiI':C dcscrilbed 'belew.

a D'e'hll1il1g rdoa tJVC clauses filtU ~s; e:xa:cdr w~icll plffSi~)iJ@t rJl1j~g thC' wldreljj is ,~alk£ng a,bol!l.a:t. Ite.mo'li[lg, :91 defurI:ungre]ar[ve elausa oornpt!m~ly d!l!:1Iw:ges the' mea~i:li:,g oJ a sentence,

~:IlImp,~e~ Th:e .mQ~~ ~u/~o holds 'tb,e, ~m forgQlf~lulll bll:lllm:iug J'S ul11g Mar-ti~ •. He

btllanced' SclJ8rt.gtJ\lf bans. v.e.rticaUywithofilf (ld.he;s~-u-e i1~ 1980,. '

b NOrl.·.de:fi['i:i~lg [i~lallli!.i'c clauses g:i",,~ us e'x:tr3 InWl:'maticm<lloourt: d:l(l~efiOIl 01' d~i:illg th~ w.r:.iitElt ls it1i.In..~if!~ abol,llf..ReooQ,vi:_ng 3 WlJo!l~efi.l'li!l!g d~Ul!~ dQt,~DiIQ[ SI:g]1lfiC3:lidy c!i;al:'igl> themea:l1iifl,g of a ~el1itellce,.

EX<lm_pl,e: Th~ o.ldest :r'f$,c--ord(}d bridegroQm is. Harry StevleJ1~, UJ3,. '!I)ho ;,iulme:d 84 .. '!feaJ'~I'd Thelm'a Lu~ ~ttbe C-il;ravlt'raR:ttire-mli!'nt .ri'i:lIm~'i;;j Wis~o:r;j$i;.!.

Look ba'ok i1!t tllite exersees ~[I.1"ask 1. !Ufld decidJe TWIh~lfter du;: :reLal!:j¥e elaases [belt' COiOl!;ido il!J)e !!,3,' d:efLnr___!_q; .or (M :Gio~.~dcili1~rng. Chedc 1/''liIllJil:'all1S::w.c:rs with .3mt.(lt&er s['t!IIdcn'!:,

3, Look all dl.1lexJt!.racu; ag:sJitDJalll.d see ii yo,u Ctlln w.o1fk Otlit. d'lel'liI_'c !io:l:'mciI!lsl! oi c,om_W'I.3iS 'wilh ddiming ,al1l.d ]'1J(1,t'I.",clelrti!n~ng rerua:tiv-e d3!UJ$cs.,

RiEIF:EiFlIENIC'E

1 ][) WEt,Slt !type of 1ill:[3~:l.v,e dause 3Jre~be' £Oinl)li\I~mg U'l;u~ ~ R~ad Se~Hons .A. :urudlB iIlo fi:lilid Oilil:t acJlld complJete tIDI~ il1iart widIt "'~aliIJd Xs.

I Co. 'mmO!~ ar-e .~i&. ed.,. if1J sera.· .. ·:ca:re.· .. tho ,n. d:ilt.ili'''e ,dll!l,Ise [!rom the !l'e'~1; of theseaeenee

,

1 DefiruQg .relative clauses h~lp us identify Qr defme me- thi:Qg we are talkin,g ahcur, A: Do you knOlv .that fMn!

II: Whdt man?

.A~ The mill; who is mild", to Mr J(JM$.

We do not lise cornm~s bl!lro,n or aHu d'mnin,g utati.ve claums.

,2; WIl.o 1S ty:pieaUy used for people; which ordll1( are used tom[k about I;1Et~. That is also used! lor peo-p.lc in jn:Wrmal5i~ch.

Anyone' who, h.asn 'f ft.C<tiJ;!ed Q lettJeT by :!;!otl!' ,~btJbl'1 WO~J ~bit (i4:Jlled lor intswiew.

Even the, ~T4;iH that feft at 7 a.m.,~;'dn·t h-(J~ g(Jt u,:!: to Lot.td~,~ .in tim-e.

.._ ..,

3 "\VhQ) th3iI'OI:!ldwbfChi are ofm~ lei: OIl1l' w.heDil '~bej' are ehe obj:«;t of.~ d!l=lini~ relathre dau~~e:.

1. (,Ireful:j kN(JwaboiU,t me :S1j'rpri-se :f~T#d,} Peter h'S planned. ~~P'eter' i.s the sl.I;bject of the C]<iiU.I.'i&; "wh:h:h' js ['llit: Q,bject,)

But when who, maJt andwml:l!J. are the sl.'Ibil;l(;'liOf a defilillillg rel.a;ri",,~ clause tl~ C3llnilot 00: left OliIt.

Pe.'Of!!(J. 'wh" (trri.r;:e,d late h,(l,d, .to sM~j'd at. th'l! i;'(Jck.,nort: Pl!(j'PJ~ ~ffiv.ed laM Jwd to 5M;~d ,a~ tbe back.}

4, Of'~a ]'C~o:i;tiv~ :lll'Om.oilii!lS in. ,deBril~ng relative clanses .alire·as: follows;~

Tile ,vom4~ ;ui/'o.f!I; bo.us,e ;~~':re going tll h~ :!ltaY"~'18 in: rs qniliiiJ a /(anoll5 Ulrit,er·. ~poosem~ I'ehr~i'\!e J'l'!i'{l!1(lun}

I 'f~ 'Bn~ a tlO1W"" i~ IJ.~ ~tb-ern hl;IJf fit fiJ'{J Q)u~/h'YI'UlJeTt! peG,ltleean feel saf-e. tlll:scdi ;1f~c:t.r nollliS ,or p'Ji1!oe:~

N'on·d1e-fm,nilflg reia;ri.v,!!' clauses Si:v~ (!;llrntiillD:forma:r±on a.bol:l'l:a persea 01:' ,thling that we have ah31dy deady idelltified iDthe seraence,

The oW~.J'er 0:( IhfJ hotel,. wlJt) had beim eN' sdjQol with my mQ!her. :ret:Qgn'ised he'l' as $00.'-1 a:s we w:aikl$d in-.

A !!1.or.hdefi.I'I[IIDg .. rul,3Jit.lV,e d~we: ts S€pl!:1:r$litflCi {[10m tl:u~ rest 0:6' tr,_h:e :s:emle. . nee 'by commas.

2: hi. ~11·def'i;nm,g clauses who i~, !II~d JOil' peGlple :an(]) whiih tDot that'} isased f"Or thii'mugs. i'V6 reaeived 10UJ' ier.-ter. mm'Cb 1"w pa~~edon to rf.I)' bO~$.

1 We atS-Q US~ "WllIicbin li'I,on=id!~fIDni:ng ['el1'li1;:i.v,~ dl'llm£!l;S wht':r:i we W<'!ill"lU' '~tI 'mil< about ti€: whole p:r-evio:""s ",,"Iaus~.

Sh,g's ,de:cidI!J ·ttl, go l'(O oonege~ w:bi'lih h'as r,eaily pltQ'S'M her p-are'll'i:s.

4h no.IHlJefi:llIin:gclalllses we can ne'!'ef (')mli~ the reJaliiV"f P!rotnJOI1!11.. 'fh~ A'GY i~' in my ~Jlei'f,. :wJiicb I've r~ft· at 1~B.me.

5 Other .relative ,..ro.nOl~Il~3I1Ld :li:on-ddjlljllg da:Rses 3re· alS, fuU(lw'5~

-M:t'l'!-;';;Spoo1., w~, c-h.ridrtm 's s.tDri~. hav.ewo:l';l bet int~t~al ~'e~ ,Ms irnt pr:oJ.~I(.e..d he., lim; notnd.

Shot" J call back fut~T. ·whm YO.U'TIt" hot 'fjUJire SO busy? (lI'.'>liid :after expre~ssiGlls e<f lime) rUg/w: )'@" lJ1:li1 f"l'isnd'$ ~on.rtl· ,.liU~nber, ~ I ~n be read1$d m{J\S\t (!rJentng~ ..

~used aJte.r expressions of p[ace)

7'0

2: R.ead the p'SIi:rs of SCl:Itili::IliOO:; be~o:w amd: nrl3:u:il 'cae!] SeoWJtOO to Ci'JilJC oOhllelr:i.rl"i;JaIIDil:tllOm (~J aad U~)ilJ3it €~Uow.

~ a} l c~o!ile '~be eae ~ha~' sdil had .it~ 'm:i~.

~) [ dho!l!€ the ca'l:. w:kid,'t $·till ~:l'Id irs rail,

~), 1 ch.os'tt:he cat, p'!JIilOO\}\'Ji' irom a -gllOU!p' of dl~ifc;:!.'e!'!it ilIf:liwl'!ah.lt Sim hiid. its '[a.i~ tpc:r.h<l~ Wme~ a!f !the~t~el:S did:r!i't).

ii) From a :£iJOOUIp of cars l chose the one 'i.\'id~ ata it

7; il.) m found the letter whkh. s:~~ had be~['I. w[':~ting c~.['~.i.e:li il'l~he $i.n.ing :rOOl:'n. b) ] (ulJind ehelener, wb:id1 slle·htl,,:! been wl'~I~.rlig e .. rl.ieil"~ '~['I dl'e sirr.it'ag recm,

j) S.h~ w.as w.driqs dle ~,ene!i inrhe siu]ng roem,

u·"l (IlQI:H:J;d fbe 'e(t~l" ii:! rile .Sifol'J{lg .~oj](M'Ji'." -

.3 3~He w:asw,e~[i['lg SOm~ ;st1l;'1gl8Jsses:l~ ... bichI liked. ib) !H(;:: waswea.rill'il:g .so'me sun,glass.c:s: that [I~.k!~d.,

i) .l [,Dted rr.he fNlcl!: d~~H'~e Wtli~; W€iltlmg SIUJ;l_;gll'~61.&e'-$" ii} ~ li!.!cd the sunglasses hewa~ W'eari,ng.

4 a) To m£ti.r l1e,1! tip Ji gave her a clock 'Wh~dt~vQtk~', b) T () .clue~[ :hef!lillp ~ :~a ... 'ii !UlF :<I. clock, which worked,

~) I ga.v~ her &11 clock 3J['I,d mya:cl:uotl1Ji dl.eel'ed her ~p,

H) 1 gave her a dock whi.t" worked, as opposed ~o Qllet'hilllt did:m!i)~.

1. .kI. defimticfiS and nOll· dcfJ nin:g [\~I.a:tiiw elauses in .ooll'l'en~·~i,on we usually place a depMd~lif pre:posiirioa 3.t t'heend o:f Ibe clause:

-Th,e people (!vho) 1 W(J'!; .s,traking' /io aid'n'~ Se8l'n ilJt.erest~d. I m~.~ Kt!l1i1J. 'wOO I got the job tbrougfJ, qu;'re by t;h'O~j'Ce,.

~~ forma I W!Ell1l;ell Engl~hwe oftLmput rhe p:repos1r~.olrt beJ)O:rlll 'WM:1I1 0,[ whim:

Tb.at'.t; ,r'he P6f$'Qif. :to ;ruhom David 1'ii45 in:trodu,c~d'.

~i!' a PU'p<I!>iri£Iflwe call":"IiI.01' 'lise wh'O ,aM d13'£; w,«l can an~y. use whomall'id w.hich. 2; NOle the ~R~cla! Pchr3~ ill. no:m-de;IiAiingdause.s.:

whom

so:nne al~ bm:h. many modi

.of w:t.iclt

3 C(lmp~etG the ~ellen.~ bl.i~oww~tljl Ollfi.~ ocf 'tIil.c[\elat~"If!e: deuses a,:-)jJ and adld. a:rnry !I!.eOe!'lSii;ul' p:Jl!1ruC(IIi!:a!(mo~, Th~-t_1Ui clilJ€lc-l },(lii!ll iO!!lill!lWl:i~. wwt!lt aJ!l!Odll.'ll" stll!tdl~IilJt,.

lli. h;'s ~mpo!r.'~a:lIlI!r t'O find iii hOhl.w " , , " , .. " .. ", .. , , , , ,'0.'0 ••••• " •• _. __ "0 •. " •• ,., •. . , __ .,.,

2. The pe(l;~on " , --- ", "'" _- - .. _- " " .. " .. _ -" , .. " _" -_., .. is ~. good friead of mine,

l My :so:n"s 'b~1!l tiO places " .. " " " " .. " " " "._ " _ .. _ __ .. '0" ,

4 T.~ere' is no~ going eo be a strike ",-" ""_ '_"0_, _ "-".,,,-.- .. ,, __ ,, •• , •• ,, .. _-,, , " .. " •• " •• " .

5 The d:iructor of tlli'u~ school __ .. o " " " 'o." •• " •• ,,_,, __ .. used tn 'Work i.m:! Spain.

,6 'Wiij:'rc ha'v~i:'ig :a l\e'ilj:i:~~Qn (!I,t :50f]1iJ;': (l~d schooo!' iriends " .. "'-" " " .. " .. " ,,._.,,_ .. , ,, .. _ ..

7 Th,~t oJd. car (Ii'll'(l!l' ,there , .. ,. __ ._-_ ... _., .... __ ... _-,"', ...... __ . __ ..... " .. _ _ .. , .. _., .. " .. ,. __ - __ ...... , ... ,.- .. ,-_ .. " .. " .. " .. " .. , ..

is \lIro.r(h ill, ~(1) of lIWI'ICY.

