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STUDIES IN HISTORY.D. PI1. ECONOMICS AND PUBLIC EDITED BY THE FACULTY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE OF LAW COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Volume XIV] [Number 3 THE EASTEKN QUESTION A STUDY IN DIPLOMACY BY STEPHEN PIERCE HAYDEN DUGGAN. King & Son 1902 . S. ImPrueior in PMlotaphy in the College of the City of Nvw York JTttD gork THE COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. AGENTS London : P.
PREFACE continued residence of the Ottoman Turks in Europe due to two causes the jealousy of the Christian powers. and from Lesur's Annuaire HistoriHertslet's Map of Europe by Treaty has been very helpque. protocols and conventions associated with them. Dumont's Corps Diplomatique. but also generally the notes. their attitude towards each other and their relations with foreign states. Wenck's Codex Juris Gentium. the positions held by the various European states on the Turkish question. nor even a diplomatic history of Turkey. Though my subject is the dipside of the Turkish question. The collections of treaties have been carefully ex- amined. With the latter cayse. this thesis is concerned only in so far as it is necessary to an understanding of the is : The The first chapter. It practically begins with the treaty of Kainardji. therefore. of 1774 for though the maintenance of the integrity of the Otto. And the Histoire des Traites de Paix of De Garden and that of Schoell have frequently obscure in the collections. De Clercq's of French. and Martens' of Russian. really date from that treaty. not only give the texts of the treaties themselves. De Testa's collection of Ottoman treaties. and the lack of unity among the subject Christian peoples of the Balkans. treats of the races of former. man Empire was in considered essential to the balance of power Europe before then. and especially by England and Russia. the Balkans. clarified what has been Much information was obtained from the Annual Register. Neumann's of Austrian. The materials for this thesis have been taken from a number of sources. 429] 5 . the thesis is by no lomatic means a history of Turkey.
is a guide which I have freely con- sulted. I have not hesitated to use the treatises of other men and sometimes have adopted their views. such as Metternich and Bismarck. With the exception of the first policies. but every case have made a foot-note to that effect. like Palmerston. the Prince Consort and Napoleon III. . April 25. where this thesis work ends Debidour's " Histoire Diplomatique. and the lives of others. but Sorel's " et Ministres de France have been of much Ambassadeurs " Many of the memoirs of statesmen. his great with the Treaty of Kainardji. throw light on the motives service. works of others. In conclusion. D. the Parliamentary Papers and Hansard's Parliamentary Debates were invaluable. though it begins at 18 14. The British and Foreign State Papers.6 ful for PREFACE [430 the nineteenth century. the matter of which was gathered principally from the chapter. S. I have not had access to the French Les Instructions donnees aux foreign papers.." practically begins. I gratefully acknowledge that the advice and encouragement given by Professor John Bassett Moore have been more valuable than the aid received from any books. P. Unfortunately. igoz. Von Hammer's " " is the mine from Geschichte des Osmanischen Reich es in of which every writer on Turkey digs. College of the City of New York. H. the statements in this thesis have been made which have actuated from the above sources. The works two authors must be specially mentioned.
CONTENTS CHAPTER I i 1 ] TURKS. on Turkey The war of 17781792 The French invasion of Egypt The revolt of the Servians The war of 1806-1812 Turkey and the treaty of Tilsit — — — —^The treaty of Bucharest of 181 — — — \ \ \ 2 7 47 3 431] \ . and Joseph II. RAYAHS AND FRANKS 1 The mixed — — — —The Roumanians —The Servians and Bulgarians —The Montenegrins and Albanians—The of the Turks with the Franks — The Capitulations —The exclusive of the French. conflict with Peter the —^Turkey and the European diplomacy of the eighteenth — of Belgrade. . 1739 —Turkey and the century The Polish question—^The struggle with Catherine II gene treaty Great —The 1699—The Eu- ] victories of Prince \ I I 27 i J CHAPTER III I RUSSIAN AGGRESSION \ Potemkin and the annexation of the Crimea The designs of Catherine 11.'i I CHAPTER II \ THE TREATY OF KAINARDJI OF 1 7 74 \ A The decline of the Turks—The treaty of Cariowitz.11 character of the population of the Balkans administration ^The subject peoples The Greeks relations ^Turkish j j | \ privileges . .
Mehemet treaty Skelessi rebellion attitude alliance 1 in Ali treaty Straits . in the Places 27. joins I. 81 CHAPTER VI THE CRIMEAN WAR Quarrel between the Latin and Greek monks Holy —The plans of Nicholas—The mission of Mentschikoff—The Vienna note —Turkey declares war against Russia. — — 1853 The massacre of Sinope The position of Austria and Prussia— France and England declare war against Russia.8 CONTENTS [432 CHAPTER IV THE GREEK REVOLUTION Turkey and the Congress of Vienna Ali Pasha of Janina The Nicholas I. 99 CHAPTER The decay and disintegration of the VII THE TREATY OF BERLIN — 1856 ^The revolt of 1875 in Herzegovinia The Andrassy note —The Ottoman Empire after and in Bosnia Berlin memorandum —The — Bulga- . — March 1854 ^The Austro.Prussian treaty of April — the aUies — Death of 1854 —^The four points Sardinia — of Sebastopol—The Congress of Paris of Nicholas — — 1856 ^Terms of the treaty Results of the Crimean war 4. Oct. Fall . becomes Emperor of Rusrevolt of the Greeks sia —^The — — — of July I. . . 20. Russian demands granted The treaty of London 1827 The battle of Navarino War with Russia — — — — 61 The treaty of Adrianople CHAPTER V THE EGYPTIAN REBELLION Pasha of Egypt —The of Unkiar of —The of 1839 —The of the European 1833 of 840 —The excitement Powers—^The quadruple —The defeat of Mehemet —^The France of the of 1841 — The question of the Hungarian refugees Ali.
1885 ^The Cretan and Armenian insurrections.433] rian atrocities CONTENTS g conference of Constantinople Russia delares war against Turkey. 1 889-1 896 The TurcoGreek war of 1897 The English control of Egypt Present — — — — attitude ofjthe European Powers to Turkey 147 . April 24. 187 7 The fall of Plevna and the treaty of San Stefano Excitement in England The —The Cyprus convention the treaty —The — — — Congress of Berlin —The — terms of 126 CHAPTER The VIII PRESENT STATUS OF THE EASTERN QUESTION union of Bulgaria and Eastern Roumelia.
the ancestors ot . who. During the sixth and seventh centuries there forced themselves among these races the various Slavonic tribes whose descend- ants. whose territory lay to the east on the Black Sea. they were for the most part driven to the coast. the Dacians. to-day inhabit the Balkans. which they inhabit to this day. The Albanians were compelled to retire to the mountains of the western part of the peninsula. were of the same race. and who became more Romanized than either of the other two. Though many of the Greeks remained in the plains and valleys. languages and customs. however. As the Slavonic invader came chiefly from the northwest. but established themselves side by side and maintained their separate nationalities. the During : forefathers of the present Greeks. including the Servians. the Bulgars. RAYAHS AND FRANKS the period of the Roman Empire the Balkan Peninsula was inhabited by three different races Hellenes. and Montenegrins. The Wallachians. and the Thracians and Dacians. as did the people of the West- Roman Empire. The newcomers and the old inhabitants never fused. and adopted the Latin tongue. although geographically separate.the Albanians of to day.CHAPTER I TURKS. but are found scattered over Macedonia and Thessaly. ern 435] II . compris- ing the Wallachians (Vlachs) and Moldavians. Bosnians. are not confined to the territory that bears their name. or to the large towns which the primitive methods of Slavonic warfare were unable to reduce. remained comparatively unaffected. In the tenth century a Turanian tribe. Herzegovinians. Illyrians. of the These last were the progenitors Roumanians (Romanians) of the present day.
Wallachians. Albanians. In some formed the much parts of the peninsula each nation greater portion of the inhabitants. Bosnians. but as representatives of a great religion which enjoined upon its adherents the duty of ex- terminating or enslaving the unbeliever.^ the Turk. chap. each remaining distinct from the other. Jews. the rayahs. and if these are To not resisted he subjects. . there must be added to this admixture of peoples. Under any conditions. besides being allowed to retain a part of their property. government consists in the maintenance of his supremacy and the collection of tribute. the Christian inhabitants. comprehending the Moldavians and . is contemptuously tolerant of the usages of his the conquest. but in other districts. and each filled with In the cities prejudice and animosity toward the remainder. it was already peopled by Greeks. pushed through the Dobrudja into what is now Bulgaria and imposed their sway upon the Slavonic inhabitants but in less than three centuries they became thoroughly assimilated by the conquered and undistinguishSo that when the Ottoman conquest of the able from them. The Turks became an army of occupation in a conquered country. that they should fail to do so. Herzegovinians and Montenegrins^ and the Roumanians. it would form a single stable state in the Balkans the conditions under which the Turks entered made it inevitable difficult to . therefore. and such they have remained ever since. were permitted to exercise their religion on After conditions which would ^ mark them off as an inferior part ol ii. there was and is a medley of races. and the various European races by the Turks indiscriminately be denominated as Franks. Unlike the other invaders ot the Balkans they came not as heathen. Ottoman Power in Europe. Freeman.12 THE EASTERN QUESTION [^36 coming from the northeast. Bulgarians. BcJkan peninsula occurred in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. unconnected with any established form of worship. Armenians. Servians. particularly in those which constitute the present Turkey in Europe.
the civil and the ecclesiastical law being founded on the Koran. and we hear of no rebellious show of discontent with their condition until the system of tribute children fell into disuse two hundred years later. it was natural for him to place the various subject peoples under the supervision of their spiritual heads. regular pay. when the goods were Mohammedan. sent to Constantinople and educated as Moslems. who were to become the slaves of the Sultan. when they belonged to an unbeliever. which is a tithe paid all the inhabitants of whatever religion. were also forbidden to carry arms or use horses. Every fourth year Turkish officials appeared in the Christian villages and selected the strongest and most intelligent fifth of the children between the ages of six and nine. amounted 2^ per cent. Besides the land tax. levied alike on imports and exports. The customs duty. but to The rayahs 5 per cent. they were at the absolute command of the Sultan. for example. As the Turk makes no distinction between church and state. Entirely cut off from their early Christian associa- having a contempt for and being at enmity with the Timariot or Mohammedan feudal soldiery. The Greek and Armenian patriarchs and the Jewish chief rabbi. This celebrated body consisted excluThey received sively of those who had been tribute children. They were A them entered the civil service. While the rayahs thus supplied their enemy with his finest weapon. but the majority entered the corps of Janissaries. they paid the by Kharadj or capitation tax. and their to costumes were required to be of a nature to distinguish them from the true believer. . and until the decay of the tion. RA YAHS AND FRANKS I 3 the community. But the hardest of the Turkish impositions was the tribute of children. Ottoman Empire they formed the best army in Europe. as a tribute for their unbelief.CAi 437] TURKS. but were not allowed to marry nor to engage in any business. and were taught that it was a privilege as well as a few of duty to assist in the propagation of the true faith. they were themselves deprived of their most virile element.
The of each village elected their own elders. being in the last analysis them." Before the decline. Turkey and its Resources. as they held office at the pleasure of the Sultan. vol. conquered territory was divided into provinces local self-government. who assessed people and collected the taxes which were demanded of the village.. but the Turks have always permitted Over each province was placed a bey. History of Greece. in the seventeenth century. the government of the provinces was well administered. employ of the state. 3 Finlay. . and the Kodja-Bashi. implying that the person to leaders was ' in the highest of forces. with the assistance of the parish priest. give an excellent description of local self-government in Turkey. the case went to the Turkish tribunals. especially those far Suleiman the Great (i 520-1 566). e. The proremoved from the central government. the corruption of the Turkish tribunals was equalled only by the rapacity of the tax gatherers. Urquhart. Immediately after the conquest. millet^ i. Chapters ii. their 1 The title of pasha was originally one of mere honor. After the decay of the Otto- religious community. settled all disputes between the villagers unless they were of so important a nature as to be referred to the spiritual head.14 THE EASTERN QUESTION n^S were regarded by the Porte as the civil and religious heads of their respective nations and many administrative functions were performed by them all law suits between members of their . came thereafter to exercise almost absolute power. and the native population gained a great advant- escaping from the petty tyranny of the local despots who had flourished under the weak Byzantine government.3 But Turkish virility and honesty in administration disappeared age in after the reign of vincial pashas. Gradually it became confined especially when they became governors of provinces. ii. settled by and could not settle their difficulty by arbitration. p.' who was the head of the feudal soldiery of his pashalik. Besides. or headman. and iii. the . If the parties belonged to different millets man Empire began. i.
were so united yet had to live* agencies of the governin interest that who complaint by the sufferers was useless and practically impossible.^ tem. their subordinates were appointed from Constantinople. military as well as civil. p. lest he be outbid It was a common thing for a a rich district. Until 1695. From the very beginning the Turkish government adopted the pernicious policy of farming the taxes. being exceptionally honest. who sublet the various districts usually to Jews or Greeks. who had the proceeds of a single year. with no superior authority to appeal to. they were obliged to resort to extortion and corruption in order to reimburse themselves. but Indeed. or some other high official. RA YAHS . and and as their salaries were nominal rather than real.^39] TURKS. in the gathering of taxes. he was likely to be re- his pockets to moved. and each tax-farmer wrung out of the people all for the privilege in the next. land. AND FRANKS I 5 tenure was uncertain pointment by as they usually obtained their apthe purchase of influence and favor at court. he could during that year. If a pasha. but applied indiscriminately to all toms. the government cared little how he gathOf this vicious sysered it or how much more he gathered. tried to govern well and won the good will of his people. 150 et seq. These farmers habitually employed as collectors soldiers. by reason of his popularity. custo one species of tax. to tax-farmer. and the almost equally unfortunate Turkish peasantry. sent to Constantinople become dangerous. The farmer-general of become opulent out of This system was not confined — a province often was the pasha. Of all the immense sums extorted from the rayahs. often as spies. Moreover. since the Porte preferred an official who merely filled one who might. Provided the pasha the required revenue. Turkey in Europe. the grant was for one year only. the rayahs. whose pay was generally months in arrears. . but the system was fast hurry- Odysseus. only a small part reached the treasury * . and these had to be conciliated. capitation and other forms. all ment. felt the full weight.
and the prohibition of leases of taxes to officials. and at his death. was this system practised. vol. it to deed In return. A part of this consisted of the Sultan's private property. such as the separation of various functions formerly united in one person. The amount of this land was much in- creased by direct donations of the faithful. 1 ' Hatti-sherifF is an irrevocable edict signed by the Sultan. One portion was set off for religious purposes. division of land was mirie or domain land. but even more by devices similar to those against which the mortmain laws were made in England. During his lifetime. Letters on Turkey. The officials ob- tained contracts in the name of other persons. It was a common thing for the holder of unencumbered land value. . furnished the feudal levies of the In the beginning their estates were not hereditary. that by the middle of the last cenThe contury. sequent loss of revenue to the treasury gave rise to increased demands upon the The second rayahs. who tral authority. as they were called. and this was called vakouf land. Porte. The Hatti-sherifif of promulgated reforms. and land the income of which was devoted to the expenses of ad- who but the major portion was granted to persons on condition of rendering military service. his heirs inherited it.1 6 THE EASTERN QUESTION its [440 Gulhane(i839)^ ing the state to ruin. nor could it be confiscated or taken for civil purposes. such as the building of mosques and schools. but without avail. i. These timars. more two-thirds of the territory was vakouf. letter 13."" The land of the conquered was divided into three kinds. Ubicini. and the timariot became the chief ministration . It paid no taxes. there mosque for a tenth of its was granted to him the right to lease it to a on payment of a rent equal to the interest on the money the mosque paid for it. and then sublet them to rapacious usurers. held it supporters of the provincial pashas in their defiance of the cenThis kind of land was tilled by rayahs. but they soon became so. he could sell the So extensively lease.
. vol. actuated by the desire to save their property. vii. the rayahs enjoyed to a great extent the good offices of the foreign ambassadors. we must carefully distinguish those who dwelt in the rural districts. and the small element of Pomaks in Bulgaria." Although the evils inseparable from Turkish administration fell heavily upon the Christian rayahs. or freehold land. and to-day the holders of Miri6 lands cannot sell. nor make them Vakouf without a spcf^iai 1 permit from the Sultan. from the Greek clergy and the inhabitants of the great cities^ and particularly from the Phanariot aristocracy of ConstantiOne of the Sultan Mahmoud's (i 808-1 829) reforms was to abolish this system. in profitable trade. and where. transfer or mortgage them without a license from the authorities. are instances to the contrary but th« only case in which a large part of the population was converted was that of the semi-barbarous Albanians. tianity was of a crude kind. where they burdens were comparatively the case in the capital. where foreign influences were and which were difficult of access. the Roumanians least. which Turkish adminh taxes were collected irregularly and frequently. everywhere the same. the roads being few and poor. The Bosnian land owners. It was in the provinces. however. . that the rayahs suffered most. whose ChrisThe lot of the rayahs was not. both of modern Greece and of modern Turkey.44l] TURKS. * Tht People of Turkey by a y Consul's Daughter. and the landlord was constantly devising fresh methods of extortion/ The The third kind of land is mulk. RA YAHS AND FRANKS j^ suffered all the forms of oppression into istration degenerated. where tht In the large not felt. chap. in later times. i. owing to the difficulty of obtaining secure titles. In discussing the condition of the Greeks under Ottoman sway. Nor in the pro^ vinces were the fates of the different races the same. their Especially was this taxes were not farmed. engaged light. comparatively few of them changed their faith. cities. Tli« amount of this in Turkey is not large. The Bulgarians suffered most.
iS nople. cline of the Ottoman Empire began. and their history from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century is almost a blank. He was granted the right of collecting tithes and dues. and conferred upon him the rank of pasha. divorce and inheritance. as a result of the the influence of the Greek church and the power of conquest. THE EASTERN QUESTION The [^2 Turkish rural inhabitants experienced to the full extent oppression. who had allied himself with Rome^ hoping thereby to gain aid against the Turk. The Greek clergy hated the Pope more than they did the Sultan. In the course of time his powers became as extensive in civil matters as in religious. Mohammed the Second. which few orthodox Catholics dared incur. all disputes questions between Christians which did not concern Moslems in any way. He placed all the orthodox Catholics of the Empire under the control of the Greek patriach of Constantinople. the Conqueror. One of the causes of the fall of Constantinople was the opposition of the Greek clergy to the last emperor. were committed to his charge or that of his subordinates. of marriage. often bringing as much as one hundred thousand The patriarchs reimbursed themselves by charges ducats. the Sultan frequently . and preferred the latter in Constantinople to the former. adopted as his deliberate policy the encouragement of this feeling and determined to use the hierarchy for his own purpose. . The result of the introduction of this system was to make these offices much sought after. consecrating bishops the bishops by charges for consecrating priests and these in turn by charges for performing the simplest rites of the church for the people. Simony soon developed. but there was now delegated to him supervision over a All large number of civil matters. After the defor . and the patriarchate was sold to the highest bidder. the Greek clergy were much increased. But. and of enforcing his commands by excommunication. Under the Byzantine emperors the patriarch had control over ecclesiastical affairs. And the powers of the Greek metropolitans and bishops were proportionately great.
chap. They were bigoted and fanatical. the majority of the grand viziers For a vivid description of the condition of the Finlay. smothering nationalistic movements. enjoining obedience to the government. therefore. excommunicating leaders. RA YAHS AND FRANKS lO deposed the patriarch in order to put the place up for sale again. and a Greek aristocracy rose at Constantinople which played for a century and a half a most prominent part in the affairs of the Ottoman Empire. and the clergy did not scruple to buy the influence ot officials and of women of the harem in the scramble for the In return for the privileges they enjoyed. they have never had sufficient political or administrative officials.443] TURKS. ability to man the state with the necessary For the first century and a half the tribute children them with civil officials. Christian renegades furnished the necessary material. as well as filled their armies. It is a peculiar anomaly that although the Turks have ruled the Balkans for over four hundred years. the nation. the clergy post. . indulged in by monks and the higher clergy of the Greek orthodox church. iii. v.' Greeks. Their rapacity and avarice equalled that of the Turkish governors. History of Greece. Amid this and corruption. Orthodox Church. the married parish priests of the rural districts remained comparatively carnival of venality pure. but they shared the burdens of their flocks and kept them true to the faith and to The Turk is no money-getter and the control of commerce and finance soon fell almost entirely into the hands of the . with which they could buy privileges from the Turk. became the willing instruments of Turkish tyranny. ' ' The district of Constantinople inhabited by the patriarch and wealthy Greeks. that the Greek merchant families of the Phanor * acquired in course of time great wealth. though in recent times they share it with Jews and Armenians. It was not remarkable. supplied After the decay of that system. see vol. and the people heard with as much dread district as of the of the visit of the Greek bishop to their presence of the Turkish pasha.
This official was assistant to the Capudan Pasha or High Admiral. buying from the Capudan Pasha all the offices in his gift and then selling them at a It is hardly an exaggeration to say that at the beprofit. So successfully did this office work. almost the entire control of foreign affairs and to a great extent of domestic affairs fell into their hands. Kuprili Mohammed appointed the Phanariot Panayoti as dragoman of the Porte. The dragoman of the fleet soon obtained almost complete power in the Aegean. that soon afterwards the position of dragoman of the fleet was created. who were adroit. and sufficiently servile. a position which soon became analogous to that of minister. With the decline of their military strength. but from the time of the greatest of Turkish grand skillful viziers. who not only controlled the navy. as well as that of the Constantinople Both had patriarchate. the high official class of Constantinople was recruited almost entirely from the Phanariots. Kuprili Mohammed (i 585-1661).20 being of THE EASTERN QUESTION thiit class. nor was it . such as interpreters and gobetweens. the Turks found it necessary to have more intimate and more constant relations with foreign powers. [. ginning of the nineteenth century the Balkans were governed as much by Greeks as by Turks. but practically governed the Archipelago. was broken by the Greek Revolution.^^ But from the middle of the seventeenth century. It never became a province of the Turkish Empire. What is now Roumania was not in the path of the warfare which the Turks constantly waged with Hungary and Venice. while one of the first desires of the new Greek state was the establish- ment of a national church. The influence of the Phanariot aristocracy. but as they refused to learn either foreign languages or foreign ways they fell to employing the Phanariots. in the beginning opposed the movement as destructive to their selfish interests and their influence . and after the revolution the Porte became suspicious of Christian officials. At first the latter occupied only the humbler positions.
. disappeared from history. The Roumanian Boyards. in the early of the sixteenth century.' The Roumanians Porte. The lot of the Slavonic inhabitants of the Ottoman Empire was for four hundred years indeed pitiable. No Turks were to be admitted into the two principalities. the hospodars were found aiding the Russians. and from that time until 1 821. the first capital of the Turks. RA YAHS AND FRANKS 21 influenced by the Turks. in working out independence for the country. and they were freely to elect their hospodars or governors. which succeeded finally. were usually Phanariot Greeks. from the » De Testa. the beginning of the Greek Revolution. and although never Mohammedans. as we shall see. The result was that in time the Porte appointed and main- tained the hospodars. are the only people of the Balkans who have an aristocracy of birth. Revolution. Turkish dislike to hereditary rank having destroyed it among the Greeks and Slavs. they were appointed directly by the Sultan. but were to have the exclusive management of their own affairs. 283. the Porte appointed natives to the position. and they exercised their powers of office chiefly for the ends of personal gain. usually giving the office to the highest bidder among the Boyards. and in the contest for the office of hospodar some of them did not hesitate to invoke Turkish influence and favor. Bulgaria. They bought their privileges from the Porte. and the Bulgarians entirely. On the contrary. This system ended in 171 1. lying helpless and hopeless immediately behind Adrianople.445 J TURKS. however. p. v. and of filling all offices After the Greek in church and state with their own class. vol. could not brook the rule of any one of their own families. an agreement was made between part the two principaHties of which it is now composed and the much by which the former were to become a vassal state of Turkey and pay an annual tribute. Recueil des Traitks de la Porte Oiiomane. The Servians to a great extent. In the war of that year with Peter the Great. and a national party arose antagonistic to both Greek and Turk.
iii.. and the Albanians.22 THE EASTERN QUESTION [446 itself to oblivion and oppression. and their intercourse was determined entirely by exigencies. The Montenegrins were never conquered. Indeed it was not until 1856 that by the treaty of Paris the Ottoman Empire international law between was formally admitted to the benefits of the European system. the house of Islam. the house of The Koran. civil divides the earth into two parts Dar-ulecclesiastical. if not for more questionable purposes. The Phanariot clergy sent from Constantinople wrung from the people as much money as possible for Hellenic schools and institutions at Constantinople. Islam. farthest removed from the central government. so long as its existence was active. Albanians. possessed little influence the Phanariots endeavored in every Hellenize. The only relation the former can have with the latter is the Djihad. and Dar-ul-Harb. Only the Montenegrins and . priests. . e. The Servians. Such a relation. in Turkey is the source of all law. History of Servian chap. i. Educated Bulgarians until within almost a generation called themselves Greeks and we shall see with what difficulty those nations recovered their lost independence and their national churches. But the necessities of commerce and afterwards military weak* Ranke. that of Turkish pashas and Greek priests. among way to whom ignorant. of the Christian population in the Balkans. were able to maintain themselves against Turk and Phanariot. for their fidelity to the Christian faith they suffered four centuries of a twofold tyranny. in their mountain fortresses. proved so difficult and costly to subdue that the Turks were glad to make terms with them. prevented the maintenance of any Turks and Franks. which and : the enemy. which could not control the local officials. or Holy War. granting practical independence. were for a large part of the period a prey to the organized brigandage of Janissary beginning resigned rebels/ The and as a reward national churches of both nations were destroyed. The native Slavonic who were poor and the people.
viz. which to a great extent embodied the previous customary laws with regard to Franks. tion of his consul. his criminal jurisdiction over his fellow country* duty to preserve law and order in the com- munity of which he is the judicial and administrative head. to some extent It is men. the Sultan was the Lord of the world. . and (2) the ordinary private individuals. ordinarily belong international instruments. having no equal with whom he could conclude a The by which privileges were granted to the inferior infidel nations. or Christian foreigners. treaty.. His person and house are inviolable. The Franks. and from them has arisen that peculiar condition of things by which the residents of foreign nationality form separate communities within the Turkish dominions. the consulate is the seat of government on a small scale for all persons under its flag. without requiring any reciprocal obligations. and his privileges extend to his family and suite. are divided into two classes: (i) Those possessing official privileges. according to the Sheri or ecclesiastical law. RA YAHS AND FRANKS 23 ness constrained the Turks to enter into peaceful international relations with the Christian states of Europe. an ordinary foreigner in the Levant also He is subject in civil enjoys the privileges of exterritoriality.447] TURKS. A consul in the Turkish dominions practically enjoys the privileges which in the case of an ambassador are comprehended under the term exterritoriality. But he also has powers which do not He exercises civil and to an ambassador. only truces. Besides. could be made with infidels. to a great extent. in criminal matters only to the jurisdicand. not treaties. he is not subject to the local law. in a word. according to Mohammedan ideas. . and until 1856 the international law governing their relations with foreign states was founded on treaties called capitulations. were therefore called capitulations. To a great extent. ministers and consuls. His legal domicil is in his own country . The capitulations are actual treaties but. civil or criminal he pays no personal taxes or custom duties.
It is curious that so many ti^c privilege obtained by France to safeguard the of the English writers on the Eastern Question refer Holy Places to the capitulaticms . who attempt at times to take advantage of them. no Turkish official being permitted to except with the consul's permission. Ottoman Capitulations. the case it His house is tiie decided not in the local tribunals. Charri^re. There was granted capitulations of 1604 and by later ones. 285 . were not to be annoyed in the exercise of These privileges were so construed by the their functions. 15 . the French capitulations of that year were more important.24 THE EASTERN QUESTION [4^3 enter is inviolable. p. French as to include the right of protection of ia the East. le i. however. These are extensive privileges and they some- times give rise to conflict with the local authorities. His real property. the Holy Places in Paleswere to be safeguarded by her religious functionaries. Diplotnatie p. Nigotiations de la France dans Frangaise^ vol. and present status of the Turkish capitulations. p. the foreign consuls and the privileges of foreign residents but a great extension of privileges to France was granted by the . an influence unequaled by that of any other The capitulations of 1535 confirmed the powers of nation. because of the greater extent of the privileges which they conferred and because they served as a model for those afterwards granted to other countries. but in the consular court of defendant. in European history. to her citizens freedom of worship . 366. If he engages in litigation with a foreigner of a different nationality. Recueil des Traitis de la Porte Ottomane. is subject to the law of the land. of whatever nation. De ' Testa. An excellent account of the origin. vol.3 all Catholics * Van Dyck. they mark the beginning of that great influence which France has since almost continuously enjoyed. especially as they are much envied by the native rayahs. i. Flassan. de- velopment. Levant^ vol. i. tine .' Although the Porte granted capitulations to the Genoese. who were not to be disturbed Frankish priests and dependents. Venetians and Pisans before 1535.* Mioreover.
pilgrims in the harbors. if not the cause. French ships secured freedom of traffic in all Ottoman seas. The capitulations of 1535 were inspired by mutual considerations of expediency and policy. RA VANS AND FRANKS 2$ The commercial privileges granted were also large. Her flag was seen everywhere in the Levant. firman of 1528. and her ambassador was ever ready to maintain the The French capitulations rights of the Giaour at the capital. The power of the House of Hapsburg in Spain. of 1535. Tableau Giniral de t Empire Ottomane. and in 1740 the special privileges granted to France were solemnly confirmed and we shall see that it was a violation of these . and the friendship between the two countries was constant. of the French participation in the Crimean War. strained by Louis XIV and Napoleon I. unless they sailed under the French flag. the navigation of which was also forbidden to the ships of other states with which the Porte had no friendly treaties. the advantage thus obtained by France in the East is obvious. Germany. though severely . on the monasteries in the journeyed under her protection to the Holy Places. It is that in a short time the relations between the worthy of note Porte and Nor does the There is not a word in them about those places. The source of the error is probably D'Ohsson. As Venice was the only other state that had a commercial treaty with the Porte in the six- teenth century. wherein Solyman granted to the French in Egypt the privileges enjoyed there before its conquest by the Ottomans. Italy and the Netherlands menaced the very existence of France. The House of Hapsburg was also the chief enemy of the Ottoman Empire and the object of the French alliance with the Mohammedan Turk for more than two hundred years was the abasement of the House of Austria.449] TURKS. The first mention of them that I can find is in the capitulations of 1604. It was to France that the Porte almost invariably turned for advice when in trouble. privileges in the nineteenth century that was the occasion. . all were frequently violated but were always renewed. on the shipping interior. contain any reference to the Holy Places.
e. . in the effective use of money.26 THE EASTERN QUESTION \_AS^ was France became so cordial that the King of France. for the foreign ambassador was often treated with contempt and insult. The conduct of negotiations with the Porte required great skill in diplomacy and even greater skill In the nineteenth century. This title was reserved by the Moslems for the Sultan as being without equal on earth. however. Until the latter part of the eighteenth century the Porte never maintained permanent embassies at the various Euro- pean although other states had such embassies at Constantinople. i. a great change took place in the diplomatic intercourse between the Porte and other powers. Henry IV. and even thrown into the prison of the Seven Towers. and it was with extreme reluctance in the nineteenth century that they gradually extended it to some of the other rulers of the great states of Europe. especially on the outbreak of a war between his country and Turkey.^ Great Ruler or Emperor. sirable post. The Ottoman capital indeed was not a decapitals. referred to in 1604 as Padishah.
