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The Theory of the Relativity of Motion

The Theory of the Relativity of Motion

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Sections

  • PREFACE
  • CHAPTER I
  • HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF IDEAS AS TO THE NATURE OF SPACE AND TIME
  • part i. the space and time of galileo and newton
  • part ii. the space and time of the ether theory
  • Fig. 1
  • CHAPTER II
  • The First Postulate of Relativity
  • Fig. 4
  • Further Postulates of the Theory of Relativity
  • CHAPTER III
  • SOME ELEMENTARY DEDUCTIONS
  • Measurements of Time in a Moving System
  • Fig. 5
  • Fig. 6
  • Fig. 7
  • Fig. 8
  • The Composition of Velocities
  • The Mass of a Moving Body
  • Fig. 9
  • The Relation Between Mass and Energy
  • CHAPTER IV
  • The Lorentz Transformation
  • Fig. 10
  • Deduction of the Fundamental Transformation Equations
  • Further Transformation Equations
  • transformation equations for velocity:
  • CHAPTER V
  • The Kinematical Shape of a Rigid Body
  • The Kinematical Rate of a Clock
  • The Idea of Simultaneity
  • Velocities Greater than that of Light
  • CHAPTER VI
  • The Laws of Motion
  • The Mass of a Moving Particle
  • Transformation Equations for Mass
  • Equation for the Force Acting on a Moving Particle
  • Transformation Equations for Force
  • The Force Exerted by a Moving Charge
  • Work
  • Kinetic Energy
  • Potential Energy
  • The Relation between Mass and Energy
  • CHAPTER VII
  • On the Nature of a System of Particles
  • The Conservation of Momentum
  • The Equation of Angular Momentum
  • The Function T
  • The Modified Lagrangian Function
  • The Principle of Least Action
  • Lagrange’s Equations
  • Equations of Motion in the Hamiltonian Form
  • On the Location of Energy in Space
  • CHAPTER IX
  • CHAPTER X
  • part ii. introduction of the principle of least action
  • part iii. some mathematical relations
  • part iv. applications of the results
  • 149. The Momentum of a Moving Thermodynamic System
  • CHAPTER XII
  • ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY
  • Derivation of the Fifth Fundamental Equation
  • Applications to Electromagnetic Theory
  • The Theory of Moving Dielectrics
  • Fig. 15
  • CHAPTER XIII
  • Fig. 16
  • Fig. 17
  • part i. vector analysis of the non-euclidean four-dimensional manifold
  • Vectors of Higher Dimensions
  • Fig. 18
  • part ii. applications of the four-dimensional analysis
  • The Dynamics of a Particle
  • The Dynamics of an Elastic Body
  • APPENDIX I.—Symbols for Quantities
  • APPENDIX II.—Vector Notation
  • Three Dimensional Space
  • Non-Euclidean Four Dimensional Space

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THE THEORY OF
THE RELATIVITY OF MOTION
BY
RICHARD C. TOLMAN
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS
BERKELEY
1917
Press of
The New Era Printing Company
Lancaster, Pa
TO
H. E.
THE THEORY OF THE RELATIVITY OF MOTION.
BY
RICHARD C. TOLMAN, PH.D.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Chapter I. Historical Development of Ideas as to the Nature of Space
and Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Part I. The Space and Time of Galileo and Newton. . . . . . . . . 5
Newtonian Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Newtonian Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
The Galileo Transformation Equations. . . . . . . . . . . 9
Part II. The Space and Time of the Ether Theory. . . . . . . . . . 11
Rise of the Ether Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Idea of a Stationary Ether. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Ether in the Neighborhood of Moving Bodies. . . . . . . 12
Ether Entrained in Dielectrics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
The Lorentz Theory of a Stationary Ether. . . . . . . . . 14
Part III. Rise of the Einstein Theory of Relativity. . . . . . . . . 17
The Michelson-Morley Experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
The Postulates of Einstein. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Chapter II. The Two Postulates of the Einstein Theory of Relativity. 21
The First Postulate of Relativity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
The Second Postulate of the Einstein Theory of Relativity. . 22
Suggested Alternative to the Postulate of the Independence
of the Velocity of Light and the Velocity of the Source. 24
iv
Evidence Against Emission Theories of Light. . . . . . . 25
Different Forms of Emission Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Further Postulates of the Theory of Relativity. . . . . . . . . 29
Chapter III. Some Elementary Deductions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Measurements of Time in a Moving System. . . . . . . . . . . 30
Measurements of Length in a Moving System. . . . . . . . . . 32
The Setting of Clocks in a Moving System. . . . . . . . . . . 35
The Composition of Velocities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
The Mass of a Moving Body. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
The Relation Between Mass and Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Chapter IV. The Einstein Transformation Equations for Space and
Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
The Lorentz Transformation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Deduction of the Fundamental Transformation Equations. . . 46
Three Conditions to be Fulfilled. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
The Transformation Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Further Transformation Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Transformation Equations for Velocity. . . . . . . . . . . 51
Transformation Equations for the Function
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
. . . 51
Transformation Equations for Acceleration. . . . . . . . . 52
Chapter V. Kinematical Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
The Kinematical Shape of a Rigid Body. . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
The Kinematical Rate of a Clock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
The Idea of Simultaneity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
The Composition of Velocities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
The Case of Parallel Velocities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Composition of Velocities in General. . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Velocities Greater than that of Light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Application of the Principles of Kinematics to Certain Optical
Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
The Doppler Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
The Aberration of Light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Velocity of Light in Moving Media. . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Group Velocity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Chapter VI. The Dynamics of a Particle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
The Laws of Motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Difference between Newtonian and Relativity Mechanics. . . 67
The Mass of a Moving Particle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Transverse Collision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Mass the Same in All Directions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Longitudinal Collision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Collision of Any Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Transformation Equations for Mass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Equation for the Force Acting on a Moving Particle. . . . . . 79
Transformation Equations for Force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
The Relation between Force and Acceleration. . . . . . . . . 80
Transverse and Longitudinal Acceleration. . . . . . . . . . . . 82
The Force Exerted by a Moving Charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
The Field around a Moving Charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Application to a Specific Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Kinetic Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Potential Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
The Relation between Mass and Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Application to a Specific Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Chapter VII. The Dynamics of a System of Particles. . . . . . . . . 96
On the Nature of a System of Particles. . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
The Conservation of Momentum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
The Equation of Angular Momentum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
The Function T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
The Modified Lagrangian Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
The Principle of Least Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Lagrange’s Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Equations of Motion in the Hamiltonian Form. . . . . . . . . 105
Value of the Function T

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
The Principle of the Conservation of Energy. . . . . . . . . . 109
On the Location of Energy in Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Chapter VIII. The Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. . . . . 113
The Equations of Motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Representation in Generalized Space. . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Liouville’s Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
A System of Particles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Probability of a Given Statistical State. . . . . . . . . . . 116
Equilibrium Relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
The Energy as a Function of the Momentum. . . . . . . 119
The Distribution Law. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Polar Coördinates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
The Law of Equipartition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Criterion for Equality of Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . 124
Pressure Exerted by a System of Particles. . . . . . . . . 126
The Relativity Expression for Temperature. . . . . . . . 128
The Partition of Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Partition of Energy for Zero Mass. . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Approximate Partition of Energy for Particles of any De-
sired Mass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Chapter IX. The Principle of Relativity and the Principle of Least
Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
The Principle of Least Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
The Equations of Motion in the Lagrangian Form. . . . . 137
Introduction of the Principle of Relativity. . . . . . . . . 138
Relation between

W dt and

W

dt

. . . . . . . . . . . 139
Relation between H

and H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Chapter X. The Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
On the Impossibility of Absolutely Rigid Bodies. . . . . 145
Part I. Stress and Strain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Definition of Strain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Definition of Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Transformation Equations for Strain. . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Variation in the Strain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Part II. Introduction of the Principle of Least Action. . . . . . . . 152
The Kinetic Potential for an Elastic Body. . . . . . . . . 152
Lagrange’s Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Transformation Equations for Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Value of E

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
The Equations of Motion in the Lagrangian Form. . . . . 156
Density of Momentum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Density of Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Summary of Results Obtained from the Principle of Least
Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Part III. Some Mathematical Relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
The Unsymmetrical Stress Tensor t. . . . . . . . . . . . 160
The Symmetrical Tensor p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Relation between div t and t
n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
The Equations of Motion in the Eulerian Form. . . . . . 164
Part IV. Applications of the Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Relation between Energy and Momentum. . . . . . . . . 165
The Conservation of Momentum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
The Conservation of Angular Momentum. . . . . . . . . 168
Relation between Angular Momentum and the Unsym-
metrical Stress Tensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
The Right-Angled Lever. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Isolated Systems in a Steady State. . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
The Dynamics of a Particle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Chapter XI. The Dynamics of a Thermodynamic System. . . . . . . 174
The Generalized Coördinates and Forces. . . . . . . . . . 174
Transformation Equation for Volume. . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Transformation Equation for Entropy. . . . . . . . . . . 175
Introduction of the Principle of Least Action. The Ki-
netic Potential. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
The Lagrangian Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Transformation Equation for Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . 177
Transformation Equation for Temperature. . . . . . . . . 178
The Equations of Motion for Quasistationary Adiabatic
Acceleration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
The Energy of a Moving Thermodynamic System. . . . . 179
The Momentum of a Moving Thermodynamic System. . 180
The Dynamics of a Hohlraum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Chapter XII. Electromagnetic Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
The Form of the Kinetic Potential. . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
The Principle of Least Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
The Partial Integrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Derivation of the Fundamental Equations of Electromag-
netic Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
The Transformation Equations for e, h and ρ. . . . . . . 188
The Invariance of Electric Charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
The Relativity of Magnetic and Electric Fields. . . . . . 191
Nature of Electromotive Force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Derivation of the Fifth Fundamental Equation. . . . . . . . . 192
Difference between the Ether and the Relativity Theories of
Electromagnetism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Applications to Electromagnetic Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
The Electric and Magnetic Fields around a Moving Charge.196
The Energy of a Moving Electromagnetic System. . . . . 198
Relation between Mass and Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
The Theory of Moving Dielectrics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Relation between Field Equations for Material Media and
Electron Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Transformation Equations for Moving Media. . . . . . . 204
Theory of the Wilson Experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Chapter XIII. Four-Dimensional Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Idea of a Time Axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Non-Euclidean Character of the Space. . . . . . . . . . . 211
Part I. Vector Analysis of the Non-Euclidean Four-Dimensional
Manifold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Space, Time and Singular Vectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Invariance of x
2
+y
2
+z
2
−c
2
t
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Inner Product of One-Vectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Non-Euclidean Angle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Kinematical Interpretation of Angle in Terms of Velocity. 217
Vectors of Higher Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Outer Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Inner Product of Vectors in General. . . . . . . . . . . . 221
The Complement of a Vector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
The Vector Operator, ♦ or Quad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Tensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
The Rotation of Axes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Interpretation of the Lorentz Transformation as a Rota-
tion of Axes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Graphical Representation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Part II. Applications of the Four-Dimensional Analysis. . . . . . . 236
Kinematics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Extended Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Extended Velocity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Extended Acceleration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
The Velocity of Light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
The Dynamics of a Particle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Extended Momentum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
The Conservation Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
The Dynamics of an Elastic Body. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
The Tensor of Extended Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
The Equation of Motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Electromagnetics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Extended Current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
The Electromagnetic Vector M. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
The Field Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
The Conservation of Electricity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
The Product M· q. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
The Extended Tensor of Electromagnetic Stress. . . . . . 245
Combined Electrical and Mechanical Systems. . . . . . . 247
Appendix I. Symbols for Quantities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Scalar Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Vector Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Appendix II. Vector Notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Three Dimensional Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Non-Euclidean Four Dimensional Space. . . . . . . . . . 253
PREFACE.
Thirty or forty years ago, in the field of physical science, there was
a widespread feeling that the days of adventurous discovery had passed
forever, and the conservative physicist was only too happy to devote his
life to the measurement to the sixth decimal place of quantities whose
significance for physical theory was already an old story. The passage of
time, however, has completely upset such bourgeois ideas as to the state
of physical science, through the discovery of some most extraordinary
experimental facts and the development of very fundamental theories
for their explanation.
On the experimental side, the intervening years have seen the dis-
covery of radioactivity, the exhaustive study of the conduction of elec-
tricity through gases, the accompanying discoveries of cathode, canal
and X-rays, the isolation of the electron, the study of the distribution
of energy in the hohlraum, and the final failure of all attempts to detect
the earth’s motion through the supposititious ether. During this same
time, the theoretical physicist has been working hand in hand with the
experimenter endeavoring to correlate the facts already discovered and
to point the way to further research. The theoretical achievements,
which have been found particularly helpful in performing these func-
tions of explanation and prediction, have been the development of the
modern theory of electrons, the application of thermodynamic and sta-
tistical reasoning to the phenomena of radiation, and the development
of Einstein’s brilliant theory of the relativity of motion.
It has been the endeavor of the following book to present an in-
troduction to this theory of relativity, which in the decade since the
publication of Einstein’s first paper in 1905 (Annalen der Physik) has
become a necessary part of the theoretical equipment of every physicist.
Even if we regard the Einstein theory of relativity merely as a conve-
nient tool for the prediction of electromagnetic and optical phenomena,
its importance to the physicist is very great, not only because its intro-
duction greatly simplifies the deduction of many theorems which were
1
Preface. 2
already familiar in the older theories based on a stationary ether, but
also because it leads simply and directly to correct conclusions in the
case of such experiments as those of Michelson and Morley, Trouton and
Noble, and Kaufman and Bucherer, which can be made to agree with
the idea of a stationary ether only by the introduction of complicated
and ad hoc assumptions. Regarded from a more philosophical point of
view, an acceptance of the Einstein theory of relativity shows us the
advisability of completely remodelling some of our most fundamental
ideas. In particular we shall now do well to change our concepts of
space and time in such a way as to give up the old idea of their com-
plete independence, a notion which we have received as the inheritance
of a long ancestral experience with bodies moving with slow velocities,
but which no longer proves pragmatic when we deal with velocities
approaching that of light.
The method of treatment adopted in the following chapters is to
a considerable extent original, partly appearing here for the first time
and partly already published elsewhere.

Chapter III follows a method
which was first developed by Lewis and Tolman,

and the last chapter a
method developed by Wilson and Lewis.

The writer must also express
his special obligations to the works of Einstein, Planck, Poincaré, Laue,
Ishiwara and Laub.
It is hoped that the mode of presentation is one that will be found
well adapted not only to introduce the study of relativity theory to
those previously unfamiliar with the subject but also to provide the
necessary methodological equipment for those who wish to pursue the
theory into its more complicated applications.

Philosophical Magazine, vol. 18, p. 510 (1909); Physical Review, vol. 31, p. 26
(1910); Phil. Mag., vol. 21, p. 296 (1911); ibid., vol. 22, p. 458 (1911); ibid., vol. 23,
p. 375 (1912); Phys. Rev., vol. 35, p. 136 (1912); Phil. Mag., vol. 25, p. 150 (1913);
ibid., vol. 28, p. 572 (1914); ibid., vol. 28, p. 583 (1914).

Phil. Mag., vol. 18, p. 510 (1909).

Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 48, p. 389
(1912).
Preface. 3
After presenting, in the first chapter, a brief outline of the historical
development of ideas as to the nature of the space and time of sci-
ence, we consider, in Chapter II, the two main postulates upon which
the theory of relativity rests and discuss the direct experimental evi-
dence for their truth. The third chapter then presents an elementary
and non-mathematical deduction of a number of the most important
consequences of the postulates of relativity, and it is hoped that this
chapter will prove especially valuable to readers without unusual math-
ematical equipment, since they will there be able to obtain a real grasp
of such important new ideas as the change of mass with velocity, the
non-additivity of velocities, and the relation of mass and energy, with-
out encountering any mathematics beyond the elements of analysis and
geometry.
In Chapter IV we commence the more analytical treatment of the
theory of relativity by obtaining from the two postulates of relativity
Einstein’s transformation equations for space and time as well as trans-
formation equations for velocities, accelerations, and for an important
function of the velocity. Chapter V presents various kinematical ap-
plications of the theory of relativity following quite closely Einstein’s
original method of development. In particular we may call attention to
the ease with which we may handle the optics of moving media by the
methods of the theory of relativity as compared with the difficulty of
treatment on the basis of the ether theory.
In Chapters VI, VII and VIII we develop and apply a theory of the
dynamics of a particle which is based on the Einstein transformation
equations for space and time, Newton’s three laws of motion, and the
principle of the conservation of mass.
We then examine, in Chapter IX, the relation between the theory
of relativity and the principle of least action, and find it possible to
introduce the requirements of relativity theory at the very start into
this basic principle for physical science. We point out that we might
indeed have used this adapted form of the principle of least action, for
developing the dynamics of a particle, and then proceed in Chapters
Preface. 4
X, XI and XII to develop the dynamics of an elastic body, the dynamics
of a thermodynamic system, and the dynamics of an electromagnetic
system, all on the basis of our adapted form of the principle of least
action.
Finally, in Chapter XIII, we consider a four-dimensional method of
expressing and treating the results of relativity theory. This chapter
contains, in Part I, an epitome of some of the more important methods
in four-dimensional vector analysis and it is hoped that it can also be
used in connection with the earlier parts of the book as a convenient
reference for those who are not familiar with ordinary three-dimensional
vector analysis.
In the present book, the writer has confined his considerations to
cases in which there is a uniform relative velocity between systems of
coördinates. In the future it may be possible greatly to extend the ap-
plications of the theory of relativity by considering accelerated systems
of coördinates, and in this connection Einstein’s latest work on the re-
lation between gravity and acceleration is of great interest. It does not
seem wise, however, at the present time to include such considerations
in a book which intends to present a survey of accepted theory.
The author will feel amply repaid for the work involved in the prepa-
ration of the book if, through his efforts, some of the younger American
physicists can be helped to obtain a real knowledge of the important
work of Einstein. He is also glad to have this opportunity to add his tes-
timony to the growing conviction that the conceptual space and time of
science are not God-given and unalterable, but are rather in the nature
of human constructs devised for use in the description and correlation
of scientific phenomena, and that these spatial and temporal concepts
should be altered whenever the discovery of new facts makes such a
change pragmatic.
The writer wishes to express his indebtedness to Mr. William H.
Williams for assisting in the preparation of Chapter I.
CHAPTER I.
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF IDEAS AS TO THE NATURE
OF SPACE AND TIME.
1. Since the year 1905, which marked the publication of Einstein’s
momentous article on the theory of relativity, the development of sci-
entific thought has led to a complete revolution in accepted ideas as
to the nature of space and time, and this revolution has in turn pro-
foundly modified those dependent sciences, in particular mechanics and
electromagnetics, which make use of these two fundamental concepts
in their considerations.
In the following pages it will be our endeavor to present a descrip-
tion of these new notions as to the nature of space and time,

and
to give a partial account of the consequent modifications which have
been introduced into various fields of science. Before proceeding to
this task, however, we may well review those older ideas as to space
and time which until now appeared quite sufficient for the correlation
of scientific phenomena. We shall first consider the space and time of
Galileo and Newton which were employed in the development of the
classical mechanics, and then the space and time of the ether theory of
light.
part i. the space and time of galileo and newton.
2. The publication in 1687 of Newton’s Principia laid down so
satisfactory a foundation for further dynamical considerations, that it
seemed as though the ideas of Galileo and Newton as to the nature
of space and time, which were there employed, would certainly remain
forever suitable for the interpretation of natural phenomena. And in-
deed upon this basis has been built the whole structure of classical
mechanics which, until our recent familiarity with very high velocities,

Throughout this work by “space” and “time” we shall mean the conceptual
space and time of science.
5
Chapter One. 6
has been found completely satisfactory for an extremely large number
of very diverse dynamical considerations.
An examination of the fundamental laws of mechanics will show
how the concepts of space and time entered into the Newtonian system
of mechanics. Newton’s laws of motion, from which the whole of the
classical mechanics could be derived, can best be stated with the help
of the equation
F =
d
dt
(mu). (1)
This equation defines the force F acting on a particle as equal to the
rate of change in its momentum (i.e., the product of its mass m and its
velocity u), and the whole of Newton’s laws of motion may be summed
up in the statement that in the case of two interacting particles the
forces which they mutually exert on each other are equal in magnitude
and opposite in direction.
Since in Newtonian mechanics the mass of a particle is assumed
constant, equation (1) may be more conveniently written
F = m
du
dt
= m
d
dt

dr
dt

,
or
F
x
= m
d
dt

dx
dt

,
F
y
= m
d
dt

dy
dt

,
F
z
= m
d
dt

dz
dt

,
(2)
and this definition of force, together with the above-stated principle
of the equality of action and reaction, forms the starting-point for the
whole of classical mechanics.
The necessary dependence of this mechanics upon the concepts of
space and time becomes quite evident on an examination of this funda-
mental equation (2), in which the expression for the force acting on a
Historical Development. 7
particle is seen to contain both the variables x, y, and z, which specify
the position of the particle in space, and the variable t, which specifies
the time.
3. Newtonian Time. To attempt a definite statement as to the
meaning of so fundamental and underlying a notion as that of time is
a task from which even philosophy may shrink. In a general way, con-
ceptual time may be thought of as a one-dimensional, unidirectional,
one-valued continuum. This continuum is a sort of framework in which
the instants at which actual occurrences take place find an ordered po-
sition. Distances from point to point in the continuum, that is intervals
of time, are measured by the periods of certain continually recurring
cyclic processes such as the daily rotation of the earth. A unidirectional
nature is imposed upon the time continuum among other things by an
acceptance of the second law of thermodynamics, which requires that
actual progression in time shall be accompanied by an increase in the
entropy of the material world, and this same law requires that the con-
tinuum shall be one-valued since it excludes the possibility that time
ever returns upon itself, either to commence a new cycle or to intersect
its former path even at a single point.
In addition to these characteristics of the time continuum, which
have been in no way modified by the theory of relativity, the Newto-
nian mechanics always assumed a complete independence of time and
the three-dimensional space continuum which exists along with it. In
dynamical equations time entered as an entirely independent variable
in no way connected with the variables whose specification determines
position in space. In the following pages, however, we shall find that the
theory of relativity requires a very definite interrelation between time
and space, and in the Einstein transformation equations we shall see
the exact way in which measurements of time depend upon the choice
of a set of variables for measuring position in space.
4. Newtonian Space. An exact description of the concept of space
is perhaps just as difficult as a description of the concept of time. In
a general way we think of space as a three-dimensional, homogeneous,
Chapter One. 8
isotropic continuum, and these ideas are common to the conceptual
spaces of Newton, Einstein, and the ether theory of light. The space of
Newton, however, differs on the one hand from that of Einstein because
of a tacit assumption of the complete independence of space and time
measurements; and differs on the other hand from that of the ether
theory of light by the fact that “free” space was assumed completely
empty instead of filled with an all-pervading quasi-material medium—
the ether. A more definite idea of the particularly important character-
istics of the Newtonian concept of space may be obtained by considering
somewhat in detail the actual methods of space measurement.
Positions in space are in general measured with respect to some ar-
bitrarily fixed system of reference which must be threefold in character
corresponding to the three dimensions of space. In particular we may
make use of a set of Cartesian axes and determine, for example, the
position of a particle by specifying its three Cartesian coördinates x, y
and z.
In Newtonian mechanics the particular set of axes chosen for spec-
ifying position in space has in general been determined in the first
instance by considerations of convenience. For example, it is found by
experience that, if we take as a reference system lines drawn upon the
surface of the earth, the equations of motion based on Newton’s laws
give us a simple description of nearly all dynamical phenomena which
are merely terrestrial. When, however, we try to interpret with these
same axes the motion of the heavenly bodies, we meet difficulties, and
the problem is simplified, so far as planetary motions are concerned,
by taking a new reference system determined by the sun and the fixed
stars. But this system, in its turn, becomes somewhat unsatisfactory
when we take account of the observed motions of the stars themselves,
and it is finally convenient to take a reference system relative to which
the sun is moving with a velocity of twelve miles per second in the di-
rection of the constellation Hercules. This system of axes is so chosen
that the great majority of stars have on the average no motion with
respect to it, and the actual motion of any particular star with respect
Historical Development. 9
to these coördinates is called the peculiar motion of the star.
Suppose, now, we have a number of such systems of axes in uni-
form relative motion; we are confronted by the problem of finding some
method of transposing the description of a given kinematical occur-
rence from the variables of one of these sets of axes to those of another.
For example, if we have chosen a system of axes S and have found
an equation in x, y, z, and t which accurately describes the motion
of a given point, what substitutions for the quantities involved can be
made so that the new equation thereby obtained will again correctly
describe the same phenomena when we measure the displacements of
the point relative to a new system of reference S

which is in uniform
motion with respect to S? The assumption of Galileo and Newton that
“free” space is entirely empty, and the further tacit assumption of the
complete independence of space and time, led them to propose a very
simple solution of the problem, and the transformation equations which
they used are generally called the Galileo Transformation Equations to
distinguish them from the Einstein Transformation Equations which we
shall later consider.
5. The Galileo Transformation Equations. Consider two sys-
tems of right-angled coördinates, S and S

, which are in relative motion
in the X direction with the velocity V ; for convenience let the X axes,
OX and O

X

, of the two systems coincide in direction, and for further
simplification let us take as our zero point for time measurements the
instant when the two origins O and O

coincide. Consider now a point
which at the time t has the coördinates x, y and z measured in sys-
tem S. Then, according to the space and time considerations of Galileo
and Newton, the coördinates of the point with reference to system S

are given by the following transformation equations:
x

= x −V t, (3)
y

= y, (4)
z

= z, (5)
t

= t. (6)
Chapter One. 10
These equations are fundamental for Newtonian mechanics, and may
appear to the casual observer to be self-evident and bound up with
necessary ideas as to the nature of space and time. Nevertheless, the
truth of the first and the last of these equations is absolutely dependent
on the unsupported assumption of the complete independence of space
and time measurements, and since in the Einstein theory we shall find
a very definite relation between space and time measurements we shall
be led to quite a different set of transformation equations. Relations
(3), (4), (5) and (6) will be found, however, to be the limiting form
which the correct transformation equations assume when the velocity
between the systems V becomes small compared with that of light.
Since until very recent times the human race in its entire past history
has been familiar only with velocities that are small compared with that
of light, it need not cause surprise that the above equations, which are
true merely at the limit, should appear so self-evident.
6. Before leaving the discussion of the space and time system of
Newton and Galileo we must call attention to an important characteris-
tic which it has in common with the system of Einstein but which is not
a feature of that assumed by the ether theory. If we have two systems
of axes such as those we have just been considering, we may with equal
right consider either one of them at rest and the other moving past
it. All we can say is that the two systems are in relative motion; it is
meaningless to speak of either one as in any sense “absolutely” at rest.
The equation x

= x−V t which we use in transforming the description
of a kinematical event from the variables of system S to those of system
S

is perfectly symmetrical with the equation x = x

+ V t

which we
should use for a transformation in the reverse direction. Of all possible
systems no particular set of axes holds a unique position among the
others. We shall later find that this important principle of the relativ-
ity of motion is permanently incorporated into our system of physical
science as the first postulate of relativity. This principle, common both
to the space of Newton and to that of Einstein, is not characteristic of
the space assumed by the classical theory of light. The space of this
Historical Development. 11
theory was supposed to be filled with a stationary medium, the luminif-
erous ether, and a system of axes stationary with respect to this ether
would hold a unique position among the other systems and be the one
peculiarly adapted for use as the ultimate system of reference for the
measurement of motions.
We may now briefly sketch the rise of the ether theory of light and
point out the permanent contribution which it has made to physical
science, a contribution which is now codified as the second postulate of
relativity.
part ii. the space and time of the ether theory.
7. Rise of the Ether Theory. Twelve years before the appearance
of the Principia, Römer, a Danish astronomer, observed that an eclipse
of one of the satellites of Jupiter occurred some ten minutes later than
the time predicted for the event from the known period of the satellite
and the time of the preceding eclipse. He explained this delay by the
hypothesis that it took light twenty-two minutes to travel across the
earth’s orbit. Previous to Römer’s discovery, light was generally sup-
posed to travel with infinite velocity. Indeed Galileo had endeavored
to find the speed of light by direct experiments over distances of a few
miles and had failed to detect any lapse of time between the emission
of a light flash from a source and its observation by a distant observer.
Römer’s hypothesis has been repeatedly verified and the speed of light
measured by different methods with considerable exactness. The mean
of the later determinations is 2.9986 ×10
10
cm. per second.
8. At the time of Römer’s discovery there was much discussion as
to the nature of light. Newton’s theory that it consisted of particles or
corpuscles thrown out by a luminous body was attacked by Hooke and
later by Huygens, who advanced the view that it was something in the
nature of wave motions in a supposed space-filling medium or ether. By
this theory Huygens was able to explain reflection and refraction and
the phenomena of color, but assuming longitudinal vibrations he was
Chapter One. 12
unable to account for polarization. Diffraction had not yet been ob-
served and Newton contested the Hooke-Huygens theory chiefly on the
grounds that it was contradicted by the fact of rectilinear propagation
and the formation of shadows. The scientific prestige of Newton was
so great that the emission or corpuscular theory continued to hold its
ground for a hundred and fifty years. Even the masterly researches of
Thomas Young at the beginning of the nineteenth century were unable
to dislodge the old theory, and it was not until the French physicist,
Fresnel, about 1815, was independently led to an undulatory theory and
added to Young’s arguments the weight of his more searching mathe-
matical analysis, that the balance began to turn. From this time on
the wave theory grew in power and for a period of eighty years was
not seriously questioned. This theory has for its essential postulate the
existence of an all-pervading medium, the ether, in which wave distur-
bances can be set up and propagated. And the physical properties of
this medium became an enticing field of inquiry and speculation.
9. Idea of a Stationary Ether. Of all the various properties with
which the physicist found it necessary to endow the ether, for us the
most important is the fact that it must apparently remain stationary,
unaffected by the motion of matter through it. This conclusion was
finally reached through several lines of investigation. We may first
consider whether the ether would be dragged along by the motion of
nearby masses of matter, and, second, whether the ether enclosed in
a moving medium such as water or glass would partake in the latter’s
motion.
10. Ether in the Neighborhood of Moving Bodies. About the
year 1725 the astronomer Bradley, in his efforts to measure the parallax
of certain fixed stars, discovered that the apparent position of a star
continually changes in such a way as to trace annually a small ellipse in
the sky, the apparent position always lying in the plane determined by
the line from the earth to the center of the ellipse and by the direction
of the earth’s motion. On the corpuscular theory of light this admits of
ready explanation as Bradley himself discovered, since we should expect
Historical Development. 13
the earth’s motion to produce an apparent change in the direction of
the oncoming light, in just the same way that the motion of a railway
train makes the falling drops of rain take a slanting path across the
window pane. If c be the velocity of a light particle and v the earth’s
velocity, the apparent or relative velocity would be c−v and the tangent
of the angle of aberration would be
v
c
.
Upon the wave theory, it is obvious that we should also expect a
similar aberration of light, provided only that the ether shall be quite
stationary and unaffected by the motion of the earth through it, and
this is one of the important reasons that most ether theories have as-
sumed a stationary ether unaffected by the motion of neighboring mat-
ter.

In more recent years further experimental evidence for assuming
that the ether is not dragged along by the neighboring motion of large
masses of matter was found by Sir Oliver Lodge. His final experiments
were performed with a large rotating spheroid of iron with a narrow
groove around its equator, which was made the path for two rays of
light, one travelling in the direction of rotation and the other in the
opposite direction. Since by interference methods no difference could
be detected in the velocities of the two rays, here also the conclusion
was reached that the ether was not appreciably dragged along by the
rotating metal.
11. Ether Entrained in Dielectrics. With regard to the action
of a moving medium on the ether which might be entrained within it,
experimental evidence and theoretical consideration here too finally led
to the supposition that the ether itself must remain perfectly station-
ary. The earlier view first expressed by Fresnel, in a letter written to
Arago in 1818, was that the entrained ether did receive a fraction of
the total velocity of the moving medium. Fresnel gave to this fraction

The most notable exception is the theory of Stokes, which did assume that the
ether moved along with the earth and then tried to account for aberration with the
help of a velocity potential, but this led to difficulties, as was shown by Lorentz.
Chapter One. 14
the value
µ
2
−1
µ
2
, where µ is the index of refraction of the substance
forming the medium. On this supposition, Fresnel was able to account
for the fact that Arago’s experiments upon the reflection and refraction
of stellar rays show no influence whatever of the earth’s motion, and for
the fact that Airy found the same angle of aberration with a telescope
filled with water as with air. Moreover, the later work of Fizeau and
the accurate determinations of Michelson and Morley on the velocity of
light in a moving stream of water did show that the speed was changed
by an amount corresponding to Fresnel’s fraction. The fuller theoret-
ical investigations of Lorentz, however, did not lead scientists to look
upon this increased velocity of light in a moving medium as an evidence
that the ether is pulled along by the stream of water, and we may now
briefly sketch the developments which culminated in the Lorentz theory
of a completely stationary ether.
12. The Lorentz Theory of a Stationary Ether. The con-
siderations of Lorentz as to the velocity of light in moving media be-
came possible only after it was evident that optics itself is a branch of
the wider science of electromagnetics, and it became possible to treat
transparent media as a special case of dielectrics in general. In 1873,
in his Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Maxwell first advanced
the theory that electromagnetic phenomena also have their seat in the
luminiferous ether and further that light itself is merely an electromag-
netic disturbance in that medium, and Maxwell’s theory was confirmed
by the actual discovery of electromagnetic waves in 1888 by Hertz.
The attack upon the problem of the relative motion of matter and
ether was now renewed with great vigor both theoretically and exper-
imentally from the electromagnetic side. Maxwell in his treatise had
confined himself to phenomena in stationary media. Hertz, however,
extended Maxwell’s considerations to moving matter on the assump-
tion that the entrained ether is carried bodily along by it. It is evident,
however, that in the field of optical theory such an assumption could
not be expected to account for the Fizeau experiment, which had al-
Historical Development. 15
ready been explained on the assumption that the ether receives only a
fraction of the velocity of the moving medium; while in the field of elec-
tromagnetic theory it was found that Hertz’s assumptions would lead
us to expect no production of a magnetic field in the neighborhood of
a rotating electric condenser providing the plates of the condenser and
the dielectric move together with the same speed and this was deci-
sively disproved by the experiment of Eichenwald. The conclusions of
the Hertz theory were also out of agreement with the important exper-
iments of H. A. Wilson on moving dielectrics. It remained for Lorentz
to develop a general theory for moving dielectrics which was consistent
with the facts.
The theory of Lorentz developed from that of Maxwell by the ad-
dition of the idea of the electron, as the atom of electricity, and his
treatment is often called the “electron theory.” This atomistic con-
ception of electricity was foreshadowed by Faraday’s discovery of the
quantitative relations between the amount of electricity associated with
chemical reactions in electrolytes and the weight of substance involved,
a relation which indicates that the atoms act as carriers of electricity
and that the quantity of electricity carried by a single particle, whatever
its nature, is always some small multiple of a definite quantum of elec-
tricity, the electron. Since Faraday’s time, the study of the phenomena
accompanying the conduction of electricity through gases, the study of
radioactivity, and finally indeed the isolation and exact measurement of
these atoms of electrical charge, have led us to a very definite knowledge
of many of the properties of the electron.
While the experimental physicists were at work obtaining this more
or less first-hand acquaintance with the electron, the theoretical physi-
cists and in particular Lorentz were increasingly successful in explaining
the electrical and optical properties of matter in general on the basis
of the behavior of the electrons which it contains, the properties of
conductors being accounted for by the presence of movable electrons,
either free as in the case of metals or combined with atoms to form
ions as in electrolytes, while the electrical and optical properties of di-
Chapter One. 16
electrics were ascribed to the presence of electrons more or less bound
by quasi-elastic forces to positions of equilibrium. This Lorentz electron
theory of matter has been developed in great mathematical detail by
Lorentz and has been substantiated by numerous quantitative experi-
ments. Perhaps the greatest significance of the Lorentz theory is that
such properties of matter as electrical conductivity, magnetic perme-
ability and dielectric inductivity, which occupied the position of rather
accidental experimental constants in Maxwell’s original theory, are now
explainable as the statistical result of the behavior of the individual
electrons.
With regard now to our original question as to the behavior of mov-
ing optical and dielectric media, the Lorentz theory was found capable
of accounting quantitatively for all known phenomena, including Airy’s
experiment on aberration, Arago’s experiments on the reflection and
refraction of stellar rays, Fresnel’s coefficient for the velocity of light
in moving media, and the electromagnetic experiments upon moving
dielectrics made by Röntgen, Eichenwald, H. A. Wilson, and others.
For us the particular significance of the Lorentz method of explaining
these phenomena is that he does not assume, as did Fresnel, that the
ether is partially dragged along by moving matter. His investigations
show rather that the ether must remain perfectly stationary, and that
such phenomena as the changed velocity of light in moving media are
to be accounted for by the modifying influence which the electrons in
the moving matter have upon the propagation of electromagnetic dis-
turbances, rather than by a dragging along of the ether itself.
Although it would not be proper in this place to present the mathe-
matical details of Lorentz’s treatment of moving media, we may obtain
a clearer idea of what is meant in the Lorentz theory by a stationary
ether if we look for a moment at the five fundamental equations upon
which the theory rests. These familiar equations, of which the first four
are merely Maxwell’s four field equations, modified by the introduction
Historical Development. 17
of the idea of the electron, may be written
curl h =
1
c
∂e
∂t

u
c
,
curl e = −
1
c
∂h
∂t
,
div e = ρ,
div h = 0,
f = ρ

e +

u
c
×h


¸
in which the letters have their usual significance. (See Chapter XII.)
Now the whole of the Lorentz theory, including of course his treatment
of moving media, is derivable from these five equations, and the fact
that the idea of a stationary ether does lie at the basis of his theory
is most clearly shown by the first and last of these equations, which
contain the velocity u with which the charge in question is moving, and
for Lorentz this velocity is to be measured with respect to the assumed
stationary ether.
We have devoted this space to the Lorentz theory, since his work
marks the culmination of the ether theory of light and electromag-
netism, and for us the particularly significant fact is that by this line of
attack science was inevitably led to the idea of an absolutely immovable
and stationary ether.
13. We have thus briefly traced the development of the ether theory
of light and electromagnetism. We have seen that the space continuum
assumed by this theory is not empty as was the space of Newton and
Galileo but is assumed filled with a stationary medium, the ether, and
in conclusion should further point out that the time continuum assumed
by the ether theory was apparently the same as that of Newton and
Galileo, and in particular that the old ideas as to the absolute indepen-
dence of space and time were all retained.
Chapter One. 18
part iii. rise of the einstein theory of relativity.
14. The Michelson-Morley Experiment. In spite of all the
brilliant achievements of the theory of a stationary ether, we must now
call attention to an experiment, performed at the very time when the
success of the ether theory seemed most complete, whose result was in
direct contradiction to its predictions. This is the celebrated Michelson-
Morley experiment, and to the masterful interpretation of its conse-
quences at the hands of Einstein we owe the whole theory of relativity,
a theory which will nevermore permit us to assume that space and time
are independent.
If the theory of a stationary ether were true we should find, contrary
to the expectations of Newton, that systems of coördinates in relative
motion are not symmetrical, a system of axes fixed relatively to the
ether would hold a unique position among all other systems moving
relative to it and would be peculiarly adapted for the measurement
of displacements and velocities. Bodies at rest with respect to this
system of axes fixed in the ether would be spoken of as “absolutely”
at rest and bodies in motion through the ether would be said to have
“absolute” motion. From the point of view of the ether theory one of the
most important physical problems would be to determine the velocity
of various bodies, for example that of the earth, through the ether.
Now the Michelson-Morley experiment was devised for the very pur-
pose of determining the relative motion of the earth and the ether. The
experiment consists essentially in a comparison of the velocities of light
parallel and perpendicular to the earth’s motion in its orbit. A ray of
light from the source S falls on the half silvered mirror A, where it is
divided into two rays, one of which travels to the mirror B and the
other to the mirror C, where they are totally reflected. The rays are
recombined and produce a set of interference fringes at O. (See Fig. 1.)
We may now think of the apparatus as set so that one of the divided
paths is parallel to the earth’s motion and the other perpendicular to it.
On the basis of the stationary ether theory, the velocity of the light with
Historical Development. 19
reference to the apparatus would evidently be different over the two
paths, and hence on rotating the apparatus through an angle of ninety
degrees we should expect a shift in the position of the fringes. Knowing
the magnitude of the earth’s velocity in its orbit and the dimensions
of the apparatus, it is quite possible to calculate the magnitude of the
expected shift, a quantity entirely susceptible of experimental determi-
+ ×
S
A
B
C
O
Fig. 1.
nation. Nevertheless the most careful experiments made at different
times of day and at different seasons of the year entirely failed to show
any such shift at all.
This result is in direct contradiction to the theory of a stationary
ether and could be reconciled with that theory only by very arbitrary
assumptions. Instead of making such assumptions, the Einstein theory
of relativity finds it preferable to return in part to the older ideas of
Newton and Galileo.
15. The Postulates of Einstein. In fact, in accordance with
the results of this work of Michelson-Morley and other confirmatory
Chapter One. 20
experiments, the Einstein theory takes as its first postulate the idea
familiar to Newton of the relativity of all motion. It states that there
is nothing out in space in the nature of an ether or of a fixed set of
coördinates with regard to which motion can be measured, that there
is no such thing as absolute motion, and that all we can speak of is the
relative motion of one body with respect to another.
Although we thus see that the Einstein theory of relativity has re-
turned in part to the ideas of Newton and Galileo as to the nature
of space, it is not to be supposed that the ether theory of light and
electromagnetism has made no lasting contribution to physical science.
Quite on the contrary, not only must the ideas as to the periodic and
polarizable nature of the light disturbance, which were first appreciated
and understood with the help of the ether theory, always remain incor-
porated in every optical theory, but in particular the Einstein theory
of relativity takes as the basis for its second postulate a principle that
has long been familiar to the ether theory, namely that the velocity
of light is independent of the velocity of the source. We shall see in
following chapters that it is the combination of this principle with the
first postulate of relativity that leads to the whole theory of relativity
and to our new ideas as to the nature and interrelation of space and
time.
CHAPTER II.
THE TWO POSTULATES OF THE EINSTEIN THEORY OF
RELATIVITY.
16. There are two general methods of evaluating the theoretical
development of any branch of science. One of these methods is to test
by direct experiment the fundamental postulates upon which the theory
rests. If these postulates are found to agree with the facts, we may feel
justified in assuming that the whole theoretical structure is a valid one,
providing false logic or unsuspected and incorrect assumptions have
not later crept in to vitiate the conclusions. The other method of
testing a theory is to develop its interlacing chain of propositions and
theorems and examine the results both for their internal coherence and
for their objective validity. If we find that the conclusions drawn from
the theory are neither self-contradictory nor contradictory of each other,
and furthermore that they agree with the facts of the external world, we
may again feel that our theory has achieved a measure of success. In the
present chapter we shall present the two main postulates of the theory
of relativity, and indicate the direct experimental evidence in favor of
their truth. In following chapters we shall develop the consequences of
these postulates, show that the system of consequences stands the test
of internal coherence, and wherever possible compare the predictions
of the theory with experimental facts.
The First Postulate of Relativity.
17. The first postulate of relativity as originally stated by New-
ton was that it is impossible to measure or detect absolute translatory
motion through space. No objections have ever been made to this
statement of the postulate in its original form. In the development of
the theory of relativity, the postulate has been modified to include the
impossibility of detecting translatory motion through any medium or
ether which might be assumed to pervade space.
21
Chapter Two. 22
In support of the principle is the general fact that no effects due
to the motion of the earth or other body through the supposed ether
have ever been observed. Of the many unsuccessful attempts to de-
tect the earth’s motion through the ether we may call attention to
the experiments on the refraction of light made by Arago, Respighi,
Hoek, Ketteler and Mascart, the interference experiments of Ketteler
and Mascart, the work of Klinkerfuess and Haga on the position of
the absorption bands of sodium, the experiment of Nordmeyer on the
intensity of radiation, the experiments of Fizeau, Brace and Strasser
on the rotation of the plane of polarized light by transmission through
glass plates, the experiments of Mascart and of Rayleigh on the rotation
of the plane of polarized light in naturally active substances, the elec-
tromagnetic experiments of Röntgen, Des Coudres, J. Koenigsberger,
Trouton, Trouton and Noble, and Trouton and Rankine, and finally
the Michelson and Morley experiment, with the further work of Morley
and Miller. For details as to the nature of these experiments the reader
may refer to the original articles or to an excellent discussion by Laub
of the experimental basis of the theory of relativity.

In none of the above investigations was it possible to detect any ef-
fect attributable to the earth’s motion through the ether. Nevertheless
a number of these experiments are in accord with the final form given
to the ether theory by Lorentz, especially since his work satisfactorily
accounts for the Fresnel coefficient for the changed velocity of light in
moving media. Others of the experiments mentioned, however, could
be made to accord with the Lorentz theory only by very arbitrary as-
sumptions, in particular those of Michelson and Morley, Mascart and
Rayleigh, and Trouton and Noble. For the purposes of our discussion
we shall accept the principle of the relativity of motion as an experi-
mental fact.

Jahrbuch der Radioaktivität, vol. 7, p. 405 (1910).
The Two Postulates. 23
The Second Postulate of the Einstein Theory of Relativity.
18. The second postulate of relativity states that the velocity of
light in free space appears the same to all observers regardless of the
relative motion of the source of light and the observer. This postulate
may be obtained by combining the first postulate of relativity with a
principle which has long been familiar to the ether theory of light. This
principle states that the velocity of light is unaffected by a motion of
the emitting source, in other words, that the velocity with which light
travels past any observer is not increased by a motion of the source
of light towards the observer. The first postulate of relativity adds
the idea that a motion of the source of light towards the observer is
identical with a motion of the observer towards the source. The second
postulate of relativity is seen to be merely a combination of these two
principles, since it states that the velocity of light in free space appears
the same to all observers regardless both of the motion of the source of
light and of the observer.
19. It should be pointed out that the two principles whose combi-
nation thus leads to the second postulate of Einstein have come from
very different sources. The first postulate of relativity practically de-
nies the existence of any stationary ether through which the earth, for
instance, might be moving. On the other hand, the principle that the
velocity of light is unaffected by a motion of the source was originally
derived from the idea that light is transmitted by a stationary medium
which does not partake in the motion of the source. This combination
of two principles, which from a historical point of view seem somewhat
contradictory in nature, has given to the second postulate of relativity
a very extraordinary content. Indeed it should be particularly empha-
sized that the remarkable conclusions as to the nature of space and time
forced upon science by the theory of relativity are the special product
of the second postulate of relativity.
A simple example of the conclusions which can be drawn from this
postulate will make its extraordinary nature evident.
Chapter Two. 24
+ ×
S
a a

A
b b

B
Fig. 2.
S is a source of light and A and B two moving systems. A is moving
towards the source S, and B away from it. Observers on the systems
mark off equal distances aa

and bb

along the path of the light and
determine the time taken for light to pass from a to a

and b to b

respectively. Contrary to what seem the simple conclusions of common
sense, the second postulate requires that the time taken for the light
to pass from a to a

shall measure the same as the time for the light to
go from b to b

. Hence if the second postulate of relativity is correct it
is not surprising that science is forced in general to new ideas as to the
nature of space and time, ideas which are in direct opposition to the
requirements of so-called common sense.
Suggested Alternative to the Postulate of the Independence
of the Velocity of Light and the Velocity of the Source.
20. Because of the extraordinary conclusions derived by combining
the principle of the relativity of motion with the postulate that the
velocity of light is independent of the velocity of its source, a number
of attempts have been made to develop so-called emission theories of
relativity based on the principle of the relativity of motion and the
further postulate that the velocity of light and the velocity of its source
are additive.
Before examining the available evidence for deciding between the
rival principles as to the velocity of light, we may point out that this
proposed postulate, of the additivity of the velocity of source and light,
would as a matter of fact lead to a very simple kind of relativity theory
The Two Postulates. 25
without requiring any changes in our notions of space and time. For
if light or other electromagnetic disturbance which is being emitted
from a source did partake in the motion of that source in such a way
that the velocity of the source is added to the velocity of emission, it
is evident that a system consisting of the source and its surrounding
disturbances would act as a whole and suffer no permanent change in
configuration if the velocity of the source were changed. This result
would of course be in direct agreement with the idea of the relativity of
motion which merely requires that the physical properties of a system
shall be independent of its velocity through space.
As a particular example of the simplicity of emission theories we
may show, for instance, how easily they would account for the negative
O
A
B
Direction of Earth’s Motion
Fig. 3.
result of the Michelson-Morley experi-
ment. If O, Fig. 3, is a source of light
and A and B are mirrors placed a meter
away from O, the Michelson-Morley ex-
periment shows that the time taken for
light to travel to A and back is the same
as for the light to travel to B and back,
in spite of the fact that the whole appa-
ratus is moving through space in the di-
rection O−B, due to the earth’s motion
around the sun. The basic assumption
of emission theories, however, would re-
quire exactly this result, since it says that light travels out from O with
a constant velocity in all directions with respect to O, and not with
respect to some ether through which O is supposed to be moving.
The problem now before us is to decide between the two rival prin-
ciples as to the velocity of light, and we shall find that the bulk of the
evidence is all in favor of the principle which has led to the Einstein
theory of relativity with its complete revolution in our ideas as to space
and time, and against the principle which has led to the superficially
simple emission theories of relativity.
Chapter Two. 26
21. Evidence Against Emission Theories of Light. All emis-
sion theories agree in assuming that light from a moving source has
a velocity equal to the vector sum of the velocity of light from a sta-
tionary source and the velocity of the source itself at the instant of
emission. And without first considering the special assumptions which
distinguish one emission theory from another we may first present cer-
tain astronomical evidence which apparently stands in contradiction to
this basic assumption of all forms of emission theory. This evidence
was pointed out by Comstock

and later by de Sitter.

Consider the rotation of a binary star as it would appear to an
observer situated at a considerable distance from the star and in its
plane of rotation. (See Fig. 4.) If an emission theory of light be true,
the velocity of light from the star in position A will be c +u, where u is
the velocity of the star in its orbit, while in the position B the velocity
will be c − u. Hence the star will be observed to arrive in position A,
l
c +u
seconds after the event has actually occurred, and in position B,
l
c −u
seconds after the event has occurred. This will make the period
of half rotation from A to B appear to be
∆t −
l
c +u
+
l
c −u
= ∆t +
2ul
c
2
,
where ∆t is the actual time of a half rotation in the orbit, which for
simplicity may be taken as circular. On the other hand, the period of
the next half rotation from B back to A would appear to be
∆t −
2ul
c
2
.
Now in the case of most spectroscopic binaries the quantity
2ul
c
2
is
not only of the same order of magnitude as ∆t but oftentimes probably

Phys. Rev., vol. 30, p. 291 (1910).

Phys. Zeitschr., vol. 14, pp. 429, 1267 (1913).
The Two Postulates. 27
l O
Observer
l O
Observer
B
u
A
u
Fig. 4.
even larger. Hence, if an emission theory of light were true, we could
hardly expect without correcting for the variable velocity of light to
find that these orbits obey Kepler’s laws, as is actually the case. This
is certainly very strong evidence against any form of emission theory.
It may not be out of place, however, to state briefly the different forms
of emission theory which have been tried.
22. Different Forms of Emission Theory. As we have seen,
emission theories all agree in assuming that light from a moving source
has a velocity equal to the vector sum of the velocity of light from a
stationary source and the velocity of the source itself at the instant
of emission. Emission theories differ, however, in their assumptions as
to the velocity of light after its reflection from a mirror. The three
assumptions which up to this time have been particularly considered
are (1) that the excited portion of the reflecting mirror acts as a new
source of light and that the reflected light has the same velocity c with
respect to the mirror as has original light with respect to its source;
Chapter Two. 28
(2) that light reflected from a mirror acquires a component of velocity
equal to the velocity of the mirror image of the original source, and
hence has the velocity c with respect to this mirror image; and (3) that
light retains throughout its whole path the component of velocity which
it obtained from its original moving source, and hence after reflection
spreads out with velocity c in a spherical form around a center which
moves with the same speed as the original source.
Of these possible assumptions as to the velocity of reflected light,
the first seems to be the most natural and was early considered by
the author but shown to be incompatible, not only with an experi-
ment which he performed on the velocity of light from the two limbs
of the sun,

but also with measurements of the Stark effect in canal
rays.

The second assumption as to the velocity of light was made
by Stewart,

but has also been shown

to be incompatible with mea-
surements of the Stark effect in canal rays. Making use of the third
assumption as to the velocity of reflected light, a somewhat complete
emission theory has been developed by Ritz,
§
and unfortunately optical
experiments for deciding between the Einstein and Ritz relativity theo-
ries have never been performed, although such experiments are entirely
possible of performance.

Against the Ritz theory, however, we have
of course the general astronomical evidence of Comstock and de Sitter
which we have already described above.
For the present, the observations described above, comprise the
whole of the direct experimental evidence against emission theories of
light and in favor of the principle which has led to the second postu-
late of the Einstein theory. One of the consequences of the Einstein
theory, however, has been the deduction of an expression for the mass
of a moving body which has been closely verified by the Kaufmann-

Phys. Rev., vol. 31, p. 26 (1910).

Phys. Rev., vol. 35, p. 136 (1912).

Phys. Rev., vol. 32, p. 418 (1911).
§
Ann. de chim. et phys., vol. 13, p. 145 (1908); Arch. de Génève vol. 26, p. 232
(1908); Scientia, vol. 5 (1909).
The Two Postulates. 29
Bucherer experiment. Now it is very interesting to note, that starting
with what has thus become an experimental expression for the mass of
a moving body, it is possible to work backwards to a derivation of the
second postulate of relativity. For the details of the proof we must refer
the reader to the original article.

Further Postulates of the Theory of Relativity.
23. In the development of the theory of relativity to which we shall
now proceed we shall of course make use of many postulates. The two
which we have just considered, however, are the only ones, so far as
we are aware, which are essentially different from those common to
the usual theoretical developments of physical science. In particular in
our further work we shall assume without examination all such general
principles as the homogeneity and isotropism of the space continuum,
and the unidirectional, one-valued, one-dimensional character of the
time continuum. In our treatment of the dynamics of a particle we
shall also assume Newton’s laws of motion, and the principle of the
conservation of mass, although we shall find, of course, that the Einstein
ideas as to the connection between space and time will lead us to a non-
Newtonian mechanics. We shall also make extensive use of the principle
of least action, which we shall find a powerful principle in all the fields
of dynamics.

Phys. Rev., vol. 31, p. 26 (1910).
CHAPTER III.
SOME ELEMENTARY DEDUCTIONS.
24. In order gradually to familiarize the reader with the conse-
quences of the theory of relativity we shall now develop by very elemen-
tary methods a few of the more important relations. In this preliminary
consideration we shall lay no stress on mathematical elegance or logical
exactness. It is believed, however, that the chapter will present a sub-
stantially correct account of some of the more important conclusions
of the theory of relativity, in a form which can be understood even by
readers without mathematical equipment.
Measurements of Time in a Moving System.
25. We may first derive from the postulates of relativity a relation
connecting measurements of time intervals as made by observers in
systems moving with different velocities. Consider a system S (Fig. 5)
provided with a plane mirror a a, and an observer A, who has a clock
m
V
a a
b b
A B
S S

Fig. 5.
so that he can determine the time taken for a beam of light to travel up
to the mirror and back along the path AmA. Consider also another
similar system S

, provided with a mirror b b, and an observer B, who
also has a clock for measuring the time it takes for light to go up to his
mirror and back. System S

is moving past S with the velocity V , the
30
Some Elementary Deductions. 31
direction of motion being parallel to the mirrors a a and b b, the two
systems being arranged, moreover, so that when they pass one another
the two mirrors a a and b b will coincide, and the two observers A and B
will also come into coincidence.
A, considering his system at rest and the other in motion, measures
the time taken for a beam of light to pass to his mirror and return, over
the path AmA, and compares the time interval thus obtained with that
necessary for the performance of a similar experiment by B, in which
the light has to pass over a longer path such as BnB

, shown in Fig. 6,
where BB

is the distance through which the observer B has moved
m
a a
A
n
b b
p
B B

Fig. 6.
during the time taken for the passage of the light up to the mirror and
back.
Since, in accordance with the second postulate of relativity, the
velocity of light is independent of the velocity of its source, it is evident
that the ratio of these two time intervals will be proportional to the ratio
of the two paths AmA and BnB

, and this can easily be calculated
in terms of the velocity of light c and the velocity V of the system S

.
From Fig. 6 we have
(Am)
2
= (p n)
2
= (Bn)
2
−(Bp)
2
.
Dividing by (Bn)
2
,
(Am)
2
(Bn)
2
= 1 −
(Bp)
2
(Bn)
2
.
Chapter Three. 32
But the distance Bp is to Bn as V is to c, giving us
Am
Bn
=

1 −
V
2
c
2
,
and hence A will find, either by calculation or by direct measurement if
he has arranged clocks at B and B

, that it takes a longer time for the
performance of B’s experiment than for the performance of his own in
the ratio 1 :

1 −
V
2
c
2
.
It is evident from the first postulate of relativity, however, that
B himself must find exactly the same length of time for the light to pass
up to his mirror and come back as did A in his experiment, because
the two systems are, as a matter of fact, entirely symmetrical and we
could with equal right consider B’s system to be the one at rest and
A’s the one in motion.
We thus find that two observers, A and B, who are in relative motion
will not in general agree in their measurements of the time interval
necessary for a given event to take place, the event in this particular
case, for example, having been the performance of B’s experiment;
indeed, making use of the ratio obtained in a preceding paragraph, we
may go further and make the quantitative statement that measurements
of time intervals made with a moving clock must be multiplied by the
quantity
1

1 −
V
2
c
2
in order to agree with measurements made with a
stationary system of clocks.
It is sometimes more convenient to state this principle in the form:
A stationary observer using a set of stationary clocks will obtain a
greater measurement in the ratio 1 :

1 −
V
2
c
2
for a given time interval
than an observer who uses a clock moving with the velocity V .
Some Elementary Deductions. 33
Measurements of Length in a Moving System.
26. We may now extend our considerations, to obtain a relation
between measurements of length made in stationary and moving sys-
tems.
As to measurements of length perpendicular to the line of motion
of the two systems S and S

, a little consideration will make it at once
evident that both A and B must obtain identical results. This is true
because the possibility is always present of making a direct comparison
of the meter sticks which A and B use for such measurements by holding
them perpendicular to the line of motion. When the relative motion of
the two systems brings such meter sticks into juxtaposition, it is evident
from the first postulate of relativity that A’s meter and B’s meter
must coincide in length. Any difference in length could be due only
to the different velocity of the two systems through space, and such
an occurrence is ruled out by our first postulate. Hence measurements
made with a moving meter stick held perpendicular to its line of motion
will agree with those made with stationary meter sticks.
27. With regard to measurements of length parallel to the line of
motion of the systems, the affair is much more complicated. Any direct
comparison of the lengths of meter sticks in the two systems would
be very difficult to carry out; the consideration, however, of a simple
experiment on the velocity of light parallel to the motion of the systems
will lead to the desired relation.
Let us again consider two systems S and S

(Fig. 7), S

moving
past S with the velocity V .
A and B are observers on these systems provided with clocks and
meter sticks. The two observers lay off, each on his own system, paths
for measuring the velocity of light. A lays off a distance of one me-
ter, Am, so that he can measure the time for light to travel to the
mirror m and return, and B, using a meter stick which has the same
length as A’s when they are both at rest, lays off the distance Bn.
Each observer measures the length of time it takes for light to travel
Chapter Three. 34
A m
B n
V
Fig. 7.
to his mirror and return, and will evidently have to find the same length
of time, since the postulates of relativity require that the velocity of
light shall be the same for all observers.
Now the observer A, taking himself as at rest, finds that B’s light
travels over a path Bn

B

(Fig. 8), where nn

is the distance through
B B

n n

Fig. 8.
which the mirror n moves while the light is travelling up to it, and
BB

is the distance through which the source travels before the light
gets back. It is easy to calculate the length of this path.
We have
nn

Bn

=
V
c
and
BB

Bn

B

=
V
c
.
Some Elementary Deductions. 35
Also, from the figure,
Bn

= Bn +nn

,
Bn

B

= BnB + 2 nn

−BB

.
Combining, we obtain
Bn

B

BnB
=
1
1 −
V
2
c
2
.
Thus A finds that the path traversed by B’s light, instead of being
exactly two meters as was his own, will be longer in the ratio of 1 :

1 −
V
2
c
2

. For this reason A is rather surprised that B does not report
a longer time interval for the passage of the light than he himself found.
He remembers, however, that he has already found that measurements
of time made with a moving clock must be multiplied by the quantity
1

1 −
V
2
c
2
in order to agree with his own, and sees that this will account
for part of the discrepancy between the expected and observed results.
To account for the remaining discrepancy the further conclusion is now
obtained that measurements of length made with a moving meter stick,
parallel to its motion, must be multiplied by the quantity

1 −
V
2
c
2
in
order to agree with those made in a stationary system.
In accordance with this principle, a stationary observer will obtain
a smaller measurement for the length of a moving body than will an
observer moving along with the object. This has been called the Lorentz
shortening, the shortening occurring in the ratio

1 −
V
2
c
2
: 1
in the line of motion.
Chapter Three. 36
The Setting of Clocks in a Moving System.
28. It will be noticed that in our considerations up to this point we
have considered cases where only a single moving clock was needed in
performing the desired experiment, and this was done purposely, since
we shall find, not only that a given time interval measures shorter on a
moving clock than on a system of stationary clocks, but that a system
of moving clocks which have been set in synchronism by an observer
moving along with them will not be set in synchronism for a stationary
observer.
Consider again two systems S and S

in relative motion with the
velocity V . An observer A on system S places two carefully compared
clocks, unit distance apart, in the line of motion, and has the time
on each clock read when a given point on the other system passes it.
An observer B on system S

performs a similar experiment. The time
interval obtained in the two sets of readings must be the same, since the
first postulate of relativity obviously requires that the relative velocity
of the two systems V shall have the same value for both observers.
The observer A, however, taking himself as at rest, and familiar
with the change in the measurements of length and time in the moving
system which have already been deduced, expects that the velocity as
measured by B will be greater than the value that he himself obtains in
the ratio
1
1 −
V
2
c
2
, since any particular one of B’s clocks gives a shorter
value for a given time interval than his own, while B’s measurements
of the length of a moving object are greater than his own, each by
the factor

1 −
V
2
c
2
. In order to explain the actual result of B’s ex-
periment he now has to conclude that the clocks which for B are set
synchronously are not set in synchronism for himself.
From what has preceded it is easy to see that in the moving system,
from the point of view of the stationary observer, clocks must be set
further and further ahead as we proceed towards the rear of the system,
Some Elementary Deductions. 37
since otherwise B would not obtain a great enough difference in the
readings of the clocks as they come opposite the given point on the other
system. Indeed, if two clocks are situated in the moving system, S

, one
in front of the other by the distance l

, as measured by B, then for A it
will appear as though B had set his rear clock ahead by the amount
l

V
c
2
.
29. We have now obtained all the information which we shall need
in this chapter as to measurements of time and length in systems mov-
ing with different velocities. We may point out, however, before pro-
ceeding to the application of these considerations, that our choice of
A’s system as the one which we should call stationary was of course
entirely arbitrary and immaterial. We can at any time equally well
take B’s system as the one to which we shall ultimately refer all our
measurements, and indeed all that we shall mean when we call one of
our systems stationary is that for reasons of convenience we have picked
out that particular system as the one with reference to which we par-
ticularly wish to make our measurements. We may also point out that
of course B has to subject A’s measurements of time and length to just
the same multiplications by the factor
1

1 −
V
2
c
2
as did A in order to
make them agree with his own.
These conclusions as to measurements of space and time are of
course very startling when first encountered. The mere fact, however,
that they appear strange to so-called “common sense” need cause us no
difficulty, since the older ideas of space and time were obtained from an
ancestral experience which never included experiments with high rela-
tive velocities, and it is only when the ratio
V
2
c
2
becomes appreciable
that we obtain unexpected results. To those scientists who do not wish
to give up their “common sense” ideas of space and time we can merely
say that if they accept the two postulates of relativity then they will
also have to accept the consequences which can be deduced therefrom.
The remarkable nature of these consequences merely indicates the very
Chapter Three. 38
imperfect nature of our older conceptions of space and time.
The Composition of Velocities.
30. Our conclusions as to the setting of clocks make it possible
to obtain an important expression for the composition of velocities.
Suppose we have a system S, which we shall take as stationary, and on
the system an observer A. Moving past S with the velocity V is another
system S

with an observer B, and finally moving past S

in the same
direction is a body whose velocity is u

as measured by observer B.
What will be the velocity u of this body as measured by A?
Our older ideas led us to believe in the simple additivity of veloc-
ities and we should have calculated u in accordance with the simple
expression
u = V +u

.
We must now allow, however, for the fact that u

is measured with
clocks which to A appear to be set in a peculiar fashion and running at
a different rate from his own, and with meter sticks which give longer
measurements than those used in the stationary system.
The determination of u

by observer B would be obtained by mea-
suring the time interval necessary for the body in question to move a
given distance l

along the system S

. If t

is the difference in the re-
spective clock readings when the body reaches the ends of the line l

,
we have
u

=
l

t

.
We have already seen, however, that the two clocks are for A set
l

V
c
2
units apart and hence for clocks set together the time interval
would have measured t

+
l

V
c
2
. Furthermore these moving clocks give
time measurements which are shorter in the ratio

1 −
V
2
c
2
: 1 than
Some Elementary Deductions. 39
those obtained by A, so that for A the time interval for the body to
move from one end of l

to the other would measure
t

+
l

V
c
2

1 −
V
2
c
2
;
furthermore, owing to the difference in measurements of length, this
line l

has for A the length l

1 −
V
2
c
2
. Hence A finds that the body is
moving past S

with the velocity,
l

1 −
V
2
c
2
t

+
l

V
c
2

1 −
V
2
c
2
=
l

t

1 −
V
2
c
2

1 +
l

t

V
c
2
=
u

1 −
V
2
c
2

1 +
u

V
c
2
.
This makes the total velocity of the body past S equal to the sum
u = V +
u

1 −
V
2
c
2

1 +
u

V
c
2
,
or
u =
V +u

1 +
u

V
c
2
.
This new expression for the composition of velocities is extremely
important. When the velocities u

and V are small compared with the
velocity of light c, we observe that the formula reduces to the simple
additivity principle which we know by common experience to be true
for all ordinary velocities. Until very recently the human race has had
practically no experience with high velocities and we now see that for
Chapter Three. 40
velocities in the neighborhood of that of light, the simple additivity
principle is nowhere near true.
In particular it should be noticed that by the composition of veloc-
ities which are themselves less than that of light we can never obtain
any velocity greater than that of light. As an extreme case, suppose for
example that the system S

were moving past S itself with the velocity
of light (i.e., V = c) and that in the system S

a particle should itself
be given the velocity of light in the same direction (i.e., u

= c); we
find on substitution that the particle still has only the velocity of light
with respect to S. We have
u =
c +c
1 +
c
2
c
2
=
2c
2
= c.
By the consideration of such conclusions as these the reader will
appreciate more and more the necessity of abandoning his older naïve
ideas of space and time which are the inheritance of a long human
experience with physical systems in which only slow velocities were
encountered.
The Mass of a Moving Body.
31. We may now obtain an important relation for the mass of
a moving body. Consider again two similar systems, S at rest and
S

moving past with the velocity V . The observer A on system S
has a sphere made from some rigid elastic material, having a mass of
m grams, and the observer B on system S

is also provided with a
similar sphere. The two spheres are made so that they are exactly alike
when both are at rest; thus B’s sphere, since it is at rest with respect to
him, looks to him just the same as the other sphere does to A. As the
two systems pass each other (Fig. 9) each of these clever experimenters
rolls his sphere towards the other system with a velocity of u cm. per
second, so that they will just collide and rebound in a line perpendicular
to the direction of motion. Now, from the first postulate of relativity,
Some Elementary Deductions. 41
system S

appears to B just the same as system S appears to A, and
B’s ball appears to him to go through the same evolutions that A finds
for his ball. A finds that his ball on collision undergoes the algebraic
change of velocity 2u, B finds the same change in velocity 2u for his
ball. B reports this fact to A, and A knowing that B’s measurements
of length agree with his own in this transverse direction, but that his
V
A
B
S
S

Fig. 9.
clock gives time intervals that are shorter than his own in the ratio

1 −
V
2
c
2
: 1, calculates that the change in velocity of B’s ball must
be 2u

1 −
V
2
c
2
.
From the principle of the conservation of momentum, however,
A knows that the change in momentum of B’s ball must be the same
as that of his own and hence can write the equation
m
a
u = m
b
u

1 −
V
2
c
2
,
Chapter Three. 42
where m
a
is the mass of A’s ball and m
b
is the mass of B’s ball. Solving
we have
m
b
=
m
a

1 −
V
2
c
2
.
In other words, B’s ball, which had the same mass m
a
as A’s when
both were at rest, is found to have the larger mass
m
a

1 −
v
2
c
2
when
placed in a system that is moving with the velocity V .

The theory of relativity thus leads to the general expression
m =
m
0

1 −
v
2
c
2
for the mass of a body moving with the velocity u and having the
mass m
0
when at rest.
Since we have very few velocities comparable with that of light it
is obvious that the quantity

1 −
v
2
c
2
seldom differs much from unity,
which makes the experimental verification of this expression difficult.
In the case of electrons, however, which are shot off from radioactive
substances, or indeed in the case of cathode rays produced with high
potentials, we do have particles moving with velocities comparable to
that of light, and the experimental work of Kaufmann, Bucherer, Hupka
and others in this field provides one of the most striking triumphs of
the theory of relativity.
The Relation Between Mass and Energy.
32. The theory of relativity has led to very important conclusions
as to the nature of mass and energy. In fact, we shall see that matter

In carrying out this experiment the transverse velocities of the balls should be
made negligibly small in comparison with the relative velocity of the systems V .
Some Elementary Deductions. 43
and energy are apparently different names for the same fundamental
entity.
When we set a body in motion it is evident from the previous section
that we increase both its mass as well as its energy. Now we can show
that there is a definite ratio between the amount of energy that we give
to the body and the amount of mass that we give to it.
If the force f acts on a particle which is free to move, its increase
in kinetic energy is evidently
∆E =

f dl.
But the force acting is, by definition, equal to the rate of increase in
the momentum of the particle
f =
d
dt
(mu).
Substituting we have
∆E =

d(mu)
dt
dl =

dl
dt
d(mu) =

u d(mu).
We have, however, from the previous section,
m =
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
,
which, solved for u, gives us
u = c

1 −
m
0
2
m
2
.
Substituting this value of u in our equation for ∆E we obtain, after
simplification,
∆E =

c
2
dm = c
2
∆m.
Chapter Three. 44
This says that the increase of the kinetic energy of the particle, in
ergs, is equal to the increase in mass, in grams, multiplied by the square
of the velocity of light. If now we bring the particle to rest it will give
up both its kinetic energy and its excess mass. Accepting the principles
of the conservation of mass and energy, we know, however, that neither
this energy nor the mass has been destroyed; they have merely been
passed on to other bodies. There is, moreover, every reason to believe
that this mass and energy, which were associated together when the
body was in motion and left the body when it was brought to rest, still
remain always associated together. For example, if the body should be
brought to rest by setting another body into motion, it is of course a
necessary consequence of our considerations that the kinetic energy and
the excess mass both pass on together to the new body which is set in
motion. A similar conclusion would be true if the body is brought to
rest by frictional forces, since the heat produced by the friction means
an increase in the kinetic energies of ultimate particles.
In general we shall find it pragmatic to consider that matter and
energy are merely different names for the same fundamental entity. One
gram of matter is equal to 10
21
ergs of energy.
c
2
= (2.9986 ×10
10
)
2
= approx. 10
21
.
This apparently extraordinary conclusion is in reality one which pro-
duces the greatest simplification in science. Not to mention numerous
special applications where this principle is useful, we may call attention
to the fact that the great laws of the conservation of mass and of energy
have now become identical. We may also point out that those opposing
camps of philosophic materialists who defend matter on the one hand
or energy on the other as the fundamental entity of the universe may
now forever cease their unimportant bickerings.
CHAPTER IV.
THE EINSTEIN TRANSFORMATION EQUATIONS FOR SPACE
AND TIME.
The Lorentz Transformation.
33. We may now proceed to a systematic study of the consequences
of the theory of relativity.
The fundamental problem that first arises in considering spatial
and temporal measurements is that of transforming the description of
a given kinematical occurrence from the variables of one system of
coördinates to those of another system which is in motion relative to
the first.
Consider two systems of right-angled Cartesian coördinates S and S

(Fig. 10) in relative motion in the X direction with the velocity V . The
X
Y
Z
O X

Y

Z

O

V
Fig. 10.
position of any given point in space can be determined by specifying
its coördinates x, y, and z with respect to system S or its coördinates
x

, y

and z

with respect to system S

. Furthermore, for the purpose
of determining the time at which any event takes place, we may think
of each system of coördinates as provided with a whole series of clocks
placed at convenient intervals throughout the system, the clocks of
45
Chapter Four. 46
each series being set and regulated

by observers in the corresponding
system. The time at which the event in question takes place may be
denoted by t if determined by the clocks belonging to system S and
by t

if determined by the clocks of system S

.
For convenience the two systems S and S

are chosen so that the
axes OX and O

X

lie in the same line, and for further simplification
we choose, as our starting-point for time measurements, t and t

both
equal to zero when the two origins come into coincidence.
The specific problem now before us is as follows: If a given kine-
matical occurrence has been observed and described in terms of the
variables x

, y

, z

and t

, what substitutions must we make for the val-
ues of these variables in order to obtain a correct description of the
same kinematical event in terms of the variables x, y, z and t? In other
words, we want to obtain a set of transformation equations from the
variables of system S

to those of system S. The equations which we
shall present were first obtained by Lorentz, and the process of chang-
ing from one set of variables to the other has generally been called
the Lorentz transformation. The significance of these equations from
the point of view of the theory of relativity was first appreciated by
Einstein.
Deduction of the Fundamental Transformation Equations.
34. It is evident that these transformation equations are going to
depend on the relative velocity V of the two systems, so that we may
write for them the expressions
x

= F
1
(V, x, y, z, t),

We may think of the clocks as being set in any of the ways that are usual in
practice. Perhaps the simplest is to consider the clocks as mechanisms which have
been found to “keep time” when they are all together where they can be examined
by one individual observer. The assumption can then be made, in accordance with
our ideas of the homogeneity of space, that they will continue to “keep time” after
they have been distributed throughout the system.
Transformation Equations for Space and Time. 47
y

= F
2
(V, x, y, z, t),
z

= F
3
(V, x, y, z, t),
t

= F
4
(V, x, y, z, t),
where F
1
, F
2
, etc., are the unknown functions whose form we wish to
determine.
It is possible at the outset, however, greatly to simplify these rela-
tions. If we accept the idea of the homogeneity of space it is evident
that any other line parallel to OXX

might just as well have been cho-
sen as our line of X-axes, and hence our two equations for x

and t

must be independent of y and z. Moreover, as to the equations for
y

and z

it is at once evident that the only possible solutions are y

= y
and z

= z. This is obvious because a meter stick held in the system S

perpendicular to the line of relative motion, OX

, of the system can
be directly compared with meter sticks held similarly in system S, and
in accordance with the first postulate of relativity they must agree in
length in order that the systems may be entirely symmetrical. We may
now rewrite our transformation equations in the simplified form
x

= F
1
(V, t, x),
y

= y,
z

= z,
t

= F
2
(V, t, x),
and have only two functions, F
1
and F
2
, whose form has to be deter-
mined.
To complete the solution of the problem we may make use of three
further conditions which must govern the transformation equations.
35. Three Conditions to be Fulfilled. In the first place, when
the velocity V between the systems is small, it is evident that the
transformation equations must reduce to the form that they had in
Newtonian mechanics, since we know both from measurements and
from everyday experience that the Newtonian concepts of space and
Chapter Four. 48
time are correct as long as we deal with slow velocities. Hence the lim-
iting form of the equations as V approaches zero will be (cf. Chapter I,
equations (3), (4), (5), (6))
x

= x −V t,
y

= y,
z

= z,
t

= t.
36. A second condition is imposed upon the form of the functions
F
1
and F
2
by the first postulate of relativity, which requires that the
two systems S and S

shall be entirely symmetrical. Hence the transfor-
mation equations for changing from the variables of system S to those
of system S

must be of exactly the same form as those used in the
reverse transformation, containing, however, −V wherever +V occurs
in the latter equations. Expressing this requirement in mathematical
form, we may write as true equations
x = F
1
(−V, t

, x

),
t = F
2
(−V, t

, x

),
where F
1
and F
2
must have the same form as above.
37. A final condition is imposed upon the form of F
1
and F
2
by
the second postulate of relativity, which states that the velocity of a
beam of light appears the same to all observers regardless of the mo-
tion of the source of light or of the observer. Hence our transformation
equations must be of such a form that a given beam of light has the
same velocity, c, when measured in the variables of either system. Let
us suppose, for example, that at the instant t = t

= 0, when the two
origins come into coincidence, a light impulse is started from the com-
mon point occupied by O and O

. Then, measured in the coördinates of
either system, the optical disturbance which is generated must spread
out from the origin in a spherical form with the velocity c. Hence, using
Transformation Equations for Space and Time. 49
the variables of system S, the coördinates of any point on the surface
of the disturbance will be given by the expression
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= c
2
t
2
, (7)
while using the variables of system S

we should have the similar ex-
pression
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= c
2
t
2
. (8)
Thus we have a particular kinematical occurrence, the spreading out of
a light disturbance, whose description is known in the variables of either
system, and our transformation equations must be of such a form that
their substitution will change equation (8) to equation (7). In other
words, the expression x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
− c
2
t
2
is to be an invariant for the
Lorentz transformation.
38. The Transformation Equations. The three sets of condi-
tions which, as we have seen in the last three paragraphs, are imposed
upon the form of F
1
and F
2
are sufficient to determine the solution of
the problem. The natural method of solution is obviously that of trial,
and we may suggest the solution:
x

=
1

1 −
V
2
c
2
(x −V t) = κ(x −V t), (9)
y

= y, (10)
z

= z, (11)
t

=
1

1 −
V
2
c
2

t −
V
c
2
x

= κ

t −
V
c
2
x

, (12)
where we have placed κ to represent the important and continually
recurring quantity
1

1 −
V
2
c
2
.
Chapter Four. 50
It will be found as a matter of fact by examination that these solu-
tions do fit all three requirements which we have stated. Thus, when
V becomes small compared with the velocity of light, c, the equations
do reduce to those of Galileo and Newton. Secondly, if the equations are
solved for the unprimed quantities in terms of the primed, the resulting
expressions have an unchanged form except for the introduction of −V
in place of +V , thus fulfilling the requirements of symmetry imposed
by the first postulate of relativity. And finally, if we substitute the
expressions for x

, y

, z

and t

in the polynomial x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= c
2
t
2
,
we shall obtain the expression x
2
+y
2
+z
2
−c
2
t
2
and have thus secured
the invariance of x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
− c
2
t
2
which is required by the second
postulate of relativity.
We may further point out that the whole series of possible Lorentz
transformations form a group such that the result of two successive
transformations could itself be represented by a single transformation
provided we picked out suitable magnitudes and directions for the ve-
locities between the various systems.
It is also to be noted that the transformation becomes imaginary
for cases where V > c, and we shall find that this agrees with ideas
obtained in other ways as to the speed of light being an upper limit for
the magnitude of all velocities.
Further Transformation Equations.
39. Before making any applications of our equations we shall find it
desirable to obtain by simple substitutions and differentiations a series
of further transformation equations which will be of great value in our
future work.
By the simple differentiation of equation (12) we can obtain
dt

dt
= κ

1 −
˙ xV
c
2

, (13)
Transformation Equations for Space and Time. 51
where we have put ˙ x for
dx
dt
.
40. Transformation Equations for Velocity. By differentiation
of the equations for x

, y

and z

, nos. (9), (10) and (11), and sub-
stitution of the value just found for
dt

dt
we may obtain the following
transformation equations for velocity:
˙ x

=
˙ x −V
1 −
˙ xV
c
2
or u

x
=
u
x
−V
1 −
u
x
V
c
2
, (14)
˙ y

=
˙ yκ
−1
1 −
˙ yV
c
2
u

y
=
u
y
κ
−1
1 −
u
x
V
c
2
, (15)
˙ z

=
˙ zκ
−1
1 −
˙ zV
c
2
u

z
=
u
z
κ
−1
1 −
u
x
V
c
2
, (16)
where the placing of a dot has the familiar significance of differentiation
with respect to time,
dx
dt
being represented by ˙ x and
dx

dt

by ˙ x

.
The significance of these equations for the transformation of veloc-
ities is as follows: If for an observer in system S a point appears to
be moving with the uniform velocity ( ˙ x, ˙ y, ˙ z) its velocity ( ˙ x

, ˙ y

, ˙ z

), as
measured by an observer in system S

, is given by these expressions
(14), (15) and (16).
41. Transformation Equations for the Function
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
.
These three transformation equations for the velocity components of
a point permit us to obtain a further transformation equation for an
important function of the velocity which we shall find continually re-
curring in our later work. This is the function
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
, where we have
indicated the total velocity of the point by u, according to the expres-
Chapter Four. 52
sion u
2
= ˙ x
2
+ ˙ y
2
+ ˙ z
2
. By the substitution of equations (14), (15)
and (16) we obtain the transformation equation
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
=

