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Title: The Theory of the Relativity of Motion

Author: Richard Chace Tolman

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THE THEORY OF

THE RELATIVITY OF MOTION

BY

RICHARD C. TOLMAN

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS

BERKELEY

1917

Press of

The New Era Printing Company

Lancaster, Pa

TO

H. E.

THE THEORY OF THE RELATIVITY OF MOTION.

BY

RICHARD C. TOLMAN, PH.D.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Chapter I. Historical Development of Ideas as to the Nature of Space

and Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Part I. The Space and Time of Galileo and Newton. . . . . . . . . 5

Newtonian Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Newtonian Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

The Galileo Transformation Equations. . . . . . . . . . . 9

Part II. The Space and Time of the Ether Theory. . . . . . . . . . 11

Rise of the Ether Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Idea of a Stationary Ether. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Ether in the Neighborhood of Moving Bodies. . . . . . . 12

Ether Entrained in Dielectrics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

The Lorentz Theory of a Stationary Ether. . . . . . . . . 14

Part III. Rise of the Einstein Theory of Relativity. . . . . . . . . 17

The Michelson-Morley Experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

The Postulates of Einstein. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Chapter II. The Two Postulates of the Einstein Theory of Relativity. 21

The First Postulate of Relativity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

The Second Postulate of the Einstein Theory of Relativity. . 22

Suggested Alternative to the Postulate of the Independence

of the Velocity of Light and the Velocity of the Source. 24

iv

Evidence Against Emission Theories of Light. . . . . . . 25

Diﬀerent Forms of Emission Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Further Postulates of the Theory of Relativity. . . . . . . . . 29

Chapter III. Some Elementary Deductions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Measurements of Time in a Moving System. . . . . . . . . . . 30

Measurements of Length in a Moving System. . . . . . . . . . 32

The Setting of Clocks in a Moving System. . . . . . . . . . . 35

The Composition of Velocities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

The Mass of a Moving Body. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

The Relation Between Mass and Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Chapter IV. The Einstein Transformation Equations for Space and

Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

The Lorentz Transformation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Deduction of the Fundamental Transformation Equations. . . 46

Three Conditions to be Fulﬁlled. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

The Transformation Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Further Transformation Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Transformation Equations for Velocity. . . . . . . . . . . 51

Transformation Equations for the Function

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

. . . 51

Transformation Equations for Acceleration. . . . . . . . . 52

Chapter V. Kinematical Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

The Kinematical Shape of a Rigid Body. . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

The Kinematical Rate of a Clock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

The Idea of Simultaneity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

The Composition of Velocities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

The Case of Parallel Velocities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Composition of Velocities in General. . . . . . . . . . . . 57

Velocities Greater than that of Light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Application of the Principles of Kinematics to Certain Optical

Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

The Doppler Eﬀect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

The Aberration of Light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Velocity of Light in Moving Media. . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Group Velocity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Chapter VI. The Dynamics of a Particle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

The Laws of Motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Diﬀerence between Newtonian and Relativity Mechanics. . . 67

The Mass of a Moving Particle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Transverse Collision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Mass the Same in All Directions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Longitudinal Collision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

Collision of Any Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Transformation Equations for Mass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Equation for the Force Acting on a Moving Particle. . . . . . 79

Transformation Equations for Force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

The Relation between Force and Acceleration. . . . . . . . . 80

Transverse and Longitudinal Acceleration. . . . . . . . . . . . 82

The Force Exerted by a Moving Charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

The Field around a Moving Charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Application to a Speciﬁc Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

Kinetic Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

Potential Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

The Relation between Mass and Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Application to a Speciﬁc Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

Chapter VII. The Dynamics of a System of Particles. . . . . . . . . 96

On the Nature of a System of Particles. . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

The Conservation of Momentum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

The Equation of Angular Momentum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

The Function T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

The Modiﬁed Lagrangian Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

The Principle of Least Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

Lagrange’s Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

Equations of Motion in the Hamiltonian Form. . . . . . . . . 105

Value of the Function T

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

The Principle of the Conservation of Energy. . . . . . . . . . 109

On the Location of Energy in Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

Chapter VIII. The Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. . . . . 113

The Equations of Motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Representation in Generalized Space. . . . . . . . . . . . 114

Liouville’s Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

A System of Particles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

Probability of a Given Statistical State. . . . . . . . . . . 116

Equilibrium Relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

The Energy as a Function of the Momentum. . . . . . . 119

The Distribution Law. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

Polar Coördinates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

The Law of Equipartition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

Criterion for Equality of Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . 124

Pressure Exerted by a System of Particles. . . . . . . . . 126

The Relativity Expression for Temperature. . . . . . . . 128

The Partition of Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

Partition of Energy for Zero Mass. . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

Approximate Partition of Energy for Particles of any De-

sired Mass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

Chapter IX. The Principle of Relativity and the Principle of Least

Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

The Principle of Least Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

The Equations of Motion in the Lagrangian Form. . . . . 137

Introduction of the Principle of Relativity. . . . . . . . . 138

Relation between

W dt and

W

dt

. . . . . . . . . . . 139

Relation between H

and H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

Chapter X. The Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

On the Impossibility of Absolutely Rigid Bodies. . . . . 145

Part I. Stress and Strain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

Deﬁnition of Strain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

Deﬁnition of Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

Transformation Equations for Strain. . . . . . . . . . . . 148

Variation in the Strain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

Part II. Introduction of the Principle of Least Action. . . . . . . . 152

The Kinetic Potential for an Elastic Body. . . . . . . . . 152

Lagrange’s Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

Transformation Equations for Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . 155

Value of E

◦

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

The Equations of Motion in the Lagrangian Form. . . . . 156

Density of Momentum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

Density of Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

Summary of Results Obtained from the Principle of Least

Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

Part III. Some Mathematical Relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

The Unsymmetrical Stress Tensor t. . . . . . . . . . . . 160

The Symmetrical Tensor p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

Relation between div t and t

n

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

The Equations of Motion in the Eulerian Form. . . . . . 164

Part IV. Applications of the Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

Relation between Energy and Momentum. . . . . . . . . 165

The Conservation of Momentum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

The Conservation of Angular Momentum. . . . . . . . . 168

Relation between Angular Momentum and the Unsym-

metrical Stress Tensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

The Right-Angled Lever. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

Isolated Systems in a Steady State. . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

The Dynamics of a Particle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

Chapter XI. The Dynamics of a Thermodynamic System. . . . . . . 174

The Generalized Coördinates and Forces. . . . . . . . . . 174

Transformation Equation for Volume. . . . . . . . . . . . 174

Transformation Equation for Entropy. . . . . . . . . . . 175

Introduction of the Principle of Least Action. The Ki-

netic Potential. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

The Lagrangian Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

Transformation Equation for Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . 177

Transformation Equation for Temperature. . . . . . . . . 178

The Equations of Motion for Quasistationary Adiabatic

Acceleration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

The Energy of a Moving Thermodynamic System. . . . . 179

The Momentum of a Moving Thermodynamic System. . 180

The Dynamics of a Hohlraum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

Chapter XII. Electromagnetic Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

The Form of the Kinetic Potential. . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

The Principle of Least Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

The Partial Integrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

Derivation of the Fundamental Equations of Electromag-

netic Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

The Transformation Equations for e, h and ρ. . . . . . . 188

The Invariance of Electric Charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

The Relativity of Magnetic and Electric Fields. . . . . . 191

Nature of Electromotive Force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

Derivation of the Fifth Fundamental Equation. . . . . . . . . 192

Diﬀerence between the Ether and the Relativity Theories of

Electromagnetism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

Applications to Electromagnetic Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

The Electric and Magnetic Fields around a Moving Charge.196

The Energy of a Moving Electromagnetic System. . . . . 198

Relation between Mass and Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

The Theory of Moving Dielectrics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

Relation between Field Equations for Material Media and

Electron Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

Transformation Equations for Moving Media. . . . . . . 204

Theory of the Wilson Experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

Chapter XIII. Four-Dimensional Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

Idea of a Time Axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

Non-Euclidean Character of the Space. . . . . . . . . . . 211

Part I. Vector Analysis of the Non-Euclidean Four-Dimensional

Manifold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

Space, Time and Singular Vectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

Invariance of x

2

+y

2

+z

2

−c

2

t

2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

Inner Product of One-Vectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

Non-Euclidean Angle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

Kinematical Interpretation of Angle in Terms of Velocity. 217

Vectors of Higher Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

Outer Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

Inner Product of Vectors in General. . . . . . . . . . . . 221

The Complement of a Vector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

The Vector Operator, ♦ or Quad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

Tensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

The Rotation of Axes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

Interpretation of the Lorentz Transformation as a Rota-

tion of Axes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230

Graphical Representation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

Part II. Applications of the Four-Dimensional Analysis. . . . . . . 236

Kinematics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

Extended Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

Extended Velocity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

Extended Acceleration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

The Velocity of Light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

The Dynamics of a Particle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

Extended Momentum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

The Conservation Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

The Dynamics of an Elastic Body. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

The Tensor of Extended Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

The Equation of Motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

Electromagnetics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

Extended Current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

The Electromagnetic Vector M. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

The Field Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

The Conservation of Electricity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

The Product M· q. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245

The Extended Tensor of Electromagnetic Stress. . . . . . 245

Combined Electrical and Mechanical Systems. . . . . . . 247

Appendix I. Symbols for Quantities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

Scalar Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

Vector Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

Appendix II. Vector Notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

Three Dimensional Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

Non-Euclidean Four Dimensional Space. . . . . . . . . . 253

PREFACE.

Thirty or forty years ago, in the ﬁeld of physical science, there was

a widespread feeling that the days of adventurous discovery had passed

forever, and the conservative physicist was only too happy to devote his

life to the measurement to the sixth decimal place of quantities whose

signiﬁcance for physical theory was already an old story. The passage of

time, however, has completely upset such bourgeois ideas as to the state

of physical science, through the discovery of some most extraordinary

experimental facts and the development of very fundamental theories

for their explanation.

On the experimental side, the intervening years have seen the dis-

covery of radioactivity, the exhaustive study of the conduction of elec-

tricity through gases, the accompanying discoveries of cathode, canal

and X-rays, the isolation of the electron, the study of the distribution

of energy in the hohlraum, and the ﬁnal failure of all attempts to detect

the earth’s motion through the supposititious ether. During this same

time, the theoretical physicist has been working hand in hand with the

experimenter endeavoring to correlate the facts already discovered and

to point the way to further research. The theoretical achievements,

which have been found particularly helpful in performing these func-

tions of explanation and prediction, have been the development of the

modern theory of electrons, the application of thermodynamic and sta-

tistical reasoning to the phenomena of radiation, and the development

of Einstein’s brilliant theory of the relativity of motion.

It has been the endeavor of the following book to present an in-

troduction to this theory of relativity, which in the decade since the

publication of Einstein’s ﬁrst paper in 1905 (Annalen der Physik) has

become a necessary part of the theoretical equipment of every physicist.

Even if we regard the Einstein theory of relativity merely as a conve-

nient tool for the prediction of electromagnetic and optical phenomena,

its importance to the physicist is very great, not only because its intro-

duction greatly simpliﬁes the deduction of many theorems which were

1

Preface. 2

already familiar in the older theories based on a stationary ether, but

also because it leads simply and directly to correct conclusions in the

case of such experiments as those of Michelson and Morley, Trouton and

Noble, and Kaufman and Bucherer, which can be made to agree with

the idea of a stationary ether only by the introduction of complicated

and ad hoc assumptions. Regarded from a more philosophical point of

view, an acceptance of the Einstein theory of relativity shows us the

advisability of completely remodelling some of our most fundamental

ideas. In particular we shall now do well to change our concepts of

space and time in such a way as to give up the old idea of their com-

plete independence, a notion which we have received as the inheritance

of a long ancestral experience with bodies moving with slow velocities,

but which no longer proves pragmatic when we deal with velocities

approaching that of light.

The method of treatment adopted in the following chapters is to

a considerable extent original, partly appearing here for the ﬁrst time

and partly already published elsewhere.

∗

Chapter III follows a method

which was ﬁrst developed by Lewis and Tolman,

†

and the last chapter a

method developed by Wilson and Lewis.

‡

The writer must also express

his special obligations to the works of Einstein, Planck, Poincaré, Laue,

Ishiwara and Laub.

It is hoped that the mode of presentation is one that will be found

well adapted not only to introduce the study of relativity theory to

those previously unfamiliar with the subject but also to provide the

necessary methodological equipment for those who wish to pursue the

theory into its more complicated applications.

∗

Philosophical Magazine, vol. 18, p. 510 (1909); Physical Review, vol. 31, p. 26

(1910); Phil. Mag., vol. 21, p. 296 (1911); ibid., vol. 22, p. 458 (1911); ibid., vol. 23,

p. 375 (1912); Phys. Rev., vol. 35, p. 136 (1912); Phil. Mag., vol. 25, p. 150 (1913);

ibid., vol. 28, p. 572 (1914); ibid., vol. 28, p. 583 (1914).

†

Phil. Mag., vol. 18, p. 510 (1909).

‡

Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 48, p. 389

(1912).

Preface. 3

After presenting, in the ﬁrst chapter, a brief outline of the historical

development of ideas as to the nature of the space and time of sci-

ence, we consider, in Chapter II, the two main postulates upon which

the theory of relativity rests and discuss the direct experimental evi-

dence for their truth. The third chapter then presents an elementary

and non-mathematical deduction of a number of the most important

consequences of the postulates of relativity, and it is hoped that this

chapter will prove especially valuable to readers without unusual math-

ematical equipment, since they will there be able to obtain a real grasp

of such important new ideas as the change of mass with velocity, the

non-additivity of velocities, and the relation of mass and energy, with-

out encountering any mathematics beyond the elements of analysis and

geometry.

In Chapter IV we commence the more analytical treatment of the

theory of relativity by obtaining from the two postulates of relativity

Einstein’s transformation equations for space and time as well as trans-

formation equations for velocities, accelerations, and for an important

function of the velocity. Chapter V presents various kinematical ap-

plications of the theory of relativity following quite closely Einstein’s

original method of development. In particular we may call attention to

the ease with which we may handle the optics of moving media by the

methods of the theory of relativity as compared with the diﬃculty of

treatment on the basis of the ether theory.

In Chapters VI, VII and VIII we develop and apply a theory of the

dynamics of a particle which is based on the Einstein transformation

equations for space and time, Newton’s three laws of motion, and the

principle of the conservation of mass.

We then examine, in Chapter IX, the relation between the theory

of relativity and the principle of least action, and ﬁnd it possible to

introduce the requirements of relativity theory at the very start into

this basic principle for physical science. We point out that we might

indeed have used this adapted form of the principle of least action, for

developing the dynamics of a particle, and then proceed in Chapters

Preface. 4

X, XI and XII to develop the dynamics of an elastic body, the dynamics

of a thermodynamic system, and the dynamics of an electromagnetic

system, all on the basis of our adapted form of the principle of least

action.

Finally, in Chapter XIII, we consider a four-dimensional method of

expressing and treating the results of relativity theory. This chapter

contains, in Part I, an epitome of some of the more important methods

in four-dimensional vector analysis and it is hoped that it can also be

used in connection with the earlier parts of the book as a convenient

reference for those who are not familiar with ordinary three-dimensional

vector analysis.

In the present book, the writer has conﬁned his considerations to

cases in which there is a uniform relative velocity between systems of

coördinates. In the future it may be possible greatly to extend the ap-

plications of the theory of relativity by considering accelerated systems

of coördinates, and in this connection Einstein’s latest work on the re-

lation between gravity and acceleration is of great interest. It does not

seem wise, however, at the present time to include such considerations

in a book which intends to present a survey of accepted theory.

The author will feel amply repaid for the work involved in the prepa-

ration of the book if, through his eﬀorts, some of the younger American

physicists can be helped to obtain a real knowledge of the important

work of Einstein. He is also glad to have this opportunity to add his tes-

timony to the growing conviction that the conceptual space and time of

science are not God-given and unalterable, but are rather in the nature

of human constructs devised for use in the description and correlation

of scientiﬁc phenomena, and that these spatial and temporal concepts

should be altered whenever the discovery of new facts makes such a

change pragmatic.

The writer wishes to express his indebtedness to Mr. William H.

Williams for assisting in the preparation of Chapter I.

CHAPTER I.

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF IDEAS AS TO THE NATURE

OF SPACE AND TIME.

1. Since the year 1905, which marked the publication of Einstein’s

momentous article on the theory of relativity, the development of sci-

entiﬁc thought has led to a complete revolution in accepted ideas as

to the nature of space and time, and this revolution has in turn pro-

foundly modiﬁed those dependent sciences, in particular mechanics and

electromagnetics, which make use of these two fundamental concepts

in their considerations.

In the following pages it will be our endeavor to present a descrip-

tion of these new notions as to the nature of space and time,

∗

and

to give a partial account of the consequent modiﬁcations which have

been introduced into various ﬁelds of science. Before proceeding to

this task, however, we may well review those older ideas as to space

and time which until now appeared quite suﬃcient for the correlation

of scientiﬁc phenomena. We shall ﬁrst consider the space and time of

Galileo and Newton which were employed in the development of the

classical mechanics, and then the space and time of the ether theory of

light.

part i. the space and time of galileo and newton.

2. The publication in 1687 of Newton’s Principia laid down so

satisfactory a foundation for further dynamical considerations, that it

seemed as though the ideas of Galileo and Newton as to the nature

of space and time, which were there employed, would certainly remain

forever suitable for the interpretation of natural phenomena. And in-

deed upon this basis has been built the whole structure of classical

mechanics which, until our recent familiarity with very high velocities,

∗

Throughout this work by “space” and “time” we shall mean the conceptual

space and time of science.

5

Chapter One. 6

has been found completely satisfactory for an extremely large number

of very diverse dynamical considerations.

An examination of the fundamental laws of mechanics will show

how the concepts of space and time entered into the Newtonian system

of mechanics. Newton’s laws of motion, from which the whole of the

classical mechanics could be derived, can best be stated with the help

of the equation

F =

d

dt

(mu). (1)

This equation deﬁnes the force F acting on a particle as equal to the

rate of change in its momentum (i.e., the product of its mass m and its

velocity u), and the whole of Newton’s laws of motion may be summed

up in the statement that in the case of two interacting particles the

forces which they mutually exert on each other are equal in magnitude

and opposite in direction.

Since in Newtonian mechanics the mass of a particle is assumed

constant, equation (1) may be more conveniently written

F = m

du

dt

= m

d

dt

dr

dt

,

or

F

x

= m

d

dt

dx

dt

,

F

y

= m

d

dt

dy

dt

,

F

z

= m

d

dt

dz

dt

,

(2)

and this deﬁnition of force, together with the above-stated principle

of the equality of action and reaction, forms the starting-point for the

whole of classical mechanics.

The necessary dependence of this mechanics upon the concepts of

space and time becomes quite evident on an examination of this funda-

mental equation (2), in which the expression for the force acting on a

Historical Development. 7

particle is seen to contain both the variables x, y, and z, which specify

the position of the particle in space, and the variable t, which speciﬁes

the time.

3. Newtonian Time. To attempt a deﬁnite statement as to the

meaning of so fundamental and underlying a notion as that of time is

a task from which even philosophy may shrink. In a general way, con-

ceptual time may be thought of as a one-dimensional, unidirectional,

one-valued continuum. This continuum is a sort of framework in which

the instants at which actual occurrences take place ﬁnd an ordered po-

sition. Distances from point to point in the continuum, that is intervals

of time, are measured by the periods of certain continually recurring

cyclic processes such as the daily rotation of the earth. A unidirectional

nature is imposed upon the time continuum among other things by an

acceptance of the second law of thermodynamics, which requires that

actual progression in time shall be accompanied by an increase in the

entropy of the material world, and this same law requires that the con-

tinuum shall be one-valued since it excludes the possibility that time

ever returns upon itself, either to commence a new cycle or to intersect

its former path even at a single point.

In addition to these characteristics of the time continuum, which

have been in no way modiﬁed by the theory of relativity, the Newto-

nian mechanics always assumed a complete independence of time and

the three-dimensional space continuum which exists along with it. In

dynamical equations time entered as an entirely independent variable

in no way connected with the variables whose speciﬁcation determines

position in space. In the following pages, however, we shall ﬁnd that the

theory of relativity requires a very deﬁnite interrelation between time

and space, and in the Einstein transformation equations we shall see

the exact way in which measurements of time depend upon the choice

of a set of variables for measuring position in space.

4. Newtonian Space. An exact description of the concept of space

is perhaps just as diﬃcult as a description of the concept of time. In

a general way we think of space as a three-dimensional, homogeneous,

Chapter One. 8

isotropic continuum, and these ideas are common to the conceptual

spaces of Newton, Einstein, and the ether theory of light. The space of

Newton, however, diﬀers on the one hand from that of Einstein because

of a tacit assumption of the complete independence of space and time

measurements; and diﬀers on the other hand from that of the ether

theory of light by the fact that “free” space was assumed completely

empty instead of ﬁlled with an all-pervading quasi-material medium—

the ether. A more deﬁnite idea of the particularly important character-

istics of the Newtonian concept of space may be obtained by considering

somewhat in detail the actual methods of space measurement.

Positions in space are in general measured with respect to some ar-

bitrarily ﬁxed system of reference which must be threefold in character

corresponding to the three dimensions of space. In particular we may

make use of a set of Cartesian axes and determine, for example, the

position of a particle by specifying its three Cartesian coördinates x, y

and z.

In Newtonian mechanics the particular set of axes chosen for spec-

ifying position in space has in general been determined in the ﬁrst

instance by considerations of convenience. For example, it is found by

experience that, if we take as a reference system lines drawn upon the

surface of the earth, the equations of motion based on Newton’s laws

give us a simple description of nearly all dynamical phenomena which

are merely terrestrial. When, however, we try to interpret with these

same axes the motion of the heavenly bodies, we meet diﬃculties, and

the problem is simpliﬁed, so far as planetary motions are concerned,

by taking a new reference system determined by the sun and the ﬁxed

stars. But this system, in its turn, becomes somewhat unsatisfactory

when we take account of the observed motions of the stars themselves,

and it is ﬁnally convenient to take a reference system relative to which

the sun is moving with a velocity of twelve miles per second in the di-

rection of the constellation Hercules. This system of axes is so chosen

that the great majority of stars have on the average no motion with

respect to it, and the actual motion of any particular star with respect

Historical Development. 9

to these coördinates is called the peculiar motion of the star.

