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Dytran 2010 Example Problems Manual

Dytran 2010 Example Problems Manual

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Published by MSC.Software
Example problems showing Dytran usage.
Example problems showing Dytran usage.

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Published by: MSC.Software on Nov 22, 2010
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The dummy model comprises 28 rigid body segments, linked together with multi-axis joints. Each body
segment has predefined inertia properties, and surface contour. Theinertia properties are defined through
the MATRIG option, whilst rigid shell elements define the surface contour. Between the individual body
segments, “null” elements may be defined to obtain a closed surface for smooth contact behavior. The
kinematic joints, connecting the body segments, are modeled with directional springs (CELAST1) and
dampers (CDAMP1).

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The rigid bodies are connected with directional springs and dampers. For the neck area, the user may
choose between two types of neck models. One is the Pivot Neck Model and the second is the Rubber
Neck Model:

1.Pivot Neck Model: This model uses a series of rigid bodies connected with directional springs
and dampers. There are solid elements between the rigid bodies, but they are only modeled to
capture the inertia effects during the simulation. The stiffness is set to be very low.

2.Rubber Neck Model: The rigid parts of the neck are modeled with solid rubber elements. Contact
is defined between the slits to avoid penetration during flexion of the neck. The spring and damper
elements are completely deactivated when this model is chosen. The rubber elements have
validated material properties. Tetra elements are used to model the slits to improve the quality and
of the robustness of the behavior of the neck during flexion. The rubber is modeled with a linear
viscoelastic material model.

Figure6-22 Pivot and Rubber Neck Models

The structure of linked rigid bodies is generally known as a tree structure. Starting at the Lower Torso,
which is at the root of the structure, the tree branches out to the Legs, and Arms and Head, through the
Upper Torso. Several coordinate systems are associated with each rigid body to define its properties and
the linkage with adjoining bodies. Every rigid body has a coordinate system that defines the body center
of mass and the three principal inertia axes. Each body, except the Lower Torso, which is at the root of
the body structure, has a coordinate system which defines the location and orientation of the joint that
connects it to its preceding, or Parent body. This coordinate system is referred to as the Joint Child
Coordinate System. Body segments that have a connection to an outer branch of the tree structure, further
have a coordinate system that locates the origin of that branch and its orientation relative to the parenting
body. This coordinate system is referred to as the Joint Parent Coordinate System. Note that each body
may have several children, but has only one parent. The relative position and orientation of the Joint
Parent and Child coordinate systems determines the forces and moments that act between them.

Depending on the body, two more types of coordinate systems may have been defined. For the Lower
Torso, Upper Torso, and Head, a coordinate system is defined in the location and with the orientation of
the accelerometers. Joint Parent coordinate systems in Femurs, Tibias and Neck double as coordinate
frames for the load transducers that are present at these locations.

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To help visualize the various coordinate systems, rod elements have been defined in their locations. For
example of the Right Femur, see below:

A complete schematic overview of the dummy is attached in Appendix A: File EXAMPLE.AIN as
generated by GEBODFor each of the body component, a set of SURFACEs and property SET1s are
predefined that can be used when contact is required between the dummy and external objects such as air
bags or the instrument panel. The detailed list of property and surface definitions can be found in
Appendix B: Complete ATB Input File for Sled Test CalculationThe structure of the Dytran input deck
necessitates that the dummy model data is split into two files. The file hyb305_case.mod contains the
CASE data, comprising options for output of the dummy kinematics (into ARC files) and instrumentation
responses (into THS files). The file hyb305_bulk.mod comprises the bulk data options defining the
dummy model. The model defined in this file represents the dummy in so-called “reference position”.
For a typical simulation analysis, the dummy will be used in a position and with an orientation that differs
from this reference position. A utility program is provided to change the position and orientation of the
dummy asawhole and of the limbs individually, to accommodate this. The user provides the desired
location of the H-point, orientation of the Lower Torso, and rotation angles of arm and leg segments in a
position definition file. The utility program hyb305 willthen assemble a dummy model in the correct
position and orientation from the hyb305_bulk.mod file and the user provided position definition file.
The resulting bulkdata files hyb305_bulk.dat and hyb305_case.dat can be included in a
simulation model for analysis. Positioning or changing the orientation of dummy parts through other
means may seriously affect the integrity of the dummy model and is therefore discouraged