1 −
u
x
V
c
2

κ

1 −
u
2
c
2
. (17)
42. Transformation Equations for Acceleration. By further
differentiating equations (14), (15) and (16) and simplifying, we easily
obtain three new equations for transforming measurements of acceler-
ation from system S

to S, viz.:
¨ x

=

1 −
˙ xV
c
2

−3
κ
−3
¨ x, (18)
¨ y

=

1 −
˙ xV
c
2

−2
κ
−2
¨ y + ˙ y
V
c
2

1 −
˙ xV
c
2

−3
κ
−2
¨ x, (19)
¨ z

=

1 −
˙ xV
c
2

−2
κ
−2
¨ z + ˙ z
V
c
2

1 −
˙ xV
c
2

−3
κ
−2
¨ x, (20)
or
˙ u

x
=

1 −
u
x
V
c
2

−3
κ
−3
¨ u
x
, (18)
˙ u

y
=

1 −
u
x
V
c
2

−2
κ
−2
¨ u
y
+u
y
V
c
2

1 −
u
x
V
c
2

−3
κ
−2
˙ u
x
, (19)
˙ u

z
=

1 −
u
x
V
c
2

−2
κ
−2
¨ u
z
+u
z
V
c
2

1 −
u
x
V
c
2

−3
κ
−2
˙ u
x
. (20)
CHAPTER V.
KINEMATICAL APPLICATIONS.
43. The various transformation equations for spatial and temporal
measurements which were derived in the previous chapter may now
be used for the treatment of a number of kinematical problems. In
particular it will be shown in the latter part of the chapter that a
number of optical problems can be handled with extraordinary facility
by the methods now at our disposal.
The Kinematical Shape of a Rigid Body.
44. We may first point out that the conclusions of relativity theory
lead us to quite new ideas as to what is meant by the shape of a rigid
body. We shall find that the shape of a rigid body will depend entirely
upon the relative motion of the body and the observer who is making
measurements on it.
Consider a rigid body which is at rest with respect to system S

. Let
x

1
, y

1
, z

1
and x

2
, y

2
, z

2
be the coördinates in system S

of two points in
the body. The coördinates of the same points as measured in system S
can be found from transformation equations (9), (10) and (11), and by
subtraction we can obtain the following expressions
(x
2
−x
1
) =

1 −
V
2
c
2
(x
2

−x
1

), (21)
(y
2
−y
1
) = (y

2
−y

1
), (22)
(z
2
−z
1
) = (z

2
−z

1
), (23)
connecting the distances between the pair of points as viewed in the
two systems. In making this subtraction terms containing t have been
cancelled out since we are interested in the simultaneous positions of
the points. In accordance with these equations we may distinguish then
between the geometrical shape of a body, which is the shape that it has
53
Chapter Five. 54
when measured on a system of axes which are at rest relative to it, and
its kinematical shape, which is given by the coördinates which express
the simultaneous positions of its various points when it is in motion
with respect to the axes of reference. We see that the kinematical
shape of a rigid body differs from its geometrical shape by a shortening
of all its dimensions in the line of motion in the ratio

1 −
V
2
c
2
: 1;
thus a sphere, for example, becomes a Heaviside ellipsoid.
In order to avoid incorrectness of speech we must be very careful
not to give the idea that the kinematical shape of a body is in any
sense either more or less real than its geometrical shape. We must
merely learn to realize that the shape of a body is entirely dependent
on the particular set of coördinates chosen for the making of space
measurements.
The Kinematical Rate of a Clock.
45. Just as we have seen that the shape of a body depends upon
our choice of a system of coördinates, so we shall find that the rate
of a given clock depends upon the relative motion of the clock and its
observer. Consider a clock or any mechanism which is performing a
periodic action. Let the clock be at rest with respect to system S

and
let a given period commence at t
1

and end at t
2

, the length of the
interval thus being ∆t

= t
2

−t
1

.
From transformation equation (12) we may obtain
t

1
=
1

1 −
V
2
c
2

t
1

V
c
2
x
1

,
t

2
=
1

1 −
V
2
c
2

t
2

V
c
2
x
2

,
Kinematical Applications. 55
and by subtraction, since x
2
−x
1
is obviously equal to V t, we have
t
2
−t
1
=
1

1 −
V
2
c
2
(t
2

−t
1

),
∆t =
1

1 −
V
2
c
2
∆t

.
Thus an observer who is moving past a clock finds a longer period for
the clock in the ratio 1 :

1 −
V
2
c
2
than an observer who is stationary
with respect to it. Suppose, for example, we have a particle which
is turning alternately red and blue. For an observer who is moving
past the particle the periods for which it remains a given color measure
longer in the ratio 1 :

1 −
V
2
c
2
than they do to an observer who is
stationary with respect to the particle.
46. A possible opportunity for testing this interesting conclusion
of the theory of relativity is presented by the phenomena of canal rays.
We may regard the atoms which are moving in these rays as little
clocks, the frequency of the light which they emit corresponding to the
period of the clock. If now we should make spectroscopic observations
on canal rays of high velocity, the frequency of the emitted light ought
to be less than that of light from stationary atoms of the same kind if
our considerations are correct. It would of course be necessary to view
the canal rays at right angles to their direction of motion, to prevent a
confusion of the expected shift in the spectrum with that produced by
the ordinary Doppler effect (see Section 54).
The Idea of Simultaneity.
47. We may now also point out that the idea of the absolute si-
multaneity of two events must henceforth be given up. Suppose, for
Chapter Five. 56
example, an observer in the system S is interested in two events which
take place simultaneously at the time t. Suppose one of these events
occurs at a point having the X coördinate x
1
and the other at a point
having the coördinate x
2
; then by transformation equation (12) it is
evident that to an observer in system S

, which is moving relative to S
with the velocity V , the two events would take place respectively at the
times
t
1

=
1

1 −
V
2
c
2

t −
V
c
2
x
1

and
t
2

=
1

1 −
V
2
c
2

t −
V
c
2
x
2

or the difference in time between the occurrence of the events would
appear to this other observer to be
t
2

−t
1

=
V
c
2

1 −
V
2
c
2
(x
1
−x
2
). (25)
The Composition of Velocities.
48. The Case of Parallel Velocities. We may now present one of
the most important characteristics of Einstein’s space and time, which
can be best appreciated by considering transformation equation (14), or
more simply its analogue for the transformation in the reverse direction
u
x
=
u
x

+V
1 +
u
x

V
c
2
. (26)
Kinematical Applications. 57
Consider now the significance of the above equation. If we have
a particle which is moving in the X direction with the velocity u

x
as
measured in system S

, its velocity u
x
with respect to system S is to
be obtained by adding the relative velocity of the two systems V and
dividing the sum of the two velocities by 1 +
u
x

V
c
2
. Thus we see that
we must completely throw overboard our old naïve ideas of the direct
additivity of velocities. Of course, in the case of very slow velocities,
when u

x
and V are both small compared with the velocity of light, the
quantity
u
x

V
c
2
is very nearly zero and the direct addition of velocities
is a close approximation to the truth. In the case of velocities, however,
which are in the neighborhood of the speed of light, the direct addition
of velocities would lead to extremely erroneous results.
49. In particular it should be noticed that by the composition of
velocities which are themselves less than that of light we can never
obtain any velocity greater than that of light. Suppose, for example,
that the system S

were moving past S with the velocity of light (i.e.,
V = c), and that in the system S

a particle should itself be given the
velocity of light in the X direction (i.e., u

x
= c); we find on substitution
that the particle still has only the velocity of light with respect to S.
We have
u
x
=
c +c
1 +
c
2
c
2
=
2c
2
= c.
If the relative velocity between the systems should be one half the
velocity of light,
c
2
, and an experimenter on S

should shoot off a particle
in the X direction with half the velocity of light, the total velocity with
respect to S would be
u
x
=
1
2
c +
1
2
c
1 +
1
4
c
2
c
2
=
4
5
c.
Chapter Five. 58
50. Composition of Velocities in General. In the case of par-
ticles which have components of velocity in other than the X direction
it is obvious that our transformation equations will here also provide
methods of calculation to supersede the simple addition of velocities.
If we place
u
2
= u
x
2
+u
y
2
+u
z
2
,
u

2
= u
x

2
+u
y

2
+u
z

2
,
we may obtain by the substitution of equations (14), (15) and (16)
u =

u

2
+V
2
+ 2u

V cos α −
u

2
V
2
sin
2
α
c
2

1/2
1 +
u

V cos α
c
2
, (27)
where α is the angle in the system S

between the X

axis and the
velocity of the particle u

. For the particular case that V and u

are in
the same direction, the equation obviously reduces to the simpler form
u =
u

+V
1 +
u

V
c
2
,
which we have already considered.
51. We may also call attention at this point to an interesting char-
acteristic of the equations for the transformation of velocities. It will
be noted from an examination of these equations that if to any observer
a particle appears to have a constant velocity, i.e., to be unacted on
by any force, it will also appear to have a uniform although of course
different velocity to any observer who is himself in uniform motion with
respect to the first. An examination, however, of the transformation
equations for acceleration (18), (19), (20) will show that here a differ-
ent state of affairs is true, since it will be seen that a point which has
uniform acceleration (¨ x, ¨ y, ¨ z) with respect to an observer in system S
Kinematical Applications. 59
will not in general have a uniform acceleration in another system S

,
since the acceleration in system S

depends not only on the constant
acceleration but also on the velocity in system S, which is necessarily
varying.
Velocities Greater than that of Light.
52. In the preceding section we have called attention to the fact
that the mere composition of velocities which are not themselves greater
than that of light will never lead to a speed that is greater than that of
light. The question naturally arises whether velocities which are greater
than that of light could ever possibly be obtained in any way.
This problem can be attacked in an extremely interesting manner.
Consider two points A and B on the X axis of the system S, and sup-
pose that some impulse originates at A, travels to B with the velocity u
and at B produces some observable phenomenon, the starting of the
impulse at A and the resulting phenomenon at B thus being connected
by the relation of cause and effect.
The time elapsing between the cause and its effect as measured in
the units of system S will evidently be
∆t = t
B
−t
A
=
x
B
−x
A
u
, (28)
where x
A
and x
B
are the coördinates of the two points A and B.
Now in another system S

, which has the velocity V with respect
to S, the time elapsing between cause and effect would evidently be
∆t

= t

B
−t

A
=
1

1 −
V
2
c
2

t
B

V
c
2
x
B


1

1 −
V
2
c
2

t
A

V
c
2
x
A

,
where we have substituted for t

B
and t

A
in accordance with equa-
Chapter Five. 60
tion (12). Simplifying and introducing equation (28) we obtain
∆t

=
1 −
uV
c
2

1 −
V
2
c
2
∆t. (29)
Let us suppose now that there are no limits to the possible magnitude
of the velocities u and V , and in particular that the causal impulse
can travel from A to B with a velocity u greater than that of light.
It is evident that we could then take a velocity u great enough so
that
uV
c
2
would be greater than unity and ∆t

would become negative.
In other words, for an observer in system S

the effect which occurs
at B would precede in time its cause which originates at A. Such a
condition of affairs might not be a logical impossibility; nevertheless its
extraordinary nature might incline us to believe that no causal impulse
can travel with a velocity greater than that of light.
We may point out in passing, however, that in the case of kinematic
occurrences in which there is no causal connection there is no reason for
supposing that the velocity must be less than that of light. Consider, for
example, a set of blocks arranged side by side in a long row. For each
block there could be an independent time mechanism like an alarm
clock which would go off at just the right instant so that the blocks
would fall down one after another along the line. The velocity with
which the phenomenon would travel along the line of blocks could be
arranged to have any value. In fact, the blocks could evidently all be
fixed to fall just at the same instant, which would correspond to an
infinite velocity. It is to be noticed here, however, that there is no
causal connection between the falling of one block and that of the next,
and no transfer of energy.
Kinematical Applications. 61
Application of the Principles of Kinematics to Certain Optical
Problems.
53. Let us now apply our kinematical considerations to some prob-
lems in the field of optics. We may consider a beam of light as a
periodic electromagnetic disturbance which is propagated through a
vacuum with the velocity c. At any point in the path of a beam of
light the intensity of the electric and magnetic fields will be undergoing
periodic changes in magnitude. Since the intensities of both the electric
and the magnetic fields vary together, the statement of a single vector
is sufficient to determine the instantaneous condition at any point in
the path of a beam of light. It is customary to call this vector (which
might be either the strength of the electric or of the magnetic field) the
light vector.
For the case of a simple plane wave (i.e., a beam of monochromatic
light from a distant source) the light vector at any point in the path of
the light may be put proportional to
sin ω

t −
lx +my +nz
c

, (30)
where x, y and z are the coördinates of the point under observation,
t is the time, l, m and n are the cosines of the angles α, β and γ
which determine the direction of the beam of light with reference to
our system, and ω is a constant which determines the period of the
light.
If now this same beam of light were examined by an observer in
system S

which is moving past the original system in the X direction
with the velocity V , we could write the light vector proportional to
sin ω

t


l

x

+m

y

+n

z

c

, (31)
It is not difficult to show that the transformation equations which we
have already developed must lead to the following relations between
Chapter Five. 62
the measurements in the two systems

ω

= ωκ

1 −l
V
c

, (32)
l

=
l −
V
c
1 −l
V
c
, (33)
m

=
m
κ

1 −l
V
c

, (34)
n

=
n
κ

1 −l
V
c

. (35)

Methods for deriving the relation between the accented and unaccented quan-
tities will be obvious to the reader. For example, consider the relation between
ω and ω

. At the origin of coördinates x = y = z = 0 in system S, we shall have in
accordance with expression (30) the light vector proportional to sin ωt, and hence
similarly at the point O

, which is the origin of coördinates in system S

, we shall
have the light vector proportional to sin ω

t

. But the point O

as observed from
system S moves with the velocity V along the X axis and at any instant has the
position x = V t; hence substituting in expression (30) we have the light vector at
the point O

as measured in system S proportional to
sin ωt

1 −l
V
c

, (36)
while as measured in system S

the intensity is proportional to
sin ω

t

. (37)
We have already obtained, however, a transformation equation for t

, namely,
t

= κ

t −
V
c
2
x

,
and further may place x = V t. Making these substitutions and comparing expres-
sions (36) and (37) we see that we must have the relation
ω

= ωκ

1 −l
V
c

.
Methods of obtaining the relation between the cosines l, m and n and the corre-
sponding cosines l

, m

, and n

as measured in system S

may be left to the reader.
Kinematical Applications. 63
With the help of these equations we may now treat some important
optical problems.
54. The Doppler Effect. At the origin of coördinates, x = y =
z = 0, in system S we shall evidently have from expression (30) the
light vector proportional to sin ωt. That means that the vector becomes
zero whenever ωt = 2Nπ, where N is any integer; in other words, the
period of the light is p =

ω
or the frequency
ν =
ω

.
Similarly the frequency of the light as measured by an observer in sys-
tem S

would be
ν

=
ω


.
Combining these two equations and substituting the equation connect-
ing ω and ω

we have
ν =
ν

κ

1 −l
V
c

.
This is the relation between the frequencies of a given beam of light as
it appears to observers who are in relative motion.
If we consider a source of light at rest with respect to system S

and at a considerable distance from the observer in system S, we may
substitute for ν

the frequency of the source itself, ν
0
, and for l we may
write cos φ, where φ is the angle between the line connecting source
and observer and the direction of motion of the source, leading to the
expression
ν =
ν
0
κ

1 −cos φ
V
c

. (38)
This is the most general equation for the Doppler effect. When
the source of light is moving directly in the line connecting source and
Chapter Five. 64
observer, we have cos φ = 1, and the equation reduces to
ν =
ν
0
κ

1 −
V
c

, (39)
which except for second order terms is identical with the older ex-
pressions for the Doppler effect, and hence agrees with experimental
determinations.
We must also observe, however, that even when the source of light
moves at right angles to the line connecting source and observer there
still remains a second-order effect on the observed frequency, in con-
tradiction to the predictions of older theories. We have in this case
cos φ = 0,
ν = ν
0

1 −
V
2
c
2
. (40)
This is the change in frequency which we have already considered when
we discussed the rate of a moving clock. The possibilities of direct
experimental verification should not be overlooked (see Section 46).
55. The Aberration of Light. Returning now to our transfor-
mation equations, we see that equation (33) provides an expression for
calculating the aberration of light. Let us consider that the source of
light is stationary with respect to system S, and let there be an observer
situated at the origin of coördinates of system S

and thus moving past
the source with the velocity V in the X direction. Let φ be the angle
between the X axis and the line connecting source of light and observer
and let φ

be the same angle as it appears to the moving observer; then
we can obviously substitute in equation (33), cos φ = l, cos φ

= l

,
giving us
cos φ

=
cos φ −
V
c
1 −cos φ
V
c
. (41)
This is a general equation for the aberration of light.
Kinematical Applications. 65
For the particular case that the direction of the beam of light is
perpendicular to the motion of the observer we have cos φ = 0
cos φ

= −
V
c
, (42)
which, except for second-order differences, is identical with the familiar
expression which makes the tangent of the angle of aberration numer-
ically equal to V/c. The experimental verification of the formula by
astronomical measurements is familiar.
56. Velocity of Light in Moving Media. It is also possible to
treat very simply by kinematic methods the problem of the velocity of
light in moving media. We shall confine ourselves to the particular case
of a beam of light in a medium which is itself moving parallel to the
light.
Let the medium be moving with the velocity V in the X direction,
and let us consider the system of coördinates S

as stationary with
respect to the medium. Now since the medium appears to be stationary
with respect to observers in S

it is evident that the velocity of the light
with respect to S

will be c/µ, where µ is index of refraction for the
medium. If now we use our equation (26) for the addition of velocities
we shall obtain for the velocity of light, as measured by observers in S,
u =
c
µ
+V
1 +
V
c
µ
c
2
. (43)
Carrying out the division and neglecting terms of higher order we obtain
u =
c
µ
+

µ
2
−1
µ
2

V. (44)
The equation thus obtained is identical with that of Fresnel, the quan-
tity

µ
2
−1
µ
2

being the well-known Fresnel coefficient. The empirical
Chapter Five. 66
verification of this equation by the experiments of Fizeau and of Michel-
son and Morley is too well known to need further mention.
For the case of a dispersive medium we should obviously have to
substitute in equation (44) the value of µ corresponding to the particu-
lar frequency, ν

, which the light has in system S

. It should be noticed
in this connection that the frequencies ν

and ν which the light has
respectively in system S and system S

, although nearly enough the
same for the practical use of equation (44), are in reality connected by
an expression which can easily be shown (see Section 54) to have the
form
ν

= κ

1 −
V
c

ν. (45)
57. Group Velocity. In an entirely similar way we may treat the
problem of group velocity and obtain the equation
G =
G

+V
1 +
G

V
c
2
, (46)
where G

is the group velocity as it appears to an observer who is
stationary with respect to the medium. G

is, of course, an experimental
quantity, connected with frequency and the properties of the medium,
in a way to be determined by experiments on the stationary medium.
In conclusion we wish to call particular attention to the extraordi-
nary simplicity of this method of handling the optics of moving media as
compared with those that had to be employed before the introduction
of the principle of relativity.
CHAPTER VI.
THE DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE.
58. In this chapter and the two following, we shall present a system
of “relativity mechanics” based on Newton’s three laws of motion, the
Einstein transformation equations for space and time, and the principle
of the conservation of mass.
The Laws of Motion.
Newton’s laws of motion may be stated in the following form:
I. Every particle continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion
in a straight line, unless it is acted upon by an external force.
II. The rate of change of the momentum of the particle is equal to
the force acting and is in the same direction.
III. For the action of every force there is an equal force acting in
the opposite direction.
Of these laws the first two merely serve to define the concept of
force, and their content may be expressed in mathematical form by the
following equation of definition
F =
d
dt
(mu) = m
du
dt
+
dm
dt
u, (47)
where F is the force acting on a particle of mass m which has the
velocity u, and hence the momentum mu.
Quite different in its nature from the first two laws, which merely
give us a definition of force, the third law states a very definite physical
postulate, since it requires for every change in the momentum of a body
an equal and opposite change in the momentum of some other body.
The truth of this postulate will of course be tested by comparing with
experiment the results of the theory of mechanics which we base upon
its assumption.
67
Chapter Six. 68
Difference between Newtonian and Relativity Mechanics.
59. Before proceeding we may point out the particular difference
between the older Newtonian mechanics, which were based on the laws
of motion and the Galilean transformation equations for space and time,
and our new system of relativity mechanics based on those same laws
of motion and the Einstein transformation equations.
In the older mechanics there was no reason for supposing that the
mass of a body varied in any way with its velocity, and hence force
could be defined interchangeably as the rate of change of momentum
or as mass times acceleration, since the two were identical. In relativity
mechanics, however, we shall be forced to conclude that the mass of a
body increases in a perfectly definite way with its velocity, and hence
in our new mechanics we must define force as equal to the total rate of
change of momentum
d(mu)
dt
= m
du
dt
+
dm
dt
u
instead of merely as mass times acceleration m
du
dt
. If we should try
to define force in “relativity mechanics” as merely equal to mass times
acceleration, we should find that the application of Newton’s third law
of motion would then lead to very peculiar results, which would make
the mass of a body different in different directions and force us to give
up the idea of the conservation of mass.
The Mass of a Moving Particle.
60. In Section 31 we have already obtained in an elementary way
an expression for the mass of a moving particle, by considering a colli-
sion between elastic particles and calculating how the resulting changes
in velocity would appear to different observers who are themselves in
relative motion. Since we now have at our command general formulæ
for the transformation of velocities, we are now in a position to han-
dle this problem much more generally, and in particular to show that
Dynamics of a Particle. 69
the expression obtained for the mass of a moving particle is entirely
independent of the consideration of any particular type of collision.
61. Transverse Collision. Let us first treat the case of a so-
called “transverse” collision. Consider a system of coördinates and two
+v
+u
−v
−u
Fig. 11.
exactly similar elastic par-
ticles, each having the
mass m
0
when at rest, one
moving in the X direction
with the velocity +u and
the other with the veloc-
ity −u. (See Fig. 11.) Besides the large components of velocity
+u and −u which they have in the X direction let them also have
small components of velocity in the Y direction, +v and −v. The ex-
periment is so arranged that the particles will just undergo a glancing
collision as they pass each other and rebound with components of veloc-
ity in the Y direction of the same magnitude, v, which they originally
had, but in the reverse direction. (It is evident from the symmetry of
the arrangement that the experiment would actually occur as we have
stated.)
We shall now be interested in the way this experiment would appear
to an observer who is in motion in the X direction with the velocity V
relative to our original system of coördinates.
From equation (14) for the transformation of velocities, it can be
seen that this new observer would find for the X component velocities
of the two particles the values
u
1
=
u −V
1 −
uV
c
2
and u
2
=
−u −V
1 +
uV
c
2
(48)
and from equation (15) for the Y component velocities would find the
Chapter Six. 70
values
v
1
= ±
v

1 −
V
2
c
2
1 −
uV
c
2
and v
2
= ∓
v

1 −
V
2
c
2
1 −
uV
c
2
, (49)
the signs depending on whether the velocities are measured before or
after the collision.
Now from Newton’s third law of motion (i.e., the principle of the
equality of action and reaction) it is evident that on collision the two
particles must undergo the same numerical change in momentum.
For the experiment that we have chosen the only change in momen-
tum is in the Y direction, and the observer whose measurements we
are considering finds that one particle undergoes the total change in
velocity
2v
1
=
2v

1 −
V
2
c
2
1 −
uV
c
2
and that the other particle undergoes the change in velocity
2v
2
=
2v

1 −
V
2
c
2
1 +
uV
c
2
.
Since these changes in the velocities of the particles are not equal,
it is evident that their masses must also be unequal if the principle of
the equality of action and reaction is true for all observers, as we have
assumed. This difference in the mass of the particles, each of which
has the mass m
0
when at rest, arises from the fact that the mass of a
particle is a function of its velocity and for the observer in question the
two particles are not moving with the same velocity.
Dynamics of a Particle. 71
Using the symbols m
1
and m
2
for the masses of the particles, we
may now write as a mathematical expression of the requirements of the
third law of motion
2m
1
v

1 −
V
2
c
2
1 −
uV
c
2
=
2m
2
v

1 −
V
2
c
2
1 +
uV
c
2
.
Simplifying, we obtain by direct algebraic transformation
m
1
m
2
=
1 −
uV
c
2
1 +
uV
c
2
=

1 −

−u −V
1 +
uV
c
2

2
c
2

1 −

u −V
1 −
uV
c
2

2
c
2
,
which on the substitution of equations (48) gives us
m
1
m
2
=

1 −
u
2
2
c
2

1 −
u
1
2
c
2
. (50)
This equation thus shows that the mass of a particle moving with
the velocity u

is inversely proportional to

1 −
u
2
c
2
, and, denoting the
mass of the particle at rest by m
0
, we may write as a general expression

For simplicity of calculation we consider the case where the components of
velocity in the Y direction are small enough to be negligible in their effect on the
mass of the particles compared with the large components of velocity u
1
and u
2
in
the X direction.
Chapter Six. 72
for the mass of a moving particle
m =
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
. (51)
62. Mass the Same in All Directions. The method of derivation
that we have just used to obtain this expression for the mass of a
moving particle is based on the consideration of a so-called “transverse
collision,” and in fact the expression obtained has often been spoken of
as that for the transverse mass of a moving particle, while a different
expression,
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2

3/2
, has been used for the so-called longitudinal
mass of the particle. These expressions
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
and
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2

3/2
are,
as a matter of fact, the values of the electric force necessary to give a
charged particle unit acceleration respectively at right angles and in the
same direction as its original velocity, and hence such expressions would
be proper for the mass of a moving particle if we should define force
as mass times acceleration. As already stated, however, it has seemed
preferable to retain, for force, Newton’s original definition which makes
it equal to the rate of change of momentum, and we shall presently see
that this more suitable definition is in perfect accord with the idea that
the mass of a particle is the same in all directions.
Aside from the unnecessary complexity which would be introduced,
the particular reason making it unfortunate to have different expres-
sions for mass in different directions is that under such conditions it
would be impossible to retain or interpret the principle of the conserva-
tion of mass. And we shall now proceed to show that by introducing the
principle of the conservation of mass, the consideration of a “longitudi-
nal collision” will also lead to exactly the same expression,
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
,
Dynamics of a Particle. 73
for the mass of a moving particle as we have already obtained from the
consideration of a transverse collision.
63. Longitudinal Collision. Consider a system of coördinates
and two elastic particles moving in the X direction with the velocities
+u and −u so that a “longitudinal” (i.e., head-on) collision will occur.
Let the particles be exactly alike, each of them having the mass m
0
when at rest. On collision the particles will evidently come to rest, and
then under the action of the elastic forces developed start up and move
back over their original paths with the respective velocities −u and +u
of the same magnitude as before.
Let us now consider how this collision would appear to an observer
who is moving past the original system of coördinates with the veloc-
ity V in the X direction. Let u
1
and u
2
be the velocities of the particles
as they appear to this new observer before the collision has taken place.
Then, from our formula for the transformation of velocities (14), it is
evident that we shall have
u
1
=
u −V
1 −
uV
c
2
and u
2
=
−u −V
1 +
uV
c
2
. (52)
Since these velocities u
1
and u
2
are not of the same magnitude, the
two particles which have the same mass when at rest do not have the
same mass for this observer. Let us call the masses before collision
m
1
and m
2
.
Now during the collision the velocities of the particles will all the
time be changing, but from the principle of the conservation of mass
the sum of the two masses must all the time be equal to m
1
+ m
2
.
When in the course of the collision the particles have come to relative
rest, they will be moving past our observer with the velocity −V , and
their momentum will be −(m
1
+ m
2
)V . But, from the principle of
the equality of action and reaction, it is evident that this momentum
must be equal to the original momentum before collision occurred. This
gives us the equation −(m
1
+ m
2
)V = m
1
u
1
+ m
2
u
2
. Substituting our
Chapter Six. 74
values (52) for u
1
and u
2
we have
m
1

1 −
uV
c
2

=
m
2

1 +
uV
c
2

,
and by direct algebraic transformation, as in the previous proof, this
can be shown to be identical with
m
1
m
2
=

1 −
u
2
2
c
2

1 −
u
1
2
c
2
,
leading to the same expression that we obtained before for the mass of
a moving particle, viz.:
m =
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
.
64. Collision of Any Type. We have derived this formula for the
mass of a moving particle first from the consideration of a transverse
and then of a longitudinal collision between particles which are elastic
and have the same mass when at rest. It seems to be desirable to
show, however, that the consideration of any type of collision between
particles of any mass leads to the same formula for the mass of a moving
particle.
For the mass m of a particle moving with the velocity u let us write
the equation m = m
0
F(u
2
), where F( ) is the function whose form we
wish to determine. The mass is written as a function of the square
of the velocity, since from the homogeneity of space the mass will be
independent of the direction of the velocity, and the mass is made
proportional to the mass at rest, since a moving body may evidently
be thought of as divided into parts without change in mass. It may be
further remarked that the form of the function F( ) must be such that
its value approaches unity as the variable approaches zero.
Dynamics of a Particle. 75
Let us now consider two particles having respectively the masses
m
0
and n
0
when at rest, moving with the velocities u and w before
collision, and with the velocities U and W after a collision has taken
place.
From the principle of the conservation of mass we have
m
0
F(u
x
2
+u
y
2
+u
z
2
) +n
0
F(w
x
2
+w
y
2
+w
z
2
)
= m
0
F(U
x
2
+U
y
2
+U
z
2
) +n
0
F(W
x
2
+W
y
2
+W
z
2
), (53)
and from the principle of the equality of action and reaction (i.e., New-
ton’s third law of motion)
m
0
F(u
x
2
+u
y
2
+u
z
2
)u
x
+n
0
F(w
x
2
+w
y
2
+w
z
2
)w
x
= m
0
F(U
x
2
+U
y
2
+U
z
2
)U
x
+n
0
F(W
x
2
+W
y
2
+W
z
2
)W
x
, (54)
m
0
F(u
x
2
+u
y
2
+u
z
2
)u
y
+n
0
F(w
x
2
+w
y
2
+w
z
2
)w
y
= m
0
F(U
x
2
+U
y
2
+U
z
2
)U
y
+n
0
F(W
x
2
+W
y
2
+W
z
2
)W
y
, (55)
m
0
F(u
x
2
+u
y
2
+u
z
2
)u
z
+n
0
F(w
x
2
+w
y
2
+w
z
2
)w
z
= m
0
F(U
x
2
+U
y
2
+U
z
2
)U
z
+n
0
F(W
x
2
+W
y
2
+W
z
2
)W
z
. (56)
These velocities, u
x
, u
y
, u
x
, w
x
, w
y
, w
z
, U
x
, etc., are measured, of
course, with respect to some definite system of “space-time” coördi-
nates. An observer moving past this system of coördinates with the
velocity V in the X direction would find for the corresponding compo-
nent velocities the values
u
x
−V
1 −
u
x
V
c
2
,

1 −
V
2
c
2
1 −
u
x
V
c
2
u
y
,

1 −
V
2
c
2
1 −
u
x
V
c
2
u
z
,
w
x
−V
1 −
w
x
V
c
2
, etc.,
as given by our transformation equations for velocity (14), (15), (16).
Chapter Six. 76
Since the law of the conservation of mass and Newton’s third law
of motion must also hold for the measurements of the new observer,
we may write the following new relations corresponding to equations
(53) to (56):
m
0
F

¸
¸
u
x
−V
1 −
u
x
V
c
2

2
+

¸
¸
¸

1 −
V
2
c
2
u
y
1 −
u
x
V
c
2

2
+

¸
¸
¸

1 −
V
2
c
2
u
z
1 −
u
x
V
c
2

2

+n
0
F

¸
¸
w
x
−V
1 −
w
x
V
c
2

2
+

¸
¸
¸

1 −
V
2
c
2
w
y
1 −
w
x
V
c
2

2
+

¸
¸
¸

1 −
V
2
c
2
w
z
1 −
w
x
V
c
2

2

= m
0
F

¸
¸
U
x
−V
1 −
U
x
V
c
2

2
+

¸
¸
¸

1 −
V
2
c
2
U
y
1 −
U
x
V
c
2

2
+

¸
¸
¸

1 −
V
2
c
2
U
z
1 −
U
x
V
c
2

2

+n
0
F

¸
¸
W
x
−V
1 −
W
x
V
c
2

2
+

¸
¸
¸

1 −
V
2
c
2
W
y
1 −
W
x
V
c
2

2
+

¸
¸
¸

1 −
V
2
c
2
W
z
1 −
W
x
V
c
2

2

,
(53a)
m
0
F{u
x
· · · }
u
x
−V
1 −
u
x
V
c
2
+n
0
F{w
x
· · · }
w
x
−V
1 −
w
x
V
c
2
= m
0
F{U
x
· · · }
U
x
−V
1 −
U
x
V
c
2
+n
0
F{W
x
· · · }
W
x
−V
1 −
W
x
V
c
2
,
(54a)
Dynamics of a Particle. 77
m
0
F{u
x
· · · }

1 −
V
2
c
2
u
y
1 −
u
x
V
c
2
+n
0
F{w
x
· · · }

1 −
V
2
c
2
w
y
1 −
w
x
V
c
2
= m
0
F{U
x
· · · }

1 −
V
2
c
2
U
y
1 −
U
x
V
c
2
+n
0
F{W
x
· · · }

1 −
V
2
c
2
W
y
1 −
W
x
V
c
2
,
(55a)
m
0
Fu
x
· · ·

1 −
V
2
c
2
u
x
1 −
u
x
V
c
2
+n
0
Fw
x
· · ·

1 −
V
2
c
2
w
x
1 −
w
x
V
c
2
= m
0
FU
x
· · ·

1 −
V
2
c
2
U
x
1 −
U
x
V
c
2
+n
0
FW
x
· · ·

1 −
V
2
c
2
W
x
1 −
W
x
V
c
2
.
(56a)
It is evident that these equations (53a)–(56a) must be true no mat-
ter what the velocity between the new observer and the original system
of coördinates, that is, true for all values of V . The velocities u
x
, u
y
, u
z
,
w
x
, etc., are, however, perfectly definite quantities, measured with ref-
erence to a definite system of coördinates and entirely independent
of V . If these equations are to be true for perfectly definite values of
u
x
, u
y
, u
z
, w
x
, etc., and for all values of V , it is evident that the func-
tion F( ) must be of such a form that the equations are identities in V .
As a matter of fact, it is found by trial that V can be cancelled from all
the equations if we make F( ) of the form
1

1 −
( )
c
2
; and we see that
the expected relation is a solution of the equations, although perhaps
not necessarily a unique solution.
Before proceeding to use our formula for the mass of a moving par-
ticle for the further development of our system of mechanics, we may
call attention in passing to the fact that the experiments of Kaufmann,
Bucherer, and Hupka have in reality shown that the mass of the elec-
Chapter Six. 78
tron increases with its velocity according to the formula which we have
just obtained. We shall consider the dynamics of the electron more in
detail in the chapter devoted to electromagnetic theory. We wish to
point out now, however, that in this derivation we have made no ref-
erence to any electrical charge which might be carried by the particle
whose mass is to be determined. Hence we may reject the possibility
of explaining the Kaufmann experiment by assuming that the charge
of the electron decreases with its velocity, since the increase in mass is
alone sufficient to account for the results of the measurement.
Transformation Equations for Mass.
65. Since the velocity of a particle depends on the particular system
of coördinates chosen for the measurement, it is evident that the mass
of the particle will also depend on our reference system of coördinates.
For the further development of our system of dynamics, we shall find it
desirable to obtain transformation equations for mass similar to those
already obtained for velocity, acceleration, etc.
We have
m =
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
,
where the velocity u is measured with respect to some definite system
of coördinates, S. Similarly with respect to a system of coördinates S

which is moving relatively to S with the velocity V in the X direction
we shall have
m

=
m
0

1 −
u

2
c
2
.
We have already obtained, however, a transformation equation (17)
for the function of the velocity occurring in these equations and on
Dynamics of a Particle. 79
substitution we obtain the desired transformation equation
m

=

1 −
u
x
V
c
2

κm, (57)
where κ has the customary significance
κ =
1

1 −
V
2
c
2
.
By differentiation of (57) with respect to the time and simplification,
we obtain the following transformation equation for the rate at which
the mass of a particle is changing owing to change in velocity
˙ m

= ˙ m−
mV
c
2

1 −
u
x
V
c
2

−1
du
x
dt
. (58)
Equation for the Force Acting on a Moving Particle.
66. We are now in a position to return to our development of the
dynamics of a particle. In the first place, the equation which we have
now obtained for the mass of a moving particle will permit us to rewrite
the original equation by which we defined force, in a number of ways
which will be useful for future reference.
We have our equation of definition (47)
F =
d
dt
(mu) = m
du
dt
+
dm
dt
u,
which, on substitution of the expression for m, gives us
F =
d
dt
¸
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
u
¸
=
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
du
dt
+
d
dt
¸
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
¸
u (59)
Chapter Six. 80
or, carrying out the indicated differentiation,
F =
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
du
dt
+
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2

3/2
u
c
2
du
dt
u. (60)
Transformation Equations for Force.
67. We are also in position to obtain transformation equations for
force. We have
F =
d
dt
(mu) = m˙ u + ˙ mu
or
F
x
= m˙ u
x
+ ˙ mu
x
,
F
y
= m˙ u
y
+ ˙ mu
y
,
F
z
= m˙ u
z
+ ˙ mu
z
.
We have transformation equations, however, for all the quantities on
the right-hand side of these equations. For the velocities we have equa-
tions (14), (15) and (16), for the accelerations (18), (19) and (20), for
mass, equation (57) and for rate of change of mass, equation (58). Sub-
stituting above we obtain as our transformation equations for force
F

x
=
F
x
− ˙ mV
1 −
u
x
V
c
2
= F
x

u
y
V
c
2
−u
x
V
F
y

u
z
V
c
2
−u
x
V
F
z
, (61)
F

y
=
κ
−1
1 −
u
x
V
c
2
F
y
, (62)
F

z
=
κ
−1
1 −
u
x
V
c
2
F
z
. (63)
We may now consider a few applications of the principles governing
the dynamics of a particle.
Dynamics of a Particle. 81
The Relation between Force and Acceleration.
68. If we examine our equation (59) for the force acting on a particle
F =
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
du
dt
+
d
dt
¸
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
¸
u, (59)
we see that the force is equal to the sum of two vectors, one of which is
in the direction of the acceleration
du
dt
and the other in the direction of
O X
Y
m
u
x
u
y
u
Fig. 12.
the existing velocity u, so that in
general force and the acceleration
it produces are not in the same
direction. We shall find it inter-
esting to see, however, that if the
force which does produce acceler-
ation in a given direction be re-
solved perpendicular and parallel
to the acceleration, the two com-
ponents will be connected by a
definite relation.
Consider a particle (Fig. 12)
in plane space moving with the
velocity
u = u
x
i +u
y
j.
Let it be accelerated in the X direction by the action of the component
forces F
x
and F
y
.
From our general equation (59) for the force acting on a particle we
Chapter Six. 82
have for these component forces
F
x
=
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
du
x
dt
+
d
dt
¸
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
¸
u
x
, (64)
F
y
=
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
du
y
dt
+
d
dt
¸
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
¸
u
y
. (65)
Introducing the condition that all the acceleration is to be in the
Y direction, which makes
du
x
dt
= 0, and further noting that u
2
= u
2
x
+u
2
y
,
by the division of equation (64) by (65), we obtain
F
x
F
y
=
u
x
u
y
c
2
−u
x
2
,
F
x
=
u
x
u
y
c
2
−u
x
2
F
y
. (66)
Hence, in order to accelerate a particle in a given direction, we may
apply any force F
y
in the desired direction, but must at the same time
apply at right angles another force F
x
whose magnitude is given by
equation (66).
Although at first sight this state of affairs might seem rather un-
expected, a simple qualitative consideration will show the necessity of
a component of force perpendicular to the desired acceleration. Refer
again to Fig. 12; since the particle is being accelerated in the Y di-
rection, its total velocity and hence its mass are increasing. This in-
creasing mass is accompanied by increasing momentum in the X direc-
tion even when the velocity in that direction remains constant. The
component force F
x
is necessary for the production of this increase in
X-momentum.
In a later paragraph we shall show an application of equation (66)
in electrical theory.
Dynamics of a Particle. 83
Transverse and Longitudinal Acceleration.
69. An examination of equation (66) shows that there are two
special cases in which the component force F
x
disappears and the force
and acceleration are in the same direction. F
x
will disappear when
either u
x
or u
y
is equal to zero, so that force and acceleration will be
in the same direction when the force acts exactly at right angles to the
line of motion of the particle, or in the direction of the motion (or of
course also when u
x
and u
y
are both equal to zero and the particle is
at rest). It is instructive to obtain simplified expressions for force for
these two cases of transverse and longitudinal acceleration.
Let us again examine our equation (60) for the force acting on a
particle
F =
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
du
dt
+
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2

3/2
u
c
2
du
dt
u. (60)
For the case of a transverse acceleration there is no component of
force in the direction of the velocity u and the second term of the
equation is equal to zero, giving us
F =
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
du
dt
. (67)
For the case of longitudinal acceleration, the velocity u and the
acceleration
du
dt
are in the same direction, so that we may rewrite the
second term of (60), giving us
F =
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
du
dt
+
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2

3/2
u
2
c
2
du
dt
,
Chapter Six. 84
and on simplification this becomes
F =
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2

3/2
du
dt
. (68)
An examination of this expression shows the reason why
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2

3/2
is sometimes spoken of as the expression for the longitudinal mass of a
particle.
The Force Exerted by a Moving Charge.
70. In a later chapter we shall present a consistent development
of the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory based on the Einstein
transformation equations for space and time and the four field equa-
tions. At this point, however, it may not be amiss to point out that
the principles of mechanics themselves may sometimes be employed to
obtain a simple and direct solution of electrical problems.
Suppose, for example, we wish to calculate the force with which a
point charge in uniform motion acts on any other point charge. We
can solve this problem by considering a system of coördinates which
move with the same velocity as the charge itself. An observer mak-
ing use of the new system of coördinates could evidently calculate the
force exerted by the charge in question by Coulomb’s familiar inverse
square law for static charges, and the magnitude of the force as mea-
sured in the original system of coördinates can then be determined from
our transformation equations for force. Let us proceed to the specific
solution of the problem.
Consider a system of coördinates S, and a charge e in uniform mo-
tion along the X axis with the velocity V . We desire to know the
force acting at the time t on any other charge e
1
which has any desired
coördinates x, y, and z and any desired velocity u
x
, u
y
and u
z
.
Dynamics of a Particle. 85
Assume a system of coördinates, S

, moving with the same velocity
as the charge e which is taken coincident with the origin. To an observer
moving with the system S

, the charge e appears to be always at rest
and surrounded by a pure electrostatic field. Hence in system S

the
force with which e acts on e
1
will be, in accordance with Coulomb’s
law

F

=
ee
1
r

r

3
or
F

x
=
ee
1
x

(x

2
+y

2
+z

2
)
3/2
, (69)
F

y
=
ee
1
x

(y

2
+y

2
+z

2
)
3/2
, (70)
F

z
=
ee
1
x

(z

2
+y

2
+z

2
)
3/2
, (71)
where x

, y

, and z

are the coördinates of the charge e
1
at the time t

.
For simplicity let us consider the force at the time t

= 0; then from
transformation equations (9), (10), (11), (12) we shall have
x

= κ
−1
x, y

= y, z

= z.
Substituting in (69), (70), (71) and also using our transformation equa-
tions for force (61), (62), (63), we obtain the following equations for

It should be noted that in its original form Coulomb’s law merely stated that
the force between two stationary charges was proportional to the product of the
charges and inversely to the distance between them. In the present derivation we
have extended this law to apply to the instantaneous force exerted by a stationary
charge upon any other charge.
The fact that a charge of electricity appears the same to observers in all systems
is obviously also necessary for the setting up of equations (69), (70), (71). That such
is the case, however, is an evident consequence of the atomic nature of electricity.
The charge e would appear of the same magnitude to observers both in system S
and system S

, since they would both count the same number of electrons on the
charge. (See Section 157.)
Chapter Six. 86
the force acting on e
1
, as it appears to an observer in system S:
F
x
=
ee
1
x

(x

2
+y

2
+z

2
)
3/2

x +
V
c
2
κ
2
(yu
y
+zu
z
)

, (72)
F
y
=
ee
1

1 −
u
x
V
c
2

κy

−2
x

2
+y

2
+z

2
)
3/2
, (73)
F
z
=
ee
1

1 −
u
x
V
c
2

κz

−2
x

2
+y

2
+z

2
)
3/2
. (74)
These equations give the force acting on e
1
at the time t. From
transformation equation (12) we have t =
V
c
2
x, since t

= 0. At this
time the charge e, which is moving with the uniform velocity V along
the X axis, will evidently have the position
x
e
=
V
2
c
2
x, y
e
= 0, z
e
= 0.
For convenience we may now refer our results to a system of coör-
dinates whose origin coincides with the position of the charge e at the
instant under consideration. If X, Y and Z are the coördinates of e
1
with respect to this new system, we shall evidently have the relations
X = x −
V
2
c
2
x = κ
−2
x, Y = y, Z = z,
U
x
= u
x
, U
y
= u
y
, U
z
= u
z
.
Substituting into (72), (73), (74) we obtain
F
x
=
ee
1
s
3

1 −
V
2
c
2

X +
V
c
2
(Y U
y
+ZU
z
)

, (75)
F
y
=
ee
1
s
3

1 −
V
2
c
2

1 −
U
x
V
c
2
)

Y, (76)
F
z
=
ee
1
s
3

1 −
V
2
c
2

1 −
U
x
V
c
2
)

Z, (77)
Dynamics of a Particle. 87
where for simplicity we have placed
s =

X
2
+

1 −
V
2
c
2

(Y
2
+Z
2
).
These are the same equations which would be obtained by sub-
stituting the well-known formulæ for the strength of the electric and
magnetic field around a moving point charge into the fifth fundamental
equation of the Maxwell-Lorentz theory, f = ρ

e +
1
c
[u ×h]

. They
are really obtained in this way more easily, however, and are seen to
come directly from Coulomb’s law.
The Field around a Moving Charge. Evidently we may also
use these considerations to obtain an expression for the electric field
produced by a moving charge e, if we consider the particular case that
the charge e
1
is stationary (i.e., U
x
= U
y
= U
z
= 0) and equal to unity.
Making these substitutions in (75), (76), (77) we obtain the well-known
expression for the electrical field in the neighborhood of a moving point
charge
F = e =
e
s
3

1 −
V
2
c
2

r, (78)
where
r = Xi +Y j +Zk.
71. Application to a Specific Problem. Equations (75), (76),
(77) can also be applied in the solution of a rather interesting specific
problem.
Consider a charge e constrained to move in the X direction with the
velocity V and at the instant under consideration let it coincide with the
origin of a system of stationary coördinates Y eX (Fig. 13). Suppose
now a second charge e
1
, situated at the point X = 0, Y = Y and
moving in the X direction with the same velocity V as the charge e,
and also having a component velocity in the Y direction U
y
. Let us
Chapter Six. 88
e
e
1
X
Y
U
x
= V
U
y
Fig. 13.
predict the nature of its motion under
the influence of the charge e, it being
otherwise unconstrained.
From the simple qualitative con-
siderations placed at our disposal by
the theory of relativity, it seems evi-
dent that the charge e
1
ought merely
to increase its component of veloc-
ity in the Y direction and retain un-
changed its component in the X di-
rection, since from the point of view
of an observer moving along with e
the phenomenon is merely one of or-
dinary electrostatic repulsion.
Let us see whether our equations
for the force exerted by a moving
charge actually lead to this result. By
making the obvious substitutions in
equations (75) and (76) we obtain for the component forces on e
1
F
x
=
ee
1
s
3

1 −
V
2
c
2

V
c
2
Y U
y
, (79)
F
x
=
ee
1
s
3

1 −
V
2
c
2

2
Y. (80)
Now under the action of the component force F
x
we might at first
sight expect the charge e
1
to obtain an acceleration in the X direction,
in contradiction to the simple qualitative prediction that we have just
made on the basis of the theory of relativity. We remember, however,
that equation (66) prescribes a definite ratio between the component
forces F
x
and F
y
if the acceleration is to be in the Y direction, and
dividing (79) by (80) we actually obtain the necessary relation
F
x
F
y
=
V U
y
c
2
−V
2
.
Dynamics of a Particle. 89
Other applications of the new principles of dynamics to electrical,
magnetic and gravitational problems will be evident to the reader.
Work.
72. Before proceeding with the further development of our theory
of dynamics we shall find it desirable to define the quantities work,
kinetic, and potential energy.
We have already obtained an expression for the force acting on a
particle and shall define the work done on the particle as the integral
of the force times the distance through which the particle is displaced.
Thus
W =

F · dr, (81)
where r is the radius vector determining the position of the particle.
Kinetic Energy.
73. When a particle is brought from a state of rest to the velocity u
by the action of an unbalanced force F, we shall define its kinetic energy
as numerically equal to the work done in producing the velocity. Thus
K = W =

F · dr.
Since, however, the kinetic energy of a particle turns out to be
entirely independent of the particular choice of forces used in producing
the final velocity, it is much more useful to have an expression for kinetic
energy in terms of the mass and velocity of the particle.
We have
K =

F · dr =

F ·
dr
dt
dt =

F · udt.
Chapter Six. 90
Substituting the value of F given by the equation of definition (47) we
obtain
K =

m
du
dt
· udt +

dm
dt
u · udt
=

mu · du +

u · udm
=

mu du +

u
2
dm.
Introducing the expression (51) for the mass of a moving particle m =
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
, we obtain
K =

m
0
u

1 −
u
2
c
2
du +

m
0
c
2
u
3

1 −
u
2
c
2

3/2
du
and on integrating and evaluating the constant of integration by placing
the kinetic energy equal to zero when the velocity is zero, we easily
obtain the desired expression for the kinetic energy of a particle:
K = m
0
c
2
¸
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
−1
¸
, (82)
= c
2
(m−m
0
). (83)
It should be noticed, as was stated above, that the kinetic energy
of a particle does depend merely on its mass and final velocity and is
entirely independent of the particular choice of forces which happened
to be used in producing the state of motion.
It will also be noticed, on expansion into a series, that our expres-
sion (82) for the kinetic energy of a particle approaches at low velocities
Dynamics of a Particle. 91
the form familiar in the older Newtonian mechanics,
K =
1
2
m
0
u
2
.
Potential Energy.
74. When a moving particle is brought to rest by the action of a
conservative

force we say that its kinetic energy has been transformed
into potential energy. The increase in the potential energy of the par-
ticle is equal to the kinetic energy which has been destroyed and hence
equal to the work done by the particle against the force, giving us the
equation
∆U = −W = −

F · dr. (84)
The Relation between Mass and Energy.
75. We may now consider a very important relation between the
mass and energy of a particle, which was first pointed out in our chapter
on “Some Elementary Deductions.”
When an isolated particle is set in motion, both its mass and energy
are increased. For the increase in mass we may write
∆m = m−m
0
,

A conservative force is one such that any work done by displacing a system
against it would be completely regained if the motion of the system should be
reversed.
Since we believe that the forces which act on the ultimate particles and con-
stituents of matter are in reality all of them conservative, we shall accept the gen-
eral principle of the conservation of energy just as in Newtonian mechanics. (For
a logical deduction of the principle of the conservation of energy in a system of
particles, see the next chapter, Section 89.)
Chapter Six. 92
and for the increase in energy we have the expression for kinetic energy
given in equation (83), giving us
∆E = c
2
(m−m
0
),
or, combining with the previous equation,
∆E = c
2
∆m. (85)
Thus the increase in the kinetic energy of a particle always bears the
same definite ratio (the square of the velocity of light) to its increase in
mass. Furthermore, when a moving particle is brought to rest and thus
loses both its kinetic energy and its extra (“kinetic”) mass, there seems
to be every reason for believing that this mass and energy which are
associated together when the particle is in motion and leave the particle
when it is brought to rest will still remain always associated together.
For example, if the particle is brought to rest by collision with another
particle, it is an evident consequence of our considerations that the
energy and the mass corresponding to it do remain associated together
since they are both passed on to the new particle. On the other hand,
if the particle is brought to rest by the action of a conservative force,
say for example that exerted by an elastic spring, the kinetic energy
which leaves the particle will be transformed into the potential energy
of the stretched spring, and since the mass which has undoubtedly left
the particle must still be in existence, we shall believe that this mass
is now associated with the potential energy of the stretched spring.
76. Such considerations have led us to believe that matter and
energy may be best regarded as different names for the same funda-
mental entity: matter, the name which has been applied when we have
been interested in the property of mass or inertia possessed by the en-
tity, and energy, the name applied when we have been interested in the
part taken by the entity in the production of motion and other changes
in the physical universe. We shall find these ideas as to the relations
between matter, energy and mass very fruitful in the simplification of
Dynamics of a Particle. 93
physical reasoning, not only because it identifies the two laws of the
conservation of mass and the conservation of energy, but also for its
frequent application in the solution of specific problems.
77. We must call attention to the great difference in size between
the two units, the gram and the erg, both of which are used for the
measurement of the one fundamental entity, call it matter or energy as
we please. Equation (85) gives us the relation
E = c
2
m, (86)
where E is expressed in ergs and m in grams; hence, taking the velocity
of light as 3 ×10
10
centimeters per second, we shall have
1 gram = 9 ×10
20
ergs. (87)
The enormous number of ergs necessary for increasing the mass of a
system to the amount of a single gram makes it evident that experimen-
tal proofs of the relation between mass and energy will be hard to find,
and outside of the experimental work on electrons at high velocities,
already mentioned in Section 64 and the well-known relations between
the energy and momentum of a beam of light, such evidence has not
yet been forthcoming.
As to the possibility of obtaining further direct experimental evi-
dence of the relation between mass and energy, we certainly cannot look
towards thermal experiments with any degree of confidence, since even
on cooling a body down to the absolute zero of temperature it loses
but an inappreciable fraction of its mass at ordinary temperatures.

In
the case of some radioactive processes, however, we may find a transfer
of energy large enough to bring about measurable differences in mass.
And making use of this point of view we might account for the lack of
exact relations between the atomic weights of the successive products
of radioactive decomposition.


It should be noticed that our theory points to the presence of enormous stores
of interatomic energy which are still left in substances cooled to the absolute zero.

See, for example, Comstock, Philosophical Magazine, vol. 15, p. 1 (1908).
Chapter Six. 94
78. Application to a Specific Problem. We may show an in-
teresting application of our ideas as to the relation between mass and
energy, in the treatment of a specific problem. Consider, just as in
Section 63, two elastic particles both of which have the mass m
0
at
rest, one moving in the X direction with the velocity +u and the other
with the velocity −u, in such a way that a head-on collision between
the particles will occur and they will rebound over their original paths
with the respective velocities −u and +u of the same magnitude as
before.
Let us now consider how this collision would appear to an observer
who is moving past the original system of coördinates with the veloc-
ity V in the X direction. To this new observer the particles will be
moving before the collision with the respective velocities
u
1
=
u −V
1 −
uV
c
2
and u
2
=
−u −V
1 −
uV
c
2
, (88)
as given by equation (14) for the transformation of velocities. Further-
more, when in the course of the collision the particles have come to
relative rest they will obviously be moving past our observer with the
velocity −V .
Let us see what the masses of the particles will be both before and
during the collision. Before the collision, the mass of the first particle
will be
m
0

1 −
u
1
2
c
2
=
m
0

1 −
¸
u −V
1 −
uV
c
2
¸
2
c
2
=
m
0

1 −
uV
c
2

1 −
V
2
c
2

1 −
u
2
c
2

Dynamics of a Particle. 95
and the mass of the second particle will be
m
0

1 −
u
2
2
c
2
=
m
0

1 −
¸
−u −V
1 +
uV
c
2
¸
2
c
2
=
m
0

1 +
uV
c
2

1 −
V
2
c
2

1 −
u
2
c
2

.
Adding these two expressions, we obtain for the sum of the masses of
the two particles before collision,
2m
0

1 −
V
2
c
2

1 −
u
2
c
2

.
Now during the collision, when the two particles have come to rel-
ative rest, they will evidently both be moving past our observer with
the velocity −V and hence the sum of their masses at the instant of
relative rest would appear to be
2m
0

1 −
V
2
c
2
,
a quantity which is smaller than that which we have just found for the
sum of the two masses before the collision occurred. This apparent
discrepancy between the total mass of the system before and during
the collision, is removed, however, if we realize that when the particles
have come to relative rest an amount of potential energy of elastic
deformation has been produced, which is just sufficient to restore them
to their original velocities, and the mass corresponding to this potential
energy will evidently be just sufficient to make the total mass of the
system the same as before collision.
In the following chapter on the dynamics of a system of particles
we shall make further use of our ideas as to the mass corresponding to
potential energy.
CHAPTER VII.
THE DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES.
79. In the preceding chapter we discussed the laws of motion of a
particle. With the help of those laws we shall now derive some useful
general dynamical principles which describe the motions of a system of
particles, and in the following chapter shall consider an application of
some of these principles to the kinetic theory of gases.
The general dynamical principles which we shall present in this
chapter will be similar in form to principles which are already familiar
in the classical Newtonian mechanics. Thus we shall deduce principles
corresponding to the principles of the conservation of momentum, of the
conservation of moment of momentum, of least action and of vis viva,
as well as the equations of motion in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian
(canonical) forms. For cases where the velocities of all the particles
involved are slow compared with that of light, we shall find, moreover,
that our principles become identical in content, as well as in form, with
the corresponding principles of the classical mechanics. Where high ve-
locities are involved, however, our new principles will differ from those
of Newtonian mechanics. In particular we shall find among other dif-
ferences that in the case of high velocities it will no longer be possible
to define the Lagrangian function as the difference between the kinetic
and potential energies of the system, nor to define the generalized mo-
menta used in the Hamiltonian equations as the partial differential of
the kinetic energy with respect to the generalized velocity.
On the Nature of a System of Particles.
80. Our purpose in this chapter is to treat dynamical systems
consisting of a finite number of particles, each obeying the equation of
motion which we have already written in the forms,
F =
d
dt
(mu) = m
du
dt
+
dm
dt
u, (47)
96
Dynamics of a System of Particles. 97
F =
d
dt
¸
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
u
¸
=
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
du
dt
+
d
dt
¸
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
¸
u. (59)
It is not to be supposed, however, that the total mass of such a
system can be taken as located solely in these particles. It is evident
rather, since potential energy has mass, that there will in general be
mass distributed more or less continuously throughout the space in the
neighborhood of the particles. Indeed we have shown at the end of the
preceding chapter (Section 78) that unless we take account of the mass
corresponding to potential energy we can not maintain the principle of
the conservation of mass, and we should also find it impossible to retain
the principle of the conservation of momentum unless we included the
momentum corresponding to potential energy.
For a continuous distribution of mass we may write for the force
acting at any point on the material in a small volume, δV ,
f δV =
d
dt
(g δV ), (47A)
where f is the force per unit volume and g is the density of momen-
tum. This equation is of course merely an equation of definition for the
intensity of force at a point. We shall assume, however, that Newton’s
third law, that is, the principle of the equality of action and reaction,
holds for forces of this type as well as for those acting on particles. In
later chapters we shall investigate the way in which g depends on ve-
locity, state of strain, etc., but for the purposes of this chapter we shall
not need any further information as to the nature of the distributed
momentum.
Let us proceed to the solution of our specific problems.
The Conservation of Momentum.
81. We may first show from Newton’s third law of motion that the
momentum of an isolated system of particles remains constant.
Chapter Seven. 98
Considering a system of particles of masses m
1
, m
2
, m
3
, etc., we
may write in accordance with equation (47),
F
1
+I
1
=
d
dt
(m
1
u
1
),
F
2
+I
2
=
d
dt
(m
2
u
2
),
etc.,
(89)
where F
1
, F
2
, etc., are the external forces impressed on the individ-
ual particles from outside the system and I
1
, I
2
, etc., are the internal
forces arising from mutual reactions within the interior of the system.
Considering the distributed mass in the system, we may also write, in
accordance with (47A) the further equation
(f +i) δV =
d
dt
(g δV ), (90)
where f and i are respectively the external and internal forces acting
per unit volume of the distributed mass. Integrating throughout the
whole volume of the system V we have

(f +i) dV =
dG
dt
, (91)
where G is the total distributed momentum in the system. Adding this
to our previous equations (89) for the forces acting on the individual
particles, we have
¸
F
1
+
¸
I
1
+

f dV +

i dV =
d
dt
¸
m
1
u
1
+
dG
dt
.
But from Newton’s third law of motion (i.e., the principle of the
equality of action and reaction) it is evident that the sum of the internal
forces,
¸
I
1
+

i dV , which arise from mutual reactions within the
Dynamics of a System of Particles. 99
system must be equal to zero, which leads to the desired equation of
momentum
¸
F
1
+

f dv =
d
dt
(
¸
m
1
u
1
+G). (92)
In words this equation states that at any given instant the vector
sum of the external forces acting on the system is equal to the rate at
which the total momentum of the system is changing.
For the particular case of an isolated system there are no external
forces and our equation becomes a statement of the principle of the
conservation of momentum.
The Equation of Angular Momentum.
82. We may next obtain an equation for the moment of momentum
of a system about a point. Consider a particle of mass m
1
and veloc-
ity u
1
. Let r
1
be the radius vector from any given point of reference to
the particle. Then for the moment of momentum of the particle about
the point we may write
M
1
= r
1
×m
1
u
1
,
and summing up for all the particles of the system we may write
¸
M
1
=
¸
(r
1
×m
1
u
1
). (93)
Similarly, for the moment of momentum of the distributed mass we may
write
M
dist.
=

(r ×g) dV, (94)
where r is the radius vector from our chosen point of reference to a
point in space where the density of momentum is g and the integration
is to be taken throughout the whole volume, V , of the system.
Adding these two equations (93) and (94), we obtain for the total
amount of momentum of the system about our chosen point
M =
¸
(r
1
×m
1
u
1
) +

(r ×g) dV ;
Chapter Seven. 100
and differentiating with respect to the time we have, for the rate of
change of the moment of momentum,
dM
dt
=
¸

r
1
×
d
dt
(m
1
u
1
)

+
¸

dr
1
dt
×m
1
u
1

+

r ×
dg
dt

dV +

dr
dt
×g

dV ;
or, making the substitutions given by equations (89) and (90), and
writing
dr
1
dt
= u
1
, etc., we have
dM
dt
=
¸
(r
1
×F
1
) +
¸
(r
1
×I
1
) +
¸
(u
1
×m
1
u
1
)
+

(r ×f ) dV +

(r ×i) dV +

(u ×g) dV.
To simplify this equation we may note that the third term is equal
to zero because it contains the outer product of a vector by itself.
Furthermore, if we accept the principle of the equality of action and
reaction, together with the further requirement that forces are not only
equal and opposite but that their points of application be in the same
straight line, we may put the moment of all the internal forces equal to
zero and thus eliminate the second and fifth terms. We obtain as the
equation of angular momentum
dM
dt
=
¸
(r
1
×F
1
) +

(r ×f ) dV +

(u ×g) dV. (95)
We may call attention to the inclusion in this equation of the inter-
esting term

(u ×g) dV . If density of momentum and velocity should
always be in the same direction this term would vanish, since the outer
product of a vector by itself is equal to zero. In our consideration of
the “Dynamics of Elastic Bodies,” however, we shall find bodies with
Dynamics of a System of Particles. 101
a component of momentum at right angles to their direction of mo-
tion and hence must include this term in a general treatment. For a
completely isolated system it can be shown, however, that this term
vanishes along with the external forces and we then have the principle
of the conservation of moment of momentum.
The Function T.
83. We may now proceed to the definition of a function which will
be needed in our treatment of the principle of least action.
One of the most valuable properties of the Newtonian expression,
1
2
m
0
u
2
, for kinetic energy was the fact that its derivative with respect
to velocity is evidently the Newtonian expression for momentum, m
0
u.
It is not true, however, that the derivative of our new expression for
kinetic energy (see Section 73), m
0
c
2
¸
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
−1
¸
, with respect to ve-
locity is equal to momentum, and for that reason in our non-Newtonian
mechanics we shall find it desirable to define a new function, T, by the
equation,
T = m
0
c
2

1 −

1 −
u
2
c
2

. (96)
For slow velocities (i.e., small values of u) this reduces to the New-
tonian expression for kinetic energy and at all velocities we have the
relation,
dT
du
= −m
0
c
2
d
du

1 −
u
2
c
2
=
m
0
u

1 −
u
2
c
2
= mu, (97)
showing that the differential of T with respect to velocity is momentum.
Chapter Seven. 102
For a system of particles we shall define T as the summation of the
values for the individual particles:
T =
¸
m
0
c
2

1 −

1 −
u
2
c
2

. (98)
The Modified Lagrangian Function.
84. In the older mechanics the Lagrangian function for a system of
particles was defined as the difference between the kinetic and potential
energies of the system. The value of the definition rested, however,
on the fact that the differential of the kinetic energy with respect to
velocity was equal to momentum, so that we shall now find it advisable
to define the Lagrangian function with the help of our new function T
in accordance with the equation
L = T −U. (99)
The Principle of Least Action.
85. We are now in a position to derive a principle corresponding to
that of least action in the older mechanics. Consider the path by which
our dynamical system actually moves from state (1) to state (2). The
motion of any particle in the system of mass m will be governed by the
equation
F =
d
dt
(mu). (100)
Let us now compare the actual path by which the system moves
from state (1) to state (2) with a slightly displaced path in which the
laws of motion are not obeyed, and let the displacement of the particle
at the instant in question be δr.
Dynamics of a System of Particles. 103
Let us take the inner product of both sides of equation (100) with δr;
we have
F · δr =
d
dt
(mu) · δr
=
d
dt
(mu · δr) −mu ·
d δr
dt
=
d
dt
(mu · δr) −mu · δu)
(mu · δu +F · δr) dt = d(mu · δr).
Summing up for all the particles of the system and integrating be-
tween the limits t
1
and t
2
, we have

t
2
t
1
(
¸
mu · δu +
¸
F · δr) dt = [
¸
mu · δr]
t
2
t
1
.
Since t
1
and t
2
are the times when the actual and displaced motions
coincide, we have at these times δr = 0; furthermore we also have
u · δu = u δu, so that we may write

t
2
t
1
(
¸
mu δu +F · δr) dt = 0.
With the help of equation (97), however, we see that
¸
mu δu = δT,
giving us

t
2
t
1
(δT +F · δr) dt = 0. (101)
If the forces F are conservative, we may write F · δr = −δU, where
δU is the difference between the potential energies of the displaced and
the actual configurations. This gives us
δ

t
2
t
1
(T −U) dt = 0
Chapter Seven. 104
or
δ

t
2
t
1
Ldt = 0, (102)
which is the modified principle of least action. The principle evidently
requires that for the actual path by which the system goes from state (1)
to state (2), the quantity

t
2
t
1
Ldt shall be a minimum (or maximum).
Lagrange’s Equations.
86. We may now derive the Lagrangian equations of motion from
the above principle of least action. Let us suppose that the position
of each particle of the system under consideration is completely deter-
mined by n independent generalized coördinates φ
1
, φ
2
, φ
3
· · · φ
n
and
hence that L is some function of φ
1
, φ
2
, φ
3
· · · φ
n
,
˙
φ
1
,
˙
φ
2
,
˙
φ
3
· · ·
˙
φ
n
,
where for simplicity we have put
˙
φ
1
=

1
dt
,
˙
φ
2
=

2
dt
, etc.
From equation (102) we have

t
2
t
1
(δL) dt =

t
2
t
1

n
¸
1
∂L
∂φ
i
δφ
i
+
n
¸
1
∂L

˙
φ
i
δ
˙
φ
i

dt = 0. (103)
But
δ
˙
φ
i
=
d
dt
(δφ
i
),
which gives us

t
2
t
1
∂L

˙
φ
i
δ
˙
φ
i
dt =

t
2
t
1
∂L

˙
φ
i
d
dt
(δφ
i
) dt
=
¸
∂L

˙
φ
i
δφ
i

t
2
t
1

t
2
t
1
δφ
i
d
dt

∂L

˙
φ
i

dt
or, since at times t
1
and t
2
, δφ
i
is zero, the first term in this expression
disappears and on substituting in equation (103) we obtain

t2
t
1
¸
n
¸
1
δφ
i

∂L
∂φ
i

d
dt

∂L

˙
φ
i

dt = 0.
Dynamics of a System of Particles. 105
Since, however, the limits t
1
and t
2
are entirely at our disposal we must
have at every instant
n
¸
1
δφ
i

∂L
∂φ
i

d
dt

∂L

˙
φ
i

= 0.
Finally, moreover, since the φ’s are independent parameters, we can
assign perfectly arbitrary values to δφ
1
, δφ
2
, etc., and hence must have
the series of equations
d
dt

∂L

˙
φ
1


∂L
∂φ
1
= 0,
d
dt

∂L

˙
φ
2


∂L
∂φ
2
= 0,
etc.
(104)
These correspond to Lagrange’s equations in the older mechanics, dif-
fering only in the definition of L.
Equations of Motion in the Hamiltonian Form.
87. We shall also find it desirable to obtain equations of motion in
the Hamiltonian or canonical form.
Let us define the generalized momentum ψ
i
corresponding to the
coördinate φ
i
by the equation,
ψ
i
=
∂T

˙
φ
i
. (105)
It should be noted that the generalized momentum is not as in
ordinary mechanics the derivative of the kinetic energy with respect to
the generalized velocity but approaches that value at low velocities.
Consider now a function T

defined by the equation
T

= ψ
1
˙
φ
1

2
˙
φ
2
+· · · −T. (106)
Chapter Seven. 106
Differentiating we have
dT

= ψ
1
d
˙
φ
1

2
d
˙
φ
2
+· · ·
+
˙
φ
1

1
+
˙
φ
2

2
+· · ·

∂T
∂φ
1

1

∂T
∂φ
2

2
−· · ·

∂T

˙
φ
1
d
˙
φ
1

∂T

˙
φ
2
d
˙
φ
2
−· · · ,
and this, by the introduction of (105), becomes
dT

=
˙
φ
1

1
+
˙
φ
2

2
+· · · −
∂T
∂φ
1

1

∂T
∂φ
2

2
−· · · . (107)
Examining this equation we have
∂T

∂φ
i
= −
∂T
∂φ
i
, (108)
∂T

∂ψ
i
=
˙
φ
i
. (109)
In Lagrange’s equations we have
d
dt



˙
φ
i
(T −U)



∂φ
i
(T −U) = 0.
But since U is independent of ψ
i
we may write
∂(T −U)

˙
φ
i
=
∂T

˙
φ
i
= ψ
i
,
and furthermore by (108),
∂T
∂φ
i
= −
∂T

∂φ
i
.
Dynamics of a System of Particles. 107
Substituting these two expressions in Lagrange’s equations we obtain

i
dt
= −
∂(T

+U)
∂φ
i
or, writing T

+U = E, we have

i
dt
= −
∂E
∂φ
i
(110)
and since U is independent of ψ
i
we may rewrite equation (109) in the
form

i
dt
=
∂E
∂ψ
i
. (111)
The set of equations corresponding to (110) and (111) for all the
coördinates φ
1
, φ
2
, φ
3
, · · · φ
n
and the momenta ψ
1
, ψ
2
, ψ
3
, · · · ψ
n
are
the desired equations of motion in the canonical form.
88. Value of the Function T

. We have given the symbol E to
the quantity T

+U, since T

actually turns out to be identical with the
expression by which we defined kinetic energy, thus making E = T

+U
the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the system.
To show that T

is equal to K, the kinetic energy, we have by the
equation of definition (106)
T

= φ
1
ψ
1

2
ψ
2
+· · · −T,
= φ
1
∂T

˙
φ
1

2
∂T

˙
φ
2
+· · · −T.
But T by definition, equation (98), is
T =
¸
c
2
m
0

1 −

1 −
u
2
c
2

,
Chapter Seven. 108
which gives us
∂T

˙
φ
i
=
¸
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2

−1/2
u
∂u

˙
φ
i
=
¸
mu
∂u

˙
φ
i
and substituting we obtain
T

=
˙
φ
1
¸
mu
∂u

˙
φ
1
+
˙
φ
2
¸
mu
∂u

˙
φ
2
+· · · −T
=
¸
mu

˙
φ
1
∂u

˙
φ
1
+
˙
φ
2
∂u

˙
φ
2
+· · ·

−T.
(112)
We can show, however, that the term in parenthesis is equal to u. If the
coördinates x, y, z determine the position of the particle in question,
we have,
x = f(φ
1
φ
2
φ
3
· · · φ
n
),
˙ x =
dx
dt
=
˙
φ
1
∂f( )
∂φ
1
+
˙
φ
2
∂f( )
∂φ
2
+
˙
φ
3
∂f( )
∂φ
3
+· · ·
and differentiating with respect to the
˙
φ’s, we obtain,
∂ ˙ x

˙
φ
1
=
∂f( )
∂φ
1
=
∂x
∂φ
1
,
∂ ˙ x

˙
φ
2
=
∂x
∂φ
2
,
∂ ˙ x

˙
φ
3
=
∂x
∂φ
3
, etc.
Similarly
∂ ˙ y

˙
φ
1
=
∂y
∂φ
1
,
∂ ˙ y

˙
φ
2
=
∂y
∂φ
2
, etc.,
∂ ˙ z

˙
φ
1
=
∂z
∂φ
1
,
∂ ˙ z

˙
φ
2
=
∂z
∂φ
2
, etc.,
Dynamics of a System of Particles. 109
Let us write now
u =

˙ x
2
+ ˙ y
2
+ ˙ z
2
,
∂u

˙
φ
i
=
1

˙ x
2
+ ˙ y
2
+ ˙ z
2

˙ x
∂ ˙ x

˙
φ
i
+ ˙ y
∂ ˙ y

˙
φ
i
+ ˙ z
∂ ˙ z

˙
φ
i

,
or making the substitutions for
∂ ˙ x

˙
φ
i
,
∂ ˙ y

˙
φ
i
, etc., given above, we have,
∂u

˙
φ
i
=
1
u

˙ x
∂x
∂φ
i
+ ˙ y
∂y
∂φ
i
+ ˙ z
∂z
∂φ
i

.
Substituting now in (112) we shall obtain,
T

=
¸
mu

˙ x
u

φ
1
∂x
∂φ
1

2
∂x
∂φ
2
+· · ·

+
˙ y
u

φ
1
∂y
∂φ
1

2
∂y
∂φ
2
+· · ·

+
˙ z
u

φ
1
∂z
∂φ
1

2
∂z
∂φ
2
+· · ·

¸
−T
=
¸
mu
2
−T
or, introducing the value of T given by equation (98), we have
T

=
¸
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2

u
2
−c
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
+c
2

1 −
u
2
c
2

¸
=
¸
c
2
(m−m
0
),
which is the expression (83) for kinetic energy.
Hence we see that the Hamiltonian function E = T

+U is the sum
of the kinetic and potential energies of the system as in Newtonian
mechanics.
Chapter Seven. 110
The Principle of the Conservation of Energy.
89. We may now make use of our equations of motion in the canon-
ical form to show that the total energy of a system of interacting par-
ticles remains constant. If such were not the case it is obvious that our
definitions of potential and kinetic energy would not be very useful.
Since E = T

+U is a function of φ
1
, φ
2
, φ
3
, · · · ψ
1
, ψ
2
, ψ
3
, · · · , we
may write
dE
dt
=
∂E
∂φ
1
˙
φ
1
+
∂E
∂φ
2
˙
φ
2
+· · ·
+
∂E
∂ψ
1
˙
ψ
1
+
∂E
∂ψ
2
˙
ψ
2
+· · · .
Substituting the values of
∂E
∂φ
1
,
∂E
∂ψ
1
, etc., given by the canonical equa-
tions of motion (110) and (111), we have
dE
dt
= −
˙
ψ
1
˙
φ
1

˙
ψ
2
˙
φ
2
−· · ·
+
˙
ψ
1
˙
φ
1
+
˙
ψ
2
˙
φ
2
+· · ·
= 0,
which gives us the desired proof that just as in the older Newtonian
mechanics the total energy of an isolated system of particles is a con-
servative quantity.
On the Location of Energy in Space.
90. This proof of the conservation of energy in a system of interact-
ing particles justifies us in the belief that the concept of energy will not
fail to retain in the newer mechanics the position of great importance
which it gradually acquired in the older systems of physical theory. In-
deed, our newer considerations have augmented the important rôle of
energy by adding to its properties the attribute of mass or inertia, and
Dynamics of a System of Particles. 111
thus leading to the further belief that matter and energy are in reality
different names for the same fundamental entity.
The importance of this entity, energy, makes it very interesting to
consider the possibility of ascribing a definite location in space to any
given quantity of energy. In the older mechanics we had a hazy notion
that the kinetic energy of a moving body was probably located in some
way in the moving body itself, and possibly a vague idea that the po-
tential energy of a raised weight might be located in the space between
the weight and the earth. Our discovery of the relation between mass
and energy has made it possible, however, to give a much more definite,
although not a complete, answer to inquiries of this kind.
In our discussions of the dynamics of a particle (Chapter VI, Sec-
tion 61) we saw that an acceptance of Newton’s principle of the equality
of action and reaction forced us to ascribe an increased mass to a mov-
ing particle over that which it has at rest. This increase in the mass
of the moving particle is necessarily located either in the particle itself
or distributed in the surrounding space in such a way that its center
of mass always coincides with the position of the particle, and since
the kinetic energy of the particle is the energy corresponding to this
increased mass we may say that the kinetic energy of a moving particle
is so distributed in space that its center of mass always coincides with
the position of the particle.
If now we consider the transformation of kinetic energy into poten-
tial energy we can also draw somewhat definite conclusions as to the
location of potential energy. By the principle of the conservation of
mass we shall be able to say that the mass of any potential energy
formed is just equal to the “kinetic” mass which has disappeared, and
by the principle of the conservation of momentum we can say that the
velocity of this potential energy is just that necessary to keep the to-
tal momentum of the system constant. Such considerations will often
permit us to reach a good idea as to the location of potential energy.
Consider, for example, a pair of similar attracting particles which
are moving apart from each other with the velocities +u and −u and are
Chapter Seven. 112
gradually coming to rest under the action of their mutual attraction,
their kinetic energy thus being gradually changed into potential energy.
Since the total momentum of the system must always remain zero, we
may think of the potential energy which is formed as left stationary in
the space between the two particles.
CHAPTER VIII.
THE CHAOTIC MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES.
The discussions of the previous chapter have placed at our disposal
generalized equations of motion for a system of particles similar in form
to those familiar in the classical mechanics, and differing only in the
definition of the Lagrangian function. With the help of these equations
it is possible to carry out investigations parallel to those already de-
veloped in the classical mechanics, and in the present chapter we shall
discuss the chaotic motion of a system of particles. This problem has
received much attention in the classical mechanics because of the close
relations between the theoretical behavior of such an ideal system of
particles and the actual behavior of a monatomic gas. We shall find
no more difficulty in handling the problem than was experienced in the
older mechanics, and our results will of course reduce to those of New-
tonian mechanics in the case of slow velocities. Thus we shall find a
distribution law for momenta which reduces to that of Maxwell for slow
velocities, and an equipartition law for the average value of a function
which at low velocities becomes identical with the kinetic energy of the
particles.
91. The Equations of Motion. It has been shown that the Hamil-
tonian equations of motion
∂E
∂φ
1
= −

1
dt
= −
˙
ψ
1
,
∂E
∂ψ
1
=

1
dt
=
˙
φ
1
,
etc.,
(113)
will hold in relativity mechanics provided we define the generalized
momenta ψ
1
, ψ
2
, etc., not as the differential of the kinetic energy with
respect to the generalized velocities
˙
φ
1
,
˙
φ
2
, etc., but as the differential
113
Chapter Eight. 114
with respect to
˙
φ
1
,
˙
φ
2
, etc., of a function
T =
¸
m
0
c
2

1 −

1 −
u
2
c
2

,
where m
0
is the mass of a particle having the velocity u and the sum-
mation
¸
extends over all the particles of the system.
92. Representation in Generalized Space. Consider now a
system defined by the n generalized coördinates φ
1
, φ
2
, φ
3
, · · · , φ
n
,
and the corresponding momenta ψ
1
, ψ
2
, ψ
3
, · · · , ψ
n
. Employing the
methods so successfully used by Jeans,

we may think of the state of the
system at any instant as determined by the position of a point plotted in
a 2n-dimensional space. Suppose now we had a large number of systems
of the same structure but differing in state, then for each system we
should have at any instant a corresponding point in our 2n-dimensional
space, and as the systems changed their state, in the manner required
by the laws of motion, the points would describe stream lines in this
space.
93. Liouville’s Theorem. Suppose now that the points were orig-
inally distributed in the generalized space with the uniform density ρ.
Then it can be shown by familiar methods that, just as in the classical
mechanics, the density of distribution remains uniform.
Take, for example, some particular cubical element of our gener-
alized space dφ
1

2

3
. . . dψ
1

2

3
. . . . The density of distribu-
tion will evidently remain uniform if the number of points entering
any such cube per second is equal to the number leaving. Consider
now the two parallel bounding surfaces of the cube which are perpen-
dicular to the φ
1
axis, one cutting the axis at the point φ
1
and the
other at the point φ
1
+ dφ
1
. The area of each of these surfaces is

2

3
. . . dψ
1

2

3
. . . , and hence, if
˙
φ
1
is the component of veloc-
ity which the points have parallel to the φ
1
axis, and

˙
φ
1
∂φ
1
is the rate at

Jeans, The Dynamical Theory of Gases, Cambridge, 1916.
Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 115
which this component is changing as we move along the axis, we may
obviously write the following expression for the difference between the
number of points leaving and entering per second through these two
parallel surfaces
ρ
¸

˙
φ
1
∂φ
1


1
¸

2

3
. . . dψ
1

2

3
· · · = ρ

˙
φ
1
∂φ
1
dV.
Finally, considering all the pairs of parallel bounding surfaces, we
find for the total decrease per second in the contents of the element
ρ


˙
φ
1
∂φ
1
+

˙
φ
2
∂φ
2
+

˙
φ
3
∂φ
3
+· · · +

˙
ψ
1
∂ψ
1
+

˙
ψ
2
∂ψ
2
+

˙
ψ
3
∂ψ
3
+· · ·

dV.
But the motions of the points are necessarily governed by the Hamil-
tonian equations (113) given above, and these obviously lead to the
relations

˙
φ
1
∂φ
1
+

˙
ψ
1
∂ψ
1
= 0,

˙
φ
2
∂φ
2
+

˙
ψ
2
∂ψ
2
= 0,
etc.
So that our expression for the change per second in the number of
points in the cube becomes equal to zero, the necessary requirement
for preserving uniform density.
This maintenance of a uniform distribution means that there is no
tendency for the points to crowd into any particular region of the gen-
eralized space, and hence if we start some one system going and plot its
state in our generalized space, we may assume that, after an indefinite
lapse of time, the point is equally likely to be in any one of the little
elements dV . In other words, the different states of a system, which we
Chapter Eight. 116
can specify by stating the region dφ
1

2

3
. . . dψ
1

2

3
. . . in which
the values of the coördinates and momenta of the system fall, are all
equally likely to occur.