He The power was the last of the great Sultans who personally conducted the government and led the armies in the field. The greatest blow to his military power was the revolution in the constitution of the Janissaries. At first they were permitted to marry. habits of luxury became general among the official class. began to decay. lost his old discipline and refused to adopt that of Europe. Monarchs ceased to rely on feudal levies and maintained armies of trained soldiers. While the Turk was thus declining in power. furnished with the new weapons of warfare. After him the administration of government fell into the hands of the grand viziers. his Christian enemies were growing In the seventeenth century feudalism in Europe stronger. and the old martial spirit decayed. The Christian rayahs were no longer depleted of their best and strongest.15 66). and Thus the institution of finally to allow Turks to serve in it. came a corresponding in the wages 27 . then to introduce their children into the corps. the tribute children gradually died out. while the Porte lost its most efficient the currency. on the other hand. and except for intermittent Solyman revivals of energy. With the great depreciation of which took place in the seventeenth and fall eighteenth centuries. the last instance of its enforcement being in 1676. With the completion of the conquest. the decline after his death was steady. 451] weapon. succumbing to the development of the national state. and the Sultans devoted themselves chiefly to the pleasures of the harem.CHAPTER II THE TREATY OF KAINARDJI of the Turks reached its zenith in the reign of the Great (1520. The Turk.
They remained most turbulent part of the population. roL p.* France by no means broke with her allies of the Barrier. Austria. and did not unite against the common enemy. p. i. the service. fomenting rebellion. It was a fortunate thing for the Ottoman Empire that the Christian states devoted themselves during the first half of the seventeenth century to their religious wars. finding she from Prussia than from France.. the union of Sweden. Austria. part 2. France usually being able to obtain the support of one of her allies in her contests with But with the growth of Russia came a change. 1726. and then by the This situation continued with but few changes until what is known in diplomatic history as the Overthrow of the Alliances in 1756. viz. 131. Codex Juris Gentium. had more to Sweden. France erected what has been known in French diplomacy as the Barrier of the East. and as naturally first allied herself with the enemy of the Barrier. Poland and Turkey with France against the house of Austria. e. Corps Diplomatique. 141. that her chief enemy was not Austria but England. caused fear by the rise of Prussia. conceiving renounced their hereditary enmity in 1756 and became allies.. of continental Europe during the latter half and the former half of the eighteenth was determined by the rivalry of the Houses of Hapsof the seventeenth century The diplomacy burg and Bourbon. opposed to all reform.' tacitly. Finding herself endangered by the union of Spain and Austria. vol. more dangerous to the Turkish than to any other government.28 THE EASTERN QUESTION [452 of the Janissaries. naturally desirous of expanding to the south came into conflict with the Barrier. Russia. and France. . iii. vii. Austria. at formal compact of August 6. to who were soon for allowed to enter trades and supply at substitutes foreign chiefly Constantinople. « Wcnck. the Barrier of the East proved very efficacious. Poland and Turkey. » Dumont. Until the reign of Peter the Great. On the contrary she supported them uniformly but as their existence was no longer indis. and west.
founded on an alliance between Russia. Catherine II. a plan of a quadruple alliance of Russia. and in whom wild ambitions were united with mean abilities. however. was utterly defeated before Vienna by John Sobieski. especially in Poland. Von Hammer. Once more the quarrels of the Christian states saved the Ottoman Louis XIV. Geschickte des Ostnanischen Retches. The bigotry of the Hapsburg emperor. caused the Hungarian rebellion of 1682. France and Spain against Great Britain and Prussia was under discussion. Leopold I. was exhausted by his struggle * tnries. see Yox a complete view of the diplomacy of the seventeenth and eighteenth cen.' We must now trace the influence of first Austria and then France . The grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire at that time was Kara Mustapha. who had aided the Hungarian rebels and Porte. office to the sought to take advantage of the Hungarian rebellion. book 48. Austria. but each year saw their frontiers receding towards Constantinople. formed the System of the North. had inspired the Ottoman policy. The System of the North lasted until the American Revolution.453] THE TREATY OF KAINARDJI 29 pensable against Austria. tion these diplomatic changes on the fortunes of Turkey. " Recueil des Instructions donnles aux Ambassadeurs it Ministres de to Francey^ especially the volumes relating ' Russia and Austria. she supported them to maintain the equilibrium of the East. Prussia and England. and the abuse of power by England on the seas caused Catherine to approach and when the French Revolubroke out. not only to conquer that part of Hungary which still remained to the He House own come at Vienna. King of Poland. .who owed his circumstance that he was son-in-law to the Sultan. As a counterpoise to the union of the houses of Hapsburg and Bourbon. when the exorbitant pretensions of Prussia. and the result of the defeat was the immediate declaration of war against Turkey by Russia and Venice. who had to the rescue of Austria. For seventeen years the Turks attempted to de- fend themselves against these combined attacks. but to set up a Turkish pashalik of his His army.* of Austria.
Venice. by the Dutch amprevent the Porte Louis used strenuous efforts to from making peace. impaired French prestige at where English influence now stood high. basis. He foresaw the inevitable struggle over the Spanish succession. and the Porte had to give way. Austria obtained practically all of Hungary and Transylvania. e. Poland secured Podalia and the Ukraine. though the treaty of Carlowitz' was signed January 26. vii. 1699. He entreated the Emperor to keep up the struggle.. Corps Diplomatique^ vol. and at nople. but Austria insisted. the instance of William he was seconded bassador. however. part 2.30 THE EASTERN QUESTION [454 against half of Europe. and who hoped to gain still more by continuing the war. But Louis* reverses had. on that The Ottoman Empire lost many of its fairest provinces. All the contestants were anxious for peace except Peter the Great. . France.. were in vain and alcertain deviations were made from the Uti Possidetis. and exhorting it to continue the struggle until France should be ready for war.. i. p. that each power should keep the beginning of nego- in its possession at the the loss The Porte protested against this. on the Danube. on the basis of the Uti Possidetis. William III. the that siderations. . endeavored to bring about peace between Austria and the Porte. whose armies had conquered Azof. the Porte listened to the suggestions of England. had the general European situation permitted it. as it would involve of some of its finest territories. and was compelled to sign the treaty of Ryswick in 1697. assuring it that the peace of Ryswick was but a temporary truce. territory which was tiations. of England. 448. and wished the entire strength of Austria to be exerted against Lord Paget. and Constantinople. Negotiations were opened at Carlowitz. him 1 Dumont. warning England and Holland were actuated by selfish conHis entreaties. for the moment. the English ambassador at Constantioffered the mediation of England to the Porte. This would have enabled the Austrians to turn their entire forces against the Turks. the soul of the alliance against Louis XIV.
but they watched with grave anxiety the growth of the Russian fleet in the Sea of Azof. found refuge in Turkish territory. But it is not the loss of territory. and after Pultowa (1709) the Swedish king. to which all ambassadors at Constantinople re- by the Porte.'s agent at Constantinople. The Turks were not desirous of war. menaced so long on the south. And for the first time Russia obtained a foothold near the Black Sea. lost its military prestige. Both these countries feared the growth of the Musand in the diplomacy of the eighteenth century we find Sweden and Turkey working together. had been urging covite power. Succession. He was now conjunction strongly seconded by Poniatowsky. A diplomatic struggle then began in From the outbreak of the war of the Spanish Constantinople.455] THE TREATY OF KAINARDJI 31 Morea .. sank into a position almost devoid of diplomatic influence. till then so dreaded by Christendom. Azof. Moreover. however great. the English and Dutch its fortunes former enemies in ambassadors. introduction. . Russia. the French ambassador. the Porte to retrieve by declaring war against its with France. Peter was eventually successful. the frequent violations of Turkish territory by sorted. Peter the Great was determined that his dominions should reach the sea both on the west and the south. Moreover. History of the Eighteenth Century^ vol. In his contest with the Swedes. and the erection of strong fortresses on the Russian southern border. found herself consolidated and with a splendid military frontier. which makes the treaty of Carlowitz so important in in European history.' Austria. all payments of tribute by the Christian powers to the Porte were abolished. were for a number of years able by persuasion and by bribery. Feriol. Sutton and Collyer. but the the relative positions of the parties. Charles XII. but to accomplish this purpose he must come into conflict with Sweden and Turkey. The Ottoman change Empire. iii. and became a political machine which could be used by the European powers in future to serve their own selfish ends. to prevent hostile action 1 Schlosser. Charles XII.
32 THE EASTERN QUESTION [455 the Russians caused the greatest indignation at Constantinople. Dumont. chap. 171 1. hospodar of Moldavia. p. whereby he should rise in favor of Peter on the approach of the Russian army. to demolish his up fortresses. for although the war of the Spanish Succession was then ended. but he led an army in The Russians in this war person towards the Danube. he was surrounded by the Turkish army and compelled to agree to the humiliating turn Moldavia was to be Peace of the all Pruth. to engage to abstain from interference in the affairs of Poland. and the Porte waited for a favorable opportunity to retake it. and Peter was involved in war with the Swedes. and to forego the privilege of keeping an ambassador To retrieve the disgrace of the Peace of at Constantinople. 17 10. Peter the Greats vol. the sovereignty to remain with Cantemir and his heirs. Corps Diplomatique.'* By this treaty Peter was obliged to give he had gained by the former war. the practice. Pruth became for the next century one of the chief ends of the Russian diplomacy. inflamed by French and Swedish intrigues. Repeated collisions between Turkish and Venetian galleys furnished the Porte ^Schuyler. Ixiii. ' ii. being 28. of rousing the subject Christian peoples. led the Porte finally to declare war against Russia Peter was taken at a disadvantage. voK part i. which was to become so prominent a adopted at November part of their policy with reference to Turkey. In re- made an independent state under Russian protection. and in June. Nothing in the treaty of Carlowitz so hurt the pride of the Turks as the cession of the Morea to feeble Venice. but his expectations were disappointed. and this feeling. powers were apprehensive of further trouble from Spain. war with the Swedes in the north. . viii. That opportunity apparently presented itself in 17 14.' Peter greatly relied on the assistance which he was to receive from the Moldavians. 275. great disThe western cord prevailed among the states of Europe. and an agreement was made with Cantemir.
into the Schlosser. ix. and Belgrade and other important towns in Servia. but news arrived that Alberoni had landed his Spaniards in Sardinia. Turks would not only afford an opportunity for territorial aggrandizement. as it was suspected and it to that Alberoni keep the army in a state of would attempt to recover the possessions lost by Spain to Austria by the Treaty of Utrecht' For these reasons the Emperor. The Turk was forever removed from Hungary. and that another European war was tion. pages 250 et seq. . Austria followed her usual policy of caring only for her own territorial interests. 73. ending the war by the capture of Belgrade. 13. on the basis of the Uti Possidetis. The ^ treaty of Passarowitz was the most glorious ever signed by Austria with Turkey. Recueil des Traitis de la Porte Ottomane^ vol. decided to aid the Venetians. formed Eugene was everywhere successful against the Turks. ' De Testa. and on April with them an offensive and defensive alliance. for whom she had professedly entered iii.. p. History of the Eighteenth Century ^ vol. The Porte had always found it easy to incite revolt against the Emperor among the Hungarians. Charles VI. but they were forced to surrender to Austria Little Wallachia.457] THE TREATY OF KAINARDJI 33 with a pretext. the influence of Prince Eugene was then paramount at Vienna. He would fain have followed up these successes. 1716. and he maintained that a war with the Austria. the comparatively lenient rule of the Porte to the bigoted tyranny of many of the Hapsburgs. Not only did the Turks lose the Banat of Temesvar. and the latter often preferred imminent. which had hitherto been the cause of most of the wars between Austria and Turkey. and 1 left Venice. Their rapid success alarmed Moreover. but would enable the army to be kept intact without arousing the suspicions of the other Christian powers. 171 8. Prince England and Holland again offered their mediaand negotiations were opened at Passarowitz on the Danube. July. was deemed necessary readiness. and by the end of 171 5 the Turks had reconquered the whole of the Morea. their last possession in Hungary.
for the same reason . particularly Frederick and Catherine. and to the jealousy of Austria and Russia over the possession of the Danubian provinces. ' The right of an individual member of the Diet to prevent legislation by his single vote. iii. 486. p.^ made Poland an elective kingship and its easy prey to her covetous neighbors. that they upheld the anarchic constitution of Poland and it was under the oligarchic regime that Sweden lost all her Baltic possessions except Finland to Russia.' for fifty years the resulting dissensions left Sweden enfeebled and a prey to her neighbors.34 war. Poland and Turkey. The oligarchic party was supported by Prussia and Russia. 17 18. viz. and to Prussia most of her German possessions.. article secret. * Wenck.. to her fate. France. 149. Sweden. The anarchic condition in which the Polish nobility consented to keep their country. obtained by treaty with the Poles the right to intervene to maintain their ruinous constitution. After the death of Charles XII. .3 That Turkey was enabled to survive the eighteenth century." December 26th. in the nineteenth against Russia alone. supplement 2. as stated above. ing its by maintain- oligarchic institutions. p. part 2. in During the eighteenth century. The attitudes of the various European states towards the threatened countries were interesting. communement nomm6 la souverainet6. in 17 18. with a view to the ultimate dismemberment of the country. especially under Frederick and the Great and Catherine II. THE EASTERN QUESTION The [458 Porte had no longer to fear Venice or Poland in the eighteenth century its wars were carried on against Austria and Russia. Royaume de Suede par la reine Ulrique Eieonore avec declaration expresse qu'elle renonce AU pouvoir absolu. was probably due to the fact that the attention of her ill-wishers was so constantly diverted to Swe- den and Poland. the oligarchic party succeeded in gaining control of the government in Sweden. • Convocation des Etats du ^ Dumont. its liberum veto. . who.. Codex Juris Gentium^ vol. three European states were danger of dismemberment.
and neither England nor Holland wished to lose so good a customer as the Turk. i. and her influence was thrown constantly in favor of Turkey as against her enemies. therefore. made 1739. 504. So that.' It between Turkey and Sweden Wenck. but grew cautious and anxious when Russia became The three threatened states. their danger. Codex Juris Gentium^ Ibid.y vol. or to see a Russian commerce grow up in The course of Austria and Prussia was governed the Levant. she had supported been the ally of the Ottoman Porte. Prussia. Poland and Sweden. was a war with vol. And French statesmen always believed the preservation of Poland to be necessary to the balance of power in the East. and she also regarded the Turkish dominions as a legitimate field of exploitation. of Poland would affect those interests but would please Russia. under Frederick the Great. the Swedish court was in the pay of the French. 1 saw the need of cooperation against in i. Not being able to profit by the dismemberment of Turkey. Austria profited largely by the Polish dismemberment. The dismemberment little. The attitude of England towards the three states was dictated by her opposition to France and her commercial interests. although England was friendly to Russia during the eighteenth century. p. and she gained her object by v/ar and contrivat the expense of Austria. her competitor. .459] THE TREATY OF KAINARDJI all three. ^5 Since the capitulations of 1535. their coni- A treaty of alliance was. Frederick was interested in her fate only to the extent of using her to create dissension between Russia and Austria. ' p. desire for territorial aggrandizement. even at one time (1742) having a treaty of alliance with her. was bent upon extending especially her boundaries in whatever way and at whatsoever cost might entirely by the ance and be necessary.' her influence was thrown at times in favor of Sweden. 645. During the greater part of the eighteenth century. perceiving mon enemy— Russia. whereas the dismemberment of the other two states would injure English interests considerably.
but for Russian domination. war with Moreover. with whom by the Peace of Passarowitz they were bound to maintain a twenty-five years' truce. began the war without a declaration. chap. filment of this engagement. But by the Treaty of Vienna of 1726.^ between Austria and Russia. and the Turks were driven to accept the proffered mediation of Austria. . An excuse was easily found for beginning hostilities. of the eighteenth century was undoubtedly selfish diplomacy and corrupt. and besides had given offense to Russia by calling her attention to that provision of the Peace of the Pruth by which she had agreed not to interfere in Poland. when Gustavus III. but with a splendid army of veterans under an able enemies. p. overthrew the ohgarchy and once more restored Sweden to strength/ Poland might have allied herself with Turkey in The the eighteenth century. Marshal Miinnich was altogether successful. 131. as Catherine wished to do in 1772. ' vol. but it was the diplomacy of the eighteenth century which prevented the dismemberment of Turkey. Dumont. part 2. Rambaud. and the time was deemed expedient to retrieve the disgrace of the Peace of the Pruth. viii. Histoire de la Russu. since the Turks never were able to restrain the Tartars of the Crimea The Russians and Kuban from committing depredations. it was agreed that each power should help the other with thirty thousand men in case either should be at war with a third power. commander. and she was successful In 1733 she found herself at peace with her against both. The decade after the Treaty of Passarowitz saw Russia at war with both Sweden and Poland. Marshal Miinnich. the Turks had greatly weakened themselves in a Persia. It was a war with Turkey which prevented Russia from interfering in Sweden. Russia now demanded the fulThe Austrian government long fulfil debated whether * it should merely the terms of the treaty. xxx.36 THE EASTERN QUESTION [460 Sweden which prevented Russia from taking part against Turkey in the conflict which ended at Passarowitz.
p. to which he had been appointed by Anne of Russia. the finances were deplorably confused . Austria kept up the of mediation between Russia and Turkey at the conpretense ference of Nimiroff.3 French diplomacy was never more skillful than in the months . was infirm and was a victim of intrigues . It roused Sweden to preparations for war against Russia. as well as by the Emperor. Austria notified the Turks that she would require as the price of peace the cession of Moldavia and Wallachia. infirm Austrians showed an intense avidity for peace. The Emperor. preceding the signing of the Treaty of Belgrade. defeated and the Emperor requested Villeneuve. the French Ambassador at Constantinople. v. thereby compelling Russia to come to terms with the Turks. and the council was The result was that the Austrians were everywhere divided. who hated each other and were both incompetent.'* The conference then came to an end and hostilities were renewed. Flassan. The generals in the field. But the conditions under which Austria went to war in 1737 were very different from those of 17 16. whereby the two states agreed to carry on the war according to a stipulated plan and not to make peace or take advantage of the situation of the Turks to During these negotiations. to open negotiations for peace. She no longer had a Prince Eugene to command her armies. to magnify the preparations and strength of the i. and used the time thus gained to put her separately. the army was in a wretched condition. Charles VI. and a new treaty of alliance was made with Russia in January. Villeneuve used his position as mediator. Finally. The . 1737. p. 69.^ army in readiness. showed an equally great desire to end the war. Charles VI. Martens. 102. and Maria Theresa and her husband were anxious to have the war off their hands in case of his demise.46 1 ] THE TREA TV OF KAINARDJI 37 make war them and seize their territory. to sow dissensions between the * " ' allies. Wallis and Neipperg. The war party preupon vailed. vol. Recueil des Traitis conclus par la Russie. Diplomatie Frangaise^ vol. and caused the Poles to renew their struggle. was very and might die at any time.
gave him her support.. which gave rise to the struggle for the Polish succession. 178 et seq. but he was able to retain his throne only by the aid of Russian bayonets. Little Wallachia and the places.38 Turks. See also the French guarantee Testa's Recueil des Traitis de la Porte Ottomaney vol. except a slight increase of territory in the Ukraine. and peace. her old lovers. and the next year there occurred an event which was specially fraught with misfortune to Turkey. during the Seven Years' War. THE EASTERN QUESTION finally. Immediately on the demise of Augustus III. to [462 obtain for the latter a most favorable Belgrade. i.. p. In 1762 the greatest enemy that the Porte has ever known. ascended the Russian throne. The Russians gained nothing by their great victories. . At the outbreak of the war France urged the Porte to join the allies in the spoliation of the Austrian dominions. France put forward another Saxon prince as her candidate for the Polish throne. one of elected Stanislaus. including treaty By the of Belgrade. viz. Though French influence was never so high at Constantinople as after 1740. the Ottoman Porte could not be tempted to engage in the war of the Austrian Succession. 326. September 12. whose traditional attitude toward France had been reversed by Kaunitz by the treaty of 1756. Codex Juris Gentium^ in De vol. although the rapacity of the provincial pashas and the laxness which everywhere prevailed were preparing the way for the great fall which was soon to take place. pp. Catherine II. which she had obtained in Servia and in Bosnia. Turkey remained at peace externally. Similarly. 1739/ Austria relinquished nearly all her acquisitions made during the previous war. King of Poland. the Polish Confederates. and she was supported by Frederick the Great. the basis of their settlement being practically the status quo ante bellum. of Saxony. but the Sultan refused to do so and offered his mediation to the Christian powers. i. and Austria. as 1 Wenck. Under the auspices of the Russian army the Polish diet Catherine put forth Stanislaus Poniatowski. the death of Augustus III.
The Russians retaliated and when General Weissman pursued the Poles across the Turkish border and laid the town of Balta in ashes. might have been averted. who had much influence with the party. is No decree emanating of the Mufti. p. as she had just emerged from the humiliating Seven Years' War and was menaced by the attitude of England. and to send to the Crimea Baron de la Totte. the indignation of the Turks became violent and the Sheikh-ul-Islam granted the necessary Fetva to commence war. ^ Memoire de M. sur la Porte Ottomane. a body both religious is at the same time civil and ecclesiastical.463] those THE TREATY OF KAINARDJI who opposed Russian ^9 intervention were called. The able ambassador of France at Constantinople at this time was the Count de Vergennes. artillery. when defeated on their own territory. iii. instructed of Turkey. a kind of Bulj This was once formidable. He did not hesitate to lay before the court of Versailles the wretchedly disorganized condition Poles. however. vol. The Confederate Poles.. who favored Russia. the French minister. ity. while giving secret assistance to the Confederates.^ but Choiseul. from the sovereign valid without the Fetva. ' The Sheikh ul-Islam.'' But the Turks were wholly unprepared. was the result of the inferior . and after the manner of the Tartars made predatory excursions therefrom. Segur's Politique^ vol.having taken up arms against him. but has become a mere judicial formal- Schlosser. took refuge in Turkey. began the series of intrigues at Constantinople which finally terminated in the war of 1768-1774. without money. The peace . But Choiseul. History says: "The delay in granting the Fetva in this case size of Russian as against French bribes. to assure the Porte of the neutrality of Austria. fortifications or discipline. bent on a diversion in favor of the Vergennes to redouble his efforts. or Mufti. was in power at and had the Russians acted prudently war Constantinople. so full of disaster to Turkey." of Europe in the Eighteenth Century. learned in the law. which the head of the Ulema. 404. France dared not openly support her candidate. de Vergennes pp. and the six weeks which elapsed before they actively began hostilities were used Tartars there. is and judicial. \\^-\ ^2 passim. iv.
lest the balance of power might be destroyed. The war was one-sided. History of the House of Austria ^ chap. destroyed the Turkish fleet at Tchesme and incited an insurrection in Greece. The jealousies of the crick.40 THE EASTERN QUESTION [464 by federate strongholds. As they could not expand separately. forbade that any cially of them should expand unless the others should be indemni- European fied. but he knew that he could not accomplish it without the concurrence of Austria and Russia. It was at the Neustadt meeting that Frederick suggested to Kaunitz the dismemberment of Poland and the plan of compelling Russia to seek indemnity in Poland instead of retaining Moldavia and Wallachia. And a large fleet. this situation explains the various treaties of alliance and par^ tition of that century. to II. cxix. * Coxe. the Russians in reducing Cracow. entered the Aegean. they must expand together and . grow anxious states during the eighteenth century. and the conference broke up with the understanding that Frederick was to use his good offices with Catherine. The rapid success of the Russians along the Danube roused the court of Austria and even caused Russia's ally. and Kaunitz pressed the King of Prussia to join Austria in opposing Russian ambition by force of arms if necessary. Russia and Prussia. . and Frederick met in conference at Neustadt in Joseph Moravia in 1770. the last of the Conand thenceforward Turkey had to face the Russians unaided. manned and guided by English sailors and officers. Fredat the extension of Muscovite power. which divided his dominions. Wallachia and the Crimea. Frederick had long been meditating the annexation of Polish Prussia. though nominally under the command of Gregory Orloff. and espethose of Austria. By the end of 1769 the Russians* were in control of Moldavia. While the conference was in session messengers arrived from Constantinople begging the two monarchs to mediate between Russia and Turkey.
465] THE TREATY OF KAINARDJI 41 Austria never had a more able or more devoted servant than Count. by which they 1 According to Martens. Murray. to free Austrian commerce from all taxes and to pay Austria an annual subsidy of ten thousand florins in four installments. but that in order to maintain the bal- ance of power in eastern Europe it would be necessary for both Austria and Prussia to enlarge their boundaries. the first of which was his conversations with Frederick of the previous . and he was not likely to leave anything undone that would redound to the glory of the House of Hapsburg. the English ambassador at Constantinople. to St. By this time Frederick had matured his plan for Polish dismemberment. a defensive and offensive alliance was made' whereby. The plan was not at all relished by Count Panin and the Russian court. Petersburg. the treaty was not . 177 1. actually paid. afterwards Prince Kaunitz. in return for the restoration to the Porte of all the territory that had been conquered by Russia. pointed out that the indemnification which Catherine could justly claim for the expenses of the existing war might readily be obtained in Poland. Kaunitz accepted the overture in spite of summer and on July 6. Turkey was to cede Little Wallachia to Austria. vol. obtained a copy of the treaty. Petersburg to persuade Catharine to relinquish her designs on Turkey and seek compensation in Poland. and offered most advantageous terms. 134. vi. Prince Henry. they were averse to sharing with others what they desired to obtain for themselves alone. But Catherine was frightened at the Austro-Turkish alliance and proposed to Frederick a counter-alliance. for the simple reason that knowing their influence was supreme in Poland. and communicated it to Berlin and St. and assured CathaHe rine that France would certainly aid the latter country. ratified. and he sent his brother. Frederick enlarged upon the dangers to Russia of the alliance of the Porte with Austria. When therefore the Turks proposed to Austria in 1771 an alliance against Russia. p. Recueil des Principaux Traitis.
^ The three courts. 1772. Petersburg. of whom Frederick said that she was always weeping and always grabbing. vol. This alarmed Kaunitz. For a history of the Polish dismemberment see Von Hammer^ 61 and ^2 passim. he began to mobilize his troops.. p. July 25. Recueil des Traitis. 36. p. in negotiations at Fokschani and Having succeeded at St. who had left to her fate. and the most of 1772 was spent Bucharest.3 and refused to come to terms. vol. . came first to an agreement as to their shares of the spoil by the Turkey. xiv. who soon convinced Maria Theresa that there would be less effusion of blood in accepting territory in Poland than in fighting for it along the Danube. Early Treaty of Partition. \ Russia should have a permanent resident at Constantinople. * ' books Martens. where he encountered much difficulty. therefore. It required that the Crimea should be an independent Tartar state under the protection of Russia.42 THE EASTERN QUESTION [^55 should reciprocally guarantee their possessions and pledge themselves to assist each other against Austria in case of wan Frederick agreed to this proposal on the promise of Russia. refused to . anxious to settle the matter. should enjoy the free navigation of the Black Sea and the Archipelago that . and that the sovereign of Russia should receive the title of * Scholl. and that the two principal fortresses of delivered at the conference Kertsh and Yenikalie should remain in Russian hands that Russian ships. was once more in 1773 the Russian ultimatum was of Bucharest. . and thus avoid giving to Austria a cause for quarrel/ At the same time Catherine entered into an armistice with Turkey. 89. naval as well as merchant. who was scruples about the Polish spoliation. provided Prussia would remain neutral and Maria Theresa. ii. had Frederick. viii. promise neutrality on the contrary. set great store by the Turkish alliance. that she would relinquish Moldavia and Wallachia. Histoire des Traith de Paix^ vol. Frederick again turned Kaunitz to Vienna.