Suppose, now, we have a number of such systems of axes in uni-

form relative motion; we are confronted by the problem of ﬁnding some

method of transposing the description of a given kinematical occur-

rence from the variables of one of these sets of axes to those of another.

For example, if we have chosen a system of axes S and have found

an equation in x, y, z, and t which accurately describes the motion

of a given point, what substitutions for the quantities involved can be

made so that the new equation thereby obtained will again correctly

describe the same phenomena when we measure the displacements of

the point relative to a new system of reference S

which is in uniform

motion with respect to S? The assumption of Galileo and Newton that

“free” space is entirely empty, and the further tacit assumption of the

complete independence of space and time, led them to propose a very

simple solution of the problem, and the transformation equations which

they used are generally called the Galileo Transformation Equations to

distinguish them from the Einstein Transformation Equations which we

shall later consider.

5. The Galileo Transformation Equations. Consider two sys-

tems of right-angled coördinates, S and S

**, which are in relative motion
**

in the X direction with the velocity V ; for convenience let the X axes,

OX and O

X

**, of the two systems coincide in direction, and for further
**

simpliﬁcation let us take as our zero point for time measurements the

instant when the two origins O and O

**coincide. Consider now a point
**

which at the time t has the coördinates x, y and z measured in sys-

tem S. Then, according to the space and time considerations of Galileo

and Newton, the coördinates of the point with reference to system S

**are given by the following transformation equations:
**

x

= x −V t, (3)

y

= y, (4)

z

= z, (5)

t

= t. (6)

Chapter One. 10

These equations are fundamental for Newtonian mechanics, and may

appear to the casual observer to be self-evident and bound up with

necessary ideas as to the nature of space and time. Nevertheless, the

truth of the ﬁrst and the last of these equations is absolutely dependent

on the unsupported assumption of the complete independence of space

and time measurements, and since in the Einstein theory we shall ﬁnd

a very deﬁnite relation between space and time measurements we shall

be led to quite a diﬀerent set of transformation equations. Relations

(3), (4), (5) and (6) will be found, however, to be the limiting form

which the correct transformation equations assume when the velocity

between the systems V becomes small compared with that of light.

Since until very recent times the human race in its entire past history

has been familiar only with velocities that are small compared with that

of light, it need not cause surprise that the above equations, which are

true merely at the limit, should appear so self-evident.

6. Before leaving the discussion of the space and time system of

Newton and Galileo we must call attention to an important characteris-

tic which it has in common with the system of Einstein but which is not

a feature of that assumed by the ether theory. If we have two systems

of axes such as those we have just been considering, we may with equal

right consider either one of them at rest and the other moving past

it. All we can say is that the two systems are in relative motion; it is

meaningless to speak of either one as in any sense “absolutely” at rest.

The equation x

**= x−V t which we use in transforming the description
**

of a kinematical event from the variables of system S to those of system

S

is perfectly symmetrical with the equation x = x

+ V t

which we

should use for a transformation in the reverse direction. Of all possible

systems no particular set of axes holds a unique position among the

others. We shall later ﬁnd that this important principle of the relativ-

ity of motion is permanently incorporated into our system of physical

science as the ﬁrst postulate of relativity. This principle, common both

to the space of Newton and to that of Einstein, is not characteristic of

the space assumed by the classical theory of light. The space of this

Historical Development. 11

theory was supposed to be ﬁlled with a stationary medium, the luminif-

erous ether, and a system of axes stationary with respect to this ether

would hold a unique position among the other systems and be the one

peculiarly adapted for use as the ultimate system of reference for the

measurement of motions.

We may now brieﬂy sketch the rise of the ether theory of light and

point out the permanent contribution which it has made to physical

science, a contribution which is now codiﬁed as the second postulate of

relativity.

part ii. the space and time of the ether theory.

7. Rise of the Ether Theory. Twelve years before the appearance

of the Principia, Römer, a Danish astronomer, observed that an eclipse

of one of the satellites of Jupiter occurred some ten minutes later than

the time predicted for the event from the known period of the satellite

and the time of the preceding eclipse. He explained this delay by the

hypothesis that it took light twenty-two minutes to travel across the

earth’s orbit. Previous to Römer’s discovery, light was generally sup-

posed to travel with inﬁnite velocity. Indeed Galileo had endeavored

to ﬁnd the speed of light by direct experiments over distances of a few

miles and had failed to detect any lapse of time between the emission

of a light ﬂash from a source and its observation by a distant observer.

Römer’s hypothesis has been repeatedly veriﬁed and the speed of light

measured by diﬀerent methods with considerable exactness. The mean

of the later determinations is 2.9986 ×10

10

cm. per second.

8. At the time of Römer’s discovery there was much discussion as

to the nature of light. Newton’s theory that it consisted of particles or

corpuscles thrown out by a luminous body was attacked by Hooke and

later by Huygens, who advanced the view that it was something in the

nature of wave motions in a supposed space-ﬁlling medium or ether. By

this theory Huygens was able to explain reﬂection and refraction and

the phenomena of color, but assuming longitudinal vibrations he was

Chapter One. 12

unable to account for polarization. Diﬀraction had not yet been ob-

served and Newton contested the Hooke-Huygens theory chieﬂy on the

grounds that it was contradicted by the fact of rectilinear propagation

and the formation of shadows. The scientiﬁc prestige of Newton was

so great that the emission or corpuscular theory continued to hold its

ground for a hundred and ﬁfty years. Even the masterly researches of

Thomas Young at the beginning of the nineteenth century were unable

to dislodge the old theory, and it was not until the French physicist,

Fresnel, about 1815, was independently led to an undulatory theory and

added to Young’s arguments the weight of his more searching mathe-

matical analysis, that the balance began to turn. From this time on

the wave theory grew in power and for a period of eighty years was

not seriously questioned. This theory has for its essential postulate the

existence of an all-pervading medium, the ether, in which wave distur-

bances can be set up and propagated. And the physical properties of

this medium became an enticing ﬁeld of inquiry and speculation.

9. Idea of a Stationary Ether. Of all the various properties with

which the physicist found it necessary to endow the ether, for us the

most important is the fact that it must apparently remain stationary,

unaﬀected by the motion of matter through it. This conclusion was

ﬁnally reached through several lines of investigation. We may ﬁrst

consider whether the ether would be dragged along by the motion of

nearby masses of matter, and, second, whether the ether enclosed in

a moving medium such as water or glass would partake in the latter’s

motion.

10. Ether in the Neighborhood of Moving Bodies. About the

year 1725 the astronomer Bradley, in his eﬀorts to measure the parallax

of certain ﬁxed stars, discovered that the apparent position of a star

continually changes in such a way as to trace annually a small ellipse in

the sky, the apparent position always lying in the plane determined by

the line from the earth to the center of the ellipse and by the direction

of the earth’s motion. On the corpuscular theory of light this admits of

ready explanation as Bradley himself discovered, since we should expect

Historical Development. 13

the earth’s motion to produce an apparent change in the direction of

the oncoming light, in just the same way that the motion of a railway

train makes the falling drops of rain take a slanting path across the

window pane. If c be the velocity of a light particle and v the earth’s

velocity, the apparent or relative velocity would be c−v and the tangent

of the angle of aberration would be

v

c

.

Upon the wave theory, it is obvious that we should also expect a

similar aberration of light, provided only that the ether shall be quite

stationary and unaﬀected by the motion of the earth through it, and

this is one of the important reasons that most ether theories have as-

sumed a stationary ether unaﬀected by the motion of neighboring mat-

ter.

∗

In more recent years further experimental evidence for assuming

that the ether is not dragged along by the neighboring motion of large

masses of matter was found by Sir Oliver Lodge. His ﬁnal experiments

were performed with a large rotating spheroid of iron with a narrow

groove around its equator, which was made the path for two rays of

light, one travelling in the direction of rotation and the other in the

opposite direction. Since by interference methods no diﬀerence could

be detected in the velocities of the two rays, here also the conclusion

was reached that the ether was not appreciably dragged along by the

rotating metal.

11. Ether Entrained in Dielectrics. With regard to the action

of a moving medium on the ether which might be entrained within it,

experimental evidence and theoretical consideration here too ﬁnally led

to the supposition that the ether itself must remain perfectly station-

ary. The earlier view ﬁrst expressed by Fresnel, in a letter written to

Arago in 1818, was that the entrained ether did receive a fraction of

the total velocity of the moving medium. Fresnel gave to this fraction

∗

The most notable exception is the theory of Stokes, which did assume that the

ether moved along with the earth and then tried to account for aberration with the

help of a velocity potential, but this led to diﬃculties, as was shown by Lorentz.

Chapter One. 14

the value

µ

2

−1

µ

2

, where µ is the index of refraction of the substance

forming the medium. On this supposition, Fresnel was able to account

for the fact that Arago’s experiments upon the reﬂection and refraction

of stellar rays show no inﬂuence whatever of the earth’s motion, and for

the fact that Airy found the same angle of aberration with a telescope

ﬁlled with water as with air. Moreover, the later work of Fizeau and

the accurate determinations of Michelson and Morley on the velocity of

light in a moving stream of water did show that the speed was changed

by an amount corresponding to Fresnel’s fraction. The fuller theoret-

ical investigations of Lorentz, however, did not lead scientists to look

upon this increased velocity of light in a moving medium as an evidence

that the ether is pulled along by the stream of water, and we may now

brieﬂy sketch the developments which culminated in the Lorentz theory

of a completely stationary ether.

12. The Lorentz Theory of a Stationary Ether. The con-

siderations of Lorentz as to the velocity of light in moving media be-

came possible only after it was evident that optics itself is a branch of

the wider science of electromagnetics, and it became possible to treat

transparent media as a special case of dielectrics in general. In 1873,

in his Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Maxwell ﬁrst advanced

the theory that electromagnetic phenomena also have their seat in the

luminiferous ether and further that light itself is merely an electromag-

netic disturbance in that medium, and Maxwell’s theory was conﬁrmed

by the actual discovery of electromagnetic waves in 1888 by Hertz.

The attack upon the problem of the relative motion of matter and

ether was now renewed with great vigor both theoretically and exper-

imentally from the electromagnetic side. Maxwell in his treatise had

conﬁned himself to phenomena in stationary media. Hertz, however,

extended Maxwell’s considerations to moving matter on the assump-

tion that the entrained ether is carried bodily along by it. It is evident,

however, that in the ﬁeld of optical theory such an assumption could

not be expected to account for the Fizeau experiment, which had al-

Historical Development. 15

ready been explained on the assumption that the ether receives only a

fraction of the velocity of the moving medium; while in the ﬁeld of elec-

tromagnetic theory it was found that Hertz’s assumptions would lead

us to expect no production of a magnetic ﬁeld in the neighborhood of

a rotating electric condenser providing the plates of the condenser and

the dielectric move together with the same speed and this was deci-

sively disproved by the experiment of Eichenwald. The conclusions of

the Hertz theory were also out of agreement with the important exper-

iments of H. A. Wilson on moving dielectrics. It remained for Lorentz

to develop a general theory for moving dielectrics which was consistent

with the facts.

The theory of Lorentz developed from that of Maxwell by the ad-

dition of the idea of the electron, as the atom of electricity, and his

treatment is often called the “electron theory.” This atomistic con-

ception of electricity was foreshadowed by Faraday’s discovery of the

quantitative relations between the amount of electricity associated with

chemical reactions in electrolytes and the weight of substance involved,

a relation which indicates that the atoms act as carriers of electricity

and that the quantity of electricity carried by a single particle, whatever

its nature, is always some small multiple of a deﬁnite quantum of elec-

tricity, the electron. Since Faraday’s time, the study of the phenomena

accompanying the conduction of electricity through gases, the study of

radioactivity, and ﬁnally indeed the isolation and exact measurement of

these atoms of electrical charge, have led us to a very deﬁnite knowledge

of many of the properties of the electron.

While the experimental physicists were at work obtaining this more

or less ﬁrst-hand acquaintance with the electron, the theoretical physi-

cists and in particular Lorentz were increasingly successful in explaining

the electrical and optical properties of matter in general on the basis

of the behavior of the electrons which it contains, the properties of

conductors being accounted for by the presence of movable electrons,

either free as in the case of metals or combined with atoms to form

ions as in electrolytes, while the electrical and optical properties of di-

Chapter One. 16

electrics were ascribed to the presence of electrons more or less bound

by quasi-elastic forces to positions of equilibrium. This Lorentz electron

theory of matter has been developed in great mathematical detail by

Lorentz and has been substantiated by numerous quantitative experi-

ments. Perhaps the greatest signiﬁcance of the Lorentz theory is that

such properties of matter as electrical conductivity, magnetic perme-

ability and dielectric inductivity, which occupied the position of rather

accidental experimental constants in Maxwell’s original theory, are now

explainable as the statistical result of the behavior of the individual

electrons.

With regard now to our original question as to the behavior of mov-

ing optical and dielectric media, the Lorentz theory was found capable

of accounting quantitatively for all known phenomena, including Airy’s

experiment on aberration, Arago’s experiments on the reﬂection and

refraction of stellar rays, Fresnel’s coeﬃcient for the velocity of light

in moving media, and the electromagnetic experiments upon moving

dielectrics made by Röntgen, Eichenwald, H. A. Wilson, and others.

For us the particular signiﬁcance of the Lorentz method of explaining

these phenomena is that he does not assume, as did Fresnel, that the

ether is partially dragged along by moving matter. His investigations

show rather that the ether must remain perfectly stationary, and that

such phenomena as the changed velocity of light in moving media are

to be accounted for by the modifying inﬂuence which the electrons in

the moving matter have upon the propagation of electromagnetic dis-

turbances, rather than by a dragging along of the ether itself.

Although it would not be proper in this place to present the mathe-

matical details of Lorentz’s treatment of moving media, we may obtain

a clearer idea of what is meant in the Lorentz theory by a stationary

ether if we look for a moment at the ﬁve fundamental equations upon

which the theory rests. These familiar equations, of which the ﬁrst four

are merely Maxwell’s four ﬁeld equations, modiﬁed by the introduction

Historical Development. 17

of the idea of the electron, may be written

curl h =

1

c

∂e

∂t

+ρ

u

c

,

curl e = −

1

c

∂h

∂t

,

div e = ρ,

div h = 0,

f = ρ

e +

u

c

×h

∗

¸

in which the letters have their usual signiﬁcance. (See Chapter XII.)

Now the whole of the Lorentz theory, including of course his treatment

of moving media, is derivable from these ﬁve equations, and the fact

that the idea of a stationary ether does lie at the basis of his theory

is most clearly shown by the ﬁrst and last of these equations, which

contain the velocity u with which the charge in question is moving, and

for Lorentz this velocity is to be measured with respect to the assumed

stationary ether.

We have devoted this space to the Lorentz theory, since his work

marks the culmination of the ether theory of light and electromag-

netism, and for us the particularly signiﬁcant fact is that by this line of

attack science was inevitably led to the idea of an absolutely immovable

and stationary ether.

13. We have thus brieﬂy traced the development of the ether theory

of light and electromagnetism. We have seen that the space continuum

assumed by this theory is not empty as was the space of Newton and

Galileo but is assumed ﬁlled with a stationary medium, the ether, and

in conclusion should further point out that the time continuum assumed

by the ether theory was apparently the same as that of Newton and

Galileo, and in particular that the old ideas as to the absolute indepen-

dence of space and time were all retained.

Chapter One. 18

part iii. rise of the einstein theory of relativity.

14. The Michelson-Morley Experiment. In spite of all the

brilliant achievements of the theory of a stationary ether, we must now

call attention to an experiment, performed at the very time when the

success of the ether theory seemed most complete, whose result was in

direct contradiction to its predictions. This is the celebrated Michelson-

Morley experiment, and to the masterful interpretation of its conse-

quences at the hands of Einstein we owe the whole theory of relativity,

a theory which will nevermore permit us to assume that space and time

are independent.

If the theory of a stationary ether were true we should ﬁnd, contrary

to the expectations of Newton, that systems of coördinates in relative

motion are not symmetrical, a system of axes ﬁxed relatively to the

ether would hold a unique position among all other systems moving

relative to it and would be peculiarly adapted for the measurement

of displacements and velocities. Bodies at rest with respect to this

system of axes ﬁxed in the ether would be spoken of as “absolutely”

at rest and bodies in motion through the ether would be said to have

“absolute” motion. From the point of view of the ether theory one of the

most important physical problems would be to determine the velocity

of various bodies, for example that of the earth, through the ether.

Now the Michelson-Morley experiment was devised for the very pur-

pose of determining the relative motion of the earth and the ether. The

experiment consists essentially in a comparison of the velocities of light

parallel and perpendicular to the earth’s motion in its orbit. A ray of

light from the source S falls on the half silvered mirror A, where it is

divided into two rays, one of which travels to the mirror B and the

other to the mirror C, where they are totally reﬂected. The rays are

recombined and produce a set of interference fringes at O. (See Fig. 1.)

We may now think of the apparatus as set so that one of the divided

paths is parallel to the earth’s motion and the other perpendicular to it.

On the basis of the stationary ether theory, the velocity of the light with

Historical Development. 19

reference to the apparatus would evidently be diﬀerent over the two

paths, and hence on rotating the apparatus through an angle of ninety

degrees we should expect a shift in the position of the fringes. Knowing

the magnitude of the earth’s velocity in its orbit and the dimensions

of the apparatus, it is quite possible to calculate the magnitude of the

expected shift, a quantity entirely susceptible of experimental determi-

+ ×

S

A

B

C

O

Fig. 1.

nation. Nevertheless the most careful experiments made at diﬀerent

times of day and at diﬀerent seasons of the year entirely failed to show

any such shift at all.

This result is in direct contradiction to the theory of a stationary

ether and could be reconciled with that theory only by very arbitrary

assumptions. Instead of making such assumptions, the Einstein theory

of relativity ﬁnds it preferable to return in part to the older ideas of

Newton and Galileo.

15. The Postulates of Einstein. In fact, in accordance with

the results of this work of Michelson-Morley and other conﬁrmatory

Chapter One. 20

experiments, the Einstein theory takes as its ﬁrst postulate the idea

familiar to Newton of the relativity of all motion. It states that there

is nothing out in space in the nature of an ether or of a ﬁxed set of

coördinates with regard to which motion can be measured, that there

is no such thing as absolute motion, and that all we can speak of is the

relative motion of one body with respect to another.

Although we thus see that the Einstein theory of relativity has re-

turned in part to the ideas of Newton and Galileo as to the nature

of space, it is not to be supposed that the ether theory of light and

electromagnetism has made no lasting contribution to physical science.

Quite on the contrary, not only must the ideas as to the periodic and

polarizable nature of the light disturbance, which were ﬁrst appreciated

and understood with the help of the ether theory, always remain incor-

porated in every optical theory, but in particular the Einstein theory

of relativity takes as the basis for its second postulate a principle that

has long been familiar to the ether theory, namely that the velocity

of light is independent of the velocity of the source. We shall see in

following chapters that it is the combination of this principle with the

ﬁrst postulate of relativity that leads to the whole theory of relativity

and to our new ideas as to the nature and interrelation of space and

time.

CHAPTER II.

THE TWO POSTULATES OF THE EINSTEIN THEORY OF

RELATIVITY.

16. There are two general methods of evaluating the theoretical

development of any branch of science. One of these methods is to test

by direct experiment the fundamental postulates upon which the theory

rests. If these postulates are found to agree with the facts, we may feel

justiﬁed in assuming that the whole theoretical structure is a valid one,

providing false logic or unsuspected and incorrect assumptions have

not later crept in to vitiate the conclusions. The other method of

testing a theory is to develop its interlacing chain of propositions and

theorems and examine the results both for their internal coherence and

for their objective validity. If we ﬁnd that the conclusions drawn from

the theory are neither self-contradictory nor contradictory of each other,

and furthermore that they agree with the facts of the external world, we

may again feel that our theory has achieved a measure of success. In the

present chapter we shall present the two main postulates of the theory

of relativity, and indicate the direct experimental evidence in favor of

their truth. In following chapters we shall develop the consequences of

these postulates, show that the system of consequences stands the test

of internal coherence, and wherever possible compare the predictions

of the theory with experimental facts.

The First Postulate of Relativity.

17. The ﬁrst postulate of relativity as originally stated by New-

ton was that it is impossible to measure or detect absolute translatory

motion through space. No objections have ever been made to this

statement of the postulate in its original form. In the development of

the theory of relativity, the postulate has been modiﬁed to include the

impossibility of detecting translatory motion through any medium or

ether which might be assumed to pervade space.

21

Chapter Two. 22

In support of the principle is the general fact that no eﬀects due

to the motion of the earth or other body through the supposed ether

have ever been observed. Of the many unsuccessful attempts to de-

tect the earth’s motion through the ether we may call attention to

the experiments on the refraction of light made by Arago, Respighi,

Hoek, Ketteler and Mascart, the interference experiments of Ketteler

and Mascart, the work of Klinkerfuess and Haga on the position of

the absorption bands of sodium, the experiment of Nordmeyer on the

intensity of radiation, the experiments of Fizeau, Brace and Strasser

on the rotation of the plane of polarized light by transmission through

glass plates, the experiments of Mascart and of Rayleigh on the rotation

of the plane of polarized light in naturally active substances, the elec-

tromagnetic experiments of Röntgen, Des Coudres, J. Koenigsberger,

Trouton, Trouton and Noble, and Trouton and Rankine, and ﬁnally

the Michelson and Morley experiment, with the further work of Morley

and Miller. For details as to the nature of these experiments the reader

may refer to the original articles or to an excellent discussion by Laub

of the experimental basis of the theory of relativity.

∗

In none of the above investigations was it possible to detect any ef-

fect attributable to the earth’s motion through the ether. Nevertheless

a number of these experiments are in accord with the ﬁnal form given

to the ether theory by Lorentz, especially since his work satisfactorily

accounts for the Fresnel coeﬃcient for the changed velocity of light in

moving media. Others of the experiments mentioned, however, could

be made to accord with the Lorentz theory only by very arbitrary as-

sumptions, in particular those of Michelson and Morley, Mascart and

Rayleigh, and Trouton and Noble. For the purposes of our discussion

we shall accept the principle of the relativity of motion as an experi-

mental fact.