94. A System of Particles. Consider now a system contain-
ing N
a
particles which have the mass m
a
when at rest, N
b
particles
which have the mass m
b
, N
c
particles which have the mass m
c
, etc.
If at any given instant we specify the particular differential element
dx dy dz dψ
x

y

z
which contains the coördinates x, y, z, and the cor-
responding momenta ψ
x
, ψ
y
, ψ
z
for each particle, we shall thereby com-
pletely determine what Planck

has well called the microscopic state of
the system, and by the previous paragraph any microscopic state of the
system in which we thus specify the six-dimensional position of each
particle is just as likely to occur as any other microscopic state.
It must be noticed, however, that many of the possible micro-
scopic states which are determined by specifying the six-dimensional
position of each individual particle are in reality completely identi-
cal, since if all the particles having a given mass m
a
are alike among
themselves, it makes no difference which particular one of the various
available identical particles we pick out to put into a specified range
dx dy dz dψ
x

y

z
.
For this reason we shall usually be interested in specifying the sta-
tistical state

of the system, for which purpose we shall merely state
the number of particles of a given kind which have coördinates falling
in a given range dx dy dz dψ
x

y

z
. We see that corresponding to
any given statistical state there will be in general a large number of
microscopic states.

The criterion here used for determining whether or not the states are equally
liable to occur is obviously a necessary requirement, although it is not so evident
that it is a sufficient requirement for equal probability.

Planck, Wärmestrahlung, Leipzig, 1913.

What we have here defined as the statistical state is what Planck calls the
macroscopic state of the system. The word macroscopic is unfortunate, however, in
implying a less minute observation as to the size of the elements dxdy dz dψ
x

y

z
in which the representative points are found.
Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 117
95. Probability of a Given Statistical State. We shall now be
particularly interested in the probability that the system of particles
will actually be in some specified statistical state, and since Liouville’s
theorem has justified our belief that all microscopic states are equally
likely to occur, we see that the probability of a given statistical state will
be proportional to the number of microscopic states which correspond
to it.
For the system under consideration let a particular statistical state
be specified by stating that N
a

, N
a

, N
a

, · · · , N
b

, N
b

, N
b

, · · · , etc.,
are the number of particles of the corresponding masses m
a
, m
b
, etc.,
which fall in the specified elementary regions dx dy dz dψ
x

y

z
, Nos.
1a, 2a, 3a, · · · , 1b, 2b, 3b, · · · , etc. By familiar methods of calculation
it is evident that the number of arrangements by which the particu-
lar distribution of particles can be effected, that is, in other words,
the number of microscopic states, W, which correspond to the given
statistical state, is given by the expression
W =
N
a
! N
b
! N
c
! · · ·
N
a

! N
a

! N
a

! · · · N
b

! N
b

! N
b

! · · ·
and this number W is proportional to the probability that the system
will be found in the particular statistical state considered.
If now we assume that each of the regions
dx dy dz dψ
x

y

z
, Nos. 1a, 2a, 3a, · · · , 1b, 2b, 3b, · · · etc.
is great enough to contain a large number of particles,

we may apply
the Stirling formula
N! =

2π N

N

N

The idea of successive orders of infinitesimals which permit the differential
region dxdy dz dψ
x

y

z
, to contain a large number of particles is a familiar one
in mathematics.
Chapter Eight. 118
for evaluating N
a
!, N
b
!, etc., and omitting negligible terms, shall obtain
for log W the result
log W = −N
a

N
a

N
a
log
N
a

N
a
+
N
a

N
a
log
N
a

N
a
+
N
a

N
a
log
N
a

N
a
+· · ·

−N
b

N
b

N
b
log
N
b

N
b
+
N
b

N
b
log
N
b

N
b
+
N
b

N
b
log
N
b

N
b
+· · ·

,
etc.
For simplicity let us denote the ratios
N
a

N
a
,
N
a

N
a
, etc., by the symbols
w
a

, w
a

, etc. These quantities w
a

, w
a

, etc., are evidently the prob-
abilities, in the case of this particular statistical state, that any given
particle m
a
will be found in the respective regions Nos. 1a, 2a, etc.
We may now write
log W = −N
a
¸
w
a
log w
a
−N
b
¸
w
b
log w
b
−, etc.,
where the summation extends over all the regions Nos. 1a, 2a, · · · 1b,
2b, etc.
96. Equilibrium Relations. Let us now suppose that the system
of particles is contained in an enclosed space and has the definite energy
content E. Let us find the most probable distribution of the particles.
For this the necessary condition will be
δ log W = −N
a
¸
(log w
a
+ 1) δw
a
−N
b
¸
(log w
b
+ 1) δw
b
· · · = 0. (114)
In carrying out our variation, however, the number of particles of each
kind must remain constant so that we have the added relations
¸
δw
a
= 0,
¸
δw
b
= 0, etc. (115)
Finally, since the energy is to have a definite value E, it must also
remain constant in the variation, which will provide still a further re-
lation. Since the energy of a particle will be a definite function of its
Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 119
position and momentum,

let us write the energy of the system in the
form
E = N
a
¸
w
a
E
a
+N
b
¸
w
b
E
b
+· · · ,
where E
a
is the energy of a particle in the region 1a, etc.
Since in carrying out our variation the energy is to remain constant,
we have the relation
E = N
a
¸
E
a
δw
a
+N
b
¸
E
b
δw
b
+· · · = 0. (116)
Solving the simultaneous equations (114), (115), (116) by familiar
methods we obtain
log w
a
+ 1 +λE
a

b
= 0,
log w
b
+ 1 +λE
b

b
= 0,
etc.,
where λ, µ
a
, µ
b
, etc., are undetermined constants. (It should be spe-
cially noticed that λ is the same constant in each of the series of equa-
tions.)
Transforming we have
w
a
= α
a
e
−hE
a
,
w
b
= α
b
e
−hE
b
,
etc.,
(117)
as the expressions which determine the chance that a given particle of
mass m
a
, m
b
, etc., will fall in a given region dx dy dz dψ
x

y

z
, when
we have the distribution of maximum probability. It should be noticed
that h, which corresponds to the λ of the preceding equations, is the
same constant in all of the equations, while α
a
, α
b
, etc., are different
constants, depending on the mass of the particles m
a
, m
b
, etc.

We thus exclude from our considerations systems in which the potential energy
depends appreciably on the relative positions of the independent particles.
Chapter Eight. 120
97. The Energy as a Function of the Momentum. E
a
, E
b
, etc.,
are of course functions of x, y, z, ψ
x
, ψ
y
, ψ
z
. Let us now obtain an
expression for E
a
in terms of these quantities. If there is no external
field of force acting, the energy of a particle E
a
will be independent of
x, y, and z, and will be determined entirely by its velocity and mass.
In accordance with the theory of relativity we shall have

E
a
=
m
a
c
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
, (118)
where m
a
is the mass of the particle at rest.
Let us now express E
a
as a function of ψ
x
, ψ
y
, ψ
z
.
We have from our equations (105) and (98), which were used for
defining momentum
ψ
x
=

∂ ˙ x
m
a

1 −

1 −
u
2
c
2

=

∂ ˙ x
m
a

1 −

1 −
˙ x
2
+ ˙ y
2
+ ˙ z
2
c
2

=
m
0
˙ x

1 −
u
2
c
2
.

This expression is that for the total energy of the particle, including that
internal energy m
0
c
2
which, according to relativity theory, the particle has when
it is at rest. (See Section 75.) It would be just as correct to substitute for E
a
in
equation (117) the value of the kinetic energy m
a
c
2

1

1 −
u
2
c
2
−1

instead of the
total energy
m
a
c
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
, since the two differ merely by a constant m
a
c
2
which would
be taken care of by assigning a suitable value to α
a
.
Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 121
Constructing the similar expressions for ψ
y
and ψ
z
we may write the
relation
ψ
2
= ψ
2
x

2
y

2
z
=
m
2
a
( ˙ x
2
+ ˙ y
2
+ ˙ z
2
)
1 −
u
2
c
2
=
m
2
a
u
2
1 −
u
2
c
2
, (119)
which also defines ψ
2
.
By simple transformations and the introduction of equation (118)
we obtain the desired relation
E
a
= c

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2
. (120)
98. The Distribution Law. We may now rewrite equations (117)
in the form
w
a
= α
a
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2
,
w
b
= α
b
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
b
2
c
2
,
etc.
(121)
These expressions determine the probability that a given particle of
mass m
a
, m
b
, etc., will fall in a given region dx dy dz dψ
x

y

z
, and
correspond to Maxwell’s distribution law in ordinary mechanics. We
see that these probabilities are independent of the position x, y, z

but
dependent on the momentum.
α
a
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2
is the probability that a given particle will fall in
a particular six-dimensional cube of volume dx dy dz dψ
x

y

z
. Let
us now introduce, for convenience, a new quantity a
a
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2
which will be the probability per unit volume that a given particle will
have the six dimensional location in question, the constants α
a
and a
a
standing in the same ratio as the volumes dx dy dz dψ
x

y

z
and
unity.

This is true only when, as assumed, no external field of force is acting.
Chapter Eight. 122
We may then write
w
a
= α
a
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2
= a
a
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2
dx dy dz dψ
x

y

z
w
b
= α
b
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
b
2
c
2
= a
b
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
b
2
c
2
dx dy dz dψ
x

y

z
etc.
Since every particle must have components of momentum lying be-
tween minus and plus infinity, and lie somewhere in the whole volume V
occupied by the mixture, we have the relation
V

+∞
−∞

+∞
−∞

+∞
−∞
a
a
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2

x

y

z
= 1. (122)
It is further evident that the average value of any quantity A which
depends on the momentum of the particles is given by the expression
[A]
av.
= V

+∞
−∞

+∞
−∞

+∞
−∞
a
a
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2
Adψ
x

y

z
, (123)
where A is some function of ψ
x
, ψ
y
, and ψ
z
.
99. Polar Coördinates. We may express relations correspond-
ing to (122) and (123) more simply if we make use of polar coördi-
nates. Consider instead of the elementary volume dψ
x

y

z
the vol-
ume ψ
2
sin θ dθ dφdψ expressed in polar coördinates, where
ψ
2
= ψ
x
2

y
2

z
2
.
The probability that a particle m
a
will fall in the region
dx dy dz ψ
2
sin θ dθ dφdψ
will be
a
a
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2
dx dy dz ψ
2
sin θ dθ dφdψ,
Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 123
and since each particle must fall somewhere in the space x y z ψ
x
ψ
y
ψ
z
we shall have corresponding to (122) the relation
V

π
0


0


0
a
a
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2
ψ
2
sin θ dθ dφdψ = 1,
4πV


0
a
a
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2
ψ
2
dψ = 1.
(124)
Corresponding to equation (123), we also see that the average value of
any quantity A, which is dependent on the momentum of the molecules
of mass m
a
, will be given by the expression
[A]
av.
= 4πV


0
a
a
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2

2
dψ. (125)
100. The Law of Equipartition. We may now obtain a law
which corresponds to that of the equipartition of vis viva in the classical
mechanics. Considering equation (124) let us integrate by parts, we
obtain
¸
4πV a
a
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2
ψ
3
3

ψ=∞
ψ=0
−4πV


0
ψ
3
3
a
a
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2
(−hc)
ψ

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2
dψ = 1.
Substituting the limits into the first term we find that it becomes zero
and may write
4πV


0
a
a
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2
ψ
2
c

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2
ψ
2
dψ =
3
h
.
But by equation (125) the left-hand side of this relation is the av-
erage value of
ψ
2
c

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2
for the particles of mass m
a
. We have
¸
ψ
2
c

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2
¸
av.
=
3
h
.
Chapter Eight. 124
Introducing equation (119) which defines ψ
2
, we may transform this
expression into
¸
m
a
u
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
¸
av.
=
3
h
. (126)
Since we have shown that h is independent of the mass of the parti-
cles, we see that the average value of
m
0
u
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
is the same for particles
of all different masses. This is the principle in relativity mechanics
that corresponds to the law of the equipartition of vis viva in the clas-
sical mechanics. Indeed, for low velocities the above expression reduces
to m
0
u
2
, the vis viva of Newtonian mechanics, a fact which affords an
illustration of the general principle that the laws of Newtonian mechan-
ics are always the limiting form assumed at low velocities by the more
exact formulations of relativity mechanics.
We may now call attention in passing to the fact that this quantity
m
0
u
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
, whose value is the same for particles of different masses, is
not the relativity expression for kinetic energy, which is given rather
by the formula c
2
¸
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
−m
0
¸
. So that in relativity mechanics the
principle of the equipartition of energy is merely an approximation. We
shall later return to this subject.
101. Criterion for Equality of Temperature. For a system of
particles of masses m
a
, m
b
, etc., enclosed in the volume V , and having
the definite energy content E, we have shown that
4πV a
a
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2
ψ
2

Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 125
and
4πV a
b
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
b
2
c
2
ψ
2

are the respective probabilities that given particles of mass m
a
or
mass m
b
will have momenta between ψ and ψ + dψ. Suppose now
we consider a differently arranged system in which we have N
a
parti-
cles of mass m
a
by themselves in a space of volume V
a
and N
b
particles
of mass m
b
in a contiguous space of volume V
b
, separated from V
a
by
a partition which permits a transfer of energy, and let the total energy
of the double system be, as before, a definite quantity E (the energy
content of the partition being taken as negligible). Then, by reasoning
entirely similar to that just employed, we can obviously show that
4πV
a
a
a
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
a
2
c
2
ψ
2

and
4πV
b
a
b
e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
b
2
c
2
ψ
2

are now the respective probabilities that given particles of mass m
a
or
mass m
b
will have momenta between ψ and ψ + dψ, the only changes
in the expressions being the substitution of the volumes V
a
and V
b
in
the place of the one volume V . Furthermore, this distribution law will
evidently lead as before to the equality of the average values of
m
a
u
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
and
m
b
u
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
.
Since, however, the spaces containing the two kinds of particles are in
thermal contact, their temperature is the same. Hence we find that the
equality of the average values of
m
0
u
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
is the necessary condition for
equality of temperature.
Chapter Eight. 126
The above distribution law also leads to the important corollary that
for any given system of particles at a definite temperature the momenta
and hence the total energy content is independent of the volume.
We may now proceed to the derivation of relations which will permit
us to show that the important quantity
m
0
u
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
is directly propor-
tional to the temperature as measured on the absolute thermodynamic
temperature scale.
102. Pressure Exerted by a System of Particles. We first
need to obtain an expression for the pressure exerted by a system of
N particles enclosed in the volume V . Consider an element of surface dS
perpendicular to the X axis, and let the pressure acting on it be p. The
total force which the element dS exerts on the particles that impinge
will be p dS, and this will be equal to the rate of change of the momenta
in the X direction of these particles.

Now by equation (122) the total number of particles having mo-
menta between ψ
x
and ψ
x
+dψ
x
in the positive direction is
NV

ψ
x
+dψ
x
ψ
x

+∞
−∞

+∞
−∞
a e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
0
2
c
2

x

y

z
.
But ˙ x dS gives us the volume which contains the number of particles
having momenta between ψ
x
and ψ
x
+ dψ
x
which will reach dS in a
second. Hence the number of such particles which impinge per second
will be
NV
˙ x dS
V

ψ
x
+dψ
x
ψ
x

+∞
−∞

+∞
−∞
a e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
0
2
c
2

x

y

z
.
and their change in momentum, allowing for the effect of the rebound,

The system is considered dilute enough for the mutual attractions of the par-
ticles to be negligible in their effect on the external pressure.
Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 127
will be
2N dS

ψ
x
+dψ
x
ψ
x

+∞
−∞

+∞
−∞
a e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
0
2
c
2
ψ
x
˙ x dψ
x

y

z
.
Finally, the total change in momentum per second for all particles can
be found by integrating for all possible positive values of ψ
x
. Equating
this to the total force p dS we have
p dS = 2N dS


0

+∞
−∞

+∞
−∞
a e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
0
2
c
2
ψ
x
˙ x dψ
x

y

z
.
Cancelling dS, multiplying both sides of the equation by the volume V ,
changing the limits of integration and substituting
m
0
˙ x

1 +
u
2
c
2
for ψ
x
, we
have
pV = NV

+∞
−∞

+∞
−∞

+∞
−∞
a e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
0
2
c
2
m
0
˙ x
2

1 −
u
2
c
2

x

y

z
.
But this by equation (123) reduces to
pV = N
¸
m
0
˙ x
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
¸
av.
or, since
m
0
u
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
=
m
0
˙ x
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
+
m
0
˙ y
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
+
m
0
˙ z
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
,
we have from symmetry
pV =
N
3
¸
m
0
u
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
¸
av.
. (127)
Chapter Eight. 128
Since at a given temperature we have seen that the term in parenthesis
is independent of the volume and the nature of the particles, we see
that the laws of Boyle and Avogadro hold also in relativity mechanics
for a system of particles.
For slow velocities equation (127) reduces to the familiar expression
pV =
N
3
(m
0
u
2
)
av.
.
103. The Relativity Expression for Temperature. We are now
in a position to derive the relativity expression for temperature. The
thermodynamic scale of temperature may be defined in terms of the
efficiency of a heat engine. Consider a four-step cycle performed with
a working substance contained in a cylinder provided with a piston.
In the first step let the substance expand isothermally and reversibly,
absorbing the heat Q
2
from a reservoir at temperature T
2
; in the second
step cool the cylinder down at constant volume to T
1
; in the third step
compress to the original volume, giving out the heat Q
1
at tempera-
ture T
1
, and in the fourth step heat to the original temperature. Now
if the working substance is of such a nature that the heat given out in
the second step could be used for the reversible heating of the cylinder
in the fourth step, we may define the absolute temperatures T
2
and T
1
by the relation
T
2
T
1
=
Q
2
Q
1
.

Consider now such a cycle performed on a cylinder which contains
one of our systems of particles. Since we have shown (Section 101) that
at a definite temperature the energy content of such a system is inde-
pendent of the volume, it is evident that our working substance fulfils
the requirement that the heat given out in the second step shall be suf-
ficient for the reversible heating in the last step. Hence, in accordance
with the thermodynamic scale, we may measure the temperatures of
the two heat reservoirs by the relation
T
2
T
1
=
Q
2
Q
1
and may proceed to

We have used this cycle for defining the thermodynamic temperature scale
instead of the familiar Carnot cycle, since it avoids the necessity of obtaining an
expression for the relation between pressure and volume in an adiabatic expansion.
Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 129
obtain expressions for Q
2
and Q
1
.
In order to obtain these expressions we may again make use of the
principle that the energy content at a definite temperature is indepen-
dent of the volume. This being true, we see that Q
2
and Q
1
must
be equal to the work done in the changes of volume that take place
respectively at T
2
and T
1
, and we may write the relations
Q
2
=

V

V
p dV (at T
2
),
Q
1
=

V

V
p dV (at T
1
).
But equation (127) provides an expression for p in terms of V , leading
on integration to the relations
Q
2
=
N
3
¸
m
0
u
2
2

1 −
u
2
2
c
2
¸
av.
log
V

V
,
Q
1
=
N
3
¸
m
0
u
1
2

1 −
u
1
2
c
2
¸
av.
log
V

V
,
which gives us on division
T
2
T
1
=
Q
2
Q
1
=
¸
m
0
u
2
2

1 −
u
2
2
c
2
¸
av.
¸
m
0
u
1
2

1 −
u
1
2
c
2
¸
av.
.
We see that the absolute temperature measured on the thermody-
namic scale is proportional to the average value of
m
0
u
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
.
Chapter Eight. 130
We may finally express our temperature in the same units custom-
arily employed by comparing equation (127)
pV =
N
3
¸
m
0
u
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
¸
av.
,
with the ordinary form of the gas law
pV = nRT,
where n is the number of mols of gas present.
We evidently obtain
nRT =
N
3
¸
m
0
u
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
¸
av.
,
T =
N
3nR
¸
m
0
u
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
¸
av.
=
1
3k
¸
m
0
u
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
¸
av.
,
(128)
where the quantity
nR
N
, which may be called the gas constant for a
single molecule, has been denoted, as is customary, by the letter k.
Remembering the relation
¸
m
0
˙ x
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
¸
av.
=
3
h
, we have
kT =
1
h
. (129)
104. The Partition of Energy. We have seen that our new
equipartition law precludes the possibility of an exact equipartition of
energy. It becomes very important to see what the average energy of a
particle of a given mass does become at any temperature.
Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 131
Equation (125) provides a general expression for the average value
of any property of the particles. For the average value of the energy
c

ψ
2
+m
0
2
c
2
of particles of mass m
0
(see equation 120) we shall have
[E]
av.
= 4πV


0
a e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
0
2
c
2
c

ψ
2
+m
0
2
c
2
ψ
2
dψ.
The unknown constant a may be eliminated with the help of the rela-
tion (124)
4πV


0
a e
−hc

ψ
2
+m
0
2
c
2
ψ
2
dψ = 1
and for h we may substitute the value given by (129), which gives us
the desired equation
[E]
av.
=


0
e
−(c/kT)

ψ
2
+m
0
2
c
2
c

ψ
2
+m
0
2
c
2
ψ
2


0
e
−(c/kT)

ψ
2
+m
0
2
c
2
ψ
2

. (130)
105. Partition of Energy for Zero Mass. Unfortunately, no gen-
eral method for the evaluation of this expression seems to be available.
For the particular case that the mass m
0
of the particles approaches
zero compared to the momentum, the expression reduces to
[E]
av.
=
c


0
e
−(cψ/kT)
ψ
3


0
e
−(cψ/kT)
ψ
2

in terms of integrals whose values are known. Evaluating, we obtain
[E]
av.
= 3kT.
For the total energy of N such particles we obtain
E = 3NkT,
Chapter Eight. 132
and introducing the relation k =
nR
N
by which we defined k we have
E = 3nRT (131)
as the expression for the energy of n mols of particles if their value
of m
0
is small compared with their momentum.
It is instructive to compare this with the ordinary expression of
Newtonian mechanics
E =
3
2
nRT,
which undoubtedly holds when the masses are so large and the velocities
so small that no appreciable deviations from the laws of Newtonian
mechanics are to be expected. We see that for particles of very small
mass the average kinetic energy at any temperature is twice as large as
that for large particles at the same temperature. It is also interesting
to note that in accordance with equation (131) a mol of particles which
approach zero mass at the absolute zero, would have a mass of
3 ×8.31 ×10
7
×300
10
21
= 7.47 ×10
−11
grams at room temperature (300

absolute). This suggests a field of
fascinating if profitless speculation.
106. Approximate Partition of Energy for Particles of any
Desired Mass. For particles of any desired mass we may obtain an
approximate idea of the relation between energy and temperature by
expanding the expression for kinetic energy into a series. For the aver-
age kinetic energy of a particle we have
[K]
av.
= c
2
¸
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
−m
0
¸
av.
.
Expanding into a series we obtain for the total kinetic energy of N par-
ticles
K = Nm
0

1
2
u
2
+
3
8
u
4
c
2
+
15
48
u
6
c
4
+
105
384
u
8
c
6
+· · ·

, (132)
Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 133
where u
2
, u
4
, etc., are the average values of u
2
, u
4
, etc., for the indi-
vidual particles.
To determine approximately how the value of K varies with the
temperature we may also expand our expression (128) for temperature,
T =
1
3k
¸
m
0
u
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
¸
Av.
,
into a series; we obtain
3
2
kNT =
3
2
nRT = Nm
0

1
2
u
2
+
1
4
u
4
c
2
+
3
16
u
6
c
4
+
15
96
u
8
c
6
+· · ·

. (133)
Combining expressions (132) and (133) by subtraction and transposi-
tion, we obtain
K =
3
2
nRT +Nm
0

1
8
u
4
c
2
+
1
8
u
6
c
4
+
15
128
u
8
c
6
+· · ·

. (134)
For the case of velocities low enough so that u
4
and higher powers
can be neglected, this reduces to the familiar expression of Newtonian
mechanics, K =
3
2
nRT.
In case we neglect in expression (134) powers higher than u
4
we
have the approximate relation
Nm
0
u
4
8c
2
=
1
2Nm
0
c
2

Nm
0
u
2
2

2
,
the left-hand term really being the larger, since the average square of a
quantity is greater than the square of its average. Since

Nm
0
u
2
2

2
is
approximately equal to

3
2
nRT

2
, we may write the approximation
K =
3
2
nRT +
1
2Nm
0
c
2

3
2
nRT

2
,
Chapter Eight. 134
or, noting that Nm
0
= M, the total mass of the system at the absolute
zero, we have
K =
3
2
nRT +
9
8
n
2
R
2
Mc
2
T
2
.
If we use the erg as our unit of energy, R will be 8.31 ×10
7
; expressing
velocities in centimeters per second, c
2
will be 10
21
, and M will be the
mass of the system in grams.
For one mol of a monatomic gas we should have in ergs
K = 12.4 ×10
7
T +
7.77
M
10
−6
T
2
.
In the case of the electron M may be taken as approximately 1/1800.
At room temperature the second term of our equation would be en-
tirely negligible, being only 3.5 × 10
−6
per cent of the first, and still
be only 3.5 × 10
−4
per cent in a fixed star having a temperature of
30, 000

. Hence at all ordinary temperatures we may expect the law
of the equipartition of energy to be substantially exact for particles of
mass as small as the electron.
Our purpose in carrying through the calculations of this chapter has
been to show that a very important and interesting problem in the clas-
sical mechanics can be handled just as easily in the newer mechanics,
and also to point out the nature of the modifications in existing theory
which will have to be introduced if the later developments of physics
should force us to consider equilibrium relations for particles of mass
much smaller than that of the electron.
We may also call attention to the fact that we have here considered a
system whose equations of motion agree with the principles of dynamics
and yet do not lead to the equipartition of energy. This is of particular
interest at a time when many scientists have thought that the failure
of equipartition in the hohlraum stood in necessary conflict with the
principles of dynamics.
CHAPTER IX.
THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY AND THE PRINCIPLE OF
LEAST ACTION.
It has been shown by the work of Helmholtz, J. J. Thomson, Planck
and others that the principle of least action is applicable in the most
diverse fields of physical science, and is perhaps the most general dy-
namical principle at our disposal. Indeed, for any system whose future
behavior is determined by the instantaneous values of a number of
coördinates and their time rate of change, it seems possible to throw
the equations describing the behavior of the system into the form pre-
scribed by the principle of least action. This generality of the principle
of least action makes it very desirable to develop the relation between it
and the principle of relativity, and we shall obtain in this way the most
important and most general method for deriving the consequences of
the theory of relativity. We have already developed in Chapter VII the
particular application of the principle of least action in the case of a
system of particles, and with the help of the more general development
which we are about to present, we shall be able to apply the princi-
ple of relativity to the theories of elasticity, of thermodynamics and of
electricity and magnetism.
107. The Principle of Least Action. For our purposes the prin-
ciple of least action may be most simply stated by the equation

t
2
t
1
(δH +W) dt = 0. (135)
This equation applies to any system whose behavior is determined by
the values of a number of independent coördinates φ
1
φ
2
φ
3
· · · and their
rate of change with the time
˙
φ
1
˙
φ
2
˙
φ
3
· · · , and the equation describes the
path by which the system travels from its configuration at any time t
1
to its configuration at any subsequent time t
2
.
H is the so-called kinetic potential of the system and is a function
135
Chapter Nine. 136
of the coördinates and their generalized velocities:
H = F(φ
1
φ
2
φ
3
· · ·
˙
φ
1
˙
φ
2
˙
φ
3
· · · ). (136)
δH is the variation of H at any instant corresponding to a slightly
displaced path by which the system might travel from the same initial
to the same final state in the same time interval, and W is the external
work corresponding to the variation δ which would be done on the
system by the external forces if at the instant in question the system
should be displaced from its actual configuration to its configuration
on the displaced path. Thus
W = Φ
1
δφ
1
+ Φ
2
δφ
2
+ Φ
3
δφ
3
+· · · , (137)
where Φ
1
, Φ
2
, etc., are the so-called generalized external forces which
act in such a direction as to increase the values of the corresponding
coördinates.
The form of the function which determines the kinetic potential H
depends on the particular nature of the system to which the principle
of least action is being applied, and it is one of the chief tasks of gen-
eral physics to discover the form of the function in the various fields
of mechanical, electrical and thermodynamic investigation. As soon as
we have found out experimentally what the form of H is for any par-
ticular field of investigation, the principle of least action, as expressed
by equation (135), becomes the basic equation for the mathematical
development of the field in question, a development which can then be
carried out by well-known methods.
The special task for the theory of relativity will be to find a general
relation applicable to any kind of a system, which shall connect the
value of the kinetic potential H as measured with respect to a set of
coördinates S with its value H

as measured with reference to another
set of coördinates S

which is in motion relative to S. This relation
will of course be of such a nature as to agree with the principle of the
relativity of motion, and in this way we shall introduce the principle of
Relativity and the Principle of Least Action. 137
relativity at the very start into the fundamental equation for all fields
of dynamics.
Before proceeding to the solution of that problem we may put the
principle of least action into another form which is sometimes more
convenient, by obtaining the equations for the motion of a system in
the so-called Lagrangian form.
108. The Equations of Motion in the Lagrangian Form. To
obtain the equations of motion in the Lagrangian form we may evidently
rewrite our fundamental equation (135) in the form

t
2
t
1

∂H
∂φ
1
δφ
1
+
∂H
∂φ
2
δφ
2
+· · · +
∂H

˙
φ
1
δ
˙
φ
1
+
∂H

˙
φ
2
δ
˙
φ
2
+· · ·
+ Φ
1
δφ
1
+ Φ
2
δφ
2
+· · ·

dt = 0
(138)
We have now, however,
δ
˙
φ
1
=
d
dt
(δφ
1
), δ
˙
φ
2
=
d
dt
(δφ
2
), etc.,
which gives us

t
2
t
1
∂H

˙
φ
1
δ
˙
φ
1
dt =

t
2
t
1
∂H

˙
φ
1
d
dt
(δφ
1
) dt
=
¸
∂H

˙
φ
1
δφ
1

t
2
t
1

t
2
t
1
δφ
1
d
dt

∂H

˙
φ
1

dt,
or, since δφ
1
, δφ
2
, etc., are by hypothesis zero at times t
1
and t
2
, we
obtain

t
2
t
1
∂H

˙
φ
1
δ
˙
φ
1
= −

t
2
t
1
d
dt

∂H

˙
φ
1

δφ
1
dt,

t
2
t
1
∂H

˙
φ
2
δ
˙
φ
2
= −

t
2
t
1
d
dt

∂H

˙
φ
2

δφ
2
dt,
etc.
Chapter Nine. 138
On substituting these expressions in (138) we obtain

t
2
t
1
¸
∂H
∂φ
1

d
dt

∂H

˙
φ
1

+ Φ
1

δφ
1
+

∂H
∂φ
2

d
dt

∂H

˙
φ
2

+ Φ
2

δφ
2
+· · ·

dt = 0,
and since the variations of φ
1
, φ
2
, etc., are entirely independent and the
limits of integration t
1
and t
2
are entirely at our disposal, this equation
will be true only when each of the following equations is true. And
these are the equations of motion in the desired Lagrangian form,
d
dt
∂H

˙
φ
1

∂H
∂φ
1
= Φ
1
,
d
dt
∂H

˙
φ
2

∂H
∂φ
2
= Φ
2
,
etc.
(139)
In these equations H is the kinetic potential of a system whose state
is determined by the generalized coördinates φ
1
, φ
2
, etc., and their time
derivatives
˙
φ
1
,
˙
φ
2
etc., where Φ
1
, Φ
2
, etc., are the generalized external
forces acting on the system in such a sense as to tend to increase the
values of the corresponding generalized coördinates.
109. Introduction of the Principle of Relativity. Let us now
investigate the relation between our dynamical principle and the prin-
ciple of the relativity of motion. To do this we must derive an equation
for transforming the kinetic potential H for a given system from one
set of coördinates to another. In other words, if S and S

are two sets of
reference axes, S

moving past S in the X direction with the velocity V ,
what will be the relation between H and H

, the values for the kinetic
potential of a given system as measured with reference to S and S

?
It is evident from the theory of relativity that our fundamental
equation (135) must hold for the behavior of a given system using either
Relativity and the Principle of Least Action. 139
set of coördinates S or S

, so that both of the equations

t
2
t
1
(δH +W) dt = 0 and

t
2

t
1

(δH

+W

) dt

= 0, (140)
or

t
2
t
1
(δH +W) dt =

t
2

t
1

(δH

+W

) dt

= 0,
must hold for a given process, where it will be necessary, of course, to
choose the limits of integration t
1
and t
2
, t
1

and t
2

wide enough apart
so that for both sets of coördinates the varied motion will be completed
within the time interval. Since we shall find it possible now to show
that in general

W dt =

W

dt

, we shall be able to obtain from the
above equations a simple relation between H and H

.
110. Relation between

W dt and

W

dt

. To obtain the de-
sired proof we must call attention in the first place to the fact that all
kinds of force which can act at a given point must be governed by the
same transformation equations when changing from system S to sys-
tem S

. This arises because when two forces of a different nature are of
such a magnitude as to exactly balance each other and produce no ac-
celeration for measurements made with one set of coördinates they must
evidently do so for any set of coördinates (see Chapter IV, Section 42).
Since we have already found transformation equations for the force act-
ing at a point, in our consideration of the dynamics of a particle, we
may now use these expressions in general for the evaluation

W

dt

.
W

is the work which would be done by the external forces if at any
instant t

we should displace our system from its actual configuration
to the simultaneous configuration on the displaced path. Hence it is
evident that

W

dt

will be equal to a sum of terms of the type

(F
x

δx

+F
y

δy

+F
z

δz

) dt

,
where F
x

, F
y

, F
z

, is the force acting at a given point of the system and
δx

, δy

, δz

are the displacements necessary to reach the corresponding
Chapter Nine. 140
point on the displaced path, all these quantities being measured with
respect to S

.
Into this expression we may substitute, however, in accordance with
equations (61), (62), (63) and (13), the values
F
x

= F
x

˙ yV
c
2
1
1 −
˙ xV
c
2
F
y

˙ zV
c
2
1
1 −
˙ xV
c
2
F
z
,
F
y

=
F
y
κ
−1
1 −
˙ xV
c
2
,
F
z

=
F
z
κ
−1
1 −
˙ xV
c
2
,
dt

= κ

1 −
˙ xV
c
2

dt.
(141)
We may also make substitutions for δx

, δy

and δz

in terms of
δx, δy and δz, but to obtain transformation equations for these quan-
tities is somewhat complicated owing to the fact that positions on the
actual and displaced path, which are simultaneous when measured with
respect to S

, will not be simultaneous with respect to S. We have de-
noted by t

the time in system S

when the point on the actual path
has the position x

, y

, z

and simultaneously the point on the displaced
path has the position (x

+ δx

), (y

+ δy

), (z

+ δz

), when measured
in system S

, or by our fundamental transformation equations (9), (10)
and (11) the positions κ(x

+V t

), y

, z

and κ

[x

+δx

]+V t

, (y

+δy

),
(z

+ δz

) when measured in system S. If now we denote by t
A
and t
D
the corresponding times in system S we shall have, by our fundamental
transformation equation (12),
t
A
= κ

t

+
V x

c
2

,
t
D
= κ

t

+
V
c
2
[x

+δx

]

,
Relativity and the Principle of Least Action. 141
and we see that in system S the point has reached the displaced position
at a time later than that of the actual position by the amount
t
D
−t
A
=
κV
c
2
δx

,
and, since during this time-interval the displaced point would have
moved, neglecting higher-order terms, the distances
˙ x
κV
c
2
δx

, ˙ y
κV
c
2
δx

, ˙ z
κV
c
2
δx

,
these quantities must be subtracted from the coördinates of the dis-
placed point in order to obtain a position on the displaced path which
will be simultaneous with t
A
as measured in system S. We obtain for
the simultaneous position on the displaced path
κ

[x

+δx

] +V t

−κ
˙ xV
c
2
δx

, y

+δy

−κ
˙ xV
c
2
x

,
z

+δz

−κ
˙ zV
c
2
δx

,
and for the corresponding position on the actual path
κ(x

+V t

), y

, z

,
and obtain by subtraction
δx = κ

1 −
˙ xV
c
2

δx

,
δy = δy

−κ
˙ yV
c
2
δx

,
δz = δz

−κ
˙ zV
c
2
δx

.
(142)
Chapter Nine. 142
Substituting now these equations, together with the other transforma-
tion equations (141), in our expression we obtain

(F
x

δx

+F
y

δy

+F
z

δz

) dt

=

¸
F
x

˙ yV
c
2
F
y
1 −
˙ xV
c
2

˙ zV
c
2
F
z
1 −
˙ xV
c
2
¸
κ
−1
1 −
˙ xV
c
2
δx
+
κ
−1
1 −
˙ xV
c
2
F
y
¸
δy +
˙ yV/c
2
1 −
˙ xV
c
2
δx
¸
+
κ
−1
1 −
˙ xV
c
2
F
z
¸
δz +
˙ zV/c
2
1 −
˙ xV
c
2
δx
¸
κ

1 −
˙ xV
c
2

=

(F
x
δx +F
y
δy +F
z
δz) dt

.
(143)
We thus see that we must always have the general equality

W

dt

=

W dt. (144)
111. Relation between H

and H. Introducing this equation
into our earlier expression (140) we obtain as a general relation between
H

and H

δH

dt

=

δH dt. (145)
Restricting ourselves to systems of such a nature that we can assign
them a definite velocity u = ˙ xi + ˙ yj + ˙ zk, we can rewrite this expression
in the following form, where by H
D
and H
A
we denote the values of the
kinetic potential respectively on the displaced and actual paths

δH

dt

=

H
D

dt

H
A

dt

=

H
D

κ

1 −
( ˙ x +δ ˙ x)V
c
2

dt

H
A

κ

1 −
˙ xV
c
2

dt =

H
D
dt −

H
A
dt,
Relativity and the Principle of Least Action. 143
and hence obtain for such systems the simple expression
H

=
H
κ

1 −
˙ xV
c
2

.
Noting the relation between

1 −
u

2
c
2
and

1 −
u
2
c
2
given in equa-
tion (17), this can be rewritten
H

1 −
u

2
c
2
=
H

1 −
u
2
c
2
, (146)
and this is the expression which we shall find most useful for our future
development of the consequences of the theory of relativity. Expressing
the requirement of the equation in words we may say that the theory
of relativity requires an invariance of
H

1 −
u
2
c
2
in the Lorentz transfor-
mation.
112. As indicated above, the use of this equation is obviously
restricted to systems moving with some perfectly definite velocity u.
Systems satisfying this condition would include particles, infinitesimal
portions of continuous systems, and larger systems in a steady state.
113. Our general method of procedure in different fields of inves-
tigation will now be to examine the expression for kinetic potential
which is known to hold for the field in question, provided the veloci-
ties involved are low and by making slight alterations when necessary,
see if this expression can be made to agree with the requirements of
equation (146) without changing its value for low velocities. Thus it is
well known, for example, that, in the case of low velocities, for a single
particle acted on by external forces the kinetic potential may be taken
as the kinetic energy
1
2
m
0
u
2
. For relativity mechanics, as will be seen
from the developments of Chapter VII, we may take for the kinetic
Chapter Nine. 144
potential, −m
0
c
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
, an expression which, except for an additive
constant, becomes identical with
1
2
m
0
u
2
at low velocities, and which at
all velocities agrees with equation (146).
CHAPTER X.
THE DYNAMICS OF ELASTIC BODIES.
We shall now treat with the help of the principle of least action
the rather complicated problem of the dynamics of continuous elastic
media. Our considerations will extend the appreciation of the intimate
relation between mass and energy which we found in our treatment
of the dynamics of a particle. We shall also be able to show that the
dynamics of a particle may be regarded as a special case of the dynamics
of a continuous elastic medium, and to apply our considerations to a
number of other important problems.
114. On the Impossibility of Absolutely Rigid Bodies. In
the older treatises on mechanics, after considering the dynamics of a
particle it was customary to proceed to a discussion of the dynamics
of rigid bodies. These rigid bodies were endowed with definite and
unchangeable size and shape and hence were assigned five degrees of
freedom, since it was necessary to state the values of five variables
completely to specify their position in space. As pointed out by Laue,
however, our newer ideas as to the velocity of light as a limiting value
will no longer permit us to conceive of a continuous body as having only
a finite number of degrees of freedom. This is evident since it is obvious
that we could start disturbances simultaneously at an indefinite number
of points in a continuous body, and as these disturbances cannot spread
with infinite velocity it will be necessary to give the values of an infinite
number of variables in order completely to specify the succeeding states
of the system. For our newer mechanics the nearest approach to an
absolutely rigid body would of course be one in which disturbances
are transmitted with the velocity of light. Since, then, the theory of
relativity does not permit rigid bodies we may proceed at once to the
general theory of deformable bodies.
145
Chapter Ten. 146
part i. stress and strain.
115. Definition of Strain. In the more familiar developments of
the theory of elasticity it is customary to limit the considerations to
the case of strains small enough so that higher powers of the displace-
ments can be neglected, and this introduces considerable simplification
into a science which under any circumstances is necessarily one of great
complication. Unfortunately for our purposes, we cannot in general in-
troduce such a simplification if we wish to apply the theory of relativity,
since in consequence of the Lorentz shortening a body which appears
unstrained to one observer may appear tremendously compressed or
elongated to an observer moving with a different velocity. The best
that we can do will be arbitrarily to choose our state of zero deforma-
tion such that the strains will be small when measured in the particular
system of coördinates S in which we are specially interested.
A theory of strains of any magnitude was first attempted by Saint-
Venant and has been amplified and excellently presented by Love in
his Treatise on the Theory of Elasticity, Appendix to Chapter I. In
accordance with this theory, the strain at any point in a body is com-
pletely determined by six component strains which can be defined by
the following equations, wherein (u, v, w) is the displacement of a point
having the unstrained position (x, y, z):

xx
=
∂u
∂x
+
1
2

∂u
∂x

2
+

∂v
∂x

2
+

∂w
∂x

2
¸
,

yy
=
∂y
∂v
+
1
2

∂u
∂y

2
+

∂v
∂y

2
+

∂w
∂y

2
¸
,

zz
=
∂w
∂z
+
1
2

∂u
∂z

2
+

∂v
∂z

2
+

∂w
∂z

2
¸
,
(148)
Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 147

yz
=
∂w
∂y
+
∂v
∂z
+
∂u
∂y
∂u
∂z
+
∂v
∂y
∂v
∂z
+
∂w
∂y
∂w
∂z
,

xz
=
∂w
∂x
+
∂u
∂z
+
∂u
∂x
∂u
∂z
+
∂v
∂x
∂v
∂z
+
∂w
∂x
∂w
∂z
,

xy
=
∂v
∂x
+
∂u
∂y
+
∂u
∂x
∂u
∂y
+
∂v
∂x
∂v
∂y
+
∂w
∂x
∂w
∂y
.
(148)
It will be seen that these expressions for strain reduce to those
familiar in the theory of small strains if such second-order quantities as

∂u
∂x

2
or
∂u
∂y
∂u
∂z
can be neglected.
116. A physical significance for these strain components will be ob-
tained if we note that it can be shown from geometrical considerations
that lines which are originally parallel to the axes have, when strained,
the elongations
e
x
=

1 + 2
xx
−1,
e
y
=

1 + 2
yy
−1,
e
z
=

1 + 2
zz
−1,
(149)
and that the angles between lines originally parallel to the axes are
given in the strained condition by the expressions
cos θ
yz
=

yz

1 + 2
yy

1 + 2
zz
,
cos θ
xz
=

xz

1 + 2
xx

1 + 2
zz
,
cos θ
xy
=

xy

1 + 2
xx

1 + 2
yy
,
(150)
Geometrical considerations are also sufficient to show that in case
the strain is a simple elongation of amount e the following equation will
be true:

xx
l
2
=

yy
m
2
=

zz
n
2
=

yz
2mn
=

xz
2ln
=

xy
2lm
= e +
1
2
e
2
, (151)
Chapter Ten. 148
where l, m, n are the cosines which determine the direction of the
elongation.
117. Definition of Stress. We have just considered the expres-
sions for the strain at a given point in an elastic medium; we may now
define stress in terms of the work done in changing from one state of
strain to another. Considering the material contained in unit volume
when the body is unstrained, we may write, for the work done by this
material on its surroundings when a change in strain takes place,
δW = −δE = t
xx
δ
xx
+t
yy
δ
yy
+t
zz
δ
zz
+t
yz
δ
yz
+t
xz
δ
xz
+t
xy
δ
xy
,
(152)
and this equation serves to define the stresses t
xx
, t
yy
, etc. In case the
strain varies from point to point we must consider of course the work
done per unit volume of the unstrained material. In case the strains
are small it will be noticed that the stresses thus defined are identical
with those used in the familiar theories of elasticity.
118. Transformation Equations for Strain. We must now pre-
pare for the introduction of the theory of relativity into our considera-
tions, by determining the way the strain at a given point P appears to
observers moving with different velocities. Let the point P in question
be moving with the velocity u = xi +yj +zk as measured in system S.
Since the state of zero deformation from which to measure strains can
be chosen perfectly arbitrarily, let us for convenience take the strain as
zero as measured in system S, giving us

xx
=
yy
=
zz
=
yz
=
xz
=
xy
= 0. (153)
What now will be the strains as measured by an observer moving along
with the point P in question? Let us call the system of coördinates
used by this observer S

. It is evident now from our considerations
as to the shape of moving systems presented in Chapter V that in
system S

the material in the neighborhood of the point in question
will appear to have been elongated in the direction of motion in the ratio
Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 149
of 1 :

1 −
u
2
c
2
. Hence in system S

the strain will be an elongation
e =
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
−1 (154)
in the line determined by the direction cosines
l =
˙ x
u
, m =
˙ y
u
, n =
˙ z
u
. (155)
We may now calculate from this elongation the components of strain
by using equation (151). We obtain


xx
=
˙ x
2
2c
2
¸
1
1 −
u
2
c
2
¸
,

yy
=
˙ y
2
2c
2
¸
1
1 −
u
2
c
2
¸
,

zz
=
˙ z
2
2c
2
¸
1
1 −
u
2
c
2
¸
,


yz
=
˙ y ˙ z
c
2
¸
1
1 −
u
2
c
2
¸
,

xz
=
˙ x ˙ z
c
2
¸
1
1 −
u
2
c
2
¸
,

xy
=
˙ x ˙ y
c
2
¸
1
1 −
u
2
c
2
¸
,
(156)
and these are the desired equations for the strains at the point P, the
accent

indicating that they are measured with reference to a system
of coördinates S

moving along with the point itself.
119. Variation in the Strain. We shall be particularly interested
in the variation in the strain as measured in S

when the velocity
experiences a small variation δu, the strains remaining zero as measured
in S. For the sake of simplicity let us choose our coördinates in such
a way that the X axis is parallel to the original velocity, so that our
change in velocity will be from u = ˙ xi to
u +δu = ( ˙ x +δ ˙ x) i +δ ˙ y j +δ ˙ z k.
Taking δu small enough so that higher orders can be neglected, and
Chapter Ten. 150
noting that ˙ y = ˙ z = 0, we shall then have, from equations (156),
δ

xx
=
1

1 −
u
2
c
2

2
˙ x
c
2
δ ˙ x, δ

yy
= 0,
δ

zz
= 0, δ

yz
= 0,
δ

xz
=
1

1 −
u
2
c
2

2
˙ x
c
2
δ ˙ z, δ

xy
=
1

1 −
u
2
c
2

2
˙ x
c
2
δ ˙ y.
(157)
We shall also be interested in the variation in the strain as measured
in S

produced by a variation in the strain as measured in S. Consid-
ering again for simplicity that the X axis is parallel to the motion of
the point, we must calculate the variation produced in

xx
,

yy
, etc.,
by changing the values of
xx
,
yy
, etc., from zero to δ
xx
, δ
yy
, etc.
The variation δ
xx
will produce a variation in

xx
whose amount
can be calculated as follows: By equations (149) a line which has unit
length and is parallel to the X axis in the unstrained condition will
have when strained the length

1 + 2
xx
when measured in system S
and

1 + 2

xx
when measured in system S

. Since the strain in sys-
tem S is small, the line remains sensibly parallel to the X axis, which
is also the direction of motion, and these quantities will be connected
in accordance with the Lorentz shortening by the equation

1 + 2
xx
=

1 −
u
2
c
2

1 + 2

xx
. (158)
Carrying out now our variation δ
xx
, neglecting
xx
in comparison with
larger quantities and noting that except for second order quantities,

1 + 2

xx
=
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
(159)
we obtain
δ

xx
=
δ
xx

1 −
u
2
c
2
. (160)
Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 151
Since the variations δ
yy
, δ
zz
, δ
yz
affect only lines which are at
right angles to the direction of motion, we may evidently write
δ

yy
= δ
yy
, δ

zz
= δ
zz
, δ

yz
= δ
yz
. (161)
To calculate δ

xz
we may note that in accordance with equations (150)
we must have
cos θ
xz
=

xz

1 + 2
xx

1 + 2
zz
,
cos θ

xz
=


xz

1 + 2

xx

1 + 2

zz
,
where θ
xz
is the angle between lines which in the unstrained condition
are parallel to the X and Z axes respectively. In accordance with the
Lorentz shortening, however, we shall have
cos θ
xz
=

1 −
u
2
c
2
cos θ

xz
.
Introducing this relation, remembering that
xx
=

zz
= 0, and noting
equation (159), we obtain
δ

xz
=
δ
xz

1 −
u
2
x
2
, (162)
and similarly
δ

xy
=
δ
xy

1 −
u
2
x
2
. (163)
We may now combine these equations (160), (161), (162) and (163)
with those for the variation in strain with velocity and obtain the final
Chapter Ten. 152
set which we desire:
δ

xx
=
1

1 −
u
2
c
2

2
˙ x
c
2
δ ˙ x +
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
δ
xx
,
δ

yy
= δ
yy
,
δ

zz
= δ
zz
,
δ

yz
= δ
yz
,
δ

xz
=
1

1 −
u
2
c
2

2
˙ x
c
2
δ ˙ z +
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
δ
xz
,
δ

xy
=
1

1 −
u
2
c
2

2
˙ x
c
2
δ ˙ y +
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
δ
xy
.
(164)
These equations give the variation in the strain measured in sys-
tem S

at a point P moving in the X direction with velocity u, provided
the strains are negligibly small as measured in S.
part ii. introduction of the principle of least action.
120. The Kinetic Potential for an Elastic Body. We are now
in a position to develop the mechanics of an elastic body with the help
of the principle of least action. In Newtonian mechanics, as is well
known, the kinetic potential for unit volume of material at a given
point P in an elastic body may be put equal to the density of kinetic
energy minus the density of potential energy, and it is obvious that our
choice for kinetic potential must reduce to that value at low velocities.
Our choice of an expression for kinetic potential is furthermore limited
by the fundamental transformation equation for kinetic potential which
we found in the last chapter
H

1 −
u
2
c
2
=
H

1 −
u

2
c
2
. (146)
Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 153
Taking these requirements into consideration, we may write for the
kinetic potential per unit volume of the material at a point P moving
with the velocity u the expression
H = −E

1 −
u
2
c
2
,
where E

is the energy as measured in system S

of the amount of ma-
terial which in the unstrained condition (i.e., as measured in system S)
is contained in unit volume.
The above expression obviously satisfies our fundamental transfor-
mation equation (146) and at low velocities reduces in accordance with
the requirements of Newtonian mechanics to
H =
1
2
m

u
2
−E

,
provided we introduce the substitution made familiar by our previous
work, m

=
E

c
2
.
121. Lagrange’s Equations. Making use of this expression for the
kinetic potential in an elastic body, we may now obtain the equations
of motion and stress for an elastic body by substituting into Lagrange’s
equations (139) Chapter IX.
Considering the material at the point P contained in unit volume in
the unstrained condition, we may choose as our generalized coördinates
the six component strains
xx
,
yy
, etc., with the corresponding stresses
−t
xx
, −t
yy
, etc., as generalized forces, and the three coördinates x, y, z
which give the position of the point with the corresponding forces F
x
, F
y
and F
z
.
It is evident that the kinetic potential will be independent of the
time derivatives of the strains, and if we consider cases in which E

is
independent of position, the kinetic potential will also be independent
of the absolute magnitudes of the coördinates x, y and z. Substituting
Chapter Ten. 154
in Lagrange’s equations (139), we then obtain



xx

−E

1 −
u
2
c
2

= −t
xx
,



yy

−E

1 −
u
2
c
2

= −t
yy
,



zz

−E

1 −
u
2
c
2

= −t
zz
,



yz

−E

1 −
u
2
c
2

= −t
yz
,



xz

−E

1 −
u
2
c
2

= −t
xz
,



xy

−E

1 −
u
2
c
2

= −t
xy
,

(165)
d
dt

∂ ˙ x

−E

1 −
u
2
c
2

= F
x
,
d
dt

∂ ˙ y

−E

1 −
u
2
c
2

= F
y
,
d
dt

∂ ˙ z

−E

1 −
u
2
c
2

= F
z
.

(166)
We may simplify these equations, however; by performing the indi-
cated differentiations and making suitable substitutions, we have
∂E

xx

xx
=
∂E

xx


xx


xx

xx
.
Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 155
But in accordance with equation (152) we may write
∂E

xx


xx
= −t

xx
and from equations (164) we may put


xx

xx
=
1
1 −
u
2
c
2
.
Making the substitutions in the first of the Lagrangian equations we
obtain
t
xx
= −


xx

E

1 −
u
2
c
2

= t

xx
1
1 −
u
2
c
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
=
t

xx

1 −
u
2
c
2
.
122. Transformation Equations for Stress. Similar substitu-
tions can be made in all the equations of stress, and we obtain as our
set of transformation equations
t
xx
=
t

xx

1 −
u
2
c
2
, t
yy
=

1 −
u
2
c
2
t

yy
, t
zz
=

1 −
u
2
c
2
t

zz
,
t
yx
=

1 −
u
2
c
2
t

yx
, t
xz
=
t

xz

1 −
u
2
c
2
, t
xy
=
t

xy

1 −
u
2
c
2
.
(167)
123. Value of E

. With the help of these transformation equations
for stress we may calculate the value of E

, the energy content, as
measured in system S

, of material which in the unstrained condition
is contained in unit volume.
Consider unit volume of the material in the unstrained condition
and call its energy content w
◦◦
. Give it now the velocity u = ˙ x, keep-
ing its state of strain unchanged in system S. Since the strain is not
Chapter Ten. 156
changing in system S, the stresses t
xx
, etc., will also be constant in
system S. In system S

, however, the component strain will change in
accordance with equations (156) from zero to


xx
=
˙ x
2
2c
2
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
,
and the corresponding stress will be given at any instant by the expres-
sion just derived,
t

xx
= t
xx

1 −
u
2
c
2
,
t
xx
being, as we have just seen, a constant. We may then write for E

the expression
E

= w
◦◦
−t
xx

w
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
d
¸
1

1 −
u
2
c
2

˙ x
2c
2
¸
.
Noting that u = ˙ x we obtain on integration,
E

= w
◦◦
+t
xx

t
xx

1 −
u
2
c
2
(168)
as the desired expression for the energy as measured in system S

con-
tained in the material which in system S is unstrained and has unit
volume.
124. The Equations of Motion in the Lagrangian Form. We
are now in a position to simplify the three Lagrangian equations (166)
for F
x
, F
y
and F
z
. Carrying out the indicated differentiation we have
F
x
=
d
dt

∂ ˙ x

−E

1 −
u
2
c
2

=
d
dt
¸
E

1 −
u
2
c
2
˙ x
c
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
∂E

∂ ˙ x
¸
,
Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 157
and introducing the value of E

given by equation (168) we obtain
F
x
=
d
dt
¸
w
◦◦
+t
xx

1 −
u
2
c
2
˙ x
c
2
¸
. (169)
Simple calculations will also give us values for F
y
and F
z
. We have
from (166)
F
y
=
d
dt

∂ ˙ y

−E

1 −
u
2
c
2

=
d
dt
¸
E

1 −
u
2
c
2
˙ y
c
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
∂E

∂ ˙ y
¸
.
But since we have adapted our considerations to cases in which the
direction of motion is along the X axis, we have ˙ y = 0; furthermore we
may substitute, in accordance with equations (152), (157) and (167),
∂E

∂ ˙ y
=
∂E



xy


xy
∂ ˙ y
= −t

xy
1

1 −
u
2
c
2

˙ x
c
2
=
−t
xy

1 −
u
2
c
2
˙ x
c
2
.
We thus obtain as our three equations of motion
F
x
=
d
dt
¸
w
◦◦
+t
xx

1 −
u
2
c
2
˙ x
c
2
¸
,
F
y
=
d
dt

t
xy
˙ x
c
2

,
F
z
=
d
dt

t
xz
˙ x
c
2

.
(170)
In these equations the quantities F
x
, F
y
and F
z
are the components of
force acting on a particular system, namely that quantity of material
which at the instant in question has unit volume. Since the volume of
Chapter Ten. 158
this material will in general be changing, F
x
, F
y
and F
z
do not give us
the force per unit volume as usually defined. If we represent, however,
by f
x
, f
y
and f
z
the components of force per unit volume, we may
rewrite these equations in the form
F
x
δV =
d
dt
¸
w
◦◦
+t
xx

1 −
u
2
c
2
˙ x
c
2
δV
¸
,
F
y
δV =
d
dt

t
xy
˙ x
c
2
δV

,
F
z
δV =
d
dt

t
xz
˙ x
c
2
δV

,
(171)
where by δV we mean a small element of volume at the point in ques-
tion.
125. Density of Momentum. Since we customarily define force
as equal to the time rate of change of momentum, we may now write
for the density of momentum g at a point in an elastic body which is
moving in the X direction with the velocity u = ˙ x
g
x
=
w
◦◦
+t
xx

1 −
u
2
c
2
˙ x
c
2
, g
y
= t
xy
˙ x
c
2
, g
y
= t
xy
˙ x
c
2
. (172)
It is interesting to point out that there are components of momen-
tum in the Y and Z directions in spite of the fact that the material at
the point in question is moving in the X direction. We shall later see
the important significance of this discovery.
126. Density of Energy. It will be remembered that the forces
whose equations we have just obtained are those acting on unit volume
of the material as measured in system S, and hence we are now in a
position to calculate the energy density of our material. Let us start out
with unit volume of our material at rest, with the energy content w
◦◦
and determine the work necessary to give it the velocity u = ˙ x without
Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 159
change in stress or strain. Since the only component of force which
suffers displacement is F
x
, we have
w = w
◦◦
+

u
0
d
dt
¸
w
◦◦
+t
xx

1 −
u
2
c
2
˙ x
c
2
¸
˙ x dt,
= w
◦◦
+ (w
◦◦
+t
xx
)

u
0
˙ x d
¸
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
˙ x
c
2
¸
,
=

w
◦◦
+t
xx

1 −
u
2
c
2
−t
xx
¸
(173)
as an expression for the energy density of the elastic material.
127. Summary of Results Obtained from the Principle of
Least Action. We may now tabulate for future reference the results
obtained from the principle of least action.
At a given point in an elastic medium which is moving in the X di-
rection with the velocity u = ˙ x, we have for the components of stress
t
xx
=
t

xx

1 −
u
2
c
2
, t
yy
=

1 −
u
2
c
2
t

yy
, t
zz
=

1 −
u
2
c
2
t

zz
,
t
yz
=

1 −
u
2
c
2
t

yz
, t
xz
=
t

xz

1 −
u
2
c
2
, t
xy
=
t

xz

1 −
u
2
c
2
,
(167)
For the density of energy at the point in question we have
w =
w
◦◦
+t
xx

1 −
u
2
c
2
−t
xx
. (173)
Chapter Ten. 160
For the density of momentum we have
g
x
=
w
◦◦
+t
xx

1 −
u
2
c
2
˙ x
c
2
, g
y
= t
xy
˙ x
c
2
, g
z
= t
xz
˙ x
c
2
. (172)
part iii. some mathematical relations.
Before proceeding to the applications of these results which we have
obtained from the principle of least action, we shall find it desirable
to present a number of mathematical relations which will later prove
useful.
128. The Unsymmetrical Stress Tensor t. We have defined
the components of stress acting at a point by equation (152)
δW = t
xx
δ
xx
+t
yy
δ
yy
+t
zz
δ
zz
+t
yz
δ
yz
+t
xz
δ
xz
+t
xy
δ
xy
,
where δW is the work which accompanies a change in strain and is
performed on the surroundings by the amount of material which was
contained in unit volume in the unstrained state. Since for convenience
we have taken as our state of zero strain the condition of the body as
measured in system S, it is evident that the components t
xx
, t
yy
, etc.,
may be taken as the forces acting on the faces of a unit cube of material
at the point in question, the first letter of the subscript indicating the
direction of the force and the second subscript the direction of the
normal to the face in question.
Interpreting the components of stress in this fashion, we may now
add three further components and obtain a complete tensor
t =

t
xx
t
xy
t
xz
t
yx
t
yy
t
yz
t
zx
t
zy
t
zz
(174)
Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 161
The three new components t
yx
, t
zx
, t
zy
are forces acting on the unit
cube, in the directions and on the faces indicated by the subscripts.
A knowledge of their value was not necessary for our developments of
the consequences of the principle of least action, since it was possible
to obtain an expression for the work accompanying a change in strain
without their introduction. We shall find them quite important for
our later considerations, however, and may proceed to determine their
value.
t
yz
is the force acting in the Y direction tangentially to a face of the
cube perpendicular to the X axis, and measured with a system of coör-
dinates S. Using a system of coördinates S

which is stationary with
respect to the point in question, we should obtain, for the measurement
of this force,
t

yx
=
t
yx

1 −
u
2
c
2
in accordance with our transformation equation for force (62), Chap-
ter VI. Similarly we shall have the relation
t

xy
= t
xy
.
In accordance with the elementary theory of elasticity, however, the
forces t

yx
and t

xy
which are measured by an observer moving with
the body will be connected by the relation
t

xy
=
t

yx

1 −
u
2
c
2
,
t

xy
being larger than t

yx
in the ratio of the areas of face upon which
they act. Combining these three equations, and using similar methods
for the other quantities, we can obtain the desired relations
t
yx
=

1 −
u
2
c
2

t
xy
, t
zx
=

1 −
u
2
c
2

t
xz
, t
zy
= t
yz
. (175)
Chapter Ten. 162
We see that t is an unsymmetrical tensor.
129. The Symmetrical Tensor p. Besides this unsymmetrical
tensor t we shall find it desirable to define a further tensor p by the
equation
p = t +gu. (176)
We shall call gu the tensor product of g and u and may indicate
tensor products in general by a simple juxtaposition of vectors. gu is
itself a tensor with components as indicated below:
gu =

g
x
u
x
g
x
u
y
g
x
u
z
,
g
y
u
x
g
y
u
y
g
y
u
z
,
g
z
u
x
g
z
u
y
g
z
u
z
.
(177)
Unlike t, p will be a symmetrical tensor, since we may show, by
substitution of the values for g and u already obtained, that
p
yx
= p
xy
, p
zx
= p
xz
, p
zy
= p
yz
. (178)
Consider for example the value of p
yx
; we have from our definition
p
yx
= t
yx
+g
y
u
x
,
and by equations (175) and (172) we have
t
xy
=

1 −
u
2
c
2

t
xy
, g
y
= t
xy
u
x
c
2
,
and hence by substitution obtain
p
yx
= t
xy
.
We also have, however, by definition
p
xy
= t
xy
+g
x
u
y
,
Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 163
and since for the case we are considering u
y
= 0, we arrive at the
equality
p
xy
= p
yx
.
The other equalities may be shown in a similar way.
130. Relation between div t and t
n
. At a given point P in
our elastic body we shall define the divergence of the tensor t by the
equation
div t =

∂t
xx
∂x
+
∂t
xy
∂y
+
∂t
xz
∂z

i
+

∂t
yx
∂x
+
∂t
yy
∂y
+
∂t
yz
∂z

j
+

∂t
zx
∂x
+
∂t
zy
∂y
+
∂t
zz
∂z

k,
(179)
where i, j and k are unit vectors parallel to the axes, div t thus being
an ordinary vector. It will be seen that div t is the elastic force acting
per unit volume of material at the point P.
Considering an element of surface dS, we shall define a further vec-
tor t
n
by the equation
t
n
= (t
xx
cos α +t
xy
cos β +t
xz
cos γ) i
+ (t
yx
cos α +t
yy
cos β +t
yz
cos γ) j
+ (t
zx
cos α +t
zy
cos β +t
zz
cos γ) k,
(180)
where cos α, cos β and cos γ are the direction cosines of the inward-
pointing normal to the element of surface dS.
Considering now a definite volume V enclosed by the surface S it is
evident that div t and t
n
will be connected by the relation

div t dV =

0
t
n
dS, (181)
where the symbol 0 indicates that the integration is to be taken over
the whole surface which encloses the volume V . This equation is of
Chapter Ten. 164
course merely a direct application of Gauss’s formula, which states in
general the equality


∂P
∂x
+
∂Q
∂y
+
∂R
∂z

dV =

0
(P cos α +Qcos β +Rcos γ) dS, (182)
where P, Q and R may be any functions of x, y and z.
We shall also find use for a further relation between div t and t
n
.
Consider a given point of reference O, and let r be the radius vector
to any point P in the elastic body; we can then show with the help of
Gauss’s Formula (182) that

(r ×div t) dV =

0
(r ×t
n
) dS

(t
yz
−t
zy
)jk + (t
xz
−t
zx
)ik + (t
xy
−t
yx
)ij

dV,
where × signifies as usual the outer product. Taking account of equa-
tions (172) and (175) this can be rewritten

(r ×div t) dV =

0
(r ×t
n
) dS −

(u ×g) dV. (183)
131. The Equations of Motion in the Eulerian Form. We saw
in Sections 124 and 125 that the equations of motion in the Lagrangian
form might be written
f δV =
d
dt
(g δV ),
where f is the density of force acting at any point and g is the density
of momentum.
Provided that there are no external forces acting and f is produced
solely by the elastic forces, our definition of the divergence of a tensor
will now permit us to put
f = −div t,
Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 165
and write for our equation of motion
(−div t) δV =
d
dt
(g δV ) = δV
dg
dt
+g
d(δV )
dt
.
Expressing
dg
dt
in terms of partial differentials, and putting
d(δV )
dt
= δV div u
we obtain
−div t =

∂g
∂t
+u
x
∂g
∂x
+u
y
∂g
∂y
+u
z
∂g
∂z

+g div u.
Our symmetrical tensor p, however, was defined by the equation (176)
p = t +gu,
and hence we may now write our equations of motion in the very beau-
tiful Eulerian form
−div p =
∂g
∂t
. (184)
We shall find this simple form for the equations of motion very
interesting in connection with our considerations in the last chapter.
part iv. applications of the results.
We may now use the results which we have obtained from the princi-
ple of least action to elucidate various problems concerning the behavior
of elastic bodies.
132. Relation between Energy and Momentum. In our work
on the dynamics of a particle we found that the mass of a particle was
equal to its energy divided by the square of the velocity of light, and
hence have come to expect in general a necessary relation between the
Chapter Ten. 166
existence of momentum in any particular direction and the transfer of
energy in that same direction. We find, however, in the case of elasti-
cally stressed bodies a somewhat more complicated state of affairs than
in the case of particles, since besides the energy which is transported
bodily by the motion of the medium an additional quantity of energy
may be transferred through the medium by the action of the forces
which hold it in its state of strain. Thus, for example, in the case of a
longitudinally compressed rod moving parallel to its length, the forces
holding it in its state of longitudinal compression will be doing work at
the rear end of the rod and delivering an equal quantity of energy at
the front end, and this additional transfer of energy must be included
in the calculation of the momentum of the bar.
As a matter of fact, an examination of the expressions for momen-
tum which we obtained from the principle of least action will show the
justice of these considerations. For the density of momentum in the
X direction we obtained the expression
g
x
= (w +t
xx
)
˙ x
c
2
,
and we see that in order to calculate the momentum in the X direction
we must consider not merely the energy w which is being bodily carried
along in that direction with the velocity ˙ x, but also must take into
account the additional flow of energy which arises from the stress t
xx
.
As we have already seen in Section 128, this stress t
xx
can be thought
of as resulting from forces which act on the front and rear faces of
a centimeter cube of our material. Since the cube is moving with the
velocity ˙ x, the force on the rear face will do the work t
xx
˙ x per second and
this will be given up at the forward face. We thus have an additional
density of energy-flow in the X direction of the magnitude t
xx
˙ x and
hence a corresponding density of momentum
t
xx
˙ x
c
2
.
Similar considerations explain the interesting occurrence of compo-
Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 167
nents of momentum in the Y and Z directions,
g
y
= t
xy
˙ x
c
2
, g
z
= t
xz
˙ x
c
2
,
in spite of the fact that the material involved is moving in the X direc-
tion. The stress t
xy
, for example, can be thought of as resulting from
forces which act tangentially in the X direction on the pair of faces of
our unit cube which are perpendicular to the Y axis. Since the cube
is moving in the X direction with the velocity ˙ x, we shall have the
work t
xy
˙ x, done at one surface per second and transferred to the other,
and the resulting flow of energy in the X direction is accompanied by
the corresponding momentum
t
xy
˙ x
c
2
.
133. The Conservation of Momentum. It is evident from our
previous discussions that we may write the equation of motion for an
elastic medium in the form
f δV =
d(g δV )
dt
,
where g is the density of momentum at any given point and f is the
force acting per unit volume of material. We have already obtained,
from the principle of least action, expressions (172) which permit the
calculation of g in terms of the energy density, stress and velocity at
the point in question, and our present problem is to discuss somewhat
further the nature of the force f .
We shall find it convenient to analyze the total force per unit volume
of material f into those external forces f
ext.
like gravity, which are pro-
duced by agencies outside of the elastic body and the internal force f
int.
which arises from the elastic interaction of the parts of the strained
body itself. It is evident from the way in which we have defined the
divergence of a tensor (179) that for this latter we may write
f
int.
= −div t. (185)
Chapter Ten. 168
Our equation of motion then becomes
(f
ext.
−div t) δV =
d(g δV )
dt
, (186)
or, integrating over the total volume of the elastic body,

f
ext.
dV −

div t dV =
d
dt

g dV =
dG
dt
, (187)
where G is the total momentum of the body. With the help of the
purely analytical relation (181) we may transform the above equation
into

f
ext.
dV +

t
n
dS =
dG
dt
, (188)
where t
n
is defined in accordance with (180) so that the integral

0
t
n
dS
becomes the force exerted by the surroundings on the surface of the
elastic body.
In the case of an isolated system both f
ext.
and t
n
would evidently
be equal to zero and we have the principle of the conservation of mo-
mentum.
134. The Conservation of Angular Momentum. Consider the
radius vector r from a point of reference O to any point P in an elastic
body; then the angular momentum of the body about O will be
M =

(r ×g) dV,
and its rate of change will be
dM
dt
=

r ×
dg
dt

dV +

dr
dt
×g

dV. (189)
Substituting equation (186), this may be written
dM
dt
=

(r ×f
ext.
) dV −

(r ×div t) dV +

(u ×g) dV,
Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 169
or, introducing the purely mathematical relation (183) we have,
dM
dt
=

(r ×f
ext.
) dV +

0
(r ×t
n
) dS. (190)
We see from this equation that the rate of change of the angular mo-
mentum of an elastic body is equal to the moment of the external forces
acting on the body plus the moment of the surface forces.
In the case of an isolated system this reduces to the important
principle of the conservation of angular momentum.
135. Relation between Angular Momentum and the Un-
symmetrical Stress Tensor. The fact that at a point in a strained
elastic medium there may be components of momentum at right angles
to the motion of the point itself, leads to the interesting conclusion that
even in a state of steady motion the angular momentum of a strained
body will in general be changing.
This is evident from equation (189), in the preceding section, which
may be written
dM
dt
=

r ×
dg
dt

dV +

(u ×g) dV. (191)
In the older mechanics velocity u and momentum g were always in
the same direction so that the last term of this equation became zero.
In our newer mechanics, however, we have found (172) components of
momentum at right angles to the velocity and hence even for a body
moving in a straight line with unchanging stresses and velocity we find
that the angular momentum is increasing at the rate
dM
dt
=

(u ×g) dV, (192)
and in order to maintain the body in its state of uniform motion we must
apply external forces with a turning moment of this same amount.
The presence of this increasing angular momentum in a strained
body arises from the unsymmetrical nature of the stress tensor, the
Chapter Ten. 170
integral

(u × g) dV being as a matter of fact exactly equal to the
integral over the same volume of the turning moments of the unsym-
metrical components of the stress. Thus, for example, if we have a body
moving in the X direction with the velocity u = ˙ xi we can easily see
from equations (172) and (175) the truth of the equality
(u ×g) =

(t
yz
−t
zy
) jk + (t
xz
−t
zx
) ik + (t
xy
−t
yx
) ij

.
136. The Right-Angled Lever. An interesting example of the
l
1
l
2
F
1
F
2
B C
A
Fig. 14.
principle that in general a turning mo-
ment is needed for the uniform transla-
tory motion of a strained body is seen
in the apparently paradoxical case of
the right-angled lever.
Consider the right-angled lever
shown in Fig. 14. This lever is station-
ary with respect to a system of coördi-
nates S

. Referred to S

the two lever
arms are equal in length:
l
1

= l
2

,
and the lever is in equilibrium under the action of the equal forces
F
1

= F
2

.
Let us now consider the equilibrium as it appears, using a system of
coördinates S with reference to which the lever is moving in X direction
with the velocity V . Referred to this new system of coördinates the
length l
1
of the arm which lies in the Y direction will be the same as
in system S

, giving us
l
1
= l
1

.
But for the other arm which lies in the direction of motion we shall
have, in accordance with the Lorentz shortening,
l
2
= l
2

1 −
V
2
c
2
.
Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 171
For the forces F
1
and F
2
we shall have, in accordance with our equations
for the transformation of force (61) and (62),
F
1
= F
1

,
F
2
= F
2

1 −
V
2
c
2
.
We thus obtain for the moment of the forces around the pivot B
F
1
l
1
−F
2
l
2
= F
1

l
1

−F
2

l
2

1 −
V
2
c
2

= F
1

l
1

V
2
c
2
, = F
1
l
1
V
2
c
2
,
and are led to the remarkable conclusion that such a moving lever will
be in equilibrium only if the external forces have a definite turning
moment of the magnitude given above.
The explanation of this apparent paradox is obvious, however, in the
light of our previous discussion. In spite of the fact that the lever is in
uniform motion in a straight line, its angular momentum is continually
increasing owing to the fact that it is elastically strained, and it can
be shown by carrying out the integration indicated in equation (192)
that the rate of change of angular momentum is as a matter of fact just
equal to the turning moment F
1
l
1
V
2
c
2
.
This necessity for a turning moment F
1
l
1
V
2
c
2
can also be shown
directly from a consideration of the energy flow in the lever. Since the
force F
1
is doing the work F
1
V per second at the point A, a stream of
energy of this amount is continually flowing through the lever from A
to the pivot B. In accordance with our ideas as to the relation between
energy and mass, this new energy which enters at A each second has
the mass
F
1
V
c
2
, and hence each second the angular momentum of the
system around the point B is increased by the amount
F
1
V
c
2
V l
1
= F
1
l
1
V
2
c
2
.
Chapter Ten. 172
We have already found, however, exactly this same expression for the
moment of the forces around the pivot B and hence see that they are
of just the magnitude necessary to keep the lever from turning, thus
solving completely our apparent paradox.
137. Isolated Systems in a Steady State. Our considerations
have shown that the density of momentum is equal to the density of
energy flow divided by the square of the velocity of light. If we have
a system which is in a steady internal state, and is either isolated or
merely subjected to an external pressure with no components of force
tangential to the bounding surface, it is evident that the resultant flow
of energy for the whole body must be in the direction of motion, and
hence for these systems momentum and velocity will be in the same
direction without the complications introduced by a transverse energy
flow.
Thus for an isolated system in a steady internal state we may write,
G =
E
c
2
u =
E

c
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
u. (193)
138. The Dynamics of a Particle. It is important to note that
particles are interesting examples of systems in which there will obvi-
ously be no transverse component of energy flow since their infinitesimal
size precludes the action of tangential surface forces. We thus see that
the dynamics of a particle may be regarded as a special case of the
more general dynamics which we have developed in this chapter, the
equation of motion for a particle being
F =
d
dt

E

c
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
u
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
d
dt
¸
m

1 −
u
2
c
2
u
¸
,
in agreement with the work of Chapter VI.
Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 173
139. Conclusion. We may now point out in conclusion the chief
results of this chapter. With the help of Einstein’s equations for spatial
and temporal considerations, we have developed a set of transformation
equations for the strain in an elastic body. Using the components of
strain and velocity as generalized coördinates, we then introduced the
principle of least action, choosing a form of function for kinetic potential
which agrees at low velocities with the choice made in the older theories
of elasticity and at all velocities agrees with the requirements of the
principle of relativity. Using the Lagrangian equations, we were then
able to develop all that is necessary for a complete theory of elasticity.
The most important consequence of these considerations is an ex-
tension in our ideas as to the relation between momentum and energy.
We find that the density of momentum in any direction must be placed
equal to the total density of energy flow in that same direction divided
by the square of the velocity of light; and we find that we must include
in our density of energy flow that transferred through the elastic body
by the forces which hold it in its state of strain and suffer displacement
as the body moves. This involves in general a flow of energy and hence
momentum at right angles to the motion of the body itself.
At present we have no experiments of sufficient accuracy so that
we can investigate the differences between this new theory of elasticity
and the older ones, and hence of course have found no experimental
contradiction to the new theory. It will be seen, however, from the
expressions for momentum that even at low velocities the consequences
of this new theory will become important as soon as we run across
elastic systems in which very large stresses are involved. It is also
important to show that a theory of elasticity can be developed which
agrees with the requirements of the theory of relativity. In fairness, it
must, however, be pointed out in conclusion that since our expression
for kinetic potential was not absolutely uniquely determined there may
also be other theories of elasticity which will agree with the principle
of relativity and with all the facts as now known.
CHAPTER XI.
THE DYNAMICS OF A THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM.
We may now use our conclusions as to the relation between the prin-
ciple of least action and the theory of relativity to obtain information
as to the behavior of thermodynamic systems in motion.
140. The Generalized Coördinates and Forces. Let us con-
sider a thermodynamic system whose state is defined by the generalized
coördinates volume v, entropy S and the values of x, y and z which
determine its position. Corresponding to these coördinates we shall
have the generalized external forces, the negative of the pressure, −p,
temperature, T, and the components of force, F
x
, F
y
and F
z
. These
generalized coördinates and forces are related to the energy change δE
accompanying a small displacement δ, in accordance with the equation
δE = −δW = −p δv +T δS +F
x
δx +F
y
δy +F
z
δz. (194)
141. Transformation Equation for Volume. Before we can
apply the principle of least action we shall need to have transformation
equations for the generalized coördinates, volume and entropy.
In accordance with the Lorentz shortening, we may write the follow-
ing expression for the volume v of the system in terms of v

as measured
with a set of axes S

with respect to which the system is stationary:
v = v

1 −
u
2
c
2
= v

1 −
˙ x
2
+ ˙ y
2
+ ˙ z
2
c
2
,
where u is the velocity of the system.
By differentiation we may obtain expressions which we shall find
useful,
∂v

∂v
=
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
, (195)
174
Dynamics of a Thermodynamic System. 175
∂v

∂ ˙ x
=
v

1 −
u
2
c
2

3
2
˙ x
c
2
=
v

1 −
u
2
c
2

˙ x
c
2
. (196)
142. Transformation Equation for Entropy. As for the entropy
of a thermodynamic system, this is a quantity which must appear the
same to all observers regardless of their motion. This invariance of
entropy is a direct consequence of the close relation between the entropy
of a system in a given state and the probability of that state. Let
us write, in accordance with the Boltzmann-Planck ideas as to the
interdependence of these quantities,
S = k log W,
where S is the entropy of the system in the state in question, k is
a universal constant, and W the probability of having a microscopic
arrangement of molecules or other elementary constituent parts which
corresponds to the desired thermodynamic state. Since this probability
is evidently independent of the relative motion of the observer and the
system we see that the entropy of a system S must be an invariant and
may write
S = S

. (197)
143. Introduction of the Principle of Least Action. The
Kinetic Potential. We are now in a position to introduce the principle
of least action into our considerations by choosing a form of function for
the kinetic potential which will agree at low velocities with the familiar
principles of thermodynamics and will agree at all velocities with the
requirements of the theory of relativity.
If we use volume and entropy as our generalized coördinates, these
conditions are met by taking for kinetic potential the expression
H = −E

1 −
u
2
c
2
. (198)
Chapter Eleven. 176
This expression agrees with the requirements of the theory of rela-
tivity that
H

1 −
u
2
c
2
shall be an invariant (see Section 111) and at low
velocities reduces to H = −E, which with our choice of coördinates is
the familiar form for the kinetic potential of a thermodynamic system.
It should be noted that this expression for the kinetic potential
of a thermodynamic system applies of course only provided we pick
out volume v and entropy S as generalized coördinates. If, following
Helmholtz, we should think it more rational to take v as one coördi-
nate and a quantity θ whose time derivative is equal to temperature,
˙
θ = T, as the other coördinate, we should obtain of course a different
expression for the kinetic potential; in fact should have under those
circumstances
H = (E

−T

S

)

1 −
u
2
c
2
.
Using this value of kinetic potential, however, with the corresponding
coördinates we should obtain results exactly the same as those which we
are now going to work out with the help of the other set of coördinates.
144. The Lagrangian Equations. Having chosen a form for the
kinetic potential we may now substitute into the Lagrangian equa-
tions (139) and obtain the desired information with regard to the be-
havior of thermodynamic systems.
Since we shall consider cases in which the energy of the system
is independent of the position in space, the kinetic potential will be
independent of the coördinates x, y and z, depending only on their time
derivatives. Noting also that the kinetic potential is independent of the
time derivatives of volume and entropy, we shall obtain the Lagrangian
Dynamics of a Thermodynamic System. 177
equations in the simple form


∂v

−E

1 −
u
2
c
2

= −p,


∂S

−E

1 −
u
2
c
2

= T,
d
dt

∂ ˙ x

−E

1 −
u
2
c
2

= F
x
,
d
dt

∂ ˙ y

−E

1 −
u
2
c
2

= F
y
,
d
dt

∂ ˙ z

−E

1 −
u
2
c
2

= F
z
.
(199)
145. Transformation Equation for Pressure. We may use the
first of these equations to show that the pressure is a quantity which
appears the same to all observers regardless of their relative motion.
We have
p =

∂v

−E

1 −
u
2
c
2

= −

1 −
u
2
c
2
∂E

∂v
= −

1 −
u
2
c
2
∂E

∂v

∂v

∂v
.
But, in accordance with equation (194), p

= −
∂E

∂v

, and in accordance
with equation (195),
∂v

∂v
=
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
,
which gives us the desired relation
p = p

. (200)
Chapter Eleven. 178
Defining pressure as force per unit area, this result will be seen to be
identical with that which is obtained from the transformation equations
for force and area which result from our earliest considerations.
146. Transformation Equation for Temperature. The second
of the Lagrangian equations (199) will provide us information as to
measurements of temperature made by observers moving with different
velocities. We have
T =

∂S

E

1 −
u
2
c
2

=

1 −
u
2
c
2
∂E

∂S

∂S

∂S
.
But, in accordance with equation (194),
∂E

∂S

= T

and in accordance
with (197)
∂S

∂S
= 1. We obtain as our transformation equation,
T = T

1 −
u
2
c
2
, (201)
and see that the quantity
T

1 −
u
2
c
2
is an invariant for the Lorentz
transformation.
147. The Equations of Motion for Quasistationary Adia-
batic Acceleration. Let us now turn our attention to the last three
of the Lagrangian equations. These are the equations for the motion of
a thermodynamic system under the action of external force. It is evi-
dent, however, that these equations will necessarily apply only to cases
of quasistationary acceleration, since our development of the principle
of least action gave us an equation for kinetic potential which was true
only for systems of infinitesimal extent or large systems in a steady
internal state. It is also evident that we must confine our considera-
tions to cases of adiabatic acceleration, since otherwise the value of E

which occurs in the expression for kinetic potential might be varying
in a perfectly unknown manner.
Dynamics of a Thermodynamic System. 179
The Lagrangian equations for force may be advantageously trans-
formed. We have
F
x
=
d
dt

∂ ˙ x

−E

1 −
u
2
c
2

=
d
dt
¸
E

1 −
u
2
c
2
˙ x
c
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
∂E

∂ ˙ x
¸
=
d
dt

E

1 −
u
2
c
2
˙ x
c
2

1 −
u
2
c
2

∂E

∂v

∂v

∂ ˙ x
+
∂E

∂S

∂S

∂ ˙ x

¸
.
But by equations (194), (196) and (197) we have
∂E

∂v

= −p

,
∂v

∂ ˙ x
=
v

1 −
u
2
c
2

˙ x
c
2
, and
∂S

∂ ˙ x
= 0.
We obtain
F
x
=
d
dt

E

+p

v

1 −
u
2
c
2
˙ x
c
2
¸
. (202)
Similar equations may be obtained for the components of force in
the Y and Z directions and these combined to give the vector equation
F =
d
dt

E

+p

v

1 −
u
2
c
2
u
c
2
¸
. (203)
This is the fundamental equation of motion for the dynamics of a
thermodynamic system.
148. The Energy of a Moving Thermodynamic System. We
may use this equation to obtain an expression for the energy of a mov-
ing thermodynamic system. If we adiabatically accelerate a thermo-
dynamic system in the direction of its motion, its energy will increase
Chapter Eleven. 180
both because of the work done by the force
F =
d
dt

E

+p

v

1 −
u
2
c
2
u
c
2
¸
which produces the acceleration and because of the work done by the
pressure p = p

which acts on a volume which is continually dimin-
ishing as the velocity u increases, in accordance with the expression
v = v

1 −
u
2
c
2
. Hence we may write for the total energy
E = E

+

u
0
d
dt

E

+p

v

1 −
u
2
c
2
u
c
2
¸
udt +p

v

1 −

1 −
u
2
c
2

,
E =
E

+p

v

1 −
u
2
c
2
−p

v

1 −
u
2
c
2
=
E

+p

v

1 −
u
2
c
2
−pv. (204)
149. The Momentum of a Moving Thermodynamic System.
We may compare this expression for the energy of a thermodynamic
system with the following expression for momentum which is evident
from the equation (203) for force:
G =
E

+p

v

1 −
u
2
c
2
u
c
2
. (205)
We find again, as in our treatment of elastic bodies presented in the
last chapter, that the momentum of a moving system may be calculated
by taking the total flow of energy in the desired direction and dividing
by c
2
. Thus, comparing equations (204) and (205), we have
G =
E
c
2
u +
pv
c
2
u, (206)
Dynamics of a Thermodynamic System. 181
where the term
E
c
2
u takes care of the energy transported bodily along
by the system and the term
pv
c
2
u takes care of the energy transferred
in the u direction by the action of the external pressure on the rear and
front end of the moving system.
150. The Dynamics of a Hohlraum. As an application of our
considerations we may consider the dynamics of a hohlraum, since a
hohlraum in thermodynamic equilibrium is of course merely a special
example of the general dynamics which we have just developed. The
simplicity of the hohlraum and its importance from a theoretical point
of view make it interesting to obtain by the present method the same
expression for momentum that can be obtained directly but with less
ease of calculation from electromagnetic considerations.
As is well known from the work of Stefan and Boltzmann, the energy
content E

and pressure p

of a hohlraum at rest and in thermodynamic
equilibrium are completely determined by the temperature T

and vol-
ume v

in accordance with the equations
E

= av

T
◦4
,
p

=
a
3
T
◦4
,
where a is the so-called Stefan’s constant.
Substituting these values of E

and p

in the equation for the motion
of a thermodynamic system (203), we obtain
F =
d
dt
¸
4
3
av

T

4

1 −
u
2
c
2
u
c
2
¸
=
d
dt
¸
4
3
avT
4

1 −
u
2
c
2

3
u
c
2
¸
(207)
as the equation for the quasistationary adiabatic acceleration of a
hohlraum. In view of this equation we may write for the momentum
Chapter Eleven. 182
of a hohlraum the expression
G =
4
3
av

T

4

1 −
u
2
c
2
u
c
2
. (208)
It is a fact of significance that our dynamics leads to a result for the
momentum of a hohlraum which had been adopted on the ground of
electromagnetic considerations even without the express introduction
of relativity theory.
CHAPTER XII.
ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY.
The Einstein theory of relativity proves to be of the greatest signif-
icance for electromagnetics. On the one hand, the new electromagnetic
theory based on the first postulate of relativity obviously accounts in
a direct and straightforward manner for the results of the Michelson-
Morley experiment and other unsuccessful attempts to detect an ether
drift, and on the other hand also accounts just as simply for the phe-
nomena of moving dielectrics as did the older theory of a stationary
ether. Furthermore, the theory of relativity provides considerably sim-
plified methods for deriving a great many theorems which were already
known on the basis of the ether theory, and gives us in general a clarified
insight into the nature of electromagnetic action.
151. The Form of the Kinetic Potential. In Chapter IX we in-
vestigated the general relation between the principle of least action and
the theory of the relativity of motion. We saw that the development
of any branch of dynamics would agree with the requirements of rela-
tivity provided only that the kinetic potential H has such a form that
the quantity
H

1 −
u
2
c
2
is an invariant for the Lorentz transformation.
Making use of this discovery we have seen the possibility of developing
the dynamics of a particle, the dynamics of an elastic body, and the
dynamics of a thermodynamic system, all of them in forms which agree
with the theory of relativity by merely introducing slight modifications
into the older expressions for kinetic potential in such a way as to obtain
the necessary invariance for
H

1 −
u
2
c
2
. In the case of electrodynamics,
however, on account of the closely interwoven historical development of
the theories of electricity and relativity, we shall not find it necessary
to introduce any modification in the form of the kinetic potential, but
183
Chapter Twelve. 184
may take for H the following expression, which is known to lead to the
familiar equations of the Lorentz electron theory
H =

dV

e
2
2
+
curl φ)
2
2
−φ ·

˙ e
c

u
c

, (209)
where the integration is to extend over the whole volume of the sys-
tem V , e is the intensity of the electric field at the point in question,
φ is the value of the vector potential, ρ the density of charge and u its
velocity.