Suwarrow surrounded the Turks at Shumla. In the Egyp1 76 1 the treaty of commerce with Prussia was in that language. advised their acceptFrance also advised ance. Negotiations consequently were broken off and hostilities were resumed Padishah the Christian inhabitants of the early in 1773. Nor were the defeats. Their losses during the war had been tremendous it was evident that the Poles intended to rise against the Partition Treaty. though they denied a request for an armistice. 4^ and that Russia should have the right to protect Ottoman Empire who professed the Greek religion. but above all. the Sultan. When. the Russians. and an agreement With the Ulema they form a bulwark The Softas are the theological students. Martens. the impostor Pugatchefif.^ey'] THE TREATY OF KAINARDJI . p. the Turks to end the war. Russians less anxious. his councillors and his generals. The text of the ' treaty is in Italian.. But the Ulema and Softas ^ were obdurate. against ' all reforms or innovations. al- Though . at first successful. ' tian mixed judicial tribunals of to-day Italian is one of the official languages. ii. . ence took place at Kutchonc-Kainardji. vol. As late as Negotiations with the Ottoman Porte were frequently in Italian. in 1773. so weakened had Turkey become. who impersonated the murdered Peter III. 286. it being evident that she could not help them without incurring the hostility of most of Europe. 1774. Severe as these demands were. The negotiations were conducted with The basis of the peace was the Russian at ultimatum presented 1 Bucharest in 1772. the Turks soon met with repeated and again became anxious for peace. therefore. raised a formidable insurrection which spread desolation through southern and eastern Russia. in the tent of the Russian General.^ military celerity. urged the grand The confervizier to send plenipotentiaries to treat for peace. July 17. and the Sultan felt that to act contrary to their wishes would produce an insurrection and probably lead to his own deposition. and resulted in the famous compact known as the Treaty of Kainardji. Recueil des Traitis.
instead of Turkey. and the castle of Kilburn at aries of this bank of the Dneiper. to annihilate treaty were far-reaching. civil election of the said Khan. or internal affairs of the said state.44 was reached THE EASTERN QUESTION . require. as far as the frontier of Poland. political.^ Moldavia. the anniversary of the peace of the Pruth. and leave in an treaties . 2 all Turkish question of the nineteenth century dates the Russian claims being founded upon it and it. the ministers of the imperial court of Russia resident at Constantinople may remonstrate in their favor. Russia retained for herself the fortresses of Kertsch and Yenikalie in the Crimea. between the rivers Berda and Dneiper. the city of Azof and its district." But within the bound- newly organized Tartar state. almost every treaty thereafter confirming All this was merely a step in the direction of incorporation into Russia. with a view to vaunt their triumph. and that Neither the court of Russia nor the man Ottoman and shall interfere under any pretext whatever with the in the domestic. ." 3 very A important clause of the treaty (article 7) respecting the Christian subjects of the Sultan declared: "The sublime Porte 1 It is for this reason that the from the Treaty of Kainardji. with a district along the left . and conventions heretofore and never to put forward ^ The Otto- Porte agreed that the Tartars of the Crimea. made between the two states any claim grounded upon the said conventions." . Wallachia and Bessarabia were " given back to the Ottoman Porte on condition of a grant of an amnesty for all offenses during the war free exercise of the Christian religion and permission from the Porte that according as the circumstances of those two principalities may the mouth of the Dneiper. and also the inhabitants of territories lying between the Bug and Dniester. The advan- tages which Russia gained " eternal oblivion all the by the The two empires have agreed . delayed the signature four days till July 2 1st. should form an inde" pendent state. Kuban and adjacent regions. [468 in seven hours but the Russians. All of which would tend to cause the Christian population of these territories 3 to look to Russia in the future as their sovereign.
as well as the learned of Europe." to the merchant ships of both The straits parties. and it also allows the imperial court of Russia to make upon all occasions representations as well in favor of the new church at Constantinople. founded their claim to the general protection of all the inhabitants of the Ottoman Empire who were members of the Orthodox Church. who were then the most favored nation. were to be opened and Russian merchant- men were to be treated in the same way as the French. . was that the Ottoman Empire had received a blow from which it would never be able to reEven many French statesmen believed that it would cover. advantage of position. and that it behooved France to consider its early demise. minister at Constantinople. The among general opinion in the European chancelleries. and to give the Russian sovereign " the title of Padishah. which had hitherto been refused. from coercion and outrage." ^ The words referred to in the fourteenth article were " After the manner of the other powers permission is given to the high : court of Russia in addition to the chapel built in the minister's residence. in 1853. and gradually supplanted France in the exercise of special privileges of protec1 It is upon this clause that Russia. race and religion. The treaty gave a Russia had the great blow to French prestige in the East. which shall always be under the protection of the ministers of that empire and secure called Bey Oglu.469] THE TREATY OF KAINARDJI 45 promises to protect constantly the Christian religion and its churches. Russia also obtained the right to have resident consuls in all parts of the Turkish EmTurkey agreed to permit the residence of a Russian pire. and prepare to share in its effects. of which mention will be made in article 14." Not a word was said about Poland. although the Russian treatment of Poland had been one of the causes of the war. be impossible for France to support the Ottoman Empire any longer. in the street a public church in which the Christians may worship according to the Greek ritual. to erect in one of the quarters of Galata. as on behalf of its officiating ministers.
. worth of Catherine 11. 173.auses the friction between Austro -Hungary and Roumania to-day. who are anxious to unite with Roumania.^ des Traifis conclus ^ par PAtitriche. The Buko- vina inhabited almost entirely by a Roumanian people. Recueil is p. Immediately after the signing of the treaty. Neumann. which Turkey was treaty The who were . vol. This <. 1775. compelled to cede to her by the Treaty of Constantinople of May * 7. i. and who dreamed of the re-establishment of the Greek Empire. I^HE EASTERN QUESTION T^nQ was acclaimed by the Voltaireans and Enaddicted to magnifying the word and cyclopedists.^6 tion. Austria occupied the Bukovina.
had been completely won over to Catherine's views with regard to the Ottoman Empire and Frederick the Great did not dare oppose Russia unsup1 Annual Register for 1778.. and the Russian army penetrated into the Crimea and suppressed the rebellion. The Ottoman Porte was indignant at this violation of the Treaty of Kainardji. but Potemkin had selected a most opportune moment. 471] 47 . Catherine and her counsellors had decided on their plan for Ottoman dismemberment. but needed an ally in central dicated and the character of Joseph II.CHAPTER III RUSSIAN AGGRESSION During the second part of her reign Catharine II. Pie had never intended Europe for its fulfillm. War was about to break out between France and England over the American question. e. and in the latter the Ottoman Empire found an implacable enemy. and at the same time instigated his subjects to revolt against him because of his partiality to Russian customs. him as the proper one. he inaugurated in the Crimea the policy which had proved to be so successful in Russian intrigues secured the election of Sahim Poland. the aUiance with Prussia and England against France and Austria. and became reconciled with the two latter countries. inPanin was gradually supplanted in power by Potemkin. Joseph II. Gherai as the new Khan. and as soon as the Pugatcheff rebellion was suppressed. and especially with Austria.^ In 1777 he found it necessary to call in the aid of his creator. abandoned the System of the North. i. new Tartar that the provisions of the Treaty of Kainardji relating to the State should be carried into effect.ent .
therefore. as Sahim Gherai. A 3. definitive Treaty of Paris of 1783 was signed. viz. he objected to the treaty of alliance . and Catherine and Potemkin determined to take advantage of the opportunity to carry out their long cherished scheme. who was then secretary of state for foreign affairs. vol. but Fox. restrained them. Turks were indignant and threatened war.3 Joseph II.'^ Frederick was hoping to get the Polish cities of Thorn and Dantzig. suggesting measures to be taken in agreement with other courts to prevent the Russian aggression. Recueil des Principaux Traitts^ vol Ibid. p. 349. the Ottoman Porte remained passive. was recognized Khan of the Crimea/ In 1782 the rebellion instigated by Potemkin's agents broke out again. of the Treaty of Kainardji were confirmed. to vii. 1783. 96.. The Crimea was again invaded. Diplotnatie Frangaisey vol.^ vol. Martens. the Khan deposed and the world notified that the independent Tartar State had manifesto ^ was published April been annexed to Russia. and in 1779 a convention was signed between Russia and Turkey by which not only the provisions ported. The who He could obtain support against Russia nowhere. was altogether committed to the Russian programme by the Treaty of 178 1. distinctly 1 avowed his preference for Russia. book 8. ii. ' * Flassan. 444. * See Fox's admission in Hansard's Parliamentary Debates. professing the same ground of intervention as in the case of Poland. while the authority of the Ottoman Porte in the was much diminished and Potemkin's tool. iv. p. 63. the benefits to be conferred on the Tartar people by the suppression of civil war and anarchy.4i8 THE EASTERN QUESTION [472 Upon the advice of France. Even before the between France and Austria of 1756. p. was then Louis XVFs chief minister.^ iii. and therefore could not afford to alienate Russia besides. but Vergennes. containing the memoire of Louis XVI. . Recueil des Traitis conclus par la Russie^ vol. but by which Russia obtained substantial privileges in the navigation of the principalities Black Sea. Vergennes turned to England. xxix. Vergennes * Martens. p.
there was signed the Treaty of Constantinople. through the mediFrench ambassador. of Sweden. with compensation to Austria in Servia and Dalmatia. Russland. were inest. Catherine II. and she subordinated everything to that state. and conferences took place as to the fate of the Turk. In the face of all these provocations. who had the re-establishment of the Greek Empire under a Russian Prince. 1782. a arch was erected at Cherson. in 1787. The Turks could do nothing but follow the advice of France and submit to the humiliation.' by which the Ottoman Porte. who had been forced upon the Ottoman Porte by the Treaty of Kainardji. she was met at Cherson by Joseph II. and the answer of Joseph of November 13.* All this was sufficiently irritating to the Turk. Alexandria and elsewhere. unable to withstand the indignation of the populace of Constantinople. 1787. triumphal "This is the way to Byzantium. else to her policy in regard In her triumphal progress to her new territories. ^ August 15. ii. * Ameth's Joseph und Katharina von man Empire are set forth in full.. Catherine made little secret of her intentions with reference to the Ottoman Empire. Priest. ation of On M. the After the annexation of the Crimea." and there was open talk of grandson. 505. with the inscription. Porte. containing the letter of Catherine to Joseph of September 10.47 3 ] ^ USSIAN A G GRESSIO2V Ag in and England could hardly be expected to support France anything after the latter's assistance to her revolted colonies. but in the very year 1783 he was obliged to come to terms with Catherine. acknowledged the annexation both of the Crimea and Kuban to Russia. in which the views of the two monarchs as to the partition of the OttoII. . although confirmed in the possession of Oczakof and its territory. Recueil des Principaux Traith^ vol. Buchar- Smyrna. p. The only sovereign apparently in a position to help Turkey was Gustavus III. Martens.'s just been born. was named Constantine. declared war against Russia. the citing rebellion. January 8. St. but evidence soon accumulated that the Russian consuls at Jassy. 1784.
and in 1788* an alliance was formed between Prussia and England. Although Frederick the Great was dead. » * 1793. although at first unsuccessful. his anti-Austrian policy was continued by his old minister. the Austrians penetrated into Servia and the Russians into the principalities. which she began against Russia. p. vol. iii. Russia and Austria were bound to aid each other only in case they were attacked. 79. vol. Recueil des Principaux Traitis.3 which. They supported the Belgian revolt against Joseph in the Netherlands they assisted Sweden in the war . iii. Nevertheless. Martens. . reminding him that when they had been invited to participate in the dismemberment of the Aus- trian possessions. iii. for by the Treaty of 1781. January 31. was also designed to thwart the schemes of Austria and Russia with reference to the Ottoman Empire. 34. Malmesbury^s Diaries^ vol. p. P'or p. * Prussia then concluded. to induce Joseph II.50 THE EASTERN QUESTION \A7A This was what Catherine desired. vol. Recueil des Principaux Traitis. 146. p. 560. in the early days of his reign. p. a treaty vol. who in was retained by Frederick William II. 516. Count Herzberg. February. The Turks made a dignified appeal to Joseph. and war was declared by Austria and Russia against Turkey. xxix. 1790. by making the Porte appear to be the aggressor. and Catherine hoped. at the accession of Maria Theresa. they encouraged Poland in reforms antagonistic to Russia. iv. s Coxc. 1788. ' Martens. Though this refers the feeling was a survival of that engendered by Frederick the Great. Hansard's Parliamentary Debates. to form an offensive as well as defensive alliance. History of the House of Austria. and compelled Denmark to withhold from the latter the aid which she intended to give . ' evidence of the intense hatred which existed between the courts of Vienna to and Berlin.'^ The allies roused the enemies of Russia and Austria to activity.' But Joseph was anxious to share in the conquest. they had refused. although immediately directed against French intervention in the Netherlands. so that it looked once more as if the Ottoman Empire were doomed.
quence of this arrangement. Under these circumstances. who had then concluded peace with Sweden. Recueil des Traitts conclus parVAutriche. Russia. it Turkey lost only the town of Old Orsova and the terri- tory of the Unna. repeatedly defeating them in A Russian fleet was also got ready in the Baltic to battle. p.47 5 ] ^ USSIAN AGGRESSION c I with the Porte. 1 791. remained unmoved by the threats made at Reichenbach. p. also alarmed England by threatening to cede come to terms with the Turks. England was thereby satisfied. in return for which she offered to recover Galicia from Austria in view. In consewas declared between Austria and Turkey. and he was compelled to many of his best troops from the front. especially among those whom call benefit. Joseph II. vol. agreed to the Congress of Reichenbach. vol. therefore. This treaty. an armistice while Herzberg was thwarted. to France. 454. by which she agreed to guarantee to the Sultan the full and unimpaired possession of his dominions as against Austria. Leopold understood better than Joseph had done the danger of having a Russian and at the Congress ^ he agreed to lend no at Constantinople . • Neumann. however. and continued at war with the Turks. At the time of his decease. and after long discussion. August 4. 170. the Austrian Netherlands It was his and to prepare to fight Prussia if England. died. for on February 20. Prussia was seeking to obtain the Polish seaports of Thorn and Dantzig. the new Emperor. was not destined to be executed. pold decided to policy to placate He necessary. and with this she stationed troops along the frontiers of Siberia and Galicia. i. The radical reforms which he had instituted in his dominions had produced wide-spread they were intended to revolt. England. . iii. Recueil des Principaux Traites. LeoII. and restore it to Poland . the Treaty of By Sistova^ was signed between the two countries. 1790. further aid to Russia against the Turks and to restore to the Belgians their hereditary rights and privileges. * Martens..
The condition of the Ottoman Empire in the years succeedthe Peace of Jassy was truly deplorable. to sail to Greece and rouse the inhabitants. By it the western boundary of Russia was extended to the Dniester. the Treaty of Jassy'' was signed. v. and he inaugurated the policy which afterwards became traditional in English diplomacy. the conclusion of which was facilitated by the death of Potemkin. and all the coast of the Black Sea between the Bug and the patriots Dniester. Prussia placed a large army on foot and also offered mediabut Catherine was incensed and declined it. if she was to carry out her schemes of further Polish dismemberment. Martens. at this time ^ is fully shown in Hansard's Parliamentary Debates^ xxix passim. though the idea of a war with Russia at that time was rendered un- popular by the exertions of of the mercantile class Fox and Burke and the opposition who feared the loss of the Baltic trade*' tion. Once more Poland was to be the ransom of Turkey. of maintaining the integrity of the Ottoman Empire as a necessary condition of the preservation of the balance of power. . 67. and the pashas made themselves practically inde1 The attitude of the various English statesmen on the Eastern question vol. namely. Suwarrow and his veterans in Poland. Anarchy reigned ing everywhere. An English fleet was prepared for service in the Baltic. It was the changed condition of Poland that impelled Catherine to agree to a peace. 1792. became^ Russian. lations in favor of the Stipu- Danubian principalities were also made. Recueil des Trincipaux Trnitis. who was friendly to Russia. the Ottoman Porte to lighten the burdens of their requiring inhabitants in various ways.52 THE EASTERN QUESTION \A1^ renew the enterprise of Gregory Orloff. who had opposed it. p. But the younger Pitt was now prime minister of England. Catherine accepted the mediation of Denmark. and on January 9. with the fortress of Oczakof. both political and miliand it was evident to Catherine that she would need tary. vol. Kosciusko and his com- had made excellent reforms.
was membered Egypt should fall to the lot of France. Recueil des Traitis de la Porte Ottomane. Survey of the Turkish Empire ^ ' p. shared by that general himself. 45 1 et seq. January. opportunity for ending the contest with the Ottoman Empire was not open The former was engaged with Bonaparte in Italy. Catherine was. the latter was trying to pacify and assimilate Poland. p. which besides was anxious to get rid of a too successful general and it was also . whom the Ottoman Porte had been accustomed to consult for more than two hundred years.3 This view was retained by the French Directory. was equalled by the indignation. 1798. It was a cherished tradition of the French foreign office that if the Ottoman Empire should ever be disinevitable. landed in Egypt and defeated the Mamelukes in the Battle of the Pyramids. 1672. took Malta on the way from the Knights of StJohn. in De Testa. had betrayed it. however." agreeing to the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire than The series of unsuccessful wars ministration led lution fought by Turkey and the resulting confusion in internal admany French statesmen to believe that disso- and that France should look to receiving her share. Eton. i. The ally. Negotiations were therefore opened with Tippoo Tib and the other Indian princes opposed to England. p. who believed that one of the surest ways of striking at England was by way of India. and great prepara- were made for a naval expedition. The French set sail from Toulon May 19. 525. who had interfered with French com- The to either Austria or Russia.477] pendent. vol. Annual Register for i^gSy ' Memoire addressed by Leibnitz to Louis XIV. The news of the expedition was retions ceived in Constantinople with stupefaction. Nor could the French explanation that they were making war only upon the rebellious 1 Mamelukes.' RUSSIAN AGGRESSION 53 Even before the Revolution a party in France had maintained that French interests would be better served in in maintaining its integrity. The astonishment. however. 135. . the destination of which was kept secret. on the eve of beginning hostilities in 1796 when she died.
and the capitulations of 1740 were renewed with new stipulations. and the Greek inhabitants were permitted to choose tector. pp. and so skillful were the French ambassadors. the French mercantile establishments were destroyed and the religious orders dispersed. The Russian and English ambassadors were there to A Djihad. art. the French charge d'affaires. On In return the property confiscated by the Porte from the French mercantile and religious establishments was restored. 1799. which had been given to them enlighten them. Ruffin. after the conclusion of their own pro- Imresumed the mediately peace Napoleon old policy of courting the friendship of the Porte. that in a few years France had regained all her old influ- They naturally chose the Emperor of Russia. against the French. Recueil des Traitks de la France^ vol. Corresponderrce de De Testa. 335. though at first successful in Egypt. and an alliance was concluded with Russia December 23. The Ionian Islands were erected into an independent republic. or Holy War. Recueil des Traitks de la Porte vol. was proclaimed under the Treaty of Campo P^ormio. ' De Clerq. 1798. January 25. . and that they were fighting for the Sultan and not against him. Also French expedition to Egypt. p. nos. vii. a treaty of peace was also signed between France and Turkey. was thrown into the Seven Towers. War was declared September 12. were eventually compelled to surrender to the English. ' For documents relating /. ence over the Divan. i.54 THE EASTERN QUESTION [478 merce. Napoleon Ottomane^ 2500-4400. giving French ships the right to enter the Black Sea and navigate there without restriction.3 By this treaty the Ottoman Porte was confirmed in its possession of Egypt and all its the conclusion of the Peace of territories. 5.'' Amiens between France and England. and a combined Russian and Turkish fleet took from them the Ionian Islands. ^ Martens. vol. i. 495 et seq. blind the Turks to the true significance of the invasion. The French. 256. especially General Sebastiani. Rectieil des Principaux Traith.' to which England acceded January 5. 1802. to the p.
to St. therefore. The The Russian emperor advised the Servians to prereceived. 21 et seq. and the Russian fleets were allowed to pass and repass the Dardanelles. where they plundered and murdered the rayahs without restraint. except also conceded to Russia naval station was merchants. the Porte continued to lean 55 For some allies on its of the late war. History of Servia chaps. on the southern shore of the Black A Sea. September 24. the This arrears of taxes and tribute should not be exacted. and that in consideration of the unsettled condition of the country. Fol- they refused to do so in reforms had been granted. nor could he rely upon the aid of the Divan. who had nowhere been so tyrannical as in Servia. Marshal Brune. later. to enter either principality. 1802. and promised to support it. but the Janissaries were in a dangerous demand was made mood because of the treatment of their brethren in Servia . sent their request to the Porte. 1804. a Servian deputation went to Constantinople and demanded that in future all Servian fortresses should be garrisoned by Servian troops. and give Napoleon the 1 title of Padishah .^ lowing the example of the Roumanians they sent August. of the Sultan but . . demanded that the Sultan recognize the new French Empire. ' Annual Register for 1806. By a convention concluded with Russia. and even at the instigation. vi-xviii. a deputation deputation was well In the summer of 1805. when he ordered the Servians until to return to their homes. The rising took place with the permission. the Sultan agreed not to remove the hospodars of Moldavia and Wallachia without the consent of Russia. the British and Russian ambassadors ^ Ranke. In 1803 the Servians rose under Kara George. however. The French ambassador. pp.^ Sultan Selim was making every effort to reorganize his empire and introduce reforms. and massacred the Janissaries.479] RUSSIAN AGGRESSION time. nor to allow any Turks. England and Russia. whose members were little more than pensioners either of France or of Russia. Petersburg. at a crisis in the history of Turkey.
The who had one army along the Danube. while two Ottoman armies were sent against Kara George. when the coalition of 1805 was about to attack Napoleon. This circumstance was by no means pleasing to the Porte. deputation thrown into the Seven Towers. Finally. Sebastiani soon acquired great influence with the Divan. Sebastiani was sent to Constantinople in return. and a third in the Crimea. and thus became a neighbor of Turkey. desirous of retaining the friendship of France. and sent an extraordinary embassy to Paris. The French ambassador placed the Treaty of Pressbourg. Russia and Prussia had declared war against Napoleon in September. and he used it to excellent purpose for his master. which Napoleon had concluded with Austria. another in the Ionian Islands. bestowed upon Napoleon by a Hatti-sheriff the title of Padishah. Italinzki. and relieved Turkey from pressure in that quarter. before the Divan. This necessitated the withdrawal of the Russian forces along the Danube and in the Crimea. own efforts in 1806. . and he entered into negotiations with Italinzki but he determined to act promptly against the Servians. and a national with the Janis- had been developed in their struggles saries. but the Sultan. the Russian ambassador. The Ottoman fortresses in Servia forces were defeated. and the Servians by their and without foreign assistance won their indeIn the mean time Napoleon had captured pendence the Austrian army at Ulm and had defeated the combined Austrians and Russians at Austerlitz. the Turkish were captured. By this treaty France obtained Dalmatia and Illyria. demanded that the Porte form an offensive and defensive alliance with Russia against FranceThis demand was made at the same time that the Servian delegation presented its petition at Constantinople. to reorganize the Turkish army. But the Servians had learned to fight in the armies of Joseph spirit 11. . Sultan deemed it necessary to temporize with Russia. Their demands were rejected and their .36 THE EASTERN QUESTION [480 threatened to leave Constantinople if he did.
1807. the latter displayed the greatest activity in repairing the fortifications of the city. in defitraitors to Turkey. and was disposed to yield to Arbuthnot's ultimatum that Sebastiani be immediately sent away from Constantinople. journeyed through the principalities. 1806. preliminaire. the British minisEmpire man ter. i. favored by a strong wind. reinstated them. This act excited the jealousy of Austria. But Sebastiani animated the Turks with his own courage. . and while the Divan trifled with Arbuthnot through notes dictated by the French ambassador.^ Porte declared war against Russia December 30. backed by a threat of force. Napolion et Alexandre /. . so that when the Divan gave its refusal to the ultimatum. that the alliance with Russia and England be renewed.48 1 ] ^ USSIAN A G GRESSION 57 1806. ance of the convention of 1802 British but upon the demand of the and Russian ambassadors. it passed through the Dardanelles and the Sea of Marmora and anchored off Princess' Island near Constantinople. and on his return con- vinced the Sultan that Ypsilanti and Morouzi. vol. and back through the Dardanelles with considerable loss. notwithstanding the menaces of Arbuthnot. The Divan was terrified. and that the Straits be opened to the Russian fleets. The British fleet was ordered to sail against Constanti- on February 19. He afterwards landed an expedition in Egypt. The Russians nevertheless crossed the Pruth and occupied the principalities. which was unsuc^ Vandal. Admiral Duckworth found the defenses too strong to be taken and sailed nople. were really agents of Russia and The Sultan dismissed them both. and was one of the principal reasons why Austria did not join the coalition of 1806 against Napoleon. chap. and it was important that a diversion should be made along the Danube in order to prevent the entire Russian Sebastiani strength from being concentrated in Poland. the hospodars of Wallachia and Moldavia. who on more than one occasion employed the differences among the various European powers as to the partition of the Ottoman The Ottofor the purpose of dividing his enemies.
should be withdrawn from the vexation of the Turkish government. Napoleon used this as a pretext for by uprisings among abandoning Turkey to Russia 1807. her European possessions. instead they saw the principalities remain in the hands of the enemy. should be practically disregarded. the French agent. Sultan Selim was deposed by the Janissaries. . Vandal. Napoleon. that the stipulations of Tilsit with reference to the evacuation of the principalities. between Russia and Turkey at Slobosia in August^ It was agreed between Alexander and Napoleon. Rectieil des Traitis de la France. but they were sufficiently astonished by the public led to expect the recovery of the Crimea. 1807. They had been embarrassing in Constantinople treaty that he obtained his recall. De Clercq. Napolion et Alexandre chap. vol. The Turks on the other hand were distracted by revolts in the army and cessful. after the signature of the retention of the principalities by Russia caused the greatest uneasiness at Vienna. 207. In the North very Httle was done by either The Russians were obliged to give their attention to side. their more formidable enemy. and Mustapha IV was placed upon the throne." The Turks knew nothing of the secret articles. July 7. except Constantinople and *' Roumelia. and the Austrian government The used 1 » its best efforts to bring about a reconciliation between /. negotiated a cessation of hostilities 1807. but that the Turks should not enter the principalities until a treaty General of peace should be made between the two countries.^ in the Treaty of Tilsit. vol. 22 and 23. Early in May. arts. General Sebastiani's position became so articles. so that in the the people. how- ever. The public articles referring to Turkey provided that the Russians should evacuate Moldavia and Wallachia.58 THE EASTERN QUESTION [482 South during 1807 the Turks did not fare so badly. ii.* Guillemont. i. p. i. and article 8 of the secret alliance provided that if the Porte should not comply with the recommendations of France and Russia. and could oppose to the Turks only such troops as they could spare.
The English minister zealously encouraged 1 De Clercq. with England unless " she should agree to recognize Moldavia. withdrew a large part of their forces from the Danube to strengthen the army which was to operate against Napoleon. but in the mean time Napoleon and Alexander had become estranged and were preparing for the conflict which seemed inevitable. 1808. i. which had been suspended since the armistice of Slobosia. arts. Wallachia and Finland as part of the Russian Empire. 284.3 The menaces of France and Russia and the continued occupation of the principalities by the Russians brought about in March. and it was one of the causes of the war between France and Austria a few months later. Nouveau Recueil des Principaux Traith. p. he recognized the Czar's possession of Moldavia and Wallachia.^ especially incensed at Austria.483] RUSSIAN AGGJiESSIOA 59 tress of Turkey and England. 160. and Erfurt. therefore. The Russians. vol. who foresaw trouble with Austria and was thus doubly anxious to retain the alliance with Russia. and also of Finland. Napoleon was the treaty to He ascribed Austrian intrigues. Mission to Constantinople." The English ministry obtained knowledge of the treaty and accepted the good offices of Austria in bringing about a reconciliation with Turkey. the Dardanelles.1 809. and in the war with Turkey acted entirely on the defensive. This was highly displeasing both to France and to Russia. which the Russians had just torn from Sweden and the two monarchs agreed not to treat . p. in 181 1. Adair concluded the Peace of the Dardanelles. ii. ' As to difficulties attending the conclusion of the Peace of see Adair. January 15. 'Martens. Recueil des Traith de la France^ vol. During 1809 and 1 8 10 the Russians were almost completely successful . 1809. At the conference of Napoleon. so that the latter might act as a protecTurkey against the designs which were believed to at Tilsit have been formed Erfurt. made greater concessions to Alexander than at Tilsit." October 12. .^ By a treaty which was to remain a "plus profond secret. Sir Robt. 8 and 9. the renewal of the hostilities.
iii. chap. 397. made desperate efforts to regain the confidence of the Turks. It is significant that this treaty was by concluded through the instrumentality of Stratford Canning. and persuaded the former to abate his demands. which was thereby released. . But his secret agreement at Tilsit for the dismemberment of Turkey was laid before the Divan and the resentment and distrust thus aroused. May 28.6o THE EASTERN QUESTION Turkey to [434 the reconciliation of Russia and in order to give a free hand Alexander against Napoleon. vol. The administration of their internal affairs was to be to the Servians. p. Napoleon. * Lane Poole. and urged them to commence active operations along the Danube. By . but the fortresses were to be occupied Turkish garrisons.' 1 afterward to occupy so large a place in Ottoman Martens. The Porte moreover bound itself to maintain and respect forever certain stipulations in favor of the inhabitants of the pnncipalities . iv. 1 8 12. but Bessarabia was given to Russia. and the Sulina mouth of the Danube became Russian.' The Russian army. Wallachia and the Crimea. promising them that he would make no treaty with Russia which did not provide for the restoration of Moldavia. hurried towards Moscow and materially assisted in the destruction of the French. induced the Ottoman Porte to agree. The Russian boundary was thus moved westward to the Pruth. Life of Stratford Canning. to demand no taxes for the period of the war and for two years afterwards inhabitants . Moldavia and Wallachia were restored to the Porte. together with the liberal use of money. Nouveau Recueil des Traitis. and to allow four months for any of the to emigrate. Article 8 returned Servia to the Porte. with the reservation that there was to be a general amnesty. on the other hand. to the Treaty of Bucharest. the treaty of Bucharest. left who was history.
HE GREEK REVOLUTION
representative of the Ottoman Porte was admitted to the Congress of Vienna, and in the proceedings of the Congress
the Sultan found grave cause for apprehension. The engagements of the allies extended to practically all Europe except the Ottoman Empire and when the question of its territorial
was brought up
for discussion, the
der refused to allow
to be considered.^
Emperor AlexanThe Porte also
which was formed
suspicion upon the Holy Alliance. This at the instance of Alexander, pur-
ported to regard the various states of Europe as members of one '^Christian nation, to be governed according to the teach" and the Sultan was not invited to adhere, as ings of Christ;
were all other European monarchs. Moreover, Alexander surrounded himself with avowed enemies of Turkey. One of his ministers of foreign affairs was the Greek Capodistrias the Ypsilanti brothers, sons of the former hospodar of Moldavia were officers in the Russian army and friends of the Czar. The Hetairia, the Greek revolutionary society, was founded in Russia, whence it was permitted to carry on its propagandism Nor were these the only ways in which Alexander exhibited In 1816, he proposed to the powers his enmity to Turkey.
Ottoman Porte could not suppress the Barbary Europe should make a crusade against them. By the advice of England and Austria, who were determined to uphold the integrity of the Ottoman Empire, the Porte enif
to avoid giving offense.