∗

Jahrbuch der Radioaktivität, vol. 7, p. 405 (1910).

The Two Postulates. 23

The Second Postulate of the Einstein Theory of Relativity.

18. The second postulate of relativity states that the velocity of

light in free space appears the same to all observers regardless of the

relative motion of the source of light and the observer. This postulate

may be obtained by combining the ﬁrst postulate of relativity with a

principle which has long been familiar to the ether theory of light. This

principle states that the velocity of light is unaﬀected by a motion of

the emitting source, in other words, that the velocity with which light

travels past any observer is not increased by a motion of the source

of light towards the observer. The ﬁrst postulate of relativity adds

the idea that a motion of the source of light towards the observer is

identical with a motion of the observer towards the source. The second

postulate of relativity is seen to be merely a combination of these two

principles, since it states that the velocity of light in free space appears

the same to all observers regardless both of the motion of the source of

light and of the observer.

19. It should be pointed out that the two principles whose combi-

nation thus leads to the second postulate of Einstein have come from

very diﬀerent sources. The ﬁrst postulate of relativity practically de-

nies the existence of any stationary ether through which the earth, for

instance, might be moving. On the other hand, the principle that the

velocity of light is unaﬀected by a motion of the source was originally

derived from the idea that light is transmitted by a stationary medium

which does not partake in the motion of the source. This combination

of two principles, which from a historical point of view seem somewhat

contradictory in nature, has given to the second postulate of relativity

a very extraordinary content. Indeed it should be particularly empha-

sized that the remarkable conclusions as to the nature of space and time

forced upon science by the theory of relativity are the special product

of the second postulate of relativity.

A simple example of the conclusions which can be drawn from this

postulate will make its extraordinary nature evident.

Chapter Two. 24

+ ×

S

a a

′

A

b b

′

B

Fig. 2.

S is a source of light and A and B two moving systems. A is moving

towards the source S, and B away from it. Observers on the systems

mark oﬀ equal distances aa

and bb

**along the path of the light and
**

determine the time taken for light to pass from a to a

and b to b

**respectively. Contrary to what seem the simple conclusions of common
**

sense, the second postulate requires that the time taken for the light

to pass from a to a

**shall measure the same as the time for the light to
**

go from b to b

**. Hence if the second postulate of relativity is correct it
**

is not surprising that science is forced in general to new ideas as to the

nature of space and time, ideas which are in direct opposition to the

requirements of so-called common sense.

Suggested Alternative to the Postulate of the Independence

of the Velocity of Light and the Velocity of the Source.

20. Because of the extraordinary conclusions derived by combining

the principle of the relativity of motion with the postulate that the

velocity of light is independent of the velocity of its source, a number

of attempts have been made to develop so-called emission theories of

relativity based on the principle of the relativity of motion and the

further postulate that the velocity of light and the velocity of its source

are additive.

Before examining the available evidence for deciding between the

rival principles as to the velocity of light, we may point out that this

proposed postulate, of the additivity of the velocity of source and light,

would as a matter of fact lead to a very simple kind of relativity theory

The Two Postulates. 25

without requiring any changes in our notions of space and time. For

if light or other electromagnetic disturbance which is being emitted

from a source did partake in the motion of that source in such a way

that the velocity of the source is added to the velocity of emission, it

is evident that a system consisting of the source and its surrounding

disturbances would act as a whole and suﬀer no permanent change in

conﬁguration if the velocity of the source were changed. This result

would of course be in direct agreement with the idea of the relativity of

motion which merely requires that the physical properties of a system

shall be independent of its velocity through space.

As a particular example of the simplicity of emission theories we

may show, for instance, how easily they would account for the negative

O

A

B

Direction of Earth’s Motion

Fig. 3.

result of the Michelson-Morley experi-

ment. If O, Fig. 3, is a source of light

and A and B are mirrors placed a meter

away from O, the Michelson-Morley ex-

periment shows that the time taken for

light to travel to A and back is the same

as for the light to travel to B and back,

in spite of the fact that the whole appa-

ratus is moving through space in the di-

rection O−B, due to the earth’s motion

around the sun. The basic assumption

of emission theories, however, would re-

quire exactly this result, since it says that light travels out from O with

a constant velocity in all directions with respect to O, and not with

respect to some ether through which O is supposed to be moving.

The problem now before us is to decide between the two rival prin-

ciples as to the velocity of light, and we shall ﬁnd that the bulk of the

evidence is all in favor of the principle which has led to the Einstein

theory of relativity with its complete revolution in our ideas as to space

and time, and against the principle which has led to the superﬁcially

simple emission theories of relativity.

Chapter Two. 26

21. Evidence Against Emission Theories of Light. All emis-

sion theories agree in assuming that light from a moving source has

a velocity equal to the vector sum of the velocity of light from a sta-

tionary source and the velocity of the source itself at the instant of

emission. And without ﬁrst considering the special assumptions which

distinguish one emission theory from another we may ﬁrst present cer-

tain astronomical evidence which apparently stands in contradiction to

this basic assumption of all forms of emission theory. This evidence

was pointed out by Comstock

∗

and later by de Sitter.

†

Consider the rotation of a binary star as it would appear to an

observer situated at a considerable distance from the star and in its

plane of rotation. (See Fig. 4.) If an emission theory of light be true,

the velocity of light from the star in position A will be c +u, where u is

the velocity of the star in its orbit, while in the position B the velocity

will be c − u. Hence the star will be observed to arrive in position A,

l

c +u

seconds after the event has actually occurred, and in position B,

l

c −u

seconds after the event has occurred. This will make the period

of half rotation from A to B appear to be

∆t −

l

c +u

+

l

c −u

= ∆t +

2ul

c

2

,

where ∆t is the actual time of a half rotation in the orbit, which for

simplicity may be taken as circular. On the other hand, the period of

the next half rotation from B back to A would appear to be

∆t −

2ul

c

2

.

Now in the case of most spectroscopic binaries the quantity

2ul

c

2

is

not only of the same order of magnitude as ∆t but oftentimes probably

∗

Phys. Rev., vol. 30, p. 291 (1910).

†

Phys. Zeitschr., vol. 14, pp. 429, 1267 (1913).

The Two Postulates. 27

l O

Observer

l O

Observer

B

u

A

u

Fig. 4.

even larger. Hence, if an emission theory of light were true, we could

hardly expect without correcting for the variable velocity of light to

ﬁnd that these orbits obey Kepler’s laws, as is actually the case. This

is certainly very strong evidence against any form of emission theory.

It may not be out of place, however, to state brieﬂy the diﬀerent forms

of emission theory which have been tried.

22. Diﬀerent Forms of Emission Theory. As we have seen,

emission theories all agree in assuming that light from a moving source

has a velocity equal to the vector sum of the velocity of light from a

stationary source and the velocity of the source itself at the instant

of emission. Emission theories diﬀer, however, in their assumptions as

to the velocity of light after its reﬂection from a mirror. The three

assumptions which up to this time have been particularly considered

are (1) that the excited portion of the reﬂecting mirror acts as a new

source of light and that the reﬂected light has the same velocity c with

respect to the mirror as has original light with respect to its source;

Chapter Two. 28

(2) that light reﬂected from a mirror acquires a component of velocity

equal to the velocity of the mirror image of the original source, and

hence has the velocity c with respect to this mirror image; and (3) that

light retains throughout its whole path the component of velocity which

it obtained from its original moving source, and hence after reﬂection

spreads out with velocity c in a spherical form around a center which

moves with the same speed as the original source.

Of these possible assumptions as to the velocity of reﬂected light,

the ﬁrst seems to be the most natural and was early considered by

the author but shown to be incompatible, not only with an experi-

ment which he performed on the velocity of light from the two limbs

of the sun,

∗

but also with measurements of the Stark eﬀect in canal

rays.

†

The second assumption as to the velocity of light was made

by Stewart,

‡

but has also been shown

†

to be incompatible with mea-

surements of the Stark eﬀect in canal rays. Making use of the third

assumption as to the velocity of reﬂected light, a somewhat complete

emission theory has been developed by Ritz,

§

and unfortunately optical

experiments for deciding between the Einstein and Ritz relativity theo-

ries have never been performed, although such experiments are entirely

possible of performance.

†

Against the Ritz theory, however, we have

of course the general astronomical evidence of Comstock and de Sitter

which we have already described above.

For the present, the observations described above, comprise the

whole of the direct experimental evidence against emission theories of

light and in favor of the principle which has led to the second postu-

late of the Einstein theory. One of the consequences of the Einstein

theory, however, has been the deduction of an expression for the mass

of a moving body which has been closely veriﬁed by the Kaufmann-

∗

Phys. Rev., vol. 31, p. 26 (1910).

†

Phys. Rev., vol. 35, p. 136 (1912).

‡

Phys. Rev., vol. 32, p. 418 (1911).

§

Ann. de chim. et phys., vol. 13, p. 145 (1908); Arch. de Génève vol. 26, p. 232

(1908); Scientia, vol. 5 (1909).

The Two Postulates. 29

Bucherer experiment. Now it is very interesting to note, that starting

with what has thus become an experimental expression for the mass of

a moving body, it is possible to work backwards to a derivation of the

second postulate of relativity. For the details of the proof we must refer

the reader to the original article.

∗

Further Postulates of the Theory of Relativity.

23. In the development of the theory of relativity to which we shall

now proceed we shall of course make use of many postulates. The two

which we have just considered, however, are the only ones, so far as

we are aware, which are essentially diﬀerent from those common to

the usual theoretical developments of physical science. In particular in

our further work we shall assume without examination all such general

principles as the homogeneity and isotropism of the space continuum,

and the unidirectional, one-valued, one-dimensional character of the

time continuum. In our treatment of the dynamics of a particle we

shall also assume Newton’s laws of motion, and the principle of the

conservation of mass, although we shall ﬁnd, of course, that the Einstein

ideas as to the connection between space and time will lead us to a non-

Newtonian mechanics. We shall also make extensive use of the principle

of least action, which we shall ﬁnd a powerful principle in all the ﬁelds

of dynamics.

∗

Phys. Rev., vol. 31, p. 26 (1910).

CHAPTER III.

SOME ELEMENTARY DEDUCTIONS.

24. In order gradually to familiarize the reader with the conse-

quences of the theory of relativity we shall now develop by very elemen-

tary methods a few of the more important relations. In this preliminary

consideration we shall lay no stress on mathematical elegance or logical

exactness. It is believed, however, that the chapter will present a sub-

stantially correct account of some of the more important conclusions

of the theory of relativity, in a form which can be understood even by

readers without mathematical equipment.

Measurements of Time in a Moving System.

25. We may ﬁrst derive from the postulates of relativity a relation

connecting measurements of time intervals as made by observers in

systems moving with diﬀerent velocities. Consider a system S (Fig. 5)

provided with a plane mirror a a, and an observer A, who has a clock

m

V

a a

b b

A B

S S

′

Fig. 5.

so that he can determine the time taken for a beam of light to travel up

to the mirror and back along the path AmA. Consider also another

similar system S

**, provided with a mirror b b, and an observer B, who
**

also has a clock for measuring the time it takes for light to go up to his

mirror and back. System S

**is moving past S with the velocity V , the
**

30

Some Elementary Deductions. 31

direction of motion being parallel to the mirrors a a and b b, the two

systems being arranged, moreover, so that when they pass one another

the two mirrors a a and b b will coincide, and the two observers A and B

will also come into coincidence.

A, considering his system at rest and the other in motion, measures

the time taken for a beam of light to pass to his mirror and return, over

the path AmA, and compares the time interval thus obtained with that

necessary for the performance of a similar experiment by B, in which

the light has to pass over a longer path such as BnB

, shown in Fig. 6,

where BB

**is the distance through which the observer B has moved
**

m

a a

A

n

b b

p

B B

′

Fig. 6.

during the time taken for the passage of the light up to the mirror and

back.

Since, in accordance with the second postulate of relativity, the

velocity of light is independent of the velocity of its source, it is evident

that the ratio of these two time intervals will be proportional to the ratio

of the two paths AmA and BnB

**, and this can easily be calculated
**

in terms of the velocity of light c and the velocity V of the system S

.

From Fig. 6 we have

(Am)

2

= (p n)

2

= (Bn)

2

−(Bp)

2

.

Dividing by (Bn)

2

,

(Am)

2

(Bn)

2

= 1 −

(Bp)

2

(Bn)

2

.

Chapter Three. 32

But the distance Bp is to Bn as V is to c, giving us

Am

Bn

=

1 −

V

2

c

2

,

and hence A will ﬁnd, either by calculation or by direct measurement if

he has arranged clocks at B and B

**, that it takes a longer time for the
**

performance of B’s experiment than for the performance of his own in

the ratio 1 :

1 −

V

2

c

2

.

It is evident from the ﬁrst postulate of relativity, however, that

B himself must ﬁnd exactly the same length of time for the light to pass

up to his mirror and come back as did A in his experiment, because

the two systems are, as a matter of fact, entirely symmetrical and we

could with equal right consider B’s system to be the one at rest and

A’s the one in motion.

We thus ﬁnd that two observers, A and B, who are in relative motion

will not in general agree in their measurements of the time interval

necessary for a given event to take place, the event in this particular

case, for example, having been the performance of B’s experiment;

indeed, making use of the ratio obtained in a preceding paragraph, we

may go further and make the quantitative statement that measurements

of time intervals made with a moving clock must be multiplied by the

quantity

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

in order to agree with measurements made with a

stationary system of clocks.

It is sometimes more convenient to state this principle in the form:

A stationary observer using a set of stationary clocks will obtain a

greater measurement in the ratio 1 :

1 −

V

2

c

2

for a given time interval

than an observer who uses a clock moving with the velocity V .

Some Elementary Deductions. 33

Measurements of Length in a Moving System.

26. We may now extend our considerations, to obtain a relation

between measurements of length made in stationary and moving sys-

tems.

As to measurements of length perpendicular to the line of motion

of the two systems S and S

**, a little consideration will make it at once
**

evident that both A and B must obtain identical results. This is true

because the possibility is always present of making a direct comparison

of the meter sticks which A and B use for such measurements by holding

them perpendicular to the line of motion. When the relative motion of

the two systems brings such meter sticks into juxtaposition, it is evident

from the ﬁrst postulate of relativity that A’s meter and B’s meter

must coincide in length. Any diﬀerence in length could be due only

to the diﬀerent velocity of the two systems through space, and such

an occurrence is ruled out by our ﬁrst postulate. Hence measurements

made with a moving meter stick held perpendicular to its line of motion

will agree with those made with stationary meter sticks.

27. With regard to measurements of length parallel to the line of

motion of the systems, the aﬀair is much more complicated. Any direct

comparison of the lengths of meter sticks in the two systems would

be very diﬃcult to carry out; the consideration, however, of a simple

experiment on the velocity of light parallel to the motion of the systems

will lead to the desired relation.

Let us again consider two systems S and S

(Fig. 7), S

moving

past S with the velocity V .

A and B are observers on these systems provided with clocks and

meter sticks. The two observers lay oﬀ, each on his own system, paths

for measuring the velocity of light. A lays oﬀ a distance of one me-

ter, Am, so that he can measure the time for light to travel to the

mirror m and return, and B, using a meter stick which has the same

length as A’s when they are both at rest, lays oﬀ the distance Bn.

Each observer measures the length of time it takes for light to travel

Chapter Three. 34

A m

B n

V

Fig. 7.

to his mirror and return, and will evidently have to ﬁnd the same length

of time, since the postulates of relativity require that the velocity of

light shall be the same for all observers.

Now the observer A, taking himself as at rest, ﬁnds that B’s light

travels over a path Bn

B

(Fig. 8), where nn

**is the distance through
**

B B

′

n n

′

Fig. 8.

which the mirror n moves while the light is travelling up to it, and

BB

**is the distance through which the source travels before the light
**

gets back. It is easy to calculate the length of this path.

We have

nn

Bn

=

V

c

and

BB

Bn

B

=

V

c

.

Some Elementary Deductions. 35

Also, from the ﬁgure,

Bn

= Bn +nn

,

Bn

B

= BnB + 2 nn

−BB

.

Combining, we obtain

Bn

B

BnB

=

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

.

Thus A ﬁnds that the path traversed by B’s light, instead of being

exactly two meters as was his own, will be longer in the ratio of 1 :

1 −

V

2

c

2

**. For this reason A is rather surprised that B does not report
**

a longer time interval for the passage of the light than he himself found.

He remembers, however, that he has already found that measurements

of time made with a moving clock must be multiplied by the quantity

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

in order to agree with his own, and sees that this will account

for part of the discrepancy between the expected and observed results.

To account for the remaining discrepancy the further conclusion is now

obtained that measurements of length made with a moving meter stick,

parallel to its motion, must be multiplied by the quantity

1 −

V

2

c

2

in

order to agree with those made in a stationary system.

In accordance with this principle, a stationary observer will obtain

a smaller measurement for the length of a moving body than will an

observer moving along with the object. This has been called the Lorentz

shortening, the shortening occurring in the ratio

1 −

V

2

c

2

: 1

in the line of motion.

Chapter Three. 36

The Setting of Clocks in a Moving System.

28. It will be noticed that in our considerations up to this point we

have considered cases where only a single moving clock was needed in

performing the desired experiment, and this was done purposely, since

we shall ﬁnd, not only that a given time interval measures shorter on a

moving clock than on a system of stationary clocks, but that a system

of moving clocks which have been set in synchronism by an observer

moving along with them will not be set in synchronism for a stationary

observer.

Consider again two systems S and S

**in relative motion with the
**

velocity V . An observer A on system S places two carefully compared

clocks, unit distance apart, in the line of motion, and has the time

on each clock read when a given point on the other system passes it.

An observer B on system S

**performs a similar experiment. The time
**

interval obtained in the two sets of readings must be the same, since the

ﬁrst postulate of relativity obviously requires that the relative velocity

of the two systems V shall have the same value for both observers.

The observer A, however, taking himself as at rest, and familiar

with the change in the measurements of length and time in the moving

system which have already been deduced, expects that the velocity as

measured by B will be greater than the value that he himself obtains in

the ratio

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

, since any particular one of B’s clocks gives a shorter

value for a given time interval than his own, while B’s measurements

of the length of a moving object are greater than his own, each by

the factor

1 −

V

2

c

2

. In order to explain the actual result of B’s ex-

periment he now has to conclude that the clocks which for B are set

synchronously are not set in synchronism for himself.

From what has preceded it is easy to see that in the moving system,

from the point of view of the stationary observer, clocks must be set

further and further ahead as we proceed towards the rear of the system,

Some Elementary Deductions. 37

since otherwise B would not obtain a great enough diﬀerence in the

readings of the clocks as they come opposite the given point on the other

system. Indeed, if two clocks are situated in the moving system, S

, one

in front of the other by the distance l

**, as measured by B, then for A it
**

will appear as though B had set his rear clock ahead by the amount

l

V

c

2

.

29. We have now obtained all the information which we shall need

in this chapter as to measurements of time and length in systems mov-

ing with diﬀerent velocities. We may point out, however, before pro-

ceeding to the application of these considerations, that our choice of

A’s system as the one which we should call stationary was of course

entirely arbitrary and immaterial. We can at any time equally well

take B’s system as the one to which we shall ultimately refer all our

measurements, and indeed all that we shall mean when we call one of

our systems stationary is that for reasons of convenience we have picked

out that particular system as the one with reference to which we par-

ticularly wish to make our measurements. We may also point out that

of course B has to subject A’s measurements of time and length to just

the same multiplications by the factor

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

as did A in order to

make them agree with his own.

These conclusions as to measurements of space and time are of

course very startling when ﬁrst encountered. The mere fact, however,

that they appear strange to so-called “common sense” need cause us no

diﬃculty, since the older ideas of space and time were obtained from an

ancestral experience which never included experiments with high rela-

tive velocities, and it is only when the ratio

V

2

c

2

becomes appreciable

that we obtain unexpected results. To those scientists who do not wish

to give up their “common sense” ideas of space and time we can merely

say that if they accept the two postulates of relativity then they will

also have to accept the consequences which can be deduced therefrom.

The remarkable nature of these consequences merely indicates the very

Chapter Three. 38

imperfect nature of our older conceptions of space and time.

The Composition of Velocities.

30. Our conclusions as to the setting of clocks make it possible

to obtain an important expression for the composition of velocities.

Suppose we have a system S, which we shall take as stationary, and on

the system an observer A. Moving past S with the velocity V is another

system S

with an observer B, and ﬁnally moving past S

in the same

direction is a body whose velocity is u

as measured by observer B.

What will be the velocity u of this body as measured by A?

Our older ideas led us to believe in the simple additivity of veloc-

ities and we should have calculated u in accordance with the simple

expression

u = V +u

.

We must now allow, however, for the fact that u

is measured with

clocks which to A appear to be set in a peculiar fashion and running at

a diﬀerent rate from his own, and with meter sticks which give longer

measurements than those used in the stationary system.

The determination of u

**by observer B would be obtained by mea-
**

suring the time interval necessary for the body in question to move a

given distance l

along the system S

. If t

**is the diﬀerence in the re-
**

spective clock readings when the body reaches the ends of the line l

,

we have

u

=

l

t

.

We have already seen, however, that the two clocks are for A set

l

V

c

2

units apart and hence for clocks set together the time interval

would have measured t

+

l

V

c

2

. Furthermore these moving clocks give

time measurements which are shorter in the ratio

1 −

V

2

c

2

: 1 than

Some Elementary Deductions. 39

those obtained by A, so that for A the time interval for the body to

move from one end of l

**to the other would measure
**

t

+

l

V

c

2

1 −

V

2

c

2

;

furthermore, owing to the diﬀerence in measurements of length, this

line l

has for A the length l

1 −

V

2

c

2

. Hence A ﬁnds that the body is

moving past S

**with the velocity,
**

l

1 −

V

2

c

2

t

+

l

V

c

2

1 −

V

2

c

2

=

l

t

1 −

V

2

c

2

1 +

l

t

V

c

2

=

u

1 −

V

2

c

2

1 +

u

V

c

2

.

This makes the total velocity of the body past S equal to the sum

u = V +

u

1 −

V

2

c

2

1 +

u

V

c

2

,

or

u =

V +u

1 +

u

V

c

2

.