Let us now show that the expression which we have chosen for ki-
netic potential does lead to the familiar equations of the electron theory.
152. The Principle of Least Action. If now we denote by f the
force per unit volume of material exerted by the electromagnetic action
it is evident that we may write in accordance with the principle of least
action (135)

dt dV
¸
δ

e
2
2
+
(curl φ)
2
2
−φ ·

˙ e
c

u
c

+f · δr

= 0, (210)
where δr is the variation in the radius vector to the particle under con-
sideration, and where the integration is to be taken over the whole vol-
ume occupied by the system and between two instants of time t
1
and t
2
at which the actual and displaced configurations of the system coincide.
153. The Partial Integrations. In order to simplify this equation,
we shall need to make use of two results which can be obtained by
partial integrations with respect to time and space respectively.

Strictly speaking this expression for kinetic potential is not quite correct, since
kinetic potential must have the dimensions of energy. To complete the equation
and give all the terms their correct dimensions, we could multiply the first term by
the dielectric inductivity of free space , and the last two terms by the magnetic
permeability µ. Since, however, and µ have the numerical value unity with the
usual choice of units, we shall not be led into error in our particular considerations
if we omit these factors.
Electromagnetic Theory. 185
Thus we may write

t
2
t
1
dt (a
˙
δb) =

t
2
t
1
a d(δb) = [a δb]
t
2
t
1

t
2
t
1
dt

da
dt
δb

,
or, since the displaced and actual motions coincide at t
1
and t
2
,

dt (a
˙
δb) = −

dt

da
dt
δb

. (211)
We may also write

dV

a
db
dx

=

dy dz (a db) =

dy dz [ab]
x=+∞
x=−∞

dV

b
da
dx

,
or, since we are to carry out our integrations over the whole volume
occupied by the system, we shall take our functions as zero at the
limits of integration and may write

dV

a
db
dx

= −

dV

b
da
dx

. (212)
Since similar considerations apply to derivatives with respect to the
other variables y and z, we can also obtain

dV a div b = −

dV b · grad a, (213)

dV a · curl b =

dV b · curl a. (214)
154. Derivation of the Fundamental Equations of Electro-
magnetic Theory. Making use of these purely mathematical re-
lationships we are now in a position to develop our fundamental
equation (210). Carrying out the indicated variation, noting that
Chapter Twelve. 186
δu =
d(δr)
dt
and making use of (211) and (214) we easily obtain

dt dV
¸

e +
1
c
∂φ
∂t

· δe +

curl curl φ −

˙ e
c

u
c

· δφ

φ
c
· δ(ρu) +f · δr
¸
= 0.
(215)
In developing the consequences of this equation, it should be noted,
however, that the variations are not all of them independent; thus, since
we shall define the density of charge by the equation
ρ = div e, (216)
it is evident that it will be necessary to preserve the truth of this equa-
tion in any variation that we carry out. This can evidently be done if
we add to our equation (215) the expression

dt dV ψ[δρ −div δe] = 0,
where ψ is an undetermined scalar multiplier. We then obtain with the
help of (213)

dt dV
¸

e +
1
c
∂φ
∂t
+ grad ψ

· δe
+

curl curl φ −

˙ e
c

u
c

· δφ −
φ
c
· δ(ρu) +ψ δρ +f · δr
¸
= 0,
(217)
and may now treat the variations δe and δφ as entirely independent of
the others; we must then have the following equations true
e = −
1
c
∂φ
∂t
−grad ψ, (218)
curl curl φ =
˙ e
c
+
ρu
c
, (219)
Electromagnetic Theory. 187
and have thus derived from the principle of least action the fundamental
equations of modern electron theory. We may put these in their familiar
form by defining the magnetic field strength h by the equation
h = curl φ. (220)
We then obtain from (219)
curl h =
1
c
∂e
∂t

u
c
, (221)
and, noting the mathematical identity curl grad ψ = 0, we obtain from
(218)
curl e = −
1
c
∂h
∂t
. (222)
We have furthermore by definition (216)
div e = ρ, (223)
and noting equation (220) may write the mathematical identity
div h = 0. (224)
These four equations (221)–(224) are the familiar expressions which
have been made the foundation of modern electron theory. They differ
from Maxwell’s original four field equations only by the introduction
in (221) and (223) of terms which arise from the density of charge ρ of
the electrons, and reduce to Maxwell’s set in free space.
155. We have not yet made use of the last three terms in the
fundamental equation (217) which results from the principle of least
action. As a matter of fact, it can be shown that these terms can be
transformed into the expression

dt dV
¸
ρ
c
∂φ
∂t

ρ
c
[u ×curl φ]

+ρ grad ψ +f

· δr, (225)
Chapter Twelve. 188
and hence lead to the familiar fifth fundamental equation of modern
electron theory,
f = ρ


∂φ
c∂t
−grad ψ +

u
c
×curl Φ

,
f = ρ

e +

u
c
×h


¸
. (226)
The transformation of the last three terms of (217) into the form given
above (225) is a complicated one and it has not seemed necessary to
present it here since in a later paragraph we shall show the possibility
of deriving the fifth fundamental equation of the electron theory (226)
by combining the four field equations (221)–(224) with the transforma-
tion equations for force already obtained from the principle of relativity.
The reader may carry out the transformation himself, however, if he
makes use of the partial integrations which we have already obtained,
notes that in accordance with the principle of the conservation of elec-
tricity we must have δρ = −div ρ δr and notes that δu =
d(δr)
dt
, where
the differentiation
d
dt
indicates that we are following some particular
particle in its motion, while the differentiation

∂t
occurring in
∂φ
∂t
in-
dicates that we intend the rate of change at some particular stationary
point.
156. The Transformation Equations for e, h and ρ. We have
thus shown the possibility of deriving the fundamental equations of
modern electron theory from the principle of least action. We now wish
to introduce the theory of relativity into our discussions by presenting
a set of equations for transforming measurements of e, h and ρ from
one set of space-time coördinates S to another set S

moving past S in
the X direction with the velocity V . This set of equations is as follows:
e
x

= e
x
, e
y

= κ

e
y

V
c
h
z

, e
z

= κ

e
z
+
V
c
h
y

, (227)
h
x

= h
x
, h
y

= κ

h
y
+
V
c
e
z

, h
z

= κ

h
z

V
c
e
y

, (228)
Electromagnetic Theory. 189
ρ

= ρκ

1 −
u
z
V
c
2

, (229)
where κ has its customary significance
1

1 −
V
2
c
2
.
As a matter of fact, this set of transformation equations fulfills all
the requirements imposed by the theory of relativity. Thus, in the first
place, it will be seen, on development, that these equations are them-
selves perfectly symmetrical with respect to the primed and unprimed
quantities except for the necessary change from +V to −V . In the
second place, it will be found that the substitution of these equations
into our five fundamental equations for electromagnetic theory (221),
(222), (223), (224), (226) will successfully transform them into an en-
tirely similar set with primed quantities replacing the unprimed ones.
And finally it can be shown that these equations agree with the general
requirement derived in Chapter IX that the quantity
H

1 −
u
2
c
2
shall be
an invariant for the Lorentz transformation.
To demonstrate this important invariance of
H

1 −
u
2
c
2
we may point
out that by introducing equations (220), (221) and (214), our original
expression for kinetic potential
H =

dV

e
2
2
+
(curl φ)
2
2
−φ ·

˙ e
c

u
c

can easily be shown equal to

dV

e
2
2

h
2
2

, (230)
Chapter Twelve. 190
and, noting that our fundamental equations for space and time provide
us with the relation
dV

1 −
u
2
c
2
=
dV

1 −
u

2
c
2
,
we can easily show that our transformation equations for e and h do
lead to the equality
H

1 −
u
2
c
2
=
H

1 −
u

2
c
2
.
We thus know that our development of the fundamental equations
for electromagnetic theory from the principle of least action is indeed
in complete accordance with the theory of relativity, since it conforms
with the general requirement which was found in Chapter IX to be
imposed by the theory of relativity on all dynamical considerations.
157. The Invariance of Electric Charge. As to the significance
of the transformation equations which we have presented for e, h and ρ,
we may first show, in accordance with the last of these equations, that
a given electric charge will appear the same to all observers no matter
what their relative motion.
To demonstrate this we merely have to point out that, by introduc-
ing equation (17), we may write our transformation equation for ρ (229)
in the form
ρ

ρ
=

1 −
u
2
c
2

1 −
u

2
c
2
,
which shows at once that the two measurements of density of charge
made by O and O

are in exactly the same ratio as the corresponding
measurements for the Lorentz shortening of the charged body, so that
the total charge will evidently measure the same for the two observers.
Electromagnetic Theory. 191
We might express this invariance of electric charge by writing the
equation
Q

= Q. (231)
It should be noted in passing that this result is in entire accord
with the whole modern development of electrical theory, which lays
increasing stress on the fundamentality and indivisibility of the electron
as the natural unit quantity of electricity. On this basis the most direct
method of determining the charge on an electrified body would be to
count the number of electrons present and this number must obviously
appear the same both to observer O and observer O

.

158. The Relativity of Magnetic and Electric Fields. As
to the significance of equations (227) and (228) for transforming the
values of the electric and magnetic field strengths from one system
to another, we see that at a given point in space we may distinguish
between the electric vector e = e
x
i + e
y
j + e
z
k as measured by our
original observer O and the vector e

= e
x

i +e
y

j +e
z

k as measured
in units of his own system by an observer O

who is moving past O
with the velocity V in the X direction. Thus if O finds in an unvarying
electromagnetic field that Qe is the force on a small test charge Q which
is stationary with respect to his system, O

will find experimentally for a
similar test charge that moves along with him a value for the force Qe

,
where e

can be calculated from with the help of these equations (227).
Similar remarks would apply to the forces which would act on magnetic
poles.
These considerations show us that we should now use caution in
speaking of a pure electrostatic or pure magnetic field, since the de-
scription of an electromagnetic field is determined by the particular
choice of coördinates with reference to which the field is measured.
159. Nature of Electromotive Force. We also see that the
“electromotive” force which acts on a charge moving through a magnetic

A similar invariance of electric charge has been made fundamental in the au-
thor’s development of the theory of similitude (i.e., the theory of the relativity of
size). See for example Phys. Rev., vol. 3, p. 244 (1914).
Chapter Twelve. 192
field finds its interpretation as an “electric” force provided we make use
of a system of coördinates which are themselves stationary with respect
to the charge. Such considerations throw light on such questions, for
example, as to the seat of the “electromotive” forces in “homopolar”
electric dynamos where there is relative motion of a conductor and a
magnetic field.
Derivation of the Fifth Fundamental Equation.
160. We may now make use of this fact that the forces acting on
a moving charge of electricity may be treated as purely electrostatic,
by using a set of coördinates which are themselves moving along with
the charge, to derive the fifth fundamental equation of electromagnetic
theory.
Consider an electromagnetic field having the values e and h for the
electric and magnetic field strengths at some particular point. What
will be the value of the electromagnetic force f acting per unit volume
on a charge of density ρ which is passing through the point in question
with the velocity u?
To solve the problem take a system of coördinates S

which itself
moves with the same velocity as the charge, for convenience letting the
X axis coincide with the direction of the motion of the charge. Since the
charge of electricity is stationary with respect to this system, the force
acting on it as measured in units of this system will be by definition
equal to the product of the charge by the strength of the electric field
as it appears to an observer in this system, so that we may write
F = Q

e

,
or
F
x

= Q

e
x

, F
y

= Q

e
y

, F
z

= Q

e
z

.
For the components of the electrical field e
x

, e
y

, e
z

, we have just ob-
tained the transformation equations (227), while in our earlier dynami-
cal considerations in Chapter VI we obtained transformation equations
Electromagnetic Theory. 193
(61), (62), and (63) for the components of force. Substituting above
and bearing in mind that u
x
= V , u
y
= u
z
= 0, and that Q

= Q, we
obtain on simplification
F
x
= Qe
x
,
F
y
= Q

e
y

u
x
c
h
z

,
F
z
= Q

e
z

u
x
c
h
y

,
which in vectorial form gives us the equation
F = Q

e −
1
c
[u ×h]

or for the force per unit volume
f = ρ

e +
1
c
[u ×h]

. (226)
This is the well-known fifth fundamental equation of the Maxwell-
Lorentz theory of electromagnetism. We have already indicated the
method by which it could be derived from the principle of least action.
This derivation, however, from the transformation equations, provided
by the theory of relativity, is particularly simple and attractive.
Difference between the Ether and the Relativity Theories of
Electromagnetism.
161. In spite of the fact that we have now found five equations
which can be used as a basis for electromagnetic theory which agree
with the requirements of relativity and also have exactly the same form
as the five fundamental equations used by Lorentz in building up the
stationary ether theory, it must not be supposed that the relativity
and ether theories of electromagnetism are identical. Although the
older equations have exactly the same form as the ones which we shall
Chapter Twelve. 194
henceforth use, they have a different interpretation, since our equations
are true for measurements made with the help of any non-accelerated
set of coördinates, while the equations of Lorentz were, in the first in-
stance, supposed to be true only for measurements which were referred
to a set of coördinates which were stationary with respect to the as-
sumed luminiferous ether. Suppose, for example, we desire to calculate
with the help of equation (226),
t = ρ

e +
1
c
[u ×h]

,
the force acting on a charged body which is moving with the velocity u;
we must note that for the stationary ether theory, u must be the velocity
of the charged body through the ether, while for us u may be taken as
the velocity past any set of unaccelerated coördinates, provided e and h
are measured with reference to the same set of coördinates. It will be
readily seen that such an extension in the meaning of the fundamental
equations is an important simplification.
162. A word about the development from the theory of a station-
ary ether to our present theory will not be out of place. When it was
found that the theory of a stationary ether led to incorrect conclusions
in the case of the Michelson-Morley experiment, the hypothesis was
advanced by Lorentz and Fitzgerald that the failure of that experiment
to show any motion through the ether was due to a contraction of the
apparatus in the direction of its motion through the ether in the ratio
1 :

1 −
u
2
c
2
. Lorentz then showed that if all systems should be thus
contracted in the line of their motion through the ether, and observers
moving with such system make use of suitably contracted meter sticks
and clocks adjusted to give what Lorentz called the “local time,” their
measurements of electromagnetic phenomena could be described by a
set of equations which have nearly the same form as the original four
field equations which would be used by a stationary observer. It will
be seen that Lorentz was thus making important progress towards our
Electromagnetic Theory. 195
present idea of the complete relativity of motion. The final step could
not be taken, however, without abandoning our older ideas of space
and time and giving up the Galilean transformation equations as the
basis of kinematics. It was Einstein who, with clearness and boldness
of vision, pointed out that the failure of the Michelson-Morley experi-
ment, and all other attempts to detect motion through the ether, is not
due to a fortuitous compensation of effects but is the expression of an
important general principle, and the new transformation equations for
kinematics to which he was led have not only provided the basis for an
exact transformation of the field equations but have so completely rev-
olutionized our ideas of space and time that hardly a branch of science
remains unaffected.
163. With regard to the present status of the ether in scientific
theory, it must be definitely stated that this concept has certainly lost
both its fundamentality and the greater part of its usefulness, and this
has been brought about by a gradual process which has only found
its culmination in the work of Einstein. Since the earliest days of the
luminiferous ether, the attempts of science to increase the substantiality
of this medium have met with little success. Thus we have had solid
elastic ethers of most extreme tenuity, and ethers with a density of a
thousand tons per cubic millimeter; we have had quasi-material tubes
of force and lines of force; we have had vibratory gyrostatic ethers
and perfect gases of zero atomic weight; but after every debauch of
model-making, science has recognized anew that a correct mathematical
description of the actual phenomena of light propagation is superior to
any of these sublimated material media. Already for Lorentz the ether
had been reduced to the bare function of providing a stationary system
of reference for the measurement of positions and velocities, and now
even this function has been taken from it by the work of Einstein, which
has shown that any unaccelerated system of reference is just as good
as any other.
To give up the notion of an ether will be very hard for many physi-
cists, in particular since the phenomena of the interference and polar-
Chapter Twelve. 196
ization of light are so easily correlated with familiar experience with
wave motions in material elastic media. Consideration will show us,
however, that by giving up the ether we have done nothing to destroy
the periodic or polarizable nature of a light disturbance. When a plane
polarized beam of light is passing through a given point in space we
merely find that the electric and magnetic fields at that point lie on
perpendiculars to the direction of propagation and undergo regular pe-
riodic changes in magnitude. There is no need of going beyond these
actual experimental facts and introducing any hypothetical medium. It
is just as simple, indeed simpler, to say that the electric or magnetic
field has a certain intensity at a given point in space as to speak of a
complicated sort of strain at a given point in an assumed ether.
Applications to Electromagnetic Theory.
164. The significant fact that the fundamental equations of the new
electromagnetic theory have the same form as those of Lorentz makes it
of course possible to retain in the structure of modern electrical theory
nearly all the results of his important researches, care being taken to
give his mathematical equations an interpretation in accordance with
the fundamental ideas of the theory of relativity. It is, however, entirely
beyond our present scope to make any presentation of electromagnetic
theory as a whole, and in the following paragraphs we shall confine
ourselves to the proof of a few theorems which can be handled with
special ease and directness by the methods introduced by the theory of
relativity.
165. The Electric and Magnetic Fields around a Moving
Charge. Our transformation equations for the electromagnetic field
make it very easy to derive expressions for the field around a point
charge in uniform motion. Consider a point charge Q moving with the
velocity V . For convenience consider a system of reference S such that
Q is moving along the X axis and at the instant in question, t = 0, let
the charge coincide with the origin of coördinates O. We desire now to
Electromagnetic Theory. 197
calculate the values of electric field e and the magnetic field h at any
point in space x, y, z.
Consider another system of reference, S

, which moves along with
the same velocity as the charge Q, the origin of coördinates O

and
the charge always coinciding in position. Since the charge is stationary
with respect to their new system of reference, we shall have the electric
field at any point x

, y

, z

in this system given by the equations
e
x

=
Qx

(x

2
+y

2
+z

2
)
3/2
,
e
y

=
Qy

(x

2
+y

2
+z

2
)
3/2
,
e
z

=
Qz

(x

2
+y

2
+z

2
)
3/2
,
while the magnetic field will obviously be zero for measurements made
in system S

, giving us
h
x

= 0, h
y

= 0, h
z

= 0.
Introducing our transformation equations (9), (10) and (11) for x

, y

and z

and our transformation equations (227) and (228) for the electric
and magnetic fields and substituting t = 0, we obtain for the values of
e and h in system S at the instant when the charge passes through the
point O,
e
x
=
Qκx

2
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)
3/2
=
Q

1 −
V
2
c
2

x

x
2
+

1 −
V
2
c
2

(y
2
+z
2
)

3/2
,
e
y
=
Qκy

2
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)
3/2
=
Q

1 −
V
2
c
2

y

x
2
+

1 −
V
2
c
2

(y
2
+z
2
)

3/2
,
Chapter Twelve. 198
e
z
=
Qκz

2
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)
3/2
=
Q

1 −
V
2
c
2

z

x
2
+

1 −
V
2
c
2

(y
2
+z
2
)

3/2
,
h
x
= 0,
h
y
= −
V
c
e
z
,
h
z
=
V
c
e
y
,
or, putting s for the important quantity

x
2
+

1 −
V
2
c
2

(y
2
+z
2
)
and writing the equations in the vectorial form where we put
r = (x i +y j +z k),
we obtain the familiar equations for the field around a point charge in
uniform motion with the velocity u = V in the X direction
e = Q

1 −
u
2
c
2

r
s
3
, (232)
h =
1
c
[u ×e]

. (233)
166. The Energy of a Moving Electromagnetic System. Our
transformation equations will permit us to obtain a very important
expression for the energy of an isolated electromagnetic system in terms
of the velocity of the system and the energy of the same system as it
appears to an observer who is moving along with it.
Consider a physical system surrounded by a shell which is imperme-
able to electromagnetic radiation. This system is to be thought of as
consisting of the various mechanical parts, electric charges and electro-
magnetic fields which are inside of the impermeable shell. The system
is free in space, except that it may be acted on by external electromag-
netic fields, and its energy content thus be changed.
Electromagnetic Theory. 199
Let us now equate the increase in the energy of the system to the
work done by the action of the external field on the electric charges in
the system. Since the force which a magnetic field exerts on a charge
is at right angles to the motion of the charge it does no work and we
need to consider only the work done by the external electric field and
may write for the increase in the energy of the system
∆E =

ρ(e
x
u
x
+e
y
u
y
+e
z
u
z
) dx dy dz dt, (234)
where the integration is to be taken over the total volume of the system
and over any time interval in which we may be interested.
Let us now transform this expression with the help of our transfor-
mation equations for the electric field (227) for electric charge (229),
and for velocities (14), (15), (16). Noting that our fundamental equa-
tions for kinematic quantities give us dx dy dz dt = dx

dy

dz

dt

, we
obtain
∆E = κ

ρ

(e
x

u
x

+e
y

u
y

+e
z

u
z

) dx

dy

dz

dt

+κV

ρ

e
x

+
u
y

c
h
z


u
z

c
h
y

dx

dy

dz

dt

.
Consider now a system which both at the beginning and end of our
time interval is free from the action of external forces; we may then
rewrite the above equation for this special case in the form
∆E = κ∆E

+κV

¸
F
x

dt

,
where, in accordance with our earlier equation (234), ∆E

is the increase
in the energy of the system as it appears to observer O

and
¸
F
x

is
the total force acting on the system in X direction as measured by O

.
The restriction that the system shall be unacted on by external
forces both at the beginning and end of our time interval is necessary
Chapter Twelve. 200
because it is only under those circumstances that an integration be-
tween two values of t can be considered as an integration between two
definite values of t

, simultaneity in different parts of the system not
being the same for observers O and O

.
We may now apply this equation to a specially interesting case. Let
the system be of such a nature that we can speak of it as being at
rest with respect to S

, meaning thereby that all the mechanical parts
have low velocities with respect to S

and that their center of gravity
moves permanently along with S

. Under these circumstances we may
evidently put

¸
F
x

dt

= 0 and may write the above equation in the
form
∆E =
∆E
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
,
or
∂∆E
∂E
0
=
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
,
where u is the velocity of the system, and E

is its energy as measured
by an observer moving along with it. The energy of a system which
is unacted on by external forces is thus a function of two variables, its
energy E
0
as measured by an observer moving along with the system
and its velocity u.
We may now write
E =
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
E
0
+φ(u) + const.,
where φ(u) represents the energy of the system which depends solely
on the velocity of the system and not on the changes in its E
0
values.
Electromagnetic Theory. 201
φ(u) will thus evidently be the kinetic energy of the mechanical masses
in the system which we have already found (82) to have the value
m
0
c
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
− m
0
c
2
where m
0
is to be taken as the total mass of the
mechanical part of our system when at rest. We may now write
E =
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
(m
0
c
2
+E
0
) −m
0
c
2
+ const.
Or, assuming as before that the constant is equal to m
0
c
2
, which will
be equivalent to making a system which has zero energy also have zero
mass, we obtain
E =
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
(m
0
c
2
+E
0
), (235)
which is the desired expression for the energy of an isolated system
which may contain both electrical and mechanical parts.
167. Relation between Mass and Energy. This expression for
the energy of a system that contains electrical parts permits us to show
that the same relation which we found between mass and energy for
mechanical systems also holds in the case of electromagnetic energy.
Consider a system containing electromagnetic energy and enclosed by
a shell which is impermeable to radiation. Let us apply a force F to the
system in such a way as to change the velocity of the system without
changing its E
0
value. We can then equate the work done per second
by the force to the rate of increase of the energy of the system. We
have
F · u =
dE
dt
.
But from equation (235) we can obtain a value for the rate of increase
Chapter Twelve. 202
of energy
dE
dt
, giving us
F · u = F
x
u
x
+F
y
u
y
+F
z
u
z
=

m
0
+
E
0
c
2

u
du
dt

1 −
u
2
c
2

3
2
,
and solving this equation for F we obtain
F =
d
dt

m
0
+
E
0
c
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
u
¸
¸
¸
¸
, (236)
which for low velocities assumes the form
F =
d
dt
¸
m
0
+
E
0
c
2

u

. (237)
Examination of these expressions shows that our system which con-
tains electromagnetic energy behaves like an ordinary mechanical sys-
tem with the mass

m
0
+
E
0
c
2

at low velocities or
m
0
+
E
0
c
2

1 −
u
2
c
2
at any
desired velocity u. To the energy of the system E
0
, part of which is
electromagnetic, we must ascribe the mass
E
0
c
2
just as we found in the
case of mechanical energy. We realize again that matter and energy
are but different names for the same fundamental entity, 10
21
ergs of
energy having the mass 1 gram.
The Theory of Moving Dielectrics.
168. The principle of relativity proves to be very useful for the
development of the theory of moving dielectrics.
Electromagnetic Theory. 203
It was first shown by Maxwell that a theory of electromagnetic phe-
nomena in material media can be based on a set of field equations
similar in form to those for free space, provided we introduce besides
the electric and magnetic field strengths, E and F, two new field vec-
tors, the dielectric displacement D and the magnetic induction B, and
also the density of electric current in the medium i. These quantities
are found to be connected by the four following equations similar in
form to the four field equations for free space:
curl H =
1
c

∂D
∂t
+i

, (238)
curl E = −
1
c
∂B
∂t
, (239)
div D = ρ, (240)
div B = 0. (241)
For stationary homogeneous media, the dielectric displacement,
magnetic induction and electric current are connected with the electric
and magnetic field strengths by the following equations:
D = E, (242)
B = µH, (243)
i = σE, (244)
where is the dielectric constant, µ the magnetic permeability and
σ the electrical conductivity of the medium in question.
169. Relation between Field Equations for Material Media
and Electron Theory. It must not be supposed that the four field
equations (238)–(241) for electromagnetic phenomena in material me-
dia are in any sense contradictory to the four equations (221)–(224)
for free space which we took as the fundamental basis for our develop-
ment of electromagnetic theory. As a matter of fact, one of the main
achievements of modern electron theory has been to show that the elec-
tromagnetic behavior of material media can be explained in terms of
Chapter Twelve. 204
the behavior of the individual electrons and ions which they contain,
these electrons and ions acting in accordance with the four fundamen-
tal field equations for free space. Thus our new equations for material
media merely express from a macroscopic point of view the statisti-
cal result of the behavior of the individual electrons in the material in
question. E and H in these new equations are to be looked upon as the
average values of e and h which arise from the action of the individual
electrons in the material, the process of averaging being so carried out
that the results give the values which a macroscopic observer would
actually find for the electric and magnetic forces acting respectively on
a unit charge and a unit pole at the point in question. These average
values, E and H, will thus pay no attention to the rapid fluctuations of
e and h which arise from the action and motion of the individual elec-
trons, the macroscopic observer using in fact differentials for time, dt,
and space, dx, which would be large from a microscopic or molecular
viewpoint.
Since from a microscopic point of view E and H are not really
the instantaneous values of the field strength at an actual point in
space, it has been found necessary to introduce two new vectors, electric
displacement, D, and magnetic induction, B, whose time rate of change
will determine the curl of E and H respectively. It will evidently be
possible, however, to relate D and B to the actual electric and magnetic
fields e and h produced by the individual electrons, and this relation
has been one of the problems solved by modern electron theory, and the
field equations (238)–(241) for material media have thus been shown
to stand in complete agreement with the most modern views as to the
structure of matter and electricity. For the purposes of the rest of
our discussion we shall merely take these equations as expressing the
experimental facts in stationary or in moving media.
170. Transformation Equations for Moving Media. Since
equations (238) to (241) are assumed to give a correct description of
electromagnetic phenomena in media whether stationary or moving
with respect to our reference system S, it is evident that the equa-
Electromagnetic Theory. 205
tions must be unchanged in form if we refer our measurements to a
new system of coördinates S

moving past S, say, with the velocity V
in the X direction.
As a matter of fact, equations (238) to (241) can be transformed
into an entirely similar set
curl H

=
1
c

∂D

∂t

+i

,
curl E

= −
1
c
∂B

∂t

,
div D

= ρ

,
div B

= 0,
provided we substitute for x, y, z and t the values of x

, y

, z

and t

given by the fundamental transformation equations for space and time
(9) to (12), and substitute for the other quantities in question the re-
lations
E
x

= E
x
, E
y

= κ

E
y

V
c
B
z

, E
z

= κ

E
z
+
V
c
B
y

,
D
x

= D
x
, D
y

= κ

D
y

V
c
H
z

, D
z

= κ

D
z
+
V
c
H
y

,
(245)
H
x

= H
x
, H
y

= κ

H
y
+
V
c
D
z

, H
z

= κ

H
z

V
c
D
y

,
B
x

= B
x
, B
y

= κ

B
y
+
V
c
E
z

, B
z

= κ

B
z

V
c
E
y

,
(246)
ρ

= κ

ρ −
V
c
2
i
x

, i
x

= κ(i
x
−V
ρ
), i
y

= i
y
, i
z

= i
z
. (247)
It will be noted that for free space these equations will reduce to
the same form as our earlier transformation equations (227) to (229)
since we shall have the simplifications D = E, B = H and i = ρu.
Chapter Twelve. 206
We may also call attention at this point to the fact that our funda-
mental equations for electromagnetic phenomena (238)–(241) in dielec-
tric media might have been derived from the principle of least action,
making use of an expression for kinetic potential which could be shown
equal to H =

dV

E · D
2

H· B
2

, and it will be noticed that our
transformation equations for these quantities are such as to preserve
that necessary invariance for
H

1 −
u
2
c
2
which we found in Chapter IX
to be the general requirement for any dynamical development which
agrees with the theory of relativity.
171. We are now in a position to handle the theory of moving me-
dia. Consider a homogeneous medium moving past a system of coör-
dinates S in the X direction with the velocity V ; our problem is to
discover relations between the various electric and magnetic vectors in
this medium. To do this, consider a new system of coördinates S

also
moving past our original system with the velocity V . Since the medium
is stationary with respect to this new system S

we may write for mea-
surements referred to S

in accordance with equations (242) to (244)
the relations
D

= E

,
B

= µH

,
i

= σE

,
which, as we have already pointed out, are known experimentally to be
true in the case of stationary, homogeneous media. , µ and σ are evi-
dently the values of dielectric constant, permeability and conductivity
of the material in question, which would be found by an experimenter
with respect to whom the medium is stationary.
Making use of our transformation equations (245) to (247) we can
obtain by obvious substitutions the following set of relations for mea-
Electromagnetic Theory. 207
surements made with respect to the original system of coördinates S:
D
x
= E
x
,
D
y

V
c
H
z
=

E
y

V
c
B
z

,
D
z
+
V
c
H
y
=

E
z
+
V
c
B
y

,
(248)
B
x
= µH
x
,
B
y
+
V
c
E
z
= µ

H
y
+
V
c
D
z

,
B
z

V
c
E
y
= µ

H
z

V
c
D
y

,
(249)
κ(i
x
−V
ρ
) = σE
x
,
i
y
= σκ

E
y

V
c
B
z

,
i
z
= σκ

E
z
+
V
c
B
y

.
(250)
172. Theory of the Wilson Experiment. The equations which
we have just developed for moving media are, as a matter of fact, in
complete accord with the celebrated experiment of H. A. Wilson on
moving dielectrics and indeed all other experiments that have been
performed on moving media.
Wilson’s experiment consisted in the rotation of a hollow cylinder
of dielectric, in a magnetic field which was parallel to the axis of the
cylinder. The inner and outer surfaces of the cylinder were covered
with a thin metal coating, and arrangements made with the help of wire
brushes so that electrical contact could be made from these coatings to
the pairs of quadrants of an electrometer. By reversing the magnetic
field while the apparatus was in rotation it was possible to measure with
Chapter Twelve. 208
the electrometer the charge produced by the electrical displacement in
the dielectric. We may make use of our equations to compute the
quantitative size of the effect.
Y
Z
X
A A
Fig. 15.
Let Fig. 15 represent a cross-section of the rotating cylinder. Con-
sider a section of the dielectric AA which is moving perpendicularly to
the plane of the paper in the X direction with the velocity V . Let the
magnetic field be in the Y direction parallel to the axis of rotation. The
problem is to calculate dielectric displacement D
z
in the Z direction.
Referring to equations (248) we have
D
z
+
V
c
H
y
=

E
z
+
V
c
B
y

,
and, substituting the value of B
y
given by equations (249),
B
y
+
V
c
E
z
= µ

H
y
+
V
c
D
z

we obtain

1 −µ
V
2
c
2

D
z
=

1 −
V
2
c
2

E
z
+
V
c
(µ −1) H
y
,
or, neglecting terms of orders higher than
V
c
, we have
D
z
= E
z
+
V
c
(µ −1) H
y
. (251)
Electromagnetic Theory. 209
For a substance whose permeability is practically unity such as Wil-
son actually used the equation reduces to
D
z
= E
z
+
V
c
( −1) H
y
,
and this was found to fit the experimental facts, since measurements
with the electrometer show the surface charge actually to have the
magnitude D
z
per square centimeter in accordance with our equation
div D = ρ.
It would be a matter of great interest to repeat the Wilson exper-
iment with a dielectric of high permeability so that we could test the
complete equation (251). This is of some importance since the original
Lorentz theory led to a different equation,
D
z
= E
z
+
V
c
( −1) µH
y
.
CHAPTER XIII.
FOUR-DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS.
173. In the present chapter we shall present a four-dimensional
method of expressing the results of the Einstein theory of relativity, a
method which was first introduced by Minkowski, and in the form which
we shall use, principally developed by Wilson and Lewis. The point of
view adopted consists essentially in considering the properties of an
assumed four-dimensional space in which intervals of time are thought
of as plotted along an axis perpendicular to the three Cartesian axes of
ordinary space, the science of kinematics thus becoming the geometry
of this new four-dimensional space.
The method often has very great advantages not only because it
sometimes leads to considerable simplification of the mathematical form
in which the results of the theory of relativity are expressed, but also
because the analogies between ordinary geometry and the geometry of
this imaginary space often suggest valuable modes of attack. On the
other hand, in order to carry out actual numerical calculations and
often in order to appreciate the physical significance of the conclusions
arrived at, it is necessary to retranslate the results obtained by this
four-dimensional method into the language of ordinary kinematics. It
must further be noted, moreover, that many important results of the
theory of relativity can be more easily obtained if we do not try to
employ this four-dimensional geometry. The reader should also be on
his guard against the fallacy of thinking that extension in time is of
the same nature as extension in space merely because intervals of space
and time can both be represented by plotting along axes drawn on the
same piece of paper.
174. Idea of a Time Axis. In order to grasp the method let us
consider a particle constrained to move along a single axis, say OX, and
let us consider a time axis OT perpendicular to OX. Then the position
of the particle at any instant of time can be represented by a point in
the XT plane, and its motion as time progresses by a line in the plane.
210
Four-Dimensional Analysis. 211
If, for example, the particle were stationary, its behavior in time and
space could be represented by a line parallel to the time axis OT as
shown for example by the line ab in Fig. 16. A particle moving with
O X
T
a
b
c
∆x
∆t
Fig. 16.
the uniform velocity u =
dx
dt
could be represented by a straight line ac
making an angle with the time axes, and the kinematical behavior of
an accelerated particle could be represented by a curved line.
By conceiving of a four-dimensional space we can extend this
method which we have just outlined to include motion parallel to
all three space axes, and in accordance with the nomenclature of
Minkowski might call such a geometrical representation of the space-
time manifold “the world,” and speak of the points and lines which
represent the instantaneous positions and the motions of particles as
“world-points” and “world-lines.”
175. Non-Euclidean Character of the Space. It will be at once
Chapter Thirteen. 212
evident that the graphical method of representing kinematical events
which is shown by Fig. 16 still leaves something to be desired. One
of the most important conclusions drawn from the theory of relativity
was the fact that it is impossible for a particle to move with a velocity
greater than that of light, and it is evident that there is nothing in our
plot to indicate that fact, since we could draw a line making any desired
angle with the time axis, up to perpendicularity, and thus represent
particles moving with any velocity up to infinity,
u =
∆x
∆t
= ∞.
It is also evident that there is nothing in our plot to correspond to
that invariance in the velocity of light which is a cornerstone of the
theory of relativity. Suppose, for example, the line OC, in Fig. 17,
represents the trajectory of a beam of light with the velocity
∆x
∆t
= c;
there is then nothing so far introduced into our method of plotting to
indicate the fact that we could not equally well make use of another
set of axes OX

T

, inclined to the first and thus giving quite a different
value,
∆x

∆t

, to the velocity of the beam of light.
There are a number of methods of meeting this difficulty and obtain-
ing the invariance for the four-dimensional expression x
2
+y
2
+z
2
−c
2
t
2
(see Chapter IV) which must characterize our system of kinematics.
One of these is to conceive of a four-dimensional Euclidean space with
an imaginary time axis, such that instead of plotting real instants
in time along this axis we should plot the quantity l = ict where
i =

−1. In this way we should obtain invariance for the quantity
x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
+ l
2
= x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
− c
2
t
2
, since it may be regarded as
the square of the magnitude of an imaginary four-dimensional radius
vector. This method of treatment has been especially developed by
Minkowski, Laue, and Sommerfeld. Another method of attack, which
has been developed by Wilson and Lewis and is the one which we shall
adopt in this chapter, is to use a real time axis, for plotting the real
Four-Dimensional Analysis. 213
X

T

∆x
∆t
c

x


t

O
X
T
Fig. 17.
quantity ct, but to make use of a non-Euclidean four-dimensional space
in which the quantity (x
2
+y
2
+z
2
−c
2
t
2
) is itself taken as the square of
the magnitude of a radius vector. This latter method has of course the
disadvantages that come from using a non-Euclidean space; we shall
find, however, that these reduce largely to the introduction of certain
rules as to signs. The method has the considerable advantage of retain-
ing a real time axis which is of some importance, if we wish to visualize
the methods of attack and to represent them graphically.
Chapter Thirteen. 214
We may now proceed to develop an analysis for this non-Euclidean
space. We shall find this to be quite a lengthy process but at its com-
pletion we shall have a very valuable instrument for expressing in con-
densed language the results of the theory of relativity. Our method of
treatment will be almost wholly analytical, and the geometrical analo-
gies may be regarded merely as furnishing convenient names for useful
analytical expressions. A more geometrical method of attack will be
found in the original work of Wilson and Lewis.
part i. vector analysis of the non-euclidean
four-dimensional manifold.
176. Consider a four-dimensional manifold in which the position
of a point is determined by a radius vector
r = (x
1
k
1
+x
2
k
2
+x
3
k
3
+x
4
k
4
),
where k
1
, k
2
, k
3
and k
4
may be regarded as unit vectors along four
mutually perpendicular axes and x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, and x
4
as the magnitudes
of the four components of r along these four axes. We may identify
x
1
, x
2
, and x
3
with the three spatial coördinates of a point x, y and z
with reference to an ordinary set of space axes and consider x
4
as a
coördinate which specifies the time (multiplied by the velocity of light)
when the occurrence in question takes place at the point xyz. We have
x
1
= x, x
2
= y, x
3
= z, x
4
= ct, (252)
and from time to time we shall make these substitutions when we wish
to interpret our results in the language of ordinary kinematics. We
shall retain the symbols x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, and x
4
throughout our development,
however, for the sake of symmetry.
177. Space, Time and Singular Vectors. Our space will differ
in an important way from Euclidean space since we shall consider three
classes of one-vector, space, time and singular vectors. Considering
Four-Dimensional Analysis. 215
the coördinates x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, and x
4
which determine the end of a radius
vector,
Space or γ-vectors will have components such that
(x
1
2
+x
2
2
+x
3
2
) > x
4
2
,
and we shall put for their magnitude
s =

x
1
2
+x
2
2
+x
3
2
−x
4
2
. (253)
Time or δ-vectors will have components such that
x
4
2
> (x
1
2
+x
2
2
+x
3
2
),
and we shall put for their magnitude
s =

x
4
2
−x
1
2
−x
2
2
−x
3
2
. (254)
Singular or α-vectors will have components such that
(x
1
2
+x
2
2
+x
3
2
) = x
4
2
,
and their magnitude will be zero.
178. Invariance of x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
− c
2
t
2
. Since we shall naturally
consider the magnitude of a vector to be independent of any particular
choice of axes we have obtained at once by our definition of magnitude
for any rotation of axes that invariance for the expression
(x
1
2
+x
2
2
+x
3
2
−x
4
2
) = (x
2
+y
2
+z
2
−c
2
t
2
),
which is characteristic of the Lorentz transformation, and have thus
evidently set up an imaginary space which will be suitable for plotting
kinematical events in accordance with the requirements of the theory
of the relativity of motion.
Chapter Thirteen. 216
179. Inner Product of One-Vectors. We shall define the inner
product of two one-vectors with the help of the following rules for the
multiplication of unit vectors along the axes
k
1
· k
1
= k
2
· k
2
= k
3
· k
3
= 1, k
4
· k
4
= −1, k
n
· k
m
= 0. (255)
It should be noted, of course, that there is no particular significance
in picking out the product k
4
· k
4
as the one which is negative; it
would be equally possible to develop a system in which the products
k
1
· k
1
, k
2
· k
2
and k
3
· k
3
should be negative and k
4
· k
4
positive.
The above rules for unit vectors are sufficient to define completely
the inner product provided we include the further requirements that
this product shall obey the associative law for a scalar factor and the
distributive and commutative laws, namely
(na) · b = n(a · b) = (a · b)(n),
a · (b + c) = a · b +a · c,
a · b = b · a.
(256)
For the inner product of a one-vector by itself we shall have, in
accordance with these rules,
r · r = (x
1
k
1
+x
2
k
2
+x
3
k
3
+x
4
k
4
) · (x
1
k
1
+x
2
k
2
+x
3
k
3
+x
4
k
4
)
= (x
2
1
+x
2
2
+x
2
3
−x
2
4
) (257)
and hence may use the following expressions for the magnitudes of
vectors in terms of inner product
s =

r · r for γ-vectors, s =

−r · r for δ-vectors. (258)
For curved lines we shall define interval along the curve by the
equations

ds =


dr · dr for γ-curves,

ds =


−dr · dr for δ-curves.
(259)
Four-Dimensional Analysis. 217
Our rules further show us that we may obtain the space components
of any one vector by taking its inner product with a unit vector along
the desired axis and may obtain the time component by taking the
negative of the corresponding product. Thus
r · k
1
= (x
1
k
1
+x
2
k
2
+x
3
k
3
+x
4
k
4
) · k
1
= x
1
,
r · k
2
= (x
1
k
1
+x
2
k
2
+x
3
k
3
+x
4
k
4
) · k
2
= x
2
,
r · k
3
= (x
1
k
1
+x
2
k
2
+x
3
k
3
+x
4
k
4
) · k
3
= x
3
,
r · k
4
= (x
1
k
1
+x
2
k
2
+x
3
k
3
+x
4
k
4
) · k
4
= −x
4
.
(260)
We see finally moreover in general that the inner product of any pair
of vectors will be numerically equal to the product of the magnitude
of either by the projection of the other upon it, the sign depending on
the nature of the vectors involved.
180. Non-Euclidean Angle. We shall define the non-Euclidean
angle θ between two vectors r
1
and r
2
in terms of their magnitudes
s
1
and s
2
by the expressions
±r
1
· r
2
= (s
1
×projection s
2
) = s
1
s
2
cosh θ, (261)
the sign depending on the nature of the vectors in the way indicated in
the preceding section. We note the analogy between this equation and
those familiar in Euclidean vector-analysis, the hyperbolic trigonomet-
ric functions taking the place of the circular functions used in the more
familiar analysis.
For the angle between unit vectors k and k

we shall have
cosh θ = ±k · k

, (262)
where the sign must be chosen so as to make cosh θ positive, the plus
sign holding if both are γ-vectors and the minus sign if both are δ-
vectors.
181. Kinematical Interpretation of Angle in Terms of Ve-
locity. At this point we may temporarily interrupt the development of
Chapter Thirteen. 218
our four-dimensional analysis to consider a kinematical interpretation
of non-Euclidean angles in terms of velocity. It will be evident from our
introduction that the behavior of a moving particle can be represented
in our four-dimensional space by a δ-curve,

each point on this curve
denoting the position of the particle at a given instant of time, and it
is evident that the velocity of the particle will be determined by the
angle which this curve makes with the axes.
Let r be the radius vector to a given point on the curve and consider
the derivative of r with respect to the interval s along the curve; we
have
w =
dr
ds
=
dx
1
ds
k
1
+
dx
2
ds
k
2
+
dx
3
ds
k
3
+
dx
4
ds
k
4
, (263)
and this may be regarded as a unit vector tangent to the curve at the
point in question.
If φ is the angle between the k
4
axis and the tangent to the curve
at the point in question, we have by equation (262)
cosh φ = −w· k
4
=
dx
4
ds
;
making the substitutions for x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, and x
4
, in terms of x, y, z and t
we may write, however,
ds =

dx
2
4
−dx
2
1
−dx
2
2
−dx
2
3
=

1 −
u
2
c
2
c dt, (264)
which gives us
cosh φ =
1

1 −
u
2
c
2
(265)

It is to be noted that the actual trajectories of particles are all of them rep-
resented by δ-curves since as we shall see γ-curves would correspond to velocities
greater than that of light.
Four-Dimensional Analysis. 219
and by the principles of hyperbolic trigonometry we may write the
further relations
sinh φ =
u
c

1 −
u
2
c
2
, (266)
tanh φ =
u
c
. (267)
Vectors of Higher Dimensions
182. Outer Products. We shall define the outer product of two
one-vectors so that it obeys the associative law for a scalar factor, the
distributive law and the anti-commutative law, namely,
(na) ×b = n(a ×b) = a ×(nb),
a ×(b +c) = a ×b +a ×c, (a +b) ×c = a ×c +b ×c,
a ×b = −b ×a.
(268)
From a geometrical point of view, we shall consider the outer prod-
uct of two one-vectors to be itself a two-vector, namely the parallelo-
gram, or more generally, the area which they determine. The sign of
the two-vector may be taken to indicate the direction of progression
clockwise or anti-clockwise around the periphery. In order to accord
with the requirement that the area of a parallelogram determined by
two lines becomes zero when they are rotated into the same direction,
we may complete our definition of outer product by adding the require-
ment that the outer product of a vector by itself shall be zero.
a ×a = 0. (269)
We may represent the outer products of unit vectors along the cho-
sen axes as follows:
k
1
×k
1
= k
2
×k
2
= k
3
×k
3
= k
4
×k
4
= 0,
k
1
×k
2
= −k
2
×k
1
= k
12
= −k
21
,
k
1
×k
3
= −k
3
×k
1
= k
13
= −k
31
, etc.,
(270)
Chapter Thirteen. 220
where we may regard k
12
, for example, as a unit parallelogram in the
plane X
1
OX
2
.
We shall continue to use small letters in Clarendon type for one-
vectors and shall use capital letters in Clarendon type for two-vectors.
The components of a two-vector along the six mutually perpendicu-
lar planes X
1
OX
2
, X
1
OX
3
, etc., may be obtained by expressing the
one-vectors involved in terms of their components along the axes and
carrying out the indicated multiplication, thus:
A = a ×b = (a
1
k
1
+a
2
k
2
+a
3
k
3
+a
4
k
4
)
×(b
1
k
1
+b
2
k
2
+b
3
k
3
+b
4
k
4
)
= (a
1
b
2
−a
2
b
1
)k
12
+ (a
1
b
3
−a
3
b
1
)k
13
+ (a
1
b
4
−a
4
b
1
)k
14
+ (a
2
b
3
−a
3
b
2
)k
23
+ (a
2
b
4
−a
4
b
2
)k
24
+ (a
3
b
4
−a
4
b
3
)k
34
,
(271)
or, calling the quantities (a
1
b
2
−a
2
b
1
), etc., the component magnitudes
of A, A
12
, etc., we may write
A = A
12
k
12
+A
13
k
13
+A
14
k
14
+A
23
k
23
+A
24
k
24
+A
34
k
34
. (272)
The concept of outer product may be extended to include the idea
of vectors of higher number of dimensions than two. Thus the outer
product of three one-vectors, or of a one-vector and a two-vector will
be a three-vector which may be regarded as a directed parallelopiped
in our four-dimensional space. The outer product of four one-vectors
will lead to a four-dimensional solid which would have direction only
in a space of more than four dimensions and hence in our case will be
called a pseudo-scalar. The outer product of vectors the sum of whose
dimensions is greater than that of the space considered will vanish.
The results which may be obtained from different types of outer
multiplication are tabulated below, where one-vectors are denoted by
small Clarendon type, two-vectors by capital Clarendon type, three-
vectors by Tudor black capitals, and pseudo-scalars by bold face Greek
Four-Dimensional Analysis. 221
letters.
A = a ×b = −b ×a
= (a
1
b
2
−a
2
b
1
)k
12
+ (a
1
b
4
−a
3
b
1
)k
13
+ (a
1
b
4
−a
4
b
1
)k
14
+ (a
2
b
3
−a
3
b
2
)k
23
+ (a
2
b
4
−a
4
b
2
)k
21
+ (a
3
b
4
−a
4
b
3
)k
34
,
A = c ×A
= (c
1
A
23
−c
2
A
13
+c
3
A
12
)k
123
+ (c
1
A
24
−c
2
A
14
+c
4
A
12
)k
124
+ (c
1
A
34
−c
2
A
14
+c
4
A
15
)k
134
+ (c
2
A
34
−c
3
A
24
+c
4
A
23
)k
234
(273)
α = d ×A = −A×d
= (d
1
A
234
−d
2
A
134
+d
3
A
124
−d
4
A
123
)k
1234
,
α = A×B
= (A
12
B
34
−A
13
B
24
+A
14
B
23
+A
23
B
14
−A
24
B
13
+A
34
B
12
)k
1234
.
The signs in these expressions are determined by the general rule
that the sign of any unit vector
¯
k
nmo
will be reversed by each transpo-
sition of the order of a pair of adjacent subscripts, thus:
k
abcd
= −k
bacd
= k
bcad
, etc., · · · . (274)
183. Inner Product of Vectors in General. We have previously
defined the inner product for the special case of a pair of one-vectors,
in order to bring out some of the important characteristics of our non-
Euclidean space. We may now give a general rule for the inner product
of vectors of any number of dimensions.
The inner product of any pair of vectors follows the associative law
for scalar factors, and follows the distributive and commutative laws.
Since we can express any vector in terms of its components, the
above rules will completely determine the inner product of any pair
of vectors provided that we also have a rule for obtaining the inner
products of the unit vectors determined by the mutually perpendicular
axes. This rule is as follows: Transpose the subscripts of the unit
vectors involved so that the common subscripts occur at the end and
Chapter Thirteen. 222
in the same order and cancel these common subscripts. If both the
unit vectors still have subscripts the product is zero; if neither vector
has subscripts the product is unity, and if one of the vectors still has
subscripts that itself will be the product. The sign is to be taken as that
resulting from the transposition of the subscripts (see equation (274)),
unless the subscript 4 has been cancelled, when the sign will be changed.
For example:
k
124
· k
34
= k
12
· k
3
= 0,
k
132
· k
123
= −k
123
· k
123
= −1,
k
124
· k
42
= −k
124
· k
24
= k
1
.
(275)
It is evident from these rules that we may obtain the magnitude
of any desired component of a vector by taking the inner product of
the vector by the corresponding unit vector, it being noticed, of course,
that when the unit vector involved contains the subscript 4 we obtain
the negative of the desired component. For example, we may obtain
the k
12
component of a two-vector as follows:
A
12
= A· k
12
= (A
12
k
12
+A
13
k
13
+A
14
k
14
+A
23
k
23
+A
24
k
24
+A
34
k
34
) · k
12
.
(276)
184. The Complement of a Vector. In an n-dimensional space
any m-dimensional vector will uniquely determine a new vector of di-
mensions (n −m) which may be called the complement of the original
vector. The complement of a vector may be exactly defined as the inner
product of the original vector with the unit pseudo-scalar k
123···n
. In
general, we may denote the complement of a vector by placing an aster-
isk ∗ after the symbol. As an example we may write as the complement
of a two-vector A in our non-Euclidean four-dimensional space:
A

= A· k
1234
= (A
12
k
12
+A
13
k
13
+A
14
k
14
+A
23
k
23
+A
24
k
24
+A
34
k
34
) · k
1234
= (A
12
k
34
−A
13
k
24
−A
14
k
23
+A
23
k
14
+A
24
k
13
−A
34
k
12
).
(277)
Four-Dimensional Analysis. 223
185. The Vector Operator, ♦ or Quad. Analogous to the fa-
miliar three-dimensional vector-operator del,
∇ = k
1

∂x
1
+k
2

∂x
2
+k
3

∂x
3
, (278)
we may define the four-dimensional vector-operator quad,
♦ = k
1

∂x
1
+k
2

∂x
2
+k
3

∂x
3
−k
4

∂x
4
. (279)
If we have a scalar or a vector field we may apply these operators
by regarding them formally as one-vectors and applying the rules for
inner and outer multiplication which we have already given.
Thus if we have a scalar function F which varies continuously from
point to point we can obtain a one-vector which we may call the four-
dimensional gradient of F at the point in question by simple multipli-
cation; we have
grad F = ♦F = k
1
∂F
∂x
1
+k
2
∂F
∂x
2
+k
3
∂F
∂x
3
−k
4
∂F
∂x
4
. (280)
If we have a one-vector field, with a vector f whose value varies from
point to point we may obtain by inner multiplication a scalar quantity
which we may call the four-dimensional divergence of f . We have
div f = ♦ · f =
∂f
1
∂x
1
+
∂f
2
∂x
2
+
∂f
3
∂x
3
+
∂f
4
∂x
4
. (280)
Taking the outer product with quad we may obtain a two-vector, the
four-dimensional curl of f ,
curl f = ♦ ×f =

∂f
2
∂x
1

∂f
1
∂x
2

k
12
+

∂f
3
∂x
1

∂f
1
∂x
3

k
13
+

∂f
4
∂x
1
+
∂f
1
∂x
4

k
14
+

∂f
3
∂x
2

∂f
2
∂x
3

k
23
+

∂f
4
∂x
2
+
∂f
2
∂x
4

k
24
+

∂f
4
∂x
3
+
∂f
3
∂x
4

k
34
.
(282)
Chapter Thirteen. 224
By similar methods we could apply quad to a two-vector function F
and obtain the one-vector function ♦ · F and the three-vector function
♦ ×F.
186. Still regarding ♦ as a one-vector we may obtain a number of
important expressions containing ♦ more than once; we have:
♦ ×(♦F) = 0, (283) ♦ ×(♦ ×f ) = 0, (286)
♦ · (♦ · F) = 0, (284) ♦ ×(♦ ×F) = 0, (287)
♦ · (♦ · F) = 0, (285)
♦ · (♦ ×f ) = ♦(♦ · f ) −(♦ · ♦)f , (288)
♦ · (♦ ×F) = ♦ ×(♦ · F) + (♦ · ♦)F, (289)
♦ · (♦ ×F) = ♦ ×(♦ · F) −(♦ · ♦)F. (290)
The operator ♦ · ♦ or ♦
2
has long been known under the name of
the D’Alembertian,

2
=

2
∂x
1
2
+

2
∂x
2
2
+

2
∂x
3
2


2
∂x
4
2
= ∆
2


2
c
2
∂t
2
. (291)
From the definition of the complement of a vector given in the pre-
vious section it may be shown by carrying out the proper expansions
that
(♦ ×φ)

= ♦ · φ

, (292)
where φ is a vector of any number of dimensions.
187. Tensors. In analogy to three-dimensional tensors we may
define a four-dimensional tensor as a quantity with sixteen components
as given in the following table:
T =

T
11
T
12
T
13
T
14
,
T
21
T
22
T
23
T
24
,
T
31
T
32
T
33
T
34
,
T
41
T
42
T
43
T
44
,
(293)
Four-Dimensional Analysis. 225
with the additional requirement that the divergence of the tensor, de-
fined as follows, shall itself be a one-vector.
div T =

∂T
11
∂x
1
+
∂T
12
∂x
2
+
∂T
13
∂x
3
+
∂T
14
∂x
4

k
1
+

∂T
21
∂x
1
+· · ·

k
2
+

∂T
31
∂x
1
+· · ·

k
3
+

∂T
41
∂x
1
+· · ·

k
4
(294)
188. The Rotation of Axes. Before proceeding to the application
of our four-dimensional analysis to the actual problems of relativity
theory we may finally consider the changes in the components of a
vector which would be produced by a rotation of the axes. We have
already pointed out that the quantity (x
1
2
+ x
2
2
+ x
3
2
− x
4
2
) is an
invariant in our space for any set of rectangular coördinates having the
same origin since it is the square of the magnitude of a radius vector,
and have noted that in this way we have obtained for the quantity
(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
− c
2
t
2
) the desired invariance which is characteristic of
the Lorentz transformation. In fact we may look upon the Lorentz
transformation as a rotation from a given set of axes to a new set,
with a corresponding re-expression of quantities in terms of the new
components. The particular form of Lorentz transformation, familiar
in preceding chapters, in which the new set of spatial axes has a velocity
component relative to the original set, in the X direction alone, will
be found to correspond to a rotation of the axes in which only the
directions of the X
1
and X
4
axes are changed, the X
2
and X
3
axes
remaining unchanged in direction.
Let us consider a one-vector
a = (a
1
k
1
+a
2
k
2
+a
3
k
3
+a
4
k
4
) = (a
1

k
1

+a
2

k
2

+a
3

k
3

+a
4

k
4

),
Chapter Thirteen. 226
where a
1
, a
2
, a
3
and a
4
are the component magnitudes, using a set
of axes which have k
1
, k
2
, k
3
and k
4
as unit vectors and a
1

, a
2

, a
3

and a
4

the corresponding magnitudes using another set of mutually
perpendicular axes with the unit vectors k
1

, k
2

, k
3

and k
4

. Our
problem, now, is to find relations between the magnitudes a
1
, a
2
, a
3
and a
4
and a
1

, a
2

, a
3

and a
4

.
We have already seen, Sections 179 and 183, that we may obtain any
desired component magnitude of a vector by taking its inner product
with a unit vector in the desired direction, reversing the sign if the
subscript 4 is involved. We may obtain in this way an expression for a
1
in terms of a
1

, a
2

, a
3

and a
4

. We have
a
1
= a · k
1
= (a
1

k
1

+a
2

k
2

+a
3

k
3

+a
4

k
4

) · k
1
= a
1

k
1

· k
1
+a
2

k
2

· k
1
+a
3

k
3

· k
1
+a
4

k
4

· k
1
. (295)
By similar multiplications with k
2
, k
3
and k
4
we may obtain expres-
sions for a
2
, a
3
and −a
4
. The results can be tabulated in the convenient
form
a
1

a
2

a
3

a
4

a
1
k
1

· k
1
k
2

· k
1
k
3

· k
1
k
4

· k
1
a
2
k
1

· k
2
k
2

· k
2
k
3

· k
2
k
4

· k
2
a
3
k
1

· k
3
k
2

· k
3
k
3

· k
3
k
4

· k
3
a
4
−k
1

· k
4
−k
2

· k
4
−k
3

· k
4
−k
4

· k
4
(296)
Since the square of the magnitude of the vector, (a
1
2
+a
2
2
+a
3
2
−a
4
2
),
is a quantity which is to be independent of the choice of axes, we shall
have certain relations holding between the quantities k
1

· k
1
, k
1

· k
2
,
etc. These relations, which are analogous to the familiar conditions of
Four-Dimensional Analysis. 227
orthogonality in Euclidean space, can easily be shown to be
(k
1

· k
1
)
2
+ (k
1

· k
2
)
2
+ (k
1

· k
3
)
2
−(k
1

· k
4
)
2
= 1,
(k
2

· k
1
)
2
+ (k
2

· k
2
)
2
+ (k
2

· k
3
)
2
−(k
2

· k
4
)
2
= 1,
(k
3

· k
1
)
2
+ (k
3

· k
2
)
2
+ (k
3

· k
3
)
2
−(k
3

· k
4
)
2
= 1,
(k
4

· k
1
)
2
+ (k
4

· k
2
)
2
+ (k
4

· k
3
)
2
−(k
4

· k
4
)
2
= −1,
(297)
and
(k
1

· k
1
)(k
2

· k
1
) + (k
1

· k
2
)(k
2

· k
2
)
+ (k
1

· k
3
)(k
2

· k
3
) −(k
1

· k
4
)(k
2

· k
4
) = 0,
etc., for each of the six pairs of vertical columns in table (296).
Since we shall often be interested in a simple rotation in which the
directions of the X
2
and X
3
axes are not changed, we shall be able to
simplify this table for that particular case by writing
k
2

= k
2
, k
3

= k
3
,
and noting the simplifications thus introduced in the products of the
unit vectors, we shall obtain
a
1

a
2

a
3

a
4

a
1
k
1

· k
1
0 0 k
4

· k
1
a
2
0 1 0 0
a
3
0 0 1 0
a
4
−k
1

· k
4
0 0 −k
4

· k
4
(298)
If now we call φ the angle of rotation between the two time axes
OX
4

and OX
4
, we may write, in accordance with equation (262),
−k
4

· k
4
= cosh φ.
Chapter Thirteen. 228
Since we must preserve the orthogonal relations (297) and may also
make use of the well-known expression of hyperbolic trigonometry
cosh
2
φ −sinh
2
φ = 1,
we may now rewrite our transformation table in the form
a
1

a
2

a
3

a
4

a
1
cosh φ 0 0 sinh φ
a
2
0 1 0 0
a
3
0 0 1 0
a
4
sinh φ 0 0 cosh φ
(299)
By a similar process we may obtain transformation tables for the
components of a two-vector A. Expressing A in terms of the unit vec-
tors k
12

, k
13

, k
14

, etc., and taking successive inner products with the
unit vectors k
12
, k
13
, k
14
, etc., we may obtain transformation equations
which can be expressed by the tabulation (300) shown on the following
page.
For the particular case of a rotation in which the direction of the
X
2
and X
3
axes are not changed we shall have
k
2

= k
2
, k
3

= k
3
,
and very considerable simplification will be introduced. We shall have,
for example,
k
12

· k
12
= (k
1

×k
2

) · (k
1
×k
2
) = (k
1

×k
2
) · (k
1
×k
2
) = k
1

· k
1
,
k
13

· k
12
= (k
1

×k
3

) · (k
1
×k
2
) = (k
1

×k
3
) · (k
1
×k
2
) = 0,
etc.
Making these and similar substitutions and introducing, as before, the
relation −k
4

· k
4
= cosh φ where φ is the non-Euclidean angle between
Four-Dimensional Analysis. 229
A
1
2

A
1
3

A
1
4

A
2
3

A
2
4

A
3
4

A
1
2
k
1
2

·
k
1
2
k
1
3

·
k
1
2
k
1
4

·
k
1
2
k
2
3

·
k
1
2
k
2
4

·
k
1
2
k
3
4

·
k
1
2
A
1
3
k
1
2

·
k
1
3
k
1
3

·
k
1
3
k
1
4

·
k
1
3
k
2
3

·
k
1
3
k
2
4

·
k
1
3
k
3
4

·
k
1
3
A
1
4

k
1
2

·
k
1
4

k
1
3

·
k
1
4

k
1
4

·
k
1
4

k
2
3

·
k
1
4

k
2
4

·
k
1
4

k
3
4

·
k
1
4
A
2
3
k
1
2

·
k
2
3
k
1
3

·
k
2
3
k
1
4

·
k
2
3
k
2
3

·
k
2
3
k
2
4

·
k
2
3
k
3
4

·
k
2
3
A
2
4

k
1
2

·
k
2
4

k
1
3

·
k
2
4

k
1
4

·
k
2
4

k
2
3

·
k
2
4

k
2
4

·
k
2
4

k
3
4

·
k
2
4
A
3
4

k
1
2

·
k
3
4

k
1
3

·
k
3
4

k
1
4

·
k
3
4

k
2
3

·
k
3
4

k
2
4

·
k
3
4

k
3
4

·
k
3
4
(
3
0
0
)
Chapter Thirteen. 230
the two time axes, we may write our transformation table in the form
A
12

A
13

A
14

A
23

A
24

A
34

A
12
cosh φ 0 0 0 sinh φ 0
A
13
0 cosh φ 0 0 0 sinh φ
A
14
0 0 1 0 0 0
A
23
0 0 0 1 0 0
A
24
−sinh φ 0 0 0 cosh φ 0
A
34
0 −sinh φ 0 0 0 cosh φ
(301)
189. Interpretation of the Lorentz Transformation as a Ro-
tation of Axes. We may now show that the Lorentz transformation
may be looked upon as a change from a given set of axes to a rotated
set.
Since the angle φ which occurs in our transformation tables is that
between the k
4
axis and the new k
4

axis, we may write, in accordance
with equations (265) and (266),
cosh φ =
1

1 −
V
2
c
2
, sinh φ =
V
c

1 −
V
2
c
2
,
where V is the velocity between the two sets of space axes which corre-
spond to the original and the rotated set of four-dimensional axes. This
will permit us to rewrite our transformation table for the components
Four-Dimensional Analysis. 231
of a one-vector in the forms
a
1

a
2

a
3

a
4

a
1
1

1 −
V
2
c
2
0 0
V/c

1 −
V
2
c
2
a
2
0 1 0 0
a
3
0 0 1 0
a
4
V/c

1 −
V
2
c
2
0 0
1

1 −
V
2
c
2
(302)
a
1
a
2
a
3
a
4
a
1

1

1 −
V
2
c
2
0 0
−V/c

1 −
V
2
c
2
a
2

0 1 0 0
a
3

0 0 1 0
a
4

−V/c

1 −
V
2
c
2
0 0
1

1 −
V
2
c
2
Consider now any point P(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, x
4
). The radius vector from
the origin to this point will be r = (x
1
k
1
+ x
2
k
2
+ x
3
k
3
+ x
4
k
4
), or,
making use of the relations between x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, x
4
and x, y, z, t given
Chapter Thirteen. 232
by equations (252), we may write
r = (xk
1
+yk
2
+zk
3
+ctk
4
).
Applying our transformation table to the components of this one-vector,
we obtain the familiar equations for the Lorentz transformation
x

=
x −V t

1 −
V
2
c
2
,
y

= y,
z

= z,
t

=
1

1 −
V
2
c
2

t −
V
c
2
x

.
We thus see that the Lorentz transformation is to be interpreted in
our four-dimensional analysis as a rotation of axes.
190. Graphical Representation. Although we have purposely
restricted ourselves in the foregoing treatment to methods of attack
which are almost purely analytical rather than geometrical in nature,
the importance of a graphical representation of our four-dimensional
manifold should not be neglected. The difficulty of representing all
four axes on a single piece of two-dimensional paper is not essentially
different from that encountered in the graphical representation of the
facts of ordinary three-dimensional solid geometry, and these difficulties
can often be solved by considering only one pair of axes at a time, say
OX
1
and OX
4
, and plotting the occurrences in the X
1
OX
4
plane. The
fact that the geometry of this plane is a non-Euclidean one presents a
more serious complication since the figures that we draw on our sheet of
paper will obviously be Euclidean in nature, but this difficulty also can
be met if we make certain conventions as to the significance of the lines
we draw, conventions which are fundamentally not so very unlike the
Four-Dimensional Analysis. 233
conventions by which we interpret as solid, a figure drawn in ordinary
perspective.
Consider for example the diagram shown in Fig. 18, where we have
drawn a pair of perpendicular axes, OX
1
, and OX
4
and the two unit
hyperbolæ given by the equations
x
1
2
−x
4
2
= 1,
x
1
2
−x
4
2
= −1,
(303)
together with their asymptotes, OA and OB, given by the equation
x
1
2
−x
4
2
= 0. (304)
This purely Euclidean figure permits, as a matter of fact, a fairly satis-
factory representation of the non-Euclidean properties of the manifold
with which we have been dealing.
OX
1
and OX
4
may be considered as perpendicular axes in the non-
Euclidean X
1
OX
4
plane. Radius vectors lying in the quadrant AOB
will have a greater component along the X
4
than along the X
1
axis
and hence will be δ-vectors with the magnitude s =

x
4
2
−x
1
2
, where
x
1
and x
4
are the coördinates of the terminal of the vector. γ-radius-
vectors will lie in the quadrant BOC and will have the magnitude
s =

x
1
2
−x
4
2
. Radius vectors lying along the asymptotes OAand OB
will have zero magnitudes (s =

x
1
2
−x
4
2
= 0) and hence will be
singular vectors.
Since the two hyperbolæ have the equations x
1
2
− x
4
2
= 1 and
x
1
2
−x
4
2
= −1, rays such as Oa, Oa

, Ob, etc., starting from the origin
and terminating on the hyperbolæ, will all have unit magnitude. Hence
we may consider the hyperbolæ as representing unit pseudo-circles in
our non-Euclidean plane and consider the rays as representing the radii
of these pseudo-circles.
A non-Euclidean rotation of axes will then be represented by
changing from the axes OX
1
and OX
4
to OX
1

and OX
4

, and taking
Oa

and Ob

as unit distances along the axes instead of Oa and Ob.
Chapter Thirteen. 234
A
C
B
D
O a
a

b
b

X
1
X
4
X

1
X

4
θ
θ
dx
1
dx
4
Fig. 18.
It is easy to show, as a matter of fact, that such a change of
axes and units does correspond to the Lorentz transformation. Let
x
1
and x
4
be the coördinates of any point with respect to the origi-
nal axes OX
1
and OX
4
, and x
1

and x
4

the coördinates of the same
point referred to the oblique axes OX
1

and OX
4

, no change having yet
been made in the actual lengths of the units of measurement. Then,
by familiar equations of analytical geometry, we shall have
x
1
= x
1

cos θ +x
4

sin θ,
x
4
= x
1

sin θ +x
4

cos θ,
(305)
Four-Dimensional Analysis. 235
where θ is the angle X
1
OX
1

.
We have, moreover, from the properties of the hyperbola,
Oa

Oa
=
Ob

Ob
=
1

cos
2
θ −sin
2
θ
,
and hence if we represent by x
1

and x
4

the coördinates of the point
with respect to the oblique axes and use Oa

and Ob

as unit distances
instead of Oa and Ob, we shall obtain
x
1
= x
1

cos θ

cos
2
θ −sin
2
θ
+x
4

sin θ

cos
2
θ −sin
2
θ
,
x
4
= x
1

sin θ

cos
2
θ −sin
2
θ
+x
4

cos θ

cos
2
θ −sin
2
θ
.
It is evident, however, that we may write
sin θ
cos θ
= tan θ =
dx
1
dx
4
=
V
c
,
where V may be regarded as the relative velocity of our two sets of space
axes. Introducing this into the above equations and also writing x
1
= x,
x
4
= ct, x
1

= x

, x
4

= ct

, we may obtain the familiar equations
x =
1

1 −
V
2
c
2
(x

+V t

),
t =
1

1 −
V
2
c
2

t

+
V
c
2
x

.
We thus see that our diagrammatic representation of non-Euclidean
rotation in the X
1
OX
4
plane does as a matter of fact correspond to the
Lorentz transformation.
Chapter Thirteen. 236
Diagrams of this kind can now be used to study various kinematical
events. δ-curves can be drawn in the quadrant AOB to represent the
space-time trajectories of particles, their form can be investigated using
different sets of rotated axes, and the equations for the transformation
of velocities and accelerations thus studied. γ-lines perpendicular to
the particular time axis used can be drawn to correspond to the instan-
taneous positions of actual lines in ordinary space and studies made of
the Lorentz shortening. Singular vectors along the asymptote OB can
be used to represent the trajectory of a ray of light and it can be shown
that our rotation of axes is so devised as to leave unaltered, the angle
between such singular vectors and the OX
4
axis, corresponding to the
fact that the velocity of light must appear the same to all observers.
Further development of the possibilities of graphical representation of
the properties of our non-Euclidean space may be left to the reader.
part ii. applications of the four-dimensional analysis.
191. We may now apply our four-dimensional methods to a number
of problems in the fields of kinematics, mechanics and electromagnetics.
Our general plan will be to express the laws of the particular field in
question in four-dimensional language, making use of four-dimensional
vector quantities of a kinematical, mechanical, or electromagnetic na-
ture. Since the components of these vectors along the three spatial axes
and the temporal axis will be closely related to the ordinary quantities
familiar in kinematical, mechanical, and electrical discussions, there
will always be an easy transition from our four-dimensional language
to that ordinarily used in such discussions, and necessarily used when
actual numerical computations are to be made. We shall find, however,
that our four-dimensional language introduces an extraordinary brevity
into the statement of a number of important laws of physics.
Four-Dimensional Analysis. 237
Kinematics.
192. Extended Position. The position of a particle and the par-
ticular instant at which it occupies that position can both be indicated
by a point in our four-dimensional space. We can call this the ex-
tended position of the particle and determine it by stating the value of
a four-dimensional radius vector
r = (x
1
k
1
+x
2
k
2
+x
3
k
3
+x
4
k
4
). (306)
193. Extended Velocity. Since the velocity of a real particle can
never exceed that of light, its changing position in space and time will
be represented by a δ-curve.
The equation for a unit vector tangent to this δ-curve will be
w =
dr
ds
=

dx
1
ds
k
1
+
dx
2
ds
k
2
+
dx
3
ds
k
3
+
dx
4
ds
k
4

, (307)
where ds indicates interval along the δ-curve; and this important vec-
tor w may be called the extended velocity of the particle.
Remembering that for a δ-curve
ds =

dx
4
2
−dx
1
2
−dx
2
2
−dx
3
2
= c dt

1 −
u
2
c
2
, (308)
we may rewrite our expression for extended velocity in the form
w =
1

1 −
u
2
c
2

u
c
+k
4
¸
, (309)
where u is evidently the ordinary three-dimensional velocity of the par-
ticle.
Since w is a four-dimensional vector in our imaginary space, we
may use our tables for transforming the components of w from one set
Chapter Thirteen. 238
of axes to another. We shall find that we may thus obtain transfor-
mation equations for velocity identical with those already familiar in
Chapter IV.
The four components of w are
u
x
c