Seignobos, Political History
since 1814, chap. xxv.
THE EASTERN QUESTION
Stance chiefly explains the favorable terms granted to the Serwho again revolted under Miloch Obrenovitch, in 1815. the compact of 18 17, Miloch was recognized as knes or By
prince superior of Servia; and although Turkish garrisons were retained in the fortresses, a large measure of local autonomy was granted to the Servians.
Indeed, the avoidance of trouble with foreign powers was then essential to the safety of Turkey. Never was the country in a worse state of anarchy. Mehemet Ali had made himself
practically independent in Egypt the fanatic Wahabites were in possession of the Holy Places in Arabia; Ali Pasha of
Janina ruled as a sovereign prince in Epirus and defiantly contemned the commands of the Sultan, while his example
was, to some extent, imitated by the provincial pashas the rayahs were in revolt in several provinces, and the Janissaries
faced, in the
ing the Congress of Vienna, conditions more untoward than those that surrounded Mahmoud II but he was a man of
resolute energy, and set about systematically to recover his The most serious oblost authority throughout the empire.
stacle to this
was Ali Pasha of Janina, and his destruction was For some years Ali treated lightly the
made upon him, but when, in 1820, Mahmoud made immense preparations for his destruction, he sought to obtain
in wealth, in-
the support of the Christian rayahs of Greece, and incited
The Greeks had made remarkable progress
and national spirit since the Peace of Kainardji. That peace had compelled the Ottoman Porte to receive Russian consuls in the various cities and ports, and these were During the French Revolution and nearly all Greeks. almost the entire trade of the Levant Napoleonic struggles
For the condition of the Ottoman Empire previous
for i8i8, chap, iv;
1819, chap, vi
1820, chap, xi,
82 1, chaps,
and a large part of the trade of the Mediterranean fell into the hands of the Greeks, sailing as they did under the neutral flag of Turkey. Few Turks engaged in commerce. It is estimated that the maritime population of Greece in 1815 numbered twenty-five thousand men, and that more than five hundred ships were owned by Greeks. The new class of merchants and traders sent their sons to be educated in France, England and Germany, and these young men, when they returned to
their homes, were not only unwilling to exhibit in their atti-
tude toward the Ottoman Porte the
clergy, but they supremacy in the nation.
began to dispute with the latter for It was principally from their ranks
that the Hetairia was recruited, an association which developed from a literary into a political society, whose object was the
-emancipation of Hellas. Uprisings took place simultaneously in the Morea, in the archipelago and in the Danubian princi-
The revolt in the principalities was a failure. The Roumanians in reality felt little interest in the fate of Greece. Ypsilanti was driven by the Turkish troops into Austria, where he was interned by Metternich as a revolutionist. But the insurrection in Greece was everywhere successful, and the
massacres of Christians which took place all over Turkey, beginning with the hanging of the patriarch in his robes from the
gate of his
Europe and created an
aroused the indignasympathy with the
naturally looked to Alexander for encouragement and support, but Alexander had gone through a peculiar evolution since 1 81 5. For three years after the Peace of Vienna he had been the champion of liberalism in Europe and the competitor of Metternich for political supremacy. But
from the Congress of Aix-la Chapelle in 18 18 he gradually fell more and more under the influence ot Metternich, and ^ith him saw only one enemy in Europe to oppose, viz., Revo*
Tennent, History of Modern Greece^
Metternich and Castlereagh both were opposed to the Greeks. that it guarantee the protection of the Christian religion in the Ottoman Empire. There were at least two powers in Europe which were not disposed to stand idly Balkans. 1821. and Alexander. ibid. and diplomatic relations between Russia and Turkey were severed.' and as neither the French nor the Prussian government exhibited any en1 British and Foreign State Papers. 1821. For the Turkish reply.64 lution. but he hesitated to take the initiative in hostilities. p. and now he did not hesitate to condemn the Greeks But Russian official opinion was favorin unmeasured terms.. ^'^^ EASTERN QUESTION [488 it he had applauded Austrian intervention and in 1822 he suggested French intervention in Spain. did not desire to face the dissolution of the system. based on the Holy Alliance. Alexander massed his troops along the Pruth. Memorandum p. that it re-establish in the Danubian principalities the legal regime existing before the outbreaks. These demands the Porte left Strogonofi" Constantinople August 8. first. his ambassador at Constantinople. that the Porte re-erect the churches destroyed by the Turkish mobs in the recent outbreaks. pp. troops. and Alexander's policy on the Greek quesOn July 6. vol. of which he was the author and Austria the mainstay. tion until his death was a vacillating one.^ and remove the Turkish peremptorily refused . iii. he instructed Strogonofif. the former seeing in their revolt only another symptom of the Revolution which was raising its head sible fruition of all over Europe. demand. and the latter only the posRussian schemes. second. to To combat in Italy in 1820. 611. by and permit Russia to work her will in the These powers were Austria and England. able to the Greeks. viii. for the Emperor Alexander. . ' Metternich's vol. 1260. besides hesitating to incur their opposition in a contest with Turkey. Both wrote to Alexander that this was a splendid opportunity for him to stand by his principles and give an example to Europe. and third. \i^\ et seq. in MetterftichUs Memoirs.
p. p. tinople that faithful to the principles which they have publicly announced. the violations of which had caused the uprising of the Greeks. i. the Greek national assembly adopted a democratic constitution and deto yield. August 12. on condition that the Porte should notify him officially of the nomination of the two hospodars. *. The two monarchs. 620-629.489] ^^^ GREEK REVOLUTION 65 thusiasm in his behalf. and as on January 13. Castlereagh committed suicide. Not only did Canning ised to nominate chia.^ clared the complete independence of Hellas. x. and condemned the revolution and the Greek delegates. see British vol. In May the Porte prom- two new hospodars for Moldavia and Wallaand asked Russia to resume diplomatic relations.3 Three months later the Congress of Verona assembled.-* The Congress declined to admit the Greek delegation." s George Canning. that they will never lend any help to the Greek insurgents . Alexander decided He accepted the mediation of Austria and England. they will never support the enemies of public order . 1822. who urged the Porte to grant the demands which he made on the strength of the treaties. and the " malevolent meteor. after lingering several weeks at Ancona. . British and Foreign State Papers^ vol. Metternich' s MemoirSy vol. 392. p. of Russia and Austria." Alexander expressed his willingness to comply with this request. «* * MetternicKs Memoirs^ In this fresh emergency the Em- peror Alexander has given proof of his noble and loyal courage . soon became the head of the foreign office in London. pp. that they leave to the Porte itself the task of watching over 5 its own safety.." iii. Annuaire Lesur for 1823. have simultaneously declared at Constan. 521. and should re-establish the rights and privileges of the Christians. 523.. .. and Alexander completed his submission to the policy of Metternich. pp. and especially that which concerned the Danubian principalities. 1822. were invited by the police of the Holy See to depart. lii. 850 et seq. vol.. ix. 1 Foreign and State PaperSy « * For the Greek Declaration of Independence and Constitution. should renew the commercial privileges of Russia in the Ottoman Empire.
p. The Greeks indeed began to consider England as their only friend in Europe.' the blockade established by the Greeks at various ports along the coast was recognized by the English government. but as the friend of he was a strong partisan of the Greek cause. and English influence naturally became predominant with them. Menzies. Turkey. xii. p. the beginning of 1823 the friendly attitude of England towards the Greeks was shown in many ways. • Old and New. but no new state was to be founded which would be strong enough to stand by itself On the contrary. The Sultan. The English From government of the Ionian Islands gave them passive assistance. . . East Hellas basis as the and West Hellas —each of which should be a vassal principality to the Porte on substantially Danubian principalities. new 365. vol. 441. p. and ridiculing him in the eyes of Europe. Canning demanded that previously to the opening of the con- ference. Russia should make known her views as to the In a memoir to the four courts reorganization of the country.' which also issued a proclamation of neutrality. it is needless to say. the Greeks were to be dissevered. and were to be placed in a situation in which they would. ix. at invited the four great powers to send delegates to a conference St. Petersburg to consider the pacification of Greece. who was greatly disturbed by these developments. Alexander proposed that Greece should be divided into three parts — Morea. vol.^ was evident. thus recognizing the Greeks as belligerents and a loan of eight hundred thousand pounds was raised in London for the Greek government. 903. series. Alexander. like the Danubian principalities. be obliged the same The object of this to look to Russia for support. was indignant at the proposal of a conference for the dismem- berment of his empire and the settlement of the ^ relations which British and Foreign State Papers. The Ottoman Empire was to be dismembered. ' Hansard's Parliamentary Debates. THE EASTERN QUESTION [49O take the keenest pleasure in defying Metternich openly.^ liberalism. Towards the end of 1823.
731. x. xii. the seat of the Greek government. would not take part in its deliberations. 1824. were equally incensed at what they denounced as Alexander's betrayal of them. At the same time Canning notified Alexander that Stratford Canning. and because England was united to Turkey by ancient treaties which the Sultan had not violated. and in August. • Lane Poole.49 1 ] THE GREEK REVOLUTION (^j should exist between him and rebellious subjects from whom he demanded unconditional surrender. Alexander deeply resented Canning's refusal to take part in But Canning had reasoned correctly. conference. who up to this time had been uniformly successful against the Turks.3 In reality Canning was convinced that the conference could accomplish nothing. and he was unwilling to support any plan to compel them to accept it. p. At the the conference. Meanwhile. for he was assured both at Constantinople and at Nauplie. who had been designated as the English representative at the proposed conference at St. and refused to be divided or to to become a vassal state. 1825. which was in session from February to April. but would confine his negotiations with Russia to the question of the boundary between the two states in North America. i. " Map of Europe by Treaty ^ vol. Life of Stratford Cannings chap. it would be at their service. They turned naturally the power which had befriended them. p. and the Ottoman Porte should accept it. He declared that mediation was at the time impossible because the views of the two belligerents were so diverse. Russia kept to the front the plan of demanding of the belliger1 British Foreign Hertzlet's and State Papers ^ vol. in which they rejected the proposals of Alexander. The Greeks. and besought Canning to defend their In November Canning made a temperate independence. . 899. Petersburg. addressed a note to Canning. on the other hand. that the collective mediation of the powers would be rejected by both Turkey and Greece. Great Britain would observe a strict neutrality.' and if at a future time Greece should demand her mediation.^ reply.
and that on the present occasion Russia should be delegated to execute the task. and Prussia would not go struggle. The Czar renewed his complaints at the non-performance of the promises 1 Metternich to Lebzelten. At length Metternich took a definite stand. and this inclination was The of the conference. counter to anything suggested by Metternich. as Europe. 209.68 THE EASTERN QUESTION [492 ents an armistice. as Alexander considered it. the But the other members of Holy Alliance also had their individual interests to consult. to offer it their mediation. fusal. p. But from the moment of the Sultan's reply. and if they refused. who had been called by Mahmoud from Egypt to take part in the Greek Austria would never agree that Russia should lead an army through the Balkans. in Metternich^ s Memoirs^ vol. It was evidently Alexander's design that the Holy Alliance should perform in the Balkans a duty similar to that which it had discharged in Italy and Spain. and he knew that Alexander would not agree to the latter. who had been sent by the latter to command the Ottoman forces. . of offering them a collective mediation. of the conference was that the powers engaged to ask the Porte and in case of re- ingratitude of Austria. iv. unless the powers should soon intervene. He refused any compromise. strengthened by the reply given at Constantinople to the note The Sultan declared that he would confirm and guarantees after had unconditionally surrendered. the son of Mehemet Ali. France feared to lose her influence with Mehemet Ali. There must be on the part of the Greeks either entire submission or entire independence. and his revolted subjects in their privileges in fact did all the Sultan looked for a speedy termination of the struggle. had turned the tide of war in Greece. of compelling them to accept. Ibrahim Pasha. and that in the mean they time he would not recognize the intervention either of one power or of a group of powers. impelled him to approach Canning. the attitude of Russia towards Turkey resumed all its old severity.^ The result of the long sessions to grant the just demands of its subjects.
p. the Greeks once more voted to place themselves under the protection of England. before anything could be accomplished. that the liberties guaranteed to the Serbs by the Treaty of Bucharest should be conceded to them. nevertheless.3 Six weeks were allowed to the Porte to yield. ^^^ GREEK REVOLUTION 69 He demanded should be removed from the that the last of the Turkish troops principalities. which evidently was leveled at Russia. His successor. as the latter had intended to compel the Porte to accede to his demands. 904. that Alexander began his approach to England. impose a solution Strangely enough. on ascending the throne declared that it was his purpose to follow the plans of Alexander. should send commissioners to the frontier to negotiate with Russian commissioners concerning the disputes arising out of that treaty . August 25. in 182 1. Nothing was said in the ultimatum as to the ' fate of the Greeks. British and Foreign 486. .' The latter answered. p. who had been imprisoned since the revolt began. and fulfilling the stipulations of the Treaty of Bucharest. MettemicKt MemoirSy * For the of the ultimatum. it was with the full knowledge of this answer. iv. the Austrian envoy. 1825. she would. should be released. that while England could not at that moment accede to their wishes. see British and Foreign State Papers^ TOl. Nicholas. p. watch over them and not permit any other power contrary to their interests. he accordingly addressed to the path. But to on December i. it therefore behooved him to continue in that On April 5. 1826.493] of the Porte. 1825. xiii. but Nicholas frequently xii. 1056. and that. * See his interview with Count vol. besides restoring the Danubian principalities to their position previous to the insurrection of 182 1. he died. and that their deputies to Constantinople. State Papers^ vol.* Porte an ultimatum. These demands were emphasized by in- creasing the Russian forces along the Pruth. full text Zicky. in which he demanded that the Sultan. and so notified Canning.
Nicholas flatly refused any interference between himself and the Porte in what concerned his particular grievances but Wellington made it clear to him that England could remain neutral in a war between Russia . Wellington was to tender the good offices of England in the disputes between Russia and Turkey. . blaroable and even criminal manner. Hertslet's Map of Europe by Treaty ^ p. Russian army in Turkey would mean that Nicholas would lay down the law for the entire Balkan peninsula. 4Sg. Me/fernicA^s M^moirSy vol. Petersburg. any particular interest in the fate of the rebels. This Canning determined to of Wellington. on a mission to St. p. and to re- quest Nicholas' adhesion to the British mediation between the Qreeks and the Turks. they have behaved in a shocking. and it would be a very bad example for all other countries if they succeeded in establishing it. signed the pro- tocol of April 4. ostensibly to congratulate the Czar on his accession to the throne. I do not desire their that I detest enfranchisement. and settle the iSigainst their A Greek question to prevent. I look upon them as subjects in revolt against their legitimate sovereign. although they are my co-reHgionists . suit himself. tracting parties should renounce in advance all advantages which would not be common to all the states of Europe as a 'See the Zicky interview. STERN QUESTION deserved no help [494 in their revolt spoke of rebels who sovereign/ Canning resolved to prevent a rupvictorious jture between Russia and Turkey by all means. that autonomy should be demanded but that she should remain tributary to the Porte . «*I repeat and abhor the Greeks. and Turkey only in case he should agree to British mediation between the Greeks and the Turks and Nicholas. They do not deserve it .0 Tim them as fiA. but in reality to come to terms on the Eastern question. 1826." vol. that the agreement should hold good whatever might be the relations between Russia and Turkey that each of the confor Greece. 741. disclaiming . . i. for He therefore sent the Duke whom I^icholas had a great admiration." By this protocol it was provided that Russia should accept the mediation of Great Britain between the Greeks and the Turks. iy.7.
747. since he had just destroyed the Janissaries and had not had time to form a new army on the European basis. The Divan was encouraged by Austria to resist the English . serving the integrity of the template the erection of a This plan. advised the Porte to yield to the demands of the Czar's ulti- matum. war Metternich. i. but on May 12. but merely proposed that Greece. ^1 finally. but the rebels. which might spread to central Europe. . 1827. 375. did not connew free maritime state. plan. ^ ' Map of Europe by Treaty vol. while receiving a grant of autonomy. p. so that in case of war he would have been at the mercy of the Czar.^95] ^-^^ GREEK REVOLUTION Greece and . to reject the British proposal of The Porte followed this advice. conformably to the Tory policy of preOttoman Empire. consequence of the definitive pacification of that a guarantee of the future state of things should be solicited of all the great powers of Europe. when Stratford Canning reached he was received by the Sultan with reproaches. notified the Russian charge d'affaires that the Sultan accepted the pro- The last Turkish troops were withdrawn posals of the Czar. should remain tributary to the Porte. who were now driven to but. to agree to the Russian ultimatum. the Servian deputies were released. from the principalities. p. Nevertheless. there was signed the Treaty of Ackerman. 1826. compromise with The Reis Effendi again declared to Stratford Canning that the Sultan would never admit the intervention of a third party between himself and his rebellious subjects. and two negotiators were sent to meet the representatives of Mahmoud was all the more willing the Czar in Bessarabia.' The Treaty of Bucharest was ex1 Annuaire Lesur Hertslet's for 1826. Canning at the same time sent Stratford Canning to Levant to make known to both the Greeks and the Turks the plan of pacification which was desired by Great the Britain. it their last extremity was gladly accepted by the Greeks. who desired above all things to prevent a in the Balkans.^ Constantinople. October 7.
and that they should not be removed except with the to receive the constitution . the consolidation of the different taxes into one. The second additional conven- tion provided that the Porte and the Servian deputies should agree on measures to secure to Servia liberty of worship. p. were assured by a renewal of the Hatti-sheriff of 1802. and liberty of commerce. True to Holy Alliance. was layed the Czar was to retain all J that taxes should be regulated by the authorities of the country. Canning urged order to counterbalance Russia in the Balkan Peninsula. the protocol of April 4. but demanded that it be converted into a formal alliance between France. Meanwhile. is given in Metternich^ s Memoirs^ .^ But it received different protocol was also rejected at Berlin. not only accepted it. England and Russia for the 1 The Austrian answer to the protocol of April 4th vol. had been officially communicated to the other great powers. and that a remission of two years' . lated to the principalities and Servia respectively. iv. treatment at Paris. Nicholas urged the French government to accede to it in order to it checkmate British influence with equal energy in in Greece. the principles of the Austria promptly rejected it.J2 THE EASTERN QUESTION [4^5 The privileges of Moldavia and Wallachia pressly confirmed. the choice of local rulers. The first provided that the hospodars should be elected for seven years from the native Boyards with the approval of the Ottoman Porte. The French government. Servia which had been so long dethe places in Asia that were in his possession. 339. anxious to recover its lost prestige in the East. the Ottoman Porte was to recompense Russian subjects for all losses due to the Barbary pirates finally. the Russians were to enjoy in all Ottoman seas and Two annexed conventions reports full liberty of commerce. as agreed to by Wellington and Nicholas. Metternich declared that the only proper pacification would be for the Sultan freely to At Metternich's dictation the grant the desired privileges. consent of the Czar tribute should be accorded.
1042. the Porte should. xiv. was it. after not more than a month's delay. p. vol. The allies then proceeded to the preliminaries of 1 British and Foreign State Papers^ vol. between England. The general conditions of the treaty were the same as those of the protocol of April 4 but for its execution an additional article was added which provided that the collective mediation of the government to .^ The almost immediate result of this refusal was the signing of the Treaty of London of July The preamble 7. and there remained for discussion only the details for the common execution of the In February the protocol of April 4 was communicated to the Porte. encouraged by the sinister policy of Metternich. 769. but it still refused to grant any concession. i. France and Russia. by humanity and by the appeals of the Greek two of them. deferred their project. On August 30th notice was given to the Porte that the allies intended to begin coercive measures. . the Greek government notified of the Treaty of London and hastened to accept but the Ottoman Porte summarily rejected it. and then curtly replied would repel all interference of another state in his relations with his subjects. be notified in a second note that the allies would accredit consuls to the principal cities of Greece and receive consuls from them.497] 'THE GREEK REVOLUTION This was agreed to 73 in principle pacification of the Levant. ' Hertslet's Map of Europe by Treaty ^ p. and would impose an armistice by force of arms if necessary upon the two belligerents. 1827. 1827. but the Turkish ministers. 1827. three powers should be offered to the Porte in a note. In the beginning of August. France and England. that. who urged delay until Ibrahim should complete his conquest of the Morea." recited that the allied powers were impelled by the necessity of putting an end to a condition of affairs so disastrous to their commerce. if the offer was refused. answer till that the Sultan Athens was taken in June. it being understood that by so doing they did not intend to place themselves in a state of war with either belligerent. by the three powers in January.
1 their British and Foreign 103. and he demanded of the three powers an open disavowal of and a for the outrage full indemnity which had been committed. British • shown by the protocol of the admirals drawn up previously to and Foreign State Papers. the ambassadors of the three powers demanded their passports. October A active. 1827.' which the Turco-Egyptian fleet was deand Ibrahim agreed to cease hostilities against the stroyed Greeks. operations beyond the boundaries hope that the great powers would accept accomplished facts. 1050. State Papers. xv. in the his revolted subjects. ' This is entrance in Navarino. and give to the country an administration which should be both mild and just.' On the other hand. p. restore the condition of things existing in Greece previous to 1821. vol. 1827. Instruction addressed to the Admirals. xvii. on the contrary.3 and for by the next month they vainly endeavored to induce the Sultan to agree to the conditions of the treaty of London. British and Foreign State Papers. the Greek forces were ordered to remove themselves from all place soutside In conformity with their orders the allied fleets under Admiral Codrington entered the Bay of Navarino its limits. or to submit to the mediation of the powers which had now destroyed his fleet . Sultan Mahmoud. In despair. p. and their ambassadors at Constantinople ordered the admirals of the three fleets to prevent all transport or em- ployment of Ottoman forces on the coast of what would probably be the new Greek state. and no longer having to fear the enemy. and was less disposed than ever to treat with extending their allotted to them. conflict ensued. was infuriated. The Greeks naturally were overjoyed. The news of Navarino produced different effects upon the two belligerents. in . . and quitted Constantinople December * 8. xiv. vol. vol. p.74 THE EASTERN QUESTION \j^% execution. became very 20. he would grant an armistice. All they could obtain was a promise that if the Greeks would as revolted subjects unconditionally submit. and notified Ibrahim to quit Greece. This was refused the ambassadors of those powers November ioth. 20.
over Turkey a massacre of Christians, especially of Russians, and on December 20th Mahmoud called together the ayans, or heads of the Mussul-
Immediately there began
violent manifesto,^ accus-
ing Russia of having incessantly incited revolt in his dominions since 1 821, and of having cheated him at Ackerman, where her envoys had promised no longer to interfere in the
Greek question. He added that the time had come to uphold the honor of outraged Islam, and he appealed to the faithful
a plan of
Mahmoud to On January 6, 1828, he proposed to the allies coercion much more drastic than that already
Nicholas resolved not to allow
adopted." The principalities were to be occupied by Russian troops ; the allied fleets were to blockade Alexandria and
Constantinople so as to deliver and defend the Morea; and the allies were to support Capodistrias, the president of the Greek state, by supplying him with money while they were
also to order their ambassadors, who had left Constantinople, to assemble at Corfu to confer on means of pacification. In
the meantime, on August He was succeeded by the
George Canning had
of Wellington, at the head of in accordance with their traa ministry of Old Tories, who, ditional policy, discountenanced all measures looking to Greek
independence. For the definite and strenuous system of Canning, the new cabinet substituted tentative and desultory
expedients intended to oppose and neutralize the influence of It turned to France, but France, besides being PhilRussia. wished to take some action, which, while serving to Hellene,
check the Czar, would also increase her own prestige.-- She
therefore asked to be deputed to send an army of occupation into the Morea. This was not pleasing to the Wellington ministry, but as
State Papers^ vol. xiv, p. 1052.
State Papers, vol.
xvii, p. 30.
THE EASTERN QUESTION
counterpoise to the Czar,
toward Turkey, and desired to establish a it reluctantly yielded to the French
At the end of February, Nicholas notified the powers that he considered Mahmoud's manifesto of December 20th as
equivalent to a declaration of war, and that he was determined to answer it by force that he would be glad to carry out the
terms of the Treaty of London in union with his allies, but that he must, in any event, obtain redress for his own particular
ure to obtain the
cabinet, disappointed by itsiailco-operation of France against the Czar, a virtue of necessity, and, in order to prevent any indefull
pendent action on his part in the Mediterranean, demanded that the allied fleets should operate only in conformity with
the Treaty of
qpllective decisions of the
contracting parties,^ Nicholas agreed to this and to the French occupation of the Morea, and on April 26, 1828, declared war On July 2d, the conferences of the allies against Turkey .i;vere
London, and on August
7th, the three
sadors assembled at Corfu to concert a plan for the pacification of Greece. The Sultan, after the Russians had occupied the
position, and hoping to disrupt triple alliance, invited France and England to Jhe
assumed a more moderate
send back their~afnbassadors to treat on the Greek question Wellington, however, fearing if that were done Nicholas would consider himself absolved from the enat Constantinople.
gagements of the Treaty of London and would, at the head of a victorious army, overthrow the entire established order in
* The proposal and agreement may be seen in British and Foreign State Papers^ Tol xvi, p. 1083 also in Parliamentary Debates^ Hansard's, new series, vol. xxii,
pp. 345 et seq.
State Papers^ vol. xvii, p. 50.
Earl of Aberdeen to Prince Lieven, British
vol. xvii, p. 1 14.
of Europe by Treaty ^
50 1 ]
the East, rejected the proposal tained/
JThe campaign of 1828 proved disastrous to the Russians, jnuch to the joy of Metternich/ who encouraged the Turks and sounded the other courts as to a coalition against Russia. This suggestion was everywhere rejected.3 But Wellington,
encouraged by the Russian reverses, prevailed upon France to agree to a protocol, November 16^ 1828, by which it was agreed that the two~powers should send their ambassadors to Constantinople to urge upon the Porte the necessity of pacification ; but the protocol was accepted by France only on condition that
should not be carried into
should acquiesce in
The Czar gave
his consent with the
proviso that, before the British and French ambassadors should proceed to Constantinople, the London conference should
adopt a definite plan of pacification.
Such a plan was adopted, which had been
agreed to by Capodistrias and the ambassadors at Corfu,^ the
to include the Morea, the Cyclades
continental Greece as far as the Gulfs of Orta and Volo.
was to have a monarchical government with a Christian prince, who was to be selected by the three powers and approved by the Porte, but was not to be a member of the reigning family of any of the three allies and it was to pay an annual tribute to the Porte of one million five hundred thousand piastres and recompense Ottoman proprietors, who were
State Papers y vol. xvii, p. 91.
Geschichte des Abfalls der Griechen vom Osmanischen Reiche, is largely devoted to defending the attitude of Metternich during the Greek Revolution. The last four volumes are valuable for the collection of documents relating to the Revolution.
For an excellent description of the diplomatic aspect of Europe at the time, sec dispatch of Count Pozzo di Borgo to Count Nesselrode in Martens, Nouveau Sup-
pUment aux Recueil des
p. 347. vol.
of Europe by Treaty
Wallachia and Bulgaria were to remain in the occupation of the Russians. full The Sultan was to reimburse the Czar for the expenses 01 the war. As long as the Russians were at a distance. in all that concerned Greece. The Turkish government received the French and English ambassadors with respect. the Ottoman Porte agreed. de Royer. The free navigation of the Dardanelles and Bosporous was secured to the ships of all powers with whom the Porte was at peace. p. the Peace of Adrianople. Diebitsch across the Balkans and appeared before Adrianople August 20th. and it was by his mediation that there was signed." By this treaty Czar restored to Turkey all his conquests in Europe except the islands at the mouth of the Danube.000. purely and simply. but now all Constantinople was in terror. the other to the status of Moldavia and Wallachia. 1829. instead of for seven years. Mahmoud was unyielding. and that the fortresses be1 — See Annuaire Lesur Hertslet's for 1829. The latter introduced an innovation to the effect that the hospodars should be appointed lor life. Two supple- mentary conventions were added to the treaty of peace one relative to the payment of the indemnity. The campaign of 1829 proved made his extraordinary march to be decisive. y ' Map of Europe by Treaty vol. The Prussian agent. 1827. Finally..000 francs). the September 14. and satisfy his particular grievances to the extent of eleven and a half millions of Dutch ducats (137. ii. Russian subjects were to have full liberty of commerce in the entire Ottoman Empire.^ It was evident that the Porte would yield only to superior force. 813. p.r8 THE EAS7ERN QUESTION [502 required to leave Greece. to the Treaty of London of July 6. All the rights and privileges of Moldavia. to be but refused to accept the new plan. was sent in haste to conclude a peace in the name of Turkey. and the protocol of March 22. . as a guarantee of which Moldavia. 1829. but retained most of the cities and fortresses taken in Asia. 419. Wallachia and Servia were confirmed and guaranteed.
sumed its labors in October. the Ottoman Empire was exposed on all sides to Russian intrigue. He knew that it would be a long cession. 1829. in Hertslet's Map of Europe by Treaty^ voL ii. After while before Turkey could free herself from the debts. p.503] ^-^^ GREEK REVOLUTION yg Turkey on the left bank of the Danube should be dismantled. and all of were subject to her domination. protested vigorously against any form of vassalage to Turkey. decided. and strangely enough. Servia and Greece. and in consequence of the destruction of the fortresses in the princiMorepalities. since she expected that. By the autonomy "granted to Moldavia. ' The protocol of Feb. and by the indemnities which the Sultan was unable to pay. 3d. and was placed whom whom at the mercy of the Czar. over. The British government felt that it would not do to subject Greece to a regime similar to that of the principalities. as the result of recent events. that no tie should bind Greece to Turkey. still more by England. which had reintervention at will. Wallachia. the Sultan yielded his arrangement concerning Greece.' The Greek government. where Russia could provoke new conflicts and create occasions for The London conference. vol. and in so doing was supported by France. therefore. her influence in Greece would be preserved but in order still . the Russians could reach the Balkans at will. 2. p. JThe Treaty of Adrianople was undoubtedly a brilliant triumph for Kussian policy. 1 Hertslet's Map of Europe by Treaty. and to the payment of the indemnities.' Russia did not object. endeavoring to evade only those that related to the Greek question. 812. . On the latter point it obtained a substantial con- The Turkish government proceeded a long negotiation the Czar reduced the three millions of ducats. however. 1830. all of longing to felt that they owed their privileges to Russia. in return to for this objections the concession. and evacuated all terriindemnity by tory south of the Danube. lations to carry out the stipuof the treaty. 841.
and at the vexations for England in the possession of the Ionian Islands. she proposed to extend the boundaries of Greece. iv. 635. in merely bringing forth a new state and making a rent in the Ottoman Empire. 1829. Austria and Prussia. p. This England refused to do. It had also disrupted the Holy Alliance. against the other two members. October 9th. in Metternich^s Memoirs^ . France and Russia.8o THE EASTERN QUESTION same time [504 to create further to enfeeble Turkey. The provisions of the protocol of March 22nd were carried out. and Greece was launched as a But the Greek Revolution had not resulted full-fledged state. vol.' ^ Metternich to the Emperor Francis. having set two members of it.