This new expression for the composition of velocities is extremely

important. When the velocities u

**and V are small compared with the
**

velocity of light c, we observe that the formula reduces to the simple

additivity principle which we know by common experience to be true

for all ordinary velocities. Until very recently the human race has had

practically no experience with high velocities and we now see that for

Chapter Three. 40

velocities in the neighborhood of that of light, the simple additivity

principle is nowhere near true.

In particular it should be noticed that by the composition of veloc-

ities which are themselves less than that of light we can never obtain

any velocity greater than that of light. As an extreme case, suppose for

example that the system S

**were moving past S itself with the velocity
**

of light (i.e., V = c) and that in the system S

**a particle should itself
**

be given the velocity of light in the same direction (i.e., u

= c); we

ﬁnd on substitution that the particle still has only the velocity of light

with respect to S. We have

u =

c +c

1 +

c

2

c

2

=

2c

2

= c.

By the consideration of such conclusions as these the reader will

appreciate more and more the necessity of abandoning his older naïve

ideas of space and time which are the inheritance of a long human

experience with physical systems in which only slow velocities were

encountered.

The Mass of a Moving Body.

31. We may now obtain an important relation for the mass of

a moving body. Consider again two similar systems, S at rest and

S

**moving past with the velocity V . The observer A on system S
**

has a sphere made from some rigid elastic material, having a mass of

m grams, and the observer B on system S

**is also provided with a
**

similar sphere. The two spheres are made so that they are exactly alike

when both are at rest; thus B’s sphere, since it is at rest with respect to

him, looks to him just the same as the other sphere does to A. As the

two systems pass each other (Fig. 9) each of these clever experimenters

rolls his sphere towards the other system with a velocity of u cm. per

second, so that they will just collide and rebound in a line perpendicular

to the direction of motion. Now, from the ﬁrst postulate of relativity,

Some Elementary Deductions. 41

system S

**appears to B just the same as system S appears to A, and
**

B’s ball appears to him to go through the same evolutions that A ﬁnds

for his ball. A ﬁnds that his ball on collision undergoes the algebraic

change of velocity 2u, B ﬁnds the same change in velocity 2u for his

ball. B reports this fact to A, and A knowing that B’s measurements

of length agree with his own in this transverse direction, but that his

V

A

B

S

S

′

Fig. 9.

clock gives time intervals that are shorter than his own in the ratio

1 −

V

2

c

2

: 1, calculates that the change in velocity of B’s ball must

be 2u

1 −

V

2

c

2

.

From the principle of the conservation of momentum, however,

A knows that the change in momentum of B’s ball must be the same

as that of his own and hence can write the equation

m

a

u = m

b

u

1 −

V

2

c

2

,

Chapter Three. 42

where m

a

is the mass of A’s ball and m

b

is the mass of B’s ball. Solving

we have

m

b

=

m

a

1 −

V

2

c

2

.

In other words, B’s ball, which had the same mass m

a

as A’s when

both were at rest, is found to have the larger mass

m

a

1 −

v

2

c

2

when

placed in a system that is moving with the velocity V .

∗

The theory of relativity thus leads to the general expression

m =

m

0

1 −

v

2

c

2

for the mass of a body moving with the velocity u and having the

mass m

0

when at rest.

Since we have very few velocities comparable with that of light it

is obvious that the quantity

1 −

v

2

c

2

seldom diﬀers much from unity,

which makes the experimental veriﬁcation of this expression diﬃcult.

In the case of electrons, however, which are shot oﬀ from radioactive

substances, or indeed in the case of cathode rays produced with high

potentials, we do have particles moving with velocities comparable to

that of light, and the experimental work of Kaufmann, Bucherer, Hupka

and others in this ﬁeld provides one of the most striking triumphs of

the theory of relativity.

The Relation Between Mass and Energy.

32. The theory of relativity has led to very important conclusions

as to the nature of mass and energy. In fact, we shall see that matter

∗

In carrying out this experiment the transverse velocities of the balls should be

made negligibly small in comparison with the relative velocity of the systems V .

Some Elementary Deductions. 43

and energy are apparently diﬀerent names for the same fundamental

entity.

When we set a body in motion it is evident from the previous section

that we increase both its mass as well as its energy. Now we can show

that there is a deﬁnite ratio between the amount of energy that we give

to the body and the amount of mass that we give to it.

If the force f acts on a particle which is free to move, its increase

in kinetic energy is evidently

∆E =

f dl.

But the force acting is, by deﬁnition, equal to the rate of increase in

the momentum of the particle

f =

d

dt

(mu).

Substituting we have

∆E =

d(mu)

dt

dl =

dl

dt

d(mu) =

u d(mu).

We have, however, from the previous section,

m =

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

which, solved for u, gives us

u = c

1 −

m

0

2

m

2

.

Substituting this value of u in our equation for ∆E we obtain, after

simpliﬁcation,

∆E =

c

2

dm = c

2

∆m.

Chapter Three. 44

This says that the increase of the kinetic energy of the particle, in

ergs, is equal to the increase in mass, in grams, multiplied by the square

of the velocity of light. If now we bring the particle to rest it will give

up both its kinetic energy and its excess mass. Accepting the principles

of the conservation of mass and energy, we know, however, that neither

this energy nor the mass has been destroyed; they have merely been

passed on to other bodies. There is, moreover, every reason to believe

that this mass and energy, which were associated together when the

body was in motion and left the body when it was brought to rest, still

remain always associated together. For example, if the body should be

brought to rest by setting another body into motion, it is of course a

necessary consequence of our considerations that the kinetic energy and

the excess mass both pass on together to the new body which is set in

motion. A similar conclusion would be true if the body is brought to

rest by frictional forces, since the heat produced by the friction means

an increase in the kinetic energies of ultimate particles.

In general we shall ﬁnd it pragmatic to consider that matter and

energy are merely diﬀerent names for the same fundamental entity. One

gram of matter is equal to 10

21

ergs of energy.

c

2

= (2.9986 ×10

10

)

2

= approx. 10

21

.

This apparently extraordinary conclusion is in reality one which pro-

duces the greatest simpliﬁcation in science. Not to mention numerous

special applications where this principle is useful, we may call attention

to the fact that the great laws of the conservation of mass and of energy

have now become identical. We may also point out that those opposing

camps of philosophic materialists who defend matter on the one hand

or energy on the other as the fundamental entity of the universe may

now forever cease their unimportant bickerings.

CHAPTER IV.

THE EINSTEIN TRANSFORMATION EQUATIONS FOR SPACE

AND TIME.

The Lorentz Transformation.

33. We may now proceed to a systematic study of the consequences

of the theory of relativity.

The fundamental problem that ﬁrst arises in considering spatial

and temporal measurements is that of transforming the description of

a given kinematical occurrence from the variables of one system of

coördinates to those of another system which is in motion relative to

the ﬁrst.

Consider two systems of right-angled Cartesian coördinates S and S

**(Fig. 10) in relative motion in the X direction with the velocity V . The
**

X

Y

Z

O X

′

Y

′

Z

′

O

′

V

Fig. 10.

position of any given point in space can be determined by specifying

its coördinates x, y, and z with respect to system S or its coördinates

x

, y

and z

with respect to system S

**. Furthermore, for the purpose
**

of determining the time at which any event takes place, we may think

of each system of coördinates as provided with a whole series of clocks

placed at convenient intervals throughout the system, the clocks of

45

Chapter Four. 46

each series being set and regulated

∗

by observers in the corresponding

system. The time at which the event in question takes place may be

denoted by t if determined by the clocks belonging to system S and

by t

if determined by the clocks of system S

.

For convenience the two systems S and S

**are chosen so that the
**

axes OX and O

X

**lie in the same line, and for further simpliﬁcation
**

we choose, as our starting-point for time measurements, t and t

both

equal to zero when the two origins come into coincidence.

The speciﬁc problem now before us is as follows: If a given kine-

matical occurrence has been observed and described in terms of the

variables x

, y

, z

and t

**, what substitutions must we make for the val-
**

ues of these variables in order to obtain a correct description of the

same kinematical event in terms of the variables x, y, z and t? In other

words, we want to obtain a set of transformation equations from the

variables of system S

**to those of system S. The equations which we
**

shall present were ﬁrst obtained by Lorentz, and the process of chang-

ing from one set of variables to the other has generally been called

the Lorentz transformation. The signiﬁcance of these equations from

the point of view of the theory of relativity was ﬁrst appreciated by

Einstein.

Deduction of the Fundamental Transformation Equations.

34. It is evident that these transformation equations are going to

depend on the relative velocity V of the two systems, so that we may

write for them the expressions

x

= F

1

(V, x, y, z, t),

∗

We may think of the clocks as being set in any of the ways that are usual in

practice. Perhaps the simplest is to consider the clocks as mechanisms which have

been found to “keep time” when they are all together where they can be examined

by one individual observer. The assumption can then be made, in accordance with

our ideas of the homogeneity of space, that they will continue to “keep time” after

they have been distributed throughout the system.

Transformation Equations for Space and Time. 47

y

= F

2

(V, x, y, z, t),

z

= F

3

(V, x, y, z, t),

t

= F

4

(V, x, y, z, t),

where F

1

, F

2

, etc., are the unknown functions whose form we wish to

determine.

It is possible at the outset, however, greatly to simplify these rela-

tions. If we accept the idea of the homogeneity of space it is evident

that any other line parallel to OXX

**might just as well have been cho-
**

sen as our line of X-axes, and hence our two equations for x

and t

**must be independent of y and z. Moreover, as to the equations for
**

y

and z

it is at once evident that the only possible solutions are y

= y

and z

= z. This is obvious because a meter stick held in the system S

perpendicular to the line of relative motion, OX

**, of the system can
**

be directly compared with meter sticks held similarly in system S, and

in accordance with the ﬁrst postulate of relativity they must agree in

length in order that the systems may be entirely symmetrical. We may

now rewrite our transformation equations in the simpliﬁed form

x

= F

1

(V, t, x),

y

= y,

z

= z,

t

= F

2

(V, t, x),

and have only two functions, F

1

and F

2

, whose form has to be deter-

mined.

To complete the solution of the problem we may make use of three

further conditions which must govern the transformation equations.

35. Three Conditions to be Fulﬁlled. In the ﬁrst place, when

the velocity V between the systems is small, it is evident that the

transformation equations must reduce to the form that they had in

Newtonian mechanics, since we know both from measurements and

from everyday experience that the Newtonian concepts of space and

Chapter Four. 48

time are correct as long as we deal with slow velocities. Hence the lim-

iting form of the equations as V approaches zero will be (cf. Chapter I,

equations (3), (4), (5), (6))

x

= x −V t,

y

= y,

z

= z,

t

= t.

36. A second condition is imposed upon the form of the functions

F

1

and F

2

by the ﬁrst postulate of relativity, which requires that the

two systems S and S

**shall be entirely symmetrical. Hence the transfor-
**

mation equations for changing from the variables of system S to those

of system S

**must be of exactly the same form as those used in the
**

reverse transformation, containing, however, −V wherever +V occurs

in the latter equations. Expressing this requirement in mathematical

form, we may write as true equations

x = F

1

(−V, t

, x

),

t = F

2

(−V, t

, x

),

where F

1

and F

2

must have the same form as above.

37. A ﬁnal condition is imposed upon the form of F

1

and F

2

by

the second postulate of relativity, which states that the velocity of a

beam of light appears the same to all observers regardless of the mo-

tion of the source of light or of the observer. Hence our transformation

equations must be of such a form that a given beam of light has the

same velocity, c, when measured in the variables of either system. Let

us suppose, for example, that at the instant t = t

**= 0, when the two
**

origins come into coincidence, a light impulse is started from the com-

mon point occupied by O and O

**. Then, measured in the coördinates of
**

either system, the optical disturbance which is generated must spread

out from the origin in a spherical form with the velocity c. Hence, using

Transformation Equations for Space and Time. 49

the variables of system S, the coördinates of any point on the surface

of the disturbance will be given by the expression

x

2

+y

2

+z

2

= c

2

t

2

, (7)

while using the variables of system S

**we should have the similar ex-
**

pression

x

2

+y

2

+z

2

= c

2

t

2

. (8)

Thus we have a particular kinematical occurrence, the spreading out of

a light disturbance, whose description is known in the variables of either

system, and our transformation equations must be of such a form that

their substitution will change equation (8) to equation (7). In other

words, the expression x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

− c

2

t

2

is to be an invariant for the

Lorentz transformation.

38. The Transformation Equations. The three sets of condi-

tions which, as we have seen in the last three paragraphs, are imposed

upon the form of F

1

and F

2

are suﬃcient to determine the solution of

the problem. The natural method of solution is obviously that of trial,

and we may suggest the solution:

x

=

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

(x −V t) = κ(x −V t), (9)

y

= y, (10)

z

= z, (11)

t

=

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

t −

V

c

2

x

= κ

t −

V

c

2

x

, (12)

where we have placed κ to represent the important and continually

recurring quantity

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

.

Chapter Four. 50

It will be found as a matter of fact by examination that these solu-

tions do ﬁt all three requirements which we have stated. Thus, when

V becomes small compared with the velocity of light, c, the equations

do reduce to those of Galileo and Newton. Secondly, if the equations are

solved for the unprimed quantities in terms of the primed, the resulting

expressions have an unchanged form except for the introduction of −V

in place of +V , thus fulﬁlling the requirements of symmetry imposed

by the ﬁrst postulate of relativity. And ﬁnally, if we substitute the

expressions for x

, y

, z

and t

in the polynomial x

2

+y

2

+z

2

= c

2

t

2

,

we shall obtain the expression x

2

+y

2

+z

2

−c

2

t

2

and have thus secured

the invariance of x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

− c

2

t

2

which is required by the second

postulate of relativity.

We may further point out that the whole series of possible Lorentz

transformations form a group such that the result of two successive

transformations could itself be represented by a single transformation

provided we picked out suitable magnitudes and directions for the ve-

locities between the various systems.

It is also to be noted that the transformation becomes imaginary

for cases where V > c, and we shall ﬁnd that this agrees with ideas

obtained in other ways as to the speed of light being an upper limit for

the magnitude of all velocities.

Further Transformation Equations.

39. Before making any applications of our equations we shall ﬁnd it

desirable to obtain by simple substitutions and diﬀerentiations a series

of further transformation equations which will be of great value in our

future work.

By the simple diﬀerentiation of equation (12) we can obtain

dt

dt

= κ

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

, (13)

Transformation Equations for Space and Time. 51

where we have put ˙ x for

dx

dt

.

40. Transformation Equations for Velocity. By diﬀerentiation

of the equations for x

, y

and z

**, nos. (9), (10) and (11), and sub-
**

stitution of the value just found for

dt

dt

we may obtain the following

transformation equations for velocity:

˙ x

=

˙ x −V

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

or u

x

=

u

x

−V

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

, (14)

˙ y

=

˙ yκ

−1

1 −

˙ yV

c

2

u

y

=

u

y

κ

−1

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

, (15)

˙ z

=

˙ zκ

−1

1 −

˙ zV

c

2

u

z

=

u

z

κ

−1

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

, (16)

where the placing of a dot has the familiar signiﬁcance of diﬀerentiation

with respect to time,

dx

dt

being represented by ˙ x and

dx

dt

by ˙ x

.

The signiﬁcance of these equations for the transformation of veloc-

ities is as follows: If for an observer in system S a point appears to

be moving with the uniform velocity ( ˙ x, ˙ y, ˙ z) its velocity ( ˙ x

, ˙ y

, ˙ z

), as

measured by an observer in system S

**, is given by these expressions
**

(14), (15) and (16).

41. Transformation Equations for the Function

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

.

These three transformation equations for the velocity components of

a point permit us to obtain a further transformation equation for an

important function of the velocity which we shall ﬁnd continually re-

curring in our later work. This is the function

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

, where we have

indicated the total velocity of the point by u, according to the expres-

Chapter Four. 52

sion u

2

= ˙ x

2

+ ˙ y

2

+ ˙ z

2

. By the substitution of equations (14), (15)

and (16) we obtain the transformation equation

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

=

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

κ

1 −

u

2

c

2

. (17)

42. Transformation Equations for Acceleration. By further

diﬀerentiating equations (14), (15) and (16) and simplifying, we easily

obtain three new equations for transforming measurements of acceler-

ation from system S

to S, viz.:

¨ x

=

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

−3

κ

−3

¨ x, (18)

¨ y

=

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

−2

κ

−2

¨ y + ˙ y

V

c

2

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

−3

κ

−2

¨ x, (19)

¨ z

=

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

−2

κ

−2

¨ z + ˙ z

V

c

2

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

−3

κ

−2

¨ x, (20)

or

˙ u

x

=

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

−3

κ

−3

¨ u

x

, (18)

˙ u

y

=

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

−2

κ

−2

¨ u

y

+u

y

V

c

2

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

−3

κ

−2

˙ u

x

, (19)

˙ u

z

=

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

−2

κ

−2

¨ u

z

+u

z

V

c

2

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

−3

κ

−2

˙ u

x

. (20)

CHAPTER V.

KINEMATICAL APPLICATIONS.

43. The various transformation equations for spatial and temporal

measurements which were derived in the previous chapter may now

be used for the treatment of a number of kinematical problems. In

particular it will be shown in the latter part of the chapter that a

number of optical problems can be handled with extraordinary facility

by the methods now at our disposal.

The Kinematical Shape of a Rigid Body.

44. We may ﬁrst point out that the conclusions of relativity theory

lead us to quite new ideas as to what is meant by the shape of a rigid

body. We shall ﬁnd that the shape of a rigid body will depend entirely

upon the relative motion of the body and the observer who is making

measurements on it.

Consider a rigid body which is at rest with respect to system S

. Let

x

1

, y

1

, z

1

and x

2

, y

2

, z

2

be the coördinates in system S

of two points in

the body. The coördinates of the same points as measured in system S

can be found from transformation equations (9), (10) and (11), and by

subtraction we can obtain the following expressions

(x

2

−x

1

) =

1 −

V

2

c

2

(x

2

−x

1

), (21)

(y

2

−y

1

) = (y

2

−y

1

), (22)

(z

2

−z

1

) = (z

2

−z

1

), (23)

connecting the distances between the pair of points as viewed in the

two systems. In making this subtraction terms containing t have been

cancelled out since we are interested in the simultaneous positions of

the points. In accordance with these equations we may distinguish then

between the geometrical shape of a body, which is the shape that it has

53

Chapter Five. 54

when measured on a system of axes which are at rest relative to it, and

its kinematical shape, which is given by the coördinates which express

the simultaneous positions of its various points when it is in motion

with respect to the axes of reference. We see that the kinematical

shape of a rigid body diﬀers from its geometrical shape by a shortening

of all its dimensions in the line of motion in the ratio

1 −

V

2

c

2

: 1;

thus a sphere, for example, becomes a Heaviside ellipsoid.

In order to avoid incorrectness of speech we must be very careful

not to give the idea that the kinematical shape of a body is in any

sense either more or less real than its geometrical shape. We must

merely learn to realize that the shape of a body is entirely dependent

on the particular set of coördinates chosen for the making of space

measurements.

The Kinematical Rate of a Clock.

45. Just as we have seen that the shape of a body depends upon

our choice of a system of coördinates, so we shall ﬁnd that the rate

of a given clock depends upon the relative motion of the clock and its

observer. Consider a clock or any mechanism which is performing a

periodic action. Let the clock be at rest with respect to system S

and

let a given period commence at t

1

and end at t

2

**, the length of the
**

interval thus being ∆t

= t

2

−t

1

.

From transformation equation (12) we may obtain

t

1

=

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

t

1

−

V

c

2

x

1

,

t

2

=

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

t

2

−

V

c

2

x

2

,

Kinematical Applications. 55

and by subtraction, since x

2

−x

1

is obviously equal to V t, we have

t

2

−t

1

=

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

(t

2

−t

1

),

∆t =

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

∆t

.

Thus an observer who is moving past a clock ﬁnds a longer period for

the clock in the ratio 1 :

1 −

V

2

c

2

than an observer who is stationary

with respect to it. Suppose, for example, we have a particle which

is turning alternately red and blue. For an observer who is moving

past the particle the periods for which it remains a given color measure

longer in the ratio 1 :

1 −

V

2

c

2

than they do to an observer who is

stationary with respect to the particle.

46. A possible opportunity for testing this interesting conclusion

of the theory of relativity is presented by the phenomena of canal rays.

We may regard the atoms which are moving in these rays as little

clocks, the frequency of the light which they emit corresponding to the

period of the clock. If now we should make spectroscopic observations

on canal rays of high velocity, the frequency of the emitted light ought

to be less than that of light from stationary atoms of the same kind if

our considerations are correct. It would of course be necessary to view

the canal rays at right angles to their direction of motion, to prevent a

confusion of the expected shift in the spectrum with that produced by

the ordinary Doppler eﬀect (see Section 54).

The Idea of Simultaneity.

47. We may now also point out that the idea of the absolute si-

multaneity of two events must henceforth be given up. Suppose, for

Chapter Five. 56

example, an observer in the system S is interested in two events which

take place simultaneously at the time t. Suppose one of these events

occurs at a point having the X coördinate x

1

and the other at a point

having the coördinate x

2

; then by transformation equation (12) it is

evident that to an observer in system S

**, which is moving relative to S
**

with the velocity V , the two events would take place respectively at the

times

t

1

=

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

t −

V

c

2

x

1

and

t

2

=

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

t −

V

c

2

x

2

**or the diﬀerence in time between the occurrence of the events would
**

appear to this other observer to be

t

2

−t

1

=

V

c

2

1 −

V

2

c

2

(x

1

−x

2

). (25)

The Composition of Velocities.

48. The Case of Parallel Velocities. We may now present one of

the most important characteristics of Einstein’s space and time, which

can be best appreciated by considering transformation equation (14), or

more simply its analogue for the transformation in the reverse direction

u

x

=

u

x

+V

1 +

u

x

V

c

2

. (26)

Kinematical Applications. 57

Consider now the signiﬁcance of the above equation. If we have

a particle which is moving in the X direction with the velocity u

x

as

measured in system S

, its velocity u

x

with respect to system S is to

be obtained by adding the relative velocity of the two systems V and

dividing the sum of the two velocities by 1 +

u

x

V

c

2

. Thus we see that

we must completely throw overboard our old naïve ideas of the direct

additivity of velocities. Of course, in the case of very slow velocities,

when u

x

and V are both small compared with the velocity of light, the

quantity

u

x

V

c

2

is very nearly zero and the direct addition of velocities

is a close approximation to the truth. In the case of velocities, however,

which are in the neighborhood of the speed of light, the direct addition

of velocities would lead to extremely erroneous results.