1 −
u
2
c
2
k
1
,
u
y
c

1 −
u
2
c
2
k
2
,
u
z
c

1 −
u
2
c
2
k
3
,
k
4

1 −
u
2
c
2
,
and with the help of table (302) we may easily obtain, by making simple
algebraic substitutions, the following familiar transformation equations:
u
x

=
u
x
−V
1 −
u
x
V
c
2
, u
y

=
u
y

1 −
V
2
c
2
1 −
u
x
V
c
2
, u
z

=
u
z

1 −
V
2
c
2
1 −
u
x
V
c
2
,
1

1 −
u

2
c
2
=
1 −
u
x
V
c
2

1 −
u
2
c
2

1 −
V
2
c
2
.
This is a good example of the ease with which we can derive our
familiar transformation equations with the help of the four-dimensional
method.
194. Extended Acceleration. We may define the extended ac-
celeration of a particle as the rate of curvature of the δ-line which
determines its four-dimensional position. We have
c =
d
2
r
ds
2
=
dw
ds
=
d
ds

u
c
+k
4

1 −
u
2
c
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (310)
Four-Dimensional Analysis. 239
Or, introducing as before the relation ds = c dt

1 −
u
2
c
2
, we may write
c =
1
c
2

1

1 −
u
2
c
2

du
dt
+
1

1 −
u
2
c
2

2
u
c
2
du
dt
u
+
1

1 −
u
2
c
2

2
u
c
du
dt
k
4
¸
, (311)
where u is evidently the ordinary three-dimensional velocity, and
du
dt
the three-dimensional acceleration; and we might now use our transfor-
mation table to determine the transformation equations for acceleration
which we originally obtained in Chapter IV.
195. The Velocity of Light. As an interesting illustration of
the application to kinematics of our four-dimensional methods, we may
point out that the trajectory of a ray of light will be represented by
a singular line. Since the magnitude of all singular vectors is zero by
definition, we have for any singular line
dx
1
2
+dx
2
2
+dx
3
2
= dx
4
2
,
or, since the magnitude will be independent of any particular choice of
axes, we may also write
dx
1

2
+dx
2

2
+dx
3

2
= dx
4

2
.
Transforming the first of these equations we may write
dx
1
2
+dx
2
2
+dx
3
2
dx
4
2
=
dx
2
+dy
2
+dz
2
c
2
dt
2
= 1
or
dl
dt
= c.
Chapter Thirteen. 240
Similarly we could obtain from the second equation
dl

dt

= c.
We thus see that a singular line does as a matter of fact correspond to
the four-dimensional trajectory of a ray of light having the velocity c,
and that our four-dimensional analysis corresponds to the requirements
of the second postulate of relativity that a ray of light shall have the
same velocity for all reference systems.
The Dynamics of a Particle.
196. Extended Momentum. We may define the extended mo-
mentum of a material particle as equal to the product m
0
w of its
mass m
0
, measured when at rest, and its extended velocity w. In
accordance with equation (309) for extended velocity, we may write
then, for the extended momentum,
m
0
w =
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2

u
c
+k
4

. (312)
Or, if in accordance with our considerations of Chapter VI we put for
the mass of the particle at the velocity u
m =
m
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
,
we may write
m
0
w = m
u
c
+mk
4
. (313)
We note that the space component of this vector is ordinary momen-
tum and the time component has the magnitude of mass, and by ap-
plying our transformation table (302) we can derive very simply the
Four-Dimensional Analysis. 241
transformation equations for mass and momentum already obtained in
Chapter VI.
197. The Conservation Laws. We may now express the laws for
the dynamics of a system of particles in a very simple form by stating
the principle that the extended momentum of a system of particles is a
quantity which remains constant in all interactions of the particles, we
have then
¸
m
0
w =
¸

mu
c
+mk
4

= a constant, (314)
where the summation
¸
extends over all the particles of the system.
It is evident that this one principle really includes the three princi-
ples of the conservation of momentum, mass, and energy. This is true
because in order for the vector
¸
m
0
w to be a constant quantity, its
components along each of the four axes must be constant, and as will be
seen from the above equation this necessitates the constancy of the mo-
mentum
¸
mu, of the total mass
¸
m, and of the total energy
¸
m
c
2
.
The Dynamics of an Elastic Body.
Our four-dimensional methods may also be used to present the re-
sults of our theory of elasticity in a very compact form.
198. The Tensor of Extended Stress. In order to do this we
shall first need to define an expression which may be called the four-
dimensional stress in the elastic medium. For this purpose we may take
the symmetrical tensor T
m
defined by the following table:
T
m
=

p
xx
p
xy
p
xz
cg
x
,
p
yx
p
yy
p
yz
cg
y
,
p
zx
p
zy
p
zz
cg
z
,
s
x
c
s
y
c
s
z
c
w,
(315)
Chapter Thirteen. 242
where the spatial components of T
m
are equal to the components of the
symmetrical tensor p which we have already defined in Chapter X and
the time components are related to the density of momentum g, density
of energy flow s and energy density w, as shown in the tabulation.
From the symmetry of this tensor we may infer at once the simple
relation between density of momentum and density of energy flow:
g =
s
c
2
, (316)
with which we have already become familiar in Section 132.
199. The Equation of Motion. We may, moreover, express the
equation of motion for an elastic medium unacted on by external forces
in the very simple form
div T
m
= 0. (317)
It will be seen from our definition of the divergence of a four-
dimensional tensor, Section 187, that this one equation is in reality
equivalent to the two equations
div p +
∂g
∂t
= 0 (318)
and
div s +
∂w
∂t
= 0.
The first of these equations is identical with (184) of Chapter X, which
we found to be the equation for the motion of an elastic medium in the
absence of external forces, and the second of these equations expresses
the principle of the conservation of energy.
The elegance and simplicity of this four-dimensional method of ex-
pressing the results of our laborious calculations in Chapter X cannot
fail to be appreciated.
Four-Dimensional Analysis. 243
Electromagnetics.
We also find it possible to express the laws of the electromagnetic
field very simply in our four-dimensional language.
200. Extended Current. We may first define the extended cur-
rent, a simple but important one-vector, whose value at any point will
depend on the density and velocity of charge at that point. We shall
take as the equation of definition
q = ρ
0
w = ρ

u
c
+k
4
¸
, (319)
where
ρ =
ρ
0

1 −
u
2
c
2
is the density of charge at the point in question.
201. The Electromagnetic Vector M. We may further define
a two-vector M which will be directly related to the familiar vectors
strength of electric field e and strength of magnetic field h by the
equation of definition
M = (h
1
k
23
+h
2
k
31
+h
3
k
12
−e
1
k
14
−e
2
k
24
−e
3
k
34
)
or (320)
M

= (e
1
k
23
+e
2
k
31
+e
3
k
12
+h
1
k
14
+h
2
k
24
+h
3
k
34
),
where e
1
, e
2
, e
3
, and h
1
, h
2
, h
3
are the components of e and h.
202. The Field Equations. We may now state the laws of the
electromagnetic field in the extremely simple form
♦ · M = q, (321)
♦ ×M = 0. (322)
Chapter Thirteen. 244
These two simple equations are, as a matter of fact, completely
equivalent to the four field equations which we made fundamental for
our treatment of electromagnetic theory in Chapter XII. Indeed if we
treat ♦ formally as a one-vector

k
1

∂x
1
+k
2

∂x
2
+k
3

∂x
3
−k
4

∂x
4

and apply it to the electromagnetic vector M expressed in the extended
form given in the equation of definition (320) we shall obtain from (321)
the two equations
curl h −
1
c
∂e
∂t
= ρ
u
c
,
div e = ρ,
and from (322)
div h = 0,
curl e +
1
c
∂h
∂t
= 0,
where we have made the substitution x
4
= ct. These are of course the
familiar field equations for the Maxwell-Lorentz theory of electromag-
netism.
203. The Conservation of Electricity. We may also obtain very
easily an equation for the conservation of electric charge. In accordance
with equation (284) we may write as a necessary mathematical identity
♦ · (♦ · M) = 0. (323)
Noting that ♦ · M = q, this may be expanded to give us the equation
of continuity.
div ρu +
∂ρ
∂t
= 0. (324)
Four-Dimensional Analysis. 245
204. The Product M· q. We have thus shown the form taken by
the four field equations when they are expressed in four dimensional
language. Let us now consider with the help of our four-dimensional
methods what can be said about the forces which determine the motion
of electricity under the action of the electromagnetic field.
Consider the inner product of the electromagnetic vector and the
extended current:
M· q = (h
1
k
23
+h
2
k
31
+h
3
k
12
−e
1
k
14
−e
2
k
24
−e
3
k
34
) · ρ

u
c
+k
4
¸
= ρ

e +
[u ×h]

c


e · h
c
k
4
. (325)
We see that the space component of this vector is equal to the expres-
sion which we have already found in Chapter XII as the force acting on
the charge contained in unit volume, and the time component is pro-
portional to the work done by this force on the moving charge; hence
we may write the equation
M· q =

f +
f · u
c
k
4

, (326)
an expression which contains the same information as that given by the
so-called fifth fundamental equation of electromagnetic theory, f being
the force exerted by the electromagnetic field per unit volume of charged
material.
205. The Extended Tensor of Electromagnetic Stress. We
may now show the possibility of defining a four-dimensional tensor T
e
,
such that the important quantity M· q shall be equal to −div T
e
. This
will be valuable since we shall then be able to express the equation
of motion for a combined mechanical and electrical system in a very
simple and beautiful form.
Chapter Thirteen. 246
Consider the symmetrical tensor
T
e
=

T
11
T
12
T
13
T
14
,
T
21
T
22
T
23
T
24
,
T
31
T
32
T
33
T
34
,
T
41
T
42
T
43
T
44
,
(327)
defined by the expression
T
jk
=
1
2
{M
j1
M
k1
+M
j2
M
k2
+M
j3
M
k3
−M
j4
M
k4
+M
j1

M
k1

+M
j2

M
k2

+M
j3

M
k3

−M
j4

M
k4

},
(328)
where j, k = 1, 2, 3, 4.
It can then readily be shown by expansion that
−div T
e
= M· (♦ · M) +M

· (♦ · M

).
But, in accordance with equations (321), (326), (292) and (322), this is
equivalent to
−div T
e
= M· q =

f +
(f · u)
c
k
4

. (329)
Since in free space the value of the force f is zero, we may write for
free space the equation
div T
e
= 0. (330)
This one equation is equivalent, as a matter of fact, to two important
and well-known equations of electromagnetic theory. If we develop the
components T
11
, T
12
, etc., of our tensor in accordance with equations
Four-Dimensional Analysis. 247
(328) and (320) we find that we can write
T
e
=

ψ
xx
ψ
xy
ψ
xz
S
x
c
,
ψ
yx
ψ
yy
ψ
yz
S
y
c
,
ψ
zx
ψ
zxy
ψ
zz
S
z
c
,
s
x
c
s
x
c
s
x
c
w,
(331)
where we shall have
ψ
xx
= −
1
2
(e
x
2
−e
y
2
−e
z
2
+h
x
2
−h
y
2
−h
z
2
),
ψ
xy
= −(e
x
h
y
+h
x
h
y
),
etc.
s
x
= c(e
y
h
z
−e
z
h
y
),
etc.
w =
1
2
(e
2
+h
2
),
(332)
ψ thus being equivalent to the well-known Maxwell three-dimensional
stress tensor, s
x
, s
y
, etc., being the components of the Poynting vector
c [e × h]

, and w being the familiar expression for density of electro-
magnetic energy
e
2
+h
2
s
. We thus see that equation (330) is equivalent
to the two equations
div ψ +
1
c
2
∂s
∂t
= 0,
div s +
∂w
∂t
= 0.
The first of these is the so-called equation of electromagnetic momen-
tum, and the second, Poynting’s equation for the flow of electromag-
netic energy.
Chapter Thirteen. 248
206. Combined Electrical and Mechanical Systems. For a
point not in free space where mechanical and electrical systems are both
involved, taking into account our previous considerations, we may now
write the equation of motion for a combined electrical and mechanical
system in the very simple form
div T
m
+ div T
e
= 0.
And we may point out in closing that we may reasonably expect all
forces to be of such a nature that our most general equation of motion
for any continuous system can be written in the form
div T
1
+ div T
2
+· · · = 0.
APPENDIX I.—Symbols for Quantities.
Scalar Quantities. (Indicated by Italic type.)
c speed of light.
e electric charge.
E energy.
H kinetic potential.
K kinetic energy.
l, m, n direction cosines.
L Lagrangian function.
p pressure.
Q quantity of electricity.
S entropy.
t time.
T temperature, function
¸
m
0
c
2

1 −

1 −
u
2
c
2

.
U potential energy.
v volume.
V relative speed of coördinate systems, volume.
w energy density.
W work.
dielectric constant.
249
Appendix I. 250
κ
1

1 −
V
2
c
2
.
µ index of refraction, magnetic permeability.
ν frequency.
ρ density of charge.
σ electrical conductivity.
φ non-Euclidean angle between time axes.
φ
1
φ
2
φ
3
· · · generalized coördinates.
ψ scalar potential.
ψ
1
ψ
2
ψ
3
· · · generalized momenta.
Vector Quantities. (Indicated by Clarendon type.)
B magnetic induction.
c extended acceleration.
D dielectric displacement.
e electric field strength in free space.
E electric field strength in a medium.
f force per unit volume.
F force acting on a particle.
g density of momentum.
h magnetic field strength in free space.
H magnetic field strength in a medium.
Appendix I. 251
i density of electric current.
M angular momentum, electromagnetic vector.
p symmetrical elastic stress tensor.
q extended current.
r radius vector.
s density of energy flow.
t unsymmetrical elastic stress tensor.
u velocity.
w extended velocity.
φ vector potential.
APPENDIX II.—Vector Notation.
Three Dimensional Space.
Unit Vectors, i j k
Radius Vector, r = xi +yj +zk
Velocity,
u =
dr
dt
= ˙ xi + ˙ yj + ˙ zk
= u
x
i +u
y
j +u
z
k
Acceleration,
˙ u =
d
2
r
dt
2
= ¨ xi + ¨ yj + ¨ zk
= ˙ u
x
i + ˙ u
y
j + ˙ u
z
k
Inner Product,
a · b = a
x
b
x
+a
y
b
y
+a
z
b
z
Outer Product,
a ×b = (a
x
b
y
−a
y
b
x
)ij + (a
y
b
z
−a
z
b
y
)jk + (a
z
b
x
−a
x
b
z
)ki
Complement of Outer Product,
[a ×b]

= (a
y
b
z
−a
z
b
y
)i + (a
z
b
x
−a
x
b
z
)j + (a
x
b
y
−a
y
b
x
)k
The Vector Operator Del or ∇,
∇ = i

∂x
+j

∂y
+k

∂z
252
Appendix II. 253
grad A = ∇A = i
∂A
∂x
+j
∂A
∂y
+k
∂A
∂z
div a = ∇· a =
∂a
x
∂x
+
∂a
y
∂y
+
∂a
z
∂z
curl a = [∇×a]

=

∂a
z
∂y

∂a
y
∂z

i +

∂a
x
∂z

∂a
z
∂x

j +

∂a
y
∂x

∂a
x
∂y

k
Non-Euclidean Four Dimensional Space.
Unit Vectors, k
1
k
2
k
3
k
4
Radius Vector,
r = x
1
k
1
+x
2
k
2
+x
3
k
3
+x
4
k
4
= xi +yj +zk +ctk
4
One Vector,
a = a
1
k
1
+a
2
k
2
+a
3
k
3
+a
4
k
4
Two Vector,
A = A
12
k
12
+A
13
k
13
+A
14
k
14
+A
23
k
23
+A
24
k
24
+A
34
k
34
Three Vector,
A = A
123
k
123
+A
124
k
124
+A
134
k
134
+A
234
k
234
Pseudo Scalar,
α = αk
1234
Transposition of Subscripts,
k
abc···
= −k
bac···
= k
bca···
Appendix II. 254
Inner Product of One Vectors,
(See Section 183).
Outer Product of One Vectors,
k
ab···
×k
nm···
= k
ab···nm···
Complement of a Vector,
φ

= φ · k
1234
The Vector Operator Quad or ♦,
♦ = k
1

∂x
1
+k
2

∂x
2
+k
3

∂x
3
+k
4

∂x
4
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Produced by Andrew D. Hwang, Berj Zamanian, Joshua Hutchinson and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (This file was produced from images from the Cornell University Library: Historical Mathematics Monographs collection.)

transcriber’s note
Minor typographical corrections and presentational changes have been made without comment. This PDF file is formatted for screen viewing, but may be easily A formatted for printing. Please consult the preamble of the L TEX source file for instructions.

THE THEORY OF THE RELATIVITY OF MOTION

BY

RICHARD C. TOLMAN

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS BERKELEY 1917

Press of The New Era Printing Company Lancaster, Pa

TO

H. E.

. . . . Part I. . . Newtonian Space. . . . Rise of the Ether Theory. . . . . . . . . . . PH. The Two Postulates of the Einstein Theory of Relativity. . . . . Newtonian Time. . . The Lorentz Theory of a Stationary Ether. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Space and Time of the Ether Theory. . . . . . . . . . TABLE OF CONTENTS. . The Postulates of Einstein. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOLMAN. . . 1 5 5 7 7 9 11 11 12 12 13 14 17 18 19 21 21 22 24 iv . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter I. . . Ether Entrained in Dielectrics. . . . Ether in the Neighborhood of Moving Bodies. . . . . . . . . . . The Second Postulate of the Einstein Theory of Relativity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part III. . . . . . . . Chapter II. . . . Historical Development of Ideas as to the Nature of Space and Time. . Rise of the Einstein Theory of Relativity. . . . . . . . . . . . Preface . . . . . The Galileo Transformation Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . Suggested Alternative to the Postulate of the Independence of the Velocity of Light and the Velocity of the Source. .THE THEORY OF THE RELATIVITY OF MOTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BY RICHARD C. . . . . . The Space and Time of Galileo and Newton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Michelson-Morley Experiment. . . Part II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Idea of a Stationary Ether. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The First Postulate of Relativity. .

. . . . . Measurements of Length in a Moving System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Relation Between Mass and Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Composition of Velocities. Chapter IV. . . . . . . . . The Mass of a Moving Body. . . . . . . . . The Aberration of Light. . . Kinematical Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transformation Equations for Velocity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Some Elementary Deductions. . The Kinematical Shape of a Rigid Body. . . . . . The Case of Parallel Velocities. . . . . . . . . . The Einstein Transformation Equations for Space and Time. . . . . Chapter V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Lorentz Transformation. . . . . . . . . . The Setting of Clocks in a Moving System. . . . . . . The Idea of Simultaneity. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Evidence Against Emission Theories of Light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Transformation Equations. . . . Application of the Principles of Kinematics to Certain Optical Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Different Forms of Emission Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Transformation Equations for the Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deduction of the Fundamental Transformation Equations. . . . . Velocity of Light in Moving Media. . Three Conditions to be Fulfilled. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u2 1− 2 c 25 27 29 30 30 32 35 38 40 42 45 45 46 47 49 50 51 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 56 57 59 60 63 64 65 Transformation Equations for Acceleration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Composition of Velocities. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Composition of Velocities in General. Velocities Greater than that of Light. . . . . . . . . . Further Postulates of the Theory of Relativity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Transformation Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Doppler Effect. . . . Measurements of Time in a Moving System. . . . . . . . . . . The Kinematical Rate of a Clock. . . . . . . . . . . . .

Transverse Collision. . . . . . Chapter VIII. . . . . . The Dynamics of a Particle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lagrange’s Equations. . . . . The Force Exerted by a Moving Charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Difference between Newtonian and Relativity Mechanics. . . Equations of Motion in the Hamiltonian Form. . . . . . . . Mass the Same in All Directions. . . . . . . . . . . . . Application to a Specific Problem. . . . . . . . . . The Function T . . . . . On the Nature of a System of Particles. . . . . . . . . . The Conservation of Momentum. . . . .Group Velocity. . . . . Value of the Function T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transformation Equations for Force. . . . . . . . . . On the Location of Energy in Space. . . . . . . . . . The Principle of the Conservation of Energy. . . . . Application to a Specific Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Longitudinal Collision. . . . . . . . . Collision of Any Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transformation Equations for Mass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter VI. . . . . . . . Equation for the Force Acting on a Moving Particle. . . . . . . . . Work. . . . . The Dynamics of a System of Particles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Mass of a Moving Particle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Principle of Least Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . The Modified Lagrangian Function. . . . 66 67 67 67 68 69 72 73 74 78 79 80 80 82 84 87 87 89 89 91 91 93 96 96 97 99 101 102 102 104 105 107 109 110 113 . . . . . . . . Chapter VII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Relation between Mass and Energy. . . . . The Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kinetic Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . The Field around a Moving Charge. The Equation of Angular Momentum. . . . Transverse and Longitudinal Acceleration. . . . . . . . . . . . The Relation between Force and Acceleration. . . . . . . . . . The Laws of Motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Potential Energy. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Criterion for Equality of Temperature. . . . . . . Approximate Partition of Energy for Particles of any Desired Mass. . . . . . The Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. . . . . . . Representation in Generalized Space. The Relativity Expression for Temperature. . . Transformation Equations for Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Probability of a Given Statistical State. . . . . . . Relation between W dt and W dt . . Chapter IX. . . . . . . . . Pressure Exerted by a System of Particles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Equations of Motion in the Lagrangian Form. Part I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 114 114 116 116 118 119 121 122 123 124 126 128 130 131 132 135 135 137 138 139 142 145 145 145 146 148 148 149 152 152 153 155 . . . . . . . Relation between H and H. . . . . . Lagrange’s Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction of the Principle of Relativity. . . . . . . Partition of Energy for Zero Mass. . . . . . . Polar Coördinates. . . The Principle of Least Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Principle of Relativity and the Principle of Least Action. On the Impossibility of Absolutely Rigid Bodies. The Partition of Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Distribution Law. . . . The Energy as a Function of the Momentum. . . . . . . . . Stress and Strain. Equilibrium Relations. . The Law of Equipartition. . . . . . . . . . . Part II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter X. . Transformation Equations for Strain. . . . . . A System of Particles. . . . . . The Kinetic Potential for an Elastic Body. . . . . . . . . . Introduction of the Principle of Least Action. . . . .The Equations of Motion. . . Liouville’s Theorem. . . Variation in the Strain. . . . . Definition of Strain. . . . . . . . . . . . . Definition of Stress. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . Relation between Angular Momentum and the Unsymmetrical Stress Tensor. . The Dynamics of a Particle. . . . The Energy of a Moving Thermodynamic System. . . . . . The Equations of Motion in the Lagrangian Form. . . . . . . . . . . . . The Dynamics of a Thermodynamic System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Some Mathematical Relations. . . . . Transformation Equation for Pressure. . . . . . . . Relation between div t and tn . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Equations of Motion for Quasistationary Adiabatic Acceleration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter XI. The Dynamics of a Hohlraum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Conservation of Momentum. . . Part III. . . . . . . 155 156 158 158 159 160 160 162 163 164 165 165 167 168 169 170 172 172 172 174 174 174 175 175 176 177 178 178 179 180 181 . . . Transformation Equation for Volume. . . . Transformation Equation for Temperature. . . Introduction of the Principle of Least Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Relation between Energy and Momentum. . Density of Momentum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Equations of Motion in the Eulerian Form. . . . . . . . . . The Unsymmetrical Stress Tensor t. . .Value of E ◦ . . The Right-Angled Lever. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Density of Energy. . . . . . . . . . Transformation Equation for Entropy. . . . . . . . . . . . . The Conservation of Angular Momentum. The Kinetic Potential. . . Isolated Systems in a Steady State. . . . The Symmetrical Tensor p. . . . . . Part IV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Momentum of a Moving Thermodynamic System. . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Generalized Coördinates and Forces. . The Lagrangian Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Applications of the Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary of Results Obtained from the Principle of Least Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 183 The Form of the Kinetic Potential. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Relation between Mass and Energy. 214 Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Nature of Electromotive Force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Derivation of the Fundamental Equations of Electromagnetic Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Chapter XIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 The Relativity of Magnetic and Electric Fields. . . . . . . . . . .196 The Energy of a Moving Electromagnetic System. . . . Time and Singular Vectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Four-Dimensional Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . Vector Analysis of the Non-Euclidean Four-Dimensional Manifold. . . . . 204 Theory of the Wilson Experiment. . . . . . . . . . . 188 The Invariance of Electric Charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Kinematical Interpretation of Angle in Terms of Velocity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Invariance of x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t2 . 192 Difference between the Ether and the Relativity Theories of Electromagnetism. . 219 Inner Product of Vectors in General. . . . . . 203 Transformation Equations for Moving Media. . . . . . 217 Vectors of Higher Dimensions . 215 Inner Product of One-Vectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Derivation of the Fifth Fundamental Equation. . . . . . . . . . . 221 . 185 The Transformation Equations for e. . . . . . . 210 Idea of a Time Axis. . . . . . . . . . .Chapter XII. . . 183 The Principle of Least Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 The Theory of Moving Dielectrics. Electromagnetic Theory. 202 Relation between Field Equations for Material Media and Electron Theory. . . . . . 215 Non-Euclidean Angle. . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Part I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Applications to Electromagnetic Theory. . . . . . . . . 184 The Partial Integrations. . . . . . . . . . 219 Outer Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h and ρ. . . 196 The Electric and Magnetic Fields around a Moving Charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Non-Euclidean Character of the Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graphical Representation. . . . . . . . . . . . . ♦ or Quad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interpretation of the Lorentz Transformation as a tion of Axes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extended Momentum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kinematics. . . . . . . . . . Appendix II. . . . . . . . . . . . The Dynamics of an Elastic Body. . . . . . . . . . Tensors. . . . . The Conservation of Electricity. . . . . . . . Combined Electrical and Mechanical Systems. . Scalar Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix I. . Three Dimensional Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Equation of Motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Field Equations. The Product M · q. . . . . . . . . . The Tensor of Extended Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extended Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Electromagnetic Vector M. . . . . . Vector Quantities . The Vector Operator. . . . . . . Part II. . . . . . . . . . . Non-Euclidean Four Dimensional Space. . The Rotation of Axes. . . . . . . . . . . Applications of the Four-Dimensional Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vector Notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electromagnetics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extended Current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Complement of a Vector. . . . . . . . Extended Acceleration. . . . . . The Extended Tensor of Electromagnetic Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Dynamics of a Particle. . . . The Velocity of Light. . . . 222 223 224 225 230 232 236 236 237 237 238 239 240 240 241 241 241 242 242 243 243 243 244 245 245 247 249 249 250 252 252 253 . . . . . . . . . . . . Extended Velocity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Symbols for Quantities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Conservation Laws. . . . . . . . . . Rota. . . . . . .

have been the development of the modern theory of electrons. which in the decade since the publication of Einstein’s first paper in 1905 (Annalen der Physik ) has become a necessary part of the theoretical equipment of every physicist. The theoretical achievements. not only because its introduction greatly simplifies the deduction of many theorems which were 1 . which have been found particularly helpful in performing these functions of explanation and prediction. the study of the distribution of energy in the hohlraum. It has been the endeavor of the following book to present an introduction to this theory of relativity. and the conservative physicist was only too happy to devote his life to the measurement to the sixth decimal place of quantities whose significance for physical theory was already an old story. The passage of time. the theoretical physicist has been working hand in hand with the experimenter endeavoring to correlate the facts already discovered and to point the way to further research. the intervening years have seen the discovery of radioactivity. On the experimental side. Even if we regard the Einstein theory of relativity merely as a convenient tool for the prediction of electromagnetic and optical phenomena. the application of thermodynamic and statistical reasoning to the phenomena of radiation. canal and X-rays. there was a widespread feeling that the days of adventurous discovery had passed forever. During this same time. however. the isolation of the electron. through the discovery of some most extraordinary experimental facts and the development of very fundamental theories for their explanation.PREFACE. and the final failure of all attempts to detect the earth’s motion through the supposititious ether. its importance to the physicist is very great. the exhaustive study of the conduction of electricity through gases. in the field of physical science. has completely upset such bourgeois ideas as to the state of physical science. the accompanying discoveries of cathode. Thirty or forty years ago. and the development of Einstein’s brilliant theory of the relativity of motion.

Planck. In particular we shall now do well to change our concepts of space and time in such a way as to give up the old idea of their complete independence. 2 already familiar in the older theories based on a stationary ether. which can be made to agree with the idea of a stationary ether only by the introduction of complicated and ad hoc assumptions. vol.. Mag. p. p.. p. vol. vol. † Phil. ‡ Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. p. 22. p. vol. ∗ . p. Ishiwara and Laub. 25. Laue. vol. The method of treatment adopted in the following chapters is to a considerable extent original. Rev. Physical Review. 510 (1909). 35. Regarded from a more philosophical point of view. Philosophical Magazine. ibid. vol. 583 (1914). and Kaufman and Bucherer. Phys. but also because it leads simply and directly to correct conclusions in the case of such experiments as those of Michelson and Morley. 510 (1909). vol. 28. Trouton and Noble. but which no longer proves pragmatic when we deal with velocities approaching that of light.‡ The writer must also express his special obligations to the works of Einstein.. Phil... an acceptance of the Einstein theory of relativity shows us the advisability of completely remodelling some of our most fundamental ideas. 21. ibid. 28.. 375 (1912).. ibid. vol. 150 (1913). ibid. 136 (1912). It is hoped that the mode of presentation is one that will be found well adapted not only to introduce the study of relativity theory to those previously unfamiliar with the subject but also to provide the necessary methodological equipment for those who wish to pursue the theory into its more complicated applications. 458 (1911).. 296 (1911). p.Preface. p. vol. 18. p. 31. vol. 572 (1914). vol. 26 (1910).† and the last chapter a method developed by Wilson and Lewis. p. 48. 389 (1912).∗ Chapter III follows a method which was first developed by Lewis and Tolman. Poincaré. Mag. partly appearing here for the first time and partly already published elsewhere. Mag. Phil. 23. 18. p. a notion which we have received as the inheritance of a long ancestral experience with bodies moving with slow velocities.

In particular we may call attention to the ease with which we may handle the optics of moving media by the methods of the theory of relativity as compared with the difficulty of treatment on the basis of the ether theory. The third chapter then presents an elementary and non-mathematical deduction of a number of the most important consequences of the postulates of relativity. in Chapter IX. since they will there be able to obtain a real grasp of such important new ideas as the change of mass with velocity. Chapter V presents various kinematical applications of the theory of relativity following quite closely Einstein’s original method of development. and then proceed in Chapters . in the first chapter. and for an important function of the velocity. In Chapter IV we commence the more analytical treatment of the theory of relativity by obtaining from the two postulates of relativity Einstein’s transformation equations for space and time as well as transformation equations for velocities. Newton’s three laws of motion. accelerations. 3 After presenting. in Chapter II. we consider. the two main postulates upon which the theory of relativity rests and discuss the direct experimental evidence for their truth. the relation between the theory of relativity and the principle of least action. VII and VIII we develop and apply a theory of the dynamics of a particle which is based on the Einstein transformation equations for space and time. and find it possible to introduce the requirements of relativity theory at the very start into this basic principle for physical science. and it is hoped that this chapter will prove especially valuable to readers without unusual mathematical equipment. without encountering any mathematics beyond the elements of analysis and geometry. In Chapters VI.Preface. for developing the dynamics of a particle. a brief outline of the historical development of ideas as to the nature of the space and time of science. and the principle of the conservation of mass. the non-additivity of velocities. We point out that we might indeed have used this adapted form of the principle of least action. and the relation of mass and energy. We then examine.

Finally. The author will feel amply repaid for the work involved in the preparation of the book if.Preface. Williams for assisting in the preparation of Chapter I. in Chapter XIII. an epitome of some of the more important methods in four-dimensional vector analysis and it is hoped that it can also be used in connection with the earlier parts of the book as a convenient reference for those who are not familiar with ordinary three-dimensional vector analysis. XI and XII to develop the dynamics of an elastic body. the writer has confined his considerations to cases in which there is a uniform relative velocity between systems of coördinates. all on the basis of our adapted form of the principle of least action. The writer wishes to express his indebtedness to Mr. In the present book. and that these spatial and temporal concepts should be altered whenever the discovery of new facts makes such a change pragmatic. This chapter contains. and the dynamics of an electromagnetic system. He is also glad to have this opportunity to add his testimony to the growing conviction that the conceptual space and time of science are not God-given and unalterable. in Part I. It does not seem wise. and in this connection Einstein’s latest work on the relation between gravity and acceleration is of great interest. In the future it may be possible greatly to extend the applications of the theory of relativity by considering accelerated systems of coördinates. the dynamics of a thermodynamic system. William H. through his efforts. 4 X. however. some of the younger American physicists can be helped to obtain a real knowledge of the important work of Einstein. . we consider a four-dimensional method of expressing and treating the results of relativity theory. at the present time to include such considerations in a book which intends to present a survey of accepted theory. but are rather in the nature of human constructs devised for use in the description and correlation of scientific phenomena.

The publication in 1687 of Newton’s Principia laid down so satisfactory a foundation for further dynamical considerations. Before proceeding to this task. part i. which were there employed. 2. the space and time of galileo and newton. In the following pages it will be our endeavor to present a description of these new notions as to the nature of space and time. Throughout this work by “space” and “time” we shall mean the conceptual space and time of science. until our recent familiarity with very high velocities. that it seemed as though the ideas of Galileo and Newton as to the nature of space and time. and this revolution has in turn profoundly modified those dependent sciences. and then the space and time of the ether theory of light. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF IDEAS AS TO THE NATURE OF SPACE AND TIME. we may well review those older ideas as to space and time which until now appeared quite sufficient for the correlation of scientific phenomena. which make use of these two fundamental concepts in their considerations.CHAPTER I. in particular mechanics and electromagnetics. ∗ 5 . would certainly remain forever suitable for the interpretation of natural phenomena. 1. however. the development of scientific thought has led to a complete revolution in accepted ideas as to the nature of space and time.∗ and to give a partial account of the consequent modifications which have been introduced into various fields of science. We shall first consider the space and time of Galileo and Newton which were employed in the development of the classical mechanics. which marked the publication of Einstein’s momentous article on the theory of relativity. Since the year 1905. And indeed upon this basis has been built the whole structure of classical mechanics which.

Newton’s laws of motion. Fz = m dt dt and this definition of force. equation (1) may be more conveniently written F=m or d du =m dt dt dr dt . dt This equation defines the force F acting on a particle as equal to the rate of change in its momentum (i. (2) dt dt d dz . the product of its mass m and its velocity u). dt dt d dy Fy = m . 6 has been found completely satisfactory for an extremely large number of very diverse dynamical considerations.Chapter One. can best be stated with the help of the equation d (1) F = (mu)..e. in which the expression for the force acting on a Fx = m . and the whole of Newton’s laws of motion may be summed up in the statement that in the case of two interacting particles the forces which they mutually exert on each other are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. The necessary dependence of this mechanics upon the concepts of space and time becomes quite evident on an examination of this fundamental equation (2). forms the starting-point for the whole of classical mechanics. An examination of the fundamental laws of mechanics will show how the concepts of space and time entered into the Newtonian system of mechanics. together with the above-stated principle of the equality of action and reaction. from which the whole of the classical mechanics could be derived. Since in Newtonian mechanics the mass of a particle is assumed constant. d dx .

however. This continuum is a sort of framework in which the instants at which actual occurrences take place find an ordered position. one-valued continuum. A unidirectional nature is imposed upon the time continuum among other things by an acceptance of the second law of thermodynamics. and the variable t. 4. In the following pages. the Newtonian mechanics always assumed a complete independence of time and the three-dimensional space continuum which exists along with it. and in the Einstein transformation equations we shall see the exact way in which measurements of time depend upon the choice of a set of variables for measuring position in space. Newtonian Time. y. homogeneous. either to commence a new cycle or to intersect its former path even at a single point. that is intervals of time. and this same law requires that the continuum shall be one-valued since it excludes the possibility that time ever returns upon itself. Distances from point to point in the continuum. are measured by the periods of certain continually recurring cyclic processes such as the daily rotation of the earth. which specifies the time. we shall find that the theory of relativity requires a very definite interrelation between time and space. 7 particle is seen to contain both the variables x. To attempt a definite statement as to the meaning of so fundamental and underlying a notion as that of time is a task from which even philosophy may shrink. 3.Historical Development. In dynamical equations time entered as an entirely independent variable in no way connected with the variables whose specification determines position in space. conceptual time may be thought of as a one-dimensional. which specify the position of the particle in space. In addition to these characteristics of the time continuum. An exact description of the concept of space is perhaps just as difficult as a description of the concept of time. and z. which have been in no way modified by the theory of relativity. Newtonian Space. which requires that actual progression in time shall be accompanied by an increase in the entropy of the material world. unidirectional. . In a general way. In a general way we think of space as a three-dimensional.

becomes somewhat unsatisfactory when we take account of the observed motions of the stars themselves. we try to interpret with these same axes the motion of the heavenly bodies. the position of a particle by specifying its three Cartesian coördinates x. The space of Newton. In particular we may make use of a set of Cartesian axes and determine.Chapter One. A more definite idea of the particularly important characteristics of the Newtonian concept of space may be obtained by considering somewhat in detail the actual methods of space measurement. y and z. and the problem is simplified. so far as planetary motions are concerned. the equations of motion based on Newton’s laws give us a simple description of nearly all dynamical phenomena which are merely terrestrial. Positions in space are in general measured with respect to some arbitrarily fixed system of reference which must be threefold in character corresponding to the three dimensions of space. and it is finally convenient to take a reference system relative to which the sun is moving with a velocity of twelve miles per second in the direction of the constellation Hercules. When. This system of axes is so chosen that the great majority of stars have on the average no motion with respect to it. and the ether theory of light. and differs on the other hand from that of the ether theory of light by the fact that “free” space was assumed completely empty instead of filled with an all-pervading quasi-material medium— the ether. But this system. in its turn. and these ideas are common to the conceptual spaces of Newton. it is found by experience that. For example. In Newtonian mechanics the particular set of axes chosen for specifying position in space has in general been determined in the first instance by considerations of convenience. Einstein. however. by taking a new reference system determined by the sun and the fixed stars. for example. we meet difficulties. however. if we take as a reference system lines drawn upon the surface of the earth. differs on the one hand from that of Einstein because of a tacit assumption of the complete independence of space and time measurements. and the actual motion of any particular star with respect . 8 isotropic continuum.

and for further simplification let us take as our zero point for time measurements the instant when the two origins O and O coincide. Suppose. and the further tacit assumption of the complete independence of space and time. for convenience let the X axes.Historical Development. of the two systems coincide in direction. Consider two systems of right-angled coördinates. led them to propose a very simple solution of the problem. which are in relative motion in the X direction with the velocity V . 9 to these coördinates is called the peculiar motion of the star. y and z measured in system S. and t which accurately describes the motion of a given point. the coördinates of the point with reference to system S are given by the following transformation equations: x y z t = x − V t. Then. z. S and S . For example. Consider now a point which at the time t has the coördinates x. OX and O X . we have a number of such systems of axes in uniform relative motion. = z. y. The Galileo Transformation Equations. we are confronted by the problem of finding some method of transposing the description of a given kinematical occurrence from the variables of one of these sets of axes to those of another. now. (3) (4) (5) (6) . and the transformation equations which they used are generally called the Galileo Transformation Equations to distinguish them from the Einstein Transformation Equations which we shall later consider. if we have chosen a system of axes S and have found an equation in x. 5. what substitutions for the quantities involved can be made so that the new equation thereby obtained will again correctly describe the same phenomena when we measure the displacements of the point relative to a new system of reference S which is in uniform motion with respect to S? The assumption of Galileo and Newton that “free” space is entirely empty. = t. according to the space and time considerations of Galileo and Newton. = y.

it is meaningless to speak of either one as in any sense “absolutely” at rest. 6. We shall later find that this important principle of the relativity of motion is permanently incorporated into our system of physical science as the first postulate of relativity. The space of this . If we have two systems of axes such as those we have just been considering. it need not cause surprise that the above equations. This principle. All we can say is that the two systems are in relative motion. Before leaving the discussion of the space and time system of Newton and Galileo we must call attention to an important characteristic which it has in common with the system of Einstein but which is not a feature of that assumed by the ether theory. we may with equal right consider either one of them at rest and the other moving past it. is not characteristic of the space assumed by the classical theory of light. common both to the space of Newton and to that of Einstein. Relations (3). The equation x = x − V t which we use in transforming the description of a kinematical event from the variables of system S to those of system S is perfectly symmetrical with the equation x = x + V t which we should use for a transformation in the reverse direction. should appear so self-evident. Nevertheless. to be the limiting form which the correct transformation equations assume when the velocity between the systems V becomes small compared with that of light. Since until very recent times the human race in its entire past history has been familiar only with velocities that are small compared with that of light. (5) and (6) will be found. and may appear to the casual observer to be self-evident and bound up with necessary ideas as to the nature of space and time. which are true merely at the limit. the truth of the first and the last of these equations is absolutely dependent on the unsupported assumption of the complete independence of space and time measurements. and since in the Einstein theory we shall find a very definite relation between space and time measurements we shall be led to quite a different set of transformation equations.Chapter One. 10 These equations are fundamental for Newtonian mechanics. Of all possible systems no particular set of axes holds a unique position among the others. however. (4).

Previous to Römer’s discovery. 8. and a system of axes stationary with respect to this ether would hold a unique position among the other systems and be the one peculiarly adapted for use as the ultimate system of reference for the measurement of motions. By this theory Huygens was able to explain reflection and refraction and the phenomena of color. He explained this delay by the hypothesis that it took light twenty-two minutes to travel across the earth’s orbit. Römer’s hypothesis has been repeatedly verified and the speed of light measured by different methods with considerable exactness.Historical Development. a Danish astronomer. Twelve years before the appearance of the Principia. Indeed Galileo had endeavored to find the speed of light by direct experiments over distances of a few miles and had failed to detect any lapse of time between the emission of a light flash from a source and its observation by a distant observer. At the time of Römer’s discovery there was much discussion as to the nature of light. Newton’s theory that it consisted of particles or corpuscles thrown out by a luminous body was attacked by Hooke and later by Huygens. The mean of the later determinations is 2. part ii. Rise of the Ether Theory. who advanced the view that it was something in the nature of wave motions in a supposed space-filling medium or ether. but assuming longitudinal vibrations he was . 11 theory was supposed to be filled with a stationary medium.9986 × 1010 cm. We may now briefly sketch the rise of the ether theory of light and point out the permanent contribution which it has made to physical science. the luminiferous ether. 7. the space and time of the ether theory. per second. observed that an eclipse of one of the satellites of Jupiter occurred some ten minutes later than the time predicted for the event from the known period of the satellite and the time of the preceding eclipse. Römer. light was generally supposed to travel with infinite velocity. a contribution which is now codified as the second postulate of relativity.

And the physical properties of this medium became an enticing field of inquiry and speculation. This theory has for its essential postulate the existence of an all-pervading medium. The scientific prestige of Newton was so great that the emission or corpuscular theory continued to hold its ground for a hundred and fifty years. 10. in which wave disturbances can be set up and propagated. From this time on the wave theory grew in power and for a period of eighty years was not seriously questioned. About the year 1725 the astronomer Bradley. since we should expect . for us the most important is the fact that it must apparently remain stationary. On the corpuscular theory of light this admits of ready explanation as Bradley himself discovered. Fresnel. whether the ether enclosed in a moving medium such as water or glass would partake in the latter’s motion. Of all the various properties with which the physicist found it necessary to endow the ether. about 1815. 9. This conclusion was finally reached through several lines of investigation. and. Idea of a Stationary Ether. the ether. was independently led to an undulatory theory and added to Young’s arguments the weight of his more searching mathematical analysis. Diffraction had not yet been observed and Newton contested the Hooke-Huygens theory chiefly on the grounds that it was contradicted by the fact of rectilinear propagation and the formation of shadows. We may first consider whether the ether would be dragged along by the motion of nearby masses of matter. in his efforts to measure the parallax of certain fixed stars. 12 unable to account for polarization. second. and it was not until the French physicist. that the balance began to turn. the apparent position always lying in the plane determined by the line from the earth to the center of the ellipse and by the direction of the earth’s motion. Ether in the Neighborhood of Moving Bodies.Chapter One. Even the masterly researches of Thomas Young at the beginning of the nineteenth century were unable to dislodge the old theory. discovered that the apparent position of a star continually changes in such a way as to trace annually a small ellipse in the sky. unaffected by the motion of matter through it.

the apparent or relative velocity would be c−v and the tangent v of the angle of aberration would be . provided only that the ether shall be quite stationary and unaffected by the motion of the earth through it. which was made the path for two rays of light. Since by interference methods no difference could be detected in the velocities of the two rays. Fresnel gave to this fraction The most notable exception is the theory of Stokes. as was shown by Lorentz. Ether Entrained in Dielectrics. was that the entrained ether did receive a fraction of the total velocity of the moving medium. in just the same way that the motion of a railway train makes the falling drops of rain take a slanting path across the window pane. 13 the earth’s motion to produce an apparent change in the direction of the oncoming light. which did assume that the ether moved along with the earth and then tried to account for aberration with the help of a velocity potential. The earlier view first expressed by Fresnel.Historical Development. it is obvious that we should also expect a similar aberration of light. 11. His final experiments were performed with a large rotating spheroid of iron with a narrow groove around its equator.∗ In more recent years further experimental evidence for assuming that the ether is not dragged along by the neighboring motion of large masses of matter was found by Sir Oliver Lodge. With regard to the action of a moving medium on the ether which might be entrained within it. but this led to difficulties. one travelling in the direction of rotation and the other in the opposite direction. here also the conclusion was reached that the ether was not appreciably dragged along by the rotating metal. c Upon the wave theory. and this is one of the important reasons that most ether theories have assumed a stationary ether unaffected by the motion of neighboring matter. experimental evidence and theoretical consideration here too finally led to the supposition that the ether itself must remain perfectly stationary. If c be the velocity of a light particle and v the earth’s velocity. ∗ . in a letter written to Arago in 1818.

however. extended Maxwell’s considerations to moving matter on the assumption that the entrained ether is carried bodily along by it. and for the fact that Airy found the same angle of aberration with a telescope filled with water as with air. The Lorentz Theory of a Stationary Ether. Maxwell in his treatise had confined himself to phenomena in stationary media. in his Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. Fresnel was able to account for the fact that Arago’s experiments upon the reflection and refraction of stellar rays show no influence whatever of the earth’s motion. and we may now briefly sketch the developments which culminated in the Lorentz theory of a completely stationary ether. and Maxwell’s theory was confirmed by the actual discovery of electromagnetic waves in 1888 by Hertz. and it became possible to treat transparent media as a special case of dielectrics in general. It is evident. Hertz. however. did not lead scientists to look upon this increased velocity of light in a moving medium as an evidence that the ether is pulled along by the stream of water. The fuller theoretical investigations of Lorentz. Moreover. 14 µ2 − 1 . the later work of Fizeau and the accurate determinations of Michelson and Morley on the velocity of light in a moving stream of water did show that the speed was changed by an amount corresponding to Fresnel’s fraction. Maxwell first advanced the theory that electromagnetic phenomena also have their seat in the luminiferous ether and further that light itself is merely an electromagnetic disturbance in that medium. In 1873. where µ is the index of refraction of the substance µ2 forming the medium. which had althe value .Chapter One. The attack upon the problem of the relative motion of matter and ether was now renewed with great vigor both theoretically and experimentally from the electromagnetic side. that in the field of optical theory such an assumption could not be expected to account for the Fizeau experiment. The considerations of Lorentz as to the velocity of light in moving media became possible only after it was evident that optics itself is a branch of the wider science of electromagnetics. however. 12. On this supposition.

Wilson on moving dielectrics. have led us to a very definite knowledge of many of the properties of the electron. either free as in the case of metals or combined with atoms to form ions as in electrolytes. The conclusions of the Hertz theory were also out of agreement with the important experiments of H. The theory of Lorentz developed from that of Maxwell by the addition of the idea of the electron. while the electrical and optical properties of di- . the electron. Since Faraday’s time.” This atomistic conception of electricity was foreshadowed by Faraday’s discovery of the quantitative relations between the amount of electricity associated with chemical reactions in electrolytes and the weight of substance involved. the properties of conductors being accounted for by the presence of movable electrons. While the experimental physicists were at work obtaining this more or less first-hand acquaintance with the electron. and his treatment is often called the “electron theory. a relation which indicates that the atoms act as carriers of electricity and that the quantity of electricity carried by a single particle. A. the theoretical physicists and in particular Lorentz were increasingly successful in explaining the electrical and optical properties of matter in general on the basis of the behavior of the electrons which it contains. the study of the phenomena accompanying the conduction of electricity through gases. It remained for Lorentz to develop a general theory for moving dielectrics which was consistent with the facts. 15 ready been explained on the assumption that the ether receives only a fraction of the velocity of the moving medium. and finally indeed the isolation and exact measurement of these atoms of electrical charge.Historical Development. whatever its nature. as the atom of electricity. is always some small multiple of a definite quantum of electricity. while in the field of electromagnetic theory it was found that Hertz’s assumptions would lead us to expect no production of a magnetic field in the neighborhood of a rotating electric condenser providing the plates of the condenser and the dielectric move together with the same speed and this was decisively disproved by the experiment of Eichenwald. the study of radioactivity.

16 electrics were ascribed to the presence of electrons more or less bound by quasi-elastic forces to positions of equilibrium. His investigations show rather that the ether must remain perfectly stationary. A. the Lorentz theory was found capable of accounting quantitatively for all known phenomena. as did Fresnel. magnetic permeability and dielectric inductivity. we may obtain a clearer idea of what is meant in the Lorentz theory by a stationary ether if we look for a moment at the five fundamental equations upon which the theory rests. This Lorentz electron theory of matter has been developed in great mathematical detail by Lorentz and has been substantiated by numerous quantitative experiments. which occupied the position of rather accidental experimental constants in Maxwell’s original theory. These familiar equations.Chapter One. Perhaps the greatest significance of the Lorentz theory is that such properties of matter as electrical conductivity. modified by the introduction . Although it would not be proper in this place to present the mathematical details of Lorentz’s treatment of moving media. that the ether is partially dragged along by moving matter. H. Arago’s experiments on the reflection and refraction of stellar rays. including Airy’s experiment on aberration. and the electromagnetic experiments upon moving dielectrics made by Röntgen. For us the particular significance of the Lorentz method of explaining these phenomena is that he does not assume. Eichenwald. of which the first four are merely Maxwell’s four field equations. Fresnel’s coefficient for the velocity of light in moving media. are now explainable as the statistical result of the behavior of the individual electrons. Wilson. rather than by a dragging along of the ether itself. and others. and that such phenomena as the changed velocity of light in moving media are to be accounted for by the modifying influence which the electrons in the moving matter have upon the propagation of electromagnetic disturbances. With regard now to our original question as to the behavior of moving optical and dielectric media.

and for us the particularly significant fact is that by this line of attack science was inevitably led to the idea of an absolutely immovable and stationary ether. . may be written curl h = 1 ∂e u +ρ . c ∂t div e = ρ.) Now the whole of the Lorentz theory. and in particular that the old ideas as to the absolute independence of space and time were all retained. u f =ρ e+ ×h c 17 ∗ in which the letters have their usual significance. and the fact that the idea of a stationary ether does lie at the basis of his theory is most clearly shown by the first and last of these equations. of the idea of the electron. (See Chapter XII. and in conclusion should further point out that the time continuum assumed by the ether theory was apparently the same as that of Newton and Galileo. c ∂t c 1 ∂h curl e = − . since his work marks the culmination of the ether theory of light and electromagnetism. We have seen that the space continuum assumed by this theory is not empty as was the space of Newton and Galileo but is assumed filled with a stationary medium.Historical Development. is derivable from these five equations. the ether. including of course his treatment of moving media. and for Lorentz this velocity is to be measured with respect to the assumed stationary ether. 13. We have devoted this space to the Lorentz theory. div h = 0. which contain the velocity u with which the charge in question is moving. We have thus briefly traced the development of the ether theory of light and electromagnetism.

18 14. part iii. contrary to the expectations of Newton.Chapter One. where they are totally reflected. the velocity of the light with . that systems of coördinates in relative motion are not symmetrical. The experiment consists essentially in a comparison of the velocities of light parallel and perpendicular to the earth’s motion in its orbit. 1. for example that of the earth. Bodies at rest with respect to this system of axes fixed in the ether would be spoken of as “absolutely” at rest and bodies in motion through the ether would be said to have “absolute” motion. we must now call attention to an experiment. The Michelson-Morley Experiment. A ray of light from the source S falls on the half silvered mirror A. From the point of view of the ether theory one of the most important physical problems would be to determine the velocity of various bodies. through the ether.) We may now think of the apparatus as set so that one of the divided paths is parallel to the earth’s motion and the other perpendicular to it. Now the Michelson-Morley experiment was devised for the very purpose of determining the relative motion of the earth and the ether. a system of axes fixed relatively to the ether would hold a unique position among all other systems moving relative to it and would be peculiarly adapted for the measurement of displacements and velocities. a theory which will nevermore permit us to assume that space and time are independent. performed at the very time when the success of the ether theory seemed most complete. where it is divided into two rays. and to the masterful interpretation of its consequences at the hands of Einstein we owe the whole theory of relativity. (See Fig. The rays are recombined and produce a set of interference fringes at O. In spite of all the brilliant achievements of the theory of a stationary ether. whose result was in direct contradiction to its predictions. This is the celebrated MichelsonMorley experiment. one of which travels to the mirror B and the other to the mirror C. On the basis of the stationary ether theory. If the theory of a stationary ether were true we should find. rise of the einstein theory of relativity.

it is quite possible to calculate the magnitude of the expected shift. 19 reference to the apparatus would evidently be different over the two paths.Historical Development. and hence on rotating the apparatus through an angle of ninety degrees we should expect a shift in the position of the fringes. Nevertheless the most careful experiments made at different times of day and at different seasons of the year entirely failed to show any such shift at all. 1. In fact. Knowing the magnitude of the earth’s velocity in its orbit and the dimensions of the apparatus. 15. the Einstein theory of relativity finds it preferable to return in part to the older ideas of Newton and Galileo. This result is in direct contradiction to the theory of a stationary ether and could be reconciled with that theory only by very arbitrary assumptions. Instead of making such assumptions. in accordance with the results of this work of Michelson-Morley and other confirmatory . a quantity entirely susceptible of experimental determiB + S× A C O Fig. nation. The Postulates of Einstein.

It states that there is nothing out in space in the nature of an ether or of a fixed set of coördinates with regard to which motion can be measured. which were first appreciated and understood with the help of the ether theory. . Although we thus see that the Einstein theory of relativity has returned in part to the ideas of Newton and Galileo as to the nature of space. that there is no such thing as absolute motion. namely that the velocity of light is independent of the velocity of the source. and that all we can speak of is the relative motion of one body with respect to another. Quite on the contrary. We shall see in following chapters that it is the combination of this principle with the first postulate of relativity that leads to the whole theory of relativity and to our new ideas as to the nature and interrelation of space and time. always remain incorporated in every optical theory. but in particular the Einstein theory of relativity takes as the basis for its second postulate a principle that has long been familiar to the ether theory. not only must the ideas as to the periodic and polarizable nature of the light disturbance. 20 experiments.Chapter One. it is not to be supposed that the ether theory of light and electromagnetism has made no lasting contribution to physical science. the Einstein theory takes as its first postulate the idea familiar to Newton of the relativity of all motion.

and wherever possible compare the predictions of the theory with experimental facts. No objections have ever been made to this statement of the postulate in its original form. and furthermore that they agree with the facts of the external world. we may again feel that our theory has achieved a measure of success. In following chapters we shall develop the consequences of these postulates. and indicate the direct experimental evidence in favor of their truth. THE TWO POSTULATES OF THE EINSTEIN THEORY OF RELATIVITY. In the development of the theory of relativity. 21 . The other method of testing a theory is to develop its interlacing chain of propositions and theorems and examine the results both for their internal coherence and for their objective validity. In the present chapter we shall present the two main postulates of the theory of relativity. providing false logic or unsuspected and incorrect assumptions have not later crept in to vitiate the conclusions.CHAPTER II. show that the system of consequences stands the test of internal coherence. The First Postulate of Relativity. If we find that the conclusions drawn from the theory are neither self-contradictory nor contradictory of each other. we may feel justified in assuming that the whole theoretical structure is a valid one. One of these methods is to test by direct experiment the fundamental postulates upon which the theory rests. There are two general methods of evaluating the theoretical development of any branch of science. 17. 16. The first postulate of relativity as originally stated by Newton was that it is impossible to measure or detect absolute translatory motion through space. the postulate has been modified to include the impossibility of detecting translatory motion through any medium or ether which might be assumed to pervade space. If these postulates are found to agree with the facts.

22 In support of the principle is the general fact that no effects due to the motion of the earth or other body through the supposed ether have ever been observed. Trouton. Ketteler and Mascart.∗ In none of the above investigations was it possible to detect any effect attributable to the earth’s motion through the ether. Nevertheless a number of these experiments are in accord with the final form given to the ether theory by Lorentz. J. and finally the Michelson and Morley experiment. the experiments of Mascart and of Rayleigh on the rotation of the plane of polarized light in naturally active substances. Koenigsberger. Brace and Strasser on the rotation of the plane of polarized light by transmission through glass plates. the interference experiments of Ketteler and Mascart. the work of Klinkerfuess and Haga on the position of the absorption bands of sodium. and Trouton and Rankine. p. Of the many unsuccessful attempts to detect the earth’s motion through the ether we may call attention to the experiments on the refraction of light made by Arago. with the further work of Morley and Miller. in particular those of Michelson and Morley. Des Coudres. and Trouton and Noble. vol. especially since his work satisfactorily accounts for the Fresnel coefficient for the changed velocity of light in moving media. For the purposes of our discussion we shall accept the principle of the relativity of motion as an experimental fact. For details as to the nature of these experiments the reader may refer to the original articles or to an excellent discussion by Laub of the experimental basis of the theory of relativity. Respighi.Chapter Two. 405 (1910). Others of the experiments mentioned. ∗ Jahrbuch der Radioaktivität. Hoek. . the experiment of Nordmeyer on the intensity of radiation. Trouton and Noble. could be made to accord with the Lorentz theory only by very arbitrary assumptions. 7. however. the electromagnetic experiments of Röntgen. Mascart and Rayleigh. the experiments of Fizeau.

the principle that the velocity of light is unaffected by a motion of the source was originally derived from the idea that light is transmitted by a stationary medium which does not partake in the motion of the source. 19. might be moving. This principle states that the velocity of light is unaffected by a motion of the emitting source.The Two Postulates. has given to the second postulate of relativity a very extraordinary content. in other words. A simple example of the conclusions which can be drawn from this postulate will make its extraordinary nature evident. The first postulate of relativity adds the idea that a motion of the source of light towards the observer is identical with a motion of the observer towards the source. On the other hand. This combination of two principles. The second postulate of relativity is seen to be merely a combination of these two principles. that the velocity with which light travels past any observer is not increased by a motion of the source of light towards the observer. 23 18. The Second Postulate of the Einstein Theory of Relativity. It should be pointed out that the two principles whose combination thus leads to the second postulate of Einstein have come from very different sources. The first postulate of relativity practically denies the existence of any stationary ether through which the earth. which from a historical point of view seem somewhat contradictory in nature. since it states that the velocity of light in free space appears the same to all observers regardless both of the motion of the source of light and of the observer. . for instance. Indeed it should be particularly emphasized that the remarkable conclusions as to the nature of space and time forced upon science by the theory of relativity are the special product of the second postulate of relativity. The second postulate of relativity states that the velocity of light in free space appears the same to all observers regardless of the relative motion of the source of light and the observer. This postulate may be obtained by combining the first postulate of relativity with a principle which has long been familiar to the ether theory of light.

Chapter Two. a × + S b Fig. and B away from it. ideas which are in direct opposition to the requirements of so-called common sense. Suggested Alternative to the Postulate of the Independence of the Velocity of Light and the Velocity of the Source. the second postulate requires that the time taken for the light to pass from a to a shall measure the same as the time for the light to go from b to b . A is moving towards the source S. Before examining the available evidence for deciding between the rival principles as to the velocity of light. a number of attempts have been made to develop so-called emission theories of relativity based on the principle of the relativity of motion and the further postulate that the velocity of light and the velocity of its source are additive. 2. Contrary to what seem the simple conclusions of common sense. 20. Observers on the systems mark off equal distances aa and bb along the path of the light and determine the time taken for light to pass from a to a and b to b respectively. Because of the extraordinary conclusions derived by combining the principle of the relativity of motion with the postulate that the velocity of light is independent of the velocity of its source. Hence if the second postulate of relativity is correct it is not surprising that science is forced in general to new ideas as to the nature of space and time. B b′ A a′ 24 S is a source of light and A and B two moving systems. of the additivity of the velocity of source and light. we may point out that this proposed postulate. would as a matter of fact lead to a very simple kind of relativity theory .

and against the principle which has led to the superficially simple emission theories of relativity. due to the earth’s motion Fig. As a particular example of the simplicity of emission theories we may show. and not with respect to some ether through which O is supposed to be moving. The problem now before us is to decide between the two rival principles as to the velocity of light. however. 25 without requiring any changes in our notions of space and time. for instance. how easily they would account for the negative result of the Michelson-Morley experiment. is a source of light A and A and B are mirrors placed a meter away from O. Fig. it is evident that a system consisting of the source and its surrounding disturbances would act as a whole and suffer no permanent change in configuration if the velocity of the source were changed. would require exactly this result. and we shall find that the bulk of the evidence is all in favor of the principle which has led to the Einstein theory of relativity with its complete revolution in our ideas as to space and time. The basic assumption of emission theories. around the sun. the Michelson-Morley experiment shows that the time taken for light to travel to A and back is the same Direction of Earth’s Motion as for the light to travel to B and back. in spite of the fact that the whole apparatus is moving through space in the diO B rection O − B. since it says that light travels out from O with a constant velocity in all directions with respect to O. 3. .The Two Postulates. 3. For if light or other electromagnetic disturbance which is being emitted from a source did partake in the motion of that source in such a way that the velocity of the source is added to the velocity of emission. This result would of course be in direct agreement with the idea of the relativity of motion which merely requires that the physical properties of a system shall be independent of its velocity through space. If O.

And without first considering the special assumptions which distinguish one emission theory from another we may first present certain astronomical evidence which apparently stands in contradiction to this basic assumption of all forms of emission theory. . All emission theories agree in assuming that light from a moving source has a velocity equal to the vector sum of the velocity of light from a stationary source and the velocity of the source itself at the instant of emission. Rev. Zeitschr.) If an emission theory of light be true. 30. c+u l seconds after the event has occurred. 291 (1910). Phys. Evidence Against Emission Theories of Light. l seconds after the event has actually occurred. This evidence was pointed out by Comstock∗ and later by de Sitter. This will make the period c−u of half rotation from A to B appear to be ∆t − l l 2ul + = ∆t + 2 .. the period of the next half rotation from B back to A would appear to be ∆t − 2ul . 1267 (1913). c2 2ul Now in the case of most spectroscopic binaries the quantity 2 is c not only of the same order of magnitude as ∆t but oftentimes probably ∗ † Phys.† Consider the rotation of a binary star as it would appear to an observer situated at a considerable distance from the star and in its plane of rotation. which for simplicity may be taken as circular. (See Fig. 26 21. the velocity of light from the star in position A will be c + u. 429. p. while in the position B the velocity will be c − u. Hence the star will be observed to arrive in position A. 4.Chapter Two. c+u c−u c where ∆t is the actual time of a half rotation in the orbit. vol. vol. On the other hand. where u is the velocity of the star in its orbit. 14.. pp. and in position B.

22. however. A u l O Observer 27 l u B O Observer Fig. Different Forms of Emission Theory. to state briefly the different forms of emission theory which have been tried. however. in their assumptions as to the velocity of light after its reflection from a mirror. Emission theories differ. if an emission theory of light were true. 4. even larger. we could hardly expect without correcting for the variable velocity of light to find that these orbits obey Kepler’s laws. emission theories all agree in assuming that light from a moving source has a velocity equal to the vector sum of the velocity of light from a stationary source and the velocity of the source itself at the instant of emission. As we have seen. as is actually the case.The Two Postulates. . The three assumptions which up to this time have been particularly considered are (1) that the excited portion of the reflecting mirror acts as a new source of light and that the reflected light has the same velocity c with respect to the mirror as has original light with respect to its source. It may not be out of place. This is certainly very strong evidence against any form of emission theory. Hence.

§ Ann. One of the consequences of the Einstein theory. For the present. p. 32. Rev. Rev. vol. p. 31. 5 (1909).. 136 (1912).§ and unfortunately optical experiments for deciding between the Einstein and Ritz relativity theories have never been performed. Phys. de Génève vol. Making use of the third assumption as to the velocity of reflected light. Of these possible assumptions as to the velocity of reflected light. we have of course the general astronomical evidence of Comstock and de Sitter which we have already described above. 13. Scientia.† Against the Ritz theory. 35. a somewhat complete emission theory has been developed by Ritz. however.‡ but has also been shown† to be incompatible with measurements of the Stark effect in canal rays. 418 (1911). Rev. de chim. and (3) that light retains throughout its whole path the component of velocity which it obtained from its original moving source. and hence has the velocity c with respect to this mirror image.∗ but also with measurements of the Stark effect in canal rays. not only with an experiment which he performed on the velocity of light from the two limbs of the sun. p. comprise the whole of the direct experimental evidence against emission theories of light and in favor of the principle which has led to the second postulate of the Einstein theory. vol. vol. p.. and hence after reflection spreads out with velocity c in a spherical form around a center which moves with the same speed as the original source. ‡ Phys.Chapter Two. although such experiments are entirely possible of performance. † ∗ . 28 (2) that light reflected from a mirror acquires a component of velocity equal to the velocity of the mirror image of the original source.† The second assumption as to the velocity of light was made by Stewart. vol. et phys. has been the deduction of an expression for the mass of a moving body which has been closely verified by the KaufmannPhys. 145 (1908). 26. the observations described above.. however. vol. 232 (1908). 26 (1910).. p. the first seems to be the most natural and was early considered by the author but shown to be incompatible. Arch.

. ∗ Phys. For the details of the proof we must refer the reader to the original article. one-dimensional character of the time continuum. of course. one-valued.. 26 (1910). that the Einstein ideas as to the connection between space and time will lead us to a nonNewtonian mechanics. it is possible to work backwards to a derivation of the second postulate of relativity. although we shall find. 23. which we shall find a powerful principle in all the fields of dynamics. and the unidirectional. and the principle of the conservation of mass.The Two Postulates. so far as we are aware. that starting with what has thus become an experimental expression for the mass of a moving body. are the only ones. The two which we have just considered. which are essentially different from those common to the usual theoretical developments of physical science. We shall also make extensive use of the principle of least action. p. vol. however. Rev. Now it is very interesting to note. In our treatment of the dynamics of a particle we shall also assume Newton’s laws of motion. 29 Bucherer experiment. In the development of the theory of relativity to which we shall now proceed we shall of course make use of many postulates. In particular in our further work we shall assume without examination all such general principles as the homogeneity and isotropism of the space continuum.∗ Further Postulates of the Theory of Relativity. 31.

In this preliminary consideration we shall lay no stress on mathematical elegance or logical exactness. Measurements of Time in a Moving System. We may first derive from the postulates of relativity a relation connecting measurements of time intervals as made by observers in systems moving with different velocities. SOME ELEMENTARY DEDUCTIONS. and an observer B. in a form which can be understood even by readers without mathematical equipment. Consider also another similar system S .CHAPTER III. the 30 . provided with a mirror b b. 24. 25. It is believed. who also has a clock for measuring the time it takes for light to go up to his mirror and back. and an observer A. B b S′ V b so that he can determine the time taken for a beam of light to travel up to the mirror and back along the path A m A. however. Consider a system S (Fig. who has a clock a m a S A Fig. System S is moving past S with the velocity V . that the chapter will present a substantially correct account of some of the more important conclusions of the theory of relativity. 5. 5) provided with a plane mirror a a. In order gradually to familiarize the reader with the consequences of the theory of relativity we shall now develop by very elementary methods a few of the more important relations.

over the path A m A. the two systems being arranged. (A m)2 (B p)2 =1− . From Fig. and this can easily be calculated in terms of the velocity of light c and the velocity V of the system S . p B′ during the time taken for the passage of the light up to the mirror and back. 6 we have (A m)2 = (p n)2 = (B n)2 − (B p)2 .Some Elementary Deductions. in which the light has to pass over a longer path such as B n B . where B B is the distance through which the observer B has moved a m a b n b A B Fig. and the two observers A and B will also come into coincidence. A. Dividing by (B n)2 . it is evident that the ratio of these two time intervals will be proportional to the ratio of the two paths A m A and B n B . shown in Fig. the velocity of light is independent of the velocity of its source. 6. moreover. considering his system at rest and the other in motion. 31 direction of motion being parallel to the mirrors a a and b b. Since. measures the time taken for a beam of light to pass to his mirror and return. 6. (B n)2 (B n)2 . and compares the time interval thus obtained with that necessary for the performance of a similar experiment by B. in accordance with the second postulate of relativity. so that when they pass one another the two mirrors a a and b b will coincide.

having been the performance of B’s experiment. the event in this particular case. that B himself must find exactly the same length of time for the light to pass up to his mirror and come back as did A in his experiment. because the two systems are. that it takes a longer time for the performance of B’s experiment than for the performance of his own in V2 the ratio 1 : 1 − 2 . making use of the ratio obtained in a preceding paragraph. It is sometimes more convenient to state this principle in the form: A stationary observer using a set of stationary clocks will obtain a V2 greater measurement in the ratio 1 : 1 − 2 for a given time interval c than an observer who uses a clock moving with the velocity V . for example. we may go further and make the quantitative statement that measurements of time intervals made with a moving clock must be multiplied by the 1 in order to agree with measurements made with a quantity 1− V2 c2 stationary system of clocks. But the distance B p is to B n as V is to c. c2 32 and hence A will find. A and B. as a matter of fact. entirely symmetrical and we could with equal right consider B’s system to be the one at rest and A’s the one in motion. who are in relative motion will not in general agree in their measurements of the time interval necessary for a given event to take place.Chapter Three. c It is evident from the first postulate of relativity. either by calculation or by direct measurement if he has arranged clocks at B and B . giving us Am = Bn 1− V2 . however. We thus find that two observers. indeed. .

and such an occurrence is ruled out by our first postulate. paths for measuring the velocity of light. of a simple experiment on the velocity of light parallel to the motion of the systems will lead to the desired relation. 7). each on his own system. When the relative motion of the two systems brings such meter sticks into juxtaposition. A lays off a distance of one meter. As to measurements of length perpendicular to the line of motion of the two systems S and S . S moving past S with the velocity V . Let us again consider two systems S and S (Fig. the consideration. Any direct comparison of the lengths of meter sticks in the two systems would be very difficult to carry out. using a meter stick which has the same length as A’s when they are both at rest. lays off the distance B n. With regard to measurements of length parallel to the line of motion of the systems. A and B are observers on these systems provided with clocks and meter sticks. so that he can measure the time for light to travel to the mirror m and return. A m. This is true because the possibility is always present of making a direct comparison of the meter sticks which A and B use for such measurements by holding them perpendicular to the line of motion. The two observers lay off. Measurements of Length in a Moving System. the affair is much more complicated. and B. to obtain a relation between measurements of length made in stationary and moving systems. it is evident from the first postulate of relativity that A’s meter and B’s meter must coincide in length. 27. a little consideration will make it at once evident that both A and B must obtain identical results.Some Elementary Deductions. however. We may now extend our considerations. 33 26. Any difference in length could be due only to the different velocity of the two systems through space. Hence measurements made with a moving meter stick held perpendicular to its line of motion will agree with those made with stationary meter sticks. Each observer measures the length of time it takes for light to travel .

Chapter Three. n n′ which the mirror n moves while the light is travelling up to it. 8). to his mirror and return. 8. taking himself as at rest. We have nn V = Bn c and BB V = . Now the observer A. and B B is the distance through which the source travels before the light gets back. finds that B’s light travels over a path B n B (Fig. and will evidently have to find the same length of time. 7. Bn B c . It is easy to calculate the length of this path. since the postulates of relativity require that the velocity of light shall be the same for all observers. A m 34 B n V Fig. where n n is the distance through B B′ Fig.

In accordance with this principle. Combining. This has been called the Lorentz shortening. we obtain Bn B 1 . will be longer in the ratio of 1 : V2 1 − 2 . Bn = Bn + nn . a stationary observer will obtain a smaller measurement for the length of a moving body than will an observer moving along with the object. instead of being exactly two meters as was his own. To account for the remaining discrepancy the further conclusion is now obtained that measurements of length made with a moving meter stick. that he has already found that measurements of time made with a moving clock must be multiplied by the quantity 1 in order to agree with his own.Some Elementary Deductions. B n B = B nB + 2nn − B B . from the figure. = V2 BnB 1− 2 c 35 Thus A finds that the path traversed by B’s light. V2 parallel to its motion. the shortening occurring in the ratio 1− in the line of motion. however. V2 :1 c2 . For this reason A is rather surprised that B does not report c a longer time interval for the passage of the light than he himself found. He remembers. Also. must be multiplied by the quantity 1 − 2 in c order to agree with those made in a stationary system. and sees that this will account 1− V2 c2 for part of the discrepancy between the expected and observed results.

but that a system of moving clocks which have been set in synchronism by an observer moving along with them will not be set in synchronism for a stationary observer. 36 28. Consider again two systems S and S in relative motion with the velocity V . An observer B on system S performs a similar experiment. The time interval obtained in the two sets of readings must be the same. In order to explain the actual result of B’s exc periment he now has to conclude that the clocks which for B are set synchronously are not set in synchronism for himself. The Setting of Clocks in a Moving System. expects that the velocity as measured by B will be greater than the value that he himself obtains in 1 . each by V2 the factor 1 − 2 . The observer A. unit distance apart. not only that a given time interval measures shorter on a moving clock than on a system of stationary clocks. while B’s measurements of the length of a moving object are greater than his own. and has the time on each clock read when a given point on the other system passes it. .Chapter Three. however. and familiar with the change in the measurements of length and time in the moving system which have already been deduced. in the line of motion. From what has preceded it is easy to see that in the moving system. An observer A on system S places two carefully compared clocks. clocks must be set further and further ahead as we proceed towards the rear of the system. taking himself as at rest. since any particular one of B’s clocks gives a shorter the ratio V2 1− 2 c value for a given time interval than his own. and this was done purposely. from the point of view of the stationary observer. It will be noticed that in our considerations up to this point we have considered cases where only a single moving clock was needed in performing the desired experiment. since the first postulate of relativity obviously requires that the relative velocity of the two systems V shall have the same value for both observers. since we shall find.

one in front of the other by the distance l . since the older ideas of space and time were obtained from an ancestral experience which never included experiments with high relaV2 tive velocities. We have now obtained all the information which we shall need in this chapter as to measurements of time and length in systems moving with different velocities.Some Elementary Deductions. and indeed all that we shall mean when we call one of our systems stationary is that for reasons of convenience we have picked out that particular system as the one with reference to which we particularly wish to make our measurements. if two clocks are situated in the moving system. We may point out. however. These conclusions as to measurements of space and time are of course very startling when first encountered. S . then for A it lV will appear as though B had set his rear clock ahead by the amount 2 . To those scientists who do not wish to give up their “common sense” ideas of space and time we can merely say that if they accept the two postulates of relativity then they will also have to accept the consequences which can be deduced therefrom. We may also point out that of course B has to subject A’s measurements of time and length to just 1 as did A in order to the same multiplications by the factor 1− V2 c2 make them agree with his own. before proceeding to the application of these considerations. The remarkable nature of these consequences merely indicates the very . 37 since otherwise B would not obtain a great enough difference in the readings of the clocks as they come opposite the given point on the other system. that they appear strange to so-called “common sense” need cause us no difficulty. The mere fact. Indeed. as measured by B. however. We can at any time equally well take B’s system as the one to which we shall ultimately refer all our measurements. that our choice of A’s system as the one which we should call stationary was of course entirely arbitrary and immaterial. c 29. and it is only when the ratio 2 becomes appreciable c that we obtain unexpected results.

Moving past S with the velocity V is another system S with an observer B. and finally moving past S in the same direction is a body whose velocity is u as measured by observer B. imperfect nature of our older conceptions of space and time. we have l u = . Furthermore these moving clocks give c V2 time measurements which are shorter in the ratio 1 − 2 : 1 than c . Our conclusions as to the setting of clocks make it possible to obtain an important expression for the composition of velocities. 38 30. and on the system an observer A. What will be the velocity u of this body as measured by A? Our older ideas led us to believe in the simple additivity of velocities and we should have calculated u in accordance with the simple expression u=V +u. which we shall take as stationary. t We have already seen. If t is the difference in the respective clock readings when the body reaches the ends of the line l . Suppose we have a system S. for the fact that u is measured with clocks which to A appear to be set in a peculiar fashion and running at a different rate from his own. however.Chapter Three. however. The determination of u by observer B would be obtained by measuring the time interval necessary for the body in question to move a given distance l along the system S . We must now allow. The Composition of Velocities. that the two clocks are for A set lV units apart and hence for clocks set together the time interval c2 lV would have measured t + 2 . and with meter sticks which give longer measurements than those used in the stationary system.

so that for A the time interval for the body to move from one end of l to the other would measure t + lV c2 V2 c2 . 39 those obtained by A. Hence A finds that the body is c moving past S with the velocity. This new expression for the composition of velocities is extremely important. 1− furthermore. we observe that the formula reduces to the simple additivity principle which we know by common experience to be true for all ordinary velocities.Some Elementary Deductions. Until very recently the human race has had practically no experience with high velocities and we now see that for . this V2 line l has for A the length l 1 − 2 . When the velocities u and V are small compared with the velocity of light c. V +u 1+ uV c2 . This makes the total velocity of the body past S equal to the sum u=V + or u= u 1− 1+ V2 c2 uV c2 . owing to the difference in measurements of length. l V2 c2 lV t + 2 c V2 1− 2 c 1− = l t 1− 1+ V2 c2 l V t c2 = u 1− 1+ V2 c2 uV c2 .

Chapter Three.

40

velocities in the neighborhood of that of light, the simple additivity principle is nowhere near true. In particular it should be noticed that by the composition of velocities which are themselves less than that of light we can never obtain any velocity greater than that of light. As an extreme case, suppose for example that the system S were moving past S itself with the velocity of light (i.e., V = c) and that in the system S a particle should itself be given the velocity of light in the same direction (i.e., u = c); we find on substitution that the particle still has only the velocity of light with respect to S. We have u= c+c 1+
c2 c2

=

2c = c. 2

By the consideration of such conclusions as these the reader will appreciate more and more the necessity of abandoning his older naïve ideas of space and time which are the inheritance of a long human experience with physical systems in which only slow velocities were encountered. The Mass of a Moving Body. 31. We may now obtain an important relation for the mass of a moving body. Consider again two similar systems, S at rest and S moving past with the velocity V . The observer A on system S has a sphere made from some rigid elastic material, having a mass of m grams, and the observer B on system S is also provided with a similar sphere. The two spheres are made so that they are exactly alike when both are at rest; thus B’s sphere, since it is at rest with respect to him, looks to him just the same as the other sphere does to A. As the two systems pass each other (Fig. 9) each of these clever experimenters rolls his sphere towards the other system with a velocity of u cm. per second, so that they will just collide and rebound in a line perpendicular to the direction of motion. Now, from the first postulate of relativity,

Some Elementary Deductions.

41

system S appears to B just the same as system S appears to A, and B’s ball appears to him to go through the same evolutions that A finds for his ball. A finds that his ball on collision undergoes the algebraic change of velocity 2u, B finds the same change in velocity 2u for his ball. B reports this fact to A, and A knowing that B’s measurements of length agree with his own in this transverse direction, but that his

S

A

S′

B

V

Fig. 9.

clock gives time intervals that are shorter than his own in the ratio V2 1 − 2 : 1, calculates that the change in velocity of B’s ball must c V2 be 2u 1 − 2 . c From the principle of the conservation of momentum, however, A knows that the change in momentum of B’s ball must be the same as that of his own and hence can write the equation ma u = mb u 1 − V2 , c2

Chapter Three.

42

where ma is the mass of A’s ball and mb is the mass of B’s ball. Solving we have ma . mb = 1−
V2 c2

In other words, B’s ball, which had the same mass ma as A’s when ma both were at rest, is found to have the larger mass when 1− placed in a system that is moving with the velocity V .∗ The theory of relativity thus leads to the general expression m0 m= 1−
v2 c2 v2 c2

for the mass of a body moving with the velocity u and having the mass m0 when at rest. Since we have very few velocities comparable with that of light it v2 is obvious that the quantity 1 − 2 seldom differs much from unity, c which makes the experimental verification of this expression difficult. In the case of electrons, however, which are shot off from radioactive substances, or indeed in the case of cathode rays produced with high potentials, we do have particles moving with velocities comparable to that of light, and the experimental work of Kaufmann, Bucherer, Hupka and others in this field provides one of the most striking triumphs of the theory of relativity. The Relation Between Mass and Energy. 32. The theory of relativity has led to very important conclusions as to the nature of mass and energy. In fact, we shall see that matter
In carrying out this experiment the transverse velocities of the balls should be made negligibly small in comparison with the relative velocity of the systems V .

Some Elementary Deductions.

43

and energy are apparently different names for the same fundamental entity. When we set a body in motion it is evident from the previous section that we increase both its mass as well as its energy. Now we can show that there is a definite ratio between the amount of energy that we give to the body and the amount of mass that we give to it. If the force f acts on a particle which is free to move, its increase in kinetic energy is evidently ∆E = f dl.

But the force acting is, by definition, equal to the rate of increase in the momentum of the particle f= Substituting we have ∆E = d(mu) dl = dt dl d(mu) = dt m0 1− which, solved for u, gives us u=c 1− m0 2 . m2
u2 c2

d (mu). dt

u d(mu).

We have, however, from the previous section, m= ,

Substituting this value of u in our equation for ∆E we obtain, after simplification, ∆E = c2 dm = c2 ∆m.

Chapter Three.