THE EGYPTIAN REBELLION.
Despite the disasters of the recent war,
which his wholly to the western innovations that he had
with his reforms.
successfully carried them out is more than doubtful, but his energies were soon diverted to another The rebellions which broke out in Albania and Bosobject.'
nia he quickly suppressed
Whether he could have
but he soon came into
though not on account of reforms, with one of his subjects whom he found to be stronger than himself. This subject was
Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt. Mehemet had quickly recovered from the catastrophe at Navarino, had formed a splendid
army, officered principally by Frenchmen, had rebuilt his fleet and had acquired a full treasury, the result of taxes wrung
from his subjects, whom he governed as a despot, but to whom he gave peace. Mehemet, as a reward for his services in the Morea, had received the pashalik of Crete but he felt ill repaid for* his exertions, and decided to seek compensation in Conscious of his strength, he resolved to enlarge the Syria. boundaries of Egypt, and also to make the possession of it
hereditary in his family.
was Abdallah Pasha,
of Syria at this time enemy, who gave a refuge
Egyptians who fled from Mehemet's despotism. An ex^ cuse for a conflict, therefore, "was not wanting, when, early in 1832, a war broke out between these two servants of the SulFor a description of Mahmoud and his reforms, sec Schriften, vol. viii, particularly Letter 66, p. 428.
Von Moltk^s Ge^ammelte
Annuaire Ltsur^ 1830,
THE EASTERN QUESTION
Mehemet to cease hostilities and to submit the quarrel to him, but Mehemet paid no attention to His adopted son, Ibrahim, a man of great his commands.
May 27, 1832, the key to the country, fell into the hands of Jean d'Acre, Ibrahim. Mahmoud proclaimed Mehemet an outlaw, but Ibrahim continued on his victorious career, successively
soon overran the whole of Syria; and on
He then ing the three armies sent against him by the Sultan. crossed the Taurus, overran Asia Minor, and began his march
towards Constantinople, always protesting that it was not his intention to overthrow the dynasty of the Osmanlis, but to consolidate it Mahmoud, whose last army had been destroyed, turned to the European powers for help.'
time was peculiar. had been very friendly to France under the
Restoration, was decidedly inimical to the July
every opportunity, though he had been unable to show his hostility since 1830 because of the PoHsh actively The reactionary powers, Austria and Prussia, were rebellion.
also unfriendly to Louis Philippe, the King of the Barricades," but were well disposed towards Russia for maintain-
ing the principles of the Holy Alliance. To establish an equilibrium against these three powers in favor of Liberalism, England had formed an entente cordiale with the July Mon-
archy, but the two governments soon grew mutually distrustOn the Eastful, and frequently worked at cross purposes.**
ern question, which had once more come up for settlement, each power took its stand according to its interests. With
England, and especially with Palmerston, who controlled her foreign affairs during a great part of this period, the maintenance of the integrity of the Ottoman Empire was a dogma,3 and Palmerston looked upon Mehemet as a menace to that
1832, pp. Afx>
evident in the memoirs of statesmen of the period.
'Bulwer's Life of Palmers ton^
book \2 passim.
THE EGYPTIAN REBELLION
But the attention of Englishmen was engrossed and the great desire of the government with reference to the Eastern question was that it might
affairs in 1832,
be promptly closed, before Russia could take advantage of the situation. Nicholas, on the other hand, was the most pronounced enemy the Ottoman Empire then had, but, strangely
enough, he determined to oppose Mehemet
in the belief that
the latter would prove to be its regenerator, and postpone inAustria, who feared definitely the success of Russian designs. Russian ascendancy in the Balkans, supported the English
The Pasha of Egypt was looked upon by Frenchmen as a sort of client of France. His army and civil service were officered principally by Frenchmen, and French influence in Egypt predominated over that of any other power. Frenchmen would not have forgiven the July Monarchy had it abandoned Mehemet. But it was, besides, a rule of French foreign policy to maintain the integrity of the Ottoman Empire against Russian aggression, and it was doubly so now, when Russia was unfriendly. And the supporters of the
and France supported Mehemet.
as a rebel against legitimate upholding the Sultan against his vassal.* Only
way to uphold the sovRussian designs was to make of Turkey against Egypt a strong rear guard. Louis Philippe, however, did not venture to support Mehemet openly, because of England's jealousy of French influence in Egypt; and the thing most
July Monarchy believed that the best
necessary to Louis Philippe at this time was the English alliSo the July Monarchy adopted a policy which was not ance.
only deceitful, but which also eventually brought
to those powers
State Papers^ vol. xxvi, p. 269, no.
Metternich^s Nachgelassenen Papieren, vol.
v, no. 11 28.
For the position of the various powers as
considered friendly and requested their assistance/
however, was too
active part in
much engrossed in home settling the new complications.'
England, take an
M. de Varennes,
the French charge d'affaires, tendered his good offices to the
and when they were accepted, he requested the name of France, not to continue his march,
and advised Mehemet to accept the southern half of Syria, Unfortunately, France had as consul-general at Alexandria. M. Mimaut, who was devoted to the interests of Mehemet and who professed to believe that the advice of de Verennes was designed to meet diplomatic exigencies and was not to be
taken seriously. He therefore counseled Mehemet to refuse This course was taken, and Ibrahim resumed his march it.
and encamped within a few miles of Scutari. Mahmoud, in immediately invoked, January 31, 1833, the assistance of the Russian fleet, and on the 20th of February it anchored
under the palace of the Sultan. At this moment Admiral Roussin, the French ambassador, arrived. Roussin was a
who was very zealous for his country's honor, the Russian flag was hateful. He demanded that the Russian fleet be sent away at once. Mahmoud
fiery old soldier,
answered that he would gladly accede to his request if he would persuade Mehemet to agree to the terms recommended by de Varennes. Roussin took it upon himself to see that
should be done. But Mehemet, who was still acting upon the counsels of Mimaut, rejected the terms again, and demanded not only the whole of Syria, but also the district of
Adana, the possession of which would open to him the whole of Asia Minor and he ordered Ibrahim to recommence oper;
State Papers^ vol. xxii, p. 140 et seq,
excitement was prevalent.
See Hansard's Parliamentary
third series, vol, xix, p. 578, for Palmerston's admission that refused assistance to the Ottoman Porte.
1833, p. 288.
instead of sending away the Russian fleet. so as to do away with the need of Russian assistance. March 20. vol. later twelve thousand Russian troops encamped at Scutari. Nor was of Russia greatly opposed to the Porte's yielding to the demands Mehemet for Nicholas had now discovered that the aim of . she did so. each placing itself at the disposal of the other for defense against both external and inter- nal dangers. July 10. But it soon transpired that for her prompt compliance there was a special cause. 1833. the alliance held out to Nicholas untold possibilities of intervention in Ottoman affairs. and on May 1st issued a Hatti-sheriff relieving Mehemet from his outlawry and conced- ing everything that he required. to guard against these possibilip.509] THE EGYPTIAN REBELLION 85 The result of Roussin's negotiations was that Mahmoud. Mehemet was tion of the territorial aggrandizement and not the regenera- Ottoman Empire. Mahmoud therefore succumbed. Fifteen days 1833. only two days previously. and the ambassadors of the three powers made upon Mahmoud an energetic demand that he come to terms their with Mehemet. 925. ' Map of Europe by Treaty^ p. asked. Both England and Austria now became alarmed and ordered ambassadors at Constantinople to support the French proposals. that it be reinforced by a Russian army. ii. however." for eight years against all others. she had concluded with the Sultan the Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi. Hertslet's 445 et seq. He 1 took good care. and when asked to remove her troops and fleet. at whatever sacrifice might be necessary. The more the Sultan was enfeebled the more he would need the assistance of the Czar. On July 8th. and a Russian army began to form in the Danubian principalities. Annuaire Lesur^ 1833. and the ease with which stantly the Czar could foment such disorders.' Russia no longer had any pretext for occupying the Bosphorus. . Considering the internal disorders which condisturbed the Ottoman Empire. which practically made Turkey a feudatory It bound the two powers to a defensive alliance of the Czar.
and their relations became more and more strained till an open conflict Mahmoud had took place early in 1839. 428. For a time a war with Russia seemed to be probbut the excitement. May 25 th. in British and Foreign State Papers ^ vol. The French and English governments were greatly exercised. tention to found a dynasty and transmit to his heirs the possession of his dominions.* In conformity with this design he withheld payment of the tribute due to his sovereign. This event naturally increased the anxiety which the powers had already exhibited with regard 1 Hertslet's Map ' See his notification to the of Europe by Treaty vol. French and English consuls general.^ and both governments sent powerful fleets to the Aegean. soon subsided. An attack from either France or England by way of the Mediterranean would then Czar. be impossible. The latter's attempt to establish stable government among the wild tribes of Syria was constantly thwarted by the revolts which Mahmoud And Mehemet made no secret of his insecretly instigated. 696. p. and the events of the year following the settlement tended to disturb his peaceful relations with Mehemet. They could not cross Germany. he cherished an intention to recover his lost provinces. able. and the Baltic admitted of active operations for but a few months in the year. unsatisfactory. tests. p. after venting itself in vigorous pro- Though Sultan Mahmoud yielded to his vassal in 1833. . ^ 1838. Petersburg and ConThe explanations which they obtained were very stantinople. the latter should be excused from furnishing active aid.S6 ties THE EASTERN QUESTION becoming reciprocal. The Turkish army. 26. crossed the Euphrates April 21st. [510 it By a separate article was pro- vided that. which been gathering for some years. and demanded explanations of both St. but should be considered as fulfilling all his engagements by simply closing the Dardanelles to the enemies of the states This would make Russia practically invulnerable to the from which she had most to fear. ii. in case the Czar should stand in need of the assistance of his ally.
and she feared that if a conference should be convoked it would not confine itself to Nicholas. who was glad to act in accord with him in order to strengthen the English The two governalliance. should not be interfered with. which showed signs of weakness. see Palmerston's letter to Ponsonby. but she was equally anxious that her protege. The Divan. Straits would be the most important one to be considered. 247. fleets to if the Aegean. Ibrahim had routed the Turkish army. Metternich revived his old plan of a European con- ference at Vienna. 694 et seq. stricken with consternation. on the other he would have been glad to strike a blow at hand. which bears date five great July 27. although the July Monarchy through Mehemet Ali. with instructions to force the the Russian fleet should enter the Bosphorus.' THE EGYPTIAN REBELLION The 87 Unkiar Skelessi was provisions to last eight years during which the Treaty of had not yet expired.5ii] to the situation. caused by the Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi before the trouble of 1839. ^ As . p. France was anxious to prevent the Russian occupation of the Bosphorus. Such was the condition of affairs when the startling news reached the European courts that on June 24. ments sent Dardanelles In May. 1839. informed the Porte that the 1 powers — British and Foreign State Papers^ vol. and that immediately afterwards the Capudan Pasha with the entire Turkish fleet had gone over to Mehemet. and the assistance of a great power was absolutely necessary to its safety. and under its Russia could send an army to Constantinople/ Palmerston made approaches to Louis Philippe. to the anxiety p. Mehemet Ali. declined Metternich's proposal because he knew that the question of the the question of the Straits. The Ottoman Porte was now without either army or navy. was about to yield unconditionally to Mehemet's demand for the hereditary possession of all his dominions. This note. that a week later Sultan Mahmoud had died. 1839. when a note was received from the powers. xxvi. ii. Bulwer. but France and Russia objected to it. Life of Palmerston^ vol.
ii. Nicholas regarded with grim satisfaction the clash between France and England. England. Palmerston. See Bulwer. 1839. and Russia had agreed to act in concert on the Eastern question."* 1 France in the mean time continued 1840. the people and the newspapers more and more hostile. France. and that if Mehemet refused he should be coerced into But France. had at first counted. xxviii. Seignobos. Prussia. • * Annuaire Lesur^ vol. to main- British and Foreign State Papers^ vol. p. and requested the Turkish government not to come to any definite conclusion — without their advice. xxvi. and to isolate France from arrived at the European concert. that all the provinces which Mehemet had sought to annex to Egypt be restored to their former condition. 262. submission. Political History of Europe since 18 14. August. rejected his proposal." The latter was ready to ally himself with the other powers in the settlement of the Eastern question. On September 15th Baron Brunnow London with a plan of co-operation from the Czar. and determined to seize the opportunity to humiliate the July Monarchy. p. chap. suggested in to the terms of settlement. on whose co-operation Palmerston Not only would she not accept it. p.3 and to that end was willing to renounce the Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi. . and the alliance which had maintained the peace of Europe since 1830 appeared to be on the verge of disruption. but he preferred that France should be excluded from participation in the settlement. see 'For the contents of plan.' The Porte replied that it would await the action of Europe. but she made Mehemet's cause her own.88 THE EASTERN QUESTION [5 1 2 Austria. Life of Palmerston^ p. 442. 408. and the divergence of views was wide between France and England. especially determined to keep the Ottoman Empire intact. and gratefully accepted the proffered But the five great powers were not in accord as mediation. 774. and demanded for him the hereditary possession of Egypt and of all the provinces which he had conquered. The correspondence between the two governments became daily more bitter.
James in 1840. and which were expected to terminate favorably to Mehemet.* Palmerston now entered upon negotiations with the oth«r to be 1 Guizot. p. and the success of the negotiation at Constantinople was rendered null by Thiers' the activities of Ponsonby." Unfortunately.^ After two months of fruitless discussion at London. p. tain the position Thiers did not formally withdraw the adhesion of the French government to the note of July 27. He was instructed Thiers to stave off a final decision until the negotiations by which had been secretly opened at Constantinople between the Sultan and Mehemet. 59. pp. but his design was not to accelerate a settlement. but was answered with new dilatory measures. Embassy Embassy to the Court of St. assured of Russian support. These were to concede to Mehemet the hereditary dominion of Egypt. then French ambassador at London. and ordered Guizot. The English Cabinet. ii. Guizot'. everybody knew that he disapproved of it/ and the French nation enthusiastically supported him in his resolution to protect its Though prot^g^.5 1 3] THE EG YPTIAN REBELLION 89 which she had taken. . v. chap. 1839. Palmerston demanded a categorical reply. under the auspices of the French ambassador. 60. ' French writers are almost unanimous on the anti-French attitude of Ponsonby at Constantinople. should have been concluded.i Embassy For the attitude of the French government on this settlement. the avowed champion of French honor. became president of the council. The charge was made against him in Parliament. yames^ chap. ii. see to the Court 0/ St. early in 1840 invited the powers to send representatives to a conference at London. vol. 627. ' to the Court of St. Thiers. on January ist Palmerston offered to France terms of settlement which were final. 188 et seq. Han- sard. to uphold more energetically than ever the French position. scheme was well known to Palmerston. The conference opened early in April. James in 1840^ chap. Guizot played an important part in it. also p. * Parliamentary Debates. but to retard it. the British ambassador. and the life possession of the pashalik of Acre. Guizot. Ixi.
p. and the Sultan. . ii. James in 1840. p. 309. The conditions agreed upon were to be notified to Mehemet by the Sultan. ii. chap. Russia. the offer of the Sultan was to be reduced to the hereditary governorship of Egypt and in case . provided that he accepted within ten days. Prussia. 269. convinced them that Louis Philippe would avoid war at any On cost." would compel Mehemet Ali. who was to offer him the hereditary administration of Egypt and the life administration of the pashalik of Acre. Lift Embassy to the Court of St. Mehemet should not ^ within another ten days accept this con- to the ' For the plan suggested by Prussia and Austria to France. . and the northern part of Syria. V. 180. 74 et seq. and at the same time ordered the withdrawal of his forces from Crete. and if necessary against France. the Holy Cities. to accept the conditions which the Sultan had agreed to grant him and it under their collective safeguard the Bosphorus and placed the Dardanelles and Constantinople itself. who persuading some of his colleagues in the feared a collision with France but he '" . see Guizot's Embassy Court of St. July 15.3 and that Mehemet would yield without conflict. chap. p. Letter to Granville at Paris in Bulwer. He was alreadyassured of Russia's co-operation. " animated by the desire of maintaining the integrity and independence of the Ottoman Empire as a security for the peace of Europe. British Cabinet The was very divided See his as to the ston on the Eastern question.go THE EASTERN QUESTION [514 three powers for a settlement of the eastern question without France. James^ p. letter to of • Falmerstotiy vol. and the concurrence of Austria and Prussia was also practically assured as the result of the refusal of the French government to accept terms of settlement which they had themselves suggested/ Palmerston had more difficulty in British cabinet. Life of Palmerston^ vol. Adana. a treaty was concluded at London between Great Britain. if necessary by force. It declared that the four powers first named. 1840. Galso uizot. ii. Should he fail to accept within that time. wisdom of supporting PalmerMelbourne in Bulwer. Austria.
235 et seq. v. 1840. chap. and con- cealed altogether the additional protocol. Finally. declared to Guizot that. and even when two days later Palmerston informed " its contents he did not give him the text. iii. 171 et seq. Count * Hertslct's Map of Europe by Treaty ^vol. He worked particularly through his son-in-law. pp. Guizot. 426. Embassy Court of St. James. v. while the French govern- ment might be re-enter the European concert. a credit of a hundred once more as — million francs being voted solely to put Paris in a state of proper defense. Guizot. to diplomatic usage. 1008. 263 272 et seq.5 1 5] THE EG YPTIAN REBELLION ^I was to be bound by nothing. Annual Guizot. and he used every means to obtain some concession from the allies by which he could honorably re-enter the European concert. Immense war preparations were begun. the treaty would This reply was. Leopold of Belgium. James. .* The treaty of the 15th of July was signed without Guizot's him of knowledge. Register. chap.* The Chambers became excited.7 literally the more provoking. p. • Guizot. Louis Philippe was resolved not to go to war. to the ii.^ Palmerston. with Europe arrayed against her. James. p. 208. v.s Nevertheless. however. et seq. the most conservative journals called upon the nation to maintain its honor. France found herself isolated in 1815. at the moment. v. pp. but he was no more angry than his countrymen.3 On receiving the news of the treaty Thiers was angry. chap. the Sultan treaty without awaiting the exchange of ratifications. Life of Palmers ton f * * p. all carried out. men talked of taking up again the struggle against Europe and of regaining the natural frontiers of the country the Rhine and the Alps. • See Palmerston's defense of his action in his vol. who was also an uncle of Queen Victoria and had great influence with her. because Thiers' agent in Egypt. it was agreed in an additional contrary protocol that the powers should proceed to carry out the cession. Embassy to the Court of St. p. to the to the • ' Embassy Court of St. pp. Embassy Court of St. letter to Hobhouse in Bulwer. chap. James.
3 but Palmerston persisted in his calm assurance that Louis Philippe would not go to war and that Mehemet would not resist the allies. however.* outbreak. and vol. and before the latter's reply had arrived at Constantinople. Whilst a Turkish agent carried the ultimatum of the treaty to Mehemet. Ivi. vol. James. announced that France would make no further concessions. p. and on September 18. 322 et seq. which was evacuated by Ibrahim September nth. in v. p. When the news from the East arrived at Paris. had just returned with a concession from Mehemet. Three days later. p. see Aus Metternich's Nachgelassenen Papieren. outlawed Mehemet. 182 et seq. p. At this conjuncture news arrived from the East which tended to defeat any attempt at conciliation.^2 THE EASTERN QUESTION [516 Walewski. and was ready to sustain her position. 50 et seq. p. an Anglo-Austrian fleet blockaded the coast of Syria and bombarded Beyrouth. to the Court of St. . ' « Bulwer. v. instead of accepting the proposition of Walewski. liii. 295 et seq. chap. where demands were on all sides heard for a campaign against the hereditary enemy.' Thiers immediately sent Walewski to Constantinople to obtain the assent of the Porte to this arrangement.* These declarations alarmed the more yielding members of the British Cabinet. Hansard's Parliamentary Debates. * Guizot. *As to the war alarm 465 Germany. who had promised him to accept the hereditary possession of Egypt and the Hfe possession of Syria. there occurred another outburst of indignation. et seq. p. 1840.^ Several circumstances. chap. Embassy to the Court of St.. and the situation became very critical. of defense. Life of Palmerston. vi. ii. combined to prevent an of fighting in. vol. the principal one being the determination of Louis 1 Guizot. the Divan. such as had been made in Prussia and Austria consulted as to the best measures 181 3. James. and talk Europe and regaining the Rhine frontier was again This was met by a patriotic outburst all over indulged Germany. Embassy vol. 283.
p. Leopold of Belgium was again employed as an intermediary to obtain some concessions from the terms of the treaty of the 15th of July. 1840. under gave an assurance that the outlawry of Mehemet should have no effect. therefore. because of the latter's refusal to moderate the address to the Chambers and accept a colorless one proposed by the king himself. who became minister of foreign affairs. because of his known conservative views. also Guizot. vi. Philippe to avoid war. Philippe to get rid of Thiers. who did not want depriving the casus belli to war any more than Louis Philippe. Guizot hoped that the European courts would be willing to concede to him what they had refused to Thiers. * Annual Register. Embassy Embassy Court of St. but * Annual y Register ^ 1840. p. p. 321. p. was prevailed upon Louis Philippe refused to support it. James ^ chap. Embassy to the Court of St." Metternich at the same time interceded with Louis the pressure of his colleagues as well as of Metternich. worked on Palmerston. Guizot. whom he regarded as the incarnation of the Revolution and whom Louis Philippe himself to dismiss as soon as he safely could do so. Court of St. vi. chap.517J THE EGYPTIAN REBELLION ^^ Thiers When.* The new ministry set before itself the task of reconciling France with Europe without suffering a loss of dignity. James chap. to the to the Guizot. . submitted a warlike declaration to the Chambers. 3 Marshal Soult became president of the new ministry. Thiers resigned. p. but Guizot. 177. but he to withdraw his resignation when shown that in the excited state of public feeling it might prove fatal to the monarchy. vii. He recalled the French fleet from the East in order to prevent a collision with the British. 38^1. 178. ' * 321. James. who. early in October. An on Louis Philippe's life having momentarily revived attempt his popularity. he seized the opportunity to dismiss Thiers. was the was anxious real head. and limited the contingency of the quadruple alliance Mehemet of Egypt' Metternich.
In the parliamentary discussions of November 25th to 28th Guizot declared that France would not suffer Mehemet to be dispossessed of Egypt. p. Jean d' Acre having done so on November and that Ibrahim had been compelled to evacuate most of In such a crisis it was felt that no French ministry. fleet. After the taking of St. which stipulated that. 193. However desirous the French government might be to avoid a conflict. The effect of this action. rejected the convention and refused to grant to Mehemet more than the life possession of Egypt. Lije of Palmerston^ vol. And the reports which continued to come from the East were such as to prevent the French government from assuming any other position. deserted by France. however desirous of peace. the coast of Syria had surrendered to the St.94 THE EASTERN QUESTION [518 sacrificed to those of Palmerston answered that the interests of Europe could not be Louis Philippe. and that France in any event had nothing to do with a treaty to which she was not a At about the same time word arrived from the East party. the English ambassador at Constantinople. which.' that nearly all English 2d. Jean d'Acre. was entirely nullified by the course of the Porte. the quadruple alliance would cease all warlike operations against Mehemet and induce the Ottoman Porte to concede to him the hereditary possession of Egypt. which was consistent with the view now held by the French government. ii. and the armaments begun by the preceding ministry were continued with feverish haste. Admiral Napier had sailed to Alexandria and threatened it with bombardment if Mehemet did not make an immediate submission. in consideration of the complete evacuation of Syria by Ibrahim. p. under the influence of Ponsonby. 301. Syria. . Annual Registery 1840. ^ Letter to Granville in Bulwer. and the restitution of the Turkish fleet. could yield without sacrificing French dignity."" The Eastern question became more acute than ever. Mehemet. agreed to the convention of November 25th.
vol. vi. and should not again be brought into discussion that its fulfilment should be evidenced by an official notice to the French government and that the question of disarmament should not be raised. a note inviting the Porte not only to revoke the outlawry pronounced against Mehemet. Metternich was more anxious than ever to prevent war and maintain the status quo in Europe. The allies adopted on Janu- more ary 31. . pp. 1841. but also to accord to him the promise that his descendants in the direct line should be successively named by the Sultan to the pashalik of Egypt. i. He at therefore* authorized to accept the terms : . These points admitted. the French embodied in the ambassador London. 84 1. Debidour. and on February I. the following condinote of the 31st of January." vol. The resolute attitude of France alarmed Austria and Prussia.' The danger would not be removed until France disarmed. This was far removed from the demands of France a year before. and that would be impossible until the Eastern question was solved. Aus Metternich' s Nachgelassenen Papierei:. but it was at least a concession.519] it THE EGYPTIAN REBELLIOiV The 95 could not disarm without dishonor. but only on That the initiative in the negotiations should be taken tions not by France but by the allies that the hereditary possession of Egypt should be assured to Mehemet Ali that the treaty of the 15th of July should be considered as entirely executed. Histoire Diplomatique. to bring France once into the European concert. . 513 ^^ seq. the quadruple alliance was persuaded to come to an agreement acceptable to France. and Guizot eagerly em1 braced Bourqueney. the Chambers passed a law relative to the fortification of Paris. Austria and Prussia therefore labored together during January. and Prussia was fearful for war her Rhine provinces. * p. the * allies. 1841. it. the French government would gladly conclude a convention relative to the East with . and in spite of the underhanded opposition of Nicholas and the indifference of Palmerston. a troops were kept on footing. .
* to primogeniture the Pasha was to be permitted to according tion. * Annuaire Lesur. in it man Empire. . name the officers of the army up to the grade of colonel. discuss. On June lOth. p. the amount of which was to be fixed from time to time. the to reduce his titulary of the to eighteen thouarmy officer above the rank of the new mode of collecting the taxes was to be prescribed the Sultan. but at the instigation of Ponsonby had imposed restrictions which Mehemet would not The Sultan was to have the right on each vacancy to accept. preliminary conditions and in the first week of aiCCepted. designate . who was to receive one-fourth of the proceeds. It consisted This project was far from what Guizot desired. but this point England was unwilling to Nevertheless. simply in a declaration that the Straits should rest under the absolute sovereignty of Turkey and should be closed to the Guizot wished to include naval forces of all the other powers. . and a project of a quintuple convention was submitted. "^ Annual Register^ 1841. a Hatti. and Guizot declared that Ffance could not sign the projected convention. in- clusive. and on April 19th another Hatti-sheriff was issued satisfactory The hereditary possession of Egypt was to be to Mehemet.q5 ^^^ EASTERN QUESTION The [520 demanded by Guizot were March a protocol was drawn The treaty of the 15th of July was declared to be fulup. He also desired to insert a provision for the protection of the Christians in Syria. among the heirs of Mehemet pashalik the Pasha was sand men. p.sheriff of February 13th had accorded to Mehemet the hereditary possession of Egypt.' by Mehemet refused these conditions. however. 516. 1841. 286. Guizot was about to accept the proThe Sultan by tocol when grave news arrived from the East. filled. was desirous to uphold the Porte in its posiMetternich interposed with energy at Constantinople. a guarantee of the integrity and independence of the Ottobut to this Russia now refused to accede. None of the powers. and was not to name any adjutant. and finally he was to pay a tribute.
Nicholas had lost the ground which he gained by the Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi. was largely controlled by Stratford Canning. placed himself to a great extent under the influence of Reschid allowed to Pasha. who succeeded Mahmoud in 1839. vol. British and Foreign State Papers.5 2 1] THE EG YPTIAN REBELLION p~ Mehemet solemnly accepted the conditions of the Hatti-sheriff. » some agreement with Great It was during this visit that ii. but incidentally to destroy the entente between Eng- land and France. and on July 13.^ Reschid and his friends believed that the only way to prevent the de- was by carrying out the reforms inMahmoud and developing them. as far as possible. Reschid struction of their country exerted himself. In his effort to abase France. who from this time down to the Crimean War was to exercise so great an influence on the fortunes of the Ottoman Empire. 1841. « ' Lane Poole. and he set to work to recover it but he was to find in the future that no one state would be . xxxi. in turn. and to come to Britain on the Turkish question. Sultan Abdul-Medjid. In 1844. The Czar regenerated. ostensibly to congratulate Victoria on her accession to the throne. p. .^ It did not by any means solve the Eastern question. Life of Stratford Cannings chaps. obliged to combat an enemy who was quite as difficult to deal with as either of the other two. 1239. education and taxation. This enemy was Nicholas of Russia. to put it into force but he was . and he used did not desire to see the Ottoman Empire all his influence with the subject peoples to prevent it. In 1839 there augurated by was published the Hatti-sheriff of Gulhan^. p. there was concluded at London a treaty which guaranteed the neutrality of the Straits. to xxiii. Hertslet. the leader of the Turkish reform party.^ which proposed many reforms in administration. settle the Eastern question alone. Reschid. he paid a visit to England. and in the relations between the Turks and the Rayahs. 1024. Map of Europe by Treaty ^ vol. in the face of Turkish fanatacism and Rayah ignorance. xvii.