8 I :klio,w a g[~a:r .ft::5iOrf .. "' .. "'''''''.'''''.'''''.'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' ... ,""''''''''' __ ''_''''''''''' ' '_.'''',. ,.

oSi) tk<lt I've never he a r-d! of

'b) which has goocli amenities :!'l~ar'by c] whichl baJ;'e~.~t !Uscd fo~ yea.f.s . d) most of~'I{ho:m YOIU"11 [\eoog!!Lis~

c~ycm~:I1 be me~rlling

~} w:llliiIih]5 ,~grC;;llit ~e~id til) eve,rYOIlICl:

g) w:hci:(\~ you b~ve ~he~'a,che:o to }"Ol]rsd~ ~.~ '!. ... hese ['lam~ Iklll'ge1\

CfJiMMUNII:CATIVE PiRAClllCE

lR~adalhouJt ~he !m.ys~:e~I1IQ'!J:~ (iVoeliVl,:lilart lb,;1I@'ptbed to' Samilll!ie]l ~ii.!!d!do,jk. 'Di:sCUlss with a!lIIio:tber. 5'tud~JJWt: wht ,!i~~m.s i!:llraI~\1i3IbOI!iJt ~btl .s:iO~" Tbe :llIijjmb:e~ aind. Spt.10fl'cS; hil tM feoct .ER:;Irk il?Jo'!ces~:vhe,n~ )"OiU ~~Id! plU ~ih)~ ,!'J(ln.d~fi!llinlS .~~lathlle dl<'il!~~$ ~-k liis~l3d1 beIDo'W •. 5!1[loJv.e die iDy:s:~er!r' and !l]!l1d the Hii(ild ',rc (s:jl {Oii. ~h~ (;ri~~ byimt'Si~ti.Hg rluie da1!!~~ in ~he ~ext. The fin I!: oln:e ~;;1!S been dOtl1!e i'or ')I'OIU!,

Sarmu~'1' 'lffiurjdoo~ h.a d !:leen lIMing ai'ol'lJe inl h is il;!i~g,e house SLiilce Ute dep'artJ.llre o·f Imis ci'iildoorJl and willie i(1Il' .. _a..a _ &!mueil {2} : __ ... _,,_ went to ~d on 6th N!o¥erni;Je:r 1937 with his eve:FI!irlg cup of t,~:a (3) _ ....... ,,_ • He m81d~ hi$ way !iJIJMair$ 13111111, aft~1' ,cMddlflg thaUhe w'inclcrws wele IlgM~!(~~olJ!roo', he jo;O~d ~h€ Ibedroom door and! :5'911~ed' d'OW,IR linto Iliis r:aiF9S ifol!lf-postGr bed (,4~ " ... __ .. _ , ih.~. olQCik en the W/·,ad~ ~5J ..... __ .... Ihad jlUiSt ohirnecl fihe firSt sh,oke of midnight <3;S he iltilll mto 31 deep :sleep.

He ~Jke to lha SOUJ1do~ th'fse ~1I'ge pdJrcemE!ifI b~eakirf9' d~ his ~draGm door: t!lsy had Ibeem c-aUad after rJeiiglioo!.!t>s il:a~ he'~r'(l III w<lmi!llfi :$()re~!ll'iiligl, The cb::k ~6} .. " ..... __ said it was OrL-e IminutaaJter midlrni:ght Saimue! ib!W.liid hilrrlSJe!f lying olil~he floo~, liiext~o the body of his e;S:l\1O!ng.ed wit,s tf} .... "."" . :ShIEl h~dl bee'J'l Shot. TIh,1i': goo roo " .. " .. " W~~ lying oot\'Veeo them. Th;e room Ie} .. " .. " .. was oompl~tely 'IllITipty e:l<:C~p't f'Of ~h!lii' clock Orr1l Ime walll,

No onetrom the ~OnQe De,p;artm~llt !O'fAj~alll!Sas S~a~e' no~ , .. """,,. b;S!~ie\led hru:.stOfY :abollt goingl 'to. bedl ait midlnig:11t He was chi1lllgedJ Winl ~he, murder of !lis. wi,te Je,a'11I n 1 ~ .. _ .. __ ... _

!li.l \!'~~.id:'i he had eeused by h~,~ :ili:SE:lJiJsiti.vhy eo his wif'C"s .i]l[les:s b] wiMch. had been purf;Q:!"'iv~:rd an h{;f(J.r

c)f.r'Qrn which (;."¥erYllh~f!!g ,~.i:!1.dudiFIIgt\h.e !bed), lUrid bce~. removed d} WI~'O had since '1iI'!l'hocl1l ~i:s; childre!'! OIl,1JV Qfirlis w.ill

e) w~ich wasju$t .1lIS: she had pl;ili:ll..lJ:ed

f~~ll'lde['·!;'!.!~t~ch $omeQlfb;:' was hidli:ng

g). " ... hid !h~d nO'w b~!ru ptlt oockil1Jn ~ol;!r

h) '1'i,h.ic:h ~Ad a. ]"''I.'l'Itrl~kii1g ji:lva1kl .!llny will wrinell !by $iom~O[l,e i:lM~ne

-\ '. 'Ii.' '11. III I,. d . .' . '. . I.. -I..!I

t/ ""'.mJIIC.![ .U1,e: !:I;;lL :;It S;'Qme TII:ne .I.ue .~.

D '1'i,hkh !l\LSJd ooell d:l:l[iI-Med

k) ,,,'hOlse doctor Jmdpl'edactJedi she h~dl o!'!ily~[uee mOlliLhs to live

2: Coililage ,co,nlliulctiIQIil·S

Looilk. 311 tib,e:(loillag'!l: of ~ct:l[l:J!~~ ~nd !.ml~.g~s ~~i,o.w 3Ii3d w~tih ~!}iJ~he!:' S!t~.cl!~11IJ1' ttry:!ll'ldi id.OO;I~fy il;\vo olftili1rc:ep~Q~le ·OI?·,ffiI:UI1!@5 betw€~Dli wil1.QiThIwbmchtffil.Jeo~~ is ~ c(i!(rlll'lect~ol'l.

!Exan;lp.le~ Tb:r.ee .symbolS ,Mat r~ptese.r.u d.i(f.e.r,eJ1.t forei;gJ1. .t;u'I're"J"ies,.

fLl1Iid as ma:my co:n:lfi;~li(lt ... s 3$ you CII]]] ~tld1 wri~:e; ~!I1I~m down :in II:hc JOil'n1 of ~wbb~'ms jor. o~he.J:' 51~:l,!I!demttsIQ' sornv.e~llsifii,g ~ iiJe.~n·tive da:U!se,

!Example.: .PiJ'r.a tt~tw :SYI1.lbols #10~ 'refm;-$e~t different /iJ'feign c.urr:e~cie·s,

leXAM IFOC:US

-- - ----

, EXAM TIP '1'0.' !

Pu:ttctlla.rioD

LQoki:ng a~ the pUlI.Cnn\t~o~ of Siemtellces i_11 ehe OP8;mL c1o~e~a:s.kin Pare 2. COil'll .il:elp }'OIlJ. {J!)w'i!I!;'k o~~lhe .missi1m:g words. W]!::i1. reillati.ve clauses, fOi!" exampk'l .<J!oomma befoire tire blaJ'illk: whkb :SHUld& fo!:' a ~e.la:tiu".e P:OOriiOUfli .i:ll!Clkares, 11 it'Io.l1"defi llIil'!!g rdi'!J~h~e d:ilil!il;se~. $0. l!'ot:lwlJ1uddi i~Se wlrukh,. 1101~ tlll~~. eo [Milk a.boll!lu tll:illgSi.

~I!'I t:~)~followi~ pa:;;s3~.es .~n ~heblill:l:lb are W'O:lr~lo;; whk~ :re.1:1Hil: '10 like gf~!mmlar 'o~ reiativ,1)l clauses OO'\fle'Jteaun. [ihis u.nit,

The ite?,Ct be~ow is abp~(ld i1',om the mli1:troC;ilJcttOill fJO [Ibe IruolVlel The' Day of:"f;e' Triffi:ds. R!i:3d '£lite: t:eN:tal!1d ilili'llk o,f the wOlI'd w~id. b>!ll>st fits 'ea,cb sptSloe. U!l~i)mJy OOI!!! wOild ~n each sp,3ce ..

JohnWyn,<Jhiil!li!!, (1 j " .. " .• waS bern ~1fJ 1190:3, lived lin IE,dgibastorl, Birmiriijhfllr'i'i, !jJfu~1119111

aindtnen in lfIfI"any ~ther part$: of England, Aftiar ~nencl'ln;g se';fI3Jral English pr;sparatory seheels

he w'ent I\() BedaJles Sol'noo! hom 1191:8, t,ijI111921, G.alreeffS t2~ Il.e trriiedi Illlclll,llde(i

-

fOllrming, law, 'OO'ffimemiEilI a f1Slnd adverlisirilg, and! he: ~ir$t stallledl wlnitili'lQ short storiS\5

13.~ " , .. were im;endedl for sii!Jle in i921i Itroml 1:93() 111111193.'91 hG;wrOltl s,tQriI1lS· of

d'ifferem kinds jor .Am eric:all'! pub!lica~ioc'H3 but the: names uncJer '~1U Ihlewrore

vafiedi.IDl.JtlnGillhe wa~ he w,ers ln 1il'ie Ciw;il Sel!Vi~ end ·ah6~rd8 Iii'll 'trneArmy. ln ~94i6Ihe

wa~t back ~@ wrilMflgl shert s~ories, ~S~ .. : : ~f,dl'i.lhe had some $!~cces~. il1.1he USA,

arid ha cn~clded~o .~iY .9 IMOCliflie.dfOlnr .of what IS IJ.! nhi:!~;p~ly IkinOVlif'i .aIS 'sc~ei'iCe:ffC1iIO:i'll', He'

wrote. The< Day oj' rile Triffidsaoo Tna Kroken Wa.~'lil'8. 1[16) " .. , o~: witok;h heve been

tr.mslalied into severallangUii),gesl. 'filie' Ghrysaflds 8irild The MkJlAich C-U'ckoos, r['n .. " " ,

Wi''$- made rrntiO a fi~m emi~~e.d The Vl'1i~8 .f)f th~ rumnoo. IHe: wro]:e many ether Wine novels,

"

{8~ " .. , trtllies ino1u:d'e The Seeds ot Time, Tl'o.ub!e WilhUch~n !Ciflid The Gutwardl/rge:,

all (9) " .. Which ha\le been pUbliished by Penguin ItrJooks,. Joh!l Wyndhaml died ln

March ~969." ®~: a '~im@ (H)} ... , ...... "." , ... man. was about to ta~e hhll 'fir$(t $~i€;P'$· on th~ ImOo.:l1.

I(atlap~ from thll: ~Gtrmlta~dmoo J1i,,e D~)' ,of the T:riffi.ds,>P~ngllilili ru 987)1

.::-JO:l: all verbs jill Emq;Ush can be l1SedWl[ih ob!,oots. Far eXi):I'['lplej; }!'Q'1ll can't ·'d.iS3iP'peaii. so:me,thm,g' - }lion ha ve co say 'SOcm,Cdli:l!l(g disappears'.

Veibsthat Cti1~ be: ~s.~ wittb olb~ecu;, (e.g. h~t:!>o~_)etl~l~g) do not :an {(i,ilow ~I~e same object

pauern,. :~Olr 'Iil'xa.mlplle;~ I·

rh'e ctJ'f hit a fnte" (verb +- d1i.(i~ Qb~ie:ct)

Rc gave H1,e a book, 1(l,I'erib .,.. iod:irect and dieect (lbj:ec~$)

'1 WOl'.kjng wid!!!lI!n.otlhei !'l!l;li!deflt~ :flIt ;time j~a,l'i'p~ec~~ be10w ~!l!t,O dl.e jigs;I,'\V bOMd. f.o,[',~ ,Ieee t'o fit :h ml.!lslt: be bOJI:h th~ ~g'JhJi Sb3PC;liltd! fil glSiIDJ_rnadc'ailJy 'Wj!l;1:ii dl,e 'wro. Oll'l,e li..!.l~ !has beea doae ~O.iiye:Ui.

LE'AD~IN

<:,~pr~ I 2'~' I

~ :t'{Il~, 2'¢.1li!'1H ~~e; .

:2 Look th:i!lck 31 lute :5 jill I!he puzzle. Woricl~widl a!llo1I!ie!1's:tl!!ldiemJ uy snd 'Work oi1/.l;1 'What klimd .of' iIl.OUf!. it COII.Ii~!:ffi stand i'(]llc ~[le;lt:WI, case.

. ~ ~

75

IREF1EIREN:CiE

1. Tnmsitive VC'.sre those whjc~ al'l~ folJowed bf otnob;~l:r; Som~oi!Je in t:ht crowd threw a stMIe UJiti"h ,hit the POlicemdtt,

They can be 0000 .iil'l [he p~ssive fonD:

The pup,;is 'Wt'lr.e. ~/amJ'6d' by the ~,dhI()Qfll1in(;ipai,

,2. 11l,trlJnsJUWJ. vert\!> are tbOSlll which cafillot hoe used wiJ[ha.1Ii ob~:~t:

My' fJ4$$./JOtt has, disizppearM. N~ ane mu llnit.oed' ygt.

Verbs whi,c~ are typical'lr used m'translItl .... eJy ar.e~

appea:r 3.I:'.I'lliI,lle" consist dlXllku~ dc(pilrt

f~1] fllOw grcow happen litcit ]i~

succeed (meaIlLl'ig 'b,ave S'llictess') v]bra:oo· ''!'m:it

die li~:i'I

d~sap~ r d:rip

[\(i(:IIiI!l" rrse

'fle cantihu.s nO~ :say: hee ~u(,uM:e:J''be ,~t~ or the tain ,grew the flowo$. 0.[ they li$~ened th-e chi.MTPM dt$ m~sic.

To express sueh m,e,anill@S we need [0 use mu ahemarivc tmnsil\:ivfl verb - HG pa.s$M thee tc-st ,_ lOra: SD'Illt"i:um w~tb. make or J~u':

The f!1;:n ~ ·th'l! flOwer5 grow.

They Itt t"'if ,hi'ldre~ .listen to ,the must,.

NOTf:: I~tnIJ1S][~\!'e 1Il;l:rOS csuaer be used in the' pa:5S!i.vc form. Wie CilI:[lJ1l.Qi sa}'~. The pl~l1

'1'U(.j~ suc-aeded. .