44

This says that the increase of the kinetic energy of the particle, in ergs, is equal to the increase in mass, in grams, multiplied by the square of the velocity of light. If now we bring the particle to rest it will give up both its kinetic energy and its excess mass. Accepting the principles of the conservation of mass and energy, we know, however, that neither this energy nor the mass has been destroyed; they have merely been passed on to other bodies. There is, moreover, every reason to believe that this mass and energy, which were associated together when the body was in motion and left the body when it was brought to rest, still remain always associated together. For example, if the body should be brought to rest by setting another body into motion, it is of course a necessary consequence of our considerations that the kinetic energy and the excess mass both pass on together to the new body which is set in motion. A similar conclusion would be true if the body is brought to rest by frictional forces, since the heat produced by the friction means an increase in the kinetic energies of ultimate particles. In general we shall find it pragmatic to consider that matter and energy are merely different names for the same fundamental entity. One gram of matter is equal to 1021 ergs of energy. c2 = (2.9986 × 1010 )2 = approx. 1021 . This apparently extraordinary conclusion is in reality one which produces the greatest simplification in science. Not to mention numerous special applications where this principle is useful, we may call attention to the fact that the great laws of the conservation of mass and of energy have now become identical. We may also point out that those opposing camps of philosophic materialists who defend matter on the one hand or energy on the other as the fundamental entity of the universe may now forever cease their unimportant bickerings.

y. The fundamental problem that first arises in considering spatial and temporal measurements is that of transforming the description of a given kinematical occurrence from the variables of one system of coördinates to those of another system which is in motion relative to the first. for the purpose of determining the time at which any event takes place. THE EINSTEIN TRANSFORMATION EQUATIONS FOR SPACE AND TIME. We may now proceed to a systematic study of the consequences of the theory of relativity. the clocks of 45 . The Y Y′ O X O′ V X′ Z Z′ Fig. Furthermore. 10. y and z with respect to system S .CHAPTER IV. we may think of each system of coördinates as provided with a whole series of clocks placed at convenient intervals throughout the system. position of any given point in space can be determined by specifying its coördinates x. 33. Consider two systems of right-angled Cartesian coördinates S and S (Fig. 10) in relative motion in the X direction with the velocity V . The Lorentz Transformation. and z with respect to system S or its coördinates x .

34. y. that they will continue to “keep time” after they have been distributed throughout the system. and for further simplification we choose. We may think of the clocks as being set in any of the ways that are usual in practice. as our starting-point for time measurements. Perhaps the simplest is to consider the clocks as mechanisms which have been found to “keep time” when they are all together where they can be examined by one individual observer. y. what substitutions must we make for the values of these variables in order to obtain a correct description of the same kinematical event in terms of the variables x. z and t? In other words. we want to obtain a set of transformation equations from the variables of system S to those of system S. so that we may write for them the expressions x = F1 (V. The significance of these equations from the point of view of the theory of relativity was first appreciated by Einstein. z. It is evident that these transformation equations are going to depend on the relative velocity V of the two systems. z and t . The equations which we shall present were first obtained by Lorentz. ∗ .Chapter Four. Deduction of the Fundamental Transformation Equations. t and t both equal to zero when the two origins come into coincidence. t). The assumption can then be made. and the process of changing from one set of variables to the other has generally been called the Lorentz transformation. The time at which the event in question takes place may be denoted by t if determined by the clocks belonging to system S and by t if determined by the clocks of system S . The specific problem now before us is as follows: If a given kinematical occurrence has been observed and described in terms of the variables x . y . x. 46 each series being set and regulated∗ by observers in the corresponding system. For convenience the two systems S and S are chosen so that the axes OX and O X lie in the same line. in accordance with our ideas of the homogeneity of space.

To complete the solution of the problem we may make use of three further conditions which must govern the transformation equations. Three Conditions to be Fulfilled. are the unknown functions whose form we wish to determine. t. = F2 (V. This is obvious because a meter stick held in the system S perpendicular to the line of relative motion. 47 where F1 . We may now rewrite our transformation equations in the simplified form x y z t = F1 (V. x.. however. t). it is evident that the transformation equations must reduce to the form that they had in Newtonian mechanics. If we accept the idea of the homogeneity of space it is evident that any other line parallel to OXX might just as well have been chosen as our line of X-axes. In the first place. OX . x. y = F2 (V. F1 and F2 . y. greatly to simplify these relations. y. z. x). t. z. and in accordance with the first postulate of relativity they must agree in length in order that the systems may be entirely symmetrical. x). It is possible at the outset. t). y. z. since we know both from measurements and from everyday experience that the Newtonian concepts of space and .Transformation Equations for Space and Time. of the system can be directly compared with meter sticks held similarly in system S. and have only two functions. whose form has to be determined. when the velocity V between the systems is small. t = F4 (V. etc. = y. z = F3 (V. as to the equations for y and z it is at once evident that the only possible solutions are y = y and z = z. t). 35. and hence our two equations for x and t must be independent of y and z. x. = z. Moreover. F2 .

equations (3). Hence. x ). Hence the transformation equations for changing from the variables of system S to those of system S must be of exactly the same form as those used in the reverse transformation.Chapter Four. Chapter I. c. however. Let us suppose. 48 time are correct as long as we deal with slow velocities. (4). which requires that the two systems S and S shall be entirely symmetrical. a light impulse is started from the common point occupied by O and O . Expressing this requirement in mathematical form. the optical disturbance which is generated must spread out from the origin in a spherical form with the velocity c. t = F2 (−V. measured in the coördinates of either system. containing. = z. = t. t . (5). using . −V wherever +V occurs in the latter equations. that at the instant t = t = 0. A final condition is imposed upon the form of F1 and F2 by the second postulate of relativity. (6)) x y z t = x − V t. we may write as true equations x = F1 (−V. 36. which states that the velocity of a beam of light appears the same to all observers regardless of the motion of the source of light or of the observer. = y. where F1 and F2 must have the same form as above. Then. A second condition is imposed upon the form of the functions F1 and F2 by the first postulate of relativity. for example. 37. t . when the two origins come into coincidence. Hence the limiting form of the equations as V approaches zero will be (cf. when measured in the variables of either system. x ). Hence our transformation equations must be of such a form that a given beam of light has the same velocity.

The natural method of solution is obviously that of trial. 38. and we may suggest the solution: x = y = y. z = z. whose description is known in the variables of either system. The Transformation Equations. the spreading out of a light disturbance. as we have seen in the last three paragraphs. The three sets of conditions which. t = 1 1− V2 c2 1 1− V2 c2 (x − V t) = κ(x − V t). the expression x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t2 is to be an invariant for the Lorentz transformation. (8) Thus we have a particular kinematical occurrence. In other words. are imposed upon the form of F1 and F2 are sufficient to determine the solution of the problem. 1− V2 c2 .Transformation Equations for Space and Time. 49 the variables of system S. and our transformation equations must be of such a form that their substitution will change equation (8) to equation (7). (9) (10) (11) t− V x c2 =κ t− V x . (7) while using the variables of system S we should have the similar expression x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = c2 t 2 . the coördinates of any point on the surface of the disturbance will be given by the expression x2 + y 2 + z 2 = c2 t2 . c2 (12) where we have placed κ to represent the important and continually 1 recurring quantity .

By the simple differentiation of equation (12) we can obtain xV ˙ dt =κ 1− 2 dt c . It is also to be noted that the transformation becomes imaginary for cases where V > c. z and t in the polynomial x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = c2 t 2 . when V becomes small compared with the velocity of light.Chapter Four. Thus. if the equations are solved for the unprimed quantities in terms of the primed. if we substitute the expressions for x . c. thus fulfilling the requirements of symmetry imposed by the first postulate of relativity. We may further point out that the whole series of possible Lorentz transformations form a group such that the result of two successive transformations could itself be represented by a single transformation provided we picked out suitable magnitudes and directions for the velocities between the various systems. Secondly. the resulting expressions have an unchanged form except for the introduction of −V in place of +V . (13) . Before making any applications of our equations we shall find it desirable to obtain by simple substitutions and differentiations a series of further transformation equations which will be of great value in our future work. y . And finally. 39. we shall obtain the expression x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t2 and have thus secured the invariance of x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t2 which is required by the second postulate of relativity. 50 It will be found as a matter of fact by examination that these solutions do fit all three requirements which we have stated. the equations do reduce to those of Galileo and Newton. and we shall find that this agrees with ideas obtained in other ways as to the speed of light being an upper limit for the magnitude of all velocities. Further Transformation Equations.

Transformation Equations for Space and Time.

51

dx . where we have put x for ˙ dt 40. Transformation Equations for Velocity. By differentiation of the equations for x , y and z , nos. (9), (10) and (11), and subdt stitution of the value just found for we may obtain the following dt transformation equations for velocity: x = ˙ y = ˙ z = ˙ x−V ˙ 1− 1− 1− yκ−1 ˙ zκ−1 ˙
xV ˙ c2 yV ˙ c2 zV ˙ c2

or

ux = uy = uz =

ux − V 1− 1− 1− uy κ−1 uz κ−1
ux V c2 ux V c2 ux V c2

, , ,

(14)

(15)

(16)

where the placing of a dot has the familiar significance of differentiation dx dx with respect to time, being represented by x and ˙ by x . ˙ dt dt The significance of these equations for the transformation of velocities is as follows: If for an observer in system S a point appears to be moving with the uniform velocity (x, y, z) its velocity (x , y , z ), as ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ measured by an observer in system S , is given by these expressions (14), (15) and (16). 1 . 41. Transformation Equations for the Function 1−
u2 c2

These three transformation equations for the velocity components of a point permit us to obtain a further transformation equation for an important function of the velocity which we shall find continually re1 curring in our later work. This is the function , where we have 1− indicated the total velocity of the point by u, according to the expresu2 c2

Chapter Four.

52

sion u2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 . By the substitution of equations (14), (15) ˙ ˙ ˙ and (16) we obtain the transformation equation 1 1−
u2 c2

=

1−

ux V c2 u2 c2

κ

.

(17)

1−

42. Transformation Equations for Acceleration. By further differentiating equations (14), (15) and (16) and simplifying, we easily obtain three new equations for transforming measurements of acceleration from system S to S, viz.: x = ¨ y = ¨ z = ¨ or ux = ˙ uy = ˙ uz = ˙ 1− ux V c2
−3

xV ˙ 1− 2 c xV ˙ 1− 2 c 1− xV ˙ c2

−3

κ−3 x, ¨ V κ y+y 2 ¨ ˙ c
−2

(18) xV ˙ 1− 2 c 1− xV ˙ c2
−3

−2

κ−2 x, ¨ κ−2 x, ¨

(19) (20)

−2

κ−2 z + z ¨ ˙

V c2

−3

κ−3 ux , ¨ V κ uy + uy 2 ¨ c
−2

(18) ux V 1− 2 c ux V 1− 2 c
−3

ux V 1− 2 c ux V 1− 2 c

−2

κ−2 ux , ˙ κ−2 ux . ˙

(19) (20)

−2

V κ uz + uz 2 ¨ c
−2

−3

CHAPTER V. KINEMATICAL APPLICATIONS. 43. The various transformation equations for spatial and temporal measurements which were derived in the previous chapter may now be used for the treatment of a number of kinematical problems. In particular it will be shown in the latter part of the chapter that a number of optical problems can be handled with extraordinary facility by the methods now at our disposal. The Kinematical Shape of a Rigid Body. 44. We may first point out that the conclusions of relativity theory lead us to quite new ideas as to what is meant by the shape of a rigid body. We shall find that the shape of a rigid body will depend entirely upon the relative motion of the body and the observer who is making measurements on it. Consider a rigid body which is at rest with respect to system S . Let x1 , y1 , z1 and x2 , y2 , z2 be the coördinates in system S of two points in the body. The coördinates of the same points as measured in system S can be found from transformation equations (9), (10) and (11), and by subtraction we can obtain the following expressions (x2 − x1 ) = V2 (x2 − x1 ), c2 (y2 − y1 ) = (y2 − y1 ), (z2 − z1 ) = (z2 − z1 ), 1− (21) (22) (23)

connecting the distances between the pair of points as viewed in the two systems. In making this subtraction terms containing t have been cancelled out since we are interested in the simultaneous positions of the points. In accordance with these equations we may distinguish then between the geometrical shape of a body, which is the shape that it has 53

Chapter Five.

54

when measured on a system of axes which are at rest relative to it, and its kinematical shape, which is given by the coördinates which express the simultaneous positions of its various points when it is in motion with respect to the axes of reference. We see that the kinematical shape of a rigid body differs from its geometrical shape by a shortening V2 of all its dimensions in the line of motion in the ratio 1 − 2 : 1; c thus a sphere, for example, becomes a Heaviside ellipsoid. In order to avoid incorrectness of speech we must be very careful not to give the idea that the kinematical shape of a body is in any sense either more or less real than its geometrical shape. We must merely learn to realize that the shape of a body is entirely dependent on the particular set of coördinates chosen for the making of space measurements. The Kinematical Rate of a Clock. 45. Just as we have seen that the shape of a body depends upon our choice of a system of coördinates, so we shall find that the rate of a given clock depends upon the relative motion of the clock and its observer. Consider a clock or any mechanism which is performing a periodic action. Let the clock be at rest with respect to system S and let a given period commence at t1 and end at t2 , the length of the interval thus being ∆t = t2 − t1 . From transformation equation (12) we may obtain t1 = 1 1− t2 = 1 1−
V2 c2 V2 c2

t1 −

V x1 , c2 V x2 , c2

t2 −

Kinematical Applications. and by subtraction, since x2 − x1 is obviously equal to V t, we have t2 − t1 = 1 1− ∆t = 1 1−
V2 c2 V2 c2

55

(t2 − t1 ),

∆t .

Thus an observer who is moving past a clock finds a longer period for V2 the clock in the ratio 1 : 1 − 2 than an observer who is stationary c with respect to it. Suppose, for example, we have a particle which is turning alternately red and blue. For an observer who is moving past the particle the periods for which it remains a given color measure V2 longer in the ratio 1 : 1 − 2 than they do to an observer who is c stationary with respect to the particle. 46. A possible opportunity for testing this interesting conclusion of the theory of relativity is presented by the phenomena of canal rays. We may regard the atoms which are moving in these rays as little clocks, the frequency of the light which they emit corresponding to the period of the clock. If now we should make spectroscopic observations on canal rays of high velocity, the frequency of the emitted light ought to be less than that of light from stationary atoms of the same kind if our considerations are correct. It would of course be necessary to view the canal rays at right angles to their direction of motion, to prevent a confusion of the expected shift in the spectrum with that produced by the ordinary Doppler effect (see Section 54). The Idea of Simultaneity. 47. We may now also point out that the idea of the absolute simultaneity of two events must henceforth be given up. Suppose, for

Chapter Five.

56

example, an observer in the system S is interested in two events which take place simultaneously at the time t. Suppose one of these events occurs at a point having the X coördinate x1 and the other at a point having the coördinate x2 ; then by transformation equation (12) it is evident that to an observer in system S , which is moving relative to S with the velocity V , the two events would take place respectively at the times t1 = 1 1− and t2 = 1 1−
V2 c2 V2 c2

t−

V x1 c2

t−

V x2 c2

or the difference in time between the occurrence of the events would appear to this other observer to be t2 − t1 = c2 V 1−
V2 c2

(x1 − x2 ).

(25)

The Composition of Velocities. 48. The Case of Parallel Velocities. We may now present one of the most important characteristics of Einstein’s space and time, which can be best appreciated by considering transformation equation (14), or more simply its analogue for the transformation in the reverse direction ux = ux + V 1+
ux V c2

.

(26)

and an experimenter on S should shoot off a particle 2 in the X direction with half the velocity of light. V = c). the direct addition of velocities would lead to extremely erroneous results. that the system S were moving past S with the velocity of light (i. In particular it should be noticed that by the composition of velocities which are themselves less than that of light we can never obtain any velocity greater than that of light. the ux V quantity 2 is very nearly zero and the direct addition of velocities c is a close approximation to the truth. for example.. In the case of velocities. If we have a particle which is moving in the X direction with the velocity ux as measured in system S . Thus we see that c we must completely throw overboard our old naïve ideas of the direct additivity of velocities. . we find on substitution that the particle still has only the velocity of light with respect to S. its velocity ux with respect to system S is to be obtained by adding the relative velocity of the two systems V and ux V dividing the sum of the two velocities by 1 + 2 .Kinematical Applications. however. the total velocity with respect to S would be ux = 1 c 2 + 1c 2 1 2 4c c2 1+ = 4 c. Suppose. which are in the neighborhood of the speed of light. ux = c). in the case of very slow velocities. and that in the system S a particle should itself be given the velocity of light in the X direction (i.. Of course. when ux and V are both small compared with the velocity of light. We have 2c c+c = c. ux = 2 = c 2 1+ 2 c If the relative velocity between the systems should be one half the c velocity of light. 49. 5 .e. 57 Consider now the significance of the above equation.e.

For the particular case that V and u are in the same direction. of the transformation equations for acceleration (18). An examination. the equation obviously reduces to the simpler form u= u +V 1+ uV c2 . In the case of particles which have components of velocity in other than the X direction it is obvious that our transformation equations will here also provide methods of calculation to supersede the simple addition of velocities.. 58 50. it will also appear to have a uniform although of course different velocity to any observer who is himself in uniform motion with respect to the first. (27) where α is the angle in the system S between the X axis and the velocity of the particle u .Chapter Five. however. If we place u2 = ux 2 + uy 2 + uz 2 . We may also call attention at this point to an interesting characteristic of the equations for the transformation of velocities. (20) will show that here a different state of affairs is true. y . (15) and (16) u 2 + V 2 + 2u V cos α − u= 1+ u V 2 sin2 α c2 2 2 2 2 2 1/2 u V cos α c2 . since it will be seen that a point which has uniform acceleration (¨. 51. which we have already considered. z ) with respect to an observer in system S x ¨ ¨ . u = ux + uy + uz .e. i. It will be noted from an examination of these equations that if to any observer a particle appears to have a constant velocity. we may obtain by the substitution of equations (14). (19). to be unacted on by any force. Composition of Velocities in General.

Now in another system S . which is necessarily varying. Velocities Greater than that of Light. The time elapsing between the cause and its effect as measured in the units of system S will evidently be ∆t = tB − tA = xB − xA . the starting of the impulse at A and the resulting phenomenon at B thus being connected by the relation of cause and effect. 52. 59 will not in general have a uniform acceleration in another system S . travels to B with the velocity u and at B produces some observable phenomenon. since the acceleration in system S depends not only on the constant acceleration but also on the velocity in system S. The question naturally arises whether velocities which are greater than that of light could ever possibly be obtained in any way. u (28) where xA and xB are the coördinates of the two points A and B. and suppose that some impulse originates at A. In the preceding section we have called attention to the fact that the mere composition of velocities which are not themselves greater than that of light will never lead to a speed that is greater than that of light. Consider two points A and B on the X axis of the system S. This problem can be attacked in an extremely interesting manner. the time elapsing between cause and effect would evidently be ∆t = t B − t A = 1 1− V2 c2 tB − V xB c2 − 1 1− V2 c2 tA − V xA . which has the velocity V with respect to S. c2 where we have substituted for tB and tA in accordance with equa- .Kinematical Applications.

for an observer in system S the effect which occurs at B would precede in time its cause which originates at A. We may point out in passing. for example. (29) 1− Let us suppose now that there are no limits to the possible magnitude of the velocities u and V . The velocity with which the phenomenon would travel along the line of blocks could be arranged to have any value.Chapter Five. and no transfer of energy. For each block there could be an independent time mechanism like an alarm clock which would go off at just the right instant so that the blocks would fall down one after another along the line. In fact. nevertheless its extraordinary nature might incline us to believe that no causal impulse can travel with a velocity greater than that of light. . however. and in particular that the causal impulse can travel from A to B with a velocity u greater than that of light. tion (12). the blocks could evidently all be fixed to fall just at the same instant. Simplifying and introducing equation (28) we obtain ∆t = 1− uV c2 V2 c2 60 ∆t. that in the case of kinematic occurrences in which there is no causal connection there is no reason for supposing that the velocity must be less than that of light. a set of blocks arranged side by side in a long row. however. that there is no causal connection between the falling of one block and that of the next. It is to be noticed here. c In other words. Consider. Such a condition of affairs might not be a logical impossibility. It is evident that we could then take a velocity u great enough so uV that 2 would be greater than unity and ∆t would become negative. which would correspond to an infinite velocity.

. we could write the light vector proportional to sin ω t − lx +my +nz c . 53. y and z are the coördinates of the point under observation. β and γ which determine the direction of the beam of light with reference to our system. Since the intensities of both the electric and the magnetic fields vary together. We may consider a beam of light as a periodic electromagnetic disturbance which is propagated through a vacuum with the velocity c. It is customary to call this vector (which might be either the strength of the electric or of the magnetic field) the light vector. m and n are the cosines of the angles α. the statement of a single vector is sufficient to determine the instantaneous condition at any point in the path of a beam of light. a beam of monochromatic light from a distant source) the light vector at any point in the path of the light may be put proportional to sin ω t − lx + my + nz c .e. (30) where x. l. Let us now apply our kinematical considerations to some problems in the field of optics. If now this same beam of light were examined by an observer in system S which is moving past the original system in the X direction with the velocity V . and ω is a constant which determines the period of the light. (31) It is not difficult to show that the transformation equations which we have already developed must lead to the following relations between .Kinematical Applications. At any point in the path of a beam of light the intensity of the electric and magnetic fields will be undergoing periodic changes in magnitude. 61 Application of the Principles of Kinematics to Certain Optical Problems. For the case of a simple plane wave (i. t is the time.

we shall have in accordance with expression (30) the light vector proportional to sin ωt. however. For example. . But the point O as observed from system S moves with the velocity V along the X axis and at any instant has the position x = V t. which is the origin of coördinates in system S . We have already obtained. t =κ t− V x . we shall have the light vector proportional to sin ω t . . and hence similarly at the point O . a transformation equation for t . m . c2 (37) and further may place x = V t. m and n and the corresponding cosines l . Making these substitutions and comparing expressions (36) and (37) we see that we must have the relation ω = ωκ 1 − l V c . the measurements in the two systems∗ ω = ωκ 1 − l l = m = n = ∗ 62 V c . (32) (33) V c V 1−l c l− . m V κ 1−l c n κ V 1−l c (34) (35) Methods for deriving the relation between the accented and unaccented quantities will be obvious to the reader. consider the relation between ω and ω . . (36) while as measured in system S the intensity is proportional to sin ω t .Chapter Five. Methods of obtaining the relation between the cosines l. and n as measured in system S may be left to the reader. At the origin of coördinates x = y = z = 0 in system S. namely. hence substituting in expression (30) we have the light vector at the point O as measured in system S proportional to sin ωt 1 − l V c .

When the source of light is moving directly in the line connecting source and . 54. At the origin of coördinates. where N is any integer. (38) V κ 1 − cos φ c This is the most general equation for the Doppler effect. 2π Similarly the frequency of the light as measured by an observer in system S would be ω .Kinematical Applications. ν0 . If we consider a source of light at rest with respect to system S and at a considerable distance from the observer in system S. leading to the expression ν0 ν= . where φ is the angle between the line connecting source and observer and the direction of motion of the source. 63 With the help of these equations we may now treat some important optical problems. V κ 1−l c This is the relation between the frequencies of a given beam of light as it appears to observers who are in relative motion. x = y = z = 0. the 2π or the frequency period of the light is p = ω ν= ω . That means that the vector becomes zero whenever ωt = 2N π. in system S we shall evidently have from expression (30) the light vector proportional to sin ωt. we may substitute for ν the frequency of the source itself. The Doppler Effect. in other words. ν = 2π Combining these two equations and substituting the equation connecting ω and ω we have ν ν= . and for l we may write cos φ.

Let us consider that the source of light is stationary with respect to system S. We must also observe. The Aberration of Light. in contradiction to the predictions of older theories. . giving us V cos φ − c . and hence agrees with experimental determinations. We have in this case cos φ = 0. c This is the change in frequency which we have already considered when we discussed the rate of a moving clock.Chapter Five. cos φ = l. we have cos φ = 1. and let there be an observer situated at the origin of coördinates of system S and thus moving past the source with the velocity V in the X direction. we see that equation (33) provides an expression for calculating the aberration of light. and the equation reduces to ν= ν0 κ 1− V c 64 . however. cos φ = l . (39) which except for second order terms is identical with the older expressions for the Doppler effect. cos φ = (41) V 1 − cos φ c This is a general equation for the aberration of light. that even when the source of light moves at right angles to the line connecting source and observer there still remains a second-order effect on the observed frequency. Returning now to our transformation equations. then we can obviously substitute in equation (33). The possibilities of direct experimental verification should not be overlooked (see Section 46). observer. 55. V2 (40) ν = ν0 1 − 2 . Let φ be the angle between the X axis and the line connecting source of light and observer and let φ be the same angle as it appears to the moving observer.

It is also possible to treat very simply by kinematic methods the problem of the velocity of light in moving media. as measured by observers in S. and let us consider the system of coördinates S as stationary with respect to the medium. the quanµ2 − 1 being the well-known Fresnel coefficient. where µ is index of refraction for the medium. Velocity of Light in Moving Media. Let the medium be moving with the velocity V in the X direction. u= c µ +V V c µ . except for second-order differences. (43) 1+ c2 Carrying out the division and neglecting terms of higher order we obtain u= c + µ µ2 − 1 µ2 V. We shall confine ourselves to the particular case of a beam of light in a medium which is itself moving parallel to the light. c (42) which. The empirical tity µ2 . 65 For the particular case that the direction of the beam of light is perpendicular to the motion of the observer we have cos φ = 0 V cos φ = − . 56. The experimental verification of the formula by astronomical measurements is familiar. is identical with the familiar expression which makes the tangent of the angle of aberration numerically equal to V /c.Kinematical Applications. Now since the medium appears to be stationary with respect to observers in S it is evident that the velocity of the light with respect to S will be c/µ. If now we use our equation (26) for the addition of velocities we shall obtain for the velocity of light. (44) The equation thus obtained is identical with that of Fresnel.

are in reality connected by an expression which can easily be shown (see Section 54) to have the form V ν. For the case of a dispersive medium we should obviously have to substitute in equation (44) the value of µ corresponding to the particular frequency. In an entirely similar way we may treat the problem of group velocity and obtain the equation G= G +V 1+ GV c2 . In conclusion we wish to call particular attention to the extraordinary simplicity of this method of handling the optics of moving media as compared with those that had to be employed before the introduction of the principle of relativity. It should be noticed in this connection that the frequencies ν and ν which the light has respectively in system S and system S . (46) where G is the group velocity as it appears to an observer who is stationary with respect to the medium. 66 verification of this equation by the experiments of Fizeau and of Michelson and Morley is too well known to need further mention. connected with frequency and the properties of the medium. an experimental quantity. although nearly enough the same for the practical use of equation (44).Chapter Five. which the light has in system S . ν . of course. Group Velocity. in a way to be determined by experiments on the stationary medium. (45) ν =κ 1− c 57. G is. .

we shall present a system of “relativity mechanics” based on Newton’s three laws of motion. III. which merely give us a definition of force. Quite different in its nature from the first two laws. The Laws of Motion. The rate of change of the momentum of the particle is equal to the force acting and is in the same direction. THE DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE. Of these laws the first two merely serve to define the concept of force. 67 . For the action of every force there is an equal force acting in the opposite direction. The truth of this postulate will of course be tested by comparing with experiment the results of the theory of mechanics which we base upon its assumption. 58. the third law states a very definite physical postulate. and hence the momentum mu. and the principle of the conservation of mass. dt dt dt (47) where F is the force acting on a particle of mass m which has the velocity u.CHAPTER VI. the Einstein transformation equations for space and time. and their content may be expressed in mathematical form by the following equation of definition F= d du dm (mu) = m + u. since it requires for every change in the momentum of a body an equal and opposite change in the momentum of some other body. unless it is acted upon by an external force. Every particle continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line. II. Newton’s laws of motion may be stated in the following form: I. In this chapter and the two following.

In relativity mechanics. by considering a collision between elastic particles and calculating how the resulting changes in velocity would appear to different observers who are themselves in relative motion. 68 59. and hence in our new mechanics we must define force as equal to the total rate of change of momentum du dm d(mu) =m + u dt dt dt du instead of merely as mass times acceleration m . The Mass of a Moving Particle. however. Since we now have at our command general formulæ for the transformation of velocities. In Section 31 we have already obtained in an elementary way an expression for the mass of a moving particle. and in particular to show that . Difference between Newtonian and Relativity Mechanics.Chapter Six. In the older mechanics there was no reason for supposing that the mass of a body varied in any way with its velocity. which were based on the laws of motion and the Galilean transformation equations for space and time. and our new system of relativity mechanics based on those same laws of motion and the Einstein transformation equations. we are now in a position to handle this problem much more generally. we should find that the application of Newton’s third law of motion would then lead to very peculiar results. 60. which would make the mass of a body different in different directions and force us to give up the idea of the conservation of mass. and hence force could be defined interchangeably as the rate of change of momentum or as mass times acceleration. If we should try dt to define force in “relativity mechanics” as merely equal to mass times acceleration. we shall be forced to conclude that the mass of a body increases in a perfectly definite way with its velocity. since the two were identical. Before proceeding we may point out the particular difference between the older Newtonian mechanics.

61. but in the reverse direction. the other with the velocity −u. 11. one +v moving in the X direction −u with the velocity +u and Fig. Let us first treat the case of a socalled “transverse” collision. each having the −v mass m0 when at rest. which they originally had.) Besides the large components of velocity +u and −u which they have in the X direction let them also have small components of velocity in the Y direction. 69 the expression obtained for the mass of a moving particle is entirely independent of the consideration of any particular type of collision. (It is evident from the symmetry of the arrangement that the experiment would actually occur as we have stated. +v and −v. Transverse Collision. (See Fig. From equation (14) for the transformation of velocities.) We shall now be interested in the way this experiment would appear to an observer who is in motion in the X direction with the velocity V relative to our original system of coördinates. Consider a system of coördinates and two exactly similar elastic par+u ticles. 11. v. The experiment is so arranged that the particles will just undergo a glancing collision as they pass each other and rebound with components of velocity in the Y direction of the same magnitude.Dynamics of a Particle. it can be seen that this new observer would find for the X component velocities of the two particles the values u1 = u−V 1− uV c2 and u2 = −u − V 1+ uV c2 (48) and from equation (15) for the Y component velocities would find the .

Since these changes in the velocities of the particles are not equal. the principle of the equality of action and reaction) it is evident that on collision the two particles must undergo the same numerical change in momentum. For the experiment that we have chosen the only change in momentum is in the Y direction.e. each of which has the mass m0 when at rest. This difference in the mass of the particles.Chapter Six. values v 1− 1− V2 c2 uV c2 70 v1 = ± and v2 = v 1− 1− V2 c2 . it is evident that their masses must also be unequal if the principle of the equality of action and reaction is true for all observers. and the observer whose measurements we are considering finds that one particle undergoes the total change in velocity 2v 1− 1− uV c2 V2 c2 2v1 = and that the other particle undergoes the change in velocity 2v 1− 1+ uV c2 V2 c2 2v2 = . as we have assumed. Now from Newton’s third law of motion (i. . arises from the fact that the mass of a particle is a function of its velocity and for the observer in question the two particles are not moving with the same velocity. uV c2 (49) the signs depending on whether the velocities are measured before or after the collision..

we obtain by direct algebraic transformation −u − V 1 + uV c2 c2 u−V 1 − uV c2 c2 2 2 1− 2 m1 c = = uV m2 1+ 2 c uV 1− . 71 Using the symbols m1 and m2 for the masses of the particles. 1− which on the substitution of equations (48) gives us m1 = m2 1− 1− u2 2 c2 u1 2 c2 .Dynamics of a Particle. we may write as a general expression For simplicity of calculation we consider the case where the components of velocity in the Y direction are small enough to be negligible in their effect on the mass of the particles compared with the large components of velocity u1 and u2 in the X direction. we may now write as a mathematical expression of the requirements of the third law of motion 2m1 v 1− 1− uV c2 V2 c2 = 2m2 v 1+ 1− uV c2 V2 c2 . denoting the c mass of the particle at rest by m0 . and. Simplifying. (50) This equation thus shows that the mass of a particle moving with u2 the velocity u∗ is inversely proportional to 1 − 2 . ∗ .

and we shall presently see that this more suitable definition is in perfect accord with the idea that the mass of a particle is the same in all directions. 1− u2 c2 . u2 3/2 1− 2 c m0 m0 are. And we shall now proceed to show that by introducing the principle of the conservation of mass.” and in fact the expression obtained has often been spoken of as that for the transverse mass of a moving particle. nal collision” will also lead to exactly the same expression.Chapter Six. the consideration of a “longitudim0 . Newton’s original definition which makes it equal to the rate of change of momentum. while a different m0 . Mass the Same in All Directions. These expressions u2 3/2 u2 1− 2 1− 2 c c as a matter of fact. for force. for the mass of a moving particle m= m0 1− u2 c2 72 . the particular reason making it unfortunate to have different expressions for mass in different directions is that under such conditions it would be impossible to retain or interpret the principle of the conservation of mass. Aside from the unnecessary complexity which would be introduced. The method of derivation that we have just used to obtain this expression for the mass of a moving particle is based on the consideration of a so-called “transverse collision. has been used for the so-called longitudinal expression. (51) 62. however. the values of the electric force necessary to give a charged particle unit acceleration respectively at right angles and in the same direction as its original velocity. As already stated. and mass of the particle. and hence such expressions would be proper for the mass of a moving particle if we should define force as mass times acceleration. it has seemed preferable to retain.

On collision the particles will evidently come to rest. from our formula for the transformation of velocities (14).. it is evident that we shall have u1 = u−V 1− uV c2 and u2 = −u − V 1+ uV c2 . they will be moving past our observer with the velocity −V . Now during the collision the velocities of the particles will all the time be changing. (52) Since these velocities u1 and u2 are not of the same magnitude. each of them having the mass m0 when at rest. it is evident that this momentum must be equal to the original momentum before collision occurred. But. the two particles which have the same mass when at rest do not have the same mass for this observer.Dynamics of a Particle. Consider a system of coördinates and two elastic particles moving in the X direction with the velocities +u and −u so that a “longitudinal” (i. 63. When in the course of the collision the particles have come to relative rest. Then. Let us call the masses before collision m1 and m2 . Longitudinal Collision. Substituting our . and their momentum will be −(m1 + m2 )V . head-on) collision will occur. 73 for the mass of a moving particle as we have already obtained from the consideration of a transverse collision. Let the particles be exactly alike. but from the principle of the conservation of mass the sum of the two masses must all the time be equal to m1 + m2 . and then under the action of the elastic forces developed start up and move back over their original paths with the respective velocities −u and +u of the same magnitude as before.e. Let us now consider how this collision would appear to an observer who is moving past the original system of coördinates with the velocity V in the X direction. This gives us the equation −(m1 + m2 )V = m1 u1 + m2 u2 . from the principle of the equality of action and reaction. Let u1 and u2 be the velocities of the particles as they appear to this new observer before the collision has taken place.

leading to the same expression that we obtained before for the mass of a moving particle. where F ( ) is the function whose form we wish to determine. however. this can be shown to be identical with m1 = m2 1− 1− u2 2 c2 u1 2 c2 . viz. Collision of Any Type. We have derived this formula for the mass of a moving particle first from the consideration of a transverse and then of a longitudinal collision between particles which are elastic and have the same mass when at rest. since a moving body may evidently be thought of as divided into parts without change in mass. The mass is written as a function of the square of the velocity.Chapter Six. It may be further remarked that the form of the function F ( ) must be such that its value approaches unity as the variable approaches zero.: m0 m= . 1− u2 c2 64. and the mass is made proportional to the mass at rest. and by direct algebraic transformation. as in the previous proof. since from the homogeneity of space the mass will be independent of the direction of the velocity. that the consideration of any type of collision between particles of any mass leads to the same formula for the mass of a moving particle. It seems to be desirable to show. values (52) for u1 and u2 we have m1 1− uV c2 74 = m2 1+ uV c2 . For the mass m of a particle moving with the velocity u let us write the equation m = m0 F (u2 ). .

(56) These velocities. as given by our transformation equations for velocity (14). ux V 1− 1− V2 c2 ux V c2 uy . wz .e. (15). (54) m0 F (ux 2 + uy 2 + uz 2 )uy + n0 F (wx 2 + wy 2 + wz 2 )wy = m0 F (Ux 2 + Uy 2 + Uz 2 )Uy + n0 F (Wx 2 + Wy 2 + Wz 2 )Wy . etc. wx . 1− 1− V2 c2 ux V c2 uz .. ux .. moving with the velocities u and w before collision. (53) and from the principle of the equality of action and reaction (i. (16).Dynamics of a Particle.. ux . From the principle of the conservation of mass we have m0 F (ux 2 + uy 2 + uz 2 ) + n0 F (wx 2 + wy 2 + wz 2 ) = m0 F (Ux 2 + Uy 2 + Uz 2 ) + n0 F (Wx 2 + Wy 2 + Wz 2 ). Newton’s third law of motion) m0 F (ux 2 + uy 2 + uz 2 )ux + n0 F (wx 2 + wy 2 + wz 2 )wx = m0 F (Ux 2 + Uy 2 + Uz 2 )Ux + n0 F (Wx 2 + Wy 2 + Wz 2 )Wx . and with the velocities U and W after a collision has taken place. etc. uy . (55) m0 F (ux 2 + uy 2 + uz 2 )uz + n0 F (wx 2 + wy 2 + wz 2 )wz = m0 F (Ux 2 + Uy 2 + Uz 2 )Uz + n0 F (Wx 2 + Wy 2 + Wz 2 )Wz . 75 Let us now consider two particles having respectively the masses m0 and n0 when at rest. are measured. with respect to some definite system of “space-time” coördinates. . Ux . of course. wx − V 1− wx V c2 . An observer moving past this system of coördinates with the velocity V in the X direction would find for the corresponding component velocities the values ux − V 1− c2 . wy .

 Wx V  Wx V    1− 2 1− 2   c c m0 F +n0 F (53a) = m0 F +n0 F m0 F {ux · · · } ux − V 1− ux V c2 + n0 F {wx · · · } Ux − V 1− Ux V c2 wx − V 1− wx V c2 = m0 F {Ux · · · } + n0 F {Wx · · · } Wx − V 1− Wx V c2 (54a) . 76 Since the law of the conservation of mass and Newton’s third law of motion must also hold for the measurements of the new observer.Chapter Six. we may write the following new relations corresponding to equations (53) to (56):  2      u −V   x    +  ux V    1− 2  c  2      w −V   x  +   wx V    1−   2 c  2      U −V   x    +    1 − Ux V   c2  2      W −V   x    +    1 − Wx V   2 c 2  2   V2 V2   1 − 2 uy   1 − c2 uz   c  +   ux V  ux V    1− 2 1− 2   c c 2  2   V2 V2   1 − 2 wy   1 − c2 w z   c  +   wx V  wx V    1− 2 1− 2   c c  2  2  V2 V2   1 − 2 Uy   1 − c2 Uz   c  +   Ux V  Ux V    1− 2 1− 2   c c 2  2   V2 V2   1 − 2 Wy   1 − c2 Wz   c  +  . .

and for all values of V . measured with reference to a definite system of coördinates and entirely independent of V . etc. Before proceeding to use our formula for the mass of a moving particle for the further development of our system of mechanics. and we see that () 1− 2 c the expected relation is a solution of the equations. we may call attention in passing to the fact that the experiments of Kaufmann. are. it is evident that the function F ( ) must be of such a form that the equations are identities in V . uy . that is. perfectly definite quantities..Dynamics of a Particle. and Hupka have in reality shown that the mass of the elec- . although perhaps not necessarily a unique solution. If these equations are to be true for perfectly definite values of ux .. Wx V 1− 2 c (55a) m0 F ux · · · 1− 1− V2 ux c2 ux V c2 + n0 F w x · · · 1− 1− V2 wx c2 wx V c2 V2 1 − 2 Wx c . uz . it is found by trial that V can be cancelled from all 1 the equations if we make F ( ) of the form . uz . wx . As a matter of fact. however. The velocities ux . Bucherer. V2 uy c2 + n0 F {wx · · · } u V 1 − x2 c 77 m0 F {ux · · · } 1− V2 wy c2 w V 1 − x2 c 1− = m0 F {Ux · · · } V2 1 − 2 Uy c + n0 F {Wx · · · } Ux V 1− 2 c V2 1 − 2 Wy c . uy . true for all values of V . etc. wx . W V 1− x c2 (56a) = m0 F Ux · · · V2 1 − 2 Ux c U V 1 − x2 c + n0 F Wx · · · It is evident that these equations (53a)–(56a) must be true no matter what the velocity between the new observer and the original system of coördinates.

We shall consider the dynamics of the electron more in detail in the chapter devoted to electromagnetic theory. however.Chapter Six. however. a transformation equation (17) for the function of the velocity occurring in these equations and on . since the increase in mass is alone sufficient to account for the results of the measurement. 78 tron increases with its velocity according to the formula which we have just obtained. We wish to point out now. Transformation Equations for Mass. Since the velocity of a particle depends on the particular system of coördinates chosen for the measurement. m = 1− u c2 2 We have already obtained. Similarly with respect to a system of coördinates S which is moving relatively to S with the velocity V in the X direction we shall have m0 . etc. For the further development of our system of dynamics. m= 1− u2 c2 where the velocity u is measured with respect to some definite system of coördinates. we shall find it desirable to obtain transformation equations for mass similar to those already obtained for velocity. acceleration. 65. S. We have m0 . it is evident that the mass of the particle will also depend on our reference system of coördinates. Hence we may reject the possibility of explaining the Kaufmann experiment by assuming that the charge of the electron decreases with its velocity. that in this derivation we have made no reference to any electrical charge which might be carried by the particle whose mass is to be determined.

66. gives us F= d dt m0 1− u2 c2 u = m0 1− du d + dt u2 dt c2 m0 1− u2 c2 u (59) .Dynamics of a Particle. the equation which we have now obtained for the mass of a moving particle will permit us to rewrite the original equation by which we defined force. We are now in a position to return to our development of the dynamics of a particle. dt dt dt which. we obtain the following transformation equation for the rate at which the mass of a particle is changing owing to change in velocity mV m =m− 2 ˙ ˙ c ux V 1− 2 c −1 dux . dt (58) Equation for the Force Acting on a Moving Particle. By differentiation of (57) with respect to the time and simplification. in a number of ways which will be useful for future reference. We have our equation of definition (47) F= d du dm (mu) = m + u. substitution we obtain the desired transformation equation m = 1− ux V c2 κm. 79 (57) where κ has the customary significance κ= 1 1− V2 c2 . In the first place. on substitution of the expression for m.

Fz . ˙ ˙ We have transformation equations. We are also in position to obtain transformation equations for force. F= m0 du + u2 u2 dt 1− 2 1− 2 c c 80 m0 3/2 u du u. equation (57) and for rate of change of mass. equation (58). for all the quantities on the right-hand side of these equations. We have d ˙ ˙ F = (mu) = mu + mu dt or Fx = mux + mux . for mass. however.Chapter Six. − ux V c − ux V (61) ux V c2 ux V c2 (62) (63) We may now consider a few applications of the principles governing the dynamics of a particle. for the accelerations (18). ˙ ˙ Fz = muz + muz . 67. or. (19) and (20). . Substituting above we obtain as our transformation equations for force Fx = Fy = Fz = Fx − mV ˙ 1− 1− 1− κ−1 κ−1 ux V c2 = Fx − Fy . For the velocities we have equations (14). carrying out the indicated differentiation. ˙ ˙ Fy = muy + muy . c2 dt (60) Transformation Equations for Force. (15) and (16). c2 uz V uy V Fy − 2 Fz .

81 68. We shall find it interesting to see. 12) in plane space moving with the O X velocity Fig. one of which is du in the direction of the acceleration and the other in the direction of dt the existing velocity u. If we examine our equation (59) for the force acting on a particle F = m0 1− du d + dt u2 dt c2 m0 1− u2 c2 u. the two components will be connected by a m ux definite relation. u = ux i + uy j. The Relation between Force and Acceleration. 12.Dynamics of a Particle. From our general equation (59) for the force acting on a particle we . however. so that in general force and the acceleration Y it produces are not in the same direction. Let it be accelerated in the X direction by the action of the component forces Fx and Fy . that if the force which does produce acceleruy u ation in a given direction be resolved perpendicular and parallel to the acceleration. Consider a particle (Fig. (59) we see that the force is equal to the sum of two vectors.

Fy c − ux 2 ux uy Fy . have for these component forces Fx = m0 1− Fy = m0 1− dux d + dt u2 dt c2 82 m0 1− m0 1− u2 c2 u2 c2 ux . In a later paragraph we shall show an application of equation (66) in electrical theory. since the particle is being accelerated in the Y direction. (64) d duy + dt u2 dt c2 uy . The component force Fx is necessary for the production of this increase in X-momentum. Refer again to Fig. its total velocity and hence its mass are increasing. which makes = 0. This increasing mass is accompanied by increasing momentum in the X direction even when the velocity in that direction remains constant. y x dt by the division of equation (64) by (65). 12. we obtain Fx ux uy = 2 . and further noting that u2 = u2 +u2 . Fx = 2 c − ux 2 (66) Hence. we may apply any force Fy in the desired direction. . Although at first sight this state of affairs might seem rather unexpected. a simple qualitative consideration will show the necessity of a component of force perpendicular to the desired acceleration. in order to accelerate a particle in a given direction. but must at the same time apply at right angles another force Fx whose magnitude is given by equation (66). (65) Introducing the condition that all the acceleration is to be in the dux Y direction.Chapter Six.

Fx will disappear when either ux or uy is equal to zero. c2 dt .Dynamics of a Particle. giving us F= m0 1− du . so that force and acceleration will be in the same direction when the force acts exactly at right angles to the line of motion of the particle. u2 dt c2 (67) For the case of longitudinal acceleration. the velocity u and the du are in the same direction. An examination of equation (66) shows that there are two special cases in which the component force Fx disappears and the force and acceleration are in the same direction. 83 69. It is instructive to obtain simplified expressions for force for these two cases of transverse and longitudinal acceleration. so that we may rewrite the acceleration dt second term of (60). Transverse and Longitudinal Acceleration. or in the direction of the motion (or of course also when ux and uy are both equal to zero and the particle is at rest). giving us F= du m0 + u2 u2 dt 1− 2 1− 2 c c m0 3/2 u2 du . Let us again examine our equation (60) for the force acting on a particle du m0 u du m0 + u. (60) F= 2 3/2 c2 dt u u2 dt 1− 2 1− 2 c c For the case of a transverse acceleration there is no component of force in the direction of the velocity u and the second term of the equation is equal to zero.

for example. and a charge e in uniform motion along the X axis with the velocity V . In a later chapter we shall present a consistent development of the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory based on the Einstein transformation equations for space and time and the four field equations. We desire to know the force acting at the time t on any other charge e1 which has any desired coördinates x. however. The Force Exerted by a Moving Charge. Let us proceed to the specific solution of the problem. and on simplification this becomes F= m0 1− u c2 2 84 3/2 du . Consider a system of coördinates S. We can solve this problem by considering a system of coördinates which move with the same velocity as the charge itself. uy and uz . y. dt m0 (68) An examination of this expression shows the reason why 1− 2 c is sometimes spoken of as the expression for the longitudinal mass of a particle. At this point. u2 3/2 . we wish to calculate the force with which a point charge in uniform motion acts on any other point charge. An observer making use of the new system of coördinates could evidently calculate the force exerted by the charge in question by Coulomb’s familiar inverse square law for static charges. Suppose. and the magnitude of the force as measured in the original system of coördinates can then be determined from our transformation equations for force. it may not be amiss to point out that the principles of mechanics themselves may sometimes be employed to obtain a simple and direct solution of electrical problems. 70.Chapter Six. and z and any desired velocity ux .

) ∗ . (x + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 ee1 x Fy = . (71). In the present derivation we have extended this law to apply to the instantaneous force exerted by a stationary charge upon any other charge. y . (12) we shall have x = κ−1 x. For simplicity let us consider the force at the time t = 0. (62). since they would both count the same number of electrons on the charge. The fact that a charge of electricity appears the same to observers in all systems is obviously also necessary for the setting up of equations (69). (70). 2 (y + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 ee1 x Fz = 2 . The charge e would appear of the same magnitude to observers both in system S and system S . Substituting in (69). and z are the coördinates of the charge e1 at the time t .Dynamics of a Particle. 85 Assume a system of coördinates. S . in accordance with Coulomb’s law∗ ee1 r F = r3 or Fx = ee1 x . (70). we obtain the following equations for It should be noted that in its original form Coulomb’s law merely stated that the force between two stationary charges was proportional to the product of the charges and inversely to the distance between them. Hence in system S the force with which e acts on e1 will be. (See Section 157. y = y. To an observer moving with the system S . is an evident consequence of the atomic nature of electricity. (71) and also using our transformation equations for force (61). (z + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 2 (69) (70) (71) where x . (11). however. moving with the same velocity as the charge e which is taken coincident with the origin. That such is the case. (10). z = z. the charge e appears to be always at rest and surrounded by a pure electrostatic field. (63). then from transformation equations (9).

since t = 0. the force acting on e1 . c2 For convenience we may now refer our results to a system of coördinates whose origin coincides with the position of the charge e at the instant under consideration. which is moving with the uniform velocity V along the X axis. we shall evidently have the relations xe = X =x− V2 x = κ−2 x. V 2 κ (yuy + zuz ) . If X. as it appears to an observer in system S: Fx = Fy = Fz = ee1 x (x + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 2 86 x+ . . Y = y. At this c time the charge e. Uz = uz . will evidently have the position V2 x. From V transformation equation (12) we have t = 2 x. Uy = uy .Chapter Six. c2 (72) ee1 1 − ee1 1 − (κ−2 x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 (κ−2 x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 ux V c2 ux V c2 κy κz (73) (74) These equations give the force acting on e1 at the time t. c X+ Substituting into (72). c Ux V 1 − 2 ) Z. Y and Z are the coördinates of e1 with respect to this new system. (74) we obtain Fx = ee1 s3 ee1 Fy = 3 s ee1 Fz = 3 s (75) (76) (77) . ye = 0. V2 c2 V2 1− 2 c V2 1− 2 c 1− V (Y Uy + ZUz ) . ze = 0. c2 Ux = ux . (73). c2 Ux V 1 − 2 ) Y. Z = z.

. 87 These are the same equations which would be obtained by substituting the well-known formulæ for the strength of the electric and magnetic field around a moving point charge into the fifth fundamental 1 equation of the Maxwell-Lorentz theory. Making these substitutions in (75). Equations (75). (76). 71. and are seen to come directly from Coulomb’s law. if we consider the particular case that the charge e1 is stationary (i. 13). Let us .Dynamics of a Particle. (76).e. Suppose now a second charge e1 . They c are really obtained in this way more easily. and also having a component velocity in the Y direction Uy . where for simplicity we have placed s= X2 + 1 − V2 c2 (Y 2 + Z 2 ). however. Y = Y and moving in the X direction with the same velocity V as the charge e. Consider a charge e constrained to move in the X direction with the velocity V and at the instant under consideration let it coincide with the origin of a system of stationary coördinates Y eX (Fig. Ux = Uy = Uz = 0) and equal to unity. f = ρ e + [u × h]∗ . (77) can also be applied in the solution of a rather interesting specific problem. The Field around a Moving Charge. Application to a Specific Problem. situated at the point X = 0. s c where r = Xi + Y j + Zk. Evidently we may also use these considerations to obtain an expression for the electric field produced by a moving charge e. (77) we obtain the well-known expression for the electrical field in the neighborhood of a moving point charge V2 e (78) F = e = 3 1 − 2 r.

From the simple qualitative considerations placed at our disposal by Uy the theory of relativity. since from the point of view of an observer moving along with e the phenomenon is merely one of ordinary electrostatic repulsion. and dividing (79) by (80) we actually obtain the necessary relation Fx V Uy = 2 . it being otherwise unconstrained. charge actually lead to this result. We remember. Fy c −V2 .Chapter Six. that equation (66) prescribes a definite ratio between the component forces Fx and Fy if the acceleration is to be in the Y direction. in contradiction to the simple qualitative prediction that we have just made on the basis of the theory of relativity. Let us see whether our equations e for the force exerted by a moving X Fig. c2 2 (79) (80) ee1 Fx = 3 s V2 1− 2 c Y. it seems evident that the charge e1 ought merely to increase its component of veloce1 ity in the Y direction and retain unUx = V changed its component in the X direction. Now under the action of the component force Fx we might at first sight expect the charge e1 to obtain an acceleration in the X direction. 13. By making the obvious substitutions in equations (75) and (76) we obtain for the component forces on e1 Fx = ee1 s3 1− V2 c2 V Y Uy . however. Y 88 predict the nature of its motion under the influence of the charge e.

72. it is much more useful to have an expression for kinetic energy in terms of the mass and velocity of the particle. and potential energy. the kinetic energy of a particle turns out to be entirely independent of the particular choice of forces used in producing the final velocity. Since. we shall define its kinetic energy as numerically equal to the work done in producing the velocity. magnetic and gravitational problems will be evident to the reader. We have already obtained an expression for the force acting on a particle and shall define the work done on the particle as the integral of the force times the distance through which the particle is displaced. however. . Before proceeding with the further development of our theory of dynamics we shall find it desirable to define the quantities work. We have K= F · dr = F· dr dt = dt F · u dt. Thus W = F · dr. Thus K=W = F · dr. Work. 73.Dynamics of a Particle. (81) where r is the radius vector determining the position of the particle. 89 Other applications of the new principles of dynamics to electrical. When a particle is brought from a state of rest to the velocity u by the action of an unbalanced force F. Kinetic Energy. kinetic.

(82) (83) It should be noticed. on expansion into a series. we obtain 1− u2 c2 K= m0 u 1− u2 c2 du + m0 c2 u3 1− u2 3/2 c2 du and on integrating and evaluating the constant of integration by placing the kinetic energy equal to zero when the velocity is zero. that our expression (82) for the kinetic energy of a particle approaches at low velocities . as was stated above. u2 c2 −1 . It will also be noticed. that the kinetic energy of a particle does depend merely on its mass and final velocity and is entirely independent of the particular choice of forces which happened to be used in producing the state of motion.Chapter Six. we easily obtain the desired expression for the kinetic energy of a particle: K = m 0 c2 1 1− = c2 (m − m0 ). 90 Substituting the value of F given by the equation of definition (47) we obtain K= = = m du · u dt + dt dm u · udt dt u · u dm u2 dm. m u · du + mu du + Introducing the expression (51) for the mass of a moving particle m = m0 .

91 Potential Energy. The increase in the potential energy of the particle is equal to the kinetic energy which has been destroyed and hence equal to the work done by the particle against the force.Dynamics of a Particle. 1 K = 2 m0 u2 . A conservative force is one such that any work done by displacing a system against it would be completely regained if the motion of the system should be reversed. We may now consider a very important relation between the mass and energy of a particle. 75. the form familiar in the older Newtonian mechanics. we shall accept the general principle of the conservation of energy just as in Newtonian mechanics. giving us the equation ∆U = −W = − F · dr.) ∗ . see the next chapter. both its mass and energy are increased. (For a logical deduction of the principle of the conservation of energy in a system of particles. which was first pointed out in our chapter on “Some Elementary Deductions. Since we believe that the forces which act on the ultimate particles and constituents of matter are in reality all of them conservative. 74. When a moving particle is brought to rest by the action of a conservative ∗ force we say that its kinetic energy has been transformed into potential energy. For the increase in mass we may write ∆m = m − m0 . (84) The Relation between Mass and Energy.” When an isolated particle is set in motion. Section 89.

there seems to be every reason for believing that this mass and energy which are associated together when the particle is in motion and leave the particle when it is brought to rest will still remain always associated together. the name applied when we have been interested in the part taken by the entity in the production of motion and other changes in the physical universe. when a moving particle is brought to rest and thus loses both its kinetic energy and its extra (“kinetic”) mass. energy and mass very fruitful in the simplification of . the name which has been applied when we have been interested in the property of mass or inertia possessed by the entity. ∆E = c2 ∆m. giving us ∆E = c2 (m − m0 ).Chapter Six. On the other hand. and energy. (85) Thus the increase in the kinetic energy of a particle always bears the same definite ratio (the square of the velocity of light) to its increase in mass. the kinetic energy which leaves the particle will be transformed into the potential energy of the stretched spring. we shall believe that this mass is now associated with the potential energy of the stretched spring. and since the mass which has undoubtedly left the particle must still be in existence. if the particle is brought to rest by collision with another particle. For example. We shall find these ideas as to the relations between matter. say for example that exerted by an elastic spring. combining with the previous equation. Furthermore. 92 and for the increase in energy we have the expression for kinetic energy given in equation (83). it is an evident consequence of our considerations that the energy and the mass corresponding to it do remain associated together since they are both passed on to the new particle. Such considerations have led us to believe that matter and energy may be best regarded as different names for the same fundamental entity: matter. 76. or. if the particle is brought to rest by the action of a conservative force.

the gram and the erg.† It should be noticed that our theory points to the presence of enormous stores of interatomic energy which are still left in substances cooled to the absolute zero. 93 physical reasoning. however. not only because it identifies the two laws of the conservation of mass and the conservation of energy. vol. and outside of the experimental work on electrons at high velocities. already mentioned in Section 64 and the well-known relations between the energy and momentum of a beam of light. (86) where E is expressed in ergs and m in grams. p. but also for its frequent application in the solution of specific problems. (87) The enormous number of ergs necessary for increasing the mass of a system to the amount of a single gram makes it evident that experimental proofs of the relation between mass and energy will be hard to find. Equation (85) gives us the relation E = c2 m. As to the possibility of obtaining further direct experimental evidence of the relation between mass and energy.∗ In the case of some radioactive processes. call it matter or energy as we please. we shall have 1 gram = 9 × 1020 ergs. taking the velocity of light as 3 × 1010 centimeters per second. both of which are used for the measurement of the one fundamental entity. we certainly cannot look towards thermal experiments with any degree of confidence. 77. And making use of this point of view we might account for the lack of exact relations between the atomic weights of the successive products of radioactive decomposition. such evidence has not yet been forthcoming. † See.Dynamics of a Particle. for example. ∗ . We must call attention to the great difference in size between the two units. we may find a transfer of energy large enough to bring about measurable differences in mass. 15. since even on cooling a body down to the absolute zero of temperature it loses but an inappreciable fraction of its mass at ordinary temperatures. Philosophical Magazine. hence. 1 (1908). Comstock.

in the treatment of a specific problem. To this new observer the particles will be moving before the collision with the respective velocities u1 = u−V 1− uV c2 and u2 = −u − V 1− uV c2 . one moving in the X direction with the velocity +u and the other with the velocity −u. the mass of the first particle will be m0 1− u1 2 c2 = 1− m0 u−V 1 − uV c2 c2 2 = m0 1 − 1− V2 c2 uV c2 1− u2 c2 . just as in Section 63. 94 78. We may show an interesting application of our ideas as to the relation between mass and energy. (88) as given by equation (14) for the transformation of velocities. Application to a Specific Problem.Chapter Six. in such a way that a head-on collision between the particles will occur and they will rebound over their original paths with the respective velocities −u and +u of the same magnitude as before. Furthermore. Before the collision. Let us see what the masses of the particles will be both before and during the collision. Let us now consider how this collision would appear to an observer who is moving past the original system of coördinates with the velocity V in the X direction. Consider. two elastic particles both of which have the mass m0 at rest. when in the course of the collision the particles have come to relative rest they will obviously be moving past our observer with the velocity −V .

a quantity which is smaller than that which we have just found for the sum of the two masses before the collision occurred. is removed. if we realize that when the particles have come to relative rest an amount of potential energy of elastic deformation has been produced. In the following chapter on the dynamics of a system of particles we shall make further use of our ideas as to the mass corresponding to potential energy. they will evidently both be moving past our observer with the velocity −V and hence the sum of their masses at the instant of relative rest would appear to be 2m0 1− V2 c2 . Adding these two expressions. when the two particles have come to relative rest. and the mass corresponding to this potential energy will evidently be just sufficient to make the total mass of the system the same as before collision. . This apparent discrepancy between the total mass of the system before and during the collision. which is just sufficient to restore them to their original velocities. 1− Now during the collision. however.Dynamics of a Particle. and the mass of the second particle will be m0 1− u2 2 c2 95 = 1− m0 −u − V 1 + uV c2 c2 2 = m0 1 + 1− V2 c2 uV c2 1− u2 c2 . 2m0 1− V2 c2 u2 c2 . we obtain for the sum of the masses of the two particles before collision.

CHAPTER VII. 79. For cases where the velocities of all the particles involved are slow compared with that of light. moreover. nor to define the generalized momenta used in the Hamiltonian equations as the partial differential of the kinetic energy with respect to the generalized velocity. of the conservation of moment of momentum. however. our new principles will differ from those of Newtonian mechanics. Thus we shall deduce principles corresponding to the principles of the conservation of momentum. of least action and of vis viva. as well as the equations of motion in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian (canonical) forms. 80. Where high velocities are involved. as well as in form. With the help of those laws we shall now derive some useful general dynamical principles which describe the motions of a system of particles. we shall find. In particular we shall find among other differences that in the case of high velocities it will no longer be possible to define the Lagrangian function as the difference between the kinetic and potential energies of the system. dt dt dt 96 (47) . with the corresponding principles of the classical mechanics. F= du dm d (mu) = m + u. On the Nature of a System of Particles. and in the following chapter shall consider an application of some of these principles to the kinetic theory of gases. that our principles become identical in content. THE DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES. In the preceding chapter we discussed the laws of motion of a particle. each obeying the equation of motion which we have already written in the forms. The general dynamical principles which we shall present in this chapter will be similar in form to principles which are already familiar in the classical Newtonian mechanics. Our purpose in this chapter is to treat dynamical systems consisting of a finite number of particles.

d dt m0 1− u2 c 97 F= u = m0 1− du d + dt u2 dt c m0 1− u2 c u. We may first show from Newton’s third law of motion that the momentum of an isolated system of particles remains constant. however. and we should also find it impossible to retain the principle of the conservation of momentum unless we included the momentum corresponding to potential energy. It is evident rather. etc. the principle of the equality of action and reaction. . (59) It is not to be supposed. however. that there will in general be mass distributed more or less continuously throughout the space in the neighborhood of the particles.. that Newton’s third law. For a continuous distribution of mass we may write for the force acting at any point on the material in a small volume. that the total mass of such a system can be taken as located solely in these particles. Let us proceed to the solution of our specific problems. We shall assume. but for the purposes of this chapter we shall not need any further information as to the nature of the distributed momentum. δV .Dynamics of a System of Particles. state of strain. 81. holds for forces of this type as well as for those acting on particles. This equation is of course merely an equation of definition for the intensity of force at a point. since potential energy has mass. f δV = d (g δV ). In later chapters we shall investigate the way in which g depends on velocity. dt (47A) where f is the force per unit volume and g is the density of momentum. that is. Indeed we have shown at the end of the preceding chapter (Section 78) that unless we take account of the mass corresponding to potential energy we can not maintain the principle of the conservation of mass. The Conservation of Momentum.

etc. m2 . we have F1 + I1 + f dV + i dV = d dt m1 u1 + dG .. m3 .Chapter Seven. F2 . Considering the distributed mass in the system.. we may also write. are the external forces impressed on the individual particles from outside the system and I1 . Adding this to our previous equations (89) for the forces acting on the individual particles. are the internal forces arising from mutual reactions within the interior of the system. I1 + i dV . dt etc. in accordance with (47A) the further equation (f + i) δV = d (g δV ).e. dt (91) where G is the total distributed momentum in the system. etc. dt (90) where f and i are respectively the external and internal forces acting per unit volume of the distributed mass. which arise from mutual reactions within the .. the principle of the equality of action and reaction) it is evident that the sum of the internal forces. 98 Considering a system of particles of masses m1 . F1 + I1 = (89) where F1 . Integrating throughout the whole volume of the system V we have (f + i) dV = dG ... we may write in accordance with equation (47). etc. I2 . dt But from Newton’s third law of motion (i. d (m1 u1 ). dt d F2 + I2 = (m2 u2 ).

V . . Consider a particle of mass m1 and velocity u1 . For the particular case of an isolated system there are no external forces and our equation becomes a statement of the principle of the conservation of momentum. The Equation of Angular Momentum. 82. We may next obtain an equation for the moment of momentum of a system about a point. 99 system must be equal to zero. = (r × g) dV. we obtain for the total amount of momentum of the system about our chosen point M= (r1 × m1 u1 ) + (r × g) dV . of the system. (93) Similarly. Let r1 be the radius vector from any given point of reference to the particle. Then for the moment of momentum of the particle about the point we may write M1 = r1 × m1 u1 . for the moment of momentum of the distributed mass we may write Mdist. and summing up for all the particles of the system we may write M1 = (r1 × m1 u1 ). Adding these two equations (93) and (94).Dynamics of a System of Particles. which leads to the desired equation of momentum d (92) F1 + f dv = ( m1 u1 + G). (94) where r is the radius vector from our chosen point of reference to a point in space where the density of momentum is g and the integration is to be taken throughout the whole volume. dt In words this equation states that at any given instant the vector sum of the external forces acting on the system is equal to the rate at which the total momentum of the system is changing.

together with the further requirement that forces are not only equal and opposite but that their points of application be in the same straight line. 100 and differentiating with respect to the time we have. Furthermore. dM = dt r1 × d (m1 u1 ) + dt + dr1 × m1 u1 dt dg r× dV + dt dr × g dV . etc. making the substitutions given by equations (89) and (90). we may put the moment of all the internal forces equal to zero and thus eliminate the second and fifth terms. since the outer product of a vector by itself is equal to zero.Chapter Seven. if we accept the principle of the equality of action and reaction.. dt or. To simplify this equation we may note that the third term is equal to zero because it contains the outer product of a vector by itself. If density of momentum and velocity should always be in the same direction this term would vanish. and dr1 writing = u1 . (95) We may call attention to the inclusion in this equation of the interesting term (u × g) dV .” however. In our consideration of the “Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. we have dt dM = dt (r1 × F1 ) + + (r1 × I1 ) + (r × f ) dV + (u1 × m1 u1 ) (r × i) dV + (u × g) dV. we shall find bodies with . for the rate of change of the moment of momentum. We obtain as the equation of angular momentum dM = dt (r1 × F1 ) + (r × f ) dV + (u × g) dV.

and for that reason in our non-Newtonian mechanics we shall find it desirable to define a new function. m0 u. m0 c2 1− u2 c2 locity is equal to momentum. T . that the derivative of our new expression for 1 −1 . The Function T . however. c For slow velocities (i. 1 m u2 . u2 (96) T = m 0 c2 1 − 1 − 2 .. For a completely isolated system it can be shown. dT d = −m0 c2 du du 1− u2 = c2 m0 u 1− u2 c2 = mu. 101 a component of momentum at right angles to their direction of motion and hence must include this term in a general treatment.e. We may now proceed to the definition of a function which will be needed in our treatment of the principle of least action. that this term vanishes along with the external forces and we then have the principle of the conservation of moment of momentum. by the equation. for kinetic energy was the fact that its derivative with respect 2 0 to velocity is evidently the Newtonian expression for momentum. 83. One of the most valuable properties of the Newtonian expression. small values of u) this reduces to the Newtonian expression for kinetic energy and at all velocities we have the relation. It is not true. however. (97) showing that the differential of T with respect to velocity is momentum. . with respect to vekinetic energy (see Section 73).Dynamics of a System of Particles.

Chapter Seven. and let the displacement of the particle at the instant in question be δr. so that we shall now find it advisable to define the Lagrangian function with the help of our new function T in accordance with the equation L = T − U. . We are now in a position to derive a principle corresponding to that of least action in the older mechanics. (99) The Principle of Least Action. In the older mechanics the Lagrangian function for a system of particles was defined as the difference between the kinetic and potential energies of the system. The motion of any particle in the system of mass m will be governed by the equation d (100) F = (mu). 85. Consider the path by which our dynamical system actually moves from state (1) to state (2). 84. The value of the definition rested. dt Let us now compare the actual path by which the system moves from state (1) to state (2) with a slightly displaced path in which the laws of motion are not obeyed. however. on the fact that the differential of the kinetic energy with respect to velocity was equal to momentum. (98) The Modified Lagrangian Function. 102 For a system of particles we shall define T as the summation of the values for the individual particles: T = m 0 c2 1 − 1− u2 c2 .

F · δr = Summing up for all the particles of the system and integrating between the limits t1 and t2 . we see that giving us t2 t1 (δT + F · δr) dt = 0. If the forces F are conservative. we have d (mu) · δr dt d d δr = (mu · δr) − mu · dt dt d = (mu · δr) − mu · δu) dt (mu · δu + F · δr) dt = d(mu · δr). (101) With the help of equation (97). furthermore we also have u · δu = u δu. t1 Since t1 and t2 are the times when the actual and displaced motions coincide. mu δu = δT .Dynamics of a System of Particles. we have t2 t1 ( mu · δu + F · δr) dt = [ mu · δr]t2 . This gives us δ t2 t1 (T − U ) dt = 0 . we have at these times δr = 0. we may write F · δr = −δU . so that we may write t2 t1 ( mu δu + F · δr) dt = 0. however. 103 Let us take the inner product of both sides of equation (100) with δr. where δU is the difference between the potential energies of the displaced and the actual configurations.

the first term in this expression disappears and on substituting in equation (103) we obtain t2 t1 n 1 δφi ∂L d − ∂φi dt ∂L ˙ ∂ φi dt = 0. 86. φ2 . (102) which is the modified principle of least action. ˙ ∂ φi (103) But ˙ δ φi = which gives us t2 t1 d (δφi ). We may now derive the Lagrangian equations of motion from the above principle of least action. φ2 . φ2 = . φ3 · · · φn and ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ hence that L is some function of φ1 . dt ∂L ˙ δ φi dt = ˙ ∂ φi t2 t1 ∂L d (δφi ) dt ˙ ∂ φi dt t2 t1 ∂L = δφi ˙ ∂ φi − t2 t1 δφi d dt ∂L ˙ ∂ φi dt or. where for simplicity we have put φ1 = dt dt From equation (102) we have t2 t1 (δL) dt = t2 t1 n 1 ∂L δφi + ∂φi n 1 ∂L ˙ δ φi dt = 0. the quantity t1 L dt shall be a minimum (or maximum). φ3 · · · φn . φ1 . φ2 . δφi is zero. Lagrange’s Equations. dφ2 dφ1 ˙ ˙ . etc. The principle evidently requires that for the actual path by which the system goes from state (1) t2 to state (2). φ3 · · · φn . . or δ 104 t2 t1 L dt = 0.Chapter Seven. Let us suppose that the position of each particle of the system under consideration is completely determined by n independent generalized coördinates φ1 . since at times t1 and t2 .

differing only in the definition of L. however.Dynamics of a System of Particles. 105 Since.. δφ2 . ∂φ1 ∂L = 0. Consider now a function T defined by the equation ˙ ˙ T = ψ1 φ1 + ψ2 φ2 + · · · − T. Let us define the generalized momentum ψi corresponding to the coördinate φi by the equation. ˙ ∂ φi (105) ∂L ˙ ∂ φ1 ∂L ˙ ∂ φ2 ∂L = 0. the limits t1 and t2 are entirely at our disposal we must have at every instant n 1 δφi d ∂L − ∂φi dt ∂L ˙ ∂ φi = 0. etc. ψi = ∂T . 87. moreover. since the φ’s are independent parameters. Finally. and hence must have the series of equations d dt d dt etc. These correspond to Lagrange’s equations in the older mechanics. (106) . we can assign perfectly arbitrary values to δφ1 . We shall also find it desirable to obtain equations of motion in the Hamiltonian or canonical form. − ∂φ2 − (104) It should be noted that the generalized momentum is not as in ordinary mechanics the derivative of the kinetic energy with respect to the generalized velocity but approaches that value at low velocities. Equations of Motion in the Hamiltonian Form.

Chapter Seven. ∂φi ∂φi ∂T ˙ = φi . − ˙ ˙ ∂ φ1 ∂ φ2 − and this. dT = φ1 dψ1 + φ2 dψ2 + · · · − ∂φ1 ∂φ2 Examining this equation we have ∂T ∂T =− . ∂ψi In Lagrange’s equations we have d dt ∂ ∂ (T − U ) − (T − U ) = 0. ˙ ˙ ∂ φi ∂ φi and furthermore by (108). by the introduction of (105). becomes ∂T ∂T ˙ ˙ dφ1 − dφ2 − · · · . ∂φi ∂φi . ∂T ∂T =− . Differentiating we have ˙ ˙ dT = ψ1 dφ1 + ψ2 dφ2 + · · · ˙ ˙ + φ1 dψ1 + φ2 dψ2 + · · · ∂T ∂T dφ1 − dφ2 − · · · ∂φ1 ∂φ2 ∂T ˙ ∂T ˙ dφ1 − dφ2 − · · · . ˙ ∂φi ∂ φi 106 (107) (108) (109) But since U is independent of ψi we may write ∂(T − U ) ∂T = = ψi .

equation (98). φ3 . Value of the Function T . .Dynamics of a System of Particles. thus making E = T + U the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the system. we have by the equation of definition (106) T = φ1 ψ1 + φ2 ψ2 + · · · − T. ψ2 . · · · ψn are the desired equations of motion in the canonical form. is T = c2 m 0 1 − 1− u2 c2 . 88. ψ3 . To show that T is equal to K. (111) dt ∂ψi The set of equations corresponding to (110) and (111) for all the coördinates φ1 . φ2 . writing T + U = E. · · · φn and the momenta ψ1 . = φ1 ˙1 ˙ ∂φ ∂ φ2 But T by definition. 107 Substituting these two expressions in Lagrange’s equations we obtain ∂(T + U ) dψi =− dt ∂φi or. we have dψi ∂E =− dt ∂φi (110) and since U is independent of ψi we may rewrite equation (109) in the form ∂E dφi = . the kinetic energy. ∂T ∂T + φ2 + · · · − T. since T actually turns out to be identical with the expression by which we defined kinetic energy. We have given the symbol E to the quantity T + U .

however. = ˙2 ∂φ2 ∂φ ∂x ˙ ∂x . ∂x ˙ ∂f ( ) ∂x = . = ˙3 ∂φ3 ∂φ etc. = ˙ ∂φ2 ∂ φ2 ∂z ˙ ∂z = . ˙ ∂φ1 ∂ φ1 ∂y ˙ ∂y . y.Chapter Seven. . x = f (φ1 φ2 φ3 · · · φn ). = ˙1 ∂φ1 ∂φ1 ∂φ Similarly ∂y ˙ ∂y . ˙ ∂φ2 ∂ φ2 etc. u2 m0 1 − 2 c ∂u mu ˙ ∂ φi −1/2 108 u ∂u ˙ ∂ φi ˙ ∂u + φ2 ∂u + · · · ˙ mu φ1 ˙ ˙ ∂ φ1 ∂ φ2 (112) We can show. ∂x ˙ ∂x .. which gives us ∂T = ˙ ∂ φi = and substituting we obtain ˙ T = φ1 = mu ∂u ˙ + φ2 ˙ ∂ φ1 mu ∂u + ··· − T ˙ ∂ φ2 − T. = ˙ ∂φ1 ∂ φ1 ∂z ∂z ˙ = . etc. dx ˙ ∂f ( ) + φ2 ∂f ( ) + φ3 ∂f ( ) + · · · ˙ ˙ = φ1 x= ˙ dt ∂φ1 ∂φ2 ∂φ3 ˙ and differentiating with respect to the φ’s. If the coördinates x.. we obtain. z determine the position of the particle in question. we have. that the term in parenthesis is equal to u.

or making the substitutions for ∂u 1 = ˙ u ∂ φi x ˙ ˙ ∂x ∂y ˙ . ∂x ∂y ∂z +y ˙ +z ˙ ∂φi ∂φi ∂φi Substituting now in (112) we shall obtain. we have. etc. which is the expression (83) for kinetic energy. ˙ i ∂ φi ˙ ∂φ . . given above. ˙ ˙ ˙ 1 x2 + y 2 + z 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ 109 x ˙ ∂x ˙ ∂y ˙ ∂z ˙ +y ˙ +z ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ∂ φi ∂ φi ∂ φi . we have T = = m0 1− u2 c2 u 2 − c2 1− u2 u2 + c2 1 − 2 c2 c c2 (m − m0 ). Hence we see that the Hamiltonian function E = T + U is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the system as in Newtonian mechanics. Let us write now u= ∂u = ˙ ∂ φi x2 + y 2 + z 2 . T = mu x ˙ u φ1 ∂x ∂x + φ2 + ··· ∂φ1 ∂φ2 + y ˙ u z ˙ u φ1 φ1 ∂y ∂y + φ2 + ··· ∂φ1 ∂φ2 ∂z ∂z + φ2 + ··· ∂φ1 ∂φ2 −T + = mu2 − T or. introducing the value of T given by equation (98).. .Dynamics of a System of Particles.

Since E = T + U is a function of φ1 . φ2 . . If such were not the case it is obvious that our definitions of potential and kinetic energy would not be very useful. given by the canonical equa∂φ1 ∂ψ1 tions of motion (110) and (111). φ3 .. + ∂ψ1 ∂ψ2 ∂E ∂E . Indeed. which gives us the desired proof that just as in the older Newtonian mechanics the total energy of an isolated system of particles is a conservative quantity. 90. On the Location of Energy in Space. · · · . we have Substituting the values of dE ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ = −ψ1 φ1 − ψ2 φ2 − · · · dt ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ + ψ1 φ1 + ψ2 φ2 + · · · = 0. The Principle of the Conservation of Energy. We may now make use of our equations of motion in the canonical form to show that the total energy of a system of interacting particles remains constant. etc. ψ2 . and . ψ3 .Chapter Seven. · · · ψ1 . This proof of the conservation of energy in a system of interacting particles justifies us in the belief that the concept of energy will not fail to retain in the newer mechanics the position of great importance which it gradually acquired in the older systems of physical theory. 110 89. our newer considerations have augmented the important rôle of energy by adding to its properties the attribute of mass or inertia. we may write ∂E ˙ ∂E ˙ dE = φ1 + φ2 + · · · dt ∂φ1 ∂φ2 ∂E ˙ ∂E ˙ ψ1 + ψ2 + · · · .

and by the principle of the conservation of momentum we can say that the velocity of this potential energy is just that necessary to keep the total momentum of the system constant. Our discovery of the relation between mass and energy has made it possible. The importance of this entity. In the older mechanics we had a hazy notion that the kinetic energy of a moving body was probably located in some way in the moving body itself. In our discussions of the dynamics of a particle (Chapter VI. Consider. to give a much more definite. Section 61) we saw that an acceptance of Newton’s principle of the equality of action and reaction forced us to ascribe an increased mass to a moving particle over that which it has at rest. for example.Dynamics of a System of Particles. although not a complete. and since the kinetic energy of the particle is the energy corresponding to this increased mass we may say that the kinetic energy of a moving particle is so distributed in space that its center of mass always coincides with the position of the particle. energy. Such considerations will often permit us to reach a good idea as to the location of potential energy. This increase in the mass of the moving particle is necessarily located either in the particle itself or distributed in the surrounding space in such a way that its center of mass always coincides with the position of the particle. If now we consider the transformation of kinetic energy into potential energy we can also draw somewhat definite conclusions as to the location of potential energy. 111 thus leading to the further belief that matter and energy are in reality different names for the same fundamental entity. however. and possibly a vague idea that the potential energy of a raised weight might be located in the space between the weight and the earth. makes it very interesting to consider the possibility of ascribing a definite location in space to any given quantity of energy. answer to inquiries of this kind. a pair of similar attracting particles which are moving apart from each other with the velocities +u and −u and are . By the principle of the conservation of mass we shall be able to say that the mass of any potential energy formed is just equal to the “kinetic” mass which has disappeared.