49. In particular it should be noticed that by the composition of

velocities which are themselves less than that of light we can never

obtain any velocity greater than that of light. Suppose, for example,

that the system S

**were moving past S with the velocity of light (i.e.,
**

V = c), and that in the system S

**a particle should itself be given the
**

velocity of light in the X direction (i.e., u

x

= c); we ﬁnd on substitution

that the particle still has only the velocity of light with respect to S.

We have

u

x

=

c +c

1 +

c

2

c

2

=

2c

2

= c.

If the relative velocity between the systems should be one half the

velocity of light,

c

2

, and an experimenter on S

**should shoot oﬀ a particle
**

in the X direction with half the velocity of light, the total velocity with

respect to S would be

u

x

=

1

2

c +

1

2

c

1 +

1

4

c

2

c

2

=

4

5

c.

Chapter Five. 58

50. Composition of Velocities in General. In the case of par-

ticles which have components of velocity in other than the X direction

it is obvious that our transformation equations will here also provide

methods of calculation to supersede the simple addition of velocities.

If we place

u

2

= u

x

2

+u

y

2

+u

z

2

,

u

2

= u

x

2

+u

y

2

+u

z

2

,

we may obtain by the substitution of equations (14), (15) and (16)

u =

u

2

+V

2

+ 2u

V cos α −

u

2

V

2

sin

2

α

c

2

1/2

1 +

u

V cos α

c

2

, (27)

where α is the angle in the system S

between the X

**axis and the
**

velocity of the particle u

. For the particular case that V and u

are in

the same direction, the equation obviously reduces to the simpler form

u =

u

+V

1 +

u

V

c

2

,

which we have already considered.

51. We may also call attention at this point to an interesting char-

acteristic of the equations for the transformation of velocities. It will

be noted from an examination of these equations that if to any observer

a particle appears to have a constant velocity, i.e., to be unacted on

by any force, it will also appear to have a uniform although of course

diﬀerent velocity to any observer who is himself in uniform motion with

respect to the ﬁrst. An examination, however, of the transformation

equations for acceleration (18), (19), (20) will show that here a diﬀer-

ent state of aﬀairs is true, since it will be seen that a point which has

uniform acceleration (¨ x, ¨ y, ¨ z) with respect to an observer in system S

Kinematical Applications. 59

will not in general have a uniform acceleration in another system S

,

since the acceleration in system S

**depends not only on the constant
**

acceleration but also on the velocity in system S, which is necessarily

varying.

Velocities Greater than that of Light.

52. In the preceding section we have called attention to the fact

that the mere composition of velocities which are not themselves greater

than that of light will never lead to a speed that is greater than that of

light. The question naturally arises whether velocities which are greater

than that of light could ever possibly be obtained in any way.

This problem can be attacked in an extremely interesting manner.

Consider two points A and B on the X axis of the system S, and sup-

pose that some impulse originates at A, travels to B with the velocity u

and at B produces some observable phenomenon, the starting of the

impulse at A and the resulting phenomenon at B thus being connected

by the relation of cause and eﬀect.

The time elapsing between the cause and its eﬀect as measured in

the units of system S will evidently be

∆t = t

B

−t

A

=

x

B

−x

A

u

, (28)

where x

A

and x

B

are the coördinates of the two points A and B.

Now in another system S

**, which has the velocity V with respect
**

to S, the time elapsing between cause and eﬀect would evidently be

∆t

= t

B

−t

A

=

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

t

B

−

V

c

2

x

B

−

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

t

A

−

V

c

2

x

A

,

where we have substituted for t

B

and t

A

in accordance with equa-

Chapter Five. 60

tion (12). Simplifying and introducing equation (28) we obtain

∆t

=

1 −

uV

c

2

1 −

V

2

c

2

∆t. (29)

Let us suppose now that there are no limits to the possible magnitude

of the velocities u and V , and in particular that the causal impulse

can travel from A to B with a velocity u greater than that of light.

It is evident that we could then take a velocity u great enough so

that

uV

c

2

would be greater than unity and ∆t

**would become negative.
**

In other words, for an observer in system S

**the eﬀect which occurs
**

at B would precede in time its cause which originates at A. Such a

condition of aﬀairs might not be a logical impossibility; nevertheless its

extraordinary nature might incline us to believe that no causal impulse

can travel with a velocity greater than that of light.

We may point out in passing, however, that in the case of kinematic

occurrences in which there is no causal connection there is no reason for

supposing that the velocity must be less than that of light. Consider, for

example, a set of blocks arranged side by side in a long row. For each

block there could be an independent time mechanism like an alarm

clock which would go oﬀ at just the right instant so that the blocks

would fall down one after another along the line. The velocity with

which the phenomenon would travel along the line of blocks could be

arranged to have any value. In fact, the blocks could evidently all be

ﬁxed to fall just at the same instant, which would correspond to an

inﬁnite velocity. It is to be noticed here, however, that there is no

causal connection between the falling of one block and that of the next,

and no transfer of energy.

Kinematical Applications. 61

Application of the Principles of Kinematics to Certain Optical

Problems.

53. Let us now apply our kinematical considerations to some prob-

lems in the ﬁeld of optics. We may consider a beam of light as a

periodic electromagnetic disturbance which is propagated through a

vacuum with the velocity c. At any point in the path of a beam of

light the intensity of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds will be undergoing

periodic changes in magnitude. Since the intensities of both the electric

and the magnetic ﬁelds vary together, the statement of a single vector

is suﬃcient to determine the instantaneous condition at any point in

the path of a beam of light. It is customary to call this vector (which

might be either the strength of the electric or of the magnetic ﬁeld) the

light vector.

For the case of a simple plane wave (i.e., a beam of monochromatic

light from a distant source) the light vector at any point in the path of

the light may be put proportional to

sin ω

t −

lx +my +nz

c

, (30)

where x, y and z are the coördinates of the point under observation,

t is the time, l, m and n are the cosines of the angles α, β and γ

which determine the direction of the beam of light with reference to

our system, and ω is a constant which determines the period of the

light.

If now this same beam of light were examined by an observer in

system S

**which is moving past the original system in the X direction
**

with the velocity V , we could write the light vector proportional to

sin ω

t

−

l

x

+m

y

+n

z

c

, (31)

It is not diﬃcult to show that the transformation equations which we

have already developed must lead to the following relations between

Chapter Five. 62

the measurements in the two systems

∗

ω

= ωκ

1 −l

V

c

, (32)

l

=

l −

V

c

1 −l

V

c

, (33)

m

=

m

κ

1 −l

V

c

, (34)

n

=

n

κ

1 −l

V

c

. (35)

∗

Methods for deriving the relation between the accented and unaccented quan-

tities will be obvious to the reader. For example, consider the relation between

ω and ω

**. At the origin of coördinates x = y = z = 0 in system S, we shall have in
**

accordance with expression (30) the light vector proportional to sin ωt, and hence

similarly at the point O

, which is the origin of coördinates in system S

, we shall

have the light vector proportional to sin ω

t

. But the point O

as observed from

system S moves with the velocity V along the X axis and at any instant has the

position x = V t; hence substituting in expression (30) we have the light vector at

the point O

**as measured in system S proportional to
**

sin ωt

1 −l

V

c

, (36)

while as measured in system S

**the intensity is proportional to
**

sin ω

t

. (37)

We have already obtained, however, a transformation equation for t

, namely,

t

= κ

t −

V

c

2

x

,

and further may place x = V t. Making these substitutions and comparing expres-

sions (36) and (37) we see that we must have the relation

ω

= ωκ

1 −l

V

c

.

Methods of obtaining the relation between the cosines l, m and n and the corre-

sponding cosines l

, m

, and n

as measured in system S

**may be left to the reader.
**

Kinematical Applications. 63

With the help of these equations we may now treat some important

optical problems.

54. The Doppler Eﬀect. At the origin of coördinates, x = y =

z = 0, in system S we shall evidently have from expression (30) the

light vector proportional to sin ωt. That means that the vector becomes

zero whenever ωt = 2Nπ, where N is any integer; in other words, the

period of the light is p =

2π

ω

or the frequency

ν =

ω

2π

.

Similarly the frequency of the light as measured by an observer in sys-

tem S

would be

ν

=

ω

2π

.

Combining these two equations and substituting the equation connect-

ing ω and ω

we have

ν =

ν

κ

1 −l

V

c

.

This is the relation between the frequencies of a given beam of light as

it appears to observers who are in relative motion.

If we consider a source of light at rest with respect to system S

**and at a considerable distance from the observer in system S, we may
**

substitute for ν

**the frequency of the source itself, ν
**

0

, and for l we may

write cos φ, where φ is the angle between the line connecting source

and observer and the direction of motion of the source, leading to the

expression

ν =

ν

0

κ

1 −cos φ

V

c

. (38)

This is the most general equation for the Doppler eﬀect. When

the source of light is moving directly in the line connecting source and

Chapter Five. 64

observer, we have cos φ = 1, and the equation reduces to

ν =

ν

0

κ

1 −

V

c

, (39)

which except for second order terms is identical with the older ex-

pressions for the Doppler eﬀect, and hence agrees with experimental

determinations.

We must also observe, however, that even when the source of light

moves at right angles to the line connecting source and observer there

still remains a second-order eﬀect on the observed frequency, in con-

tradiction to the predictions of older theories. We have in this case

cos φ = 0,

ν = ν

0

1 −

V

2

c

2

. (40)

This is the change in frequency which we have already considered when

we discussed the rate of a moving clock. The possibilities of direct

experimental veriﬁcation should not be overlooked (see Section 46).

55. The Aberration of Light. Returning now to our transfor-

mation equations, we see that equation (33) provides an expression for

calculating the aberration of light. Let us consider that the source of

light is stationary with respect to system S, and let there be an observer

situated at the origin of coördinates of system S

**and thus moving past
**

the source with the velocity V in the X direction. Let φ be the angle

between the X axis and the line connecting source of light and observer

and let φ

**be the same angle as it appears to the moving observer; then
**

we can obviously substitute in equation (33), cos φ = l, cos φ

= l

,

giving us

cos φ

=

cos φ −

V

c

1 −cos φ

V

c

. (41)

This is a general equation for the aberration of light.

Kinematical Applications. 65

For the particular case that the direction of the beam of light is

perpendicular to the motion of the observer we have cos φ = 0

cos φ

= −

V

c

, (42)

which, except for second-order diﬀerences, is identical with the familiar

expression which makes the tangent of the angle of aberration numer-

ically equal to V/c. The experimental veriﬁcation of the formula by

astronomical measurements is familiar.

56. Velocity of Light in Moving Media. It is also possible to

treat very simply by kinematic methods the problem of the velocity of

light in moving media. We shall conﬁne ourselves to the particular case

of a beam of light in a medium which is itself moving parallel to the

light.

Let the medium be moving with the velocity V in the X direction,

and let us consider the system of coördinates S

as stationary with

respect to the medium. Now since the medium appears to be stationary

with respect to observers in S

**it is evident that the velocity of the light
**

with respect to S

**will be c/µ, where µ is index of refraction for the
**

medium. If now we use our equation (26) for the addition of velocities

we shall obtain for the velocity of light, as measured by observers in S,

u =

c

µ

+V

1 +

V

c

µ

c

2

. (43)

Carrying out the division and neglecting terms of higher order we obtain

u =

c

µ

+

µ

2

−1

µ

2

V. (44)

The equation thus obtained is identical with that of Fresnel, the quan-

tity

µ

2

−1

µ

2

**being the well-known Fresnel coeﬃcient. The empirical
**

Chapter Five. 66

veriﬁcation of this equation by the experiments of Fizeau and of Michel-

son and Morley is too well known to need further mention.

For the case of a dispersive medium we should obviously have to

substitute in equation (44) the value of µ corresponding to the particu-

lar frequency, ν

, which the light has in system S

. It should be noticed

in this connection that the frequencies ν

**and ν which the light has
**

respectively in system S and system S

**, although nearly enough the
**

same for the practical use of equation (44), are in reality connected by

an expression which can easily be shown (see Section 54) to have the

form

ν

= κ

1 −

V

c

ν. (45)

57. Group Velocity. In an entirely similar way we may treat the

problem of group velocity and obtain the equation

G =

G

+V

1 +

G

V

c

2

, (46)

where G

**is the group velocity as it appears to an observer who is
**

stationary with respect to the medium. G

is, of course, an experimental

quantity, connected with frequency and the properties of the medium,

in a way to be determined by experiments on the stationary medium.

In conclusion we wish to call particular attention to the extraordi-

nary simplicity of this method of handling the optics of moving media as

compared with those that had to be employed before the introduction

of the principle of relativity.

CHAPTER VI.

THE DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE.

58. In this chapter and the two following, we shall present a system

of “relativity mechanics” based on Newton’s three laws of motion, the

Einstein transformation equations for space and time, and the principle

of the conservation of mass.

The Laws of Motion.

Newton’s laws of motion may be stated in the following form:

I. Every particle continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion

in a straight line, unless it is acted upon by an external force.

II. The rate of change of the momentum of the particle is equal to

the force acting and is in the same direction.

III. For the action of every force there is an equal force acting in

the opposite direction.

Of these laws the ﬁrst two merely serve to deﬁne the concept of

force, and their content may be expressed in mathematical form by the

following equation of deﬁnition

F =

d

dt

(mu) = m

du

dt

+

dm

dt

u, (47)

where F is the force acting on a particle of mass m which has the

velocity u, and hence the momentum mu.

Quite diﬀerent in its nature from the ﬁrst two laws, which merely

give us a deﬁnition of force, the third law states a very deﬁnite physical

postulate, since it requires for every change in the momentum of a body

an equal and opposite change in the momentum of some other body.

The truth of this postulate will of course be tested by comparing with

experiment the results of the theory of mechanics which we base upon

its assumption.

67

Chapter Six. 68

Diﬀerence between Newtonian and Relativity Mechanics.

59. Before proceeding we may point out the particular diﬀerence

between the older Newtonian mechanics, which were based on the laws

of motion and the Galilean transformation equations for space and time,

and our new system of relativity mechanics based on those same laws

of motion and the Einstein transformation equations.

In the older mechanics there was no reason for supposing that the

mass of a body varied in any way with its velocity, and hence force

could be deﬁned interchangeably as the rate of change of momentum

or as mass times acceleration, since the two were identical. In relativity

mechanics, however, we shall be forced to conclude that the mass of a

body increases in a perfectly deﬁnite way with its velocity, and hence

in our new mechanics we must deﬁne force as equal to the total rate of

change of momentum

d(mu)

dt

= m

du

dt

+

dm

dt

u

instead of merely as mass times acceleration m

du

dt

. If we should try

to deﬁne force in “relativity mechanics” as merely equal to mass times

acceleration, we should ﬁnd that the application of Newton’s third law

of motion would then lead to very peculiar results, which would make

the mass of a body diﬀerent in diﬀerent directions and force us to give

up the idea of the conservation of mass.

The Mass of a Moving Particle.

60. In Section 31 we have already obtained in an elementary way

an expression for the mass of a moving particle, by considering a colli-

sion between elastic particles and calculating how the resulting changes

in velocity would appear to diﬀerent observers who are themselves in

relative motion. Since we now have at our command general formulæ

for the transformation of velocities, we are now in a position to han-

dle this problem much more generally, and in particular to show that

Dynamics of a Particle. 69

the expression obtained for the mass of a moving particle is entirely

independent of the consideration of any particular type of collision.

61. Transverse Collision. Let us ﬁrst treat the case of a so-

called “transverse” collision. Consider a system of coördinates and two

+v

+u

−v

−u

Fig. 11.

exactly similar elastic par-

ticles, each having the

mass m

0

when at rest, one

moving in the X direction

with the velocity +u and

the other with the veloc-

ity −u. (See Fig. 11.) Besides the large components of velocity

+u and −u which they have in the X direction let them also have

small components of velocity in the Y direction, +v and −v. The ex-

periment is so arranged that the particles will just undergo a glancing

collision as they pass each other and rebound with components of veloc-

ity in the Y direction of the same magnitude, v, which they originally

had, but in the reverse direction. (It is evident from the symmetry of

the arrangement that the experiment would actually occur as we have

stated.)

We shall now be interested in the way this experiment would appear

to an observer who is in motion in the X direction with the velocity V

relative to our original system of coördinates.

From equation (14) for the transformation of velocities, it can be

seen that this new observer would ﬁnd for the X component velocities

of the two particles the values

u

1

=

u −V

1 −

uV

c

2

and u

2

=

−u −V

1 +

uV

c

2

(48)

and from equation (15) for the Y component velocities would ﬁnd the

Chapter Six. 70

values

v

1

= ±

v

1 −

V

2

c

2

1 −

uV

c

2

and v

2

= ∓

v

1 −

V

2

c

2

1 −

uV

c

2

, (49)

the signs depending on whether the velocities are measured before or

after the collision.

Now from Newton’s third law of motion (i.e., the principle of the

equality of action and reaction) it is evident that on collision the two

particles must undergo the same numerical change in momentum.

For the experiment that we have chosen the only change in momen-

tum is in the Y direction, and the observer whose measurements we

are considering ﬁnds that one particle undergoes the total change in

velocity

2v

1

=

2v

1 −

V

2

c

2

1 −

uV

c

2

and that the other particle undergoes the change in velocity

2v

2

=

2v

1 −

V

2

c

2

1 +

uV

c

2

.

Since these changes in the velocities of the particles are not equal,

it is evident that their masses must also be unequal if the principle of

the equality of action and reaction is true for all observers, as we have

assumed. This diﬀerence in the mass of the particles, each of which

has the mass m

0

when at rest, arises from the fact that the mass of a

particle is a function of its velocity and for the observer in question the

two particles are not moving with the same velocity.

Dynamics of a Particle. 71

Using the symbols m

1

and m

2

for the masses of the particles, we

may now write as a mathematical expression of the requirements of the

third law of motion

2m

1

v

1 −

V

2

c

2

1 −

uV

c

2

=

2m

2

v

1 −

V

2

c

2

1 +

uV

c

2

.

Simplifying, we obtain by direct algebraic transformation

m

1

m

2

=

1 −

uV

c

2

1 +

uV

c

2

=

1 −

−u −V

1 +

uV

c

2

2

c

2

1 −

u −V

1 −

uV

c

2

2

c

2

,

which on the substitution of equations (48) gives us

m

1

m

2

=

1 −

u

2

2

c

2

1 −

u

1

2

c

2

. (50)

This equation thus shows that the mass of a particle moving with

the velocity u

∗

is inversely proportional to

1 −

u

2

c

2

, and, denoting the

mass of the particle at rest by m

0

, we may write as a general expression

∗

For simplicity of calculation we consider the case where the components of

velocity in the Y direction are small enough to be negligible in their eﬀect on the

mass of the particles compared with the large components of velocity u

1

and u

2

in

the X direction.

Chapter Six. 72

for the mass of a moving particle

m =

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

. (51)

62. Mass the Same in All Directions. The method of derivation

that we have just used to obtain this expression for the mass of a

moving particle is based on the consideration of a so-called “transverse

collision,” and in fact the expression obtained has often been spoken of

as that for the transverse mass of a moving particle, while a diﬀerent

expression,

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

3/2

, has been used for the so-called longitudinal

mass of the particle. These expressions

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

and

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

3/2

are,

as a matter of fact, the values of the electric force necessary to give a

charged particle unit acceleration respectively at right angles and in the

same direction as its original velocity, and hence such expressions would

be proper for the mass of a moving particle if we should deﬁne force

as mass times acceleration. As already stated, however, it has seemed

preferable to retain, for force, Newton’s original deﬁnition which makes

it equal to the rate of change of momentum, and we shall presently see

that this more suitable deﬁnition is in perfect accord with the idea that

the mass of a particle is the same in all directions.

Aside from the unnecessary complexity which would be introduced,

the particular reason making it unfortunate to have diﬀerent expres-

sions for mass in diﬀerent directions is that under such conditions it

would be impossible to retain or interpret the principle of the conserva-

tion of mass. And we shall now proceed to show that by introducing the

principle of the conservation of mass, the consideration of a “longitudi-

nal collision” will also lead to exactly the same expression,

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

Dynamics of a Particle. 73

for the mass of a moving particle as we have already obtained from the

consideration of a transverse collision.

63. Longitudinal Collision. Consider a system of coördinates

and two elastic particles moving in the X direction with the velocities

+u and −u so that a “longitudinal” (i.e., head-on) collision will occur.

Let the particles be exactly alike, each of them having the mass m

0

when at rest. On collision the particles will evidently come to rest, and

then under the action of the elastic forces developed start up and move

back over their original paths with the respective velocities −u and +u

of the same magnitude as before.

Let us now consider how this collision would appear to an observer

who is moving past the original system of coördinates with the veloc-

ity V in the X direction. Let u

1

and u

2

be the velocities of the particles

as they appear to this new observer before the collision has taken place.

Then, from our formula for the transformation of velocities (14), it is

evident that we shall have

u

1

=

u −V

1 −

uV

c

2

and u

2

=

−u −V

1 +

uV

c

2

. (52)

Since these velocities u

1

and u

2

are not of the same magnitude, the

two particles which have the same mass when at rest do not have the

same mass for this observer. Let us call the masses before collision

m

1

and m

2

.

Now during the collision the velocities of the particles will all the

time be changing, but from the principle of the conservation of mass

the sum of the two masses must all the time be equal to m

1

+ m

2

.

When in the course of the collision the particles have come to relative

rest, they will be moving past our observer with the velocity −V , and

their momentum will be −(m

1

+ m

2

)V . But, from the principle of

the equality of action and reaction, it is evident that this momentum

must be equal to the original momentum before collision occurred. This

gives us the equation −(m

1

+ m

2

)V = m

1

u

1

+ m

2

u

2

. Substituting our

Chapter Six. 74

values (52) for u

1

and u

2

we have

m

1

1 −

uV

c

2

=

m

2

1 +

uV

c

2

,

and by direct algebraic transformation, as in the previous proof, this

can be shown to be identical with

m

1

m

2

=

1 −

u

2

2

c

2

1 −

u

1

2

c

2

,

leading to the same expression that we obtained before for the mass of

a moving particle, viz.:

m =

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

.