" Com~l~t,e the: $CIifiJt:~Ill~~S: M:low wli~:h one o~ [lh~ v,etbs ail: tl:be ~d o~ ~':U:lliI, £eill1:tence. (!Ine ()~ ,thc'li'-ew's is i;_HJI~mil~twve ;liiid tlll,eoth~fi:s ty,p~caml:~ used. t.f..:!i~'j;s;iiti¥cl~y.,

Th UnempioY.l:l1leJu , ... , ...... ,.-_,,- ..... , ...... 'liO record [e ... elsi~]:!l:[ month. (i!'~u:s:e j :r:IS~}

2 M~ny cbi~d~en hadte ~e"~iiif'e' the dt:ies dudng tt.h~ 'w.~1" a:liJd. WCi!'e __ __ . , by

srrangers, (bring Il:P l gn;n"i.'iillp)

.3 He gra.bhrntil t:hl\ prJJ:rcd :frornrhe: pOSlmrHl! and , , __ ., hm' see wh<l'li:w.aJs

ins:ide. (s,~!)l~£': j' vibl:a;t~)

,4 The cal' skidded. OLij ~heio~ and -"--'"-'''_.,. __ .. _ .. __ .. __ '" a [ine!!' b~[IJ!".li~ ehe sid,e' olf t:h~ road. (:knock over I fell Qver}

5 H signs 0;( 'Ch~uUIWG;5>S " _ .. 0" , ~, CO:ITIIE3C:'i: yOi][n~o,al. dQClCOf ilIllUJril.~dialdy.

(trecur f ,rC!~.at)'

6 '\tOl'l'1] :tliever " , - .. , , .. yO'l!l!r ~'mbitio!ilS :if' you dO:~'1!: work harder,

(ach~,t(v~ , sw::c,e,oo}

7 Se'wcr.aJ! gnests h~~e _.,-_ .. __ ...... - .. __ .. _-"."" rli.£ 11;O~i' d]!5 !fIl0ll\!~;l]g and t"ii;kl;llfl r!m.eilt" keys ,~.irtlt

lhel'r.I.. ,!de:p~'n Ilc'av-el

:s H.asalflly!l)1'Ie -,,-,"".., .. ,"." " ... , ....... any~hlillg ~O 1!1)'U a;wo~ g>eu.iing. QUIlMORCCY ba.ck ~Ul." th.e

~ri.p'WI'(;l :missed? {say I speak'

9 'TIle m,.l111l1~r of ~l:lIJdlel1Jts en1''Ol]ill:g if! C!O~lrS>8S at the ~i1Iflg,~I:!I.g-C' SdlOOI. is ,_, .. , "

(!:'oouoe f de~li]'ilel,

10 [a.ccidenMUy kno(:~e:d! J1l1.y c~p oVler and "." ,_._ .. , 'oone-,e Q!r!I the :new ai:'p"Clt.

(sp.iU I drip)

:1 Many OOlllh_luooverb.s hav,e two objects! a direct ·Qbject and a~ In.di[fflCI; o'Cljecf.

The Wtliter s~d me th~""eI.Ui'i,

(m.e: is the in<lirect obi~ct, dte> weliti ~s th~ dii'~~ obJioc'I:)

2, T ...• ,.he jIDld.,. ir ect ~bj~t. ,tea 1.1, 3.,. ~s. ~.' be .i:rm:o. dl1 . .ccd·, b,y tho .e,-.' pre~"tkllls in or roli. In 'tms. esse, jf Gomes 11/tIt.r the dlr. obleeTl

She didn't· UNitl:t 'lrJ till the bad ~$ ro the' ch~I4Rn. (COfi'i~rt:: She ,did,i"t. fQa~~ to t~1i .thl! ,c..hildren )iJeb.a.a ,z,ellMs.)

The preposiliriOimiI ~s us.uaUy ilS;~d. whem iI',he indirect obieee is 8i longer phrase, My !1Jother ,Im$ m,t o:~r $pMe. t.e,levfl,j'(}n ~o :tbe .eJdeny main next door.

The child 8aveiJ~' $e~·t (Qrtk friend • ,wa"S t;~~g.

Verb!i,typ~e:]Ii'Y used .il'lrirlj:swayw~l~. kI aJl'e:

[F)~, pto.mist read

i.h.ow t~l~ W.i'~re

g~e reulJT

bllill' cl!r,ttw leave ,m;)~.e

reserve save sreal f;3jk!e

book p:E'eparn

.3 V:~[b .. dil."'~ ob!e¢'I:* 10 + indi.r-ecl: ob~~

10

nett is a ce:l:~aiIn group m v;e.rbs ~nli:llgl~!ih w~fh W"~id.'l. we h.t/cue to- .ase to betoTe <i!ll.

Jlldiirecl!: object.

He ,exl!wjnm tbi! :lld~e' t6 the for,tign vis'.tars..

We ca:lnJnm SaJy: He t1:illrplaifl.'eod the fOJf(!fs,ft (jis~rar"S the' S.ch,ffffl<e.

V~rbswhicb fol](1)w tbis: pattel'llare:

2: CGmfil,e~i~~ thie::: ~te!1C~~i 'bi.l:krw w~lhtffire t\i1!lIUj{l!iJi'(l'ts!'gi,V'eilll, il~ braok~1!iillt du: mel o~ 'ea,-" seneence, TI!'I!!l_t_k <!I!bout ~Q1 wb~cllli Q,l'd.trt~~y :sho(uildllb~ 1i.!:5!!'ld oi!lJild! ",,]ruettllte:i. row need £:0 ,add' (l' prep~$i:ti(}1l1 (llr nQ~,

,lExam,:ple~ Th.e 1~lt1H ,il,1: t!J,(t 'market S()Jd ~ne a b,'Ok.en. watch,,, (a brolbel1\"1',!;'!if.ch l me)

1 T.I~aJt's the csrtalt-e' :ag;ell!tt ,tha:t il~t ., .', .... , ","' "'''' ,.''''''''." ,." .. ,' ","" '" ... ",.''' ... "." .... , ... , ....... , .. ,,' ...... " " .. , "." .. " ".

" ~ (tbe house f mil!' panmrs)

2 She ha~S1n'tm~li!I,aJgcdu), (JMliI'C ""."' .,,,, •• ,, •• , .' •...•• , ... , ,., ..•• " .. , •• , .. ,." "." " ••.• ," "',' ... " "'" •• " "'" •• " "'" '"""'" •• ,' '.,'

(;;i!!]},OI'!.e I her ]f]f!Jooe:n,oe)

J, Wilen, W';:'!;S the hut dn]~ the he3dlll18is:t,ru.; Olde~~d " ' " , , , .. ,', , " " "," "," ,...? (TJlIe. schoo,ll iii,li]' itile'W eqlll,i:pm;e;rlt:"

4 Th,€' hapiPY fa,the:!" rushed OIYt! itQ ,<!!llM,1!!:rIDOe ,' .... """"", ... '", .... ", ..... " .. ", .... ", .. ,"'".,,, .. ,,",,,,"',,,.,,, .

• " ' {th,e: ~e::;t of tb,~ famii~y { d'i,elli:l\l'l,l'$~1

5 Thfl' CQ~~I~,ge IlUlIS ,oUetledi '" ", .... ", .. " ,., .. ", .. " .. , , .. ".,., .. ", ... ",,,, ",,,, .. " ... ".,' ..... ,' ,,"','" ","'" "'" "'.' .. , .. " '., ... ' "',

I(uny $~.ste!l;' I,. ;pJaoe O:I]! the course)

16< 'l'!ri,e' loonlp~;I]y ewes " .. '.,,'" '"'" .. ".,'" '"" ",.'." "" """ ",,,,,,,, , "" , ,"" "'., .. ",,, , "'" .. " .. , " , .. , """,',,,, " .. , ., .....

(Ii f(lii.eign b~~k I a rualll:e sum .of mOFlhey~

i SQ~ne people I knew flltom. work .~~UlDdI ...... ,." .. L .... "",", .. ",",,,, .. ,, ..... ,",,, .. ,,,, .... ,,,,, ..... ,'"''''''',,"'''''''

" (the :tlo.'!ci 'tJUS)

:fI I'd liik:<G: )~OU 00 leacb , .. , .... , .. ", ....... ,,,.,,, ... ,, .. ,,, .. ,, .. , ...... ,, .. , ...... ,,,.,, ...... ,, .. ,,,.,,, ..... ,,,,,,,.,.,,,,, .. ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, .. ",,,,

(Ff(rJ1liC.h I ~d~ dl~ classes iliil ~be schoolJ

,. F~ilrytales ~ ~ ~'.. \,

.iF'ii£:n tfrnl, 3iil01lbct sm.cl!eililt: wha~ y,on ,k~'Ow' albOl,l~ rtbese faj[j"t:al~;s.,

a} Ci~ldt:,[lena, b) 'liujje Red Rid~ng Hood c'} The Three :Bear,s

d) Snm)!l'Whruteil!~dI the Sev1en Dwads " e} J a,d: and the .tu;u;r.al~

NQW~Wo!)lI,'~lid!lg with ,anofiltcr Sitl:ldfilU. com.p.I.@11!e ~eIiUe:I~Cr2$ m~ (lin dle, 'QPIPO$~~:e pag:e 1(1' muJ!ikentrrl,l'e s't~t'e'IiIIt(lll!tt!J.IlI>OIlJl: ali Ie-,,~njl: ~Ifi o:n..e ,of dll£ fi1:iqmles,. To dlo dlii!ll use lW~ ofrli_,e; WOI'& ",dlir~t I iind'irn'Cct: ,o~jec~s;) :froo'l rffiI,tl: bo.x below", YOI!l. rnll)' :o.ced f~ add <l! p:repos~r:io:n, The~ futin ~In:.e" tll:'M.Ik;et$a~ I!:hi~ ~n..clI ()If ,~ac1t !l(H:'i!'t'e::l!liC~ a leut« i!:() osl'l.(]i!w whiCi'b, ra~:yt:;.d.e YO'l'I .i;'Iwc.tailkilrlg a'QI!lIt.

EXi!l:ttilpl,c~ A. ,!vo~HmlgtJve he', .su .. ~a cow, lIe)

:hjs Ilfil)th~[ a goJd~ hel1l

I he.r SQn ~loo,~,: Si:lit£ii: one ,of iliic[ h{!!:ns. ,diiifiIilC!;'

~u.m~ f'Ood her h(;[gfll~,dJil]otbel herself

!';omeQ.IiL.e cb,,'s liiUnti .:i shoe nott~J!i;g t~~~I:

h,'Iil',1i" :gr:!lllidl]l~t~eris h,Olndi!l her .~ 'Ow

1 A.liil:~~!i?, .Fid decidledno,.go 1thro~ffiJJ the fo.re~r totake .-.-.-.- .. -.-.-.- .. -.-.-.- .. -.- .. -.-.-.-.,-.-.- .. -.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- f .. --.)

2. Two womll:11 hlli~gh,ed when ~Qmeon,e' o.ff~r,ed,_ .. ,.,." " ",_, .. _,., ... ,_ .. ,., .. _, ... " ... ,.".,., ... " ... ,.".,.,.".,... {., .. ,.)

1 A queengee angry l:vlle~1. her mir!:'or S1J,lgg>e$tted .• ,-, •.• " "-""."'- .• "-.-,-,~~,- .• ,, •.• , ...... ,.,, " •.• ,~ .• ,-,~~,-.. ~" ••• )

,4 .fl. poor bo,y $~'O:.le __ ....... _'_ .• , .. -,-.-,-.-,,-,-, ..... ,-,-,-,.-----.- .. - -.----,-. __ , .. _. ._._ .. _,_ .. ,_ .. _._,_._ .. . ,_,.,,_,_,_,." __ ._,.". ._._.. {, ""_.)

S A IjtJt:le' ;g:id with go.ld.C':IiI, hal]!:' le:f~ .. "" ~ " " "" ""' ..• " " ~ " "."".~ -.-.~.-.- .. ,~ " ( )

6 A gi:yl did~"t introdllil_te ,---.- .. ---.------- .. -----.-.,-, ---.- .. ----- ---,-,.-,-,-,-.,-,-._,---.-.-----.-, .• --,.-,-,-, -,-,- .. -, - .. ---,-.-,-, l--.· -)

7 A lovd:y' 'WlJ\m;f\ll r,eg-IJIJl1dy p'Mepa:red ." " " " " " " _ " " " " _ .•.• ".... ( .. " .. )

g A l;Oiv~ing elm iid described . ._ .. ..... ......... _ .. ._----.- .. ----- ----.- .. -,-, - .. --- __ ._. ._ _ _, .. - - .. -----.- ...... -. {_ ... __ ~

2: Noughts: andi,crolsses

Th~ ,gillmrle oil. tlfi.CJ: bo,<!iiEd, ~ellOl\1t ~s: p~ay,~clIill'ii :1 scimilillllt wary to 3J :fi;oii1ti:1I.!!t!iiitl~ O~ :[i01.~i8l1ttilii!i1.d ~O!lSCS. Oiw,e p:la:y~W" is "i:lO<UiSJwts" <'iifi,clj '~bc Oliite:[ "Cr,QSSfs'., The .ob~c~t (If d'icg:O'i!fllc :is['O geta r,o\v of rh:ree XXXOi' Ilfir~:e: 000. \

,rt~.y wjd~ :aRiothe<r S~lII:defl,t. U:dmg; ome o~ thegddls OL1. ,tlhe: bo.arni.,ciloo;sle :a ~tlMe sod make :~!Il ofier'lo' rourpiilIrtnri::f 3JbolJ.!llt, lllte p~c[iIlIre Oil': 'WOrds hill the :sqU!liI"C. 'l!I:s:iW'lg one .of ~:he verbs 011 dIe: h0<..1rdl.¥ (l'I.iI must USf tih'e: words yOi\i: I y,oJii:l" ! to Jau I (for ,yo,u. No verb Cailil be used ~wke !nailil}! Oill,c,g:lm~.

h~mrrp!le; arid 1;.1 ca1"ll rt!-t?O.H~m~J1:d 4' hotd to Yl>Iltr,

U '!(Our partilil!l:iI' iihii!h]ciI tht: your ,offe.l'rn:aklC:S: sense, a!n,dI:iil gTamml1:lti;cs:Uy ro.fI\~ct. you rtillml. piCI~: :)l'(Ji/j[[ Ii'i.Ol'igbito!l" ([\O~~ 0JiJJ the sqiiJ.:1lire., IfIflQ!t, fill I she m,jf.i;~I~j(pruaili'i. wffity •. If )'Ulii c.ajj.~t ~g[l~~.!lsk yO:Jl!1' teacb.el: til act as ,jll!d~e.

19

~it9 Vemb ,lilIfr'id abject plill1n'ejli!ll'5;

---- ---........

C!__~FO~S /

Astr!lll1lge hi\s;toliY

Me;;:ic~n Gf!!riI¢ra:1 Arito:rnio lope:i'! d~ SMta Mn<'l~U3M'"'75' was !mme-whalt aoo'ide'nt1'~O!f'Ii¢_ Thmuglti>ou( the 1 ?30s the' Me;.:iCiiln'S; W~IFe: (1) "_.,._,,._,,_.,,_ •. ina numoor of b;:wWes with ttile Te;.:antS. Otli 20 ..4p:riII1836. Santal Amna {2} . __ .. __ .. __ .. _" .. _ .. up oamp ;at~he San J~ClntO II1~r. !iJi\Ie~look!ingl a wood! where 'the Texans INere, !31."_." .. " .. " .. ,,.~o be hiding. Gjv.sn the'

dr'C~m5-wnoe:s it \N@$ p'rh~ps a little: ul1,wi$~ to, ~4~ _ .. . __ .. __ .. __ .. _ his troops to t~i!:;e tl sresla.