^8 he made THE EASTERN QUESTION [522 his first suggestion for the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire. the European situation appearing to be favorable. and seized the opportunity of an uprising in the Danubian principalities to send an army thither. determined to carry out the scheme which he had never re- by linquished since his accession to the throne of the Ottoman Empire. It was received very coldly by the British Whatever the immediate plans which he may foreign office. p.'' denial his weak neighbor. And when. he was obliged to postpone them. refused either their extradition or their immediate It was galling to Nicholas to submit to such a expulsion. See the voluminous correspondence on State Papers^ vol. but he was only biding his time. vol. faction the rebellions in its neighbors' dominions. after the revolution was over. part » printed in Parliamentary Papers for 1854. this question in British and Foreign . the Porte. Russia and Austria demanded the extradition of the Polish and Hungarian refugees. Ixxi. he By 1852. vi."" have had against the integrity of Turkey. ostensibly to keep the peace. Soon afterwards there came the Revolution of 1848 and the attitude of the Porte during that struggle was not such as to conciliate him. strongly backed by France and England. xxxviii. The Porte witnessed with satis. containing is the views of Nicholas and delivered to the British government. * —the despoilment Nesselrode's memorandum. who had found asylum in the Turkish dominions. but in reality to counterbalance the Russian army which had also occupied the territory. 1266 et seq.
. the France. this Louis Napoleon desired to gain the support of the Church. profiting by the absence of the French am1852. But since 1 701. After having vainly invoked the Capitulations of 1740. the governmental changes were so violent and numerous that the Latin monks could rely but little on the support of the chief Catholic power. when Peter the Great became not only the temporal but also the spiritual head of Russia. the chief of the Holy Places. and from the French Revolution to the accession of Napoleon HI. July 15. After several months of investigation. These privileges were solemnly The confirmed by the Capitulations of 1740. 99 523] .. he demanded the appointment of a commission to inquire into the relative claims of the Greeks and Latins. and the tomb of the Virgin at Gethsemane. and ary 9. 185 1. the encroachments of the Greek monks on the privileges of the Latins had been steady and persistent. while the Greeks were always sure of the aid of Russia. dated Holy back to the sixteenth century. the Holy Sepulchre. the attention of French statesmen was turned chiefly to internal affairs. under the protection of France. To end he overthrew the Roman Republic. as well as the great church of Bethlehem. the grotto of the Nativity.CHAPTER VI THE CRIMEAN WAR special privileges enjoyed by the Latin monks in the Places in the East. When Louis Napoleon became President of France. The Sultan appointed such a commission. After the death of Louis XV. commission reported in favor of the claims of this report was confirmed by the firman of FebruBut. and he now de- cided to intervene in the dispute as to the Holy Places. had fallen into the hands of the Greeks.
i. he despised Napoleon III. because of the firm friendship of Frederick William IV. page 6lS et seg. Russia intimidated the Porte into granting demands At the same time. official irreconcilable with the firman. 1853. made Russia began to claim that the Treaty of Kainardji not only the Czar the legal protector of the Greek monks. vol. vol.lOO 2T/S EASTERN QUESTION [524 bassador. 3 chap. Nicholas counted on the benevolent neutrality oi Austria. because of her gratitude for his suppression of the Hungarian Revolution.. ce sera. il devait nous echapper. and in January.'' His efforts were. therefore. surtout avant que toutes les dispositions necessaires fussent prises. He was willing that England should have Egypt and Crete.. but all also of subjects of the Ottoman Porte belonging to the Greek Church. Hating France as the source of all revolutionary movements. Ixxi. un grand malheur si. nos. directed to that end.3 The Czar's proposals were rejected by the English ministry. vol. je vous le dis franchement. la Russie. See also in Phillidis- more's International Law. les < Nous avons sur bras un homme malade — un homme gravement malade . I-84. he would not hesitate to do so.^ In his efforts to give effect to this claim. and if it were necessary to fight France in order to carry out his projects. third edition. provided he could placate England. see Rambaud. Histoire de ii. a thorough cussion of the Russian claim to a protectorate over the Christians in the Ottoman Empire. ' For an account of Nicholas' feelings toward France. provided Russia and England could agree. he held the celebrated conversations with Sir Hamilton Seymour. almost until war actually broke out. un de ces jours. and. and also on that of Prussia. Likening Turkey to a "sick dying condition he suggested that it behooved Russia and England to consider his demise and arrange for the distribution of his effects." . xvi. Nicholas labored under the impression that England was not ' See Parliamentary Papers for 18^4. but it seems quite certain that. The thing could be done quietly and easily. although he disclaimed any desire to retain Constantinople permanently. he — man" —a man in a would occupy it temporarily as a gage for the future.
.^ No one could have been selected more fit to carry out an arrogant mission than Prince Mentschikoff. For details of negotiations. Ixxi. nos. Neither France nor England had at the moment an ambassador in Constantinople. Sir Stratford Canning and M. 87. Ixxi. and with the of the forces and the vice-admiral of the fleet he entered Constantinople February 28th. than whom there was no more arrogant man. Prince Mentschikoff.ocx) Christian subjects of the Ottoman Porte. set out for Constantinople on a highest dignitaries On the way south he visited the Russian special embassy.* As the heads of that church exercised numerous and important temporal functions over the i2.525] "^HE CRIMEAN WAR lOi Opposed to the destruction of the Ottoman Empire. de la Cour. 124. Nesselrode assured foreign representatives that it was to discuss the two questions that had recently arisen in consequence of the dispute as to the Holy Places in Palestine and of the rebellion in Montenegro. On February 10. soon reached Constantinople. Parliamentary tapers ^ vol. but towards the end of March the Turkish ministers informed the charges d'affaires of the western powers that Mentschikoff had made a proposal under threat of evil consequences if it were divulged. he demanded that the Sultan should conclude a treaty recognizing the Czar as the legal protector of the Greek church in the Ottoman Empire. one of the of Russia. In response to inquiries as to the object of the special embassy. vol. Their governments had been advised of the situation and had instructed them to act in unison. 1853. In exchange for a permanent alliance which he offered the Sultan. nos. the submission of the Sultan to this demand would have been practically equivalent to an abdication of all sovereignty. fleet commander and inspected the army along the Pruth. and that she had declined his overtures probably because she had some scheme of partition of her own. 171. The English and French ambassadors. Canning and de la Cour affected to 1 ' Seymour to Russell. see Parliametttary Papers^ 108-140.ooo.
102 believe "^HE EASTERN QUESTION [526 what MentschikofT continued to assert.-^ his refusal The Sultan at the same time confirmed Rechid Pasha. 193. in Mentschikoff professed 371 et seq. If the answer were in the negative.* and Canning had no great difficulty in obtaining from France such concessions in the Holy Places dispute as necessarily satisfied Russia. vol. cxxvi. but also its temporal privileges. Parliamentary Papers y JbicLy vol. no. Thanks to Austrian pressure at Constantinople. on May lOth. Ixxi. p. ii. full It was willing to guarantee by a public act But that would be as religious liberty to all its subjects. Life of Stratford Cannings vol. Lane-Poole. and there was now nothing left to Mentschi- koff but either to withdraw or to unmask. xxv. ^Hansard's Parliamentary Debates^ ' ' vol. that the object mission was the settlement of questions as to the Holy Places and Montenegro and they hoped by peaceof the letter's .^ An agreement was signed May 4th. hesitate. ably settling these questions to deprive Russia of any pretext for further interference in Turkey. * . Still less would it bind itself spect with any foreign power. that it could not agree to a convention which would destroy its independence by placing its internal administration under the surveillance and control of a foreign power. chap. 179. of Russia. Ixxi. Nicholas did not By his order Mentschikoff on the 5th of May addressed an ultimatum to the Porte drawn up in most concise terms. he should immediately quit Constantinople and his master would take the necessary measures. contract in anything that concerned the temporal privileges by of the Greek church. the reformer and enemy by putting charge of foreign affairs. an act of sovereignty it would not engage itself in that re. demanding that the Porte conclude within five days a convention with Russia guaranteeing to the Greek church not only its religious liberties. the Montenegrin question was already in a fair way to be settled. no.3 Encouraged by the French and English ambassadors the Porte replied.
195. ^ . enraged the Czar. vol. A few days later Nesselrode sent an ultimatum to the Porte demanding that it accept Mentschikoff *s last proposal within eight days. stirred.-^ On June 26th. vol.sacred duty . Ixxi. and on June ist they out first ordered their danelles. for Nicholas had given his word to the English Government that he would not act in the East with- coming to an agreement with it. his action as the performance of a .^ pendence and sovereignty of the Sultan. no. 316. Ixxi. carefully reserving the inde- concessions demanded. 1853. if it persisted in its refusal. a simple note should be addressed to the Russian government. in which he explained the reasons which had driven Nicholas to that extreme. no. just outside the Darstill observed the Treaty of the and yet were within call of the Sultan. no. Straits of fleets By 1 so doing they 84 1.527] to ^'^^ CRIMEAN WAR IO3 reduce his pretensions by suggesting that instead of a formal convention. on the same day. in which the Porte should make the Rechid. see Parliamentary Papers^ Parliamentary Papers^ Ibid. who was already incensed at the rejection of Nesselrode's ultimatum. no. Ixxi. 210. no. which secured full religious liberty to all Besika Bay. Nesselrode addressed a circular to all Russian diplomatic " " irresistible agents abroad. On June nth." Europe was greatly the Czar . vol.^ vol. after which. the Czar "would take his guarantee" and immediately occupy Moldavia and Wallachia. Ixxi. Mentschikoff left Constantinople the next day. and at the issuance by the Porte on June 6th of a hatti-sheriff. Ixxi. 323.3 The two western powers daily drew closer together. This to the subjects of the Sultan. Ibid. and was almost a unit against but the provocation to England and France was especially great. sent a note drawn in a sense directly the opposite of that which Mentschikoff suggested. May 20.5 I Parliamentary Papers.y vol. Nicholas issued a manifesto to the Russian nation. justifying On July 3d. ' ' * For repeated assurances. 236.
and whose sympathies moreover were divided by her interests. and the Czar could easily arouse a Pan-Slavic agitation at any . the Austrian chancellor. in order to bring England and France into the negotiations. but sought merely to take his guarantees.I04 THE EASTERN QUESTION [528 the Russian troops occupied the principalities. In order not to irritate the despite the treaty of 1841 did not recognize any of Europe to interfere between him and Turkey. Count right Buol.' The statesmen and diplomatists of Europe who had striven so hard since the Revolution of 1848 to prevent a breach of the peace. into an unofficial conference. she feared a Napoleon in France and she was alienated both from England and from France by their sympathy with Hungary and their support of Turkey in her But Russian refusal to deliver up the Hungarian refugees. now set to work to modify the situation by the usual methods of diplomacy. Ixxi. no. 325.^ vol. Ixxi. which was forthwith transmitted to the 1 « Parliamentary Papers^ Ibid. vol. he together the ambassadors at Vienna. Nearly every European statesman had a solution of the difficulty. always hopeful of retaining Austrian friendship. 368. instead of by a declaration of war. who had more at stake than other powers. Buol also persuaded the Porte to reply to the Russian occupation of the principalities by a who simple protest. in the Hapsburg dominions. accepted. Austria. control of the Danube would greatly endanger her interests. labored with particular energy. time Czar. though Nesselrode assured the foreign representatives that the Czar did not consider himself in a state of war with Turkey. of England. On the other hand. no. and called at least eleven different plans were seriously considered.^ Then. Besides being deeply indebted to Nicholas for his assistance against the Hungarians. offered to him simply a semiofficial mediation. France and Prussia. but on August 1st the conference finally agreed to what is known as the Vienna note. which the Czar. . she approved of his system of government.
who thought omitted all fatal defect. war was solemnly declared by the Porte against Russia. the maintenance of the sovereignty of the Ottoman Porte. 71. and France and England a few weeks later ordered their fleets to pass the Dardanelles. Ixxi. unless were amended. Ixxi. bankruptcy of the country would render it incapable of maintaining a war for six months. part 2. The Turkish government it therefore refused to accept the note.3 The conferring diplomatists at Vienna were compelled to admit that the Czar's interpretation was not what had been intended. part 2. Accordingly he was in no hurry to begin operations. p. 66-'j<) Ibid. but on September 7th Nicholas published an interpretation of the Vienna note which fully justified the Turkish action.529] ^^^ CRIMEAN WAR IO5 Czar and to the Sultan. vol. During all these months Turkey had been preparing for war. and the fancied impossibility of an alliance between England and France. in fifteen days. passim ^ especially enclosure in no. the sympathy of Europe was withdrawn from the Turk. vol. he still counted on the neutrality of Austria and Prussia. on October 4th. The note was vague and equivocal. and the Porte could no longer withstand the popular outcry. and the Czar immediately accepted it/ But when it reached Constantinople it was closely scrutinized by both Rechid and Stratford Canning. 1171. • * See the declaration in Hertslet. Mussulman fanaticism had been aroused by the crusading tone of Nicholas' manifesto. » Ibid.y vol.* When October 8th. and Nesselrode informed Europe October 1 Parliamentary Papers^ vol. nos. Moreover. part 2. ii. no.. no. principalities. on pain of beginning Nicholas was not moved by the He believed that financial the warlike attitude of Turkey. 54. the Anglo-French fleet appeared before Constantinople a great Council was held.' For a moment. . Ixxi. Map 0/ Europe by Treaty. 94. in that it that they discerned in it a mention of the essential point of the controversy. and ten days later. Omar Pasha summoned Prince Gortchakoff to evacuate the hostilities.
^ Palmerston's resignation 5 1 Parliamentary Papers. on the coast of Asia Minor. ii. although she accepted the war which had been forced upon her. 317. who resumed their consultations. and utterly destroyed it. begged the French and English admirals to pass the Bosphorus. 226. vol.I06 THE EASTERN QUESTION [530 30th that Russia. 1853. inclosure I. inclosure 2. part 2. no.* A Just at this moment. and . when everything looked propitious^ events occurred which destroyed all hope of peace. This so angered Nicholas that he abandoned his pacific declaration of October 30th and ordered his fleet to sea. 315. Ibid." the Prince Consort * wrote to Baron Stockmar September sort. Ibid. vol. would prove the purity of her intentions by confining herself to the defensive/ His pacific language encouraged the Vienna conferrees. part 2. to stem the tide of English public feeling. since but it had already determined upon war. part 2. Ixxi. Ixxi.'^ The French government was ready to grant this petition. 416.y vol.y vol. It found the Turkish fleet in the harbor of Sinope. . It specified two conditions as (i) being essential to the European equilibrium: rity of the The integ- Ottoman empire. being thus disabled from defending himself in the Black Sea. * " The public here is furiously Turkish and anti-Russian. added to the protocol by which the Porte was requested to make known the conditions on which it would treat with Russia. no. ' ' * Ibid. 337. and on December 5th adopted a protocol as a point of departure for securing peace. Life 0/ the Prince Con- p. wished to divert the attention of the French from home affairs^ and hoped by a successful foreign war to strengthen his hold on the throne.. no. though in vain. vol. Contrary to the Czar's expectations. Napoleon III. no. Ixxi. the ful Turks were generally successand defeated the Russians in in their military operations both Europe and Asia. 21st. the peace cabinet of Aberdeen tried. Martin. Ixxi. part 2.* The Sultan. pendence of the Sultan the governmental indebut the Sultan was to be asked to (2) note was ameliorate the condition of his Christian subjects.
who should not refuse but new concessions to his as Christian subjects. Ottoman Empire the Sultan. (3) in 1 84 1. no. should grant sovereignty. no. Life of Palmers ion. part 7. and (4) respect for the governmental independence of . Everybody anxiously awaited his decision. vol. ii. 31. Berlin to secure the benevolent neutrality of those two courts. Ixxi. but the Czar was now desirous of gaining time. * ^ * Parliamentary Papers. McCarthy. History of Our * Nicholas had really thought that England had joined the Peace Society.s refused the Turkish proposals. 396. Ixxi. vol.^ On these conditions them Turkey was an act of The conference immediately acted upon the Turkish program. . xxvi. Ibid. and on January 13.53l] THE CRIMEAN WAR IO7 from the cabinet was accepted. part 2. Own Times. vol. part 2. Chap. inviting him to evacuate the principalities and to submit the future treaty of 1 Ashley. and the Czar in the East. Parliamentary Papers. 345.. 1854. chap.-* he was all the more anxious to be assured as to the attitude of Austria and PrusHe sent Count Orlofl" to Vienna and Baron Budberg to sia. ii. promising in return that he would consult with them and with them only as to the re-establishment of the political equilibrium Both envoys were unsuccessful. Ixxi. Relieved of all illusions as to the position of England. but a few days later Aberdeen was forced to re-admit him and to adopt his program/ On December 27th the two western courts informed Russia that their fleets would enter the Black Sea and that the Russian fleet would not be permitted to sail there/ On the 30th of the same month Turkey informed Buol that the conditions upon which she was willing to re-establish peace were (i) the maintenance and guarantee of the territorial integrity of the (2) the evacuation of the principalities by the renewal of the guarantees given to the Porte Russia. Napoleon III. on January 29th wrote an autograph letter to Nicholas. charged Buol to submit it to the Czar. no. vol. willing to open negotiations under the mediation of the Vienna conference.
the concurrence of Prussia was essential. tion 1 Europe Hungarian Revoluand many of the king's warmest friends. no. Nicholas. also. no. loi. to Nicholas and Annual Register for 18^4^ p. thing till would mean a long and costly war before Russia But Buol was unwilling to sign anyFrance and England had gone too far to withdraw. for without her co-operation they could attack Russia only by way of the Baltic and the Black Sea. It was deemed especially important to gain Austria. 242 et seq. in reality playing a double game. that they address an ultimatum to the Czar So he suggested requiring the immediate evacuation of the principalities and He also considered it necthreatening war in case of refusal. with whom the prospect of war was as yet unpopular. and answer of Westmoreland. at No. Also the British demand for the evacuation of the principalities. . 106 of part Parliamentary Papers. Frederick William IV. He was . 103. England and France now addressed themselves with re- doubled energy to the task of converting the coalition into a quadruple alliance. to secure the safety of her dominions by an alliance with Prussia and with this aim he approached the Prussian court. and then to appear as an armed mediator between the belligerents and lay down the law for Europe. in case she should take part in the war. ''mon frere. Clarendon to Westmoreland 7.I08 THE EASTERN QUESTION [532 call peace to the guarantee of Europe. if possible. however. and the heirthe latter's answer are found in all the ' The letter of Napoleon III. was subject to contradictory influences. and that could be exhausted.^ essary for Austria. as she had been in 1812/ This pointed reference to the Moscow campaign did much to rouse the French. coupled with the assurance that Russia would be able to take care of herself in 1854. The in Liberals of Prussia united with the Liberals of in the detesting Nicholas for his part . He hoped to push France and England to the front to do the fighting.. To the success of this design. Vienna." answered his "bon ami" with a refusal. who declined to Napoleon III.
and Frederick William did not desire to offend the other Protestant power. in Von Sybel. Founding of the German Em- book vi. ii. a policy of great advantage to Russia. and that it should be the duty of Prussia to stand as the protector of German interests. he looked upon the Czar as the defender of the A leon Cross against the Crescent.533] ^-^^ CRIMEAN WAR IO9 apparent. 1855. and could no longer delay to enter upon their campaign. . March 12th they concluded an offensive and defensive alliance with Turkey . cxxxvii. In March. ii.3 March 27th they declared war against Russia. 858 et seq. therefore. the result of the opposing influences to which he was subject. Hertslet. led by Bismarck. favorable to Russia manded looked after her selfish concerns. vol. p. p.. 2 As to the irritation felt in the West at the vacillating policy of Prussia during the war. England. especially that of March 20. Jbid. ^ and on April loth they formally united in a treaty by which they engaged that neither of them would treat separately with 1 The positions of the various Prussian parties on the question of alliance with the Western pire^ Powers are well stated chap. dur- ing the period of negotiations. the peace. vol. the reactionaries led by the Queen were while a third party. in Hansard's Parliamentary Debates. Prince William. On the other hand.^ France and England meanwhile had completed their preparations. were strong for an English alliance. dea strict neutrality. and he hated and feared NapoBut at the same time Nicholas was the disturber of III. His actions. Then he hastened to send agents to London and Paris to explain his position and to give assurances that he was willing to sign a protocol with France. 11 85. strongly religious man. contending that German interests were not involved. see Debates in Parliament for 18^4-1836. 3 * vol. Austria and England which should afford a basis for re-establishing peace between Russia and Turkey.^ The King himself sym- pathized more with the Czar than with the allies. ii. while Austria . he declared he would never go to war with the Czar. 1181. were vacillating. p.
1191. vol. for France and England sent ships proved and troops to the Piraeus and easily restrained Greece. He was more fortunate with Greece. a treaty was signed. and (4) an agreement on the guarantees necessary to regulate the politi- Turkey in such a manner as to safeguard the European equilibrium.* a strict solidarity between the four states in all that conEach engaged not to separate itself from the difficulties. but having failed in the attempt. * • p. 193. the gratitude of Russia without compromising Prussia with the western powers. Bismarck. He had endeavored to obtain the alliance of either Sweden or Denmark. But this eventually to be of little value. was exposed to an attack from the Baltic. and on April 20. 1854. He had also been unsuccessful in inciting Persia to a war with the Sultan. .. however.no Russia or seek THE EASTERN QUESTION [534 in the war any individual advantage/ On April the conference of Vienna accepted the suggestion of the 9th. who directly aided the Christian insurrection in Thessaly and Epirus. (2) the evacuation of the principalities by Russia . ii. King of Prussia and adopted a protocol which seemed to estab- lish cerned the East.. vol. 201. p. ii. other three for the settlement of the pending and they adopted as an invariable basis for such a settlement the four following conditions: (i) The integrity of the Ottoman Empire . (3) the independence of the Sultan and the free gift by him of liberties and privileges to his Christian subjects. 1 Ibid. 1 He knew how slowly the German 1 and he also knew that many Hcrtslct. Frederick William meanwhile became alarmed at Prussia's isolation in Europe and lent a willing ear to the Austrian proposal for an alliance. of the princes of the smaller Ger- p. deprived cal relations of the treaty of its effect by obtaining a stipulation for its submisBismarck sought to gain sion to the German Confederation. vol. Ibid. Diet acted. Nicholas in the meantime had not been idle.^ by which Austria and Prussia agreed both to repel any hostile attack on the territory of either. ii.
ir. Moldavia and Wallachia. and two contracting parties should take the offensive An and (2) that the only in case the Russians crossed the Balkans or proclaimed the annexation of the principalities. due largely to Prussian procrastination. Histoire Diplomatique de V Europe^ vol. and. slight value of the Austro. ^Debidour. instead of taking the defend himself. its would become an object of dislike it fail : This was shrewd diplomacy. pleted the evacuation of them and on June 14th Austria had contracted an alliance with Turkey ' to the effect that to the . instead of benefiting Austria. Prussia could answer that she could not act without the approval of the Confederation. and this it was an easy matter to prevent. but he answered that he could not formally comply with the summons unless Austria would guarantee him against attack by way of the As a matter of fact his troops had almost comprincipalities. Buol sent the summons to Russia June 3d. treaty. offensive. For if Austria should answer the English and French for action demands with the statement that she could not act without Prussia. Hertslet. nor did in additional article to the treaty stipulated (i) object' That Austria should summon the Czar to arrest his march to fix the terms of his occupation of the principalities. He had decided to prevent Austria from joining his enemies. was preparing to The be demonstrated. Austria would thus have repaid the Czar with ingratitude for past services. would really injure her. .Prussian treaty was soon to After six weeks' delay. having also failed to aid France and England. end of the war Austria should occupy and defend against all attack. 121 3. p. to everybody. in so doing allies against Russia. June 29th Nicholas sent his reply. vol ii. There was little danger of Prussia's having to undertake war under those conditions. ii. for the Anglo-French forces had already arrived in Turkey.535] THE CRIMEAN WAR states m man The were bound by matrimony and other ties to Russia. but should not hinder the operations of the • if necessary. chap. and Nicholas.
nor could he join the allies without But as the Russians had evacuated the Prussia's support. and that. vol. but both finally Prussia and the Confederation. Despite the determination of the allies to continue the — — exercised by Russia up to that time over Moldavia. Wallachia and Servia should cease. Prussia declared that as the stay out of them. The expediprincipalities. though Prussia declined to do so.^ . . the allies also should be obliged to Moreover. and France the propositions which soon became known as the adopted Four Points. the diplomats did not relinquish their efforts to bring about a peace and when Buol reopened the Vienna conference in July. she was exempt from the engagement to undertake war against him. France and England decided not to cross the Danube. which had acceded to the Austro-Prussian Treaty on July 24th. France and England took part in it. Czar had not crossed the Balkans or announced the annexation of the principalities. the representatives of the three powers Austria. should be put under the collective guarantee of the powers by a treaty concluded with the Porte (2) that the navigation of the Danube at its mouths should be freed from . hoped that Sebastopol could be taken by a coup de main. page 121 6. Buol was finally left stranded. August 8. and as it was too late in the summer to begin without Austria's cooperation a campaign in Russia. England.112 THE EASTERN QUESTION [536 Austria sent her troops into the principalities and called upon Prussia and the Confederation to prepare their contingents. agreed upon. answered that the Russian reply to the summons was perfectly satisfactory. along the lines of which the Treaty of Peace was These were (1) that the protectorate eventually effected. and that the privileges accorded by the Sultans to these provinces. as dependencies of the Ottoman Empire. He could neither demand of the allies what Prussia and the Confederation desired. ii. and it was war and abase Russia. however. if Russia should be compelled to evacuate the principalities. tion to the Crimea was. 1854. * Hertslet.
powers in the interests of the balance of power of Europe and (4) that Russia should abandon her claim to exercise an official protectorate over the subjects of the Sublime Porte.' France and England now assumed an insistent attitude towards Austria. no matter to what religion they belonged. 1854. whither they were sent by Buol. chap. did * See Von Sybel. although Austria reserved a certain liberty of judgment in case she should be forced to take part in the war. Prussia and the confederation should. The four points were received with disfavor at Berlin and at Frankfort. THE CRIMEAN WAR H^ and made subject to the application of the prinof the Congress of Vienna (3) that the Treaty of the ciples Straits of 1841 should be revised by the high contracting . which was approved at Frankfort December 9th. powers should obtain from the Porte the confirmation and observance of the religious privileges of the different Christian communities. and for a third time asked her to join them and put an end to the war. . Founding of the German Empire^ book 6. that if she occupied the principalities own risk . mobilize their troops her protection. By a convention signed November 26. who asked that. iii. and that German interests were in no way involved in the last two of the four points. and . however. Prussia and the Confederation agreed to support Austria in the principalities but it was expressly stated that the convention was not an application of the treaty of April 20th.537] all obstacles. as Austria had occupied the principalities and might be at- tacked there by Russia. that the contracting parties engaged to support only the first and second of the four points. without prejudicing the dignity and independ- ence of the Ottoman crown. conformably to the treaty of April 20th. The three courts declared that they would not take into consideration any proposition of Russia which did not imply a full and entire adhesion to these conditions. The Prussian and German statesmen answered that that treaty extended only to a defense of Austria for in her own she did do so at her territory. This convention. and that the five great .
it is likely that the third request of the allies upon Austria would have been futile. he conat least must appear to do so. 1854. with England and P'rance. and he determined to gain the friendship if not the assistance of the western powers. had not a new actor appeared upon the scene. by lending them for service in the Crimea the small but brave and well-equipped army which he had gathered together. of It all the Italian patriots who hoped for national unity.^ On December 2. had also prospered greatly under its liberal constitution. Sardinia was the only state in Italy that had avoided the adoption of a reactionary policy and It had become the abode repelled the advances of Austria. of the greatest statesmen of the century.1 14 THE EASTERN QUESTION [5 38 hitherto refused to enter into the Prussia. In this she would hardly be opposed by Russia. with the aid of France and England. Then. not relieve Austria of her predicament. had In multiplied its industries. IMI. Count Cavour. 1854. Hertslet. p. Since the Revolution of 1848. Victor Emanuel called to his aid as prime minister one 1852. she would bring up the Italian question. Sardinia had no pressing individual grievances against Russia and was little interested in the Eastern ques- tion. looking towards an negotiations Buol now saw that he must take decisive action. who desired to substitute her own supremacy for that Cavour in November. who was incensed at Austria's ingratitude. viii. Lifi of Victor Emanuel^ chap. cluded a treaty ' with France and England. Cavour saw that the overshadowing influence of Austria upon Italy could never be removed except by foreign aid. opened of Austria in Germany. and had developed its commerce. by which it was agreed that Austria should not depart from the Four Points * » Godkin. but if she participated in the war she would have a seat in the Congress which would probably be called to end it. . vol. or alliance. ii. and as she had war without the support of and Prussia declined to aid her without the concur- rence of the Confederation. nor by Prussia.
ii. as well as the other powers. were reopened in January.' January 7th he refused to do so. 1225. in order to preclude any misunderstanding as to the meaning of the Four Points. and during that time Austria had given no evidence of an The allies intention to carry out the treaty of December 2d. and demanded that. were indignant at the excuses which she offered from time to time. On January 26. and agreed to send to the Crimea an army of 1 5. prevailed to allow Prince Gortchakoff.539] THE CRIMEAN WAR II5 nor negotiate separately with Russia." Buol had no intention of fighting. vol. he should accede to them. which had been practically dropped during December. « p. and the negotiations with Sardinia. and agreed to on December 28th the three powers made known to Gortcha- koff their interpretation of the four conditions. but as an equal.^ vol. and on the strength of the convention of November 26th with Prussia. but should defend the principalities if necessary. ii. An entire month was thus lost. which was * Hcrtslet.' By this treaty Sardinia entered into the war not as an auxiliary. now concerned upon Nicholas the basis of the Four Points. Austria assented. Jbid. 1853. as a preliminary to the opening of any negotiation. By signing the treaty he had sought to satisfy France and England and to intimidate Russia. will deliberate if between the tracting allies and Russia by January peace was not made ist. but insisted that. p. the Russian representative to Austria. and that.000 men. he still hoped to appear as an armed mediator. 1228* . to participate in the Vienna conference on Prussia. Austria should join in an explanation of them. France and England this. at the same time presenting a memoir wherein the Russian view of the conditions was set forth. at her own isolation. a treaty of alliance between Sardinia and the allied belligerents was concluded. Gortchakoff suggested the openof a conference in which Russia and Turkey should be ing represented. "the high con- powers without delay upon effectual means for obtaining the object of their alliance.
and it effectually forestalled any such movement. edition. Annual Register. 199. book 6. and at his instigation the Diet not only categorically refused on troops. which was tired of the ruinous struggle in the Crimea. own general. ^ See Von Sybel. Austria now pretended to act zealously in the direction of it and called carrying out the treaty of December 2nd. and once more upon Prussia and the confederation to mobilize their But she was answered with reproaches for having concluded the treaty of December 2nd without having consulted Germany. This was in reality an answer to Napoleon III. iii. vol. and on March 15th the conference of Vienna was re-opened with the Four Points as a tions of his ancestors. and was succeeded by Alexander II. she was really endangered from the West. Invasion of the Crimea.'s known desire to carry the war into Russia by crossing Germany. but on February 8th adopted a resolution for placing the Federal contingents on a war footing within their respective military divisions. . 3^855. were as desirous of peace as Russia. January 30th the request of Austria. instead of Germany being menaced from the East. The army was did vah'ant service with the French and the Enghsh. chap. a disappointed and grief-stricken man. maintained that. Fortunately for Europe. the war would little. and on March loth Nesselrode addressed a circular to the courts of Europe expressing the sincere desire of the Czar to end the war.' last for years. chap.^ During the winter of 1854-1855. Moreover Bismarck. and especially France.1 16 THE EASTERN QUESTION its [540 to remain under the orders of sent. vii. sixth. basis of negotiation. viii.3 The western powers. Though the latter issued a manifesto on the day of his accession in which he declared that he would preserve the integrity of his Empire and follow the tradi- he was nevertheless anxious for peace. the sufferings of the allies were very great and the siege of Sebastopol advanced but At the rate of progress made so far. ' * Kinglake. Nicholas died March 2nd. who represented Prussia in the Diet. p.