Details of the structure of the position definition file and the execution of the positioning program are
contained in Appendix C: File Create_fem_dummy.dat Calibration Tests

In this section the calibration simulations will be described. The simulation performed follows the
guidelines of Ref 1. [Technical Report – Development and Evaluation ofthe Hybrid III fifth Percentile
Female Crash Test Dummy (H-III5F), NHTSA, August 1998]. However, the focus is on the dummy
behavior during the impact of an air bag. To this end, only in the area of the neck and chest calibration
tests have been performed. The head impact and knee impact are skipped at this point in time. Each one
of the following sections will describe the details of the test and show the results.

Coord A: Right Femur Principal Inertia Frame

Coord B: Right Femur Load Cell Parent Fram

Coord C: Right Hip Joint Child Frame

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Neck Extension Calibration Test

Experiment

In this test, the neck and head of the dummy are attached to a pendulum. The structure is then lifted to a
specific height and released. The pendulum impacts a honeycomb block which will give it a certain
deceleration profile. Due to the deceleration, the head of the dummy starts to show extension. In this test,
the moment and the head D-plane rotation are measured as a function of time.

Simulation

The neck portion of the dummy was extracted from the main hybrid305_bulk.dat file and was
attached to the pendulum by merging the MATRIG definitions using the parameter MATRMERG. In order
to save CPU time, the simulation will start just before the pendulum contacts the honeycomb block. The
contact with the foam will not be modeled, but instead the pendulum will be given a predefined rotational
velocity profile. All the rest of the neck and head nodes will be given an initial rotational and translational
velocity by using the TIC3 input option. At the moment of impact, the radial velocity of the system is
3.5523 Rad/sec. The force in rotational spring 1080051 and damper 1080052 will be monitored. This
represents the moment at the occipital condyle. For the D-Plane, the locations of nodes 1080020 and
1080023 are monitored. These nodes are part of the coordinate system that describes the location and
orientation of the head accelerometer. From the relative location of thesetwo nodes, the orientation of
the head D-Plane is calculated.

Results

Figure6-23 shows the results for the pivot neck and the rubber neck models for every 20 mseconds
followed by the time history graphics of the neck moment and the orientation of the head D-Plane.

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Figure6-23 Results of Neck Extension for the Pivot and Rubber Neck Models for every
20mseconds

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Figure6-24 Time History of D-Plane Extension

Figure6-25 Time History of Neck Extension Moment

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Figure6-26 Time History of D-Plane Moment Extension

Neck Flexion Calibration Test

Experiment

In this test, the same pendulum is used but the neck bracket will be mounted in the opposite
direction.Also in this test, the neck moment and the head D-Plane rotation will be measured as a function
of time.

Simulation

In this simulation, the same model will be used as the neck extension model, but the enforced rotational
and initial velocity will be in the negative direction. Also, the absolute value of the radial velocity on
theTIC3 option was increased to 4.14435 as thedeceleration curve is different according to the
NHTSAspecifications.

Results

On the next page, the results for the pivot neck model and the rubber neck model for every 20 mseconds
followed by the time history graphics of the neck moment and orientation of the head D-Plane.

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Figure6-27 Results of Flexion for the Pivot and Rubber Neck
Models for every 20 mseconds

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Figure6-28 Time History of D-Plane Flexion

Figure6-29 Time History of Neck Flexion Moment

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Figure6-30 Time History of D-Plane Moment Flexion

Thorax Impact

Experiment

In this calibration test, an impactor with a weight of 14 kg will contact the chest at a velocity of 6.47 m/s.

Simulation

First, the dummy was positioned using the hyb305 positioner, the arms and legs were straightened, then
the floor and impactor were added to the test input file. A contact was defined between the impactor and
the dummy chest. During the simulation, the force in the spring 1050031 was monitored and is the impact
force. Also, the location of nodes 1040100 and 1050000 was monitored. The difference in x-position is
a measure for the chest deflection.

Results

On the next page, the results for the thorax impact are given for every 10 mseconds followed by the
graphs for thorax displacement in time and thorax force deflection curve.

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Figure6-31 Results of Thorax Impact of Dummy Model

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Figure6-32 Time History of Thorax Displacement

Figure6-33 Time History of thorax Impact

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