·k!r in the middle of theur atterneon nap tlti,a e!i'lltir'!ll Mexi,G-a!1 ;<!rrny was O'\i\erpO'!i'i"eredl bv 'tie Texans lniUSl oeigh~et€!n minLJ~S_ S~nt'a Airlina ~6~ ... - ... - .. -- .. -- .. --~o @'sc~pe on i"lIor.sebe;ck but wai$ not as fo~[unate' wheml; fL-gh[illIIg the French in Dece'mtter 1838, he loot a, l:ego IrO!r the ne'Xtt'olJr years, SiJ'rlit<l AAne!1 ~6.i .-"-,,.-.,.-.,-_._- the: I~g ~t hiS il,a,ci,n,o~ ne"air Ver,enl.lZ Ul'l!tfl, on 26 SeptemltJe~ 1:8:42. by whioh time I\e Ihlad 'o'irl:lJa[ly en _"" __ ,,,_,,_ ... _ .. _ dicm~iJr lO,f Mexico, he alrfang;ed ,<I spet,lal burial S-e!Vtoe (H:} ... " ..... ".""-,, ljhe detaciil,eo limb. Tothe atcomparJimem of baillds ;!'Inc! (I:rch€ll$~ra:s, his $UppO:l1er$ sor.emnlty pawBidedl the I~ ttlrQJi.,lgn, the stree,~ of

Mexico, oity be1r'Ore tSlI " .. " .. it w rfl<S.u in <!! II'1IllIt1oo!Jis!'lJrill1e 00)",_, .. _",_,, __ ,,_. as the'

Pantheon. of Salint Pa,l,Jla- fwo< years· later d'te leg was " '1) .. _ .... _ .... _ .. __ .. _ .. dUriingl rlors th<Jll

mar~ed $arllta .Alma's 'tCl!II ~fOM power and (1::n " .. " withOUt. wace.

~:::u!lllptecl from Thfl' GJ'I.i!'tle5t nO(i~ ¢fo.ddi,ti~ C! Gillinn.e$$ hMi:shil'!lt Ltd tI!!lId GooH 111bb.a~js 1995)

1 A fought :2 A grew 3, A used

4. A order

5 A malilage<J 6 .A. remained 7 A risen

8 A about

9 A laying

10 A called

1 ~ A diS900~ffld '2 A. missed

B inV<ll'lled B ibf"OlJ!ght B Ik.nO'Wfl B sug;gest

B suooeecfed B il'eseil'Vedi

B gro'!Nilii

B to

B laid

B iMlmecl B r.obhed B woo't

I C, d I ," appeareo,.l!

I C made

C s;po~en C e:x.pl.ain Ci1Ichiev.ed C sta)'ed

C beeerne C beoaui5Ie C lied

C knowrl! G stol'ei'll

C dis~wear:ed

!D f,ilIl~e<r! D5el~

D manag!'iKI D prop!lse D arrived

[) I'r.ept

D mads Dr\CJr

II) lyil"l(l

D believ,ed D aep,al1ed D displaCM

-- ------- --------- - --- -- - -- -- -

EXAM TIP 11

- ----- - - ---- -- ----- --- - ---- -- --

II

C(lnoot~nl mis~a:kes

'f11.~ error ;c:on,,~cir.io:l1t e.xerdst: ln P,a1!1l: 4u!l b~;i!ii!dI on.;c.rrol:'.s rla~ ,S:tud.fl1l[S ;Oo~moliJy lfrIa.lnll whell li:!ff.iltlmgl:]Th E~gh:sh,., A good. '7it~yto p're'pai:Fe' YOIli.rs!':I:f. "01:' this task i:Sl IIQ' keep .~ ~'eoQTd of <!JII!I the ;ol!'l,e"word"l:Q!Hll'nlny l:1ll:usJtal,c~s {'.<liI; Y'OIl! ".[IId perhaps odl,~r S~lJid;mt$ in yO'liiIf daS'fi !!i:la~e' in your wridllilg lililr,oughQ'U,llll'iOU[ feE (o~]ue,

-I

r-- ....

_~r'Qir &orrection

a IBdo,jl~ dOIIl1!; tb!!~Q:m! ty~ exef(:ic~~ ~aj ,P1;1_n: b d~sct1:S~: W~[ffit :;lilloth~rstil,!l)dI~llIm: dae oilti~w{lm·!lJoo~m!ljl1l.ym!i:stild(,e.~ ~h:!n ,S;lriIideJ!!~ ~ave litIadie ~1I1. rhe ~~jj[~CIillC~ belM:oI, AU ~ihe rn3:m@illJilE~ rpOlrl1lits !!i'~Ii!l'W~ ~.'i!)lhe 'O~!lect p~Jt[em' gt<1linma:r ~1fi.l[lhis ~fliil:.

'1 Ii.'!! pkk~d urn' dt0110ag 3Jndl then disii1ppea.r.ooiit. <1 Prices. We:F~ rese :5h~,rp~y ~as'i: ye8r •

.2: Shesaid me that she had had fu:ut.· 5 I'~e:y UV'(Jd fOI.i." my fri.f:ll.di.:1Iseal1::.

,3 f.lca:5e le~ .me ~l'itwdllJce} you my f •. lelld John" 6 rhel'ea,dh~r explai.tli~d us' tlliit po.in't.

b ~1.1:a,clI 'r.b.ettxlt 1!)e;.11i1IYV <lind. ~QoIk Clre~lmy alt ,~~(:!b. ~i~e. So:ms of ,th4i liili1.Cil ·at~ OOr;re(~ aftld. sow.c h3:ve :a. 'WO!i'di w:!J.i:ch shoruldl JlJOt be' tllt~·:fC;, U a rn[Hi~ iis 'OOr!!i'~CI. pu~ ;;:iJ ,tiOk b:-~ it. If a nill~ has; a wOfd wrnticMi. $~,ournd nOll b~ iher~" 'W1t::iIE¢ !the W'!J).NJ at the 'itmdof ~;)ID~ b~. There QijtefllfO ex:amp~eg ~t ~.he begirllmlJIIIg (0 8:Dld 001).

I'iAeetill'l91 {)1~f,fJud's

n 1 Vi{~H,.t out wi~han did school friend .ariElW months ago .. Ws hadn't ,,/

00 ssen each other '~Of a;ges: but"~ had! heard she was wQrking ne'afby me so Mit

1 I pli'1oflled her, We had a lot t~ catch up. on. We told![l each olihsr a:OOUit

2 ,everythlnQllha1 had halPP€'ruedl :s:itnc@ we last. m¢'t i!!iOO disr:lJIssedl a:bOll.iit how :3 ~ite was diHerel'l,tin the: WO(fldi ,0'1' wOfk 1rom OL,llr school days • .illIJthough II

4 ernjoy€d se.eililg wiUI' my frri~nd .aeg9In, it made me "leer::;ad ~hat aH the fUiII 'of

5 fIIo/ Y'Outh now ~eemediliO Ibel9nglto (he p.3'S:1. ~ SillJgg;elSte;d her 'IMt w€' meet tile 6; r'Ollowing !II!'teeka!llld~'h!at we try' a !lid get ~ft6w ImON'9 of the 'old gal"l9 to come

7 arong. SI1E'l agrned'. I po:!!d 'fori '[he bJil.and 'iA!"1:!mhed her IIe.a\l;el vrond~rirllg

B whether we re-allv \A!Oll.lld m€et liP with our del 'frrien!ds i1lga~n. Weill." the 9fiO!l~ing 'Weekf,our of us met TVrlO we~k$, later theJ~ W(lr,€'Soix end now

~ OlihG! Illlm!)et has fe~C"lEld to ten. !~ seems rilat 'I/IIf3 .all mr,ss;oo m~ Old Hffie.s

11 i3'r1Id r&gret~€d riot k~epi:rtlgl in !ouoh. Makil'l!g the ,eMorrtto Sge old friends i$I1I'1

TI 2; easy but we ware succeeded and in jus;'!: aJfe.w mO!li~hiS so !'lI1IlIJo'h has chal1g~!l ~ 3 Tim, bas o:lle.rled us liis .I'lll!iday hom~ Pn ~jn. Jaoice has fouiI1d .a !lew

14 jO'b lhmllJgh Sarah an.{j I've fQl,Jndl~or Kar,en ~ new bedsiit We'\Iei all eli'!,joyeo 1!5 fe~lil1.g Y{)I,mg ~gailll, whicn, I, like €MeryorTie eLse. w.a<$ loollingl ~,nr it..

1 iR.ca:d tIhroQg'bthe~:exll a!!Jd de<:oidie 'i\Yheth~ ~ke !trujglIl]igllitt~dl w{lmls al''C~.3~ oom:paf;altiv'~ . adljec~:i.ve j:iI)[,a:I]!!l~ or {b) CO:!1l[lilI~nliti'\iiil afilvew.b ~orlins. ChcckY"Gl.u" 3ntSWCrs whl:! a:I!JJQ:I::tn.~r stiIDdellJr.

ni~ YO/Ill bow tb.a!t c.'V>I':ll)'tilmgyolJI 11:1;'1VB eWf iUl!Rd or !leeL~ isstotoo oo:me,wl:IIM:,S wm :y.ollir me!ll'OfY? The p:roble.:rn. is t!lrl.a:t 'YOU ~Il't alw.a.ys g.~l~ il~, it. And wh~11 you C8iIl'rt;g:oet at il(!1E1lL~Utii:lg rulli }1'{II!IIIr' me'm~iIY, yQIIJ! say Y1()!,l! liJave 8J 1'001 mem@J:]I'. 11'11 faoi~y{ll:Y d(D!!l.'1 n3ro a ,POOl:' :m;emo:ry at all ~. Y(ill. h:3iYf; 3. W!G]id~dlill] me!l!lOlfY. But 10' IlSril Ulli9J(mli'mory (1} mIJR tffeaiVeiJj' ~1.bJ!lS to be U'1i:iifil~cl.

'f.!i,aJ(:~S willy memory Itl'ai'lti.inlg js: :!Nlll;;l! an im,,·P?[1lililrrn.i 1, ·p3, f,' t of the Ymq~,e :Peillma:nHqlill~:

St!L1.dy 'CoMJ:'Se. As a Pe~ stl,ld;'e~t" y>O!lif l?~lSlO'R~l ~!l!tt;Og; wjU gilil~deyol[l. til!l'01!lgllL a seaes ·of ]essons wlllli.ch bliloo(rne: progwl!:ssi.vcly (2), :In(ilre d~ffi:£iiiU - eca¢ifi OiLt~ based 0\!1 Il'rogriBil1li'lffied ~ea:rnillig tleclI:UJiq~,e.s tbat will hlUIli Y01ilil' memory toa,il~eve ill (3'} bi;gher ~O?!.!'~] oJ·perl(u::I[!@ll'Ioo.

INSfANT RECALL

1"1I1is is pOS&ibl'e beca~ yt)wmemo:ry ~ lib a m~~e. WiJh:olu exercise :it g~ts t1;a;bby, But wi1:1l1 t~1ilIl:: rigbt k:i.l:ldi o:f tf.ad~, }l'l:u,w'H be able to :roc.M[ ilrlU'l,gll [IlJllIC:1ri {4) ~iMfc,j',

Ri:gln If'mm tbe start you wiU 'eelY'O'ilIf meJwJJ:Y !Dl!JsCJe~ gettiilll! (:5.~' ~~Ojtget' ~ y>01ill' p~w.er.s,m recall !'y!,!\~[' (il'5)qni&e1:.

Mailly 'P~op:le: jlili'lt d!o not ~8]iile '!low U1l1i!ch rth.ey can.impi'{)'l,I'~ t~e.iii'm~motles a~dlthe e%~ellt, ~;o whl~h i:I ca!l1. miilik.:e(Il~m {1) ml)'~ ;s~~bd1 intheir b!.!S.llneSlS and sceial :liv~" There ~s !liimply DQ 0'D.e ·w.ho ca!llllo:t learn. 'liO retain thill'lgs {8) l'o:I1i,!il~ alil!G1~eei!ll ~hiillgs {9} more q,iUiek!l;y. A tn:i~i:'i~d iiID.el:n,.o:..lj ca.n t:ruilly be a p'ffiiSS~mt to a (10) bef~el' ~ifM;!

.. S'tiJItdeDilS

.. SaJes.peopi.e 'I Ma;n~rs

,~ Olfic~, WOil'1k!til:~

.. I[I!dl~tr~1)l wmi:l!fS .. PIQbi:~ail. iPeoiP~e -lnmc1, $~JQ.mell

2, :B!Qruow are tw'o.iln;oompffi~u: ~'Q!.mlfl1alf IirUles a'bQu~; (a) how !jIo flJif:!D:1. comp~li3itivc' ad.ieCliuv,LiS,. i3iild (b) hQlw '0 form ~omp~falti'!i'e .i),di'li'efm.

By looki:e!g a:I'fVrl¢ ,~",~d'¢rncelFQim ~he Jmp:F(i",,~ rOll'!' memo!l'y' ,11dveF~i!leme[l~. ,oomp]ete C.1lIdJ mle 'UI!I~li'lg the ]a!n~a:e:,e in. m'lu:e ~~J{ be[lo"'. W'QIf~: wrntih a!mo,~her $1il]JdelnJ[: t:o d!Q d!lihi.

~dd o'er :Il!iloll'e e.g, 'q,lcii;;.!dy mom

e.g •. ~l'!$~ :r!.1.rnJIlIJeil'lrurm €a:s,t -er cn(li:li1!:

a To form the co:mpl'lretivt {ol:'!n of .1lid,ject!lv~:s; wEt~~ fO , .. "." .. " .. "." , " .. ,,, ,, .. , .