64. Collision of Any Type. We have derived this formula for the

mass of a moving particle ﬁrst from the consideration of a transverse

and then of a longitudinal collision between particles which are elastic

and have the same mass when at rest. It seems to be desirable to

show, however, that the consideration of any type of collision between

particles of any mass leads to the same formula for the mass of a moving

particle.

For the mass m of a particle moving with the velocity u let us write

the equation m = m

0

F(u

2

), where F( ) is the function whose form we

wish to determine. The mass is written as a function of the square

of the velocity, since from the homogeneity of space the mass will be

independent of the direction of the velocity, and the mass is made

proportional to the mass at rest, since a moving body may evidently

be thought of as divided into parts without change in mass. It may be

further remarked that the form of the function F( ) must be such that

its value approaches unity as the variable approaches zero.

Dynamics of a Particle. 75

Let us now consider two particles having respectively the masses

m

0

and n

0

when at rest, moving with the velocities u and w before

collision, and with the velocities U and W after a collision has taken

place.

From the principle of the conservation of mass we have

m

0

F(u

x

2

+u

y

2

+u

z

2

) +n

0

F(w

x

2

+w

y

2

+w

z

2

)

= m

0

F(U

x

2

+U

y

2

+U

z

2

) +n

0

F(W

x

2

+W

y

2

+W

z

2

), (53)

and from the principle of the equality of action and reaction (i.e., New-

ton’s third law of motion)

m

0

F(u

x

2

+u

y

2

+u

z

2

)u

x

+n

0

F(w

x

2

+w

y

2

+w

z

2

)w

x

= m

0

F(U

x

2

+U

y

2

+U

z

2

)U

x

+n

0

F(W

x

2

+W

y

2

+W

z

2

)W

x

, (54)

m

0

F(u

x

2

+u

y

2

+u

z

2

)u

y

+n

0

F(w

x

2

+w

y

2

+w

z

2

)w

y

= m

0

F(U

x

2

+U

y

2

+U

z

2

)U

y

+n

0

F(W

x

2

+W

y

2

+W

z

2

)W

y

, (55)

m

0

F(u

x

2

+u

y

2

+u

z

2

)u

z

+n

0

F(w

x

2

+w

y

2

+w

z

2

)w

z

= m

0

F(U

x

2

+U

y

2

+U

z

2

)U

z

+n

0

F(W

x

2

+W

y

2

+W

z

2

)W

z

. (56)

These velocities, u

x

, u

y

, u

x

, w

x

, w

y

, w

z

, U

x

, etc., are measured, of

course, with respect to some deﬁnite system of “space-time” coördi-

nates. An observer moving past this system of coördinates with the

velocity V in the X direction would ﬁnd for the corresponding compo-

nent velocities the values

u

x

−V

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

,

1 −

V

2

c

2

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

u

y

,

1 −

V

2

c

2

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

u

z

,

w

x

−V

1 −

w

x

V

c

2

, etc.,

as given by our transformation equations for velocity (14), (15), (16).

Chapter Six. 76

Since the law of the conservation of mass and Newton’s third law

of motion must also hold for the measurements of the new observer,

we may write the following new relations corresponding to equations

(53) to (56):

m

0

F

¸

¸

u

x

−V

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

2

+

¸

¸

¸

1 −

V

2

c

2

u

y

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

2

+

¸

¸

¸

1 −

V

2

c

2

u

z

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

2

+n

0

F

¸

¸

w

x

−V

1 −

w

x

V

c

2

2

+

¸

¸

¸

1 −

V

2

c

2

w

y

1 −

w

x

V

c

2

2

+

¸

¸

¸

1 −

V

2

c

2

w

z

1 −

w

x

V

c

2

2

= m

0

F

¸

¸

U

x

−V

1 −

U

x

V

c

2

2

+

¸

¸

¸

1 −

V

2

c

2

U

y

1 −

U

x

V

c

2

2

+

¸

¸

¸

1 −

V

2

c

2

U

z

1 −

U

x

V

c

2

2

+n

0

F

¸

¸

W

x

−V

1 −

W

x

V

c

2

2

+

¸

¸

¸

1 −

V

2

c

2

W

y

1 −

W

x

V

c

2

2

+

¸

¸

¸

1 −

V

2

c

2

W

z

1 −

W

x

V

c

2

2

,

(53a)

m

0

F{u

x

· · · }

u

x

−V

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

+n

0

F{w

x

· · · }

w

x

−V

1 −

w

x

V

c

2

= m

0

F{U

x

· · · }

U

x

−V

1 −

U

x

V

c

2

+n

0

F{W

x

· · · }

W

x

−V

1 −

W

x

V

c

2

,

(54a)

Dynamics of a Particle. 77

m

0

F{u

x

· · · }

1 −

V

2

c

2

u

y

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

+n

0

F{w

x

· · · }

1 −

V

2

c

2

w

y

1 −

w

x

V

c

2

= m

0

F{U

x

· · · }

1 −

V

2

c

2

U

y

1 −

U

x

V

c

2

+n

0

F{W

x

· · · }

1 −

V

2

c

2

W

y

1 −

W

x

V

c

2

,

(55a)

m

0

Fu

x

· · ·

1 −

V

2

c

2

u

x

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

+n

0

Fw

x

· · ·

1 −

V

2

c

2

w

x

1 −

w

x

V

c

2

= m

0

FU

x

· · ·

1 −

V

2

c

2

U

x

1 −

U

x

V

c

2

+n

0

FW

x

· · ·

1 −

V

2

c

2

W

x

1 −

W

x

V

c

2

.

(56a)

It is evident that these equations (53a)–(56a) must be true no mat-

ter what the velocity between the new observer and the original system

of coördinates, that is, true for all values of V . The velocities u

x

, u

y

, u

z

,

w

x

, etc., are, however, perfectly deﬁnite quantities, measured with ref-

erence to a deﬁnite system of coördinates and entirely independent

of V . If these equations are to be true for perfectly deﬁnite values of

u

x

, u

y

, u

z

, w

x

, etc., and for all values of V , it is evident that the func-

tion F( ) must be of such a form that the equations are identities in V .

As a matter of fact, it is found by trial that V can be cancelled from all

the equations if we make F( ) of the form

1

1 −

( )

c

2

; and we see that

the expected relation is a solution of the equations, although perhaps

not necessarily a unique solution.

Before proceeding to use our formula for the mass of a moving par-

ticle for the further development of our system of mechanics, we may

call attention in passing to the fact that the experiments of Kaufmann,

Bucherer, and Hupka have in reality shown that the mass of the elec-

Chapter Six. 78

tron increases with its velocity according to the formula which we have

just obtained. We shall consider the dynamics of the electron more in

detail in the chapter devoted to electromagnetic theory. We wish to

point out now, however, that in this derivation we have made no ref-

erence to any electrical charge which might be carried by the particle

whose mass is to be determined. Hence we may reject the possibility

of explaining the Kaufmann experiment by assuming that the charge

of the electron decreases with its velocity, since the increase in mass is

alone suﬃcient to account for the results of the measurement.

Transformation Equations for Mass.

65. Since the velocity of a particle depends on the particular system

of coördinates chosen for the measurement, it is evident that the mass

of the particle will also depend on our reference system of coördinates.

For the further development of our system of dynamics, we shall ﬁnd it

desirable to obtain transformation equations for mass similar to those

already obtained for velocity, acceleration, etc.

We have

m =

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

where the velocity u is measured with respect to some deﬁnite system

of coördinates, S. Similarly with respect to a system of coördinates S

**which is moving relatively to S with the velocity V in the X direction
**

we shall have

m

=

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

.

We have already obtained, however, a transformation equation (17)

for the function of the velocity occurring in these equations and on

Dynamics of a Particle. 79

substitution we obtain the desired transformation equation

m

=

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

κm, (57)

where κ has the customary signiﬁcance

κ =

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

.

By diﬀerentiation of (57) with respect to the time and simpliﬁcation,

we obtain the following transformation equation for the rate at which

the mass of a particle is changing owing to change in velocity

˙ m

= ˙ m−

mV

c

2

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

−1

du

x

dt

. (58)

Equation for the Force Acting on a Moving Particle.

66. We are now in a position to return to our development of the

dynamics of a particle. In the ﬁrst place, the equation which we have

now obtained for the mass of a moving particle will permit us to rewrite

the original equation by which we deﬁned force, in a number of ways

which will be useful for future reference.

We have our equation of deﬁnition (47)

F =

d

dt

(mu) = m

du

dt

+

dm

dt

u,

which, on substitution of the expression for m, gives us

F =

d

dt

¸

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

u

¸

=

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

du

dt

+

d

dt

¸

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

u (59)

Chapter Six. 80

or, carrying out the indicated diﬀerentiation,

F =

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

du

dt

+

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

3/2

u

c

2

du

dt

u. (60)

Transformation Equations for Force.

67. We are also in position to obtain transformation equations for

force. We have

F =

d

dt

(mu) = m˙ u + ˙ mu

or

F

x

= m˙ u

x

+ ˙ mu

x

,

F

y

= m˙ u

y

+ ˙ mu

y

,

F

z

= m˙ u

z

+ ˙ mu

z

.

We have transformation equations, however, for all the quantities on

the right-hand side of these equations. For the velocities we have equa-

tions (14), (15) and (16), for the accelerations (18), (19) and (20), for

mass, equation (57) and for rate of change of mass, equation (58). Sub-

stituting above we obtain as our transformation equations for force

F

x

=

F

x

− ˙ mV

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

= F

x

−

u

y

V

c

2

−u

x

V

F

y

−

u

z

V

c

2

−u

x

V

F

z

, (61)

F

y

=

κ

−1

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

F

y

, (62)

F

z

=

κ

−1

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

F

z

. (63)

We may now consider a few applications of the principles governing

the dynamics of a particle.

Dynamics of a Particle. 81

The Relation between Force and Acceleration.

68. If we examine our equation (59) for the force acting on a particle

F =

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

du

dt

+

d

dt

¸

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

u, (59)

we see that the force is equal to the sum of two vectors, one of which is

in the direction of the acceleration

du

dt

and the other in the direction of

O X

Y

m

u

x

u

y

u

Fig. 12.

the existing velocity u, so that in

general force and the acceleration

it produces are not in the same

direction. We shall ﬁnd it inter-

esting to see, however, that if the

force which does produce acceler-

ation in a given direction be re-

solved perpendicular and parallel

to the acceleration, the two com-

ponents will be connected by a

deﬁnite relation.

Consider a particle (Fig. 12)

in plane space moving with the

velocity

u = u

x

i +u

y

j.

Let it be accelerated in the X direction by the action of the component

forces F

x

and F

y

.

From our general equation (59) for the force acting on a particle we

Chapter Six. 82

have for these component forces

F

x

=

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

du

x

dt

+

d

dt

¸

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

u

x

, (64)

F

y

=

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

du

y

dt

+

d

dt

¸

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

u

y

. (65)

Introducing the condition that all the acceleration is to be in the

Y direction, which makes

du

x

dt

= 0, and further noting that u

2

= u

2

x

+u

2

y

,

by the division of equation (64) by (65), we obtain

F

x

F

y

=

u

x

u

y

c

2

−u

x

2

,

F

x

=

u

x

u

y

c

2

−u

x

2

F

y

. (66)

Hence, in order to accelerate a particle in a given direction, we may

apply any force F

y

in the desired direction, but must at the same time

apply at right angles another force F

x

whose magnitude is given by

equation (66).

Although at ﬁrst sight this state of aﬀairs might seem rather un-

expected, a simple qualitative consideration will show the necessity of

a component of force perpendicular to the desired acceleration. Refer

again to Fig. 12; since the particle is being accelerated in the Y di-

rection, its total velocity and hence its mass are increasing. This in-

creasing mass is accompanied by increasing momentum in the X direc-

tion even when the velocity in that direction remains constant. The

component force F

x

is necessary for the production of this increase in

X-momentum.

In a later paragraph we shall show an application of equation (66)

in electrical theory.

Dynamics of a Particle. 83

Transverse and Longitudinal Acceleration.

69. An examination of equation (66) shows that there are two

special cases in which the component force F

x

disappears and the force

and acceleration are in the same direction. F

x

will disappear when

either u

x

or u

y

is equal to zero, so that force and acceleration will be

in the same direction when the force acts exactly at right angles to the

line of motion of the particle, or in the direction of the motion (or of

course also when u

x

and u

y

are both equal to zero and the particle is

at rest). It is instructive to obtain simpliﬁed expressions for force for

these two cases of transverse and longitudinal acceleration.

Let us again examine our equation (60) for the force acting on a

particle

F =

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

du

dt

+

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

3/2

u

c

2

du

dt

u. (60)

For the case of a transverse acceleration there is no component of

force in the direction of the velocity u and the second term of the

equation is equal to zero, giving us

F =

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

du

dt

. (67)

For the case of longitudinal acceleration, the velocity u and the

acceleration

du

dt

are in the same direction, so that we may rewrite the

second term of (60), giving us

F =

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

du

dt

+

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

3/2

u

2

c

2

du

dt

,

Chapter Six. 84

and on simpliﬁcation this becomes

F =

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

3/2

du

dt

. (68)

An examination of this expression shows the reason why

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

3/2

is sometimes spoken of as the expression for the longitudinal mass of a

particle.

The Force Exerted by a Moving Charge.

70. In a later chapter we shall present a consistent development

of the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory based on the Einstein

transformation equations for space and time and the four ﬁeld equa-

tions. At this point, however, it may not be amiss to point out that

the principles of mechanics themselves may sometimes be employed to

obtain a simple and direct solution of electrical problems.

Suppose, for example, we wish to calculate the force with which a

point charge in uniform motion acts on any other point charge. We

can solve this problem by considering a system of coördinates which

move with the same velocity as the charge itself. An observer mak-

ing use of the new system of coördinates could evidently calculate the

force exerted by the charge in question by Coulomb’s familiar inverse

square law for static charges, and the magnitude of the force as mea-

sured in the original system of coördinates can then be determined from

our transformation equations for force. Let us proceed to the speciﬁc

solution of the problem.

Consider a system of coördinates S, and a charge e in uniform mo-

tion along the X axis with the velocity V . We desire to know the

force acting at the time t on any other charge e

1

which has any desired

coördinates x, y, and z and any desired velocity u

x

, u

y

and u

z

.

Dynamics of a Particle. 85

Assume a system of coördinates, S

**, moving with the same velocity
**

as the charge e which is taken coincident with the origin. To an observer

moving with the system S

**, the charge e appears to be always at rest
**

and surrounded by a pure electrostatic ﬁeld. Hence in system S

the

force with which e acts on e

1

will be, in accordance with Coulomb’s

law

∗

F

=

ee

1

r

r

3

or

F

x

=

ee

1

x

(x

2

+y

2

+z

2

)

3/2

, (69)

F

y

=

ee

1

x

(y

2

+y

2

+z

2

)

3/2

, (70)

F

z

=

ee

1

x

(z

2

+y

2

+z

2

)

3/2

, (71)

where x

, y

, and z

**are the coördinates of the charge e
**

1

at the time t

.

For simplicity let us consider the force at the time t

= 0; then from

transformation equations (9), (10), (11), (12) we shall have

x

= κ

−1

x, y

= y, z

= z.

Substituting in (69), (70), (71) and also using our transformation equa-

tions for force (61), (62), (63), we obtain the following equations for

∗

It should be noted that in its original form Coulomb’s law merely stated that

the force between two stationary charges was proportional to the product of the

charges and inversely to the distance between them. In the present derivation we

have extended this law to apply to the instantaneous force exerted by a stationary

charge upon any other charge.

The fact that a charge of electricity appears the same to observers in all systems

is obviously also necessary for the setting up of equations (69), (70), (71). That such

is the case, however, is an evident consequence of the atomic nature of electricity.

The charge e would appear of the same magnitude to observers both in system S

and system S

**, since they would both count the same number of electrons on the
**

charge. (See Section 157.)

Chapter Six. 86

the force acting on e

1

, as it appears to an observer in system S:

F

x

=

ee

1

x

(x

2

+y

2

+z

2

)

3/2

x +

V

c

2

κ

2

(yu

y

+zu

z

)

, (72)

F

y

=

ee

1

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

κy

(κ

−2

x

2

+y

2

+z

2

)

3/2

, (73)

F

z

=

ee

1

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

κz

(κ

−2

x

2

+y

2

+z

2

)

3/2

. (74)

These equations give the force acting on e

1

at the time t. From

transformation equation (12) we have t =

V

c

2

x, since t

= 0. At this

time the charge e, which is moving with the uniform velocity V along

the X axis, will evidently have the position

x

e

=

V

2

c

2

x, y

e

= 0, z

e

= 0.

For convenience we may now refer our results to a system of coör-

dinates whose origin coincides with the position of the charge e at the

instant under consideration. If X, Y and Z are the coördinates of e

1

with respect to this new system, we shall evidently have the relations

X = x −

V

2

c

2

x = κ

−2

x, Y = y, Z = z,

U

x

= u

x

, U

y

= u

y

, U

z

= u

z

.

Substituting into (72), (73), (74) we obtain

F

x

=

ee

1

s

3

1 −

V

2

c

2

X +

V

c

2

(Y U

y

+ZU

z

)

, (75)

F

y

=

ee

1

s

3

1 −

V

2

c

2

1 −

U

x

V

c

2

)

Y, (76)

F

z

=

ee

1

s

3

1 −

V

2

c

2

1 −

U

x

V

c

2

)

Z, (77)

Dynamics of a Particle. 87

where for simplicity we have placed

s =

X

2

+

1 −

V

2

c

2

(Y

2

+Z

2

).

These are the same equations which would be obtained by sub-

stituting the well-known formulæ for the strength of the electric and

magnetic ﬁeld around a moving point charge into the ﬁfth fundamental

equation of the Maxwell-Lorentz theory, f = ρ

e +

1

c

[u ×h]

∗

. They

are really obtained in this way more easily, however, and are seen to

come directly from Coulomb’s law.

The Field around a Moving Charge. Evidently we may also

use these considerations to obtain an expression for the electric ﬁeld

produced by a moving charge e, if we consider the particular case that

the charge e

1

is stationary (i.e., U

x

= U

y

= U

z

= 0) and equal to unity.

Making these substitutions in (75), (76), (77) we obtain the well-known

expression for the electrical ﬁeld in the neighborhood of a moving point

charge

F = e =

e

s

3

1 −

V

2

c

2

r, (78)

where

r = Xi +Y j +Zk.

71. Application to a Speciﬁc Problem. Equations (75), (76),

(77) can also be applied in the solution of a rather interesting speciﬁc

problem.

Consider a charge e constrained to move in the X direction with the

velocity V and at the instant under consideration let it coincide with the

origin of a system of stationary coördinates Y eX (Fig. 13). Suppose

now a second charge e

1

, situated at the point X = 0, Y = Y and

moving in the X direction with the same velocity V as the charge e,

and also having a component velocity in the Y direction U

y

. Let us

Chapter Six. 88

e

e

1

X

Y

U

x

= V

U

y

Fig. 13.

predict the nature of its motion under

the inﬂuence of the charge e, it being

otherwise unconstrained.

From the simple qualitative con-

siderations placed at our disposal by

the theory of relativity, it seems evi-

dent that the charge e

1

ought merely

to increase its component of veloc-

ity in the Y direction and retain un-

changed its component in the X di-

rection, since from the point of view

of an observer moving along with e

the phenomenon is merely one of or-

dinary electrostatic repulsion.

Let us see whether our equations

for the force exerted by a moving

charge actually lead to this result. By

making the obvious substitutions in

equations (75) and (76) we obtain for the component forces on e

1

F

x

=

ee

1

s

3

1 −

V

2

c

2

V

c

2

Y U

y

, (79)

F

x

=

ee

1

s

3

1 −

V

2

c

2

2

Y. (80)

Now under the action of the component force F

x

we might at ﬁrst

sight expect the charge e

1

to obtain an acceleration in the X direction,

in contradiction to the simple qualitative prediction that we have just

made on the basis of the theory of relativity. We remember, however,

that equation (66) prescribes a deﬁnite ratio between the component

forces F

x

and F

y

if the acceleration is to be in the Y direction, and

dividing (79) by (80) we actually obtain the necessary relation

F

x

F

y

=

V U

y

c

2

−V

2

.

Dynamics of a Particle. 89

Other applications of the new principles of dynamics to electrical,

magnetic and gravitational problems will be evident to the reader.

Work.

72. Before proceeding with the further development of our theory

of dynamics we shall ﬁnd it desirable to deﬁne the quantities work,

kinetic, and potential energy.

We have already obtained an expression for the force acting on a

particle and shall deﬁne the work done on the particle as the integral

of the force times the distance through which the particle is displaced.

Thus

W =

F · dr, (81)

where r is the radius vector determining the position of the particle.

Kinetic Energy.

73. When a particle is brought from a state of rest to the velocity u

by the action of an unbalanced force F, we shall deﬁne its kinetic energy

as numerically equal to the work done in producing the velocity. Thus

K = W =

F · dr.

Since, however, the kinetic energy of a particle turns out to be

entirely independent of the particular choice of forces used in producing

the ﬁnal velocity, it is much more useful to have an expression for kinetic

energy in terms of the mass and velocity of the particle.

We have

K =

F · dr =

F ·

dr

dt

dt =

F · udt.

Chapter Six. 90

Substituting the value of F given by the equation of deﬁnition (47) we

obtain

K =

m

du

dt

· udt +

dm

dt

u · udt

=

mu · du +

u · udm

=

mu du +

u

2

dm.

Introducing the expression (51) for the mass of a moving particle m =

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

, we obtain

K =

m

0

u

1 −

u

2

c

2

du +

m

0

c

2

u

3

1 −

u

2

c

2

3/2

du

and on integrating and evaluating the constant of integration by placing

the kinetic energy equal to zero when the velocity is zero, we easily

obtain the desired expression for the kinetic energy of a particle:

K = m

0

c

2

¸

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

−1

¸

, (82)

= c

2

(m−m

0

). (83)

It should be noticed, as was stated above, that the kinetic energy

of a particle does depend merely on its mass and ﬁnal velocity and is

entirely independent of the particular choice of forces which happened

to be used in producing the state of motion.