Chapter Seven. 112 gradually coming to rest under the action of their mutual attraction. their kinetic energy thus being gradually changed into potential energy. Since the total momentum of the system must always remain zero. . we may think of the potential energy which is formed as left stationary in the space between the two particles.

not as the differential of the kinetic energy with ˙ ˙ respect to the generalized velocities φ1 . etc. (113) will hold in relativity mechanics provided we define the generalized momenta ψ1 . THE CHAOTIC MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES... This problem has received much attention in the classical mechanics because of the close relations between the theoretical behavior of such an ideal system of particles and the actual behavior of a monatomic gas. ψ2 . and an equipartition law for the average value of a function which at low velocities becomes identical with the kinetic energy of the particles. ∂φ1 dt ∂E dφ1 ˙ = = φ1 . ∂ψ1 dt etc. Thus we shall find a distribution law for momenta which reduces to that of Maxwell for slow velocities. and differing only in the definition of the Lagrangian function. 91. but as the differential 113 . The Equations of Motion. φ2 ..CHAPTER VIII. With the help of these equations it is possible to carry out investigations parallel to those already developed in the classical mechanics. We shall find no more difficulty in handling the problem than was experienced in the older mechanics. and in the present chapter we shall discuss the chaotic motion of a system of particles. etc. It has been shown that the Hamiltonian equations of motion dψ1 ∂E ˙ =− = −ψ1 . and our results will of course reduce to those of Newtonian mechanics in the case of slow velocities. The discussions of the previous chapter have placed at our disposal generalized equations of motion for a system of particles similar in form to those familiar in the classical mechanics.

for example. of a function T = m 0 c2 1 − 1− u2 c2 . ˙ ˙ with respect to φ1 . Consider now a system defined by the n generalized coördinates φ1 . if φ1 is the component of veloc˙ ∂ φ1 is the rate at ity which the points have parallel to the φ1 axis. The area of each of these surfaces is ˙ dφ2 dφ3 . dψ1 dψ2 dψ3 . . φ2 . 92. 114 where m0 is the mass of a particle having the velocity u and the summation extends over all the particles of the system. etc. . · · · . the points would describe stream lines in this space. . The Dynamical Theory of Gases. Consider now the two parallel bounding surfaces of the cube which are perpendicular to the φ1 axis. in the manner required by the laws of motion. just as in the classical mechanics. φ3 . . Suppose now that the points were originally distributed in the generalized space with the uniform density ρ. . . ψ2 . Employing the methods so successfully used by Jeans. and as the systems changed their state. 1916. Cambridge. and the corresponding momenta ψ1 . Suppose now we had a large number of systems of the same structure but differing in state. ψ3 . · · · . dψ1 dψ2 dψ3 . . and hence. . Take. 93. φn . φ2 .Chapter Eight. Representation in Generalized Space. Liouville’s Theorem. ψn . . . The density of distribution will evidently remain uniform if the number of points entering any such cube per second is equal to the number leaving.. some particular cubical element of our generalized space dφ1 dφ2 dφ3 . .∗ we may think of the state of the system at any instant as determined by the position of a point plotted in a 2n-dimensional space. Then it can be shown by familiar methods that. one cutting the axis at the point φ1 and the other at the point φ1 + dφ1 . the density of distribution remains uniform. then for each system we should have at any instant a corresponding point in our 2n-dimensional space. and ∂φ1 ∗ Jeans.

which we . So that our expression for the change per second in the number of points in the cube becomes equal to zero. considering all the pairs of parallel bounding surfaces. . 115 which this component is changing as we move along the axis. ∂φ1 ∂ψ1 ˙ ˙ ∂ φ2 ∂ ψ2 + = 0. the different states of a system. . and hence if we start some one system going and plot its state in our generalized space. This maintenance of a uniform distribution means that there is no tendency for the points to crowd into any particular region of the generalized space. But the motions of the points are necessarily governed by the Hamiltonian equations (113) given above. ∂φ2 ∂ψ2 etc. we find for the total decrease per second in the contents of the element ρ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ∂ φ1 ∂ φ2 ∂ φ3 ∂ ψ1 ∂ ψ2 ∂ ψ3 + + + ··· + + + + ··· ∂φ1 ∂φ2 ∂φ3 ∂ψ1 ∂ψ2 ∂ψ3 dV. In other words. dψ1 dψ2 dψ3 · · · = ρ ˙ ∂ φ1 dV. we may obviously write the following expression for the difference between the number of points leaving and entering per second through these two parallel surfaces ρ ˙ ∂ φ1 ∂φ1 dφ1 dφ2 dφ3 . ∂φ1 Finally.Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. after an indefinite lapse of time. we may assume that. the necessary requirement for preserving uniform density. the point is equally likely to be in any one of the little elements dV . and these obviously lead to the relations ˙ ˙ ∂ φ1 ∂ ψ1 + = 0.

although it is not so evident that it is a sufficient requirement for equal probability. If at any given instant we specify the particular differential element dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz which contains the coördinates x. Consider now a system containing Na particles which have the mass ma when at rest. however. Nb particles which have the mass mb . in implying a less minute observation as to the size of the elements dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz in which the representative points are found. ψz for each particle. in which the values of the coördinates and momenta of the system fall. Leipzig. The criterion here used for determining whether or not the states are equally liable to occur is obviously a necessary requirement. we shall thereby completely determine what Planck† has well called the microscopic state of the system. ψy . . since if all the particles having a given mass ma are alike among themselves. and by the previous paragraph any microscopic state of the system in which we thus specify the six-dimensional position of each particle is just as likely to occur as any other microscopic state. for which purpose we shall merely state the number of particles of a given kind which have coördinates falling in a given range dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz . that many of the possible microscopic states which are determined by specifying the six-dimensional position of each individual particle are in reality completely identical. The word macroscopic is unfortunate.Chapter Eight. † Planck. We see that corresponding to any given statistical state there will be in general a large number of microscopic states. y. 1913. A System of Particles. however. . ∗ . For this reason we shall usually be interested in specifying the statistical state‡ of the system. Wärmestrahlung.∗ 94. dψ1 dψ2 dψ3 . . are all equally likely to occur. it makes no difference which particular one of the various available identical particles we pick out to put into a specified range dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz . Nc particles which have the mass mc . ‡ What we have here defined as the statistical state is what Planck calls the macroscopic state of the system. . etc. 116 can specify by stating the region dφ1 dφ2 dφ3 . z. It must be noticed. and the corresponding momenta ψx .

We shall now be particularly interested in the probability that the system of particles will actually be in some specified statistical state. · · · .. the number of microscopic states. which correspond to the given statistical state. etc. Nb .∗ we may apply the Stirling formula N √ N N ! = 2π N The idea of successive orders of infinitesimals which permit the differential region dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz . Probability of a Given Statistical State. 3a. Na . 117 95. · · · . If now we assume that each of the regions dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz . 3a. 1b. etc. For the system under consideration let a particular statistical state be specified by stating that Na . · · · . we see that the probability of a given statistical state will be proportional to the number of microscopic states which correspond to it.. is given by the expression W = Na ! Nb ! Nc ! · · · Na ! Na ! Na ! · · · Nb ! Nb ! Nb ! · · · and this number W is proportional to the probability that the system will be found in the particular statistical state considered. Nb . Nb . are the number of particles of the corresponding masses ma . Nos. · · · . W . 3b. 1a. mb . Na . Nos. 2a. 2b. etc. and since Liouville’s theorem has justified our belief that all microscopic states are equally likely to occur. to contain a large number of particles is a familiar one in mathematics. is great enough to contain a large number of particles. which fall in the specified elementary regions dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz . 3b.Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. · · · etc. 1b. 2a. By familiar methods of calculation it is evident that the number of arrangements by which the particular distribution of particles can be effected. 1a. that is. · · · . in other words. 2b. ∗ .

the number of particles of each kind must remain constant so that we have the added relations δwa = 0. however. etc. etc.. These quantities wa . etc.. 118 for evaluating Na !. 2a. . and omitting negligible terms. (115) Finally. etc. wa . · · · 1b. Nb Nb Nb Nb Nb Nb where the summation extends over all the regions Nos. shall obtain for log W the result log W = −Na − Nb etc.Chapter Eight. 1a. etc. (114) In carrying out our variation. We may now write For simplicity let us denote the ratios log W = −Na wa log wa − Nb wb log wb − . 2b. For this the necessary condition will be δ log W = −Na (log wa + 1) δwa − Nb (log wb + 1) δwb · · · = 0. Let us find the most probable distribution of the particles. 2a. Na Na Na Na Na Na log + log + log + ··· Na Na Na Na Na Na Nb Nb Nb Nb Nb Nb log + log + log + ··· . that any given particle ma will be found in the respective regions Nos.. since the energy is to have a definite value E. Since the energy of a particle will be a definite function of its . Na Na . which will provide still a further relation. etc. 96. are evidently the probabilities. wa . it must also remain constant in the variation. in the case of this particular statistical state. etc. δwb = 0. Let us now suppose that the system of particles is contained in an enclosed space and has the definite energy content E. 1a. etc. Equilibrium Relations. by the symbols Na Na wa .. Nb !.

etc. µb . We thus exclude from our considerations systems in which the potential energy depends appreciably on the relative positions of the independent particles. (116) by familiar methods we obtain log wa + 1 + λEa + µb = 0. we have the relation E = Na Ea δwa + Nb Eb δwb + · · · = 0. depending on the mass of the particles ma . etc. when we have the distribution of maximum probability. etc. (116) Solving the simultaneous equations (114). It should be noticed that h.. (117) as the expressions which determine the chance that a given particle of mass ma . ∗ . wb = αb e−hEb . αb . etc.Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles.. 119 position and momentum. which corresponds to the λ of the preceding equations. are different constants.) Transforming we have wa = αa e−hEa . Since in carrying out our variation the energy is to remain constant. where λ. mb .. is the same constant in all of the equations..∗ let us write the energy of the system in the form E = Na wa Ea + Nb wb Eb + · · · . µa . etc. (115). (It should be specially noticed that λ is the same constant in each of the series of equations. where Ea is the energy of a particle in the region 1a.. mb . while αa . will fall in a given region dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz . etc. are undetermined constants. etc. log wb + 1 + λEb + µb = 0.

the energy of a particle Ea will be independent of x. If there is no external field of force acting. (See Section 75. including that internal energy m0 c2 which. This expression is that for the total energy of the particle. In accordance with the theory of relativity we shall have∗ Ea = ma c2 1− u2 c2 . ψx . ψz . etc. since the two differ merely by a constant ma c2 which would u2 1− 2 c be taken care of by assigning a suitable value to αa . ψz . Ea . Eb . We have from our equations (105) and (98). ψy . ψy . (118) where ma is the mass of the particle at rest. which were used for defining momentum ψx = = = ∂ ma 1 − ∂x ˙ ∂ ma 1 − ∂x ˙ m0 x ˙ 1− ∗ 1− 1− u2 c2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 c u2 c2 . y. y. are of course functions of x. Let us now obtain an expression for Ea in terms of these quantities. 120 97. the particle has when it is at rest.. . and z.Chapter Eight. and will be determined entirely by its velocity and mass. z. Let us now express Ea as a function of ψx . The Energy as a Function of the Momentum.) It would be just as correct to substitute for Ea in 1 equation (117) the value of the kinetic energy ma c2 − 1 instead of the u2 1− 2 c ma c2 total energy . according to relativity theory.

z ∗ but dependent√ the momentum. (119) which also defines ψ 2 . y. By simple transformations and the introduction of equation (118) we obtain the desired relation Ea = c ψ 2 + ma 2 c2 . etc.Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. mb . Let √ 2 2 2 us now introduce. the constants αa and aa standing in the same ratio as the volumes dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz and unity. etc. no external field of force is acting. and correspond to Maxwell’s distribution law in ordinary mechanics. ∗ This is true only when. . These expressions determine the probability that a given particle of mass ma . (120) 98. We see that these probabilities are independent of the position x. for convenience.. The Distribution Law. 121 Constructing the similar expressions for ψy and ψz we may write the relation 2 2 2 ψ 2 = ψx + ψy + ψz = ˙ ˙ m2 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) a ˙ 1− u2 c2 = m2 u2 a 1− u2 c2 . We may now rewrite equations (117) in the form √ −hc ψ 2 +ma 2 c2 . on −hc ψ 2 +ma 2 c2 αa e is the probability that a given particle will fall in a particular six-dimensional cube of volume dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz . will fall in a given region dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz . wa = αa e √ 2 2 2 (121) wb = αb e−hc ψ +mb c . as assumed. a new quantity aa e−hc ψ +ma c which will be the probability per unit volume that a given particle will have the six dimensional location in question.

(123) where A is some function of ψx . Consider instead of the elementary volume dψx dψy dψz the volume ψ 2 sin θ dθ dφ dψ expressed in polar coördinates. Since every particle must have components of momentum lying between minus and plus infinity. Polar Coördinates. where ψ 2 = ψx 2 + ψy 2 + ψz 2 . ψy . and lie somewhere in the whole volume V occupied by the mixture. We may express relations corresponding to (122) and (123) more simply if we make use of polar coördinates. we have the relation V +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ aa e −hc √ ψ 2 +ma 2 c2 dψx dψy dψz = 1. (122) It is further evident that the average value of any quantity A which depends on the momentum of the particles is given by the expression [A]av.Chapter Eight. = V +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ aa e−hc √ ψ 2 +ma 2 c2 A dψx dψy dψz . and ψz . 99. We may then write √ √ 2 2 2 2 2 2 wa = αa e−hc ψ +ma c = aa e−hc ψ +ma c dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz √ √ 2 2 2 2 2 2 wb = αb e−hc ψ +mb c = ab e−hc ψ +mb c dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz 122 etc. . The probability that a particle ma will fall in the region dx dy dz ψ 2 sin θ dθ dφ dψ will be aa e −hc √ ψ 2 +ma 2 c2 dx dy dz ψ 2 sin θ dθ dφ dψ.

= 3 . We may now obtain a law which corresponds to that of the equipartition of vis viva in the classical mechanics. = 4πV aa e−hc ψ +ma c A ψ 2 dψ. 3 ψ 2 + m a 2 c2 0 Substituting the limits into the first term we find that it becomes zero and may write √ ∞ ψ2c 3 2 2 2 4πV aa e−hc ψ +ma c ψ 2 dψ = . we also see that the average value of any quantity A. 0 0 0 (124) √ ∞ −hc ψ 2 +ma 2 c2 2 aa e 4πV ψ dψ = 1. The Law of Equipartition. 123 and since each particle must fall somewhere in the space x y z ψx ψy ψz we shall have corresponding to (122) the relation √ π 2π ∞ 2 2 2 V aa e−hc ψ +ma c ψ 2 sin θ dθ dφ dψ = 1. 0 Corresponding to equation (123). we obtain √ 3 ψ=∞ −hc ψ 2 +ma 2 c2 ψ 4πV aa e 3 ψ=0 √ ∞ 3 ψ ψ 2 2 2 − 4πV aa e−hc ψ +ma c (−hc) dψ = 1. h . We have ψ 2 + ma 2 c2 ψ2c ψ2 + ma 2 c2 av. Considering equation (124) let us integrate by parts. 0 100. which is dependent on the momentum of the molecules of mass ma . will be given by the expression √ ∞ 2 2 2 (125) [A]av. h ψ 2 + m a 2 c2 0 But by equation (125) the left-hand side of this relation is the avψ2c erage value of for the particles of mass ma .Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles.

Indeed. 101. enclosed in the volume V . This is the principle in relativity mechanics that corresponds to the law of the equipartition of vis viva in the classical mechanics. is 1− u2 c2 not the relativity expression for kinetic energy. Criterion for Equality of Temperature. (126) u2 av. we have shown that √ 2 2 2 4πV aa e−hc ψ +ma c ψ 2 dψ .Chapter Eight. a fact which affords an illustration of the general principle that the laws of Newtonian mechanics are always the limiting form assumed at low velocities by the more exact formulations of relativity mechanics. We shall later return to this subject. mb . So that in relativity mechanics the by the formula c2 1− u2 c2 principle of the equipartition of energy is merely an approximation. For a system of particles of masses ma . whose value is the same for particles of different masses. we may transform this expression into ma u2 3 = . which is given rather m0 − m0 . We may now call attention in passing to the fact that this quantity m0 u2 . the vis viva of Newtonian mechanics. we see that the average value of is the same for particles 1− u2 c2 of all different masses. h 1− 2 c Since we have shown that h is independent of the mass of the partim0 u2 cles. for low velocities the above expression reduces to m0 u2 . and having the definite energy content E.. 124 Introducing equation (119) which defines ψ 2 . etc.

Furthermore. we can obviously show that √ 2 2 2 4πVa aa e−hc ψ +ma c ψ 2 dψ and 4πVb ab e−hc √ ψ 2 +mb 2 c2 ψ 2 dψ are now the respective probabilities that given particles of mass ma or mass mb will have momenta between ψ and ψ + dψ. by reasoning entirely similar to that just employed. the only changes in the expressions being the substitution of the volumes Va and Vb in the place of the one volume V . Suppose now we consider a differently arranged system in which we have Na particles of mass ma by themselves in a space of volume Va and Nb particles of mass mb in a contiguous space of volume Vb . Hence we find that the m0 u2 equality of the average values of is the necessary condition for 1− equality of temperature.Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. the spaces containing the two kinds of particles are in thermal contact. their temperature is the same. Then. however. as before. this distribution law will evidently lead as before to the equality of the average values of ma u2 1− u2 c2 and mb u2 1− u2 c2 . separated from Va by a partition which permits a transfer of energy. and 4πV ab e √ 125 −hc ψ 2 +mb 2 c2 ψ 2 dψ are the respective probabilities that given particles of mass ma or mass mb will have momenta between ψ and ψ + dψ. u2 c2 . and let the total energy of the double system be. a definite quantity E (the energy content of the partition being taken as negligible). Since.

But x dS gives us the volume which contains the number of particles ˙ having momenta between ψx and ψx + dψx which will reach dS in a second. and let the pressure acting on it be p.∗ Now by equation (122) the total number of particles having momenta between ψx and ψx + dψx in the positive direction is NV ψx +dψx ψx +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ a e−hc √ ψ 2 +m0 2 c2 dψx dψy dψz . Hence the number of such particles which impinge per second will be NV x dS ˙ V ψx +dψx ψx +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ a e−hc √ ψ 2 +m0 2 c2 dψx dψy dψz . The system is considered dilute enough for the mutual attractions of the particles to be negligible in their effect on the external pressure. and this will be equal to the rate of change of the momenta in the X direction of these particles. The total force which the element dS exerts on the particles that impinge will be p dS. Pressure Exerted by a System of Particles. We may now proceed to the derivation of relations which will permit m0 u2 is directly proporus to show that the important quantity 1− u2 c2 tional to the temperature as measured on the absolute thermodynamic temperature scale. We first need to obtain an expression for the pressure exerted by a system of N particles enclosed in the volume V . 102. and their change in momentum.Chapter Eight. 126 The above distribution law also leads to the important corollary that for any given system of particles at a definite temperature the momenta and hence the total energy content is independent of the volume. Consider an element of surface dS perpendicular to the X axis. allowing for the effect of the rebound. ∗ .

But this by equation (123) reduces to pV = N m0 x2 ˙ 1− or. ˙ Finally.Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. since m0 u2 1− u2 c2 u2 av. Equating this to the total force p dS we have √ ∞ +∞ +∞ 2 2 2 a e−hc ψ +m0 c ψx x dψx dψy dψz . m0 x ˙ for ψx . we have from symmetry pV = N 3 m0 u2 1− u2 av. we changing the limits of integration and substituting 1+ have pV = N V +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ u2 c2 ae −hc √ ψ 2 +m0 2 c2 m0 x2 ˙ 1− u2 c2 dψx dψy dψz . will be 2N dS ψx +dψx ψx +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ 127 ae −hc √ ψ 2 +m0 2 c2 ψx x dψx dψy dψz . p dS = 2N dS ˙ 0 −∞ −∞ Cancelling dS. c2 . multiplying both sides of the equation by the volume V . (127) . c2 = m0 x2 ˙ 1− u2 c2 + m0 y 2 ˙ 1− u2 c2 + m0 z 2 ˙ 1− u2 c2 . the total change in momentum per second for all particles can be found by integrating for all possible positive values of ψx .

The thermodynamic scale of temperature may be defined in terms of the efficiency of a heat engine. Hence. we see that the laws of Boyle and Avogadro hold also in relativity mechanics for a system of particles. giving out the heat Q1 at temperature T1 . we may measure the temperatures of T2 Q2 the two heat reservoirs by the relation = and may proceed to T1 Q1 We have used this cycle for defining the thermodynamic temperature scale instead of the familiar Carnot cycle. in the second step cool the cylinder down at constant volume to T1 . 128 Since at a given temperature we have seen that the term in parenthesis is independent of the volume and the nature of the particles. The Relativity Expression for Temperature. For slow velocities equation (127) reduces to the familiar expression N (m0 u2 )av. and in the fourth step heat to the original temperature. absorbing the heat Q2 from a reservoir at temperature T2 . pV = 3 103. We are now in a position to derive the relativity expression for temperature.Chapter Eight. since it avoids the necessity of obtaining an expression for the relation between pressure and volume in an adiabatic expansion. we may define the absolute temperatures T2 and T1 Q2 ∗ T2 = . Consider a four-step cycle performed with a working substance contained in a cylinder provided with a piston. . in accordance with the thermodynamic scale. it is evident that our working substance fulfils the requirement that the heat given out in the second step shall be sufficient for the reversible heating in the last step. by the relation T1 Q1 Consider now such a cycle performed on a cylinder which contains one of our systems of particles. Now if the working substance is of such a nature that the heat given out in the second step could be used for the reversible heating of the cylinder in the fourth step. In the first step let the substance expand isothermally and reversibly. ∗ . Since we have shown (Section 101) that at a definite temperature the energy content of such a system is independent of the volume. in the third step compress to the original volume.

Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. m0 u1 1− u1 2 av. V Q1 = m0 u1 2 1− u1 2 av. In order to obtain these expressions we may again make use of the principle that the energy content at a definite temperature is independent of the volume. V V . (at T1 ). This being true. c2 We see that the absolute temperature measured on the thermodym0 u2 namic scale is proportional to the average value of . c2 log V . leading on integration to the relations Q2 = N 3 N 3 m0 u2 2 1− u2 2 av. 129 obtain expressions for Q2 and Q1 . 1− u2 c2 . c2 2 T2 Q2 = = T1 Q1 1− . V V But equation (127) provides an expression for p in terms of V . and we may write the relations Q2 = Q1 = V V p dV p dV (at T2 ). c2 log which gives us on division m0 u2 2 u2 2 av. we see that Q2 and Q1 must be equal to the work done in the changes of volume that take place respectively at T2 and T1 .

as is customary. 1 = 3k m0 u2 1− u2 av. The Partition of Energy. c2 . nR where the quantity . we have h u2 1 − 2 av. by the letter k. c2 (128) . which may be called the gas constant for a N single molecule. where n is the number of mols of gas present. 130 We may finally express our temperature in the same units customarily employed by comparing equation (127) pV = N 3 m0 u2 1− u2 av. We evidently obtain nRT = N 3 m0 u2 1− u2 av. with the ordinary form of the gas law pV = nRT. We have seen that our new equipartition law precludes the possibility of an exact equipartition of energy. . c kT = 1 . It becomes very important to see what the average energy of a particle of a given mass does become at any temperature.Chapter Eight. h (129) 104. has been denoted. m0 x2 ˙ 3 Remembering the relation = . c2 . c2 N T = 3nR m0 u2 1− u2 av.

= 0 . .Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. Unfortunately. 131 Equation (125) provides a general expression for the average value of any property of the particles. = e−(cψ/kT ) ψ 3 dψ e−(cψ/kT ) ψ 2 dψ in terms of integrals whose values are known. which gives us the desired equation √ ∞ 2 2 2 e−(c/kT ) ψ +m0 c c ψ 2 + m0 2 c2 ψ 2 dψ [E]av. Partition of Energy for Zero Mass. The unknown constant a may be eliminated with the help of the relation (124) √ ∞ 2 2 2 4πV a e−hc ψ +m0 c ψ 2 dψ = 1 0 and for h we may substitute the value given by (129). (130) √ ∞ −(c/kT ) ψ 2 +m0 2 c2 2 e ψ dψ 0 105. no general method for the evaluation of this expression seems to be available. = 3kT. the expression reduces to c ∞ 0 ∞ 0 [E]av. = 4πV ∞ 0 √ 2 2 2 a e−hc ψ +m0 c c ψ 2 + m0 2 c2 ψ 2 dψ. Evaluating. For the particular case that the mass m0 of the particles approaches zero compared to the momentum. For the total energy of N such particles we obtain E = 3N kT. For the average value of the energy c ψ 2 + m0 2 c2 of particles of mass m0 (see equation 120) we shall have [E]av. we obtain [E]av.

It is also interesting to note that in accordance with equation (131) a mol of particles which approach zero mass at the absolute zero. (132) 2 8 c2 48 c4 384 c6 .47 × 10−11 21 10 grams at room temperature (300◦ absolute). .Chapter Eight. = c2 m0 1− u2 c2 − m0 av. For particles of any desired mass we may obtain an approximate idea of the relation between energy and temperature by expanding the expression for kinetic energy into a series. would have a mass of 3 × 8. For the average kinetic energy of a particle we have [K]av. This suggests a field of fascinating if profitless speculation. and introducing the relation k = 132 nR by which we defined k we have N E = 3nRT (131) as the expression for the energy of n mols of particles if their value of m0 is small compared with their momentum. Approximate Partition of Energy for Particles of any Desired Mass. 106. We see that for particles of very small mass the average kinetic energy at any temperature is twice as large as that for large particles at the same temperature. Expanding into a series we obtain for the total kinetic energy of N particles 1 2 3 u4 15 u6 105 u8 K = N m0 u + + + + ··· . 2 which undoubtedly holds when the masses are so large and the velocities so small that no appreciable deviations from the laws of Newtonian mechanics are to be expected. It is instructive to compare this with the ordinary expression of Newtonian mechanics 3 E = nRT.31 × 107 × 300 = 7.

T = 1 3k m0 u2 1− u2 Av. we obtain 3 3 kN T = nRT = N m0 2 2 1 2 1 u4 3 u6 15 u8 u + + + + ··· 2 4 c2 16 c4 96 c6 .Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. we may write the approximation 2 3 1 K = nRT + 2 2N m0 c2 3 nRT 2 2 . Since is 2 2 3 approximately equal to nRT . u4 . for the individual particles. K = nRT . .. are the average values of u2 . the left-hand term really being the larger. u4 . we obtain K= 3 nRT + N m0 2 1 u4 1 u6 15 u8 + + + ··· 8 c2 8 c4 128 c6 . since the average square of a 2 N m0 u2 quantity is greater than the square of its average. 133 where u2 . To determine approximately how the value of K varies with the temperature we may also expand our expression (128) for temperature. etc. etc. into a series. (133) Combining expressions (132) and (133) by subtraction and transposition. (134) For the case of velocities low enough so that u4 and higher powers can be neglected. c2 . this reduces to the familiar expression of Newtonian 3 mechanics.. 2 In case we neglect in expression (134) powers higher than u4 we have the approximate relation N m0 u4 1 = 8c2 2N m0 c2 N m0 u2 2 2 .

5 × 10−6 per cent of the first. 2 8 M c2 If we use the erg as our unit of energy. the total mass of the system at the absolute zero.31 × 107 . R will be 8. being only 3. expressing velocities in centimeters per second. .4 × 107 T + 7. M In the case of the electron M may be taken as approximately 1/1800. noting that N m0 = M . we have 3 9 n2 R 2 2 K = nRT + T . 000◦ . and also to point out the nature of the modifications in existing theory which will have to be introduced if the later developments of physics should force us to consider equilibrium relations for particles of mass much smaller than that of the electron.5 × 10−4 per cent in a fixed star having a temperature of 30. Hence at all ordinary temperatures we may expect the law of the equipartition of energy to be substantially exact for particles of mass as small as the electron. 134 or. For one mol of a monatomic gas we should have in ergs K = 12.77 −6 2 10 T .Chapter Eight. Our purpose in carrying through the calculations of this chapter has been to show that a very important and interesting problem in the classical mechanics can be handled just as easily in the newer mechanics. and still be only 3. This is of particular interest at a time when many scientists have thought that the failure of equipartition in the hohlraum stood in necessary conflict with the principles of dynamics. At room temperature the second term of our equation would be entirely negligible. c2 will be 1021 . We may also call attention to the fact that we have here considered a system whose equations of motion agree with the principles of dynamics and yet do not lead to the equipartition of energy. and M will be the mass of the system in grams.

THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY AND THE PRINCIPLE OF LEAST ACTION. It has been shown by the work of Helmholtz. it seems possible to throw the equations describing the behavior of the system into the form prescribed by the principle of least action. We have already developed in Chapter VII the particular application of the principle of least action in the case of a system of particles. 107. we shall be able to apply the principle of relativity to the theories of elasticity. For our purposes the principle of least action may be most simply stated by the equation t2 t1 (δH + W ) dt = 0. and we shall obtain in this way the most important and most general method for deriving the consequences of the theory of relativity. (135) This equation applies to any system whose behavior is determined by the values of a number of independent coördinates φ1 φ2 φ3 · · · and their ˙ ˙ ˙ rate of change with the time φ1 φ2 φ3 · · · . Indeed. and is perhaps the most general dynamical principle at our disposal. J. and with the help of the more general development which we are about to present. of thermodynamics and of electricity and magnetism. The Principle of Least Action. Planck and others that the principle of least action is applicable in the most diverse fields of physical science. H is the so-called kinetic potential of the system and is a function 135 . and the equation describes the path by which the system travels from its configuration at any time t1 to its configuration at any subsequent time t2 . This generality of the principle of least action makes it very desirable to develop the relation between it and the principle of relativity. for any system whose future behavior is determined by the instantaneous values of a number of coördinates and their time rate of change. Thomson.CHAPTER IX. J.

are the so-called generalized external forces which act in such a direction as to increase the values of the corresponding coördinates. which shall connect the value of the kinetic potential H as measured with respect to a set of coördinates S with its value H as measured with reference to another set of coördinates S which is in motion relative to S. The special task for the theory of relativity will be to find a general relation applicable to any kind of a system.Chapter Nine. and in this way we shall introduce the principle of . This relation will of course be of such a nature as to agree with the principle of the relativity of motion. a development which can then be carried out by well-known methods. (137) where Φ1 . and it is one of the chief tasks of general physics to discover the form of the function in the various fields of mechanical. becomes the basic equation for the mathematical development of the field in question. electrical and thermodynamic investigation. as expressed by equation (135). etc. Thus W = Φ1 δφ1 + Φ2 δφ2 + Φ3 δφ3 + · · · . the principle of least action. and W is the external work corresponding to the variation δ which would be done on the system by the external forces if at the instant in question the system should be displaced from its actual configuration to its configuration on the displaced path.. Φ2 . The form of the function which determines the kinetic potential H depends on the particular nature of the system to which the principle of least action is being applied. 136 (136) δH is the variation of H at any instant corresponding to a slightly displaced path by which the system might travel from the same initial to the same final state in the same time interval. of the coördinates and their generalized velocities: ˙ ˙ ˙ H = F (φ1 φ2 φ3 · · · φ1 φ2 φ3 · · · ). As soon as we have found out experimentally what the form of H is for any particular field of investigation.

. δφ2 . To obtain the equations of motion in the Lagrangian form we may evidently rewrite our fundamental equation (135) in the form t2 t1 ∂H ∂H ˙ ∂H ˙ ∂H δφ1 + δφ2 + · · · + δφ + δφ + · · · ˙ 1 1 ∂ φ2 2 ˙ ∂φ1 ∂φ2 ∂φ + Φ1 δφ1 + Φ2 δφ2 + · · · dt = 0 (138) We have now. however. ∂H ˙ δ φ1 dt = ˙ ∂ φ1 ∂H d (δφ1 ) dt ˙ t1 ∂ φ1 dt t2 t2 ∂H d = δφ1 − δφ1 ˙ dt ∂ φ1 t1 t1 ∂H ˙ ∂ φ1 dt. dt etc. we obtain t2 t1 t2 t1 ∂H ˙ δ φ1 = − ˙ ∂ φ1 ∂H ˙ δ φ2 = − ˙ ∂ φ2 t2 t1 t2 t1 d dt d dt ∂H ˙ ∂ φ1 ∂H ˙ ∂ φ2 δφ1 dt. Before proceeding to the solution of that problem we may put the principle of least action into another form which is sometimes more convenient. etc. 108. δφ2 dt. ˙ δ φ1 = which gives us t2 t1 d (δφ1 ). are by hypothesis zero at times t1 and t2 ..Relativity and the Principle of Least Action.. etc. since δφ1 . or. by obtaining the equations for the motion of a system in the so-called Lagrangian form. The Equations of Motion in the Lagrangian Form. dt t2 ˙ δ φ2 = d (δφ2 ). 137 relativity at the very start into the fundamental equation for all fields of dynamics.

And these are the equations of motion in the desired Lagrangian form.. ˙ 2 ∂φ2 ∂φ etc. etc. etc. etc. In other words.Chapter Nine. where Φ1 . To do this we must derive an equation for transforming the kinetic potential H for a given system from one set of coördinates to another. d dt d dt (139) In these equations H is the kinetic potential of a system whose state is determined by the generalized coördinates φ1 . and their time ˙ ˙ derivatives φ1 . φ2 etc. what will be the relation between H and H . the values for the kinetic potential of a given system as measured with reference to S and S ? It is evident from the theory of relativity that our fundamental equation (135) must hold for the behavior of a given system using either .. Introduction of the Principle of Relativity. φ2 . Φ2 . this equation will be true only when each of the following equations is true. ∂H ∂H − = Φ1 . ˙ 1 ∂φ1 ∂φ ∂H ∂H − = Φ2 . S moving past S in the X direction with the velocity V . ∂H d − ∂φ2 dt and since the variations of φ1 . 109. On substituting these expressions in (138) we obtain t2 t1 138 ∂H d − ∂φ1 dt ∂H ˙ ∂ φ1 + + Φ1 δφ1 ∂H ˙ ∂ φ2 + Φ2 δφ2 + · · · dt = 0... if S and S are two sets of reference axes. φ2 . are the generalized external forces acting on the system in such a sense as to tend to increase the values of the corresponding generalized coördinates. are entirely independent and the limits of integration t1 and t2 are entirely at our disposal. Let us now investigate the relation between our dynamical principle and the principle of the relativity of motion.

t1 and t2 wide enough apart so that for both sets of coördinates the varied motion will be completed within the time interval. where Fx . Relation between W dt and W dt . To obtain the desired proof we must call attention in the first place to the fact that all kinds of force which can act at a given point must be governed by the same transformation equations when changing from system S to system S . Section 42). set of coördinates S or S . to choose the limits of integration t1 and t2 . δz are the displacements necessary to reach the corresponding .Relativity and the Principle of Least Action. This arises because when two forces of a different nature are of such a magnitude as to exactly balance each other and produce no acceleration for measurements made with one set of coördinates they must evidently do so for any set of coördinates (see Chapter IV. δy . we shall be able to obtain from the above equations a simple relation between H and H . we may now use these expressions in general for the evaluation W dt . Since we have already found transformation equations for the force acting at a point. is the force acting at a given point of the system and δx . Since we shall find it possible now to show that in general W dt = W dt . Fz . 110. where it will be necessary. W is the work which would be done by the external forces if at any instant t we should displace our system from its actual configuration to the simultaneous configuration on the displaced path. in our consideration of the dynamics of a particle. of course. must hold for a given process. so that both of the equations t2 t1 139 (δH + W ) dt = 0 t2 t1 t2 and t1 t2 t1 (δH + W ) dt = 0. Fy . Hence it is evident that W dt will be equal to a sum of terms of the type (Fx δx + Fy δy + Fz δz ) dt . (140) or (δH + W ) dt = (δH + W ) dt = 0.

by our fundamental transformation equation (12). c2 V tD = κ t + 2 [x + δx ] . y . δy and δz in terms of δx. all these quantities being measured with respect to S . y . (y +δy ). (141) . δy and δz. dt = κ 1 − We may also make substitutions for δx .Chapter Nine. Into this expression we may substitute. (z + δz ). in accordance with equations (61). (62). Vx . z and κ [x +δx ]+V t . (y + δy ). z and simultaneously the point on the displaced path has the position (x + δx ). (z + δz ) when measured in system S. (10) and (11) the positions κ(x +V t ). when measured in system S . will not be simultaneous with respect to S. 2 xV y ˙ ˙ c 1− c 1 − xV 2 2 c c Fy κ−1 1− 1− Fz κ−1 xV ˙ c2 xV ˙ c2 . the values Fx = Fx − Fy = Fz = 1 zV ˙ 1 yV ˙ F − 2 Fz . or by our fundamental transformation equations (9). however. c tA = κ t + . xV ˙ c2 dt. but to obtain transformation equations for these quantities is somewhat complicated owing to the fact that positions on the actual and displaced path. If now we denote by tA and tD the corresponding times in system S we shall have. (63) and (13). We have denoted by t the time in system S when the point on the actual path has the position x . which are simultaneous when measured with respect to S . 140 point on the displaced path.

c2 z ˙ κV δx . c and for the corresponding position on the actual path κ(x + V t ). neglecting higher-order terms. 141 and we see that in system S the point has reached the displaced position at a time later than that of the actual position by the amount tD − tA = κV δx . (142) . We obtain for the simultaneous position on the displaced path κ [x + δx ] + V t − κ xV ˙ xV ˙ δx . c y. and obtain by subtraction δx = κ 1 − xV ˙ δx . c2 these quantities must be subtracted from the coördinates of the displaced point in order to obtain a position on the displaced path which will be simultaneous with tA as measured in system S. c2 y ˙ κV δx . c zV ˙ δz = δz − κ 2 δx . c2 yV ˙ δy = δy − κ 2 δx . the distances x ˙ κV δx . y + δy − κ 2 x .Relativity and the Principle of Least Action. c2 c zV ˙ z + δz − κ 2 δx . c2 and. z. since during this time-interval the displaced point would have moved.

together with the other transformation equations (141). 142 Substituting now these equations. . (145) Restricting ourselves to systems of such a nature that we can assign them a definite velocity u = xi + yj + zk. We thus see that we must always have the general equality W dt = W dt. where by HD and HA we denote the values of the kinetic potential respectively on the displaced and actual paths δH dt = HD dt − − HA dt = HA κ 1 − HD κ 1 − xV ˙ c2 dt = (x + δ x)V ˙ ˙ 2 c HD dt − dt HA dt. Relation between H and H. Introducing this equation into our earlier expression (140) we obtain as a general relation between H and H δH dt = δH dt. we can rewrite this expression ˙ ˙ ˙ in the following form. in our expression we obtain (Fx δx + Fy δy + Fz δz ) dt = + + = κ −1 Fx − Fy Fz yV ˙ zV ˙ − 2 2 ˙ ˙ c 1 − xV c 1 − xV 2 2 c c κ−1 1− xV ˙ c2 δx 1− 1− F δy + xV y ˙ c2 yV /c ˙ 1− 1− 2 xV ˙ c2 δx κ 1− xV ˙ c2 (143) κ−1 F δz + xV z ˙ c2 zV /c2 ˙ c2 δx xV ˙ (Fx δx + Fy δy + Fz δz) dt . (144) 111.Chapter Nine.

For relativity mechanics. (146) Noting the relation between tion (17). for example. we may take for the kinetic . the use of this equation is obviously restricted to systems moving with some perfectly definite velocity u. Expressing the requirement of the equation in words we may say that the theory H of relativity requires an invariance of in the Lorentz transfor1− u2 c2 mation. Thus it is well known. Systems satisfying this condition would include particles. for a single particle acted on by external forces the kinetic potential may be taken as the kinetic energy 1 m0 u2 . in the case of low velocities. see if this expression can be made to agree with the requirements of equation (146) without changing its value for low velocities. provided the velocities involved are low and by making slight alterations when necessary. As indicated above. as will be seen 2 from the developments of Chapter VII. and larger systems in a steady state. that. infinitesimal portions of continuous systems. Our general method of procedure in different fields of investigation will now be to examine the expression for kinetic potential which is known to hold for the field in question. 112. u2 1 − 2 given in equac .Relativity and the Principle of Least Action. and hence obtain for such systems the simple expression H = H κ 1− xV ˙ c2 143 . 113. this can be rewritten H 1− u2 1 − 2 and c = H 1− u2 c2 u c2 2 and this is the expression which we shall find most useful for our future development of the consequences of the theory of relativity.

144 u2 . and which at all velocities agrees with equation (146). becomes identical with 2 m0 u2 at low velocities. potential. an expression which. −m0 c2 1− . except for an additive c2 1 constant.Chapter Nine.

and to apply our considerations to a number of other important problems. We shall now treat with the help of the principle of least action the rather complicated problem of the dynamics of continuous elastic media. THE DYNAMICS OF ELASTIC BODIES. As pointed out by Laue. Our considerations will extend the appreciation of the intimate relation between mass and energy which we found in our treatment of the dynamics of a particle. then. On the Impossibility of Absolutely Rigid Bodies. In the older treatises on mechanics. Since. We shall also be able to show that the dynamics of a particle may be regarded as a special case of the dynamics of a continuous elastic medium.CHAPTER X. These rigid bodies were endowed with definite and unchangeable size and shape and hence were assigned five degrees of freedom. after considering the dynamics of a particle it was customary to proceed to a discussion of the dynamics of rigid bodies. however. 145 . and as these disturbances cannot spread with infinite velocity it will be necessary to give the values of an infinite number of variables in order completely to specify the succeeding states of the system. For our newer mechanics the nearest approach to an absolutely rigid body would of course be one in which disturbances are transmitted with the velocity of light. the theory of relativity does not permit rigid bodies we may proceed at once to the general theory of deformable bodies. This is evident since it is obvious that we could start disturbances simultaneously at an indefinite number of points in a continuous body. 114. since it was necessary to state the values of five variables completely to specify their position in space. our newer ideas as to the velocity of light as a limiting value will no longer permit us to conceive of a continuous body as having only a finite number of degrees of freedom.

since in consequence of the Lorentz shortening a body which appears unstrained to one observer may appear tremendously compressed or elongated to an observer moving with a different velocity. In the more familiar developments of the theory of elasticity it is customary to limit the considerations to the case of strains small enough so that higher powers of the displacements can be neglected. Appendix to Chapter I. A theory of strains of any magnitude was first attempted by SaintVenant and has been amplified and excellently presented by Love in his Treatise on the Theory of Elasticity. part i. w) is the displacement of a point having the unstrained position (x. stress and strain. The best that we can do will be arbitrarily to choose our state of zero deformation such that the strains will be small when measured in the particular system of coördinates S in which we are specially interested. we cannot in general introduce such a simplification if we wish to apply the theory of relativity. 2 (148) zz 1 2 + + . and this introduces considerable simplification into a science which under any circumstances is necessarily one of great complication.Chapter Ten. Definition of Strain. the strain at any point in a body is completely determined by six component strains which can be defined by the following equations. v. In accordance with this theory. wherein (u. . 2 yy 1 2 + 2 + 2 . 146 115. Unfortunately for our purposes. y. z): xx = = = ∂u + ∂x ∂y + ∂v ∂w + ∂z 1 2 ∂u ∂x ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂z 2 + 2 ∂v ∂x ∂v ∂y ∂v ∂z 2 + 2 ∂w ∂x ∂w ∂y ∂w ∂z 2 .

(150) cos θxz = √ 1+2 cos θxy = √ 1+2 xz xx xy xx √ zz yy Geometrical considerations are also sufficient to show that in case the strain is a simple elongation of amount e the following equation will be true: xx l2 = yy m2 = zz n2 = yz 2mn = xz 2ln = xy 2lm 1 = e + 2 e2 . ∂w ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w + + + + . . (149) and that the angles between lines originally parallel to the axes are given in the strained condition by the expressions cos θyz = yz 1+2 yy √ 1+2 1+2 1+2 zz . ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂w ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w = + + + + . .Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. A physical significance for these strain components will be obtained if we note that it can be shown from geometrical considerations that lines which are originally parallel to the axes have. the elongations √ ex = 1 + 2 xx − 1. ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y = 147 yz xz xy (148) It will be seen that these expressions for strain reduce to those familiar in the theory of small strains if such second-order quantities as 2 ∂u ∂u ∂u can be neglected. √ ez = 1 + 2 zz − 1. ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w = + + + + . when strained. ey = 1 + 2 yy − 1. (151) . or ∂x ∂y ∂z 116.

We have just considered the expressions for the strain at a given point in an elastic medium. m. let us for convenience take the strain as zero as measured in system S. We must now prepare for the introduction of the theory of relativity into our considerations. Since the state of zero deformation from which to measure strains can be chosen perfectly arbitrarily. we may write. Let the point P in question be moving with the velocity u = xi + yj + zk as measured in system S. δW = −δE = txx δ xx + tyy δ yy + tzz δ + tyz δ zz yz + txz δ xz + txy δ xy . tyy . Definition of Stress. In case the strain varies from point to point we must consider of course the work done per unit volume of the unstrained material. by determining the way the strain at a given point P appears to observers moving with different velocities. 117. 118. etc. Considering the material contained in unit volume when the body is unstrained. n are the cosines which determine the direction of the elongation. we may now define stress in terms of the work done in changing from one state of strain to another. (153) What now will be the strains as measured by an observer moving along with the point P in question? Let us call the system of coördinates used by this observer S ◦ . It is evident now from our considerations as to the shape of moving systems presented in Chapter V that in system S ◦ the material in the neighborhood of the point in question will appear to have been elongated in the direction of motion in the ratio .Chapter Ten. Transformation Equations for Strain. In case the strains are small it will be noticed that the stresses thus defined are identical with those used in the familiar theories of elasticity. (152) and this equation serves to define the stresses txx . for the work done by this material on its surroundings when a change in strain takes place. giving us xx = yy = zz = yz = xz = xy = 0. 148 where l.

◦ xy xy ˙˙ = 2 c and these are the desired equations for the strains at the point P . For the sake of simplicity let us choose our coördinates in such a way that the X axis is parallel to the original velocity. and . (156) . u m= y ˙ . u n= z ˙ . ◦ xz xz ˙˙ = 2 c . the accent ◦ indicating that they are measured with reference to a system of coördinates S ◦ moving along with the point itself. Hence in system S ◦ the strain will be an elongation c2 e= 1 1− u2 c2 −1 (154) in the line determined by the direction cosines l= x ˙ . ◦ yy = y2 ˙ 2c2 1 1− 1 u2 1− 2 c u c2 2 . the strains remaining zero as measured in S. u (155) We may now calculate from this elongation the components of strain by using equation (151). so that our change in velocity will be from u = xi to ˙ u + δu = (x + δ x) i + δ y j + δ z k.Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 149 of 1 : 1− u2 . We shall be particularly interested in the variation in the strain as measured in S ◦ when the velocity experiences a small variation δu. ◦ zz = z2 ˙ 2c2 1 1− 1 1− u2 c2 u2 c2 . Variation in the Strain. We obtain ◦ xx = x2 ˙ 2c2 1 1− 1 u2 1− 2 c u c2 2 . 119. ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Taking δu small enough so that higher orders can be neglected. ◦ yz yz ˙˙ = 2 c .

. ˙ c2 We shall also be interested in the variation in the strain as measured in S ◦ produced by a variation in the strain as measured in S. by changing the values of xx . The variation δ xx will produce a variation in ◦ xx whose amount can be calculated as follows: By equations (149) a line which has unit length and is parallel to the X axis in the unstrained condition will √ have√ when strained the length 1 + 2 xx when measured in system S and 1 + 2 ◦ xx when measured in system S ◦ . we must calculate the variation produced in ◦ xx .Chapter Ten. ˙ ˙ δ δ δ ◦ xx 150 = 1 1− u c2 2 2 x ˙ δ x. etc. (160) . ˙ c2 x ˙ δ z. from equations (156). etc. = ◦ ◦ 1 u c2 2 yz xy 1− 2 1− x ˙ δ y. and these quantities will be connected in accordance with the Lorentz shortening by the equation u2 √ 1 + 2 ◦ xx . the line remains sensibly parallel to the X axis. ˙ c2 δ δ δ ◦ yy = 0. δ yy . = (157) 1 u2 2 c2 ◦ ◦ zz xz = 0. Since the strain in system S is small.. neglecting xx in comparison with larger quantities and noting that except for second order quantities. ◦ yy . √ 1 1 + 2 ◦ xx = (159) 1+2 xx √ = 1− 1− we obtain δ ◦ xx u2 c2 = δ xx 1− u2 c2 . = 0. we shall then have. from zero to δ xx . which is also the direction of motion. etc. noting that y = z = 0. yy . (158) c2 Carrying out now our variation δ xx . Considering again for simplicity that the X axis is parallel to the motion of the point.

remembering that equation (159). (162) and similarly δ ◦ xy = δ xy 1− u2 x2 . (161). zz xz xx √ 1+2 . δ zz . c2 xx Introducing this relation.Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. we obtain δ ◦ xz = ◦ zz = 0. where θxz is the angle between lines which in the unstrained condition are parallel to the X and Z axes respectively. we shall have cos θxz = 1− u2 cos θ◦ xz . In accordance with the Lorentz shortening. and noting = δ xz 1− u2 x2 . (162) and (163) with those for the variation in strain with velocity and obtain the final . 151 Since the variations δ yy . (161) xz we may note that in accordance with equations (150) cos θxz = √ cos θ◦ xz = √ xz 1+2 1+2 xx ◦ √ ◦ 1+2 zz ◦ . δ ◦ zz =δ zz . δ ◦ yz =δ yz . δ yz affect only lines which are at right angles to the direction of motion. we may evidently write δ To calculate δ we must have ◦ yy ◦ =δ yy . (163) We may now combine these equations (160). however.

The Kinetic Potential for an Elastic Body. These equations give the variation in the strain measured in system S ◦ at a point P moving in the X direction with velocity u. yy zz yz xz 1 1 u2 2 c2 u c2 2 1− 1− 1 x ˙ δz + ˙ 2 u2 c 1− 2 c (164) δ δ xz . 120. and it is obvious that our choice for kinetic potential must reduce to that value at low velocities. We are now in a position to develop the mechanics of an elastic body with the help of the principle of least action. provided the strains are negligibly small as measured in S. ◦ xy 2 1 x ˙ δy + ˙ 2 u2 c 1− 2 c xy . In Newtonian mechanics. introduction of the principle of least action. (146) . as is well known. zz . ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ u2 c2 2 1 x ˙ δx + ˙ u2 c2 1− 2 c δ xx . Our choice of an expression for kinetic potential is furthermore limited by the fundamental transformation equation for kinetic potential which we found in the last chapter H 1− u2 c2 = H 1− u c2 2 . set which we desire: δ δ δ δ δ δ ◦ xx 152 = =δ =δ =δ = = 1 1− yy . part ii. yz . the kinetic potential for unit volume of material at a given point P in an elastic body may be put equal to the density of kinetic energy minus the density of potential energy.Chapter Ten.

153 Taking these requirements into consideration. yy . −tyy . The above expression obviously satisfies our fundamental transformation equation (146) and at low velocities reduces in accordance with the requirements of Newtonian mechanics to 1 H = 2 m◦ u2 − E ◦ . y. Lagrange’s Equations. etc. It is evident that the kinetic potential will be independent of the time derivatives of the strains. the kinetic potential will also be independent of the absolute magnitudes of the coördinates x.. and the three coördinates x.. z which give the position of the point with the corresponding forces Fx . Fy and Fz . Making use of this expression for the kinetic potential in an elastic body. we may choose as our generalized coördinates the six component strains xx . we may write for the kinetic potential per unit volume of the material at a point P moving with the velocity u the expression H = −E ◦ 1− u2 . Substituting . c 121. y and z. Considering the material at the point P contained in unit volume in the unstrained condition.Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. provided we introduce the substitution made familiar by our previous E◦ work. c2 where E ◦ is the energy as measured in system S ◦ of the amount of material which in the unstrained condition (i. etc. we may now obtain the equations of motion and stress for an elastic body by substituting into Lagrange’s equations (139) Chapter IX. and if we consider cases in which E ◦ is independent of position. m◦ = 2 . with the corresponding stresses −txx . as generalized forces. as measured in system S) is contained in unit volume.e..

        = Fz . in Lagrange’s equations (139).            = −tzz . we then obtain − − − − − − ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ xx 154 −E ◦ −E ◦ −E ◦ −E ◦ −E ◦ −E ◦ u2 1− 2 c 1− 1− u2 c2 u2 c2 ∂ yy ∂ zz     = −txx .            = −txz .      = Fx . by performing the indicated differentiations and making suitable substitutions. we have ∂E ◦ xx ∂E ◦ xx ∂ ◦ xx = .            = −txy .Chapter Ten. however.    ∂ yz u2 1− 2 c 1− 1− u2 c2 u2 c2 (165) ∂ xz ∂ xy d ∂ dt ∂ x ˙ d ∂ dt ∂ y ˙ d ∂ dt ∂ z ˙ −E ◦ u2 1− 2 c 1− 1− u2 c2 u2 c2 −E ◦ −E ◦ (166) We may simplify these equations.         = Fy .           = −tyy . ∂ xx ∂ ◦ xx ∂ xx .       = −tyz .

u2 ∂ xx 1− 2 c 155 Making the substitutions in the first of the Lagrangian equations we obtain txx = − ∂ ∂ xx E◦ 1− u2 c2 = t◦ xx 1 1− u c2 2 1− u2 = c2 t◦ xx 1− u2 c2 . of material which in the unstrained condition is contained in unit volume. With the help of these transformation equations for stress we may calculate the value of E ◦ . Since the strain is not . Consider unit volume of the material in the unstrained condition and call its energy content w◦◦ . c2 (167) u2 c2 u2 ◦ t yx . 122. keep˙ ing its state of strain unchanged in system S. as measured in system S ◦ . Value of E ◦ . Give it now the velocity u = x. c2 tzz = 1− t◦ xy 1− u2 ◦ t zz . txy = . Similar substitutions can be made in all the equations of stress. and we obtain as our set of transformation equations txx = t◦ xx 1− tyx = 1− u2 c2 . c2 txz = u2 c2 .Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. tyy = 1− t◦ xz 1− u2 ◦ t yy . Transformation Equations for Stress. the energy content. But in accordance with equation (152) we may write ∂E ◦ xx = −t◦ xx ◦ ∂ xx and from equations (164) we may put 1 ∂ ◦ xx = . 123.

will also be constant in system S. Fy and Fz . c2 ∂ x ˙ . the component strain will change in accordance with equations (156) from zero to ◦ xx = x2 ˙ 2c2 1 1− u2 c2 . We may then write for E ◦ the expression E ◦ = w◦◦ − txx w 0 1− u2 d c2 1 1− u c2 2 x ˙ . In system S ◦ . c txx being.Chapter Ten. however. a constant. Carrying out the indicated differentiation we have Fx = d ∂ dt ∂ x ˙ −E ◦ 1− u2 c2 = d dt E◦ 1− x ˙ − 2 u2 c c2 1− u2 ∂E ◦ . and the corresponding stress will be given at any instant by the expression just derived.. The Equations of Motion in the Lagrangian Form. ˙ E ◦ = w◦◦ + txx − txx 1− u2 c2 (168) as the desired expression for the energy as measured in system S ◦ contained in the material which in system S is unstrained and has unit volume. etc. the stresses txx . u2 t◦ xx = txx 1 − 2 . 124. as we have just seen. 156 changing in system S. 2c2 Noting that u = x we obtain on integration. We are now in a position to simplify the three Lagrangian equations (166) for Fx .

1− 2 c ∂y ˙ But since we have adapted our considerations to cases in which the direction of motion is along the X axis. and introducing the value of E ◦ given by equation (168) we obtain Fx = d w◦◦ + txx x ˙ . 2 dt u2 c 1− 2 c 157 (169) Simple calculations will also give us values for Fy and Fz . 2 u2 c c2 We thus obtain as our three equations of motion Fx = d w◦◦ + txx x ˙ . (157) and (167). Since the volume of . namely that quantity of material which at the instant in question has unit volume. . furthermore we ˙ may substitute. Fy and Fz are the components of force acting on a particular system. in accordance with equations (152). ∂E ◦ ∂E ◦ ∂ ◦ xy 1 = ◦ = −t◦ xy u2 ∂y ˙ ∂ xy ∂ y ˙ 1− 2 c x ˙ = c2 −txy 1− x ˙ .Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. We have from (166) d ∂ Fy = dt ∂ y ˙ −E ◦ u2 1− 2 c d = dt E◦ 1− y ˙ − 2 c2 u c2 u2 ∂E ◦ . 2 dt u2 c 1− 2 c Fy = d dt d Fz = dt txy txz x ˙ c2 x ˙ c2 . we have y = 0. (170) In these equations the quantities Fx .

If we represent. Density of Momentum. Density of Energy. . c2 gy = txy x ˙ . we may now write for the density of momentum g at a point in an elastic body which is moving in the X direction with the velocity u = x ˙ gx = w◦◦ + txx x ˙ . 158 this material will in general be changing. 125. Since we customarily define force as equal to the time rate of change of momentum. Fx . Fy and Fz do not give us the force per unit volume as usually defined. We shall later see the important significance of this discovery. with the energy content w◦◦ and determine the work necessary to give it the velocity u = x without ˙ . however. by fx .Chapter Ten. (171) where by δV we mean a small element of volume at the point in question. and hence we are now in a position to calculate the energy density of our material. It will be remembered that the forces whose equations we have just obtained are those acting on unit volume of the material as measured in system S. 2 u2 c 1− 2 c gy = txy x ˙ . 2 dt u2 c 1− 2 c Fy δV = d dt d Fz δV = dt txy txz x ˙ δV c2 x ˙ δV c2 . fy and fz the components of force per unit volume. c2 (172) It is interesting to point out that there are components of momentum in the Y and Z directions in spite of the fact that the material at the point in question is moving in the X direction. 126. Let us start out with unit volume of our material at rest. we may rewrite these equations in the form Fx δV = d w◦◦ + txx x ˙ δV .

2 u2 c c2 (173) = − txx as an expression for the energy density of the elastic material. c2 (167) u2 c2 u2 1 − 2 t◦ yz . Summary of Results Obtained from the Principle of Least Action. 127. txy = 1− t◦ xz 1− u2 ◦ t zz . tzz = c2 . txz = c u2 c2 . We may now tabulate for future reference the results obtained from the principle of least action. 159 change in stress or strain. we have w=w ◦◦ + u 0 d w◦◦ + txx x ˙ x dt. At a given point in an elastic medium which is moving in the X direction with the velocity u = x. tyy = 1− t◦ xz 1− u2 ◦ t yy .Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. we have for the components of stress ˙ txx = t◦ xx 1− tyz = u2 c2 . Since the only component of force which suffers displacement is Fx . (173) . ˙ 2 dt u2 c 1− 2 c u 0 = w◦◦ + (w◦◦ + txx ) w◦◦ + txx 1− u2 c2 xd ˙ 1 1− x ˙ . For the density of energy at the point in question we have w= w◦◦ + txx 1− u2 c2 − txx .

c2 (172) part iii. For the density of momentum we have gx = w◦◦ + txx x ˙ .. the first letter of the subscript indicating the direction of the force and the second subscript the direction of the normal to the face in question. Since for convenience we have taken as our state of zero strain the condition of the body as measured in system S. may be taken as the forces acting on the faces of a unit cube of material at the point in question. The Unsymmetrical Stress Tensor t. tyy . We have defined the components of stress acting at a point by equation (152) δW = txx δ xx + tyy δ yy + tzz δ zz + tyz δ yz + txz δ xz + txy δ xy . c2 gz = txz x ˙ . we may now add three further components and obtain a complete tensor  t  xx txy txz   t = tyx tyy tyz (174)    t zx tzy tzz . where δW is the work which accompanies a change in strain and is performed on the surroundings by the amount of material which was contained in unit volume in the unstrained state. 2 u2 c 1− 2 c 160 gy = txy x ˙ . some mathematical relations. Before proceeding to the applications of these results which we have obtained from the principle of least action. 128. it is evident that the components txx . Interpreting the components of stress in this fashion. etc.Chapter Ten. we shall find it desirable to present a number of mathematical relations which will later prove useful.

tzx .Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. however. In accordance with the elementary theory of elasticity. the forces t◦ yx and t◦ xy which are measured by an observer moving with the body will be connected by the relation t◦ xy = t◦ yx 1− u2 c2 . tzy = tyz . we can obtain the desired relations tyx = u2 1− 2 c txy . Similarly we shall have the relation t◦ xy = txy . in the directions and on the faces indicated by the subscripts. Using a system of coördinates S ◦ which is stationary with respect to the point in question. however. and may proceed to determine their value. Combining these three equations. We shall find them quite important for our later considerations. Chapter VI. and measured with a system of coördinates S. tyx t◦ yx = 1− u2 c2 in accordance with our transformation equation for force (62). for the measurement of this force. (175) . 161 The three new components tyx . tzy are forces acting on the unit cube. A knowledge of their value was not necessary for our developments of the consequences of the principle of least action. t◦ xy being larger than t◦ yx in the ratio of the areas of face upon which they act. tyz is the force acting in the Y direction tangentially to a face of the cube perpendicular to the X axis. since it was possible to obtain an expression for the work accompanying a change in strain without their introduction. we should obtain. and using similar methods for the other quantities. tzx = u2 1− 2 c txz .

pzx = pxz .Chapter Ten. however. and by equations (175) and (172) we have txy = u2 1− 2 c txy . c2 and hence by substitution obtain pyx = txy . z x z y z z Unlike t. pzy = pyz . The Symmetrical Tensor p. 162 We see that t is an unsymmetrical tensor. since we may show. (178) Consider for example the value of pyx . by substitution of the values for g and u already obtained. (177)    g u g u g u . gy = txy ux . by definition pxy = txy + gx uy . p will be a symmetrical tensor. gu is itself a tensor with components as indicated below:  g u g u g u . (176) We shall call gu the tensor product of g and u and may indicate tensor products in general by a simple juxtaposition of vectors. . 129.  x x x y x z   gu = gy ux gy uy gy uz . that pyx = pxy . we have from our definition pyx = tyx + gy ux . We also have. Besides this unsymmetrical tensor t we shall find it desirable to define a further tensor p by the equation p = t + gu.

div t thus being an ordinary vector. 163 and since for the case we are considering uy = 0. The other equalities may be shown in a similar way. Relation between div t and tn . we shall define a further vector tn by the equation tn = (txx cos α + txy cos β + txz cos γ) i + (tyx cos α + tyy cos β + tyz cos γ) j + (tzx cos α + tzy cos β + tzz cos γ) k. (180) where cos α. This equation is of . Considering an element of surface dS. At a given point P in our elastic body we shall define the divergence of the tensor t by the equation ∂txx ∂txy ∂txz + + i div t = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂tyx ∂tyy ∂tyz + + + (179) j ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂tzx ∂tzy ∂tzz + + k. + ∂x ∂y ∂z where i. cos β and cos γ are the direction cosines of the inwardpointing normal to the element of surface dS.Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. Considering now a definite volume V enclosed by the surface S it is evident that div t and tn will be connected by the relation − div t dV = 0 tn dS. (181) where the symbol 0 indicates that the integration is to be taken over the whole surface which encloses the volume V . It will be seen that div t is the elastic force acting per unit volume of material at the point P . j and k are unit vectors parallel to the axes. we arrive at the equality pxy = pyx . 130.

Provided that there are no external forces acting and f is produced solely by the elastic forces. The Equations of Motion in the Eulerian Form. 164 course merely a direct application of Gauss’s formula. which states in general the equality − ∂P ∂Q ∂R + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dV = 0 (P cos α + Q cos β + R cos γ) dS. and let r be the radius vector to any point P in the elastic body. Taking account of equations (172) and (175) this can be rewritten − (r × div t) dV = (r × tn ) dS − (u × g) dV. dt where f is the density of force acting at any point and g is the density of momentum. y and z. where × signifies as usual the outer product. We saw in Sections 124 and 125 that the equations of motion in the Lagrangian form might be written f δV = d (g δV ). our definition of the divergence of a tensor will now permit us to put f = − div t.Chapter Ten. Consider a given point of reference O. Q and R may be any functions of x. We shall also find use for a further relation between div t and tn . (182) where P . (183) 0 131. . we can then show with the help of Gauss’s Formula (182) that − (r × div t) dV = − (r × tn ) dS 0 (tyz − tzy )jk + (txz − tzx )ik + (txy − tyx )ij dV.

In our work on the dynamics of a particle we found that the mass of a particle was equal to its energy divided by the square of the velocity of light. We may now use the results which we have obtained from the principle of least action to elucidate various problems concerning the behavior of elastic bodies.Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. and hence have come to expect in general a necessary relation between the . dt dt dt 165 dg in terms of partial differentials. however. 132. was defined by the equation (176) p = t + gu. Relation between Energy and Momentum. Our symmetrical tensor p. (184) − div p = ∂t We shall find this simple form for the equations of motion very interesting in connection with our considerations in the last chapter. applications of the results. and write for our equation of motion (− div t) δV = Expressing d dg d(δV ) (g δV ) = δV +g . part iv. and putting dt d(δV ) = δV div u dt we obtain − div t = ∂g ∂g ∂g ∂g + ux + uy + uz ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z + g div u. and hence we may now write our equations of motion in the very beautiful Eulerian form ∂g .

in the case of elastically stressed bodies a somewhat more complicated state of affairs than in the case of particles. the force on the rear face will do the work txx x per second and ˙ ˙ this will be given up at the forward face. For the density of momentum in the X direction we obtained the expression gx = (w + txx ) x ˙ . c2 and we see that in order to calculate the momentum in the X direction we must consider not merely the energy w which is being bodily carried along in that direction with the velocity x. As a matter of fact. however. We find. since besides the energy which is transported bodily by the motion of the medium an additional quantity of energy may be transferred through the medium by the action of the forces which hold it in its state of strain. We thus have an additional density of energy-flow in the X direction of the magnitude txx x and ˙ txx x ˙ hence a corresponding density of momentum 2 . the forces holding it in its state of longitudinal compression will be doing work at the rear end of the rod and delivering an equal quantity of energy at the front end. As we have already seen in Section 128. 166 existence of momentum in any particular direction and the transfer of energy in that same direction. an examination of the expressions for momentum which we obtained from the principle of least action will show the justice of these considerations. for example. Thus. but also must take into ˙ account the additional flow of energy which arises from the stress txx . and this additional transfer of energy must be included in the calculation of the momentum of the bar. this stress txx can be thought of as resulting from forces which act on the front and rear faces of a centimeter cube of our material. Since the cube is moving with the velocity x. c Similar considerations explain the interesting occurrence of compo- . in the case of a longitudinally compressed rod moving parallel to its length.Chapter Ten.

which are produced by agencies outside of the elastic body and the internal force f int. from the principle of least action. dt where g is the density of momentum at any given point and f is the force acting per unit volume of material. can be thought of as resulting from forces which act tangentially in the X direction on the pair of faces of our unit cube which are perpendicular to the Y axis. = − div t. It is evident from our previous discussions that we may write the equation of motion for an elastic medium in the form f δV = d(g δV ) . The stress txy . We shall find it convenient to analyze the total force per unit volume of material f into those external forces f ext.Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. It is evident from the way in which we have defined the divergence of a tensor (179) that for this latter we may write f int. we shall have the ˙ work txy x. stress and velocity at the point in question. (185) . Since the cube is moving in the X direction with the velocity x. c 133. nents of momentum in the Y and Z directions. ˙ and the resulting flow of energy in the X direction is accompanied by txy x ˙ the corresponding momentum 2 . done at one surface per second and transferred to the other. which arises from the elastic interaction of the parts of the strained body itself. c2 167 in spite of the fact that the material involved is moving in the X direction. gy = txy x ˙ . We have already obtained. for example. and our present problem is to discuss somewhat further the nature of the force f . like gravity. c2 gz = txz x ˙ . The Conservation of Momentum. expressions (172) which permit the calculation of g in terms of the energy density.

this may be written (r × f ext.Chapter Ten. Substituting equation (186). 134. then the angular momentum of the body about O will be M= and its rate of change will be dM = dt dM = dt r× dg dt dV + dr × g dV. dV + tn dS = dt where tn is defined in accordance with (180) so that the integral 0 tn dS becomes the force exerted by the surroundings on the surface of the elastic body. . and tn would evidently be equal to zero and we have the principle of the conservation of momentum. The Conservation of Angular Momentum. Our equation of motion then becomes (f ext. dt dG . dt 168 (186) or. dt (189) (r × g) dV. ) dV − (r × div t) dV + (u × g) dV. Consider the radius vector r from a point of reference O to any point P in an elastic body. integrating over the total volume of the elastic body. − div t) δV = d(g δV ) . In the case of an isolated system both f ext. dV − div t dV = d dt g dV = (187) where G is the total momentum of the body. (188) f ext. With the help of the purely analytical relation (181) we may transform the above equation into dG . f ext.

in the preceding section. which may be written dM = dt r× dg dt dV + (u × g) dV. 135. the . 169 (190) 0 We see from this equation that the rate of change of the angular momentum of an elastic body is equal to the moment of the external forces acting on the body plus the moment of the surface forces. In our newer mechanics. The presence of this increasing angular momentum in a strained body arises from the unsymmetrical nature of the stress tensor. dM = dt (r × f ext. ) dV + (r × tn ) dS. or. however.Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. leads to the interesting conclusion that even in a state of steady motion the angular momentum of a strained body will in general be changing. This is evident from equation (189). Relation between Angular Momentum and the Unsymmetrical Stress Tensor. introducing the purely mathematical relation (183) we have. (192) and in order to maintain the body in its state of uniform motion we must apply external forces with a turning moment of this same amount. we have found (172) components of momentum at right angles to the velocity and hence even for a body moving in a straight line with unchanging stresses and velocity we find that the angular momentum is increasing at the rate dM = dt (u × g) dV. In the case of an isolated system this reduces to the important principle of the conservation of angular momentum. The fact that at a point in a strained elastic medium there may be components of momentum at right angles to the motion of the point itself. (191) In the older mechanics velocity u and momentum g were always in the same direction so that the last term of this equation became zero.

and the lever is in equilibrium under the action of the equal forces Let us now consider the equilibrium as it appears. Referred to S ◦ the two lever arms are equal in length: F1 Fig. if we have a body moving in the X direction with the velocity u = xi we can easily see ˙ from equations (172) and (175) the truth of the equality (u × g) = (tyz − tzy ) jk + (txz − tzx ) ik + (txy − tyx ) ij . l2 = l2 ◦ 1− V2 . This lever is stationary with respect to a system of coördinates S ◦ .Chapter Ten. in accordance with the Lorentz shortening. 14. giving us l1 = l1 ◦ . for example. Thus. The Right-Angled Lever. 14. using a system of coördinates S with reference to which the lever is moving in X direction with the velocity V . 136. B l1 A l1 ◦ = l2 ◦ . 170 integral (u × g) dV being as a matter of fact exactly equal to the integral over the same volume of the turning moments of the unsymmetrical components of the stress. But for the other arm which lies in the direction of motion we shall have. F1 ◦ = F2 ◦ . An interesting example of the principle that in general a turning mol2 ment is needed for the uniform translaC tory motion of a strained body is seen in the apparently paradoxical case of F2 the right-angled lever. Consider the right-angled lever shown in Fig. c2 . Referred to this new system of coördinates the length l1 of the arm which lies in the Y direction will be the same as in system S ◦ .

F2 = F2 ◦ 1− V2 . and hence each second the angular momentum of the c system around the point B is increased by the amount F1 V V2 V l1 = F1 l1 2 .Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. in the light of our previous discussion. In spite of the fact that the lever is in uniform motion in a straight line. Since the force F1 is doing the work F1 V per second at the point A. c2 V2 V2 . c2 c . however. The explanation of this apparent paradox is obvious. = F1 l1 2 . in accordance with our equations for the transformation of force (61) and (62). F1 = F1 ◦ . a stream of energy of this amount is continually flowing through the lever from A to the pivot B. 171 For the forces F1 and F2 we shall have. c V2 This necessity for a turning moment F1 l1 2 can also be shown c directly from a consideration of the energy flow in the lever. its angular momentum is continually increasing owing to the fact that it is elastically strained. this new energy which enters at A each second has F1 V the mass 2 . c2 c We thus obtain for the moment of the forces around the pivot B F1 l1 − F2 l2 = F1 ◦ l1 ◦ − F2 ◦ l2 ◦ 1 − V2 c2 = F1 ◦ l1 ◦ and are led to the remarkable conclusion that such a moving lever will be in equilibrium only if the external forces have a definite turning moment of the magnitude given above. and it can be shown by carrying out the integration indicated in equation (192) that the rate of change of angular momentum is as a matter of fact just V2 equal to the turning moment F1 l1 2 . In accordance with our ideas as to the relation between energy and mass.

thus solving completely our apparent paradox. Our considerations have shown that the density of momentum is equal to the density of energy flow divided by the square of the velocity of light. The Dynamics of a Particle.Chapter Ten. 137. exactly this same expression for the moment of the forces around the pivot B and hence see that they are of just the magnitude necessary to keep the lever from turning. u2 c2 (193) 1− 138. however. If we have a system which is in a steady internal state. E G= 2u= c E◦ c2 u. Isolated Systems in a Steady State. We thus see that the dynamics of a particle may be regarded as a special case of the more general dynamics which we have developed in this chapter. it is evident that the resultant flow of energy for the whole body must be in the direction of motion. . 172 We have already found. and is either isolated or merely subjected to an external pressure with no components of force tangential to the bounding surface. Thus for an isolated system in a steady internal state we may write. and hence for these systems momentum and velocity will be in the same direction without the complications introduced by a transverse energy flow. in agreement with the work of Chapter VI. the equation of motion for a particle being   d   F= dt  E◦ c2 1−  d u =  dt u2 c2 m◦ 1− u2 c2 u . It is important to note that particles are interesting examples of systems in which there will obviously be no transverse component of energy flow since their infinitesimal size precludes the action of tangential surface forces.

we then introduced the principle of least action. and we find that we must include in our density of energy flow that transferred through the elastic body by the forces which hold it in its state of strain and suffer displacement as the body moves. Conclusion. It is also important to show that a theory of elasticity can be developed which agrees with the requirements of the theory of relativity. Using the components of strain and velocity as generalized coördinates. choosing a form of function for kinetic potential which agrees at low velocities with the choice made in the older theories of elasticity and at all velocities agrees with the requirements of the principle of relativity. we were then able to develop all that is necessary for a complete theory of elasticity. This involves in general a flow of energy and hence momentum at right angles to the motion of the body itself. Using the Lagrangian equations. it must. We find that the density of momentum in any direction must be placed equal to the total density of energy flow in that same direction divided by the square of the velocity of light. We may now point out in conclusion the chief results of this chapter. 173 139. . At present we have no experiments of sufficient accuracy so that we can investigate the differences between this new theory of elasticity and the older ones. however. It will be seen. and hence of course have found no experimental contradiction to the new theory. however. The most important consequence of these considerations is an extension in our ideas as to the relation between momentum and energy. With the help of Einstein’s equations for spatial and temporal considerations.Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. In fairness. be pointed out in conclusion that since our expression for kinetic potential was not absolutely uniquely determined there may also be other theories of elasticity which will agree with the principle of relativity and with all the facts as now known. from the expressions for momentum that even at low velocities the consequences of this new theory will become important as soon as we run across elastic systems in which very large stresses are involved. we have developed a set of transformation equations for the strain in an elastic body.

CHAPTER XI. T . c2 where u is the velocity of the system. The Generalized Coördinates and Forces. We may now use our conclusions as to the relation between the principle of least action and the theory of relativity to obtain information as to the behavior of thermodynamic systems in motion. temperature. (195) 174 . These generalized coördinates and forces are related to the energy change δE accompanying a small displacement δ. entropy S and the values of x. (194) 141. By differentiation we may obtain expressions which we shall find useful. Fy and Fz . we may write the following expression for the volume v of the system in terms of v ◦ as measured with a set of axes S ◦ with respect to which the system is stationary: v = v◦ 1− u2 = v◦ c2 1− x2 + y 2 + z 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ . Let us consider a thermodynamic system whose state is defined by the generalized coördinates volume v. THE DYNAMICS OF A THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM. ∂v ◦ = ∂v 1 1− u2 c2 . Fx . 140. and the components of force. y and z which determine its position. in accordance with the equation δE = −δW = −p δv + T δS + Fx δx + Fy δy + Fz δz. −p. volume and entropy. Corresponding to these coördinates we shall have the generalized external forces. Transformation Equation for Volume. Before we can apply the principle of least action we shall need to have transformation equations for the generalized coördinates. In accordance with the Lorentz shortening. the negative of the pressure.

S = k log W. where S is the entropy of the system in the state in question. Let us write. Introduction of the Principle of Least Action. ∂v ◦ = ∂x ˙ v 1− u2 c2 3 2 175 x ˙ v◦ = u2 c2 1− 2 c x ˙ . c2 (196) 142. c2 (198) . k is a universal constant. in accordance with the Boltzmann-Planck ideas as to the interdependence of these quantities. (197) 143. This invariance of entropy is a direct consequence of the close relation between the entropy of a system in a given state and the probability of that state. We are now in a position to introduce the principle of least action into our considerations by choosing a form of function for the kinetic potential which will agree at low velocities with the familiar principles of thermodynamics and will agree at all velocities with the requirements of the theory of relativity. The Kinetic Potential. this is a quantity which must appear the same to all observers regardless of their motion. these conditions are met by taking for kinetic potential the expression H = −E ◦ 1− u2 . and W the probability of having a microscopic arrangement of molecules or other elementary constituent parts which corresponds to the desired thermodynamic state.Dynamics of a Thermodynamic System. If we use volume and entropy as our generalized coördinates. Transformation Equation for Entropy. As for the entropy of a thermodynamic system. Since this probability is evidently independent of the relative motion of the observer and the system we see that the entropy of a system S must be an invariant and may write S = S ◦.

as the other coördinate. which with our choice of coördinates is the familiar form for the kinetic potential of a thermodynamic system.Chapter Eleven. 144. Noting also that the kinetic potential is independent of the time derivatives of volume and entropy. The Lagrangian Equations. with the corresponding coördinates we should obtain results exactly the same as those which we are now going to work out with the help of the other set of coördinates. 176 This expression agrees with the requirements of the theory of relaH tivity that shall be an invariant (see Section 111) and at low 1− velocities reduces to H = −E. ˙ θ = T . c Using this value of kinetic potential. depending only on their time derivatives. however. the kinetic potential will be independent of the coördinates x. Having chosen a form for the kinetic potential we may now substitute into the Lagrangian equations (139) and obtain the desired information with regard to the behavior of thermodynamic systems. we should obtain of course a different expression for the kinetic potential. in fact should have under those circumstances u2 H = (E ◦ − T ◦ S ◦ ) 1 − 2 . following Helmholtz. we should think it more rational to take v as one coördinate and a quantity θ whose time derivative is equal to temperature. It should be noted that this expression for the kinetic potential of a thermodynamic system applies of course only provided we pick out volume v and entropy S as generalized coördinates. Since we shall consider cases in which the energy of the system is independent of the position in space. we shall obtain the Lagrangian u2 c2 . If. y and z.

= Fz . = Fx . c2 ∂v ◦ ∂v But. in accordance with equation (194). Transformation Equation for Pressure. = T. p◦ = − with equation (195). = Fy .Dynamics of a Thermodynamic System. ∂v ◦ = ∂v 1 1− u2 c2 ∂E ◦ . (200) . We may use the first of these equations to show that the pressure is a quantity which appears the same to all observers regardless of their relative motion. equations in the simple form − − ∂ ∂v −E ◦ −E ◦ −E ◦ −E ◦ −E ◦ 1− 1− 1− 1− 1− u2 c2 u2 c2 u2 c2 u2 c2 u2 c2 = −p. 177 ∂ ∂S d ∂ dt ∂ x ˙ d ∂ dt ∂ y ˙ d ∂ dt ∂ z ˙ (199) 145. which gives us the desired relation p = p◦ . We have p= ∂ ∂v −E ◦ 1− u2 c2 =− 1− u2 ∂E ◦ =− c2 ∂v 1− u2 ∂E ◦ ∂v ◦ . and in accordance ∂v ◦ .

Let us now turn our attention to the last three of the Lagrangian equations. however. We obtain as our transformation equation. We have T = ∂ ∂S E◦ 1− u2 c2 = 1− u2 ∂E ◦ ∂S ◦ . since otherwise the value of E ◦ which occurs in the expression for kinetic potential might be varying in a perfectly unknown manner. c2 ∂S ◦ ∂S ∂E ◦ But. this result will be seen to be identical with that which is obtained from the transformation equations for force and area which result from our earliest considerations.Chapter Eleven. It is evident. . = T ◦ and in accordance ∂S ◦ ∂S ◦ with (197) = 1. that these equations will necessarily apply only to cases of quasistationary acceleration. Transformation Equation for Temperature. 146. It is also evident that we must confine our considerations to cases of adiabatic acceleration. c2 (201) is an invariant for the Lorentz transformation. ∂S T = T◦ and see that the quantity T 1− u2 c2 1− u2 . The Equations of Motion for Quasistationary Adiabatic Acceleration. 178 Defining pressure as force per unit area. The second of the Lagrangian equations (199) will provide us information as to measurements of temperature made by observers moving with different velocities. 147. These are the equations for the motion of a thermodynamic system under the action of external force. in accordance with equation (194). since our development of the principle of least action gave us an equation for kinetic potential which was true only for systems of infinitesimal extent or large systems in a steady internal state.

∂x ˙ ˙ E ◦ + p◦ v ◦ x .Dynamics of a Thermodynamic System. 179 The Lagrangian equations for force may be advantageously transformed. The Energy of a Moving Thermodynamic System. c2 and ∂S ◦ = 0. (196) and (197) we have ∂E ◦ = −p◦ . We may use this equation to obtain an expression for the energy of a moving thermodynamic system. If we adiabatically accelerate a thermodynamic system in the direction of its motion. We have Fx = d ∂ dt ∂ x ˙ d dt −E ◦ E◦ 1− 1− u2 c2 = d dt E◦ 1− x ˙ − 2 u2 c c2 1− u2 ∂E ◦ c2 ∂ x ˙ . ∂v ◦ We obtain Fx = d dt ∂v ◦ v◦ = u2 ∂x ˙ 1− 2 c x ˙ . its energy will increase . = x ˙ − 2 u2 c c2 1− u2 c2 ∂E ◦ ∂v ◦ ∂E ◦ ∂S ◦ + ∂v ◦ ∂ x ˙ ∂S ◦ ∂ x ˙ But by equations (194). 2 u2 c 1− 2 c (202) Similar equations may be obtained for the components of force in the Y and Z directions and these combined to give the vector equation F= d dt E ◦ + p◦ v ◦ u . 148. 2 u2 c 1− 2 c (203) This is the fundamental equation of motion for the dynamics of a thermodynamic system.

comparing equations (204) and (205). 2 u2 c 1− 2 c (205) We find again. c2 c (206) . as in our treatment of elastic bodies presented in the last chapter. in accordance with the expression u2 v = v ◦ 1 − 2 . that the momentum of a moving system may be calculated by taking the total flow of energy in the desired direction and dividing by c2 . Hence we may write for the total energy c E = E◦ + ◦ u 0 d dt E ◦ + p◦ v ◦ u u dt + p◦ v ◦ 1 − 2 c2 u 1− 2 c 1− u2 c2 . The Momentum of a Moving Thermodynamic System. c2 u2 1− 2 c (204) 149.Chapter Eleven. we have G= E pv u + 2 u. We may compare this expression for the energy of a thermodynamic system with the following expression for momentum which is evident from the equation (203) for force: G= E ◦ + p◦ v ◦ u . E= E +p v 1− ◦ ◦ u2 c2 − p◦ v ◦ 1− E ◦ + p◦ v ◦ u2 = − pv. both because of the work done by the force F= d dt E ◦ + p◦ v ◦ u 2 u2 c 1− 2 c 180 which produces the acceleration and because of the work done by the pressure p = p◦ which acts on a volume which is continually diminishing as the velocity u increases. Thus.

a p◦ = T ◦4 . we obtain F= d 4 av ◦ T ◦ 4 u 2 dt 3 u2 c 1− 2 c = d 4 dt 3 avT 4 1− u c2 2 3 u c2 (207) as the equation for the quasistationary adiabatic acceleration of a hohlraum. since a hohlraum in thermodynamic equilibrium is of course merely a special example of the general dynamics which we have just developed. The Dynamics of a Hohlraum. Substituting these values of E ◦ and p◦ in the equation for the motion of a thermodynamic system (203). As an application of our considerations we may consider the dynamics of a hohlraum. 150.Dynamics of a Thermodynamic System. As is well known from the work of Stefan and Boltzmann. where the term 181 E u takes care of the energy transported bodily along c2 pv by the system and the term 2 u takes care of the energy transferred c in the u direction by the action of the external pressure on the rear and front end of the moving system. the energy content E ◦ and pressure p◦ of a hohlraum at rest and in thermodynamic equilibrium are completely determined by the temperature T ◦ and volume v ◦ in accordance with the equations E ◦ = av ◦ T ◦4 . 3 where a is the so-called Stefan’s constant. In view of this equation we may write for the momentum . The simplicity of the hohlraum and its importance from a theoretical point of view make it interesting to obtain by the present method the same expression for momentum that can be obtained directly but with less ease of calculation from electromagnetic considerations.