876. England and Turkey found no difficulty in agreeing on the first and second points. France. Drouyn de Lhuys.54 1] Prussia. it. although dishonoring to Russia. At first it looked as if there would be smooth sailing. Buol gave the ^ Speech of Lord Clarendon in Hansard's Parliamentary Debates^ vol. Russia was willing to respect the integrity of the Ottoman Empire.' opened without her. came as to to the third point — the revision of the of . Russia. a desire to enter it. representatives found that Austria would not consent to submit to the conference a proposal for the neu- The western Black Sea because she was sure that Russia On the other hand. and England Lord John Russell. which she would be willing to make a casus proposed and Russell supported him that the of vessels which Russia could maintain in the Black number Sea should be limited. that France sent Drouyn de Lhuys. the conference peace. THE CRIMEAN WAR who had II7 now previously held aloof from the conference. Buol expressed approval of the prinand the refusal of He — — ciple of limitation. cxxxvii. and agree to share with the other powers the consequences of a failure of the conference to effect a As she was unwilling to do this. The representatives of Austria. tralization of the would not accept belli. as special representatives to the conference. Gortchakoff was aware of this. p. she was not willing to guarantee it. who always wished to ally France with Austria. but declined to make its refusal a casus belli. . suggested a scheme which he felt sure would be acceptable to the latter. expressed but only on condition that she accept the treaty of December 2d as a preliminary. by Russia and when the plan was proposed in conference he promptly rejected it as He also declared that. as to the future status of the prinBut when they cipalities and the freedom of the Danube. Her request was granted. Straits insure the balance unable to reach a decision power in Europe they were and so important was it thought — Treaty so to be that this point should be well settled.
and to leave the question of Ottoman integrity unsettled. see his letter to Russell in Ashley. accepted it. despairing of obtaining anything better. xlv. Drouyn de Lhuys and Russell.3 France and England were exceedingly irritated by the attitude of Austria. 54-1 18-124. pp. p. e. the enemy of liberalism. For Palmerston's keen insight into Buol's game. right to keep there an equal force. that Russia should be allowed to maintain whatever fleet she pleased in the Black and that Austria. ' Lord John "The British and For ei^ various protocols of the conference from March to June are found in State Papers ^ vol. It was successful. they wished for peace. ii. cxxxix. Life of Palmerston y vol. was evident that only war and not diplomacy would settle the question. crat of the East. Parliamentary Debates^ vol. and Palmerston refused to consider any such compromise. The effect produced on Europe was profound. . 559 // seq.Il8 THE EASTERN QUESTION [543 representatives of France and England to understand that he was willing to sign with them an ultimatum to Russia based on the principle of counter-weights. i. Her troops were withdrawn from the Russian frontier and reduced to a peace footing.' Austria then declared that she was no longer bound by the treaty of December 2d.. felt that his throne by governments. 84. England and France should have the Sea. and it The conference was declared closed early in June. had been humbled. The people of the West rejoiced that the autogreatest energy.^ Napowould be in danger by such an their inglorious ending of the war. p. Naturally. and were determined to push the war with the The forces besieging Sebastopol were inand on September 8th a general assault was made by creased. Although this seemed to involve no humiliation to Russia. and she definitely assumed a position of neutrality. Lord John Russell's explanation. Both were promptly disavowed leon III. the Ottoman Porte saw that the continuance of the • Nevertheless. the allies. All the belligerent governments except France appeared to be otherwise disposed.
543] THE CRIMEAN WAR beneficial to its U^ Sardinia also hoped to the friendship of war would be interests.' Public in France was strong for peace. Austria. ii. the non-acceptance of which should be regarded by Austria as a casus belli. The distress in Russia was really in terrible. and in which she hoped to satisfy the national pride. but extended equally to Italy. England especially seemed little disposed to peace. for most of the glory in the taking of Sebastopol had gone to the French. apprehensions were not confined to Turkey. He. Hertslet. vol.s. therefore. and the government dreaded another campaign spring.' Though he was in reality the Czar talked of upholding the honor of his country. p.Qe Anntial Register 1856. see ' Annuaire Lesur. the coming But. but at the same time concluded with England a defensive alliance with Sweden. The war had been opinion undertaken by the French without any feeling of hate. There was more real friendship among the people for Russia than for England. Buol proposed to Napoleon the sending of an ultimatum to Russia. and Napoleon III had come out of the struggle in a much stronger position both at home and abroad than he had previously occupied. ^ i. her But she had gradually repaired losses had been enormous. by its prolongation to create new claims England and France. . Having begun the war unprepared. her defects of organization and was anxious now for another campaign. p. sought by every means to bring the war to a close. He lent a friendly ear to the advances of the Russian agents at Paris. 1855. p. though not a Her party to the war. 1241. and for French feeling on the war. more anxious for peace than any other of the combatants. of Sebastopol. of all the European powers. who hoped to recover Finland if the war should be prolonged. He asked in return fall ^ For British feeling on the vfzx. which she believed would be decisive. 7. was the one most anxious for peace. in whose political fate Napoleon III was exShortly after the hibiting an active and increasing interest. in which it was sure to be worsted.
by January 17th. hoping thereby to render any further union of Russia with France and England impossible/ tria's The ultimatum was so drawn as to secure Aus- own interests. but to leave the status of the Black Sea to be settled by a convention between Turkey and Russia. Ashley. 1280. . besides resenting the demand for the cession of territory. ii. Letter to Persigny.. p. in order that she might be removed as far as possible from the mouth of the Danube. should give up Bessarabia. slight modifications.120 THE EASTERN QUESTION [544 for this action only that France and England should conclude with Austria a treaty for the maintenance of the integrity and independence of the Ottoman Empire. the principal one of which was the cession of Bessarabia by Russia to Moldavia. and a fifth point was fail Russia to accept it off diplomatic relations with her added. vol. Life of Palmerston ^ vol. at first rejected the ultimatum but his ministers soon convinced . Palmerston was indignant in the first place. because he was not consulted. Should tions. but early in December he received Victor Emanuel and Cavour with demonstrations of friendship. In the midst of these complica- peace became all the more necessary to Austria. because the conditions which England considered most important were omitted." Louis Napoleon accepted Ausproject of an ultimatum. who. Alexander II. ii. *The * treaty was afterwards concluded. On the other hand. . assuring them that he intended to see if something could not be done for Italy. and towards the middle of December she presented to England and France a draft of an ultimatum to be sent to Russia. Austria was to break and unite with the Western The ultimatum consisted of the Four Points with powers. Hertslet. to the effect that other matters of European interest might be discussed at a congress. He declared he did not intend to allow Austria to dictate terms of peace which England was to tria's agree to without discussion. it required that Russia should accept the first and second of the Four Points. 103. and. p. and in the second place. feared the introduction of unwelcome proposals under the fifth point.
see British xlvi. Frederic William IV.3 The great work of Stratford Canning in the resuscitation of the Ottoman Empire had culminated February i8th in the publi* For the various protocols to the Congress. who had taken no part in the war." Napoleon III. it was felt that Prussia's presence was really necessary. vol. Sweden. and ForeifH Statt Papers^ vol. was to be renewed. The Treaty of Paris of March 30. But Prussia. Letter of Prince Albert to iii. with a view to make the conditions for Russia as hard as possible. although she had in of Austria. Sardinia and Turkey. 1856. Russia. since his plans with reference to Italy were adverse to the And as the Treaty of the Straits of 184 1. of Prussia. whom the King of Prussia had called " the common enemy of Europe. Her wishes were secretly antagonized by Austria. sought to be represented order that she might avoid the appearance of isolation. was based on the Four Points. but her efforts were unsuccessful. Life of the Prince Consort^ ol. Austria had secretly refused to participate in the struggle. ' chap. did not ask to be represented. 1250 et seq. wrote him an autograph letter urging him to accept the proffered terms.545] ^-^^ CRIMEAN WAR I2i him that it would be impossible to face practically all Europe with his treasury bankrupt. 9. on March i6th. England. endeavored to prevent the admission of Sardinia.. 1856. He desired to be on good terms with both Prussia and interests of Austria. who still dreaded the possibility of being driven from his neutral position. . Hertslet. with various modifications and additions. of which Prussia was a signatory. When. who. therefore. 63-138. The proposed Congress met There appeared at it at Paris. p." was the only sovereign who really wished for Prussia's presence at the Congress. Ixx. and were openly opposed by England. Alexander yielded his adhesion to the Austrian ultimatum without reserve.' representatives France.. Russia. ' pp. February 25. desired to exclude her friends from the Congress. her representatives took their seats. King Leopold in Martin. and accordingly. ii.
in the relations of . which was to become famous in the later history of Turkey." were "formally and in perpetuity 1 interdicted to the flag of war. while they were marine of every nation. renewed the convention of this 84 1 and neutralized the Black Sea. while the Czar and the Sultan were allowed each to reserve the right to maintain in For Stratford Canning's work in bringing about the firman. . and engagement as a question of general interest.-XIV. declared that the Sultan. xxxii. Lane-Poole. they should. see Life of Stratford Canning. 1243. of the treaty admitted the " Porte to participate in the advantages of the public law and concert of Europe. XI. before appealing to arms. either of the powers possessing its coasts or of any other power. Art. provided that if a dispute should arise between Turkey and one or more ot the powers. which. Article VII. ii. chap. The waters and ports of " thrown open to the mercantile sea.' In recognition of this act. . wishing to give a further proof of his generous intentions. vol. ii. the Sultan with his subjects. p.. as an act of "his Sovereign will. had resolved to communicate to the contracting parties his but that Hatti-Humayoun of February^ was "clearly understood" that this communication " could not " in any case give the powers " the right to interit fere. or in the internal administration of his Empire. in order to ensure the enforcement of the regulations as to its navigation. vol." The powers also guaranteed the inde- pendence and territorial integrity of the agreed to consider any act tending to violate this Ottoman Empire. * 'The • finnan is found in Hertslet." Articles X. present the matter to the other contracting parties for their mediation. either collectively or separately."' accorded to the subject Christians the free exercise of their worship and promised a series of reforms that would regenerate the Ottoman Empire.122 cation THE EASTERN QUESTION [5^5 by the Sultan of a Hatti-Humayoun. Article IX. Article VIII." 3 except that each of the powers was to be permitted to station two light vessels at the mouths of the Danube. .
Articles to Moldavia and Wallachia an indeand national administration under the suzerainty of pendent the Porte and the guarantee of the powers. with the 3. 1856. which was admitted to be " to introduce into international relations fixed principles in this respect. with the exception of contraband of war. Art. the Congress formulated conclusions upon certain other matters."" XV. and united much to the vexation of the Russian Not only was his representative.547] ^^^ CRIMEAN WAR 1 23 the Black Sea six steam vessels of not more than 800 tons and four light steam or sailing vessels of not more than 200 tons. . Portions of Bessarabia were detached from Russia to Moldavia. exception of contraband of war. XIX. are not liable to capture under 2. although the Porte was permitted tain its garrison at Belgrade. After the settlement of the chief points bearing upon the Eastern Question. the object of declaration respecting Maritime Law. and stipulated for a commission to revise the laws and statutes of those princi- XX. and remains abolished.' The Czar and the Sultan also agreed not to establish or maintain on the coast of the Black Sea "any military-maritime Articles arsenal. but he was of Austria to obtain posses- Articles XXVIII. confirmed Servia in all thenceforth placed her special rights and immunities. and. specially aggrieved by the efforts sion of the territory. The most important of these was the This act. neutral flag covers enemy's goods. » XIV. and provided for the appointment of commissions to established the free navigation to the principle of the treaty of improve and to regulate the navigation of the river. pledged palities. of the Danube according Vienna. Privateering is. to main- any armed intervention in Servia was forbidden without the previous agreement of the powers. The 'Arts. XIII.-XIX." and to which the states not represented in the invited **to accede." declared: ** Congress were.-XXIX. pride wounded.-XXVII. to be I. Neutral goods. which were under the collective guarantee of the still powers. therefore. and additional convention of March 30.
among which was the Italian question. of the provisions of the Treaty of Paris were undoubtedly diplomatic blunders. vol. The to say. was to ignore the lessons of the past and to invite trouble in the future. and of interference in ' Hertslet. The Congress also adopted a protocol in relation to media- tion. maintained to prevent access to the coast of the effective. ii. that by a force sufficient really ' enemy. p. 1856. must be In less than a year this declaration was adhered to by substantially all civilized states except the United States. was a to affirm that the it is failure. 1282. may be considered as undoubtedly forming to-day a part of international law. and the rules of the declaration. Ibid. were considered by the Congress. Spain and Mexico. . 1277. Certain other subjects. except the first.124 THE EASTERN QUESTION flag. offered to accede on condition that private property at sea be altogether exempted from capture except in case of contraband or of blockade . No reform had ever been carried out by the Ottoman Porte except under the pressure of some outside power. It was formerly the habit of writers Crimean war. but be- lieved that a truer perspective of the history of the day. judged by its results. but they did not get to early beyond the pale of discussion. [548 enemy's 4. ' p. however." United States. ii. was chiefly due predicted after the treaty was signed that the charter of reform decay for a century.^ vol. and the man to whom the Hatti-Humayoun of February 18. in order to be binding. and a more impartial estimate of the influence of the conflict on the later European situation." but the high expectations which this act seemed at first to excite as a measure for the prevention of war were doomed and sanguinary disappointment. is Blockades. To promise to maintain the territorial integrity of a state which had been undergoing at the Some same time to renounce all right its internal affairs. justify a modification of that judg- ment.
Russia and Prussia. England withdrew from active participation in continental politics during that period. ii. on the other hand. she was forced indefinitely to postpone her hope of dominion over the Ottoman Empire for Europe had taken Turkey under its protection. alliance of the and the same period was marked by the two constitutional states of the West. France. 436. three persistent enemies. . and had made the future of the empire a rights .. Life of Stratford Cannin^^ vol. wrought a far-reaching change in the relations between the various European states. and one of the principal objects of the reign of Napoleon was the destruction of the system founded on the treaties of 18 15. 1878. Cavour and Bismarck. It is true that Russia re-asserted her on the Black Sea in 1870. Prussia and Sardinia. as a counterpoise to the alliance of the absolute monarchies of the East. p. matter of common concern. was obliged to devote herself to the improvement of her industries and * finances. and turned her attention to home affairs. first The terms of peace were. chap. After the war. that treaty. Austria had not a friend in Europe. But the Crimean War changed all this. Austria. The diplomacy of the period prior to the revolution of 1848 had been directed to the maintenance of the treaties of 18 15." words of Stratford Canning at Constantinople when he received the *• I would rather have cut off my right hand than have signed Lane-Poole. France and England. and she be- came the object of the machinations of the three men who were to control the destinies of Europe during the next fifteen years.549] '^^^ letter/ CRIMEAN WAR But so far as I2C would be a dead the war was designed to prevent the Russian absorption of Turkey. Napoleon III. but did have. it can hardly be pronounced a failure. The leadership in Europe passed from Austria to France. moreover. while Russia. and regained Bessarabia in But after two centuries of almost uninterrupted progress. The war. in order to recover from the losses of the war. xxxii.
and the Turks refused to be associated with Giaours in administration. preferred to pay an the army tax rather than serve in they were afraid to occupy seats in the mixed tribunals or to hold positions of prominence. on the participated in the mixed tribunals. This cele- Had brated edict provided for perfect religious equality it opened all positions. other hand. Mohammedan contempt for the infidel was not lessened. objected to relinquishing any of their historic rights. bishops. which the As Sultan thought should be given up under the new regime. to Christians it established . been carried out. to recognize their authority in civil and military matters. it guaranteed equality of taxes. almost insuperable difficulties man stood in the way. or to accept their verdicts when they The Christians. it was not long before all attempts to give effect to 126 the edict were abandoned. mixed tribunals which should publicly administer a new code of laws that was to be drawn up. civil and military. methods in the conduct of the finances.CHAPTER VII THE TREATY OF BERLIN the provisions of the Hatti-Humayoun of February i8. did away with the kharadj. and the Greek army . . decreed the abolition of taxfarming. and things reverted to [550 . a matter of fact. and provided that Christians should have seats in all and it promised general provincial boards of administration improvement by the building of roads and canals. the Ottoman Empire would have been 1856. regenerated and would have become a lay state. Even had the Otto- Porte been never so well inclined to carry out the provisions of the edict faithfully. and by new . though they gladly accepted religious equality.
and there the matter ended. the United Principalities but they were to retain their separate administrations and the Divan of each was to elect its own hospodar." The Roumanians of the two provinces. 1455. Fanaticism ininterfere. Paris. Map of Ruropi by Treaty. ii. that the Hatti-Humayoun stirring events of and showed in a published of 1 856 was practically a dead in central But the i860. The condition of affairs became so outrageous that the powers instituted an investigation in 1867. Ibid. 1329. and elected the same per. and when the next decade opened the tendency to retrogression con- tinued unchecked. by the representatives of the powers at A that the principalities of it was provided Moldavia and Wallachia should have a common name. p. 1377. and ibid.Aziz in 1 86 1.f vol. memoir letter. After the accession of Abdul.. by which in the empire had convention was signed accumulating. creased. Ibid.y vol. and early in * The convention ii. vol. only protest. vol. government by one of themselves was not a success. . p. but the opposition of the Old Turk party and the vacillation of the Sultan defeated their efforts. therefore. Col.55 l] THE TREATY OF BERLIN 127 The powers had promised not to and could. p. and in i860 the uprising of the Druses against the Maronites in Syria resulted in such massacres that Syria was occupied by French troops. Alexander Couza.1870 Europe to a great extent diverted attention from Turkey. Meanwhile evidences of disintegration been steadily August 19. soon discovered that on account of local jealousies. ii. determined to form a united state. ' * p. 1858. and in 1859 recognized the expression union. the protests of the powers with new promises of reform. however. as also did the Porte in 1 86 1.3 But the Roumanians son. a few attempts at improvement were made by the reformers Fuad and Ali.' The Ottoman Porte answered their former condition. ii. 1498. for that purpose is found in Hertslet. The powers yielded before this of the national will.
the Pasha by the bought The tion are found in the British protocols of conference between the great Powers relative to the revoluand Forript State Papers^ vol. iii. but like all the other reforms. demanded a national bishop and and when these were refused by the Sultan they revolted. and although the revolt was unMontenegrins successful.-* interfered arid decided that Crete should remain with Egypt use of * also sought to remove the Turkish yoke. They were soon joined by the and Servians.^ With a single head. with whose people they were allied in blood and language. 1515. 'Hertslet. 137. But the powers Turkey." and in 1867. * * p. and war between Greece and Turkey seemed to be imminent. with a view to ultimate annexation to Greece. ITiu. a capital. and was also ready for recognition in 1878. though legally under the suzerainty of the Porte. by friendly agreement.3 Servia thus became independent in all military and administrative matters. who hoped inspired the various Servian to form a great Servian state. but money rather than of force. In 1861. became practically independent. In 1867. 1800. the Herzegovinians separate ecclesiastical privileges.y vol. frenzied by the increasing tyranny of the Turks. and recognition of its independence was at length accorded in 1878. the powers compelled the Sultan to withdraw all Turkish troops from Servia except from Belgrade and four fortresses. see British and Foreign State Papers^ vol. . Ibia. p. they were withdrawn entirely from Servian territory . therefore.128 THE EASTERN QUESTION [552 1866 Couza was compelled to abdicate and Prince Charles of HohenzoUern was called to the throne. p. Roumania. The Greek government and people aided them. promulgated. The Organic Law of 1868 was. ii. Ivii. 533 et seq. The success of the Roumanians nationalities. vol. in Cretans. it soon became a dead letter. The rose. p. but that the Sultan should grant a constitution to the Cretans. For the Organic Law of 1868. 1866. a ministry and an assembly.
Russia. 1875. p. 582. crushed by their burdens. Berlin and Vienna. . warned the Sultan. and on August 18. The courts of St. incited to revolt by Slavic sympathizers. p. issued. died and the disorders in the government increased. in 1872. the Herzogovinians Bosniaks rose. the last of lations of the Treaty of Paris. See 309 et seg. vol. to act in concert on the Eastern Question. in 1870. obtained from the Sultan. moreover. postal and transit In Bulgaria the patriotic party. rebellious.553] ^-^-^ TREA TV OF BERLIN 1 20 from the Sultan the in all that affairs. iii. police. the London conference at p. AH Pasha. and the decliwafion also Hall. which had agreed. and men and money poured to their assistand ance from Servia and Montenegro. while it condemned the method. notwithstanding the stipuIn 1871. 1875. i8$2. taking advantage of the Franco-German issued a circular note to the various European powers war. the right to have an Exarch of their own and a national church. which would result in the revolt of the subject peoples and the interference of the powers. Petersburg. The London Conference. hear the demands of the people and transmit them to Constantinople where they should immediately be acted upon. demanded that a commission of their consuls should be permitted to proceed to the revolted country. the reformers. declaring herself to be no longer bound by that part of the In Treaty of Paris which imposed disabilities upon her in the Black Sea. The subject peoples. 1904. were and were. recognized the It fact. * of The Russian note is found in Hertslet.' title of Khedive and obtained independence concerned customs duties. Intefnational La-m^. 1 87 1.* was evident that affairs in Turkey were fast approaching a crisis. not content with conceding the demands of the insurgents. p. on the 2nd of October. At length in July. and the Sultan. which not * State Papers y vol. lix. an irad^. fourth edition. This was done. backed up by Russia. despite the excommunication of the Greek patriarch of Constantinople.
the Austrian chancellor. promising the most extensive reforms injudicial. and on January 30.130 THE EASTERN QUESTION [554 only granted what they asked. though she refused to commit herself to any particular action. Paris conciliated At the two latter capitals it received immediate and England promised to give it a general support. X4. iv.30.3 It was then sent to London. p. vol. 1 in Bosnia and Herzegovina entirely to local purtheir distribution and by local assemblies composed Hcrtslet. and on December 12th the Sultan issued a second irad^ still more munificent than the first." by promises. the Andrassy note was sent to the It demanded that the Turkish government put into Porte. the comedy of reform had been played too often the insurgents ignored his .^ vol.y vol. ing condition of affairs to continue would To mean permit the existeither Russian intervention or the formation of a Serb state. As in the past. therefore. adherence. iv. Ibid.' Unfortunately for him. p. submitted his note on the 30th of December to Germany and Russia. iv. 1876. abolition of tax-farming . by whom it was accepted. 2407. England demanded sufficient delay to permit the Sultan to carry out the reforms promised in the irad^ of October 2nd. 2409. either of which would be perilous to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Count Andrassy. p. execution without delay the following reforms (i) The establishment of full religious liberty and equality of sects (2) the : . iv.-* The European directory therefore appeared to be in accord. Austria was the power that exhibited the greatest concern at the course of events. Andrassay. Ibid. (3) the application of the revenues gathered poses.^ vol. 2418. edict and kept on with their struggle. p. therefore offered to draw up a note of protest to be signed by the signatories of the Treaty of Paris. Jbid. and Rome. ^ * * . financial and administrative But the Bosniaks and Herzegovinians refused to be matters. but gave them extensive local privileges besides.
Gortchakoff and Andrassy united with him at Berlin in drafting a new note to the Porte. The Russian chancellor. At the suggestion of Gortchakoff. 2459. latter. p. establish a Christian aid. drew up early in April a list of the reforms the insurgents which they demanded should be guaranteed by the European powers. Gortchakoff. * (3) commission for the distribution of this withdraw the Turkish troops except in specified Hertslet. employed every effort to check the insurrection and to persuade the insurgents The lay down their arms. (4) the the note. fearing a sympathetic uprising of the Slavs in her own dominion. 2441 et zeq* Ibid.^ vol. iv. Moreover. and a few days later published a new set of promises. Austria declined the proadopt but on May 7th a Mussulman mob in Salonika posal . and. pushed the war more vigorously than to and Servia and Montenegro began open preparations to their aid. p. the powers would measures to enforce them.* It was much more severe than the Andrassy note. It required that the Sultan (i) rebuild all the houses destroyed in the revolted countries. at the suggestion of Russia. The necessity for action was evident. vol. proposed to before. more elaborate than any that had preceded/ Austria was satisfied with the results of the Andrassy note. and on the invitation of Bismarck. on the contrary. furnish the peasants with cattle and implements. and exempt them for three years from taxation (2) . On February 13th the Sultan accepted habitants . iv. and on May 13th the conference agreed to the Berlin memorandum. the demands of the insurgents of the month before were made the basis of the note. relating to the government of the provinces. destroyed the French and German consulates and murdered the consuls.555] ^^^^ TREA TY OF BERLIN Mussulmans elected I -> -j half of Christians and half of by the in- amelioration of the condition of the agricultural population. to come Austria to send the demands to the Porte with a note to the effect that if they were not carried out. ' .
^ the stamp of Russian suggestion. p. and May 30th was fixed as the day. believing herself thoroughly prepared for a conflict. sition determined on a revolution." To the surprise of Europe the Turks were generally victorious. the powers would resort to efficacious measures **to arrest the evil and prevent its development. and overran Servia. but on the night of the 29th an event occurred which caused the memorandum to be forgotten. an Hertslet. THE EASTERN QUESTION (4) authorize the Christians to . demanded Servia. and this oppoLed by Midhat-Pasha. but in London it was Disraeli would accept no plan rejected without hesitation. [556 until the remain armed reforms were effected and powers the supervision Moreover. * 2471 and 2475. and on July 2nd Montenegro. vol. The new government immediately adopted a vigorous policy and demanded of Servia the meaning of her extensive war preparations. deposed Abdul-Aziz and placed his nephew Mourad V.y vol. declared war. At the two former capitals it (5) delegate to the consuls of the of the execution of the reforms. if at the expiration of that time the desired end had not been accomplished. 2464. necessary Fetva from the Sheik-ul-Islam." The Berlin memorandum was then sent to Paris. pp. and declared that. An opposition had long existed among the patriotic Turks against Abdul-Aziz because of his indifference to the welfare of his country. obtained the Young Turkey. comprehending a return to the state of things existing previously to 1867.132 places . . the memorandum demanded that an armistice of two months be granted. Rome and London. the other powers decided to send the memo- randum to the Porte. and on May 30th Servia. bearing Nevertheless. in turn that the Turks evacuate Bosnia and Herze- govina and allow the first to be occupied by Servian and the second by Montenegrin troops. iv. upon whom * they sought to impose severe terms. iv. The Porte answered with an immediate refusal. on the throne. Ibid. as the reformers were called. was immediately accepted.
