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absorption costing: variable costs and a portion of fixed costs (based on labor hours, machine hours, or material costs) are assigned to each unit of production acceptance sampling: testing a portion of goods produced (accept or reject whole/partial lot) 2 types of sampling: Yes/No inspection, or # (magnitude) inspection activity-based cost (ABC) accounting: accumulated fixed costs (overhead) based on activities performed and allocates costs based on products, customers, markets, or projects. activity-based management (ABM): using ABC info about cost pools and drivers, activity analysis, and business processes to identify business strategies, improve product design/mfg/distribution, and remove waste
backward integration: process of buying or owning elements of the production cycle of distribution back toward raw material suppliers baseline measures: measurements that seek to establish the current/starting level of acceptable performance benchmarking: comparing cost, product, and service data with that of other companies; 7 types: Competitive, financial, functional, performance, process, product, and strategic. benchmark measures: technique where each operation is allowed a block of time to complete. break-even chart: graph showing total cost (variable+fixed) along with total revenue. break-even point: intersection point of total cost and total revenue curves bullwhip effect: a small demand change downstream (customer) causes extreme demand change upstream (mfr) business process reengineering (BPR): fundamental rethinking / radical redesign of business processes for dramatic organizational improvements. BPR emphasizes process and customers, not functions and products.
capacity strategy: one of the strategic choices that a firm must make as part of its manufacturing strategy. 3 types: 1. Lead: adds capacity in anticipation of increasing demand 2. Lag: does not add capacity until firm is operating at or beyond full capacity 3. Tracking: adds capacity in small amounts to attempt to respond to changing market demand cash conversion cycle: In MFG, length of time from purchase of raw materials to collection of accounts receivable. In retail, length of time between sale of products and the cash payments for a company s resources. cash-to-cash cycle time = Inventory days + accounts receivable days accounts payable days; indicator of how effective a company manages its assets to improve cash flow (cash flow turnover) competitive advantage: unique attribute that gives a company advantage/defense over its rivals to attract customers competitive analysis: Analysis of a competitor including its strategies, capabilities, prices, and costs. (SWOT) analysis computer-aided design (CAD): to interactively engineer and design allowing computer to manipulate objects and views computer-aided engineering (CAE): to generate and test engineering specifications computer-aided manufacturing (CAM): to program, direct, and control production equipment
core process: unique capability that is central to a company s competitive strategy corporate culture: set of important assumptions that members of a company share. F flexibility: ability to respond quickly and effectivelyto internal or external changes. quantitative analysis of relevant factors. A system of shared values critical chain: longest sequence of dependent events through a project network considering resource constraints critical chain method: TOC. and retrieve data (reports) decision support system (DSS): software designed to evaluate and select courses of action using logical. and cost discounted cash flow: investment analysis method. develop. and standardizing the business process necessary to effectively plan and control an organization. that discounts future cash flows to the present value (NPV) E economic value added = Net operating profit Cost of capital. and material flexibility. Core competencies are difficult for competitors to emulate and provide for future company growth. and maintain software and systems computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM): seamless linking of all computer systems in the manufacturing organization concurrent engineering: all stakeholders including customers and suppliers are involved in the design process continuous manufacturing: High volume process dedicated to a very narrow range of standard products core competencies: bundle of skills/knowledge that enables a firm to provide the greatest value to customers. focused factory: plant established to focus on manufacturing a limited type/volume of products (JIT example). Strategic buffering of paths and resources is used to increase project completion success. a network planning technique to determine a project s completion time. critical path method (CPM): same as critical chain. volume. computer system that mimics human experts using rules and heuristics rather than deterministic algorithms.I.computer-assisted software engineering (CASE): using computers to help design. design changeover. quality. identifies the activities that constrain the project completion time customer supplier partnership: long-term relationship between buyer and supplier with teamwork and trust D database management system (DBMS): software designed to store. modification. and use its internal knowledge to seek external advantage. expert system: a type of A. for a profit center enterprise resource planning (ERP): framework for organizing. delivery lead time = receipt of customer order delivery of product (customer receipt) design for manufacture and assembly (DFMA): product development approach to ensure feasibility. rerouting. maintain. defining. . 6 categories: product-mix. used with cellular manufacturing forward integration: process of buying/owning elements of the production cycle and distribution channels downstream/forward to the final customer.