. 2 3 u2 c 1− 2 c 182 (208) It is a fact of significance that our dynamics leads to a result for the momentum of a hohlraum which had been adopted on the ground of electromagnetic considerations even without the express introduction of relativity theory. of a hohlraum the expression G= 4 av ◦ T ◦ 4 u .Chapter Eleven.

all of them in forms which agree with the theory of relativity by merely introducing slight modifications into the older expressions for kinetic potential in such a way as to obtain H . Furthermore. but 183 . and gives us in general a clarified insight into the nature of electromagnetic action. we shall not find it necessary to introduce any modification in the form of the kinetic potential. In the case of electrodynamics. The Form of the Kinetic Potential. The Einstein theory of relativity proves to be of the greatest significance for electromagnetics.CHAPTER XII. and the dynamics of a thermodynamic system. On the one hand. We saw that the development of any branch of dynamics would agree with the requirements of relativity provided only that the kinetic potential H has such a form that H is an invariant for the Lorentz transformation. on account of the closely interwoven historical development of the theories of electricity and relativity. and on the other hand also accounts just as simply for the phenomena of moving dielectrics as did the older theory of a stationary ether. the new electromagnetic theory based on the first postulate of relativity obviously accounts in a direct and straightforward manner for the results of the MichelsonMorley experiment and other unsuccessful attempts to detect an ether drift. the dynamics of an elastic body. the theory of relativity provides considerably simplified methods for deriving a great many theorems which were already known on the basis of the ether theory. the quantity 1− u2 c2 Making use of this discovery we have seen the possibility of developing the dynamics of a particle. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. the necessary invariance for 1− u2 c2 however. In Chapter IX we investigated the general relation between the principle of least action and the theory of the relativity of motion. 151.

∗ . 152. e is the intensity of the electric field at the point in question. The Principle of Least Action. and where the integration is to be taken over the whole volume occupied by the system and between two instants of time t1 and t2 at which the actual and displaced configurations of the system coincide. (210) where δr is the variation in the radius vector to the particle under consideration. 184 may take for H the following expression. and µ have the numerical value unity with the usual choice of units. In order to simplify this equation. The Partial Integrations. Since. however. If now we denote by f the force per unit volume of material exerted by the electromagnetic action it is evident that we may write in accordance with the principle of least action (135) dt dV δ e2 (curl φ)2 + −φ· 2 2 ˙ e u +ρ c c + f · δr = 0. Strictly speaking this expression for kinetic potential is not quite correct. ρ the density of charge and u its velocity. since kinetic potential must have the dimensions of energy. which is known to lead to the familiar equations of the Lorentz electron theory H= dV e2 curl φ)2 + −φ· 2 2 ˙ e u +ρ c c . we shall need to make use of two results which can be obtained by partial integrations with respect to time and space respectively.Chapter Twelve.∗ Let us now show that the expression which we have chosen for kinetic potential does lead to the familiar equations of the electron theory. φ is the value of the vector potential. (209) where the integration is to extend over the whole volume of the system V . To complete the equation and give all the terms their correct dimensions. 153. we could multiply the first term by the dielectric inductivity of free space . we shall not be led into error in our particular considerations if we omit these factors. and the last two terms by the magnetic permeability µ.

dt or. Thus we may write t2 t1 185 ˙ dt (a δb) = t2 t1 a d(δb) = [a δb]t2 − t1 t2 t1 dt da δb . Carrying out the indicated variation. Derivation of the Fundamental Equations of Electromagnetic Theory. dV b · curl a. since the displaced and actual motions coincide at t1 and t2 . (212) Since similar considerations apply to derivatives with respect to the other variables y and z. dt da δb . ˙ dt (a δb) = − We may also write dV a db dx = dy dz (a db) = dy dz [ab]x=+∞ − x=−∞ dV b da dx . (213) (214) 154. since we are to carry out our integrations over the whole volume occupied by the system. we shall take our functions as zero at the limits of integration and may write dV a db dx =− dV b da dx . noting that . Making use of these purely mathematical relationships we are now in a position to develop our fundamental equation (210).Electromagnetic Theory. dt (211) or. we can also obtain dV a div b = − dV a · curl b = dV b · grad a.

since we shall define the density of charge by the equation ρ = div e. We then obtain with the help of (213) dt dV e+ 1 ∂φ + grad ψ c ∂t ˙ e u +ρ c c · δe (217) + curl curl φ − φ · δφ − · δ(ρu) + ψ δρ + f · δr = 0. This can evidently be done if we add to our equation (215) the expression dt dV ψ[δρ − div δe] = 0. δu = d(δr) and making use of (211) and (214) we easily obtain dt e+ 1 ∂φ c ∂t · δe + curl curl φ − ˙ e u +ρ c c · δφ 186 dt dV (215) φ − · δ(ρu) + f · δr = 0. (216) it is evident that it will be necessary to preserve the truth of this equation in any variation that we carry out. that the variations are not all of them independent. thus. however. c and may now treat the variations δe and δφ as entirely independent of the others. c In developing the consequences of this equation. we must then have the following equations true e=− 1 ∂φ − grad ψ.Chapter Twelve. it should be noted. where ψ is an undetermined scalar multiplier. c ∂t ˙ e ρu curl curl φ = + . c c (218) (219) .

and noting equation (220) may write the mathematical identity div h = 0. we obtain from (218) curl e = − 1 ∂h . We have not yet made use of the last three terms in the fundamental equation (217) which results from the principle of least action. it can be shown that these terms can be transformed into the expression dt dV ρ ∂φ ρ − [u × curl φ]∗ + ρ grad ψ + f · δr. c ∂t (222) We have furthermore by definition (216) div e = ρ.Electromagnetic Theory. (224) (223) These four equations (221)–(224) are the familiar expressions which have been made the foundation of modern electron theory. noting the mathematical identity curl grad ψ = 0. We then obtain from (219) curl h = 1 ∂e u +ρ . We may put these in their familiar form by defining the magnetic field strength h by the equation h = curl φ. As a matter of fact. 187 and have thus derived from the principle of least action the fundamental equations of modern electron theory. and reduce to Maxwell’s set in free space. c ∂t c (225) . They differ from Maxwell’s original four field equations only by the introduction in (221) and (223) of terms which arise from the density of charge ρ of the electrons. 155. c ∂t c (221) (220) and.

h and ρ from one set of space-time coördinates S to another set S moving past S in the X direction with the velocity V . We have thus shown the possibility of deriving the fundamental equations of modern electron theory from the principle of least action.Chapter Twelve. c∂t c ∗ u f =ρ e+ ×h . (226) c The transformation of the last three terms of (217) into the form given above (225) is a complicated one and it has not seemed necessary to present it here since in a later paragraph we shall show the possibility of deriving the fifth fundamental equation of the electron theory (226) by combining the four field equations (221)–(224) with the transformation equations for force already obtained from the principle of relativity. where tricity we must have δρ = − div ρ δr and notes that δu = dt d the differentiation indicates that we are following some particular dt ∂φ ∂ particle in its motion. while the differentiation occurring in in∂t ∂t dicates that we intend the rate of change at some particular stationary point. however. 188 and hence lead to the familiar fifth fundamental equation of modern electron theory. notes that in accordance with the principle of the conservation of elecd(δr) . c ey = κ ey − V hy . if he makes use of the partial integrations which we have already obtained. We now wish to introduce the theory of relativity into our discussions by presenting a set of equations for transforming measurements of e. h and ρ. ∗ ∂φ u − grad ψ + × curl Φ . 156. hx = hx . The reader may carry out the transformation himself. V hz . The Transformation Equations for e. (228) c ez = κ ez + . (227) c V hz = κ hz − ey . c V hy = κ hy + ez . This set of equations is as follows: f =ρ − ex = ex .

(229) where κ has its customary significance As a matter of fact. that these equations are themselves perfectly symmetrical with respect to the primed and unprimed quantities except for the necessary change from +V to −V . Thus. (226) will successfully transform them into an entirely similar set with primed quantities replacing the unprimed ones. in the first place. .Electromagnetic Theory. ρ = ρκ 1 − uz V c2 1 1− V2 c2 189 . To demonstrate this important invariance of H 1− u2 c2 u2 c2 we may point out that by introducing equations (220). (221) and (214). on development. And finally it can be shown that these equations agree with the general H shall be requirement derived in Chapter IX that the quantity 1− an invariant for the Lorentz transformation. (230) . our original expression for kinetic potential H= dV e2 (curl φ)2 + −φ· 2 2 ˙ e u +ρ c c can easily be shown equal to dV e2 h2 − 2 2 . it will be found that the substitution of these equations into our five fundamental equations for electromagnetic theory (221). In the second place. it will be seen. this set of transformation equations fulfills all the requirements imposed by the theory of relativity. (224). (223). (222).

. by introducing equation (17). 190 and. which shows at once that the two measurements of density of charge made by O and O are in exactly the same ratio as the corresponding measurements for the Lorentz shortening of the charged body. The Invariance of Electric Charge.Chapter Twelve. since it conforms with the general requirement which was found in Chapter IX to be imposed by the theory of relativity on all dynamical considerations. in accordance with the last of these equations. we can easily show that our transformation equations for e and h do lead to the equality H 1− u2 c2 = H 1− u c2 2 . so that the total charge will evidently measure the same for the two observers. To demonstrate this we merely have to point out that. h and ρ. As to the significance of the transformation equations which we have presented for e. 157. we may write our transformation equation for ρ (229) in the form ρ = ρ 1− 1− u2 c2 u c2 2 . we may first show. We thus know that our development of the fundamental equations for electromagnetic theory from the principle of least action is indeed in complete accordance with the theory of relativity. that a given electric charge will appear the same to all observers no matter what their relative motion. noting that our fundamental equations for space and time provide us with the relation dV 1− u2 c2 = dV 1− u c2 2 .

we see that at a given point in space we may distinguish between the electric vector e = ex i + ey j + ez k as measured by our original observer O and the vector e = ex i + ey j + ez k as measured in units of his own system by an observer O who is moving past O with the velocity V in the X direction. O will find experimentally for a similar test charge that moves along with him a value for the force Qe . 159. As to the significance of equations (227) and (228) for transforming the values of the electric and magnetic field strengths from one system to another. We also see that the “electromotive” force which acts on a charge moving through a magnetic A similar invariance of electric charge has been made fundamental in the author’s development of the theory of similitude (i. p. The Relativity of Magnetic and Electric Fields. ∗ . where e can be calculated from with the help of these equations (227). 244 (1914). which lays increasing stress on the fundamentality and indivisibility of the electron as the natural unit quantity of electricity..∗ 158. 191 We might express this invariance of electric charge by writing the equation Q = Q. Nature of Electromotive Force. Thus if O finds in an unvarying electromagnetic field that Qe is the force on a small test charge Q which is stationary with respect to his system. On this basis the most direct method of determining the charge on an electrified body would be to count the number of electrons present and this number must obviously appear the same both to observer O and observer O .e. Similar remarks would apply to the forces which would act on magnetic poles. the theory of the relativity of size). since the description of an electromagnetic field is determined by the particular choice of coördinates with reference to which the field is measured.. vol. (231) It should be noted in passing that this result is in entire accord with the whole modern development of electrical theory.Electromagnetic Theory. 3. Rev. These considerations show us that we should now use caution in speaking of a pure electrostatic or pure magnetic field. See for example Phys.

Derivation of the Fifth Fundamental Equation. Since the charge of electricity is stationary with respect to this system. by using a set of coördinates which are themselves moving along with the charge. for example. while in our earlier dynamical considerations in Chapter VI we obtained transformation equations . or Fx = Q ex . We may now make use of this fact that the forces acting on a moving charge of electricity may be treated as purely electrostatic. we have just obtained the transformation equations (227). 192 field finds its interpretation as an “electric” force provided we make use of a system of coördinates which are themselves stationary with respect to the charge. the force acting on it as measured in units of this system will be by definition equal to the product of the charge by the strength of the electric field as it appears to an observer in this system. Fy = Q ey . so that we may write F=Qe. Fz = Q ez . ez . 160. What will be the value of the electromagnetic force f acting per unit volume on a charge of density ρ which is passing through the point in question with the velocity u? To solve the problem take a system of coördinates S which itself moves with the same velocity as the charge. ey . as to the seat of the “electromotive” forces in “homopolar” electric dynamos where there is relative motion of a conductor and a magnetic field. to derive the fifth fundamental equation of electromagnetic theory. Consider an electromagnetic field having the values e and h for the electric and magnetic field strengths at some particular point. For the components of the electrical field ex .Chapter Twelve. for convenience letting the X axis coincide with the direction of the motion of the charge. Such considerations throw light on such questions.

Difference between the Ether and the Relativity Theories of Electromagnetism. c 1 [u × h]∗ c Fy = Q ey − which in vectorial form gives us the equation F=Q e− or for the force per unit volume f =ρ e+ 1 [u × h]∗ . This derivation. it must not be supposed that the relativity and ether theories of electromagnetism are identical. Substituting above and bearing in mind that ux = V . from the transformation equations. and that Q = Q. 193 (61). Although the older equations have exactly the same form as the ones which we shall . uy = uz = 0. provided by the theory of relativity. is particularly simple and attractive. (62). In spite of the fact that we have now found five equations which can be used as a basis for electromagnetic theory which agree with the requirements of relativity and also have exactly the same form as the five fundamental equations used by Lorentz in building up the stationary ether theory. and (63) for the components of force. We have already indicated the method by which it could be derived from the principle of least action. however. c ux Fz = Q ez − hy . c (226) This is the well-known fifth fundamental equation of the MaxwellLorentz theory of electromagnetism.Electromagnetic Theory. ux hz . 161. we obtain on simplification Fx = Qex .

194 henceforth use. u must be the velocity of the charged body through the ether. provided e and h are measured with reference to the same set of coördinates. for example. while the equations of Lorentz were. It will be seen that Lorentz was thus making important progress towards our . It will be readily seen that such an extension in the meaning of the fundamental equations is an important simplification. they have a different interpretation. Suppose. Lorentz then showed that if all systems should be thus c contracted in the line of their motion through the ether. we must note that for the stationary ether theory. supposed to be true only for measurements which were referred to a set of coördinates which were stationary with respect to the assumed luminiferous ether. and observers moving with such system make use of suitably contracted meter sticks and clocks adjusted to give what Lorentz called the “local time. A word about the development from the theory of a stationary ether to our present theory will not be out of place. the hypothesis was advanced by Lorentz and Fitzgerald that the failure of that experiment to show any motion through the ether was due to a contraction of the apparatus in the direction of its motion through the ether in the ratio u2 1 : 1 − 2 . in the first instance. 162. When it was found that the theory of a stationary ether led to incorrect conclusions in the case of the Michelson-Morley experiment. since our equations are true for measurements made with the help of any non-accelerated set of coördinates. we desire to calculate with the help of equation (226). while for us u may be taken as the velocity past any set of unaccelerated coördinates.Chapter Twelve.” their measurements of electromagnetic phenomena could be described by a set of equations which have nearly the same form as the original four field equations which would be used by a stationary observer. t=ρ e+ 1 [u × h]∗ . c the force acting on a charged body which is moving with the velocity u.

it must be definitely stated that this concept has certainly lost both its fundamentality and the greater part of its usefulness. Thus we have had solid elastic ethers of most extreme tenuity. in particular since the phenomena of the interference and polar- . and this has been brought about by a gradual process which has only found its culmination in the work of Einstein. 163. It was Einstein who. but after every debauch of model-making. Since the earliest days of the luminiferous ether. Already for Lorentz the ether had been reduced to the bare function of providing a stationary system of reference for the measurement of positions and velocities. and ethers with a density of a thousand tons per cubic millimeter. pointed out that the failure of the Michelson-Morley experiment. the attempts of science to increase the substantiality of this medium have met with little success. we have had quasi-material tubes of force and lines of force. To give up the notion of an ether will be very hard for many physicists. and now even this function has been taken from it by the work of Einstein. and the new transformation equations for kinematics to which he was led have not only provided the basis for an exact transformation of the field equations but have so completely revolutionized our ideas of space and time that hardly a branch of science remains unaffected. which has shown that any unaccelerated system of reference is just as good as any other. science has recognized anew that a correct mathematical description of the actual phenomena of light propagation is superior to any of these sublimated material media. however. The final step could not be taken. without abandoning our older ideas of space and time and giving up the Galilean transformation equations as the basis of kinematics.Electromagnetic Theory. 195 present idea of the complete relativity of motion. With regard to the present status of the ether in scientific theory. is not due to a fortuitous compensation of effects but is the expression of an important general principle. we have had vibratory gyrostatic ethers and perfect gases of zero atomic weight. with clearness and boldness of vision. and all other attempts to detect motion through the ether.

entirely beyond our present scope to make any presentation of electromagnetic theory as a whole. It is just as simple. There is no need of going beyond these actual experimental facts and introducing any hypothetical medium. t = 0. We desire now to . 165. indeed simpler. 196 ization of light are so easily correlated with familiar experience with wave motions in material elastic media. Consider a point charge Q moving with the velocity V . 164. The Electric and Magnetic Fields around a Moving Charge. care being taken to give his mathematical equations an interpretation in accordance with the fundamental ideas of the theory of relativity. When a plane polarized beam of light is passing through a given point in space we merely find that the electric and magnetic fields at that point lie on perpendiculars to the direction of propagation and undergo regular periodic changes in magnitude. The significant fact that the fundamental equations of the new electromagnetic theory have the same form as those of Lorentz makes it of course possible to retain in the structure of modern electrical theory nearly all the results of his important researches. and in the following paragraphs we shall confine ourselves to the proof of a few theorems which can be handled with special ease and directness by the methods introduced by the theory of relativity. however. Our transformation equations for the electromagnetic field make it very easy to derive expressions for the field around a point charge in uniform motion. that by giving up the ether we have done nothing to destroy the periodic or polarizable nature of a light disturbance. For convenience consider a system of reference S such that Q is moving along the X axis and at the instant in question. Applications to Electromagnetic Theory. let the charge coincide with the origin of coördinates O. however. Consideration will show us. It is. to say that the electric or magnetic field has a certain intensity at a given point in space as to speak of a complicated sort of strain at a given point in an assumed ether.Chapter Twelve.

hz = 0. 2 (x + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 2 while the magnetic field will obviously be zero for measurements made in system S . Introducing our transformation equations (9). we obtain for the values of e and h in system S at the instant when the charge passes through the point O. z in this system given by the equations ex = Qx . giving us hx = 0. we shall have the electric field at any point x .Electromagnetic Theory. hy = 0. ey = 2 (x + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 Qz ez = . Consider another system of reference. z. y and z and our transformation equations (227) and (228) for the electric and magnetic fields and substituting t = 0. Since the charge is stationary with respect to their new system of reference. (10) and (11) for x . y . the origin of coördinates O and the charge always coinciding in position. ex = Qκx = 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 (κ Qκy = 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 (κ Q 1− x2 + 1− V2 c2 V2 c2 x + y + z2) 3/2 (y 2 V2 c2 z2) 3/2 . S . (y 2 . 197 calculate the values of electric field e and the magnetic field h at any point in space x. which moves along with the same velocity as the charge Q. (x + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 Qy . ey = Q 1− x2 + 1− V2 c2 . y.

This system is to be thought of as consisting of the various mechanical parts. Qκz = 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 (κ V ez . c or. (y 2 hx = 0. electric charges and electromagnetic fields which are inside of the impermeable shell. except that it may be acted on by external electromagnetic fields. The Energy of a Moving Electromagnetic System. The system is free in space. hy = − hz = V ey . we obtain the familiar equations for the field around a point charge in uniform motion with the velocity u = V in the X direction e=Q h= 1− u2 c2 r 1 [u × e]∗ . c s3 . c Q 1− x2 + 1− V2 c2 V2 c2 198 z + z2) 3/2 ez = . . Consider a physical system surrounded by a shell which is impermeable to electromagnetic radiation. putting s for the important quantity V2 (y 2 + z 2 ) c2 and writing the equations in the vectorial form where we put x2 + 1 − r = (x i + y j + z k).Chapter Twelve. (232) (233) 166. Our transformation equations will permit us to obtain a very important expression for the energy of an isolated electromagnetic system in terms of the velocity of the system and the energy of the same system as it appears to an observer who is moving along with it. and its energy content thus be changed.

Since the force which a magnetic field exerts on a charge is at right angles to the motion of the charge it does no work and we need to consider only the work done by the external electric field and may write for the increase in the energy of the system ∆E = ρ(ex ux + ey uy + ez uz ) dx dy dz dt. we may then rewrite the above equation for this special case in the form ∆E = κ∆E + κV Fx dt . Let us now transform this expression with the help of our transformation equations for the electric field (227) for electric charge (229). (16). ∆E is the increase in the energy of the system as it appears to observer O and Fx is the total force acting on the system in X direction as measured by O . where. (15). The restriction that the system shall be unacted on by external forces both at the beginning and end of our time interval is necessary .Electromagnetic Theory. we obtain ∆E = κ + κV ρ (ex ux + ey uy + ez uz ) dx dy dz dt ρ ex + uy uz hz − hy c c dx dy dz dt . in accordance with our earlier equation (234). Noting that our fundamental equations for kinematic quantities give us dx dy dz dt = dx dy dz dt . and for velocities (14). (234) where the integration is to be taken over the total volume of the system and over any time interval in which we may be interested. Consider now a system which both at the beginning and end of our time interval is free from the action of external forces. 199 Let us now equate the increase in the energy of the system to the work done by the action of the external field on the electric charges in the system.

Let the system be of such a nature that we can speak of it as being at rest with respect to S . simultaneity in different parts of the system not being the same for observers O and O . Under these circumstances we may evidently put Fx dt = 0 and may write the above equation in the form ∆E = ∆E0 1− or ∂∆E = ∂E0 1 1− u2 c2 u2 c2 . . 200 because it is only under those circumstances that an integration between two values of t can be considered as an integration between two definite values of t . where φ(u) represents the energy of the system which depends solely on the velocity of the system and not on the changes in its E0 values. We may now write E= 1 1− u2 c2 E0 + φ(u) + const. We may now apply this equation to a specially interesting case. . meaning thereby that all the mechanical parts have low velocities with respect to S and that their center of gravity moves permanently along with S . and E ◦ is its energy as measured by an observer moving along with it. The energy of a system which is unacted on by external forces is thus a function of two variables.Chapter Twelve. its energy E0 as measured by an observer moving along with the system and its velocity u. where u is the velocity of the system..

We can then equate the work done per second by the force to the rate of increase of the energy of the system. dt But from equation (235) we can obtain a value for the rate of increase . 167. Or. This expression for the energy of a system that contains electrical parts permits us to show that the same relation which we found between mass and energy for mechanical systems also holds in the case of electromagnetic energy.Electromagnetic Theory. assuming as before that the constant is equal to m0 c2 . Consider a system containing electromagnetic energy and enclosed by a shell which is impermeable to radiation. We may now write E= 1 1− u c2 2 (m0 c2 + E0 ) − m0 c2 + const. Let us apply a force F to the system in such a way as to change the velocity of the system without changing its E0 value. we obtain 1 E= (m0 c2 + E0 ). Relation between Mass and Energy. which will be equivalent to making a system which has zero energy also have zero mass. We have dE F·u= . 201 φ(u) will thus evidently be the kinetic energy of the mechanical masses in the system which we have already found (82) to have the value m 0 c2 − m0 c2 where m0 is to be taken as the total mass of the 1− u2 c2 mechanical part of our system when at rest. (235) 1− u2 c2 which is the desired expression for the energy of an isolated system which may contain both electrical and mechanical parts.

giving us dt E0 m0 + 2 c u 1− du dt u c2 2 202 of energy F · u = Fx ux + Fy uy + Fz uz = 3 2 . 168. and solving this equation for F we obtain  F= E0 c2 c  (236)  d  m0 +  u . part of which is E0 electromagnetic. (237) Examination of these expressions shows that our system which contains electromagnetic energy behaves like an ordinary mechanical sysE0 m0 + 2 E0 c at any tem with the mass m0 + 2 at low velocities or c u2 1− 2 desired velocity u.  dt  u2 1− 2 which for low velocities assumes the form F= d dt m0 + E0 c2 u . c .Chapter Twelve. The principle of relativity proves to be very useful for the development of the theory of moving dielectrics. The Theory of Moving Dielectrics. dE . To the energy of the system E0 . we must ascribe the mass 2 just as we found in the c case of mechanical energy. 1021 ergs of energy having the mass 1 gram. We realize again that matter and energy are but different names for the same fundamental entity.

Relation between Field Equations for Material Media and Electron Theory. curl E = − c ∂t div D = ρ.Electromagnetic Theory. two new field vectors. and also the density of electric current in the medium i. (242) (243) (244) where is the dielectric constant. As a matter of fact. one of the main achievements of modern electron theory has been to show that the electromagnetic behavior of material media can be explained in terms of . provided we introduce besides the electric and magnetic field strengths. 1 c (238) (239) (240) (241) For stationary homogeneous media. magnetic induction and electric current are connected with the electric and magnetic field strengths by the following equations: D = E. E and F. the dielectric displacement D and the magnetic induction B. ∂t 1 ∂B . div B = 0. 169. 203 It was first shown by Maxwell that a theory of electromagnetic phenomena in material media can be based on a set of field equations similar in form to those for free space. It must not be supposed that the four field equations (238)–(241) for electromagnetic phenomena in material media are in any sense contradictory to the four equations (221)–(224) for free space which we took as the fundamental basis for our development of electromagnetic theory. B = µH. These quantities are found to be connected by the four following equations similar in form to the four field equations for free space: curl H = ∂D +i . µ the magnetic permeability and σ the electrical conductivity of the medium in question. i = σE. the dielectric displacement.

will thus pay no attention to the rapid fluctuations of e and h which arise from the action and motion of the individual electrons. 170. Since from a microscopic point of view E and H are not really the instantaneous values of the field strength at an actual point in space. E and H in these new equations are to be looked upon as the average values of e and h which arise from the action of the individual electrons in the material. the process of averaging being so carried out that the results give the values which a macroscopic observer would actually find for the electric and magnetic forces acting respectively on a unit charge and a unit pole at the point in question. 204 the behavior of the individual electrons and ions which they contain. dt. and this relation has been one of the problems solved by modern electron theory. however. It will evidently be possible. B. whose time rate of change will determine the curl of E and H respectively. Transformation Equations for Moving Media. which would be large from a microscopic or molecular viewpoint. electric displacement. These average values. E and H. Since equations (238) to (241) are assumed to give a correct description of electromagnetic phenomena in media whether stationary or moving with respect to our reference system S. D. and space. to relate D and B to the actual electric and magnetic fields e and h produced by the individual electrons. these electrons and ions acting in accordance with the four fundamental field equations for free space. and magnetic induction. the macroscopic observer using in fact differentials for time.Chapter Twelve. Thus our new equations for material media merely express from a macroscopic point of view the statistical result of the behavior of the individual electrons in the material in question. it has been found necessary to introduce two new vectors. For the purposes of the rest of our discussion we shall merely take these equations as expressing the experimental facts in stationary or in moving media. and the field equations (238)–(241) for material media have thus been shown to stand in complete agreement with the most modern views as to the structure of matter and electricity. dx. it is evident that the equa- .

z and t the values of x . c c (246) V V By = κ By + Ez . c c ix = κ(ix − Vρ ). say. 1 c . y. (247) Hx = Hx . curl E = − c ∂t div D = ρ . 205 tions must be unchanged in form if we refer our measurements to a new system of coördinates S moving past S. ρ =κ ρ− V ix . provided we substitute for x. . Ez = κ Ez + By . Hz = κ Hz − Dy . c c Ey = κ Ey − V V Dz . div B = 0. y . c c (245) V V = Dx . with the velocity V in the X direction. z and t given by the fundamental transformation equations for space and time (9) to (12). equations (238) to (241) can be transformed into an entirely similar set curl H = ∂D +i ∂t 1 ∂B .Electromagnetic Theory. B = H and i = ρu. As a matter of fact. Hy = κ Hy + Bx = Bx . c2 It will be noted that for free space these equations will reduce to the same form as our earlier transformation equations (227) to (229) since we shall have the simplifications D = E. iz = iz . Dz = κ Dz + Hy . Dy = κ Dy − Hz . Bz = κ Bz − Ey . and substitute for the other quantities in question the relations Ex = Ex . Dx V V Bz . iy = iy .

permeability and conductivity of the material in question. making use of an expression for kinetic potential which could be shown E·D H·B − equal to H = dV . 206 We may also call attention at this point to the fact that our fundamental equations for electromagnetic phenomena (238)–(241) in dielectric media might have been derived from the principle of least action. which would be found by an experimenter with respect to whom the medium is stationary. . and it will be noticed that our 2 2 transformation equations for these quantities are such as to preserve H which we found in Chapter IX that necessary invariance for 1− u2 c2 to be the general requirement for any dynamical development which agrees with the theory of relativity. are known experimentally to be true in the case of stationary. homogeneous media. Since the medium is stationary with respect to this new system S we may write for measurements referred to S in accordance with equations (242) to (244) the relations D = E. µ and σ are evidently the values of dielectric constant. To do this. which. Consider a homogeneous medium moving past a system of coördinates S in the X direction with the velocity V . our problem is to discover relations between the various electric and magnetic vectors in this medium. i = σE .Chapter Twelve. Making use of our transformation equations (245) to (247) we can obtain by obvious substitutions the following set of relations for mea- . as we have already pointed out. consider a new system of coördinates S also moving past our original system with the velocity V . 171. We are now in a position to handle the theory of moving media. B = µH .

and arrangements made with the help of wire brushes so that electrical contact could be made from these coatings to the pairs of quadrants of an electrometer. c c V V Bz − Ey = µ Hz − Dy . By reversing the magnetic field while the apparatus was in rotation it was possible to measure with . The equations which we have just developed for moving media are. in a magnetic field which was parallel to the axis of the cylinder. c Ey − (248) Bx = µHx . The inner and outer surfaces of the cylinder were covered with a thin metal coating. c c By + κ(ix − Vρ ) = σEx . Wilson’s experiment consisted in the rotation of a hollow cylinder of dielectric. A.Electromagnetic Theory. Dy − V Hz = c V Dz + Hy = c V Bz . Theory of the Wilson Experiment. iy = σκ Ey − V Bz . c V Ez + By . as a matter of fact. V V Ez = µ Hy + Dz . c V iz = σκ Ez + By . 207 surements made with respect to the original system of coördinates S: Dx = Ex . c (250) (249) 172. in complete accord with the celebrated experiment of H. Wilson on moving dielectrics and indeed all other experiments that have been performed on moving media.

208 the electrometer the charge produced by the electrical displacement in the dielectric. We may make use of our equations to compute the quantitative size of the effect. Let the magnetic field be in the Y direction parallel to the axis of rotation. c .Chapter Twelve. Referring to equations (248) we have Dz + V Hy = c Ez + V By . 15 represent a cross-section of the rotating cylinder. neglecting terms of orders higher than Dz = Ez + V . we have c (251) V ( µ − 1) Hy . Consider a section of the dielectric AA which is moving perpendicularly to the plane of the paper in the X direction with the velocity V . c and. 15. By + we obtain 1− µ V2 c2 Dz = 1− V2 c2 Ez + V ( µ − 1) Hy . The problem is to calculate dielectric displacement Dz in the Z direction. substituting the value of By given by equations (249). c V V Ez = µ Hy + Dz c c or. A Let Fig. Z A Y X Fig.

c . c and this was found to fit the experimental facts. 209 For a substance whose permeability is practically unity such as Wilson actually used the equation reduces to Dz = Ez + V ( − 1) Hy . Dz = Ez + V ( − 1) µHy . It would be a matter of great interest to repeat the Wilson experiment with a dielectric of high permeability so that we could test the complete equation (251). This is of some importance since the original Lorentz theory led to a different equation. since measurements with the electrometer show the surface charge actually to have the magnitude Dz per square centimeter in accordance with our equation div D = ρ.Electromagnetic Theory.

and let us consider a time axis OT perpendicular to OX. it is necessary to retranslate the results obtained by this four-dimensional method into the language of ordinary kinematics. Idea of a Time Axis. In the present chapter we shall present a four-dimensional method of expressing the results of the Einstein theory of relativity. and in the form which we shall use. say OX. in order to carry out actual numerical calculations and often in order to appreciate the physical significance of the conclusions arrived at. that many important results of the theory of relativity can be more easily obtained if we do not try to employ this four-dimensional geometry. The method often has very great advantages not only because it sometimes leads to considerable simplification of the mathematical form in which the results of the theory of relativity are expressed. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS. principally developed by Wilson and Lewis. On the other hand. Then the position of the particle at any instant of time can be represented by a point in the XT plane. 210 . 174. the science of kinematics thus becoming the geometry of this new four-dimensional space. 173. The point of view adopted consists essentially in considering the properties of an assumed four-dimensional space in which intervals of time are thought of as plotted along an axis perpendicular to the three Cartesian axes of ordinary space.CHAPTER XIII. In order to grasp the method let us consider a particle constrained to move along a single axis. The reader should also be on his guard against the fallacy of thinking that extension in time is of the same nature as extension in space merely because intervals of space and time can both be represented by plotting along axes drawn on the same piece of paper. but also because the analogies between ordinary geometry and the geometry of this imaginary space often suggest valuable modes of attack. It must further be noted. moreover. a method which was first introduced by Minkowski. and its motion as time progresses by a line in the plane.

for example. X dx could be represented by a straight line ac the uniform velocity u = dt making an angle with the time axes. A particle moving with T b c ∆t ∆x O a Fig. its behavior in time and space could be represented by a line parallel to the time axis OT as shown for example by the line ab in Fig. and the kinematical behavior of an accelerated particle could be represented by a curved line. Non-Euclidean Character of the Space. 16.Four-Dimensional Analysis. 16. 211 If. the particle were stationary. and in accordance with the nomenclature of Minkowski might call such a geometrical representation of the spacetime manifold “the world.” and speak of the points and lines which represent the instantaneous positions and the motions of particles as “world-points” and “world-lines.” 175. It will be at once . By conceiving of a four -dimensional space we can extend this method which we have just outlined to include motion parallel to all three space axes.

In this way we should obtain invariance for the quantity x2 + y 2 + z 2 + l2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t2 . since we could draw a line making any desired angle with the time axis. represents the trajectory of a beam of light with the velocity ∆t there is then nothing so far introduced into our method of plotting to indicate the fact that we could not equally well make use of another set of axes OX T . 212 evident that the graphical method of representing kinematical events which is shown by Fig. ∆t There are a number of methods of meeting this difficulty and obtaining the invariance for the four-dimensional expression x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t2 (see Chapter IV) which must characterize our system of kinematics. for example. One of these is to conceive of a four-dimensional Euclidean space with an imaginary time axis. which has been developed by Wilson and Lewis and is the one which we shall adopt in this chapter. inclined to the first and thus giving quite a different ∆x . ∆x = c. 17. One of the most important conclusions drawn from the theory of relativity was the fact that it is impossible for a particle to move with a velocity greater than that of light. and it is evident that there is nothing in our plot to indicate that fact.Chapter Thirteen. value. u= ∆x = ∞. in Fig. Laue. for plotting the real . is to use a real time axis. such that instead of plotting real instants in time along this axis we should plot the quantity l = ict where √ i = −1. Another method of attack. and Sommerfeld. ∆t It is also evident that there is nothing in our plot to correspond to that invariance in the velocity of light which is a cornerstone of the theory of relativity. Suppose. to the velocity of the beam of light. up to perpendicularity. the line OC. 16 still leaves something to be desired. since it may be regarded as the square of the magnitude of an imaginary four-dimensional radius vector. This method of treatment has been especially developed by Minkowski. and thus represent particles moving with any velocity up to infinity.

however. that these reduce largely to the introduction of certain rules as to signs. X′ quantity ct.Four-Dimensional Analysis. This latter method has of course the disadvantages that come from using a non-Euclidean space. . The method has the considerable advantage of retaining a real time axis which is of some importance. we shall find. c 213 T T′ ∆t ′ ∆x ′ ∆t ∆x O X Fig. if we wish to visualize the methods of attack and to represent them graphically. 17. but to make use of a non-Euclidean four-dimensional space in which the quantity (x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t2 ) is itself taken as the square of the magnitude of a radius vector.

(252) and from time to time we shall make these substitutions when we wish to interpret our results in the language of ordinary kinematics. k2 . x2 . for the sake of symmetry. 214 We may now proceed to develop an analysis for this non-Euclidean space. Considering . k3 and k4 may be regarded as unit vectors along four mutually perpendicular axes and x1 . x2 . 177. y and z with reference to an ordinary set of space axes and consider x4 as a coördinate which specifies the time (multiplied by the velocity of light) when the occurrence in question takes place at the point xyz. x2 = y. We shall retain the symbols x1 . Our method of treatment will be almost wholly analytical. and the geometrical analogies may be regarded merely as furnishing convenient names for useful analytical expressions. space. We have x1 = x. x3 . time and singular vectors.Chapter Thirteen. vector analysis of the non-euclidean four-dimensional manifold. We may identify x1 . x3 = z. x2 . and x4 as the magnitudes of the four components of r along these four axes. 176. Our space will differ in an important way from Euclidean space since we shall consider three classes of one-vector. We shall find this to be quite a lengthy process but at its completion we shall have a very valuable instrument for expressing in condensed language the results of the theory of relativity. x3 . x4 = ct. Time and Singular Vectors. and x3 with the three spatial coördinates of a point x. part i. however. where k1 . A more geometrical method of attack will be found in the original work of Wilson and Lewis. Space. and x4 throughout our development. Consider a four-dimensional manifold in which the position of a point is determined by a radius vector r = (x1 k1 + x2 k2 + x3 k3 + x4 k4 ).

(253) Time or δ-vectors will have components such that x4 2 > (x1 2 + x2 2 + x3 2 ). Since we shall naturally consider the magnitude of a vector to be independent of any particular choice of axes we have obtained at once by our definition of magnitude for any rotation of axes that invariance for the expression (x1 2 + x2 2 + x3 2 − x4 2 ) = (x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t2 ). and x4 which determine the end of a radius vector. 178. and we shall put for their magnitude s= x1 2 + x2 2 + x3 2 − x4 2 . and we shall put for their magnitude s= x4 2 − x1 2 − x2 2 − x3 2 . and have thus evidently set up an imaginary space which will be suitable for plotting kinematical events in accordance with the requirements of the theory of the relativity of motion. which is characteristic of the Lorentz transformation. x2 . x3 .Four-Dimensional Analysis. Invariance of x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t2 . Space or γ-vectors will have components such that (x1 2 + x2 2 + x3 2 ) > x4 2 . and their magnitude will be zero. 215 the coördinates x1 . . (254) Singular or α-vectors will have components such that (x1 2 + x2 2 + x3 2 ) = x4 2 .

Chapter Thirteen. k4 · k4 = −1. r · r = (x1 k1 + x2 k2 + x3 k3 + x4 k4 ) · (x1 k1 + x2 k2 + x3 k3 + x4 k4 ) = (x2 + x2 + x2 − x2 ) (257) 1 2 3 4 and hence may use the following expressions for the magnitudes of vectors in terms of inner product √ √ s = −r · r for δ-vectors. k2 · k2 and k3 · k3 should be negative and k4 · k4 positive. (255) It should be noted. a · (b + c) = a · b + a · c. namely (na) · b = n(a · b) = (a · b)(n). 216 179. in accordance with these rules. (258) s = r · r for γ-vectors. of course. (259) √ ds = −dr · dr for δ-curves. We shall define the inner product of two one-vectors with the help of the following rules for the multiplication of unit vectors along the axes k1 · k1 = k2 · k2 = k3 · k3 = 1. a · b = b · a. The above rules for unit vectors are sufficient to define completely the inner product provided we include the further requirements that this product shall obey the associative law for a scalar factor and the distributive and commutative laws. For curved lines we shall define interval along the curve by the equations √ ds = dr · dr for γ-curves. kn · km = 0. that there is no particular significance in picking out the product k4 · k4 as the one which is negative. (256) For the inner product of a one-vector by itself we shall have. . Inner Product of One-Vectors. it would be equally possible to develop a system in which the products k1 · k1 .

(260) We see finally moreover in general that the inner product of any pair of vectors will be numerically equal to the product of the magnitude of either by the projection of the other upon it. = x2 . the sign depending on the nature of the vectors involved. Kinematical Interpretation of Angle in Terms of Velocity. the hyperbolic trigonometric functions taking the place of the circular functions used in the more familiar analysis. At this point we may temporarily interrupt the development of . the plus sign holding if both are γ-vectors and the minus sign if both are δvectors.Four-Dimensional Analysis. 181. 217 Our rules further show us that we may obtain the space components of any one vector by taking its inner product with a unit vector along the desired axis and may obtain the time component by taking the negative of the corresponding product. For the angle between unit vectors k and k we shall have cosh θ = ±k · k . Thus r · k1 r · k2 r · k3 r · k4 = (x1 k1 + x2 k2 + x3 k3 + x4 k4 ) · k1 = (x1 k1 + x2 k2 + x3 k3 + x4 k4 ) · k2 = (x1 k1 + x2 k2 + x3 k3 + x4 k4 ) · k3 = (x1 k1 + x2 k2 + x3 k3 + x4 k4 ) · k4 = x1 . We shall define the non-Euclidean angle θ between two vectors r1 and r2 in terms of their magnitudes s1 and s2 by the expressions ±r1 · r2 = (s1 × projection s2 ) = s1 s2 cosh θ. Non-Euclidean Angle. = x3 . 180. = −x4 . (261) the sign depending on the nature of the vectors in the way indicated in the preceding section. (262) where the sign must be chosen so as to make cosh θ positive. We note the analogy between this equation and those familiar in Euclidean vector-analysis.

we have by equation (262) cosh φ = −w · k4 = dx4 . y. z and t we may write. however. x3 . in terms of x. ds = which gives us cosh φ = dx2 − dx2 − dx2 − dx2 = 4 1 2 3 1 1− ∗ 1− u2 c dt. (263) w= ds ds ds ds ds and this may be regarded as a unit vector tangent to the curve at the point in question. It will be evident from our introduction that the behavior of a moving particle can be represented in our four-dimensional space by a δ-curve.Chapter Thirteen. Let r be the radius vector to a given point on the curve and consider the derivative of r with respect to the interval s along the curve. 218 our four-dimensional analysis to consider a kinematical interpretation of non-Euclidean angles in terms of velocity. ds making the substitutions for x1 . we have dx1 dx2 dx3 dx4 dr = k1 + k2 + k3 + k4 . x2 . . and it is evident that the velocity of the particle will be determined by the angle which this curve makes with the axes. If φ is the angle between the k4 axis and the tangent to the curve at the point in question. and x4 . c2 (264) (265) u2 c2 It is to be noted that the actual trajectories of particles are all of them represented by δ-curves since as we shall see γ-curves would correspond to velocities greater than that of light.∗ each point on this curve denoting the position of the particle at a given instant of time.

Four-Dimensional Analysis.

219

and by the principles of hyperbolic trigonometry we may write the further relations sinh φ = tanh φ = Vectors of Higher Dimensions 182. Outer Products. We shall define the outer product of two one-vectors so that it obeys the associative law for a scalar factor, the distributive law and the anti-commutative law, namely, (na) × b = n(a × b) = a × (nb), a × (b + c) = a × b + a × c, (a + b) × c = a × c + b × c, (268) a × b = −b × a. From a geometrical point of view, we shall consider the outer product of two one-vectors to be itself a two-vector, namely the parallelogram, or more generally, the area which they determine. The sign of the two-vector may be taken to indicate the direction of progression clockwise or anti-clockwise around the periphery. In order to accord with the requirement that the area of a parallelogram determined by two lines becomes zero when they are rotated into the same direction, we may complete our definition of outer product by adding the requirement that the outer product of a vector by itself shall be zero. a × a = 0. (269) We may represent the outer products of unit vectors along the chosen axes as follows: k1 × k1 = k2 × k2 = k3 × k3 = k4 × k4 = 0, k1 × k2 = −k2 × k1 = k12 = −k21 , (270) k1 × k3 = −k3 × k1 = k13 = −k31 , etc.,
u c u2 c2

,

(266)

1− u . c

(267)

Chapter Thirteen.

220

where we may regard k12 , for example, as a unit parallelogram in the plane X1 OX2 . We shall continue to use small letters in Clarendon type for onevectors and shall use capital letters in Clarendon type for two-vectors. The components of a two-vector along the six mutually perpendicular planes X1 OX2 , X1 OX3 , etc., may be obtained by expressing the one-vectors involved in terms of their components along the axes and carrying out the indicated multiplication, thus: A = a × b = (a1 k1 + a2 k2 + a3 k3 + a4 k4 ) × (b1 k1 + b2 k2 + b3 k3 + b4 k4 ) (271) = (a1 b2 − a2 b1 )k12 + (a1 b3 − a3 b1 )k13 + (a1 b4 − a4 b1 )k14 + (a2 b3 − a3 b2 )k23 + (a2 b4 − a4 b2 )k24 + (a3 b4 − a4 b3 )k34 , or, calling the quantities (a1 b2 − a2 b1 ), etc., the component magnitudes of A, A12 , etc., we may write A = A12 k12 + A13 k13 + A14 k14 + A23 k23 + A24 k24 + A34 k34 . (272)

The concept of outer product may be extended to include the idea of vectors of higher number of dimensions than two. Thus the outer product of three one-vectors, or of a one-vector and a two-vector will be a three-vector which may be regarded as a directed parallelopiped in our four-dimensional space. The outer product of four one-vectors will lead to a four-dimensional solid which would have direction only in a space of more than four dimensions and hence in our case will be called a pseudo-scalar. The outer product of vectors the sum of whose dimensions is greater than that of the space considered will vanish. The results which may be obtained from different types of outer multiplication are tabulated below, where one-vectors are denoted by small Clarendon type, two-vectors by capital Clarendon type, threevectors by Tudor black capitals, and pseudo-scalars by bold face Greek

Four-Dimensional Analysis. letters.
A = a × b = −b × a = (a1 b2 − a2 b1 )k12 + (a1 b4 − a3 b1 )k13 + (a1 b4 − a4 b1 )k14 + (a2 b3 − a3 b2 )k23 + (a2 b4 − a4 b2 )k21 + (a3 b4 − a4 b3 )k34 , A=c×A = (c1 A23 − c2 A13 + c3 A12 )k123 + (c1 A24 − c2 A14 + c4 A12 )k124 + (c1 A34 − c2 A14 + c4 A15 )k134 + (c2 A34 − c3 A24 + c4 A23 )k234 α = d × A = −A × d = (d1 A234 − d2 A134 + d3 A124 − d4 A123 )k1234 , α=A×B

221

(273)

= (A12 B34 − A13 B24 + A14 B23 + A23 B14 − A24 B13 + A34 B12 )k1234 .

The signs in these expressions are determined by the general rule ¯ that the sign of any unit vector knmo will be reversed by each transposition of the order of a pair of adjacent subscripts, thus: kabcd = −kbacd = kbcad , etc., · · · . (274)

183. Inner Product of Vectors in General. We have previously defined the inner product for the special case of a pair of one-vectors, in order to bring out some of the important characteristics of our nonEuclidean space. We may now give a general rule for the inner product of vectors of any number of dimensions. The inner product of any pair of vectors follows the associative law for scalar factors, and follows the distributive and commutative laws. Since we can express any vector in terms of its components, the above rules will completely determine the inner product of any pair of vectors provided that we also have a rule for obtaining the inner products of the unit vectors determined by the mutually perpendicular axes. This rule is as follows: Transpose the subscripts of the unit vectors involved so that the common subscripts occur at the end and

Chapter Thirteen.

222

in the same order and cancel these common subscripts. If both the unit vectors still have subscripts the product is zero; if neither vector has subscripts the product is unity, and if one of the vectors still has subscripts that itself will be the product. The sign is to be taken as that resulting from the transposition of the subscripts (see equation (274)), unless the subscript 4 has been cancelled, when the sign will be changed. For example: k124 · k34 = k12 · k3 = 0, k132 · k123 = −k123 · k123 = −1, k124 · k42 = −k124 · k24 = k1 .

(275)

It is evident from these rules that we may obtain the magnitude of any desired component of a vector by taking the inner product of the vector by the corresponding unit vector, it being noticed, of course, that when the unit vector involved contains the subscript 4 we obtain the negative of the desired component. For example, we may obtain the k12 component of a two-vector as follows: A12 = A · k12 = (A12 k12 + A13 k13 + A14 k14 + A23 k23 + A24 k24 + A34 k34 ) · k12 . (276)

184. The Complement of a Vector. In an n-dimensional space any m-dimensional vector will uniquely determine a new vector of dimensions (n − m) which may be called the complement of the original vector. The complement of a vector may be exactly defined as the inner product of the original vector with the unit pseudo-scalar k123···n . In general, we may denote the complement of a vector by placing an asterisk ∗ after the symbol. As an example we may write as the complement of a two-vector A in our non-Euclidean four-dimensional space: A∗ = A · k1234 = (A12 k12 + A13 k13 + A14 k14 + A23 k23 + A24 k24 + A34 k34 ) · k1234 = (A12 k34 − A13 k24 − A14 k23 + A23 k14 + A24 k13 − A34 k12 ).

(277)

Four-Dimensional Analysis.

223

185. The Vector Operator, ♦ or Quad. Analogous to the familiar three-dimensional vector-operator del, = k1 ∂ ∂ ∂ + k2 + k3 , ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 (278)

we may define the four-dimensional vector-operator quad, ♦ = k1 ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ + k2 + k3 − k4 . ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x4 (279)

If we have a scalar or a vector field we may apply these operators by regarding them formally as one-vectors and applying the rules for inner and outer multiplication which we have already given. Thus if we have a scalar function F which varies continuously from point to point we can obtain a one-vector which we may call the fourdimensional gradient of F at the point in question by simple multiplication; we have grad F = ♦F = k1 ∂F ∂F ∂F ∂F + k2 + k3 − k4 . ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x4 (280)

If we have a one-vector field, with a vector f whose value varies from point to point we may obtain by inner multiplication a scalar quantity which we may call the four-dimensional divergence of f . We have div f = ♦ · f = ∂f2 ∂f3 ∂f4 ∂f1 + + + . ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x4 (280)

Taking the outer product with quad we may obtain a two-vector, the four-dimensional curl of f , curl f = ♦ × f = + + ∂f1 ∂f2 − k12 + ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂f4 ∂f1 + k14 + ∂x1 ∂x4 ∂f4 ∂f2 + k24 + ∂x2 ∂x4 ∂f3 ∂f1 − k13 ∂x1 ∂x3 ∂f3 ∂f2 − k23 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂f4 ∂f3 + k34 . ∂x3 ∂x4

(282)

(283) (284) (285) ♦ × (♦ × f ) = 0. ♦ · (♦ · F) = 0. ♦ · (♦ × F) = ♦ × (♦ · F) + (♦ · ♦)F. Tensors. In analogy to three-dimensional tensors we may define a four-dimensional tensor as a quantity with sixteen components as given in the following table:  T11 T12 T13 T14 . (292) where φ is a vector of any number of dimensions.Chapter Thirteen.      T 21 T22 T23 T24 . 224 By similar methods we could apply quad to a two-vector function F and obtain the one-vector function ♦ · F and the three-vector function ♦ × F. we have: ♦ × (♦F ) = 0. Still regarding ♦ as a one-vector we may obtain a number of important expressions containing ♦ more than once. 41 42 43 44 . ♦ × (♦ × F) = 0. 187. (286) (287) ♦ · (♦ × f ) = ♦(♦ · f ) − (♦ · ♦)f . ∂x1 2 ∂x2 2 ∂x3 2 ∂x4 2 c ∂t (291) From the definition of the complement of a vector given in the previous section it may be shown by carrying out the proper expansions that (♦ × φ)∗ = ♦ · φ∗ .     T T T T . (288) (289) (290) The operator ♦ · ♦ or ♦2 has long been known under the name of the D’Alembertian. ♦2 = ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + + − = ∆2 − 2 2 . 186. ♦ · (♦ × F) = ♦ × (♦ · F) − (♦ · ♦)F. T = (293) T  31 T32 T33 T34 . ♦ · (♦ · F) = 0.

div T = + + + ∂T11 ∂T12 ∂T13 ∂T14 + + + ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x4 ∂T21 + ··· ∂x1 ∂T31 + ··· ∂x1 ∂T41 + ··· ∂x1 k1 k2 (294) k3 k4 188. will be found to correspond to a rotation of the axes in which only the directions of the X1 and X4 axes are changed. In fact we may look upon the Lorentz transformation as a rotation from a given set of axes to a new set. The particular form of Lorentz transformation. the X2 and X3 axes remaining unchanged in direction.Four-Dimensional Analysis. 225 with the additional requirement that the divergence of the tensor. and have noted that in this way we have obtained for the quantity (x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t2 ) the desired invariance which is characteristic of the Lorentz transformation. We have already pointed out that the quantity (x1 2 + x2 2 + x3 2 − x4 2 ) is an invariant in our space for any set of rectangular coördinates having the same origin since it is the square of the magnitude of a radius vector. with a corresponding re-expression of quantities in terms of the new components. Let us consider a one-vector a = (a1 k1 + a2 k2 + a3 k3 + a4 k4 ) = (a1 k1 + a2 k2 + a3 k3 + a4 k4 ). . defined as follows. Before proceeding to the application of our four-dimensional analysis to the actual problems of relativity theory we may finally consider the changes in the components of a vector which would be produced by a rotation of the axes. in which the new set of spatial axes has a velocity component relative to the original set. The Rotation of Axes. familiar in preceding chapters. shall itself be a one-vector. in the X direction alone.

226 where a1 . we shall have certain relations holding between the quantities k1 · k1 . k1 · k2 . is to find relations between the magnitudes a1 . now. (a1 2 +a2 2 +a3 2 −a4 2 ). (295) By similar multiplications with k2 . a3 and a4 . k3 and k4 as unit vectors and a1 . k2 . We may obtain in this way an expression for a1 in terms of a1 . using a set of axes which have k1 . a2 . that we may obtain any desired component magnitude of a vector by taking its inner product with a unit vector in the desired direction. a3 and a4 are the component magnitudes. a2 . k2 . We have already seen. a3 and a4 the corresponding magnitudes using another set of mutually perpendicular axes with the unit vectors k1 . a2 . is a quantity which is to be independent of the choice of axes. Our problem. reversing the sign if the subscript 4 is involved. a2 . These relations. Sections 179 and 183. We have a1 = a · k1 = (a1 k1 + a2 k2 + a3 k3 + a4 k4 ) · k1 = a1 k1 · k1 + a2 k2 · k1 + a3 k3 · k1 + a4 k4 · k1 . k3 and k4 . etc.Chapter Thirteen. a3 and a4 and a1 . a3 and −a4 . a2 . k3 and k4 we may obtain expressions for a2 . The results can be tabulated in the convenient form a1 a2 a3 a4 a1 a2 a3 k1 · k1 k1 · k2 k1 · k3 k2 · k1 k2 · k2 k2 · k3 k3 · k1 k3 · k2 k3 · k3 k4 · k1 k4 · k2 k4 · k3 (296) a4 −k1 · k4 −k2 · k4 −k3 · k4 −k4 · k4 Since the square of the magnitude of the vector. a3 and a4 . which are analogous to the familiar conditions of .

we shall obtain a1 a1 a2 a3 k1 · k1 0 0 a2 0 1 0 0 a3 0 0 1 0 a4 k4 · k1 0 0 −k4 · k4 (298) a4 −k1 · k4 If now we call φ the angle of rotation between the two time axes OX4 and OX4 . = 1. orthogonality in Euclidean space. Since we shall often be interested in a simple rotation in which the directions of the X2 and X3 axes are not changed. we may write. in accordance with equation (262). 227 (297) etc.. and noting the simplifications thus introduced in the products of the unit vectors. = 1. for each of the six pairs of vertical columns in table (296). we shall be able to simplify this table for that particular case by writing k2 = k2 . = −1. . · k1 )2 + (k1 · k1 )2 + (k2 · k1 )2 + (k3 · k1 )2 + (k4 · k2 )2 + (k1 · k2 )2 + (k2 · k2 )2 + (k3 · k2 )2 + (k4 · k3 )2 − (k1 · k3 )2 − (k2 · k3 )2 − (k3 · k3 )2 − (k4 · k4 ) 2 · k4 ) 2 · k4 ) 2 · k4 ) 2 = 1. can easily be shown to be (k1 (k2 (k3 (k4 and (k1 · k1 )(k2 · k1 ) + (k1 · k2 )(k2 · k2 ) + (k1 · k3 )(k2 · k3 ) − (k1 · k4 )(k2 · k4 ) = 0. −k4 · k4 = cosh φ. k3 = k3 .Four-Dimensional Analysis.

etc. For the particular case of a rotation in which the direction of the X2 and X3 axes are not changed we shall have k2 = k 2 . for example. k12 · k12 = (k1 × k2 ) · (k1 × k2 ) = (k1 × k2 ) · (k1 × k2 ) = k1 · k1 .. and very considerable simplification will be introduced. k14 . We shall have. the relation −k4 · k4 = cosh φ where φ is the non-Euclidean angle between . k3 = k3 . Making these and similar substitutions and introducing. we may obtain transformation equations which can be expressed by the tabulation (300) shown on the following page. as before. k14 . k13 . etc. 228 Since we must preserve the orthogonal relations (297) and may also make use of the well-known expression of hyperbolic trigonometry cosh2 φ − sinh2 φ = 1. etc. k13 · k12 = (k1 × k3 ) · (k1 × k2 ) = (k1 × k3 ) · (k1 × k2 ) = 0. Expressing A in terms of the unit vectors k12 .Chapter Thirteen. k13 .. we may now rewrite our transformation table in the form a1 a1 cosh φ a2 a3 0 0 a2 0 1 0 0 a3 0 0 1 0 a4 sinh φ 0 0 cosh φ (299) a4 sinh φ By a similar process we may obtain transformation tables for the components of a two-vector A. and taking successive inner products with the unit vectors k12 .

A12 k14 · k12 k14 · k13 k23 · k13 k24 · k13 k23 · k12 k24 · k12 k34 · k12 k34 · k13 A13 A14 A23 A24 A34 A12 k12 · k12 k13 · k12 A13 k12 · k13 k13 · k13 A14 −k12 · k14 −k13 · k14 −k14 · k14 −k23 · k14 −k24 · k14 −k34 · k14 k14 · k23 k23 · k23 k24 · k23 k34 · k23 (300) Four-Dimensional Analysis. A23 k12 · k23 k13 · k23 A24 −k12 · k24 −k13 · k24 −k14 · k24 −k23 · k24 −k24 · k24 −k34 · k24 A34 −k12 · k34 −k13 · k34 −k14 · k34 −k23 · k34 −k24 · k34 −k34 · k34 229 .

we may write. in accordance with equations (265) and (266).Chapter Thirteen. Since the angle φ which occurs in our transformation tables is that between the k4 axis and the new k4 axis. This will permit us to rewrite our transformation table for the components . where V is the velocity between the two sets of space axes which correspond to the original and the rotated set of four-dimensional axes. Interpretation of the Lorentz Transformation as a Rotation of Axes. sinh φ = V c 1− V2 c2 . We may now show that the Lorentz transformation may be looked upon as a change from a given set of axes to a rotated set. 230 the two time axes. we may write our transformation table in the form A12 A12 A13 A14 A23 A34 cosh φ 0 0 0 0 A13 0 cosh φ 0 0 0 − sinh φ A14 0 0 1 0 0 0 A23 0 0 0 1 0 0 A24 sinh φ 0 0 0 cosh φ 0 A34 0 sinh φ 0 0 0 cosh φ (301) A24 − sinh φ 189. cosh φ = 1 1− V2 c2 .

The radius vector from the origin to this point will be r = (x1 k1 + x2 k2 + x3 k3 + x4 k4 ). x2 . z. of a one-vector in the forms a1 a1 1 1− a2 a3 a4 0 0 V /c 1− V2 c2 V2 c2 231 a2 0 a3 0 a4 V /c 1− V2 c2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1− V2 c2 (302) a1 a1 1 1− a2 a3 a4 0 0 −V /c 1− V2 c2 V2 c2 a2 a3 0 0 a4 −V /c 1− V2 c2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1− V2 c2 Consider now any point P (x1 . x3 . or. x4 and x. t given . x2 . x3 . y. x4 ). making use of the relations between x1 .Four-Dimensional Analysis.

The fact that the geometry of this plane is a non-Euclidean one presents a more serious complication since the figures that we draw on our sheet of paper will obviously be Euclidean in nature. t− V x . say OX1 and OX4 . t = 1 1− V2 c2 V2 c2 . the importance of a graphical representation of our four-dimensional manifold should not be neglected. 190. and these difficulties can often be solved by considering only one pair of axes at a time. we may write r = (xk1 + yk2 + zk3 + ctk4 ). The difficulty of representing all four axes on a single piece of two-dimensional paper is not essentially different from that encountered in the graphical representation of the facts of ordinary three-dimensional solid geometry. Although we have purposely restricted ourselves in the foregoing treatment to methods of attack which are almost purely analytical rather than geometrical in nature. by equations (252). we obtain the familiar equations for the Lorentz transformation x = x−Vt 1− y = y. conventions which are fundamentally not so very unlike the . 232 Applying our transformation table to the components of this one-vector. and plotting the occurrences in the X1 OX4 plane. z = z. c2 We thus see that the Lorentz transformation is to be interpreted in our four-dimensional analysis as a rotation of axes. but this difficulty also can be met if we make certain conventions as to the significance of the lines we draw. Graphical Representation.Chapter Thirteen.

Oa . as a matter of fact. given by the equation x1 2 − x4 2 = 0. OX1 and OX4 may be considered as perpendicular axes in the nonEuclidean X1 OX4 plane.Four-Dimensional Analysis. A non-Euclidean rotation of axes will then be represented by changing from the axes OX1 and OX4 to OX1 and OX4 . 18. a figure drawn in ordinary perspective. will all have unit magnitude. γ-radiusvectors will lie in the quadrant BOC and will have the magnitude √ s = x1 2 − x4 2 . starting from the origin and terminating on the hyperbolæ. (304) This purely Euclidean figure permits. Radius vectors lying along the asymptotes OA and OB √ will have zero magnitudes (s = x1 2 − x4 2 = 0) and hence will be singular vectors. . 233 conventions by which we interpret as solid. OX1 . (303) together with their asymptotes. where we have drawn a pair of perpendicular axes. rays such as Oa. Ob. Consider for example the diagram shown in Fig. where x1 and x4 are the coördinates of the terminal of the vector. Hence we may consider the hyperbolæ as representing unit pseudo-circles in our non-Euclidean plane and consider the rays as representing the radii of these pseudo-circles. Radius vectors lying in the quadrant AOB will have a greater component along the X4 than √ along the X1 axis and hence will be δ-vectors with the magnitude s = x4 2 − x1 2 .. Since the two hyperbolæ have the equations x1 2 − x4 2 = 1 and x1 2 − x4 2 = −1. etc. and OX4 and the two unit hyperbolæ given by the equations x1 2 − x4 2 = 1. OA and OB. x1 2 − x4 2 = −1. and taking Oa and Ob as unit distances along the axes instead of Oa and Ob. a fairly satisfactory representation of the non-Euclidean properties of the manifold with which we have been dealing.

by familiar equations of analytical geometry. Then. that such a change of axes and units does correspond to the Lorentz transformation. and x1 and x4 the coördinates of the same point referred to the oblique axes OX1 and OX4 . x4 = x1 sin θ + x4 cos θ.Chapter Thirteen. (305) . we shall have x1 = x1 cos θ + x4 sin θ. It is easy to show. 18. as a matter of fact. no change having yet been made in the actual lengths of the units of measurement. X4 θ A ′ b b ′ X4 234 dx4 dx1 B ′ X1 O a′ a θ X1 D C Fig. Let x1 and x4 be the coördinates of any point with respect to the original axes OX1 and OX4 .

. from the properties of the hyperbola. x4 = ct . we shall obtain x1 = x1 x4 = x1 cos θ cos2 θ − sin θ sin θ cos2 θ − sin2 θ 2 + x4 + x4 sin θ cos2 θ − sin2 θ cos θ cos2 θ − sin2 θ . however. x1 = x . we may obtain the familiar equations x= 1 1− t= 1 1− V2 c2 V2 c2 (x + V t ). V x c2 t + . .Four-Dimensional Analysis. 235 and hence if we represent by x1 and x4 the coördinates of the point with respect to the oblique axes and use Oa and Ob as unit distances instead of Oa and Ob. We thus see that our diagrammatic representation of non-Euclidean rotation in the X1 OX4 plane does as a matter of fact correspond to the Lorentz transformation. Oa Ob = = Oa Ob 1 cos2 θ − sin2 θ . Introducing this into the above equations and also writing x1 = x. x4 = ct. It is evident. We have. moreover. where θ is the angle X1 OX1 . that we may write dx1 V sin θ = tan θ = = . cos θ dx4 c where V may be regarded as the relative velocity of our two sets of space axes.

however. corresponding to the fact that the velocity of light must appear the same to all observers. 191. part ii. Since the components of these vectors along the three spatial axes and the temporal axis will be closely related to the ordinary quantities familiar in kinematical. We shall find. δ-curves can be drawn in the quadrant AOB to represent the space-time trajectories of particles. Further development of the possibilities of graphical representation of the properties of our non-Euclidean space may be left to the reader. applications of the four-dimensional analysis. making use of four-dimensional vector quantities of a kinematical. Our general plan will be to express the laws of the particular field in question in four-dimensional language. there will always be an easy transition from our four-dimensional language to that ordinarily used in such discussions. and electrical discussions. γ-lines perpendicular to the particular time axis used can be drawn to correspond to the instantaneous positions of actual lines in ordinary space and studies made of the Lorentz shortening. We may now apply our four-dimensional methods to a number of problems in the fields of kinematics. 236 Diagrams of this kind can now be used to study various kinematical events. their form can be investigated using different sets of rotated axes. Singular vectors along the asymptote OB can be used to represent the trajectory of a ray of light and it can be shown that our rotation of axes is so devised as to leave unaltered. and necessarily used when actual numerical computations are to be made.Chapter Thirteen. mechanics and electromagnetics. or electromagnetic nature. mechanical. and the equations for the transformation of velocities and accelerations thus studied. . the angle between such singular vectors and the OX4 axis. mechanical. that our four-dimensional language introduces an extraordinary brevity into the statement of a number of important laws of physics.

Extended Velocity. its changing position in space and time will be represented by a δ-curve. (306) 193. Kinematics. 237 192. ds ds ds ds (307) where ds indicates interval along the δ-curve. Remembering that for a δ-curve ds = dx4 2 − dx1 2 − dx2 2 − dx3 2 = c dt 1 − u2 . c (309) where u is evidently the ordinary three-dimensional velocity of the particle. and this important vector w may be called the extended velocity of the particle. Since the velocity of a real particle can never exceed that of light. The equation for a unit vector tangent to this δ-curve will be w= dr = ds dx1 dx2 dx3 dx4 k1 + k2 + k3 + k4 . Since w is a four-dimensional vector in our imaginary space. we may use our tables for transforming the components of w from one set . The position of a particle and the particular instant at which it occupies that position can both be indicated by a point in our four-dimensional space.Four-Dimensional Analysis. Extended Position. c2 (308) we may rewrite our expression for extended velocity in the form w= 1 1− u2 c2 u + k4 . We can call this the extended position of the particle and determine it by stating the value of a four-dimensional radius vector r = (x1 k1 + x2 k2 + x3 k3 + x4 k4 ).

by making simple algebraic substitutions. We may define the extended acceleration of a particle as the rate of curvature of the δ-line which determines its four-dimensional position. We have   d2 r dw d  c + k4   . and with the help of table (302) we may easily obtain. This is a good example of the ease with which we can derive our familiar transformation equations with the help of the four-dimensional method. ux V c2 u V 1 − x2 c u2 c2 uz = uz 1− 1− V2 c2 . ux V c2 1− 1− V2 c2 . Extended Acceleration. We shall find that we may thus obtain transformation equations for velocity identical with those already familiar in Chapter IV. uz c 1− u2 c2 k3 . k4 1− u2 c2 . 194. The four components of w are ux c 1− u2 c2 k1 . c= 2 = = 2  ds ds ds  u 1− 2 c u (310) . uy c 1− u2 c2 k2 . 238 of axes to another. the following familiar transformation equations: ux − V 1− ux V c2 ux = .Chapter Thirteen. uy = 1 1− u c2 2 uy 1− 1− = V2 c2 .

since the magnitude will be independent of any particular choice of axes. Since the magnitude of all singular vectors is zero by definition. dt 2 2 2 2 .Four-Dimensional Analysis. we may point out that the trajectory of a ray of light will be represented by a singular line. and dt the three-dimensional acceleration. we may also write dx1 + dx2 + dx3 = dx4 . The Velocity of Light. 195. or. (311) c dt du where u is evidently the ordinary three-dimensional velocity. 239 u2 . we have for any singular line dx1 2 + dx2 2 + dx3 2 = dx4 2 . introducing as before the relation ds = c dt 1 − c= 1 c2 1 1− u c2 2 du + dt 1 1− u2 c2 2 u du u c2 dt + 1 1− u2 c2 2 u du k4 . Transforming the first of these equations we may write dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2 dx1 2 + dx2 2 + dx3 2 = =1 c2 dt2 dx4 2 or dl = c. we may write c2 Or. and we might now use our transformation table to determine the transformation equations for acceleration which we originally obtained in Chapter IV. As an interesting illustration of the application to kinematics of our four-dimensional methods.

Chapter Thirteen. we may write then. The Dynamics of a Particle. and that our four-dimensional analysis corresponds to the requirements of the second postulate of relativity that a ray of light shall have the same velocity for all reference systems. and by applying our transformation table (302) we can derive very simply the m0 w = m . m0 w = m0 1− u2 c2 u + k4 . u + mk4 . c (312) Or. Extended Momentum. We may define the extended momentum of a material particle as equal to the product m0 w of its mass m0 . if in accordance with our considerations of Chapter VI we put for the mass of the particle at the velocity u m= m0 1− we may write u2 c2 . for the extended momentum. 196. (313) c We note that the space component of this vector is ordinary momentum and the time component has the magnitude of mass. dt 240 We thus see that a singular line does as a matter of fact correspond to the four-dimensional trajectory of a ray of light having the velocity c. In accordance with equation (309) for extended velocity. and its extended velocity w. Similarly we could obtain from the second equation dl = c. measured when at rest.

mentum mu. of the total mass m.      pyx pyy pyz cgy .Four-Dimensional Analysis. This is true because in order for the vector m0 w to be a constant quantity. and as will be seen from the above equation this necessitates the constancy of the mom . c (314) where the summation extends over all the particles of the system. 198. It is evident that this one principle really includes the three principles of the conservation of momentum. For this purpose we may take the symmetrical tensor Tm defined by the following table:  pxx pxy pxz cgx . we have then m0 w = mu + mk4 = a constant. mass. The Conservation Laws.     sx sy sz   w. and of the total energy c2 The Dynamics of an Elastic Body. We may now express the laws for the dynamics of a system of particles in a very simple form by stating the principle that the extended momentum of a system of particles is a quantity which remains constant in all interactions of the particles. its components along each of the four axes must be constant. The Tensor of Extended Stress. 197. Tm = (315) pzx pzy pzz cgz . and energy. In order to do this we shall first need to define an expression which may be called the fourdimensional stress in the elastic medium. c c c . 241 transformation equations for mass and momentum already obtained in Chapter VI. Our four-dimensional methods may also be used to present the results of our theory of elasticity in a very compact form.

. moreover. The Equation of Motion.Chapter Thirteen. The elegance and simplicity of this four-dimensional method of expressing the results of our laborious calculations in Chapter X cannot fail to be appreciated. which we found to be the equation for the motion of an elastic medium in the absence of external forces. as shown in the tabulation. density of energy flow s and energy density w. ∂t ∂g =0 ∂t (318) The first of these equations is identical with (184) of Chapter X. 199. From the symmetry of this tensor we may infer at once the simple relation between density of momentum and density of energy flow: g= s . 242 where the spatial components of Tm are equal to the components of the symmetrical tensor p which we have already defined in Chapter X and the time components are related to the density of momentum g. c2 (316) with which we have already become familiar in Section 132. Section 187. (317) It will be seen from our definition of the divergence of a fourdimensional tensor. and the second of these equations expresses the principle of the conservation of energy. express the equation of motion for an elastic medium unacted on by external forces in the very simple form div Tm = 0. that this one equation is in reality equivalent to the two equations div p + and div s + ∂w = 0. We may.

h2 . We shall take as the equation of definition q = ρ0 w = ρ where ρ= u + k4 . ♦ × M = 0. e3 . We may further define a two-vector M which will be directly related to the familiar vectors strength of electric field e and strength of magnetic field h by the equation of definition M = (h1 k23 + h2 k31 + h3 k12 − e1 k14 − e2 k24 − e3 k34 ) or M∗ = (e1 k23 + e2 k31 + e3 k12 + h1 k14 + h2 k24 + h3 k34 ). 200. a simple but important one-vector. whose value at any point will depend on the density and velocity of charge at that point. The Field Equations. The Electromagnetic Vector M. 201. Extended Current.Four-Dimensional Analysis. (321) (322) (320) . e2 . Electromagnetics. 243 We also find it possible to express the laws of the electromagnetic field very simply in our four-dimensional language. and h1 . We may first define the extended current. h3 are the components of e and h. where e1 . c ρ0 1− u2 c2 (319) is the density of charge at the point in question. We may now state the laws of the electromagnetic field in the extremely simple form ♦ · M = q. 202.

These are of course the familiar field equations for the Maxwell-Lorentz theory of electromagnetism. as a matter of fact. 244 These two simple equations are. completely equivalent to the four field equations which we made fundamental for our treatment of electromagnetic theory in Chapter XII.Chapter Thirteen. (323) Noting that ♦ · M = q. c ∂t where we have made the substitution x4 = ct. this may be expanded to give us the equation of continuity. 1 ∂h curl e + = 0. In accordance with equation (284) we may write as a necessary mathematical identity ♦ · (♦ · M) = 0. Indeed if we treat ♦ formally as a one-vector k1 ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ + k2 + k3 − k4 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x4 and apply it to the electromagnetic vector M expressed in the extended form given in the equation of definition (320) we shall obtain from (321) the two equations curl h − u 1 ∂e =ρ . We may also obtain very easily an equation for the conservation of electric charge. 203. (324) ∂t . The Conservation of Electricity. and from (322) div h = 0. c ∂t c div e = ρ. ∂ρ div ρu + = 0.

This will be valuable since we shall then be able to express the equation of motion for a combined mechanical and electrical system in a very simple and beautiful form. such that the important quantity M · q shall be equal to − div Te .Four-Dimensional Analysis. The Product M · q. and the time component is proportional to the work done by this force on the moving charge. c (326) an expression which contains the same information as that given by the so-called fifth fundamental equation of electromagnetic theory. 205. 245 204. We have thus shown the form taken by the four field equations when they are expressed in four dimensional language. . hence we may write the equation M·q= f+ f ·u k4 . Consider the inner product of the electromagnetic vector and the extended current: M · q = (h1 k23 + h2 k31 + h3 k12 − e1 k14 − e2 k24 − e3 k34 ) · ρ =ρ e+ [u × h]∗ c +ρ u + k4 c e·h k4 . The Extended Tensor of Electromagnetic Stress. (325) c We see that the space component of this vector is equal to the expression which we have already found in Chapter XII as the force acting on the charge contained in unit volume. We may now show the possibility of defining a four-dimensional tensor Te . Let us now consider with the help of our four-dimensional methods what can be said about the forces which determine the motion of electricity under the action of the electromagnetic field. f being the force exerted by the electromagnetic field per unit volume of charged material.

this is equivalent to − div Te = M · q = f+ (f · u) k4 . T43 T44 . to two important and well-known equations of electromagnetic theory. etc. (327) defined by the expression Tjk = 1 {Mj1 Mk1 + Mj2 Mk2 + Mj3 Mk3 − Mj4 Mk4 2 + Mj1 ∗ Mk1 ∗ + Mj2 ∗ Mk2 ∗ + Mj3 ∗ Mk3 ∗ − Mj4 ∗ Mk4 ∗ }. where j. of our tensor in accordance with equations . 3. (292) and (322). as a matter of fact. T23 T24 . in accordance with equations (321). (330) This one equation is equivalent. c (329) (328) Since in free space the value of the force f is zero.. (326). Consider the symmetrical tensor  T11 T12      T 21 T22 Te = T  31 T32     T T 41 42 246 T13 T14 .Chapter Thirteen. But. k = 1. 4. we may write for free space the equation div Te = 0. T33 T34 . It can then readily be shown by expansion that − div Te = M · (♦ · M) + M∗ · (♦ · M∗ ). 2. If we develop the components T11 . T12 .

Four-Dimensional Analysis. etc. c Sz . c w. . etc. sy . can write ψxy ψyy ψxz ψyz Sx .. and w being the familiar expression for density of electroe2 + h2 magnetic energy . (328) and (320) we find that we   ψ  xx        ψyx Te =  ψ  zx     s  x   c where we shall have ψxx = − 1 (ex 2 − ey 2 − ez 2 + hx 2 − hy 2 − hz 2 ). 1 w = 2 (e2 + h2 ). 2 ψxy = −(ex hy + hx hy ). sx . sx = c(ey hz − ez hy ). We thus see that equation (330) is equivalent s to the two equations div ψ + 1 ∂s = 0. ∂t The first of these is the so-called equation of electromagnetic momentum. being the components of the Poynting vector c [e × h]∗ . and the second. c2 ∂t ∂w div s + = 0. c Sy . etc. Poynting’s equation for the flow of electromagnetic energy. 247 (331) ψzxy ψzz sx c sx c (332) ψ thus being equivalent to the well-known Maxwell three-dimensional stress tensor.

248 206. . we may now write the equation of motion for a combined electrical and mechanical system in the very simple form div Tm + div Te = 0. Combined Electrical and Mechanical Systems. taking into account our previous considerations. And we may point out in closing that we may reasonably expect all forces to be of such a nature that our most general equation of motion for any continuous system can be written in the form div T1 + div T2 + · · · = 0. For a point not in free space where mechanical and electrical systems are both involved.Chapter Thirteen.

entropy. m0 c2 1− 1− . volume. volume. m. pressure.APPENDIX I. work. Scalar Quantities. u2 c2 t time. function potential energy. energy density. (Indicated by Italic type.—Symbols for Quantities. kinetic energy. dielectric constant. 249 .) c speed of light. energy. relative speed of coördinate systems. l. e E H K L p S electric charge. kinetic potential. Lagrangian function. Q quantity of electricity. n direction cosines. T U v V w W temperature.

µ index of refraction. force acting on a particle. φ non-Euclidean angle between time axes. ν ρ σ φ1 φ2 φ3 · · · ψ ψ1 ψ2 ψ3 · · · frequency. electrical conductivity. h magnetic field strength in free space. density of charge. . extended acceleration. generalized coördinates. Vector Quantities.) B c magnetic induction. density of momentum. D dielectric displacement. κ 1 1− V2 c2 250 . force per unit volume. electric field strength in a medium. scalar potential. H magnetic field strength in a medium. (Indicated by Clarendon type. magnetic permeability.Appendix I. e E f F g electric field strength in free space. generalized momenta.

. w extended velocity. M angular momentum. u velocity. i density of electric current. radius vector. 251 p symmetrical elastic stress tensor. unsymmetrical elastic stress tensor. φ vector potential. density of energy flow. q r s t extended current.Appendix I. electromagnetic vector.

a · b = ax bx + ay by + az bz Outer Product. Three Dimensional Space. r = xi + yj + zk Velocity. ∂ ∂ ∂ +j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z 252 . [a × b]∗ = (ay bz − az by )i + (az bx − ax bz )j + (ax by − ay bx )k The Vector Operator Del or =i .—Vector Notation. u= dr = xi + yj + zk ˙ ˙ ˙ dt = ux i + uy j + uz k Acceleration. a × b = (ax by − ay bx )ij + (ay bz − az by )jk + (az bx − ax bz )ki Complement of Outer Product. i j k Radius Vector. ˙ u= d2 r = xi + y j + z k ¨ ¨ ¨ dt2 = ux i + uy j + uz k ˙ ˙ ˙ Inner Product.APPENDIX II. Unit Vectors.

k1 k2 k3 k4 Radius Vector. A = A12 k12 + A13 k13 + A14 k14 + A23 k23 + A24 k24 + A34 k34 Three Vector. A = A123 k123 + A124 k124 + A134 k134 + A234 k234 Pseudo Scalar. Unit Vectors. r = x1 k 1 + x2 k 2 + x3 k 3 + x4 k 4 = xi + yj + zk + ctk4 One Vector. a = a1 k 1 + a2 k 2 + a3 k 3 + a4 k 4 Two Vector.Appendix II. grad A = ∂A ∂A ∂A +j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂ax ∂ay ∂az + + div a = · a = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∗ curl a = [ × a] ∂az ∂ay ∂ax ∂az = − i+ − ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x A=i 253 j+ ∂ay ∂ax − ∂x ∂y k Non-Euclidean Four Dimensional Space. kabc··· = −kbac··· = kbca··· . α = αk1234 Transposition of Subscripts.

Appendix II. φ∗ = φ · k1234 The Vector Operator Quad or ♦. Outer Product of One Vectors. Inner Product of One Vectors. ♦ = k1 ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ + k2 + k3 + k4 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x4 254 . (See Section 183). kab··· × knm··· = kab···nm··· Complement of a Vector.

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