It will also be noticed, on expansion into a series, that our expres-

sion (82) for the kinetic energy of a particle approaches at low velocities

Dynamics of a Particle. 91

the form familiar in the older Newtonian mechanics,

K =

1

2

m

0

u

2

.

Potential Energy.

74. When a moving particle is brought to rest by the action of a

conservative

∗

force we say that its kinetic energy has been transformed

into potential energy. The increase in the potential energy of the par-

ticle is equal to the kinetic energy which has been destroyed and hence

equal to the work done by the particle against the force, giving us the

equation

∆U = −W = −

F · dr. (84)

The Relation between Mass and Energy.

75. We may now consider a very important relation between the

mass and energy of a particle, which was ﬁrst pointed out in our chapter

on “Some Elementary Deductions.”

When an isolated particle is set in motion, both its mass and energy

are increased. For the increase in mass we may write

∆m = m−m

0

,

∗

A conservative force is one such that any work done by displacing a system

against it would be completely regained if the motion of the system should be

reversed.

Since we believe that the forces which act on the ultimate particles and con-

stituents of matter are in reality all of them conservative, we shall accept the gen-

eral principle of the conservation of energy just as in Newtonian mechanics. (For

a logical deduction of the principle of the conservation of energy in a system of

particles, see the next chapter, Section 89.)

Chapter Six. 92

and for the increase in energy we have the expression for kinetic energy

given in equation (83), giving us

∆E = c

2

(m−m

0

),

or, combining with the previous equation,

∆E = c

2

∆m. (85)

Thus the increase in the kinetic energy of a particle always bears the

same deﬁnite ratio (the square of the velocity of light) to its increase in

mass. Furthermore, when a moving particle is brought to rest and thus

loses both its kinetic energy and its extra (“kinetic”) mass, there seems

to be every reason for believing that this mass and energy which are

associated together when the particle is in motion and leave the particle

when it is brought to rest will still remain always associated together.

For example, if the particle is brought to rest by collision with another

particle, it is an evident consequence of our considerations that the

energy and the mass corresponding to it do remain associated together

since they are both passed on to the new particle. On the other hand,

if the particle is brought to rest by the action of a conservative force,

say for example that exerted by an elastic spring, the kinetic energy

which leaves the particle will be transformed into the potential energy

of the stretched spring, and since the mass which has undoubtedly left

the particle must still be in existence, we shall believe that this mass

is now associated with the potential energy of the stretched spring.

76. Such considerations have led us to believe that matter and

energy may be best regarded as diﬀerent names for the same funda-

mental entity: matter, the name which has been applied when we have

been interested in the property of mass or inertia possessed by the en-

tity, and energy, the name applied when we have been interested in the

part taken by the entity in the production of motion and other changes

in the physical universe. We shall ﬁnd these ideas as to the relations

between matter, energy and mass very fruitful in the simpliﬁcation of

Dynamics of a Particle. 93

physical reasoning, not only because it identiﬁes the two laws of the

conservation of mass and the conservation of energy, but also for its

frequent application in the solution of speciﬁc problems.

77. We must call attention to the great diﬀerence in size between

the two units, the gram and the erg, both of which are used for the

measurement of the one fundamental entity, call it matter or energy as

we please. Equation (85) gives us the relation

E = c

2

m, (86)

where E is expressed in ergs and m in grams; hence, taking the velocity

of light as 3 ×10

10

centimeters per second, we shall have

1 gram = 9 ×10

20

ergs. (87)

The enormous number of ergs necessary for increasing the mass of a

system to the amount of a single gram makes it evident that experimen-

tal proofs of the relation between mass and energy will be hard to ﬁnd,

and outside of the experimental work on electrons at high velocities,

already mentioned in Section 64 and the well-known relations between

the energy and momentum of a beam of light, such evidence has not

yet been forthcoming.

As to the possibility of obtaining further direct experimental evi-

dence of the relation between mass and energy, we certainly cannot look

towards thermal experiments with any degree of conﬁdence, since even

on cooling a body down to the absolute zero of temperature it loses

but an inappreciable fraction of its mass at ordinary temperatures.

∗

In

the case of some radioactive processes, however, we may ﬁnd a transfer

of energy large enough to bring about measurable diﬀerences in mass.

And making use of this point of view we might account for the lack of

exact relations between the atomic weights of the successive products

of radioactive decomposition.

†

∗

It should be noticed that our theory points to the presence of enormous stores

of interatomic energy which are still left in substances cooled to the absolute zero.

†

See, for example, Comstock, Philosophical Magazine, vol. 15, p. 1 (1908).

Chapter Six. 94

78. Application to a Speciﬁc Problem. We may show an in-

teresting application of our ideas as to the relation between mass and

energy, in the treatment of a speciﬁc problem. Consider, just as in

Section 63, two elastic particles both of which have the mass m

0

at

rest, one moving in the X direction with the velocity +u and the other

with the velocity −u, in such a way that a head-on collision between

the particles will occur and they will rebound over their original paths

with the respective velocities −u and +u of the same magnitude as

before.

Let us now consider how this collision would appear to an observer

who is moving past the original system of coördinates with the veloc-

ity V in the X direction. To this new observer the particles will be

moving before the collision with the respective velocities

u

1

=

u −V

1 −

uV

c

2

and u

2

=

−u −V

1 −

uV

c

2

, (88)

as given by equation (14) for the transformation of velocities. Further-

more, when in the course of the collision the particles have come to

relative rest they will obviously be moving past our observer with the

velocity −V .

Let us see what the masses of the particles will be both before and

during the collision. Before the collision, the mass of the ﬁrst particle

will be

m

0

1 −

u

1

2

c

2

=

m

0

1 −

¸

u −V

1 −

uV

c

2

¸

2

c

2

=

m

0

1 −

uV

c

2

1 −

V

2

c

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

Dynamics of a Particle. 95

and the mass of the second particle will be

m

0

1 −

u

2

2

c

2

=

m

0

1 −

¸

−u −V

1 +

uV

c

2

¸

2

c

2

=

m

0

1 +

uV

c

2

1 −

V

2

c

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

.

Adding these two expressions, we obtain for the sum of the masses of

the two particles before collision,

2m

0

1 −

V

2

c

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

.

Now during the collision, when the two particles have come to rel-

ative rest, they will evidently both be moving past our observer with

the velocity −V and hence the sum of their masses at the instant of

relative rest would appear to be

2m

0

1 −

V

2

c

2

,

a quantity which is smaller than that which we have just found for the

sum of the two masses before the collision occurred. This apparent

discrepancy between the total mass of the system before and during

the collision, is removed, however, if we realize that when the particles

have come to relative rest an amount of potential energy of elastic

deformation has been produced, which is just suﬃcient to restore them

to their original velocities, and the mass corresponding to this potential

energy will evidently be just suﬃcient to make the total mass of the

system the same as before collision.

In the following chapter on the dynamics of a system of particles

we shall make further use of our ideas as to the mass corresponding to

potential energy.

CHAPTER VII.

THE DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES.

79. In the preceding chapter we discussed the laws of motion of a

particle. With the help of those laws we shall now derive some useful

general dynamical principles which describe the motions of a system of

particles, and in the following chapter shall consider an application of

some of these principles to the kinetic theory of gases.

The general dynamical principles which we shall present in this

chapter will be similar in form to principles which are already familiar

in the classical Newtonian mechanics. Thus we shall deduce principles

corresponding to the principles of the conservation of momentum, of the

conservation of moment of momentum, of least action and of vis viva,

as well as the equations of motion in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian

(canonical) forms. For cases where the velocities of all the particles

involved are slow compared with that of light, we shall ﬁnd, moreover,

that our principles become identical in content, as well as in form, with

the corresponding principles of the classical mechanics. Where high ve-

locities are involved, however, our new principles will diﬀer from those

of Newtonian mechanics. In particular we shall ﬁnd among other dif-

ferences that in the case of high velocities it will no longer be possible

to deﬁne the Lagrangian function as the diﬀerence between the kinetic

and potential energies of the system, nor to deﬁne the generalized mo-

menta used in the Hamiltonian equations as the partial diﬀerential of

the kinetic energy with respect to the generalized velocity.

On the Nature of a System of Particles.

80. Our purpose in this chapter is to treat dynamical systems

consisting of a ﬁnite number of particles, each obeying the equation of

motion which we have already written in the forms,

F =

d

dt

(mu) = m

du

dt

+

dm

dt

u, (47)

96

Dynamics of a System of Particles. 97

F =

d

dt

¸

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

u

¸

=

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

du

dt

+

d

dt

¸

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

¸

u. (59)

It is not to be supposed, however, that the total mass of such a

system can be taken as located solely in these particles. It is evident

rather, since potential energy has mass, that there will in general be

mass distributed more or less continuously throughout the space in the

neighborhood of the particles. Indeed we have shown at the end of the

preceding chapter (Section 78) that unless we take account of the mass

corresponding to potential energy we can not maintain the principle of

the conservation of mass, and we should also ﬁnd it impossible to retain

the principle of the conservation of momentum unless we included the

momentum corresponding to potential energy.

For a continuous distribution of mass we may write for the force

acting at any point on the material in a small volume, δV ,

f δV =

d

dt

(g δV ), (47A)

where f is the force per unit volume and g is the density of momen-

tum. This equation is of course merely an equation of deﬁnition for the

intensity of force at a point. We shall assume, however, that Newton’s

third law, that is, the principle of the equality of action and reaction,

holds for forces of this type as well as for those acting on particles. In

later chapters we shall investigate the way in which g depends on ve-

locity, state of strain, etc., but for the purposes of this chapter we shall

not need any further information as to the nature of the distributed

momentum.

Let us proceed to the solution of our speciﬁc problems.

The Conservation of Momentum.

81. We may ﬁrst show from Newton’s third law of motion that the

momentum of an isolated system of particles remains constant.

Chapter Seven. 98

Considering a system of particles of masses m

1

, m

2

, m

3

, etc., we

may write in accordance with equation (47),

F

1

+I

1

=

d

dt

(m

1

u

1

),

F

2

+I

2

=

d

dt

(m

2

u

2

),

etc.,

(89)

where F

1

, F

2

, etc., are the external forces impressed on the individ-

ual particles from outside the system and I

1

, I

2

, etc., are the internal

forces arising from mutual reactions within the interior of the system.

Considering the distributed mass in the system, we may also write, in

accordance with (47A) the further equation

(f +i) δV =

d

dt

(g δV ), (90)

where f and i are respectively the external and internal forces acting

per unit volume of the distributed mass. Integrating throughout the

whole volume of the system V we have

(f +i) dV =

dG

dt

, (91)

where G is the total distributed momentum in the system. Adding this

to our previous equations (89) for the forces acting on the individual

particles, we have

¸

F

1

+

¸

I

1

+

f dV +

i dV =

d

dt

¸

m

1

u

1

+

dG

dt

.

But from Newton’s third law of motion (i.e., the principle of the

equality of action and reaction) it is evident that the sum of the internal

forces,

¸

I

1

+

**i dV , which arise from mutual reactions within the
**

Dynamics of a System of Particles. 99

system must be equal to zero, which leads to the desired equation of

momentum

¸

F

1

+

f dv =

d

dt

(

¸

m

1

u

1

+G). (92)

In words this equation states that at any given instant the vector

sum of the external forces acting on the system is equal to the rate at

which the total momentum of the system is changing.

For the particular case of an isolated system there are no external

forces and our equation becomes a statement of the principle of the

conservation of momentum.

The Equation of Angular Momentum.

82. We may next obtain an equation for the moment of momentum

of a system about a point. Consider a particle of mass m

1

and veloc-

ity u

1

. Let r

1

be the radius vector from any given point of reference to

the particle. Then for the moment of momentum of the particle about

the point we may write

M

1

= r

1

×m

1

u

1

,

and summing up for all the particles of the system we may write

¸

M

1

=

¸

(r

1

×m

1

u

1

). (93)

Similarly, for the moment of momentum of the distributed mass we may

write

M

dist.

=

(r ×g) dV, (94)

where r is the radius vector from our chosen point of reference to a

point in space where the density of momentum is g and the integration

is to be taken throughout the whole volume, V , of the system.

Adding these two equations (93) and (94), we obtain for the total

amount of momentum of the system about our chosen point

M =

¸

(r

1

×m

1

u

1

) +

(r ×g) dV ;

Chapter Seven. 100

and diﬀerentiating with respect to the time we have, for the rate of

change of the moment of momentum,

dM

dt

=

¸

r

1

×

d

dt

(m

1

u

1

)

+

¸

dr

1

dt

×m

1

u

1

+

r ×

dg

dt

dV +

dr

dt

×g

dV ;

or, making the substitutions given by equations (89) and (90), and

writing

dr

1

dt

= u

1

, etc., we have

dM

dt

=

¸

(r

1

×F

1

) +

¸

(r

1

×I

1

) +

¸

(u

1

×m

1

u

1

)

+

(r ×f ) dV +

(r ×i) dV +

(u ×g) dV.

To simplify this equation we may note that the third term is equal

to zero because it contains the outer product of a vector by itself.

Furthermore, if we accept the principle of the equality of action and

reaction, together with the further requirement that forces are not only

equal and opposite but that their points of application be in the same

straight line, we may put the moment of all the internal forces equal to

zero and thus eliminate the second and ﬁfth terms. We obtain as the

equation of angular momentum

dM

dt

=

¸

(r

1

×F

1

) +

(r ×f ) dV +

(u ×g) dV. (95)

We may call attention to the inclusion in this equation of the inter-

esting term

(u ×g) dV . If density of momentum and velocity should

always be in the same direction this term would vanish, since the outer

product of a vector by itself is equal to zero. In our consideration of

the “Dynamics of Elastic Bodies,” however, we shall ﬁnd bodies with

Dynamics of a System of Particles. 101

a component of momentum at right angles to their direction of mo-

tion and hence must include this term in a general treatment. For a

completely isolated system it can be shown, however, that this term

vanishes along with the external forces and we then have the principle

of the conservation of moment of momentum.

The Function T.

83. We may now proceed to the deﬁnition of a function which will

be needed in our treatment of the principle of least action.

One of the most valuable properties of the Newtonian expression,

1

2

m

0

u

2

, for kinetic energy was the fact that its derivative with respect

to velocity is evidently the Newtonian expression for momentum, m

0

u.

It is not true, however, that the derivative of our new expression for

kinetic energy (see Section 73), m

0

c

2

¸

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

−1

¸

, with respect to ve-

locity is equal to momentum, and for that reason in our non-Newtonian

mechanics we shall ﬁnd it desirable to deﬁne a new function, T, by the

equation,

T = m

0

c

2

1 −

1 −

u

2

c

2

. (96)

For slow velocities (i.e., small values of u) this reduces to the New-

tonian expression for kinetic energy and at all velocities we have the

relation,

dT

du

= −m

0

c

2

d

du

1 −

u

2

c

2

=

m

0

u

1 −

u

2

c

2

= mu, (97)

showing that the diﬀerential of T with respect to velocity is momentum.

Chapter Seven. 102

For a system of particles we shall deﬁne T as the summation of the

values for the individual particles:

T =

¸

m

0

c

2

1 −

1 −

u

2

c

2

. (98)

The Modiﬁed Lagrangian Function.

84. In the older mechanics the Lagrangian function for a system of

particles was deﬁned as the diﬀerence between the kinetic and potential

energies of the system. The value of the deﬁnition rested, however,

on the fact that the diﬀerential of the kinetic energy with respect to

velocity was equal to momentum, so that we shall now ﬁnd it advisable

to deﬁne the Lagrangian function with the help of our new function T

in accordance with the equation

L = T −U. (99)

The Principle of Least Action.

85. We are now in a position to derive a principle corresponding to

that of least action in the older mechanics. Consider the path by which

our dynamical system actually moves from state (1) to state (2). The

motion of any particle in the system of mass m will be governed by the

equation

F =

d

dt

(mu). (100)

Let us now compare the actual path by which the system moves

from state (1) to state (2) with a slightly displaced path in which the

laws of motion are not obeyed, and let the displacement of the particle

at the instant in question be δr.

Dynamics of a System of Particles. 103

Let us take the inner product of both sides of equation (100) with δr;

we have

F · δr =

d

dt

(mu) · δr

=

d

dt

(mu · δr) −mu ·

d δr

dt

=

d

dt

(mu · δr) −mu · δu)

(mu · δu +F · δr) dt = d(mu · δr).

Summing up for all the particles of the system and integrating be-

tween the limits t

1

and t

2

, we have

t

2

t

1

(

¸

mu · δu +

¸

F · δr) dt = [

¸

mu · δr]

t

2

t

1

.

Since t

1

and t

2

are the times when the actual and displaced motions

coincide, we have at these times δr = 0; furthermore we also have

u · δu = u δu, so that we may write

t

2

t

1

(

¸

mu δu +F · δr) dt = 0.

With the help of equation (97), however, we see that

¸

mu δu = δT,

giving us

t

2

t

1

(δT +F · δr) dt = 0. (101)

If the forces F are conservative, we may write F · δr = −δU, where

δU is the diﬀerence between the potential energies of the displaced and

the actual conﬁgurations. This gives us

δ

t

2

t

1

(T −U) dt = 0

Chapter Seven. 104

or

δ

t

2

t

1

Ldt = 0, (102)

which is the modiﬁed principle of least action. The principle evidently

requires that for the actual path by which the system goes from state (1)

to state (2), the quantity

t

2

t

1

Ldt shall be a minimum (or maximum).

Lagrange’s Equations.

86. We may now derive the Lagrangian equations of motion from

the above principle of least action. Let us suppose that the position

of each particle of the system under consideration is completely deter-

mined by n independent generalized coördinates φ

1

, φ

2

, φ

3

· · · φ

n

and

hence that L is some function of φ

1

, φ

2

, φ

3

· · · φ

n

,

˙

φ

1

,

˙

φ

2

,

˙

φ

3

· · ·

˙

φ

n

,

where for simplicity we have put

˙

φ

1

=

dφ

1

dt

,

˙

φ

2

=

dφ

2

dt

, etc.

From equation (102) we have

t

2

t

1

(δL) dt =

t

2

t

1

n

¸

1

∂L

∂φ

i

δφ

i

+

n

¸

1

∂L

∂

˙

φ

i

δ

˙

φ

i

dt = 0. (103)

But

δ

˙

φ

i

=

d

dt

(δφ

i

),

which gives us

t

2

t

1

∂L

∂

˙

φ

i

δ

˙

φ

i

dt =

t

2

t

1

∂L

∂

˙

φ

i

d

dt

(δφ

i

) dt

=

¸

∂L

∂

˙

φ

i

δφ

i

t

2

t

1

−

t

2

t

1

δφ

i

d

dt

∂L

∂

˙

φ

i

dt

or, since at times t

1

and t

2

, δφ

i

is zero, the ﬁrst term in this expression

disappears and on substituting in equation (103) we obtain

t2

t

1

¸

n

¸

1

δφ

i

∂L

∂φ

i

−

d

dt

∂L

∂

˙

φ

i

dt = 0.

Dynamics of a System of Particles. 105

Since, however, the limits t

1

and t

2

are entirely at our disposal we must

have at every instant

n

¸

1

δφ

i

∂L

∂φ

i

−

d

dt

∂L

∂

˙

φ

i

= 0.

Finally, moreover, since the φ’s are independent parameters, we can

assign perfectly arbitrary values to δφ

1

, δφ

2

, etc., and hence must have

the series of equations

d

dt

∂L

∂

˙

φ

1

−

∂L

∂φ

1

= 0,

d

dt

∂L

∂

˙

φ

2

−

∂L

∂φ

2

= 0,

etc.

(104)

These correspond to Lagrange’s equations in the older mechanics, dif-

fering only in the deﬁnition of L.

Equations of Motion in the Hamiltonian Form.

87. We shall also ﬁnd it desirable to obtain equations of motion in

the Hamiltonian or canonical form.

Let us deﬁne the generalized momentum ψ

i

corresponding to the

coördinate φ

i

by the equation,

ψ

i

=

∂T

∂

˙

φ

i

. (105)

It should be noted that the generalized momentum is not as in

ordinary mechanics the derivative of the kinetic energy with respect to

the generalized velocity but approaches that value at low velocities.

Consider now a function T

**deﬁned by the equation
**

T

= ψ

1

˙

φ

1

+ψ

2

˙

φ

2

+· · · −T. (106)

Chapter Seven. 106

Diﬀerentiating we have

dT

= ψ

1

d

˙

φ

1

+ψ

2

d

˙

φ

2

+· · ·

+

˙

φ

1

dψ

1

+

˙

φ

2

dψ

2

+· · ·

−

∂T

∂φ

1

dφ

1

−

∂T

∂φ

2

dφ

2

−· · ·

−

∂T

∂

˙

φ

1

d

˙

φ

1

−

∂T

∂

˙

φ

2

d

˙

φ

2

−· · · ,

and this, by the introduction of (105), becomes

dT

=

˙

φ

1

dψ

1

+

˙

φ

2

dψ

2

+· · · −

∂T

∂φ

1

dφ

1

−

∂T

∂φ

2

dφ

2

−· · · . (107)

Examining this equation we have

∂T

∂φ

i

= −

∂T

∂φ

i

, (108)

∂T

∂ψ

i

=

˙

φ

i

. (109)

In Lagrange’s equations we have

d

dt

∂

∂

˙

φ

i

(T −U)

−

∂

∂φ

i

(T −U) = 0.

But since U is independent of ψ

i

we may write

∂(T −U)

∂

˙

φ

i

=

∂T

∂

˙

φ

i

= ψ

i

,

and furthermore by (108),

∂T

∂φ

i

= −

∂T

∂φ

i

.

Dynamics of a System of Particles. 107

Substituting these two expressions in Lagrange’s equations we obtain

dψ

i

dt

= −

∂(T

+U)

∂φ

i

or, writing T

+U = E, we have

dψ

i

dt

= −

∂E

∂φ

i

(110)

and since U is independent of ψ

i

we may rewrite equation (109) in the

form

dφ

i

dt

=

∂E

∂ψ

i

. (111)

The set of equations corresponding to (110) and (111) for all the

coördinates φ

1

, φ

2

, φ

3

, · · · φ

n

and the momenta ψ

1

, ψ

2

, ψ

3

, · · · ψ

n

are

the desired equations of motion in the canonical form.

