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Q: A signal has fundamental frequency of 1000 Hz, What is the period? A: λ = /f = 1/1000 = 0.001 Sec. = 1 ms. Q: Express the following in the simplest form you can? a) sin(2π ft - π ) + sin(2π ft + π ) b) sin 2π ft + sin(2π ft - π ). A: a. sin (2π ft – π ) + sin (2π ft + π ) = 2 sin (2π ft +π ) or 2 sin (2π ft – π ) or –2 sin (2π ft) b. sin (2π ft) + sin (2π ft – π ) = 0. Q: Sound may be modeled as a sinusoidal function. Compare the relative frequency and wavelength of musical note. Use 330 m/s as the speed of sound and the following frequencies for the musical scale. Note C D E F G A B C Frequency 264 297 330 352 396 440 495 528 A:

N = note; F = frequency (Hz); D = frequency difference; W = wavelength (m) Q: Find the period of the function f(t) = (10 cos t)2. A: We have cos2x = cos x cos x = (1/2)(cos(2x) + cos(0)) = (1/2) (cos(2x) + 1). Then: f(t) = (10 cos t)2 = 100 cos2t = 50 + 50 cos(2t). The period of cos(2t) is π and therefore the period of f(t) is π . Q: Given an amplifier with effective noise temperature of 10,000 K and 10-MHz bandwidth , what is the thermal noise level in dBW, may we except at output. A: N = 10 log k + 10 log T + 10 log B = –228.6 dBW + 10 log 104 + 10 log 107 = –228.6 + 40 + 70 = –118.6 dBW Q: What is the thermal noise level of a channel with a bandwidth of 10 kHz carrying 1000 watts of power operating at 50°C. A: N = K T = 1.38 × 10–23 × (50 + 273) × 10,000 = 4.5 × 10–17 watts Q: What is the channel capacity for a teleprinter channel with a 300-Hz bandwidth and a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 dB, where the noise is white thermal noise?

0000). a nominal SNR of 56 dB (400. Assuming white thermal noise. A: Using Nyquist's equation: C = 2B log2M. what is Eb/N0 for a link transmitting 2400 bps. and B = 1200 Hz b.6 dBW = 12 dBW Q: If an amplifier has 30-dB voltage gain. what is the maximum channel capacity of a traditional telephone line.3) = 300 log2 (2. SNR = 100. (SNR)dB = 3 Therefore. what voltageratio does the gain represent? A: NdB = 30 = 20 log(V2/V1) V2/V1 = 1030/20 = 101. a) If the signal element encodes a 4-bit word.6 dBW (Eb/N0) = –151 dBW – 10 log 2400 – 10 log 1500 + 228. C = B log 2 (1 + SNR ) A: Using Shannon’s formula: C = 3000 log2 (1+400000) = 56 Kbps Q: Given a channel with an intended capacity of 20 Mbps. and B = 600 Hz Q: Given audio bandwidth of a telephone transmission facility. because a signal element encodes a 4-bit word Therefore. What is the output in dBW? A: Power (dBW) = 10 log (Power/1W) = 10 log20 = 13 dBW . what is SNR is required to achieve this capacity? A: C = B log2 (1 + SNR) 20 × 106 = 3 × 106 × log2(1 + SNR) log2(1 + SNR) = 6. the bandwidth is 3 MHz. 9600 = 2B × 8. log2M = 4.6 Q: An amplifier has an output of 20 W.67 1 + SNR = 102 SNR = 101 Q: If the received signal level for a particular digital system is -151 dBW and the receiver system effective noise is 1500 K. what is the minimum required bandwidth of the channel? b) Repeat part (a) for the case of 8-bit. C = 9600 = 2B × 4. A: (Eb/N0) dB = S dBW – 10 log R – 10 log T – 228.5 = 31. and a certain distortion. We have C = 9600 bps a.995) = 474 bps Q: A digital signaling system is required to operate at 9600 bps.3 C = 300 log2 (1 + 100.A: Using Shannon's equation: C = B log2 (1 + SNR) We have W = 300 Hz.

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