~.g. q;lIDia, (2) "."' " , .. , ,,", .• Wii.hw·orcls O:flil'l!OI'~ I!hafl one

sylla'bl~~ e,g. srU(:cess"~l, tlse {J) ." " .. , .. "" ".""." .. "." , "", . .,. i~ fi:'on~ of dl~' word.

b Toto:r.m the cOI]f[pantw~ "'l'!TtI of!!Jd'verbs: 1lSC: (1) " " "'" " "." "" " ...

in fto:lWt ·(Ilf "hos~!lId;,ro['bs 'W,~~k:lll]av¢ ail ~ly~[Id~l1g (2) .. " .. "." " .. "",. " ,, , .. , .. ,

Ad.jeCtIDw"es~ hOi'lvc;"'er~, which have' the :sam~ adverb iO'.!"JI'! (3) """ 0 , •• ,"", ,,"

, .. " ", .. "" ", :li~;SIi)o have the .S:1i:ilIrIEl '(4) " " .. " .. ,,,.,, ,,, .. ,, , ,,,.,.,,, ",.,,, .. ,, .. ,''''"." ".", , .

in the ,<!Jdiverlh mrl.'Ul!, ,e.g", '~.5} "".," .. \" """ " "",, ,, ,, . ., .

RElFERE'NCE

'iI Use thi!s: .ex\tmcli5e to. see hQ\v ITIIutb rou a~readly !blllOw 3)b.OU~ drue c.o:m.pii:f~dv.e :f,orms o~ ~d!jec~iii~ i!l:rilid adve!!'bs, Corn'p~~;l'e each :senteIlC~ ib~I(I'w wi1b oae :01 ~Iu:~ words (Ii')' p!hiras!!2s wh:uch :f.ornlo'W' II, D~soC~ss :y.O!ili!:' al1l!Siwews w~~iIl ail'lot'her stiUd!~Jrut a:l1Id dilcn. clIlecb: yo!)UI!' :.l:lfI$wcn b'Y ]Q~k..ing I·t Sect~oifiS A':'E bC~Qw.

1 1'.lIDe USA is [p'robably theweeld's , .. , , " .. , 0 OO'UElllr}'. (rkher I rid]~l)

)

.2 (:af:i. we g'o someWat~~ " .. " .. "" , .. , 00 t!ll]k? I~qtjielei!' II)]Q:re ,quiet)

3, I can't remeraber ;.'I, sp!.'i!)!li ~h;H w~s "" .. " ~haJ1!~hi..s. (h ore I' 1 I:u:nttilt)

,4[ roe't'l~lyth:in.lk: s:l\i.€ r3U~$ €v~1:'I "." , "" " .. " ••.••• " thanshe used to,

(q!Lij,kk~:r llin.o.re q1i.kkly)

5 The: mealwas aU !!'igih'l:. 'bout it W8iS .. " " ", " " " .• the' lfijlm ..

"iessgoQd eh 3 n I not as good asl

6 Th.c 'COili6~Ine;S1 and tighrni!ll!l:g wel;'e terrible ;;a:n:d d:'l~ ii.o1!i!n1;g was ..... " .... '"".", .. as b~d.

~e'l!'ell:ll jill!!,!) .. .

7 Of aU t';rue ~o'ilJ:fiI!r1des[''ve beento, France ~;S the one ,o~ w~k:b ] have ,., ........ "." .... the

fm:1l,diesl 1:I1ie;tti'I!Ol'i~s,. [by f.aJt I·far)'

~.-bett'ti: bld-wo~c f~J: - fU.1'tb~

Adjecthl'GS of QItl'C syll(lh,ie;

hjgh fast wall'm cheap

~ h:igner w:arm~

fa5ite.r cheaper

dre -est tbe highest the msrest

-

AdjlU:tiv.e$ of ;n()'t.t~ ~bail':l 0.!,1€ $eJi/laWe:

ex~~erus.~'\I'e d:ufi'ic1.tli[ hdpfUlI

P10re • • . less mo.:r,e ex:pengi.'I'IE .nti,OirC ·difficlik fItS:!: helpfb.1

lrl"F$ffJ~'t fontu,;

~ Iliad fut

~he mO!,S!T •• , lillie ~~.!it tffire mOSt !):xjJoenSIV(' die most d~fficullt

the least .1n.c]p:f.:11

gQod -the ~ bsd _, Me W!)ll'st

far - the :furthest

Lile #~t ;S'etfH;;$ lto h'fl getting mot'S' expw1ive eac..bwt!'fdt. Taki~ ,the :tTain pr,owd :II@ ,be :tbe ~hMpce&t o"tio~J"

Cliflisuwu i-s OfJ6 of (he irh11'111e:st time.s of the .,em in .atmralia.

t'<:I(]ITE: Some co:mp<l101l{:UYe' form!i ililvQ:j,,'e ill dlange oJ Spf:UiJQg~

hig - bigger bm ~ hon-ell fiu= fatler ilt~ppy - happier easy ~ c-as~eJ:'

A~d a. 'itW tr'i\vo"'syJIa;lbJe ~ord.s also b8ve ,tbe -er/·e-sl comparative/SI!IJIC!!ri.a:t'ive t0rm: q]Ul:e1~l'" 1l3fl'OWIrr,. sllmpl~.

------~------~-------~--------------------------------~

. ore ca[lefUl]ly L~ss dearly

AJM~S [!f/ith -if ending

'''!I'e{ul.~y d.eady

I

·er

£~slter hlJlrrde:1t'

Ad!.<l!!'tlis wj~b $:aJI1~ fOt'l1t a.s ,aJjev.tj,IU"

foist hard h'igh

"he mMI c3lieful]y the' lean cl.e8i~~:y

Do }tOUT hOI1J'eurork more carefully ~\fj'd you"i/ $:g.~ ,"'erler marks, 1 wO'lk ~r:der lb~J~ a!1l)l\O'J~ bwt no Oil? .sHJ1II~ ~o Hr;rtice.

I ~.s su.rprised tbdt of all the ~/Nm:kers the lri'IJ1.e MiI-:ister spok>e th&l least ~f1tl .

...... .....;;. __ ---'

Cas, ..• as

dte'~t

rhe tacnest the Mrdl::st

\Vb.erlo!llm[>al'~ng tlllings 'i!ffl COIJil :3ilso usa aJilj6cth!'es 3llJ.dad!vetbs with lnot) as ••• as. Th'e t.I;i,!, $(Joh as nerv as ~vhl!rJ' .we bOfig;ht. it. YO:!l1" .$Q!I:t f$ bl!!'bl'f!JJ~g jft'St: 4'$ I1~Sy as be/ore. Thtu dock isn'~' asre,iah{,e as tb,~ on!!!: i~ the kiub.en.

Nat as, .' • laSl) is used ir:isrea:dof tess wiil:h QRe·sylllaMe adl'~i'!!'e-s, i adV'e'E'hs li:hat l1S1!13l1y !nave .Uli -er .tum:pa:rarive 101'00 •

.

My {a.tber ht:lS,,4t beenUlO,king l# ,hanl a.s he used so. ,( !lOt: IllS'S bartL, Tbitt;li;dml~f1s"'t ,ase.agy as tit!;; ias,t oille. ~ [!lot: let.s easy thatl:.}

----~~----~~--------~----~

DWotas and e-xpres$:io1't,s' u~e,d ,be,(ore ()()mp'(tMtiVt$

- &.- -~ f' ¥V~

1l~is,ar is even s~ ,th,a"" rh-e last one we bad.

H!liv,~ we got ",rICh further ,ta go? ~

Th~ team Iwre nowhere ~f,as gootl in defenc,e. ihr5 YMT. TIl,e .(;(l}Jimryside !1l11,St '5ujt y(i!U~ ymt Meffl a lOt ntafl!! ~.

The plu:ase iby far' rnn also ik used wirA sl!¥lu~r'L;IJ,tjv~ in s, s~mila,r W,!II)" e~!l O~J don';t be 1M'Oiiest-. l'w. hSlml )lOU IveTt!. try' far fkp ,best sf,mlml in the: d~.

Ms!) om!:! thill> U!l>e of the prep;OSLl1ilJ!l in :aftcet ilMperi.aJtives.

--------_.----~~~=~~--~~,~~~,~:

2: W~rk wbh a:l!I;o~~~i!: SU!ldeill't3i1ld mat"ffit, ~he iIl~if semtifil1JalS 'Q~, ~be ~efil: t(J< dIOI!N~ QIQ! ~Iili~ rigbt' il:o :fO:l'i!\l OO!nill1'rnet~ S-'f!'Ju-enc'es.

W 1I1ejou'lliI.ey I>lI' teainwas 1.~-S5

2: Tille sea1!:$ 'On t[ain~ ;aJ~~ nowhere ~<1!!!: ,as 3 We'can di~llu"'!I1lf parcels eVClUl more

4 I fOll,lrnl,d l!hoe' ~Xill~, ~

5 Wjthtihe rigllilt tool we fi:ni:sl!ie.dl j~ 6 The team did n(li~ perfQlfW. as '

]' ""e must liI~ve wab;;edl

3 Of all d'le' pe:rklrrnill11..ces., hi!i W!lJ!!; rite 9 Tlle\;vlhole' ,llVelllt we:llil £3.['

10. The peolpJel""'!1l mer there weee t'~e

a] easier dl~S l~,11I1i.;fl: round,

b) more smoo!Mv thls rime, e] f~u~lhclt t'~,~11fI I t~,oi[jghJi:. d) enj Qy:alblc than before,

e'} weH as :itlCol!dd ha W' .•

:i) 1'I1.c'C' ll~,es~ dOll.YS.

g) mu(;h more C'Oisi.ly.

h.) m;OSI: bospinl.bl'li: (lIlf ;aU .. :~) ieJ!S!r.convll'lci:rnIg.

j) Qli!1lickJy rr.iru<l'mIJ bs;to!t'l1l.

!COMIMIUNICATIVE PRACllI'CII

llOok atthe USIt'S orffolll:r ~'hi:rJi~ I pco:pI.~ J places btd(Jow, In eaeh Hst, 'clhiere are druree r:ruc 5,1u,pedaJti.v,esj tha:r ~s. the big.!!l:S't. l1:il1lhtlSll;,.m;os~ V.il~1fl3Jbffie" ere, OmtJrl: l:km~: in eaeh Imst: i!i an jm[]ostor: duu: WS~ ~( :may ~[I~y be' til1)~ secQ~dl or 'thru[\d b~ggcs(~ ibll::>t'j €$C,W~dllWo (lif lh00e (lither :Ui!J~etilC'S. 100.11: lilt' ettc.JlIi~!I[ ;i!;liIIdl ,dlisco!l~ 'Wiltich O.Dle the ~OmpG~lOil' .might be,

I SIZE: l.<Ii!lbe Milcbigan the Pl;ic]fic ,Ocea:n t~~,e RuvC'[ Nlil~ '[he (:i;spi,<'!iti. Sea:

2: ARJfJl: Canada As:ia R,ill!,~si@ G~:IliIII;;'Ind

3 Momv: USA [he Sul,tan. o:f .Bmlld Vall Gogllia. gold

4 NUMBEa;:; OF PEOPLE: Mexiee Cfury CJliRalE:flJgl~i>b 'Ch~lle:ile

j sin: Mount iE;!.I'l;ll''C-st:tihe E:m~il[1~ Srnm Bu~IJil1l:g J l1ip:uter~he Saha.fa

6 wunmR OQiNDmQNs::E't.h~op(ia An:~3:rc[k:a It:h~ North role .~l1gi1'ld!;sll!

Loo:k ott iffiH"l: map (I,~ diu']: w"mldl 1IJ1:ld. Men,tiil1la. ,COilll11li[iE)' th3JiYi!JI:l!!i kn.0W re~aJ!lo~a.btly Witl:.U and 'C1I!l a.!l!!ilwer ~si:lQpl.{l;qll!l,ti:.S.ti,on8 (1111., ,sucm.. as IITI:fiiI dim:1lrWeli ~l'Id POiPll~3:tio[l.

TiIlI.e 'Qf.Iru~r mcmbe~; (IIlf tll.cdMllha;ye to. find OlUlit: w~mcll ,ootlll1:try Y01il ~j'tSi!j!\C ehosen, Th:~ ,~IfI. ask )"Oll.lJ i~e:1ili qtlesricifiJi. 3iU o~ wlMch bai~ 'E()< 11;.~ [ITII die ~'Of::m. o,f ,oom:pafiuiV:il:s.

Exan.1ple 'CJlle:stiOIJi:':

.1$. th~ .cou~tr-y fur;l$''I3r ·/UJl'ft$,· thnn (Egypt),?

.DOEs the cQ\H:t'.Ifry h.amt a um'f"'tu~.r climate t'h~n (BtitnrJiI)~' Does it .b.avc bo.rdtr.f$w.lith .1'I11ort! ,th.r11101t.i8' oth.e'f COli\ifclt,,.·? .b i~ as i",duS~1'icJ,li.8eullls (We~ter\'.lE~rop.et.l~ C!9~m,tTies)? .1$. the capi,t;(J,r 0:( th~ COIU~J:", Illrg.e.r t1loCln (Por.ls)'f

Wh.i'Ch i's ",h)'$C'r to the .cmtt.fli')': (f4fJ4J~J !Or (No.f';w~)r)?

Exil!m'pl~ ansWerS:

Yes .• ,ntJ'(.h ••• -er, Yes, a bit .'"'U)~'e.

'Yes, q~Jite a' tat' m!fWe.

NQ.i!'!o$ at ,(Ill.

No, flOwJ1ef,(! tt:Mr .. .No. lrot' as. .... t1~. No. ~~~~tch less " . . .. ,

Before YO,llI S~8!!)1,. P:refUC ,8 few qll!l,'e'stioIlS wltich )foOl:! !.}1Jigb~ ask III) tidcnltify t~eg'en;er.aW part of 'Eite' ww.Jd. ~ roWIUiY is: W!:l 8:HidlfW'O (lJI1 d~!:ee qjl!!eoSr~OM w:hi:dh D'llihih!l: help }'Q'U! io :i.de;_lIDt~fy a

c.'O'lIIlltry .more s'peci:fi~Uy. .

EXAM Tip 12- ---------- -- --- - --,

r-.