.557] THE TREATY OF BERLIN I33 in the indemnity for the expenses of the war. 1876. During the month of May. In September.^ which was concerned Fortunately for Servia. the new government issued an extraordinary which was to change Turkey into a modern from the heart of Asia Minor. fomented by outsiders. * ' The Bashi-Bazonks were Hertslet. having been satisfied with the ecclesiastical privileges obtained in 1870 and the reforms introduced by Midhat Pasha. vol.^ But Young Turkey was determined to settle the affairs of the empire without the tutelage of Europe. and elevated in his stead Abdul. Herzegovina and Bulgaria.Hamid II. p. irregulars drafted 2488. and a certain amount of adminis- independence for Bosnia. * Instead of answering the proposal of faith. vol. Hertslet. Disraeli did not dare openly to refuse to act as mediator.. the Bashi-Bazouks massacred Christians to a number variously estimated from 12. therefore. But a small outbreak at Batak. . iv. and England particularly was stirred by the speeches and writings of Mr. the leaders of the party deposed Mourad V. who was an imbecile. the maintenance of the status quo ante bellum in Servia. and committed wanton outrages upon the remaining population. powers in August. iv. 2482. he proposed an armistice of six weeks. Servia appealed to mediate with the Turks. all the regular troops being engaged against the rebels elsewhere. p. and the powers re- ferred her petition to Great Britain as the government whose advice the Porte was most likely to take. On August 31st.000 to 25. caused the government to send bands of Bashi-Bazouks^ into the country. an event had meanwhile taken place to result in her salvation. was energetic and full of zeal for trative the defense of his edict of reform. to the When. and an increase amount of the tribute. The civilized world was horrified at the atrocities as they gradually became known.000. Gladstone. Great Britain. Bulgaria had not been in the general rising of the Slavs of the Ottoman Empire. who though ignorant and inexperienced.
be a responsible ministry. demanded that the armistice should be extended to six months. freedom of speech and of the The permanent judges and compulsory education. and at the same time pushed the war in Servia so vigorously that by October 30th the road to Belgrade was enThe moment the news reached Ignatieff tirely open to them. for Bismarck was known to hold the opinion which he afterwards avowed that the Eastern terest in the question was not worth to Germany the bones of a single Pomeranian grenadier. chap. as well as Servia and Montenegro. Bosnia and Herzegovina should be given to Austria. The Turks pro(3) crastinated. Herzegovina and Bulgaria. provided that. ^ guarantee of their rights by Europe. an assembly of two chambers. to employ the interval in improving its own forces. On October 15th. who demanded the protection of their co-religionists in the Ottoman Empire. . Alexander sent Gen. should receive no aid from without. he sent in the Russian ultimatum the acceptance of the armis- — * Bismarck distinctly states in his Autobio^aphy^ vol. himself a lover of peace. The Czar was also sure of the neutrality of Germany. The was patience of the Czar was now exhausted. Turkish government.134 THE EASTERN QUESTION There was to [558 constitutional state. ii. p. Its apparent design was press. but the bureaucrats who sur- rounded him were strong for war with Turkey. xxviii. Alexander had met Francis Joseph at Reichstadt. and that during that time the revolted provinces. and they were supported by the Russian people. 235. Ignatieff to Constantinople with full powers to agree upon the following terms: (i) serve. moreover.^ At all events Austria appeared to take less in- war after the interview. that such an agreement was made. in the event of Bulgaria's liberation. (2) An armistice of six weeks without re- autonomy for Bosnia. In the pre- vious July. Alexander 11. where it is generally assumed that he obtained the consent of the latter to Russian intervention in case Turkey should refuse the demands of the powers.
no country was better prepared for it than England. they should be undertaken by Europe. then minister for foreign affairs. Turkish capital he stopped at Berlin. On December 24th. vol. p. 1064. Ixviii.559] tice in forty-eight THE TREATY OF BERLIN 1 35 hours or war. * 2 These conditions * included an increase Hertslet. Hertslet. and that she would not hesitate to undertake it. and not alone by Russia. Salisbury's instructions are found in vol. 11 14. p. iv.* The preliminary sessions of the conference were held on the nth to the 22d of December. iv. vol. 2506. at the Constantinople to consider the Eastern Question and the Lord Salisbury proposition was accepted by all the powers. p. immeand the armistice began November 2d. p. p.3 of England. 2502. Lord Salisbury. vol. and that. which were about to be occupied with the conditions agreed upon during the pre- liminary meetings. received little comfort from the German chancellor.' diately yielded. * Hertslet. and were marked by the mutual opposition of the British and Russian representatives. 2541. of the British * and Fot' ei%n State Papers. where he represented to Bismarck that it was advisable to give the Porte more time to carry out its reforms. pp. 2516. had on November 4th proposed the holding of a conference at 9th. however. overawed. who accepted the friendly words of Alexander in good faith. iv. the British ambassador. But Lord Derby. vol. 68. ^Hertslet. 2504. and on his way to the was chosen as the delegate . the Ottoman Porte was invited to send a delegate to sit at the formal sessions. that Russia desired no conquest or territorial aggrandizement. if it should afterwards become necessary to employ coercive measures.* Gladstone fell from favor and Disraeli once more became popular. The Porte. Lord Loftus to the Earl of Derby. State Papers^ vol. iv. Disraeli declared that if a war broke out. The action of the Czar aroused the suspicions of English statesmen. notwithstanding that Alexander had assured Lord Loftus. On November Lord Mayor's banquet. .
and autonomy for Bosnia. vol. (i) because they were a menace to the independence of the Sultan. . Gortchainstigated them kofif invited the powers to make known what measures they intended to employ to bring the Porte to reason. as though to show the worthlessness of his constitutional reforms. The February 5th dismissed and disgraced the man who had Midhat Pasha. if the various would not unite with Russia in requiring the Porte to powers accept the programme which it had rejected. and he let it — be understood that the Czar was resolved to act alone.. 1877. (2) because they were in violation of the Treaty of Paris. formally presented to the Porte. on tion. and as thus modified they were on January 15." European capitals to request that. Gen. p. troops until the them. Herzegovina and Bulgaria. the Turkish government answered that it was impossible to accept guage in official acts.' and when the powers presented their conditions. if At the end of February. they would permit Russia to proceed alone. Ixviii. A conference was opened at London. State Papers ^ vol. 2531. with representatives of all the great powers present. There Lord Derby insisted upon one more concerted effort to bring Turkey to terms. and (3) because they were contrary to the new constitu- delegates of the powers then quitted Constantinople on January 20th. and on March 31st they to the various ^The ' Constitution is found in Hertslet. But. 11 04. During the discussions the conditions underwent certain modifications favorable to Turkey. which were to enjoy the right to have a national militia. p. On January 31st. The general was well received at all the capitals except London.136 THE EASTERN QUESTION [560 of territory for Servia and Montenegro. on the 23d of the preceding December. iv. Ignatieff was sent necessary. and to use the national lan- and were to be occupied by Belgian accomplishment of reforms under an international commission. and Abdul-Hamid II. the new constitution of Turkey had been proclaimed with elaborate ceremonies.
vol. vol.' and on the 24th of the month he proclaimed war against Turkey. Every power except England soon declared its neutrality. 2615. p. vol. 2598. with the reservation that the exigencies of war * Hertslet. Ixviii. iv.. ^Hertslet. 2576 et seq. and England was by no means a unit in supporting the bellicose mediation policy of Disraeli.^ on condition that the Czar should not interfere with Egypt or the Suez Canal. « Siate Papers.56 1 ] "THE TREA TY OF BERLIN 1 37 agreed to a protocol/ the principal features of which were a demand that the Porte should really put into execution the reforms so often promised. 1877. p.' the great powers should try their friendly but the good old days of 1856 were gone. 859.t vol. iv. ^Jdid.* declaring that he did so without any ambitious designs. by which it was rejected April The Porte notified the powers two days later that 9th. The Porte invoked article VIII.' reforms. to watch carefully how was presented the reforms were applied. iv. which provided that in case of a conflict between Turkey and another state. p. . England also finally declared her neutrality. iv. and as an independent state could not submit to outside interference. vol. p. and he transmitted it to his make-believe parliament. April 30th. *//5iV/. and merely for the purpose of succoring the oppressed Christians of the Ottoman Empire.t vol. The London protocol to the Sultan on April 3d. iv.^ Gortchakoff assented to these conditions. of the Treaty of Paris. p. through their representatives at Constantinople and their consuls in the various localities. and a statement to the effect that the powers proposed. and above all should not occupy Constantinople.^ vol. iv. ^ ^ Jbid. 2598. 2563. Ibid. p. . 2568. April i6th the Czar concluded a convention with Roumania for unobstructed its Turkey was making own passage through her territory . p.
and by the end of July they occupied Hermanli.^ vol. 2624-34. Russian army and stopped all further advance." Immediately after the declaration of war. the hero of ting was sent to supervise the siege of Plevna. and in A. 2646. ^ ^ *The Servian Declaration of War is found in Hertslet. p. 2618.' Lord Derby replied that in case of such occupation England would consider herself free to take whatever measures of precaution might seem to be necessary. and put her armies in motion. the Turkish commander. only two days march from Adrianople. who had concluded on ist. 2468. Ibid. Suleiman Pasha drove the right wing of the Russian army back across the Balkans. but the bad roads and high waters and the poor administration of the military service prevented their reaching the Danube till the end of June. In Asia they were equally successful. Once across the river they forced the passages of the Balkans. iv. Todleben. the Russian troops crossed the Turkish frontier both in Europe and in Asia. vol. . the key to the Turkish Asiatic dominions. hurried forward an army corps which did excellent service.138 THE EASTERN QUESTION [552 might demand the temporary occupation of the city. intrenched himself at Plevna in front of the main body of the soon changed. and Andrassy began the mobilization of the Austrian troops.^ vol. Ibid. and in May the fortress of K'ars. But the Russians were goaded by these blows forth into put- the greatest exertions.sia the Russians were compelled to raise the siege of Kars and beat a general retreat. p. iv. pp.* Hertslet. iv. But the tide of war Osman Pasha. was besieged. p. dered the English fleet to Besika Bay. Sebastopol. By the opening of November the Turks apparently were masters of the situation. vol. May 14th an offensive and defensive alliance with Russia.3 and Servia broke the peace which she had signed on March ^ Roumania. iv. These rapid achievements astonished Europe and caused the Disraeli orgreatest apprehension at London and Vienna.
massed the main army at Adrianople and established two posts on the Sea of Marmora. Pasha was defeated in Bulgaria. and prolonged negotiations with the their troops were at the very gates of Constantinople.563] THE TREATY OF BERLIN 1 39 The of war once resources of the Turks were overtaxed." When the powers inquired as to the terms of the preliminaries. autonomy for Bosnia.* The Russians worked Porte till to gain time. The Russians immediately pushed across the Balkans. voi. Gortchakoff replied that their basis was the independence of Roumania and Servia. So at least On February 3rd thought Andrassy and Beaconsfield. Plevna surrendered to Todleben. indignant at the disposal of Bosnia and Herzegovina in a manner contrary to what was believed to be the promise of the Czar in the previous July. Austria. Constantinople was at their mercy. after one of the most heroic defenses known in history. Meanwhile. and the fortunes more shifted. 2661. 257. vol. to solicit the collective media- The Ottoman Porte hastened tion of the great powers. Kars was taken in Asia Suleiman . and Bismarck would not inter- On January 3. Herzegovina and Bulgaria. all the old-time distrust of Russia had revived in England. to Gortchakoff in Hertslet. p. . It was not improbable that the terms thus vaguely announced would be hardened in the definitive treaty. 1878. But this was unattainable without the concurrence of Germany. the Porte therefore agreed to treat fere. p. and the war-party had steadily been gaining ground. and the payment of a war indemnity to Russia. notified Russia that she would consider null any agreement between the belligerents which should modify existing treaties and which should affect the ^ See memorandum iv. •Hertslet. with Russia alone. an increase of territory for Montenegro. On January 30th an armistice and preliminaries of peace were signed at Adrianople. Disraeli maintained that the affairs of the Orient could not be settled without the agreement of the signatories of the treaties of J 856 and 1 87 1. and finally on December loth. iv.
iv. who had up to this time been favorable to Russia. and from the Danube on the north to the iEgean on the south. On the very day that Bismarck took this step. the definitive By its terms Turkey was treaty of San Stefano was signed. all of which were to be increased in size. and on the 3d of March Bismarck invited the that a distinction be all powers to send representatives to such a congress. Ibid. What was left parts unconnected with each other : This would have practically blotted out Turkey as was to be divided into four The environs of Constanti- nople on the east. and especially those of Austria-Hungary. and with boundaries extending from the Black Sea on the east to Albania on the west. * Hertslet. Thessaly and Albania in the west and southwest. were submitted to a conference of the powers and she suggested that such a conference should meet at Vienna. . the Dardanelles and anchor in front of Constantinople. was to be elected by the dynasties Bulgaria. Herzegovina and Novi Bazar in the northwest. ^ ^Ibid. p.y vol. iv.140 interests of THE EASTERN QUESTION [564 Europe. Servia and Montenegro. p. a European power. 2672 ei seq. and Bosnia. the peninsula of Salonika in the south. with a Christian government and a national militia. Europe At the same time he treated with Bismarck.f vol. p. 2668. The Czar then promised that if the English would abstain from landing troops.* As to Beaconsfield.3 required to recognize the independence of Roumania. 2670. iv.' Gortchakoff had answered the note of Andrassy evasively. his forces would not enter the city. But the most important stipulation was that for the erection of the autonomous tributary principality of Bulgaria. vol. demanding made between what in the treaty affected and that which concerned only Russia and Turkey. The prince of who was not to be a member of any of the reigning of the great -European powers. and on February 15th ordered the English fleet with troops on board to pass unless it . for the opening of a congress at Berlin. he went a step further.
Athos. in view of the pay a war indemnity of 1. together with their property and establishments. pilgrims and monks traveling or sojourning in the Ottoman Empire. states that were determined to prevent the out of the treaty of San Stefano Austria-Hungary carrying and England. be always open to the merchant ships of the world. and especially the monks of Mt. and which was now to be restored to her. Russian ecclesiastics. and to improve the condition of Armenia.000 rubles for terriSandjak of Tultcha. and priests and others in holy places. to extend analogous reforms to the other Greek provinces of the Empire. agreed to commute tory in Asia. with such modifications as might be agreed upon by the Porte. but the constitution of the principaHty was to be drawn up by an assembly of Bulgarian notables under the supervision of a Russian commissioner.000. supported by 50. Bosnia and Herzegovina were to receive the reforms demanded for them at the conference of Constantinople.000 Russian troops. and guarantee the safety of the inhabitants from the Kurds and Circassians. which Roumania of Turkey. March 13th There were two — Lord Derby notified Bismarck that England would not send a representative to the congress at Berlin unless the treaty of San Stefano should be considered in its entirety. but the Czar. . and confirmed by the Porte. The latter took immediate action. The Porte engaged to apply to Crete the Organic Law of 1868. After two weeks of spirited correspondence between London and St. were confirmed in their privileges.000 " " financial embarrassment 1.565] THE TREATY OF BERLIN I4I the people.100. of Russian The Straits were to origin.410. were placed under the official protection of the Czar.000. Turkey also assumed to rubles. and for the exchange for that part of Bessawhich was detached from Russia in 1856. Russia and Austria-Hungary. with the assent of the powers. who was to superintend the administration of affairs for two years. and the i^abia was to be obliged to take in old treaties of commerce between the two countries were to be maintained.
p. iv. which provided for almost all the important modifications cations which which we * shall soon see were made in the treaty of San Hertslet. '/<J»V/.142 THE EASTERN QUESTION March 26th [566 his refusal to Petersburg. supthe Royalists. had ported by just been driven from office. and on April 9th Gortchakoff. and sent additional troops to Malta. felt justified in Beaconsfield Under such circumstances. he allowed Lord Derby to resign from the foreign and He then reinforced the replaced him with Lord Salisbury. Petersburg. and on April 1st Lord Salisbury notified Europe' that the treaty of San Stefano placed the Black Sea under the of the absolute domination of Russia. . who were friendly to Russia. then Russian ambassador at London. had given to Russia a friendly support. Waddington. and was in general contrary to the interests of Great Britain. did likewise. Shuvaloff immediately returned to London and signed the secret treaty of May 31st. 2707. where they were accepted by the Czar. vol. p. addressed a note to London asking for the modifi- England would demand in the treaty. known to be friendly to England. who was sound the other powers. succeeded him in charge of foreign affairs. Both countries began to In France the Due Decazes. There remained only Germany. destroyed the real independence Ottoman Empire. the Czar announced on submit to the congress those portions of the treaty which concerned only Russia and Turkey. Italy.* They were communicated to Count Shuvaloff". But Gortchakofif was now to be grievously disappointed. and M. who bore them to St.. could only submit. On March 28th office. defying Russia. vol. who had hoped for something on the Albanian coast. British fleet before Constantinople. Austria-Hungary naturally supported England. who. weakened by war and diplomatically isolated. iv. before and during the war. for Bismarck gave his approval to the plan of laying the entire treaty before the proposed congress. 2698. Russia. incensed at what he considered his betrayal by Bismarck.
Italy and Turkey. Germany and Austria almost always. .. iv. and when their interests were in question. xxviii and xxix of his Autobiography. 1878. Abstracts are given in Hertslet. vol. see chaps. THE TREATY OF BERLIN I43 While this transaction was in progress. Gortchakoff never forgave Bismarck for his attitude at the Congress.3 the Bulgarian principality erected by the treaty of San Stefano was divided into three parts: (i) Bulgaria proper. for Germany Andrassy. vol. not so much against England. The twenty sittings of the Congress formed one continuous struggle between the representatives of England and Russia. protocols of the Congress may be found in the State Papers^ vol. who was president of the Congress. iv. and Waddington. . Russian representatives found themselves alone. Beaconsfield was negotiating with the Porte for the cession of the island of Cyprus. as against Germany. By the Treaty of Berlin. . 1878." and as the sessions continued. The chief figures at the congress were Beaconsfield and Salisbury. pp. 2729 et seg. p. for France. which was to * Hertslet. 9. A treaty to this effect was secretly signed June 4th. p. who appeared for England Gortchakoff and Shuvaloff. vol. The treaty is given in English in Hertslet.^ The Congress of Berlin opened its sessions on June 13. ' For Bismarck's view as to the causes of Gortchakoff 's enmity. and France and Italy usually. from whom she expected much. pp. for Austria. and the treatment of the Slavic cause at the hands of the Germans and Magyars became known. in return for which Great Britain was to defend the Turkish possessions in Asia Minor against Russia.567] Stefano. 2759 et seg. and on almost every important question the . 2722. for Russia Bismarck. from whom Russia expected nothing. •The 82. the Porte promising to introduce into those possessions reforms which were to be agreed upon later between the two powers. as signed July 13. iv. Greece and Roumania. and exactly one month later the Treaty of Berlin was signed. supported England. were also represented. there sprang up in Russia an intensely angry feeling.
a name invented to designate southern Bulgaria. but the congress was obdurate. which displeased Servia and Montenegro Servia and Montenegro also. and incidentally Russian influence. both in territory and in population. against this action. privileges which placed her on the road to Salonika. although her independence was recognized. but was to and military control of the Porte. instead of the large inTo Greece creases allowed them by the treaty of San Stefano. entirely from the .144 THE EASTERN QUESTION [368 extend from the Danube to the Balkans. the goal of her amThe Turkish representatives protested vigorously bition. which resulted in 1881 in her securing Thessaly. Roumania was treated harshly for. and which was to become an autonomous principaHty. she not only was not compensated for her sac. which was to have an autonomous administration and a Christian governor-general appointed by the Sultan for five years with the assent of the powers. reserve to the (3) Macedonia. and the same power was also authorized to keep garrisons and have military remain under the political and commercial roads in the Sandjak of Novi. by more than one-half. as it was Sultan.Bazar. (2) Eastern Roumelia. but received only slight accessions of territory. but was compelled to restore to Russia the . and to pay an annual tribute to the Sultan. but the treaty provided for direct negotiations between Turkey and Greece under the supervision of the . nothing was given powers. though it was stipu. to be elected by the people and confirmed by the Porte.(^gean Bosnia and Herzegovina were placed under the control of Austria-Hungary for an indeterminate period. rifices in the war. and removed it. constituted under the Treaty of San Stefano. Epirus and Crete but all these were left to Turkey. were recognized as independent principalities. the prince. with the assent of the powers. who was not to be a member of the reigning dynasties of the great powers. The Greek representatives had demanded Albania. lated that the Organic Law of 1868 should be applied to Crete. which was given back without This division reduced the new principality.
Russia. Asia was made. a in country inhabited by Roumans. and were. " while Beaconsfield returned back to London bringing Peace after the settlement of the Russian claims in with Honor. as well as in the and monks of all nawere to enjoy the same rights and privileges in that 9mpire." to receive the plaudits of his countrymen. and not. but it was agreed that the reforms to be instituted in Armenia should be applied under the superintendence of the powers. receiving Dobrudja. but by her professed friends. and then at the suggestion of Lord Salisbury it was dropped. inhabited Tartars backward in civilization. obtained a large part of Armenia districts in Asia. England and Austria. as by the Two days treaty of San Stefano. Religious disabilchiefly by ities were done away with. not only by her Turkey Roumania complained of the loss of Bessarabia . and announced that she would immediately take possession of Cyprus. . England disclosed her secret treaty with Turkey. under that of Russia alone. The Russian chancellor went back to St. to be under the official protection of the diplomatic and consular agents of the powers. and of neighboring ing Bessarabia in Europe. He had seen Beaconsfield succeed at almost every point. Petersburg greatly humiliated. and freedom of religion and of worship provided for in the exchange the new Slavic states. together with their establishments. and he pointedly asked the congress to make known the principle and the methods according to which it designed to insure the execution of its august decrees. though the special rights of France in the Holy Places were to be respected. The last three days of the congress were consumed in a passionate discussion of this question. besides receivecclesiastics. The states of the Balkans found their high hopes all dashed to the ground. The work of the Congress of Berlin was not calculated to increase friendliness felt among enemy outraged at being Russia. the powers of Europe.569] THE TREATY OF BERLIN fertile I^c detached portion of Bessarabia. despoiled. pilgrims tionalities Ottoman Empire. To Gortchakoff this was a stunning blow.
for mutual protection. an alliance which was joined by Italy in 1882. and Greece. of the disposal of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is only with the lapse ot years and the development of new interests that the gendered at Berlin in 1878 has faded away. ill-feeling en- . so violent was the manifestation of feeling in Russia against Germany and Austria-Hungary that Bismarck deemed it prudent to form an alliance with the latter power in October. of the scant attention paid to the aspiraRussia deeply resented the tions cherished by her people. because of the colonial activity of France in northern Africa. 1879.146 ^^^ EASTERN QUESTION [57O Servia and Montenegro. altitude assumed by the Germans and Magyars toward the Slavs. Indeed.
H7 . p. Prince Alexander. and deSeptember i8. divided Bulgaria. manded the annexation of Eastern Roumelia. 2866 et seq. 70. answered the address of the assembly praying for the restoration of the constitution. The prince at first was pro. The diplomats at the congress. Alexander of Battenberg. an elective assembly. Eastern Roumelia had been orgations. Roumania. 1303. wearied with the insolence and arrogance of the Russians. 1883. and a national militia. p. is found in State Papers ^ vol. and given to the southern Eastern Roumelia. iv. Abstract in Hertslet.CHAPTER VIII PRESENT STATUS OF THE EASTERN QUESTION Greece. had. as we have seen. gave it a constitution. which he had suspended in 1 881. fearful of the erection of a great Bulgarian state under the protectorate of Russia. and for four years assembly. 70. p. and on nized '^ ^The Constitution ' is found in full in State Papers^ vol. vol. and Servia had been successively torn away from all connection with the Ottoman Empire. vol. Abstract in Hertslet.Russian. officered its — Russians orgafilled its official militia and obtained from the new assembly the election as prince of the Czar's candidate. The part a new name nized Bulgaria proper. which was nationalist was involved in conflict with the and anti-Russian. But the process of disintegration did not end with the treaty of Berlin. The Russians then withdrew in resentment from all official posiIn the meantime. iv. 759. as a self-governing province with a Christian governor. The Organic 571] Statute for Eastern Roumelia 2860. p. by immediately granting its request.^ positions. But the people longed to be united with their brethren of Bulgaria.
148 ^-^^ EASTERN QUESTION [572 September 1885. and although they obtained neither indemnity nor additional territory in the treaty which followed. and occupied Eastern Roumelia with his army. assembly. Russian officers having left their army but they defeated . and declared themselves united to Bulgaria. the appointment by the Sultan of Alexander as governor of Eastern Roumania. powers were unwilling to depart from the letter of the Treaty of Berlin. 3152.* they secured the union of the two Bulgarias.3 the The Bulgarians were dependent on their own resources. they accepted a compromise ^ to which the Porte had become a party. ^ Annttal Register. to consider this violation of the Treaty of Berlin. officials and people rose in rebellion. p. a device which Since did not conceal the real union of the two Bulgarias. . p. Greece and Servia. vol. however. who had changed her policy with regard to the Balkan state since 1878. 3151. *Jbid. would feel deeply aggrieved if the union was consummated.. militia. 1885. who was already displeased at the Bulgarians. ^Ibid. 3141. the Servians at Slivnitza.y vol. Alexander was aware that the Czar.^ Sultan immediately protested against this violation of the Treaty of Berlin. iv. Though the . but the state of affairs at Constantinople The and once in Crete who were prevented action. 'Hertslet. and on September 20th he assumed the title of Prince of the two Bulgarias. iv. iv. but he deemed it better to break with Russia than with his own people.' but Servia declared war November I5th. at prepared for war. iv. imprisoned the governor and the commander of the Prince forces. The powers held a conference at Constantinople in November.t vol. 1885. and Russia demanded that the union be disregarded and annulled but she was opposed by England. *Ibid. The powers restrained Greece by blockading her coasts. p.f vol. viz. both anxious to extend their own boundaries. 3158 et seq. p.
the Armenians during the years of peace after 1878 had themselves improved their condition. Porte condemned the leaders of the movement as rebels and incited the mountain Kurds to commit outrages upon the Armenians. The dependence on is merely nominal the principality being virtually Turkey . and Treaty of Berlin^ Article bd. At the same time the Armenians formed a The national party and demanded autonomous government. which resulted in 1 889-1 890 in bloody conflicts." but this only served to developed.573] ^-^-^ PRESENT STATUS OF THE QUESTION j^q the union the Bulgarians have for shown a remarkable aptitude sound politics. . 1894. render more intense the antagonism between the races * . The latter retaliated. a commission appointed by England. and a state of war soon In November. and Russia. * Anmtal Register y 1895. This brought upon them increased demands of the tax-collectors. Abdul Hamid devoted himself in He displayed unexpected energy. We have seen that by the and he has since treaty of San Stefano and then by the treaty of Berlin. there had been occasional disorders. Though nothing had been done towards fulfilling the promise. the control of affairs out of the hands of the viziers and divan • personally conducted the government. France. independent. to carrying out the main provisions of the Treaty of II. and both in their own province. the Porte had promised to introduce reforms in Armenia and to ^ and the duty of seeing that the protect the inhabitants . the empire had Although enjoyed a decade of comparative peace when in 1889 outbreaks occurred in Armenia and in Crete. they had become quite prosperous. and in 1884 took Berlin. promise was kept seemed especially to rest upon England by reason of the Cyprus convention. which sat in the troubled country. and their country has made great progress in economic and social development. and in the various cities of the Empire where they were scattered. the years following 1878. drew up a scheme of reform.
place. but the Turkish government 1889 in a was able to repress it. then Russian Armenia would want it. . a new revolt took for autonomy.. "^Ibid.^ Crete had been in a state of unrest since the signing of the Treaty of Berlin. if Turkish Arcreation of another Bulgaria in Asia Minor . menia was endowed with autonomy. In 1894.'' the war fever had spread all over Greece the government troops along the Macedonian frontier and sent warto Crete. and were sorely disappointed at Outbreaks began in 1885 which culminated in revolt for autonomy. The government . 1896. and the next demand would be for union. Austria and Germany.I^O in ^-^^ EASTERN QUESTION [574 1 895. but the powers intervened and brought about a cessation of hostilities by requiring the Sultan . a number of Armenian revolutionists attacked the Ottoman Bank in Constantinople in August. and nothing was could come done. The European powers protested. 1896. The Cretans had expected that the congress would unite them to Greece. 1896.1 896 there occurred the massacres which seem to have been designed to Islamize the Armenians or else to destroy them. In order to compel the powers to act. and this time the demand was not merely the outcome. immediately ordered a massacre of the Armenians in Conbut the powers stantinople. As Russia was supported by France. to appoint a In the meantime Christian governor and institute reforms. but for independence and annexation to Greece. but the Greek forces were prevented from ships landing in Crete by the fleets of the powers. and the order was carried out to no agreement in the matter. England could do nothing. however. The Greeks massed its were enraged '^ at the intervention of the y powers and raids were Atmual Register 1896. The Cretans progressed so far as to set up a provisional government in August. and in Eng- land urgent demands were made upon the government to But Russia let it be known that she objected to the interfere.
vol. *Hertslet. a convention was signed are there still. but although her. 3274. 1897." The representatives of the powers gathered at Constantinople to consider the crisis. et seq ^ 347 ^Ibid. and Tewfik Pasha. p. but finally agreed upon Prince selecting George of Greece. and as France refused to unite with England sent a fleet to Alexandria which bombarded the Troops were then landed and Arabi was defeated. the English took practical control of the government in September. and in a month had completely defeated the Greeks. The latter were compelled to accept the mediation of the powers. by Arabi Pasha with the cry of " Egypt for the Egyptians. .3 Turkey and France protested. and to rectify their frontier to the ad- made vantage of Turkey. in 188 1. He was deposed by the two powers. but nothing was accomplished. the Egyptian government became bankrupt. and France and England established a condomimum or dual con- trol over the government in order to take care of its finances.^ The Khedive Ismail during the next year endeavored to get rid of this control. £51 The Turkish government on April 18. 1897. to agree to autonomy for Crete. showed himself so complaisant to the wishes of the intervenors that an insurrection was raised. 1885. The ultimate absorption of Crete by Greece is perhaps only a matter of time. In 1878. and city.575] ^^^ PRESENT STATUS OF THE QUESTION across the border into Macedonia. they October 24. England assured the powers that she intended to keep her troops in Egypt only until peace and order were restored.'^ Since '^ Annual Register. Great Britain and Turkey which provided for the between sending of a British and a Turkish High Commissioner. p.^ 1878. who was elevated in his stead. p. 359 etseg. iv. who were to take measures for the tranquilization of the country.y 1882. to re-organize the army and to reform the administration. then declared war.^ The powers had great difficulty in a governor for Crete. 1 88 1. Ibid.
has reorganized his army with the aid of German officers. once all-powerful. upon which — states of the — Servia. in the stantinople. Russia has relinquished her former plan of settling the Balkan question by the establishment of independent nationalities. As a result her influence at Constantinople during decade has been very high. which has greatly increased his prestige. they practically control the country. while England. enjoying increased security. v^' . and adheres for the time being to the maintenance of the territorial integrity of the Ottoman Emthe past pire. by the extension of her railroads and the conclusion of commercial treaties. which is now but nominally bound to the Porte. various Powers on the Turkish question is no longer determined by political conditions in Europe. The small further dismemberment of Turkey Balkans and Greece have their eyes covetously fixed upon Macedonia. has often seen her suggestions rejected there. has to a great extent and by his rapid successes Greek war. as notably in As a matter of fact the attitude of the respect of Armenia. Austria. But they are checked in their ambitions by Russia and Austria. The question of the open one. but by colonial and commercial rivalry in Asia and Africa. and although they have declined to declare a protectorate over Egypt. has undoubtedly increased her sphere of influence in the direction of Salonika. has apparently assured himself of an indefinite stay at Conre-established his financial credit. Bulgaria is an her gaze has long been fastened. The Turk in the meanwhile.I 5 2 TIl£ EASTERN Q UES TION T ^ 75 that time the English have re-organized the judicial and administrative systems.
'69 (J9096sl0)476-A-32 General Library University of California Berkeley . NO. I9f>t «f *< OEC 9196968 T»r->^T"iTT RECrO L© . or on the date to which renewed. Renewed books are subject to immediate recall. m NOV JfllO.lj\N7-70-S^* F EB 1719 70 1. 2 1979 ^r-~^ m. RENEWALS ONLY—TEL. iVi/V LD21A-60m-6.1 - 1 ^r Tt 14 DAY USE RFTURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED LOAN 0CT3P /. 642-3405 This book is due on the last date stamped below.: DEPT.2 pe> 19 7Q'^i ^a^ -^^ viH .
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