Considers 4 factors: 1. Communication of coordination requirements 3. ISO 14000 Series Standards: generic environmental management standards to manage compliance efforts. Correlation of customer attributes with technical features 4. usually used to show capacity and load against that capacity or to monitor job progress over time generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP): conform to accepted conventions. Allows for rapid retrieval of existing designs and facilitates cellular layout H heijunka: JIT philosophy. and procedures for acctg global measurements: measurements used to judge the performance of the system as a whole group technology (GT): philosophy that identifies the physical similarity of parts (common routing) and establishes their effective production. Assignment of priorities to the customer attributes and technical features 5. level production approach house of quality (HOQ): 6-step process that relates customer-defined attributes to a product s technical features 1. Originally developed in 1987. designed to reduce employee dissatisfaction job enrichment: an increase in both the # and control of tasks that an employee performs (extension of job enlargement) K knowledge-based system: software that employs relational structure and reasoning rules to solve problems by generating new knowledge from the subject relationships. J job enlargement: an increase in the # of tasks that an employee performs. Organization functions 2. Identification of technical features to be used in final product design hurdle rate = minimum acceptable rate of return on a project I in-sourcing: using a firm s internal resources to provide goods and services information system architecture: a model of how the organization operates regarding info. Data modeling needs 4.G Gantt chart: planning and control chart showing relationship between planned and actual performance over time. Identification of supporting technical features 3. Identification of customer attributes 2. Management and control structures Architecture of the information system should be aligned with the organization architecture internal rate of return (IRR): rate of compound interest provided by project proceeds over the project investment ISO 9000: set of int l standards on quality management and assurance developed to help companies effectively document quality systems implementation and maintenance. Evaluation of competitive stances and competitive products 6. rules. .
and comparing company data to benchmarks pilot test: a verification test before final acceptance of a new system. operation. and cleaning process capability: ability of a process to produce parts that conform to engineering specifications process control: maintaining/monitoring a process within a given range of capability by feedback and correction process costing: accounting system where costs are collected by time period and averaged over all units process focused: manufacturing organization where responsibilities are delineated by production process. make-buy analysis. or product preventive maintenance: activities to forestall machine breakdowns including adjustments. process. measuring. cost-volume profit analysis. replacements.L learning curve: reflects the rate of improvement in production or other factors over time and experience learning organization: group who has woven a continuous. each activity is assigned a pessimistic and optimistic duration estimate. not function product focused: manufacturing organization where responsibilities are delineated by product(s) or market segment product profiling: program evaluation and review technique (PERT analysis): Network analysis technique in project mgmt. then PERT computes std. CPM applies a weighted average of these times for each node. uses techniques such as break-even analysis. dev. of the project duration estimate. enhanced capacity to learn into the corporate culture life-cycle costing: considering Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) in evaluating purchasing/production alternatives local measures: measurements that relate to a specific resource. process. or part (NOT a global measure) M managerial accounting: branch of accounting to make daily decisions. project costing: accounting method where each assignment/service is valued and costed separately . manufacturing execution systems (MES): programs and systems that help execute shop floor control and help gather quality control information for cause and effect analysis manufacturing strategy: collection of decisions that acts to formulate and deploy manufacturing resources N net present value (NPV): the present (discounted) cash flow of projected future earnings (revenues expenses) network planning: techniques used to plan complex projects such as: Critical Path Method (CPM) and PERT O operational performance measurements: related to efficiency / utilization. and others. and related to throughput in TOC outsourcing: process of having suppliers provide goods and services that were previously provided internally (substitution) P participative design/engineering (concurrent engineering): when all stakeholders simultaneously participate in design participative management: all levels of employees share decision-making powers to help advance company payback: method of evaluating an investment by the amount of time required to recover the initial project investment performance measurement: actual value measured to meet certain criteria performance measurement system: system for collecting.
prototyping: product design and development process to ultimately create a working model of a product Q QS 9000: variation of ISO-9000 with additional requirements tailored to the auto industry. Only lead times important to the customer are dealt with 2. produce. market share. and distribute a product. including suppliers quality functional deployment (QFD): methodology to ensure that all the major requirements of the customer are identified and met or exceeded through the product design process R return on investment (ROI): relative measure of financial performance to compare investments by profits over time S strategic drivers: factors that influence business unit and manufacturing strategies strategic performance measurements: measurements that relate to the long-term goals of a business such as profitability. unexpected increases in demand by expanding production with existing resources synchronized production: manufacturing philosophy that evaluates actions in terms of the global goal of the system systems thinking: a school of thought that focuses on recognizing interconnections between parts of a system to synthesize a unified view of the whole T time-based competition (TBC): corporate strategy that emphasizes time as the vehicle to achieve and maintain a competitive edge. Lead time reductions must include both mean and variance decreases 3. Organizations cooperate based on mutual values and act as a single entity to customers and other third parties voice of the customer (VOC): actual customer descriptions for the functions and features desired in a product/service . 3 characteristics: 1. and productivity sunk cost: unrecoverable balance of an investment or past cost that is no longer relevant for making future decisions surge capacity: ability to meet sudden. The more steps done by the firm (not outsourced) the more vertically integrated virtual organization: short-term alliances between independent organizations in a potentially long-term relationship to design. growth. not increased resources trading partner: any external organization that plays an integral role within the supply chain community and whose business fortune depends on the success of the supply chain community V value chain: the functions within a company that add value to the goods or services that the organization sells variable costing: inventory valuation method where only variable production costs are applied to the product vertical integration: degree to which a firm has decided to produce multiple value-added stages (From raw material to product delivery). Lead time reductions must be achieved through system/process analysis.
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