~eY-WOrdl tlll',anS,'Qli'l1ilatiion

c.Omipl]~t:el~es;~rOomd SI(i:Il:I~I!ce SiO 'lb~t i1 has :II :s:mln!l!W rnea~j!!lil: 'to dfl~ :6"t ~fIDlemt:l.1:.il.ts.ing druli; ikeyEWO!!"dgi,vllirL Do nQ:! cil1SJ!:lge the :key-waN. Y (JU IUliISt ili.!:5le ~(;;tW'~~1IiI lWl) ;.1i1:lid. fiV{l:

wO'J"ds. mlll,dlld~i!1ig,tlhe' k:ey-word. \

Exarn~~e~ It':~I';I'd (il~ ,di{fia:dtas before"

Ffs ,restS di((1J;ult .tP.Hm before. less

1 [dkl!n"t n~al:u!l!l;l~1,Iie had wall.de~d sach ,aJ tong 'W.:!IY froml the: pai&!i.

W,e had wal'irl·ere~1 . ", .,"" '" rhe pad1. than :[ realised. ml1ch

2. ,My frjend }lUll!>. ilI,IW<li.Ys been ab]e to cook benerrhen me,

I h<li'l'~ ne\!,~ii been able 00 cook , .. " .•.••• "." ...... ", .. ". Illy frie:l'U,d. iilS

3· Go:ung by U·;'i:~r.'i is :i'iI:'illilch fastel:thang'oimll,g by ear,

GO:lng by C!il.f •• .' ...... , •••..• ", .. ", •• " ••. going by~!: .. j~. takes

,

4 I'm atf,rn~.d [doln't: hlliVfl::a iiH'MI~e~ oli~i['i, 5~k.

I'm 3.frnk~this " .. ""'" .. " .. " ..... ,, ...... I bv~ :~Il sreek, ~hll:

.:5' Mi,CMd J<1!cksonis; rhe p~.fott'm.ct ] W'Oi.iJidi!tll.OSl·l.ik~ to meee,

I'd nkem meet' .Mk;be~ J~ck:!l,Qn " .. " ""'" .. ,, p'~tfl[)iD"me.:i"." ·olffil~1f

6 We: had (,0 p.~¥ J1!ID!."e Em:' me t.i.,;:k~.rs tha;il .~ ~pecred.

nle' tkk>i!ts were "'- "" I expiOC~ed. jJjot

7 \'fIe' had rhe same ~u'!!mbel" o£ tp.la:rers ~i'Ij ueed as ·the {idler ream.

We' had .-- .. -- .. -- .. ----- ... -- ... -"' .. pla:re:rs ~njll,l:red asthe {idn,er lre.~~'n. :m.:lllly ;8: Thetesr was much easier ·t~tan ] daolllgi'l[ 1t would be.

Thetese was .. . __ I d~OrM:glh;t· ill: '!c,,-lIol:dd he, i!1Jowihe:re;

9 1: hared rhe resort and liked the horeJ even less,

~ I;:~ou,ghil: the hore.1 " . ,_ _ .. _ ebe l€'&on. W(l~:e

'lOr TIlt}' '!.",.er,e asldllgMgftl.e'n' p.n'.icestl1;an 1!1:S11,OIJI.fo'r [r:;Ql1JlIfQ'1!l ti.cke:r.s,

They 'W~rerJi'\[ seni:~ ftt'on;t to'!iIi.'~i,ck~n, . ... _,._",. .. __ ., __ usual, as

EX_AMI FOCUS

Th.e b.y to the ,~hang~

Theee are t\;vo :s:~~ps 't!h~t y·ou S~1.o(:!~dI £'0;1[.0\", i'Uii cOliltploeti~_;g t]n;~ i£,ey"word t'la['!s:E@l'~nat:im1! eask ill h!!'~ 3. W:;ir$f~ use lIhe key-weed U~ idenrHy the S!u:lI.!tnu·'e wh!i.c:h d"ieque-Sl~ion ls It'.e$tit:l,g •. TheTh~t'hjIDl_];; ~[{e~II~li' al)(),~t .i!i][ ~'he cl't:llnSi!s to the f!l'~f :se.llool!llcewhicb\'l,!~1I be fJjece$S~:r.y,

81

EXAM' TIP 13

--- ------- --

LQ!l)ijng;ffil'e),ondl YQll!lr' nose

mil it.~12 O'Pe'JJ! do:ze task .i:l't P:a~it 2, you flu,UlSt f~llid w~ros wbkh .f(~gm.m~m-(j'e,i''ar~'J ~fi each spsce, HO·\ll':e!!'le.f" you rnt!sll: also '~h~r!lk a,bo'!1I:~' how the words }~O~I choose fj!tt :111 t1l'e &:mte.'!:,~' 'of It~e p.as,s:age'" To da t!1[S 'yolJi .m:ay w~U .r.le~dI~l], read beyo§l;d the immediate 9CnfCll(le. For eX8mJlle.loo.k .l'iIt h!m:v the w(lrds yon need inthe f~rsr sentence ~elow are .i[!Hjlic~,r-ed b:yi;ll.fo·rmarion ~[I the :9ooond and rr.lIird senrences o~ it.~e 'JPI~SS:.'l,gc,

"~-be £O[lOi\7oli:lfiig ~:exri$ !llbQ~!I:t 'the USA"s vas:t opeu] s~'S.irc.of WY'Oiii1~l1Ig <1Imd tth:~ :impO{flant pa:rt ~his s~;a~:c: has :pi,a)'i~dl :im. A:mle'il:"lica:.m ihiflory,

Read tIDiJiite:>.':t and .. , wo:rki.nJg wiitih. aJl!lm;lilIe.r sfl!ld'li:1lI!t. th!ink c~Jullil.y .. lboll!~ w:he~b.er'a. oolTilp:J!r,,,,~iv,c er a. ,supei[]alir"'~ stmcluf(l.i:s, f(l~;1I1!',ed '0, t~.£~ !.l1l!S'Sliflg WWM. Tlruel~ oolEip~!l:re il:he lr;iXI!:, U:5~ng o:mlill Oil;f,f! wOf\clIin ~aGihl :5\pilU;l;l,

Wyomi!1!9

VWomiflg liS the USA's m .. "." ... " .. , .. ". If)oOp!JIlall<ed state. NOI O'th6rs:tart"€: h!\l5 {2! ... , .. " ... "." ... ,people - Qruly46!f),OOO. There ¢jr"'e no bigl Ci'l.i!9'$,. 1ihe (3~ "." .. " .. " .. " . ., cilfy of the 'few that tner~ Clire is the CCi,Pital Che-y,ell'ilne. home '~o '50,~OOI!) ~op:le. YI~t '~he s!ta~e is nill;:h lfil mirl!il~al d.eposits. inamra! b€illllty i91lc!lilistory,. Cooillies Il!Im~ar !55lPsr i,'Jtmr~ Qlr Wyomingr ,;:lInd in th~ Powder Rliver IBa$irn towerin@,oo,al sillOs announce horn al dista\pe th.u \{OIJ! are a~proochi!i"lgl the largesl ceel mime ~4.~ ." .. "." .. " .. " .. t~.e Mrierlicas, Bllack Thunder, Ilnd~l~d,. it '!J!oI;1!S MI'i~ lin ~h.~ wJ~dl<!rness that

~ .s.aw '~5) far tliie lbigg$-S~: dump lrucl\; tl1iilt thad ~"6.' " .. "., s~~n.

l-iIiist,or~cally, Soulh Pass - t11€ old O~egon 'W'l'l90\r'li tillii~ - is V\.fvo'mirng's rn , .. " .. " .

sigmificant landmark. Soutlh Pass O"fferedl the (EJ " .. "." •• " .......• tlilough na~ the mest diram, w.e;gOr'il r()u~el\or seiltrers over tl'le !Rocky Moulrltaihs, .t!lfild h<!id ltnet been for' So,uth Pe:!ls.~'he

USA mt.gM be ~9) " .. sma!ler l'Odlaly .. Sou~1'n Pass, City, boom in &901.(:1 IOQO\m1. IP!~ed

alno~h!llr key role in US liIisolO\J)' , 1t5~ gCr ..... ~mingl body, th~ Wyomingi TarrItoriaIILegislall:ure, prov~d itse~f to b~ no~ ... """" .... ,, .. , most pmgresslIY'e in the worrd \Nh~n lit b~m~th9 first gQV,~mi!1g body to ~~ndl (lllIll] votirng Fights. to 'I.!'!IOmel).

{.n:la!i'1Iildl. rrom l1nO:I1fIi!ls J" .Ab~rcromlb.l'e, 'Wide O[p'il":IilWymni[n_g'., NQrtrmN.1 Gorogt01pJl'}i"t)

IU· ·.n-it-" 11 T-'hle;..,'. f-rtl-'-I--:'e,

_ _ __ . U ,ur

LEAD-INI

" Oomp~~I~ you,!:' "flA,'tPNsc'Ope' bellow wirlh iu&:':rma,ti,onabmu younelf. Make note in eQ:dh oftbe bO~-$"

Arr~:ngemellrn f.ol:'~ate~ ,tod~y

A resohni,on ror diile re!;t of rhe· re'U" Ho,:~ii~.ry pi,am'ls

YOIl ,i.'lJrlJd feE; a prediction Career I job in ~eD year.s:' time

2 N'o:w ~oo:k ae this she:rt tilx,t aibout3, mwoui Br~tffis:h aot,or' ,~OO m~foh rih:e h:igh~igllil:t'-d verb pln:as:es 10, 'th~ mtl'l~~ t'liu~anl!l1.SS a-e.

,3) :taUdng' about In1oonitiom

'b) mlkiml:g ,abouili a,rra:lIDgen1en~ c) making predi:Cli,Qns,

eI} :r,l,dkJI1,g' .illIbOUf a il.!!!r.t.ure aC'~u\(l1l ,iJll progress a'~ aJ part.ic!lmlaJl:' 'tmrne' e)f3,I~,ing: about tililletaMes !schedules

1

Blessed to attem:pt an E:v'e're,st, reeord

Atmr Brim B~ ilI'ims 'lo:ptllSlD baCl{ lilJe fr,o;ctierof rnMdLe .ii,gt 'by btimg 'Ibe eldest IItiRII to ,c.fuJm Moo]}'t ,B'\IereYt.

·n~s ~~~ bOWQ\W,'iili,i~. il~ bow;you'rll: 'oldl.· ~iI.il!l, n:le.~, • ."mo climlbed In l\fi,,1.Ml!!l) f;!:;Q in h~~, 1'ii!!<5t iiiilf.nll]lll Cill B'\'~.r's:n IlifW yeam~,

165 obst'<:s-sron w~tb E"'ililillS'! gIleS bllctDO his ~hil.dboO!il, biffEO (iM1'g,e M~II~nr., wh~ ~~.DW'!lJ;;: ~t;in 1~924, .. ltwas M;alI~ wIto~ ~~}jje4 wliry Jilll'- !/i',mtOO GIJ! d1mb Bvel'est. gav,e. direl celellmlllej(J, :rep~!}':, ·1l~~au._'iC It is W;1t .. ,·

Blessed said: {1)1 ·We'll p:mbably never Imow ifM_jjHmy ImIdt iJtito 100 snmlnil.md [ ''iIlboIly e:m_b:!'ooe die my;sle!)i' ,"

T;go(; .@!t!~mpt (2) litgiil!iil ]])I;:!tt '"Il'WiIi!:5ida;r

whe.rli lite gr,oup' set oJH'O'! base camp. ,As plLill'l of InismissiOI! Bl¢-$!icd (3) is gO!h'1Ii1ll ~o pl'a~ ,o.noop ,o:f E'\i'ill'eS1 tl. while, ~M'j' gjVf.l;I1 Ir:dl.im by'!he Dclli Lama. "Hil''s asled me w. ,j~t;;i~C ~ I'ittilrl'iUa.iliHI ~,~a l)ilill~er'£ordl,e woe1d."'

B~~ (4) i.ll ,.~, taJdll.ill 1NIii:h l!lim ill teddy Ilea:r 'whim ~;S. t'O be llUeliooed blllt: to m5~ ~ fOli dnI.dte~uuff.criillg room &ameN ..

E,fess.ed Si.y.s he w,aJl1ls!1J! spend! 'the, rest of his life d(')vo~ing'm IMntti!;, II "W to, ac!ing ,!IlIlO !he. ,(tther illi. 10 .:Iidi'l'etrlture.. This rime 'oe:.;1 yeIII' {5) he'lIl be ~.Ii~:,vff m $«II'(:~ ,of 'till;. AlXInnilUb1e S~'mm. "I 'want 'to dim'll '111111, h igben summit ~II! eacb Gif Ilht' S>C"N:::n cont'iIlU(.':!1ts, pi!1\!! itt(: O~CIOO lto'l11:, e:ltJl'lo.re Ibe lbotlom of '(be sell,'· hi~5;Ud.

:3 Leek ba.ck ;;i!~ 1oum: ':futUlteSOCfl}' ,aillu:i!llilllalkl'i!i''((J!lf nQ'tcsi~H(I ,f;u]~ :5j~lWh\:!!l,cGcs,. Tbi!}[l;: t8muUy :a!hO~1 the, '!i,~trb fo¥m in ea;~h ii;.~~e.

E)!~,mp~,e~ l'~n ;;olle,Cling N~y ,Pbm'05 thi.s Q!Viern'Ofm.

Now ask Y()lIlJr P<1!J:'t!!l<eif qu;~sti(l~s; fli) fhIDd QI!J't ~b(J!l!~ ~he ~nfo:rmat~o!1 In hils !llIer. IliutIUfeSCO,e, Tlbilillik C3!1'eifuEly aibo'WI,tthe v~b '000 foOt! use in YO,W; qJlilcstmons.

EX{l,mp~~;

.1\:, Wh,a~; are )Iou dQing }'(lter :~oda)l~'

II: 1:1'11 g'Oi~'g IMJllle f~r diw'ter lirsl,~ tlum mee#ltg 50'm'e frief1d5,,,

Main tonn. 'Used tD axpre.s fMUfe meanih,. 1. Will,

Alfirma#ll8

I wit! (t'U, etc,} c~;tne:, ete,

Negati.ye

~,w~Lt mllr ('r<m.'t) ..;:orne" e.tt.

Short a,nsr'fflll"S

Yes, I will:.. N,o; I won"t.

Q .... n,tioo

WUl you \:Ql1iId

2 Be' gDing to Jiffi~1it!e

I ,~m U'fn) goiog W come, ere.

glil~$"1:l:f,l

Are you ~o1ng re come?

Nqatiw:

I em ner (~'m nQt) gm!lg 10 come~m.

Short tll.1~rNr$

Yes, I am. N~ l'm 1101\

l fresel1J.'I: CQIruII:rn.!O<Uls ~ $111'1 C(ll;l1liqg, ere,

U.I 1 W:iiI

a Will is m5d 00 m .. k~ p[1~d~ctioil!l' based on a pe.rso.i1:i1i, opinton Or what the speaker b&lie,y(;S to, btl tbe llwa! t.ol!l'tsll: ofevel\u ..

W,e.~ll haw t.ime for a driitk. b!f{ore the film s.tan'$. The t'r'l.1tn WQn~ glU WS" tb~o€ in tim€..

It is o.ften. IUS€'([ w.ith thjs kirmd of m:eAD~g witbrhe, fol~owjng nrbs and pruuu: ]' tbink~ Iexpe:ctJ I doubt,. ] .5UpplJl; I gu.eu. l'm sure.

I don/?-l tbere,wifl 1M r,INJthiug; m ,MI} ;U3t drinks,

The p'().fic:.e w,JU i$(!(lTe.h {flU jJ$ they ,e.1J'Ier the stadium. 1 $l4ppose.

I....-~

r-. b The !l;:OOl:ttac~ t:OIf.M. of willi ,"U) is used whentche sp;il~k.er deci&e. .. ooll?'erirling. ~t the moment of \\;pcakhlg.

'PI:eMe oo"~e~ RfI,tb. everyoue's t!~pecliug yQn.' ·Of. stopgo~ng m~. rtf come . .'

c, Win i:s <I!~$O used with. the foUo:wii[]g kinds of l1luuiqg.

Requcsu; :SIl1Ia Q:t1e.rs~

WiD :yO'tt help me diO ,t»egal'de1t Mkr!

Don't ,!V{)n)I. 1"11 hdp ),{}U with .!ttnaMvef ~'eeds damg.

'Pf'o!:tlltses: alllcl rba:ea,ts:

ft"Qmise HI be there QJ'!I tfrl:!'e.

We wtm"l J~i .jI'Ol!.!b~tJe )IIo~r p.:ifnds :roJIIll'!'d i{'"jf)1if; don ',l tidy your :tt)om.

Refrusal.ts:

Olil" shop WO""'t gille ,o.u )lour I~Mey bach withoot the re~';pr ..

I The matcP,e£ :ww.t't l~gb!. 'lhey~re roo da,,~p.

• Also: macMnes. and Wnesses:

T{~fl' fridge d{lD'1' W(ilJ'iI"t .sht4t, M:y ~QM' 1IV1Hr''f go ~umy.

1'4011£: .sbaU is 1lJ}:i: 1!:ypJcaUy used ins;read Qr will i:1iI iIW,e.ryclay mrnglish but is used ~Il ith:~ .inT!Ctl'ogatiVie form. w:ircl1. I and we fa ask €Ul' and Hlttke sllgg.esdo;ns andlw Inillke of.f~rs.

''SbtlJJ we-go ~o the IMli(l~ reSM'Ur(l~1e for a "harlee?

Whl'lt ~ba'JJ f do .if he"s ~o.t in:r

{"'It m..a.ke jf()lU .a ,up of tea, shalll!

d. ~:n selmltences iRVd~viftl(g. link wD~d'S a~td PMas~s su~b as wnen"befure, ai~~j '!lS se.oti. as, m case .aiDa dllni we uSllaUy myy use wm a.i!lCi:l·i~ th~ searenee.

I'll gj~, yon a :r,;ng tiS .s:'Oon (1$ I've beQrd fro"'': her.

/"11 giffll JIQU the ,p.JiJ()~e u~mbe;' in cas.'(/. )'Otl g~t IOtjt.

----,;;;;.

11 Com,Jet~tift~ !lCi!l!~tfIJJQes 1b~I!Yw., U.s~ oO]1!lraL\:~oo :fOlm)~ wi roil WllJ!i[ 1:0.

1 I w,aUy ". __ ,_ _ " expece rhml~ il:hey .. " .. " , .. _._ eurn up t.his ]<!l'El.

2 .. __ ", .. , .. _._ rn Ctlill ~~ck l,ilIile;r if rOy>[iill bllsy~

3 YO!U']l pro~Wy ~ too t~!"ed toco.!fr!Ie. 1, ", ", ?

oil P:~ p~.QJ'i:~[JgtO tell yOIll 1--" .. " .. -" .. -" .. ,,- :~, lart:e'. The Cat _ __ ._ __ ~[<'in .

.5 We're~~ckhef~ U:M'~~ P.hi.l:iiP' .<!rti"l'!}s. S:O whllrr _ _ .we de whHe' we're waili!J!g?

,6 i, .. - .. -" .... -._ , phOcr.l;e Sai"~h in ,ease she """-"'''''''--', kFlow ·w~'r~ !!:p'.mu!1g.

7 J .. , .. , .... " .. " DJeJi;UiIl'Il t!tm boo:k li!o .yu.,:m aiS, saunas] ""'0." •• "._,,' •••• read it,

$ I ,.",-_ .. , .. " __ " .. jf sh.e .- ,,,, , reeegnise YO't1,. You've reaHycil:ll.nged.

a Se golJ13 to ~s used W.ruU1 SOJnOO,me has a definil't jnre.ntion or plan to do something.

It can ~"Pl'"S ~imrmtnatioD. eo do something;.

The COUtU;t is going tv klW& awun the oJJ cinema /'0 mtJke Q tlmJ shopping cen/N.. I'm .going to go tonight Whe.fherYOH.lrke it 01' llUe.

b HI: pHIs re islUedro make 0:1' ask tar pl''edh:r:iotls fa f'e.spoJlSe to: .something which exists :incite p~t Slroa.tiOn,.

Look.. lhatchUd isgoJtlg to IdJi if 5bt's, "otCtJfeful~ Who Is going 'Iv deQ~ up this i1J'ei5i?

J Present OQntinuOu.s

The pusent OOl'lJti1!tllOUS M::nse is used ro talk about defilnite a rramg,emenrs.I fixOO plans in the: tutur~, sl1.ch as ones that appear in a'ppointmmt oooks and a~£nd'ar pro§r<1Jti'lm.eS.

We'A!" niJt Imvi.g lbe hmbeque on $Jwd(J}I 1faw~. l"m afraiJ~

The .BBC are shouti~ SU'fdllY'S match live mtwemy-six countries.

It is 'IlreQ with :J. definite tillifille 'rime rd~rtfm:et whel;Ml' stared (as .ot time phrase) or

undetnood. (

:2 Q)mpillllil~ th.c $~[jrt:e:IiC\iS by i'iUllmgithe v·~rha~ d'ic ofillid 'o~· C8£llli iSCIit'teIiliO(l: ~jjJt(l the ,oorrect:

fonn ·EO. ·ex~~ fiU~[i~ HI.esliiliin(g,

ill ['I] .ilIave te prepail'e[he rne",W befo:l:l;lwe .. --- " __ ,. __ " ", emf. !g;o)

:2 ~'\'\'e g:Q~ <li! retdbAe F.1e-ada:che 'whi"dl _ ", .. , __ ., , . __ ., .. , .. <i!:W~y.. (Iaot! GO.~

.3 .. , .. " -, , -" , _-, , _- we __ -." -_ ,,, .. -_ - ,.-_.- , .. ,. :in ylJ!l!.I.l' place, sa:yabQut

~jxis:h? (Hl 00 t'

.;:I, I clJ,O"lrneett fOim! 01'1 .fli'~dla.y. the pl.iJJrnbeli' _._ .. , .. " __ . __ ., .. _. __ __ _" _ .. _. , ~ool:n:e)

S OK, you"v'e ·oon.",il!J.oOOlIlll1,c~ we , , .. " " .. , " .. "_ ,,._. __ rhe I!:!:.adin, (ta:kie)

,6 I " , " " '".-, - rhis es~y eVt:n ]~ 1 have' to 1l:~a'Y lllP' .a][ :!Thight. (ffi!l'ilisih)

7' -_. --_ __ . -_., -_ _., . __ .. _-, , ._ --, ,' i;'U!I!li''Ooe." •• ,,' ...... -_." .. " ..... _-, ._., ...... __ .... __ ... _ ...... , ,- ~hil:t pbQ.ne?

(not lal!1:s,~er)

8 Do y.ou kll1LO'\l,I" how y[DCU •• , " " " " to the pany y!."l'iJ

9 We ... -_._- .... ,,-_ .. _- ...... __ .. __ .. - .. __ -_ .. - i~he' ohiMfel1 W'l~i!e :f'O'~ giJ ,s~10prifll!lt.

{Gl!n)

(~Mk: afted

H) Thsrcwn " " •• " •• " ", the anilil'U:1l.1 :SPil:'IDtlg JL'::SrWQ~. 0:111 5drt May tJ~js

yea:r. (J1:(I~.cl~ -

Pr..es-e.m sirnpifl The preseru: simpk.is used wjl'h furure m.eaning when u~ldng abmu timetables Qr

programmes of e"ents. .

The loom: rflu $lam at·two a~d.o,ck after the Jong.jMnp (inal. Tb'e train a-muesat pfatf'ocrl'n {(:JRr Ilnd _rn1s at4'.1-~

.~~~--~--------~~

92

MOTh: W~ 1:1: di~ ~e~m, of to ~ in the fQ;Uow~l]g phr'a ses wieh • runllie Meall~QS;: 1 fVt}uld In!IJt~ ~ ,In but U>1t're ~uC) g:o (jul. Toaay's news me~~ .th:Q~Ji$.a"d$ are lilm___m loee their jobs.,

Jad.;~s $JItlt~ c'O;rne;too lm~ r d(Jt!1."{ thi,,/;: he. wi:li. I

Don"1wo,rry' ~bQllt the exan1~ you'A! hou:. .~ Ms.$~ l .. 4.

3 M$i!~:(:h dn:~se !.1::x;amp~ll::; to tffiHl: d~ff~r;.~lI~ 1lI:SiL1$ d~'lfWbl1ld ~n :BQxesS, ... 6 bclO'w. Wlire tb 'e',-li!:a!mw!p,1~iii in ilbe bc,ml;S:.

'1 .~·n be cal I[ilng~!l later, C!lml. J brimg: YOllr!l:ra,yr'hiilThg?

2 Iltyd')£ rime Lreeire I'ml ha ve worked here f():I" f'W!e.l]jry=il:Mlr~e y{~1'I:rr'S. 3, We \-viU ha ve ~)"Ujrnr. the m1.ew ~HIDmld,i~.I]l by nexe se~.SCHiI,.

4 I'm suee ehe :rtSlra~~!rilllTht 'Will be D1tl:ai:dngllL'l.ofley ~frl1l'e .io1n;g" sm''II'e gm1li letter flYE Henry .. WiU you beseeing hi n111 i[odilly'? () .~wm,'!"iI: have finish.e.a, the repeet Il;.e:fore the' lTI;ee:~il:l!.g.

7 T~.i!J, rime next week ~·U he lyi:ilIg ~n the: SUM :il:l G:I'ce(j~. 8: 'W,~i,l[ MlaJvebeellil. married six: yeaJrs this April.

, .. 1111 11_" I I,~_ I , , ", f '. __ • ;. , ;. rill. I 11_ I I I I , • __ •• , __ ••• __ , , I •• LI ~ •• II I .11.' " .1 I I I •• ~ " •• " ••• ' ••

II YOll f 1lI~ I she I ~f I 'Wt1! I mey wiill .. lI;.ei 4- verb + jog

a The mlt1!llI'e oomimll!lo:t:ls tense is used to PlI:edJi.ct a:1lI ac~kt:11I thai!!: wi~l. be in p:rogn:;ss at mme tiim~ in the mtu:t:e. laxa:mples:

II "'" ~." I. II II •• II II HI I ,11111 , ... 11 I Il." ••• II •• ,' ..... 1\ •••••• I ••• " •• LI ••• I ••• " ."" •• ., •• I.'IIIPI III." ...... ,rJI. II •• I .... "' •• ,,, •• ,, B ... I "" •• I'IIU ,,, •• I ".'1' 1'1111 PI' II'·'" ."'-'I!

b It is some,r1me:. used when talking OJ' aski'r!g a bout ~()ma] plans, This; hl'rm ,~U:JIld~ s;lighdy more formal rirliUl the lPrelent connnllO't.!s. E~mpJes.~

If yt)iD, I bel: I site I it' I ~·I tltGJ' 'will + ba'W! + p~stparticip!e

a The fl1.t;j)l:r.e pel'fl\l'ctwme .Is u~adl f!Ota!k a boo,t <ilH<lC'tIOIl Of ?~i1t which ",jl!l. or llli'm not, be complet~ at some specific poilnr]n dIe' ha:tu:re. Example~~

~~ , .. 0;.1.11 'II~ OJ,. I,."~ _. _;l_ I I " " I ••••••• I I,ll"" "'. ,, __ ••• 11 I."'" I 1 .•• ,' ••• " I I ••• \Y lIn I ~.~ .'--" I "'''

b It is: ~ to talk about the lmgJth of. rime an <WI:i1JJ!l wm have ]astedat some point in the lM'l:UlfC. EX1l'mp,le!l~:

4, H;~(\dful}g the use of ,;iI. p~rtiicYrnai!!:' ~i!me pllliraile with 3, pi!lRiClIlillar iI:'$:I1U!!Gi:!l a 1!l®!l:.fl1l~ wa.y '!)~ l'emcmb~riE,g how'.a ret:!:!"€: i~ used. Looki1~l" t~eu~fiJlii5"hed S('-nf.CR:e.es ,ol!Hd fhe £Ut~:re time' pffil:r"UiCll, bellOw'. Wri:~e rul'l (heb,o:xes pbr~!'ies(rn.~tool!l:ldi (loRi!':le~.e eaidb s;elnllenoe. Some worns Cil'lJ'l! b~ I!Is!Cdi Vifidrn ibo~ih :Sle~lel:'l.ces.

as you read tllii~ letter Il~til WI]iJ!)n:-oW ea tl:iRle

aU d~y 'f;[):mQX[lO\\i' bf>fote' i~~1lL ~[.1!Ji lftwweeks

1 l'll be worl<i:DiI:g 'rlle:r.e: " ,

by Mi1i[itb SiOCH!l1

COMMIUNIIC.ATIVE PRACTICE

r

1 'Tlillal"'s lliliot "'t:

Getillfillo;g:r'OIl[p:S o.f'two OJ:' ~hrce :IiIIIl,dI dl,e!lwritc·l'orurr er :live ,cams las fO:U!O'WSi

TItink o.f ,a, "mQ~ ,~n,j)n (roli1Picialfi,. spo:ns :p!l:rson~ fUm star, etc.) or. !lOm.~IilJC imll YO!l'lf sehool wll1.o is 'k~wn til! tl!ii~ rest o~ frnH~; CkiSS;.

Taike:a. slwp of P311'1i:i£ 01 Ca1l'd3~d! '011 Ollie :s~de '!i¥rile his 0:[ ~et nam,e ~" la'@~ letters. O~

.iI\. - -:t'L - -. ""'d\" """",',0,,, "''''"'''oru'' 'l""'" ""'£"""''''''1'1''1'''"'' ';3;b""'''f 'lrln1is' rn....., ..... ·'" ,~.~u- 11", ·,,~:~l.t 'be" ,].![te Ck-Il~~[ ~I !ii-li ',t"!I',lJw!I.'!r. ,a.'~ul!dl!lr -,LHI'!r.: ,UII!. l!3ILlll:IL1!i I~,-:v\!~ ,~ __ .y~_, ~. , _' ~~,~rV!:I,.iJi '~,F.', ... _ . .'r'I!i:'E I~!~' ~!.:I~'~~_' ."._-i·

f'u',f~Jr(! a:r1tli'l:gement {ltture pl'au or. future h(jjJpc~i~

Miowr,'O Ilia V

1 :till .r!!lS. eaeh ~lI!P b.old!s iGipa. caed so I(halt dl,e: ['&Sit of Ilbe elass ,~!lt !'j;ee dIe !lil!__m,-e •

.2 1\..e: rese (nil the ,~la$.i iI'f.illiil, have ~filfiid OWII ~be jnfOnw!:af~O:Ei, (ll(1ilJ the bad: !li)f 'EII1.<t c:a.rcll by .3sklng,q}I!'!i€!'St~ons li~::

is~"t fur going M :produce: a 'lffel.Y ,arb,u~nW'f,dJ •• " !

n,~gto~:p \ ... ,iltl~ the ,~wcl ~lt!lW~i!:'S: "Yesi'OIt '!N!@o'.

:3 Tkegrol!!.!]? who a.s,k the 'COl7'!ltect qii.!l~dul:'I.alfC:g1¥e.tli dle~ i::~iFd. fie g'lnLp whlll ~he m!]~t carrd!s ~~ ~he end I(Jf tb,c: :g~H1ea~ till'" W~Dne~;.

2 SiI:G,ck IDxGha nge

W !,)~\lili\,.~td\. ~nQtM.t '~t\\~'!X\~ :~m~~t'l;."a't'!I;:}lI.\~1.'I,f!fi;. tllG:OO, ~QI \\\~ut 'm \\\tt.t.~t\~t. S'tciCksll}dorw.Will11khsiI":ocks are ~iks:ly ~!I) go up 0:f dO'Wifi in. v .. rntU'l,r :Ilca,d the :i1iIew!i~:<lipeill' ~>C!i!d!u~es sad d~ii.ilk ~:bo:uu :how th~ ~.~w:S ~IQrjes JitlJay' :t1Ilf«i1 dllQ'0'3hfle o.f t~u~~s:rocks:. (l1"e Pf'~O~5 given are labe tc-aJ1 prices, of ~'hi~ Stocilk';s OI!]J Itbe :Lond,oi:'l.S:tocl!< iE}1.x-M.!l&e 00 7db 'December 'l~l" :3Il':ulme 1llielilldl"~iJcs .ii'ir~h:!tI.rn ii'lie,s.p~p~i!$O~ ~h!l: :!i,awe day.,)

~e:n '¥,ou ha,v,e Hloi:dc }i()iUiit deci:!iliQ!!1.!i!. ro~n: ~!It""cher wil~lenli'"Ql!I hO'l'I' (i3.dh :S:~Q(;k £1illiJtI;liu~d. rna,'!: d!ay amd YOtil C3!mw,oifk li)Iut lIi(Yw :m;u:ib yO!'UJ!ID ..... ~ g.a!i!nl}~ ~ JOOSt.

~

I

0.1£1

6.53

_I 1.54

':;] dlillin Q~ fuodl ~MiP5 h £oo~!b.aJ1l kllml

Worst 'wilnta,r iln vaalrs .,Iil'll to come,

We,ath,er :keeps seasonal

shope-,,-,-.· •. ~r= atb--;,---~, _ , ,_ pe_ s __. ome

Further fall in oilp'rice

BP ehiefsays I

;i:-i:~:r;dng

I •• lland FDGlis stillll! oppoaed '10 Sunrd., 'Ir,acliing

IE:XAiM FOCUS

- --- -- -- - -- ---- -- --- --

EXAM'TIP 14

Owe .of th[,~ tMf!J~5

The tfo,c~;s o.f th~ open doze lu,~sl< :un I?arr Z is grtllliiuili'ltll!' (wltiiereasthc roC1m!!; of the lUuhrupLe-ehO'ioe c~,oz~ :~Il F\lI,n i is rtrliillw.l.y vocablliJ hlry'). Youwill Ofl!leDl bti1l""e ~o d~aJrn ""iith t~:i['jgs suehas mod,rJi~ end :anxilialt'y verbs, U¥OLI :find ill spacebetweena moda.l 0.£ ayxi~i;;ary 'i'l~rb~T!ld the Jill1arnn'll',eiFib" then the :fli'liss~ng "vQ!:'d eould be o!'leiOf r'.ffiI.l'ie:e: f:milTI.;gS: some part O.f the verb phraseIbe, b~ill~h ~~!Il cu' tHI'lt(l:)I" ill. mega rive ~no~:, -[)iI~V.eI~ ¢'~c,J' or sQnlt¢ III:.ilfil.d of:<iidlver'b (~OOJ",

alse, quid.kJ:y,ett,.).

R.~~d~ilit'fi: [~xt b~I,O\:Y am!!! ~:lilIbYik 0'£ ~he V!'\O,l'd w~iich be·:n: fi~:s: each :S;P3iC€" 'Use o.iiiLy' Olle wO!fd iiI) ~ach $P;;i;OC.

lit's tthe ~oming of <lt1e o~ ttlle lnternet - the ViIOI1dwkfe !'l!!9twork of e©mpUli9fS m .... __ .. __ .. __ .. __ .. ofiers ill1$;lalf'lltan,~ou;s access to practically e: ..... ery~l~ing from documents in ~he BriHLS,h lLi~ry to ~Iity newspa:pe~~?iI1,o :sho,ppi rng m-aUs_ llJl~e o,fl: 'the technologrv is e>::plod'ing a II OVetlr the worid ewrl ~Zj _" __ "._"." ••• ,,. lit reaches ""I r'i1\7lSS mark!9't ~wfilich iSi lust about to l'rIap,perJ}.

The IlIrlte:nrnet {31 ... __ .. __ . __ .. __ .. __ a~mo.5r ce:n:aililv be trH,! 20th Gel'ltur{:s, grea~e'S,~:~ecllfi'l.ol09[ca~ invenHon. oom:p3r.l!ble to', and m~ybe (\l";':J;:e~in9,Dihe imporlaliCe 'o1i ,@Iectridty ,~lIId printing ~tilOllgh with.oll.iit ~4.~ ." •• " .. " •• " •• , .. rhese, disooveri:els ttTie IllI'lu:rne-t ffi' " .. " .. " .. " ...... noll. ,exi5-t).

Th€l pooss1bimti~ I(Jrllhe ijevelOPimen~ oflil'rle '~edilMI09Y are almo5~ will'ilout limit.

Tedhnology Cllre\7l.dy e:)::!:sts WtrJich ~inlk.s the computer {el .. _ .. __ ... _ .. __ ., .. , ~he teievisiO'.!'n set To prove'it means business, one TV oompany is lim rnec iately OJr::i(3ring <ill milliol'll's'et4op boxes' enablfJng ~i:!lting TV sets to reooi¥e' alii the new Imefll'ile't taci lilies. This allone, lI'iIO\'IJeve~,

rn ,-"--" .. ".-".-,, net 'glllla.raflm€l :S~S:;L Th€te ere plenty 011 other oompetirtors !llm;l~h'elY will !S()on IS} ...... " .. " .. " .. " ioined bY' others.

We will Irni3ve (9~ _ .. __ ,._",_",_" .. g:et usee net just ];0 ;everyday itJems (UO _ ...... __ .. __ . . __ sdld

'~hrough the Iinternet Olilt III new g~ne'raJtiion of digit,all products, incll,lldingl lfI1aga~in~s a:hclfi~ms,

whidh ~all (1 n "."'",,. r,eprool.!!OeC! O'ind $Iilnt oown t~lej;lthiQne Ii"nes <It (1:2) " .. " .. " .. " ...

exua cost '~o '~l'iIe produor:err. ------- \ ' - "

'(adap~d tt(l:m VI(~O[ lG~in .• 'Wh8i1 ,(iI.\1q'i1:b we Weave', 11ft,) G:lIel,rd'l;;;r,p,~}

(

-;

..--

,/ Read dl~ ~:cr.xl: ibil!kJw .and l~!)k .c~~4U~.!Y ;!'llt cadrulirlle. Some ,of datol: ~Li'!;es j!j~~ ,oo!:'!:'eCI) ~[!,d.

some h:lrli'(i;1, W<l:i'id wbiich $l:il[jJii.l!ldi DQ~ Ib~ iitilil)e. H;,1j :Iilln~it; couoW!:,. P:JiI:1 :a,~ck. by ~I·. U'a, lliine ,illa:s oi!'!'.v'OIt~ whidi, shOiIJild Hat be' ;tbere~ w!',illg t.b~~N'Ott! o:li~ ih~.m~d &i d~oQ' ,1~Ht:. There'atc 'fW'O examp~~all: the be:g~llmng, ~O and 00) ..

The Ci!!,mpeMi]cm

(] fh8 national cn,ampioc''N>lilipS ar,8 in two 1rIfI;O ntll!$ , I" II ha\t€ been ina h,ndi ill

00 nairllill'!;g Jor just 'tMlr ~ou;rIleen w~ell::s by thtm. VVi1e-1'1I I sa'll hard~ I me,,!n ilt . .r

~ ,e5lim{Jil;e lha:( i wiil ha~ been d~rlIe aoom 10m aJroiO a l'iIa~ith.o:U~r:ld lapS :2 r.)f~ne ~1~clk, lin myfOI.!FI:eelfil ~ek u.~hnililg period, Youfilgatiil~le:s 'fFOrnal:1

:3 over 1J'he oQuntliYwil1 be' ~mel!'ldling~allll of Whoml will su:crn li!;::e me. Ibe hoping ~, to, impress ttl€' lfIaltion~1 c:oochieSL Il've b,~el1l thinkingl abOI.lIt wham: I am going

5 to d~ be;~Q"e·~In;e races w.1~ :st~lrt, P'eo:p~e :sal'll VO<1J !'lave· '~IO Ipm tile croilliid and

I} Qtitner wmpetitors '0 lit of "lour mln~. You are s.uPP'O~&d soto 'loCus On warmilllg 7 up but I want to mmi9mhe~ evelryra:oo .. COlllohies teU yOl!! II'1IOt to thiinkaoout

:s winning, jjust Nil'! nirlg - bllt !I'm goin§ to do. My per€'rns <'J re gQi ngl to be tMle '9' to ~to'h me·. ~ hopce' ~'n be able to do my bes~ 1:l~.uSe ofthe.i« tJ,elp nas.l::Jee'n

10 00 limportant aM I wOl,lllcl r,El'aUy Ili~e to m~lke ~hilelTl proud o~ me .. I wen't know 11 ' ul1ltil'~he nex.1. week wilen we stt:m ·~irnil1.g Imy runs seruous~y wh~ll cha!l'l!eeof 12 'WirllniD1g shall II htI'Ve·. My fli'iiei'ilds say that ~0ij;'fJ an optimist and, ·evel1l~h.oU',g11i 13 it wlilioe be~!i"!.g Inn,)" iirst time a,l: il big compel~ilkJ(1'II such, as thiS, I ~hiiFilk~hlat I

14 ca iii li~.e~V ge'tt ():ner.)1 tn.e ~hst three places. Th~$ wOldd tie good e f1I@ught.or

15 n1U;! to be oorlsider·ed ~O~ s~lec~i'Ofi for t~.e Il'IIationall '~eam be:rme tl11e endl o~rhe

J

LEAD .. IN

In Unilr61.ve leeked al diepeJJdeiltlr[ p.n~posiliMS l.vhcfe'i'!dJ;e(rni'l'let'> Ukc mae" ,:;'IIiI,d '''''e~$ 1iike de.fNmd W'CJ!'e S~~Ii'l['O be' fQrn~owed ~I)I" oer[ajn lP:l'eposrut~ons:~ rude to ;1i1iJdl tlependon,

rm:~II\H)siti'Qn$ are ~l:S11!J c;o:m:m,Di] il1i ~llFiI!Ic'tLllrIllS ~an~d P[\~polS:J~lio!i1.aW plll:<'!!se~. Y.besll:ilIJre: plliu:.aJses wilOOeJre~ a prtJiPoshwon iSlill~Gd whh 3;I!iJQ:drue:r wordl,. m!l)$iI: cUI(m:m.'!lilffiy a !!1QUi!\, 1m Jtbese phli'~;$es the use 'Of ~he :p!)epo:df:io!m i$ [ielalled mIl(liiie U) ilhlii W(I:r(i :F:!I)U(¥\¥i:iillg thlOl PJ",epo:sitio:!1 iIlil!!fhcr-tbaflli tEte word prl;!!Olidul(g wI,

1"';1 '$,?(Jn ih,e m(m at. the zviluif)w be('Ore., Thq]il' goti'~,t tb~ ,-at' (mel l(J;t~'.

r

W.o~kin:g. with ;:umolther $tlUd~.nt. ]()okart tbe\vays Sn!!d-e:m:rs A a~dE llIiiV"e reco~edI p['ep()<Si:~iO:l!1al pffirr.tses, Tiflen ,!mt' elite follQwmg: p['e~O:iilhkms 1Il1 d:'icroo.m, ~s Surudelfiil: A~'l'iol,!l:~d dOr,l1illldi dil,e :pf(ij:ll~il:i.O:ila] plll_j,"1i£~s ro~ ;'lie ~hLl]!_ki~g of 'Oom the ca:r.,!l'l]s lilkii Stud,Gnu I,

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