88. Value of the Function T

**. We have given the symbol E to
**

the quantity T

+U, since T

**actually turns out to be identical with the
**

expression by which we deﬁned kinetic energy, thus making E = T

+U

the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the system.

To show that T

**is equal to K, the kinetic energy, we have by the
**

equation of deﬁnition (106)

T

= φ

1

ψ

1

+φ

2

ψ

2

+· · · −T,

= φ

1

∂T

∂

˙

φ

1

+φ

2

∂T

∂

˙

φ

2

+· · · −T.

But T by deﬁnition, equation (98), is

T =

¸

c

2

m

0

1 −

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

Chapter Seven. 108

which gives us

∂T

∂

˙

φ

i

=

¸

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

−1/2

u

∂u

∂

˙

φ

i

=

¸

mu

∂u

∂

˙

φ

i

and substituting we obtain

T

=

˙

φ

1

¸

mu

∂u

∂

˙

φ

1

+

˙

φ

2

¸

mu

∂u

∂

˙

φ

2

+· · · −T

=

¸

mu

˙

φ

1

∂u

∂

˙

φ

1

+

˙

φ

2

∂u

∂

˙

φ

2

+· · ·

−T.

(112)

We can show, however, that the term in parenthesis is equal to u. If the

coördinates x, y, z determine the position of the particle in question,

we have,

x = f(φ

1

φ

2

φ

3

· · · φ

n

),

˙ x =

dx

dt

=

˙

φ

1

∂f( )

∂φ

1

+

˙

φ

2

∂f( )

∂φ

2

+

˙

φ

3

∂f( )

∂φ

3

+· · ·

and diﬀerentiating with respect to the

˙

φ’s, we obtain,

∂ ˙ x

∂

˙

φ

1

=

∂f( )

∂φ

1

=

∂x

∂φ

1

,

∂ ˙ x

∂

˙

φ

2

=

∂x

∂φ

2

,

∂ ˙ x

∂

˙

φ

3

=

∂x

∂φ

3

, etc.

Similarly

∂ ˙ y

∂

˙

φ

1

=

∂y

∂φ

1

,

∂ ˙ y

∂

˙

φ

2

=

∂y

∂φ

2

, etc.,

∂ ˙ z

∂

˙

φ

1

=

∂z

∂φ

1

,

∂ ˙ z

∂

˙

φ

2

=

∂z

∂φ

2

, etc.,

Dynamics of a System of Particles. 109

Let us write now

u =

˙ x

2

+ ˙ y

2

+ ˙ z

2

,

∂u

∂

˙

φ

i

=

1

˙ x

2

+ ˙ y

2

+ ˙ z

2

˙ x

∂ ˙ x

∂

˙

φ

i

+ ˙ y

∂ ˙ y

∂

˙

φ

i

+ ˙ z

∂ ˙ z

∂

˙

φ

i

,

or making the substitutions for

∂ ˙ x

∂

˙

φ

i

,

∂ ˙ y

∂

˙

φ

i

, etc., given above, we have,

∂u

∂

˙

φ

i

=

1

u

˙ x

∂x

∂φ

i

+ ˙ y

∂y

∂φ

i

+ ˙ z

∂z

∂φ

i

.

Substituting now in (112) we shall obtain,

T

=

¸

mu

˙ x

u

φ

1

∂x

∂φ

1

+φ

2

∂x

∂φ

2

+· · ·

+

˙ y

u

φ

1

∂y

∂φ

1

+φ

2

∂y

∂φ

2

+· · ·

+

˙ z

u

φ

1

∂z

∂φ

1

+φ

2

∂z

∂φ

2

+· · ·

¸

−T

=

¸

mu

2

−T

or, introducing the value of T given by equation (98), we have

T

=

¸

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

u

2

−c

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

+c

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

=

¸

c

2

(m−m

0

),

which is the expression (83) for kinetic energy.

Hence we see that the Hamiltonian function E = T

+U is the sum

of the kinetic and potential energies of the system as in Newtonian

mechanics.

Chapter Seven. 110

The Principle of the Conservation of Energy.

89. We may now make use of our equations of motion in the canon-

ical form to show that the total energy of a system of interacting par-

ticles remains constant. If such were not the case it is obvious that our

deﬁnitions of potential and kinetic energy would not be very useful.

Since E = T

+U is a function of φ

1

, φ

2

, φ

3

, · · · ψ

1

, ψ

2

, ψ

3

, · · · , we

may write

dE

dt

=

∂E

∂φ

1

˙

φ

1

+

∂E

∂φ

2

˙

φ

2

+· · ·

+

∂E

∂ψ

1

˙

ψ

1

+

∂E

∂ψ

2

˙

ψ

2

+· · · .

Substituting the values of

∂E

∂φ

1

,

∂E

∂ψ

1

, etc., given by the canonical equa-

tions of motion (110) and (111), we have

dE

dt

= −

˙

ψ

1

˙

φ

1

−

˙

ψ

2

˙

φ

2

−· · ·

+

˙

ψ

1

˙

φ

1

+

˙

ψ

2

˙

φ

2

+· · ·

= 0,

which gives us the desired proof that just as in the older Newtonian

mechanics the total energy of an isolated system of particles is a con-

servative quantity.

On the Location of Energy in Space.

90. This proof of the conservation of energy in a system of interact-

ing particles justiﬁes us in the belief that the concept of energy will not

fail to retain in the newer mechanics the position of great importance

which it gradually acquired in the older systems of physical theory. In-

deed, our newer considerations have augmented the important rôle of

energy by adding to its properties the attribute of mass or inertia, and

Dynamics of a System of Particles. 111

thus leading to the further belief that matter and energy are in reality

diﬀerent names for the same fundamental entity.

The importance of this entity, energy, makes it very interesting to

consider the possibility of ascribing a deﬁnite location in space to any

given quantity of energy. In the older mechanics we had a hazy notion

that the kinetic energy of a moving body was probably located in some

way in the moving body itself, and possibly a vague idea that the po-

tential energy of a raised weight might be located in the space between

the weight and the earth. Our discovery of the relation between mass

and energy has made it possible, however, to give a much more deﬁnite,

although not a complete, answer to inquiries of this kind.

In our discussions of the dynamics of a particle (Chapter VI, Sec-

tion 61) we saw that an acceptance of Newton’s principle of the equality

of action and reaction forced us to ascribe an increased mass to a mov-

ing particle over that which it has at rest. This increase in the mass

of the moving particle is necessarily located either in the particle itself

or distributed in the surrounding space in such a way that its center

of mass always coincides with the position of the particle, and since

the kinetic energy of the particle is the energy corresponding to this

increased mass we may say that the kinetic energy of a moving particle

is so distributed in space that its center of mass always coincides with

the position of the particle.

If now we consider the transformation of kinetic energy into poten-

tial energy we can also draw somewhat deﬁnite conclusions as to the

location of potential energy. By the principle of the conservation of

mass we shall be able to say that the mass of any potential energy

formed is just equal to the “kinetic” mass which has disappeared, and

by the principle of the conservation of momentum we can say that the

velocity of this potential energy is just that necessary to keep the to-

tal momentum of the system constant. Such considerations will often

permit us to reach a good idea as to the location of potential energy.

Consider, for example, a pair of similar attracting particles which

are moving apart from each other with the velocities +u and −u and are

Chapter Seven. 112

gradually coming to rest under the action of their mutual attraction,

their kinetic energy thus being gradually changed into potential energy.

Since the total momentum of the system must always remain zero, we

may think of the potential energy which is formed as left stationary in

the space between the two particles.

CHAPTER VIII.

THE CHAOTIC MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES.

The discussions of the previous chapter have placed at our disposal

generalized equations of motion for a system of particles similar in form

to those familiar in the classical mechanics, and diﬀering only in the

deﬁnition of the Lagrangian function. With the help of these equations

it is possible to carry out investigations parallel to those already de-

veloped in the classical mechanics, and in the present chapter we shall

discuss the chaotic motion of a system of particles. This problem has

received much attention in the classical mechanics because of the close

relations between the theoretical behavior of such an ideal system of

particles and the actual behavior of a monatomic gas. We shall ﬁnd

no more diﬃculty in handling the problem than was experienced in the

older mechanics, and our results will of course reduce to those of New-

tonian mechanics in the case of slow velocities. Thus we shall ﬁnd a

distribution law for momenta which reduces to that of Maxwell for slow

velocities, and an equipartition law for the average value of a function

which at low velocities becomes identical with the kinetic energy of the

particles.

91. The Equations of Motion. It has been shown that the Hamil-

tonian equations of motion

∂E

∂φ

1

= −

dψ

1

dt

= −

˙

ψ

1

,

∂E

∂ψ

1

=

dφ

1

dt

=

˙

φ

1

,

etc.,

(113)

will hold in relativity mechanics provided we deﬁne the generalized

momenta ψ

1

, ψ

2

, etc., not as the diﬀerential of the kinetic energy with

respect to the generalized velocities

˙

φ

1

,

˙

φ

2

, etc., but as the diﬀerential

113

Chapter Eight. 114

with respect to

˙

φ

1

,

˙

φ

2

, etc., of a function

T =

¸

m

0

c

2

1 −

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

where m

0

is the mass of a particle having the velocity u and the sum-

mation

¸

extends over all the particles of the system.

92. Representation in Generalized Space. Consider now a

system deﬁned by the n generalized coördinates φ

1

, φ

2

, φ

3

, · · · , φ

n

,

and the corresponding momenta ψ

1

, ψ

2

, ψ

3

, · · · , ψ

n

. Employing the

methods so successfully used by Jeans,

∗

we may think of the state of the

system at any instant as determined by the position of a point plotted in

a 2n-dimensional space. Suppose now we had a large number of systems

of the same structure but diﬀering in state, then for each system we

should have at any instant a corresponding point in our 2n-dimensional

space, and as the systems changed their state, in the manner required

by the laws of motion, the points would describe stream lines in this

space.

93. Liouville’s Theorem. Suppose now that the points were orig-

inally distributed in the generalized space with the uniform density ρ.

Then it can be shown by familiar methods that, just as in the classical

mechanics, the density of distribution remains uniform.

Take, for example, some particular cubical element of our gener-

alized space dφ

1

dφ

2

dφ

3

. . . dψ

1

dψ

2

dψ

3

. . . . The density of distribu-

tion will evidently remain uniform if the number of points entering

any such cube per second is equal to the number leaving. Consider

now the two parallel bounding surfaces of the cube which are perpen-

dicular to the φ

1

axis, one cutting the axis at the point φ

1

and the

other at the point φ

1

+ dφ

1

. The area of each of these surfaces is

dφ

2

dφ

3

. . . dψ

1

dψ

2

dψ

3

. . . , and hence, if

˙

φ

1

is the component of veloc-

ity which the points have parallel to the φ

1

axis, and

∂

˙

φ

1

∂φ

1

is the rate at

∗

Jeans, The Dynamical Theory of Gases, Cambridge, 1916.

Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 115

which this component is changing as we move along the axis, we may

obviously write the following expression for the diﬀerence between the

number of points leaving and entering per second through these two

parallel surfaces

ρ

¸

∂

˙

φ

1

∂φ

1

dφ

1

¸

dφ

2

dφ

3

. . . dψ

1

dψ

2

dψ

3

· · · = ρ

∂

˙

φ

1

∂φ

1

dV.

Finally, considering all the pairs of parallel bounding surfaces, we

ﬁnd for the total decrease per second in the contents of the element

ρ

∂

˙

φ

1

∂φ

1

+

∂

˙

φ

2

∂φ

2

+

∂

˙

φ

3

∂φ

3

+· · · +

∂

˙

ψ

1

∂ψ

1

+

∂

˙

ψ

2

∂ψ

2

+

∂

˙

ψ

3

∂ψ

3

+· · ·

dV.

But the motions of the points are necessarily governed by the Hamil-

tonian equations (113) given above, and these obviously lead to the

relations

∂

˙

φ

1

∂φ

1

+

∂

˙

ψ

1

∂ψ

1

= 0,

∂

˙

φ

2

∂φ

2

+

∂

˙

ψ

2

∂ψ

2

= 0,

etc.

So that our expression for the change per second in the number of

points in the cube becomes equal to zero, the necessary requirement

for preserving uniform density.

This maintenance of a uniform distribution means that there is no

tendency for the points to crowd into any particular region of the gen-

eralized space, and hence if we start some one system going and plot its

state in our generalized space, we may assume that, after an indeﬁnite

lapse of time, the point is equally likely to be in any one of the little

elements dV . In other words, the diﬀerent states of a system, which we

Chapter Eight. 116

can specify by stating the region dφ

1

dφ

2

dφ

3

. . . dψ

1

dψ

2

dψ

3

. . . in which

the values of the coördinates and momenta of the system fall, are all

equally likely to occur.

∗

94. A System of Particles. Consider now a system contain-

ing N

a

particles which have the mass m

a

when at rest, N

b

particles

which have the mass m

b

, N

c

particles which have the mass m

c

, etc.

If at any given instant we specify the particular diﬀerential element

dx dy dz dψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

which contains the coördinates x, y, z, and the cor-

responding momenta ψ

x

, ψ

y

, ψ

z

for each particle, we shall thereby com-

pletely determine what Planck

†

has well called the microscopic state of

the system, and by the previous paragraph any microscopic state of the

system in which we thus specify the six-dimensional position of each

particle is just as likely to occur as any other microscopic state.

It must be noticed, however, that many of the possible micro-

scopic states which are determined by specifying the six-dimensional

position of each individual particle are in reality completely identi-

cal, since if all the particles having a given mass m

a

are alike among

themselves, it makes no diﬀerence which particular one of the various

available identical particles we pick out to put into a speciﬁed range

dx dy dz dψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

.

For this reason we shall usually be interested in specifying the sta-

tistical state

‡

of the system, for which purpose we shall merely state

the number of particles of a given kind which have coördinates falling

in a given range dx dy dz dψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

. We see that corresponding to

any given statistical state there will be in general a large number of

microscopic states.

∗

The criterion here used for determining whether or not the states are equally

liable to occur is obviously a necessary requirement, although it is not so evident

that it is a suﬃcient requirement for equal probability.

†

Planck, Wärmestrahlung, Leipzig, 1913.

‡

What we have here deﬁned as the statistical state is what Planck calls the

macroscopic state of the system. The word macroscopic is unfortunate, however, in

implying a less minute observation as to the size of the elements dxdy dz dψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

in which the representative points are found.

Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 117

95. Probability of a Given Statistical State. We shall now be

particularly interested in the probability that the system of particles

will actually be in some speciﬁed statistical state, and since Liouville’s

theorem has justiﬁed our belief that all microscopic states are equally

likely to occur, we see that the probability of a given statistical state will

be proportional to the number of microscopic states which correspond

to it.

For the system under consideration let a particular statistical state

be speciﬁed by stating that N

a

, N

a

, N

a

, · · · , N

b

, N

b

, N

b

, · · · , etc.,

are the number of particles of the corresponding masses m

a

, m

b

, etc.,

which fall in the speciﬁed elementary regions dx dy dz dψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

, Nos.

1a, 2a, 3a, · · · , 1b, 2b, 3b, · · · , etc. By familiar methods of calculation

it is evident that the number of arrangements by which the particu-

lar distribution of particles can be eﬀected, that is, in other words,

the number of microscopic states, W, which correspond to the given

statistical state, is given by the expression

W =

N

a

! N

b

! N

c

! · · ·

N

a

! N

a

! N

a

! · · · N

b

! N

b

! N

b

! · · ·

and this number W is proportional to the probability that the system

will be found in the particular statistical state considered.

If now we assume that each of the regions

dx dy dz dψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

, Nos. 1a, 2a, 3a, · · · , 1b, 2b, 3b, · · · etc.

is great enough to contain a large number of particles,

∗

we may apply

the Stirling formula

N! =

√

2π N

N

N

∗

The idea of successive orders of inﬁnitesimals which permit the diﬀerential

region dxdy dz dψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

, to contain a large number of particles is a familiar one

in mathematics.

Chapter Eight. 118

for evaluating N

a

!, N

b

!, etc., and omitting negligible terms, shall obtain

for log W the result

log W = −N

a

N

a

N

a

log

N

a

N

a

+

N

a

N

a

log

N

a

N

a

+

N

a

N

a

log

N

a

N

a

+· · ·

−N

b

N

b

N

b

log

N

b

N

b

+

N

b

N

b

log

N

b

N

b

+

N

b

N

b

log

N

b

N

b

+· · ·

,

etc.

For simplicity let us denote the ratios

N

a

N

a

,

N

a

N

a

, etc., by the symbols

w

a

, w

a

**, etc. These quantities w
**

a

, w

a

**, etc., are evidently the prob-
**

abilities, in the case of this particular statistical state, that any given

particle m

a

will be found in the respective regions Nos. 1a, 2a, etc.

We may now write

log W = −N

a

¸

w

a

log w

a

−N

b

¸

w

b

log w

b

−, etc.,

where the summation extends over all the regions Nos. 1a, 2a, · · · 1b,

2b, etc.

96. Equilibrium Relations. Let us now suppose that the system

of particles is contained in an enclosed space and has the deﬁnite energy

content E. Let us ﬁnd the most probable distribution of the particles.

For this the necessary condition will be

δ log W = −N

a

¸

(log w

a

+ 1) δw

a

−N

b

¸

(log w

b

+ 1) δw

b

· · · = 0. (114)

In carrying out our variation, however, the number of particles of each

kind must remain constant so that we have the added relations

¸

δw

a

= 0,

¸

δw

b

= 0, etc. (115)

Finally, since the energy is to have a deﬁnite value E, it must also

remain constant in the variation, which will provide still a further re-

lation. Since the energy of a particle will be a deﬁnite function of its

Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 119

position and momentum,

∗

let us write the energy of the system in the

form

E = N

a

¸

w

a

E

a

+N

b

¸

w

b

E

b

+· · · ,

where E

a

is the energy of a particle in the region 1a, etc.

Since in carrying out our variation the energy is to remain constant,

we have the relation

E = N

a

¸

E

a

δw

a

+N

b

¸

E

b

δw

b

+· · · = 0. (116)

Solving the simultaneous equations (114), (115), (116) by familiar

methods we obtain

log w

a

+ 1 +λE

a

+µ

b

= 0,

log w

b

+ 1 +λE

b

+µ

b

= 0,

etc.,

where λ, µ

a

, µ

b

, etc., are undetermined constants. (It should be spe-

cially noticed that λ is the same constant in each of the series of equa-

tions.)

Transforming we have

w

a

= α

a

e

−hE

a

,

w

b

= α

b

e

−hE

b

,

etc.,

(117)

as the expressions which determine the chance that a given particle of

mass m

a

, m

b

, etc., will fall in a given region dx dy dz dψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

, when

we have the distribution of maximum probability. It should be noticed

that h, which corresponds to the λ of the preceding equations, is the

same constant in all of the equations, while α

a

, α

b

, etc., are diﬀerent

constants, depending on the mass of the particles m

a

, m

b

, etc.

∗

We thus exclude from our considerations systems in which the potential energy

depends appreciably on the relative positions of the independent particles.

Chapter Eight. 120

97. The Energy as a Function of the Momentum. E

a

, E

b

, etc.,

are of course functions of x, y, z, ψ

x

, ψ

y

, ψ

z

. Let us now obtain an

expression for E

a

in terms of these quantities. If there is no external

ﬁeld of force acting, the energy of a particle E

a

will be independent of

x, y, and z, and will be determined entirely by its velocity and mass.

In accordance with the theory of relativity we shall have

∗

E

a

=

m

a

c

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

, (118)

where m

a

is the mass of the particle at rest.

Let us now express E

a

as a function of ψ

x

, ψ

y

, ψ

z

.

We have from our equations (105) and (98), which were used for

deﬁning momentum

ψ

x

=

∂

∂ ˙ x

m

a

1 −

1 −

u

2

c

2

=

∂

∂ ˙ x

m

a

1 −

1 −

˙ x

2

+ ˙ y

2

+ ˙ z

2

c

2

=

m

0

˙ x

1 −

u

2

c

2

.

∗

This expression is that for the total energy of the particle, including that

internal energy m

0

c

2

which, according to relativity theory, the particle has when

it is at rest. (See Section 75.) It would be just as correct to substitute for E

a

in

equation (117) the value of the kinetic energy m

a

c

2

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

−1

instead of the

total energy

m

a

c

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

, since the two diﬀer merely by a constant m

a

c

2

which would

be taken care of by assigning a suitable value to α

a

.

Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 121

Constructing the similar expressions for ψ

y

and ψ

z

we may write the

relation

ψ

2

= ψ

2

x

+ψ

2

y

+ψ

2

z

=

m

2

a

( ˙ x

2

+ ˙ y

2

+ ˙ z

2

)

1 −

u

2

c

2

=

m

2

a

u

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

, (119)

which also deﬁnes ψ

2

.

By simple transformations and the introduction of equation (118)

we obtain the desired relation

E

a

= c

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

. (120)

98. The Distribution Law. We may now rewrite equations (117)

in the form

w

a

= α

a

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

,

w

b

= α

b

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

b

2

c

2

,

etc.

(121)

These expressions determine the probability that a given particle of

mass m

a

, m

b

, etc., will fall in a given region dx dy dz dψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

, and

correspond to Maxwell’s distribution law in ordinary mechanics. We

see that these probabilities are independent of the position x, y, z

∗

but

dependent on the momentum.

α

a

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

is the probability that a given particle will fall in

a particular six-dimensional cube of volume dx dy dz dψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

. Let

us now introduce, for convenience, a new quantity a

a

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

which will be the probability per unit volume that a given particle will

have the six dimensional location in question, the constants α

a

and a

a

standing in the same ratio as the volumes dx dy dz dψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

and

unity.

∗

This is true only when, as assumed, no external ﬁeld of force is acting.

Chapter Eight. 122

We may then write

w

a

= α

a

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

= a

a

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

dx dy dz dψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

w

b

= α

b

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

b

2

c

2

= a

b

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

b

2

c

2

dx dy dz dψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

etc.

Since every particle must have components of momentum lying be-

tween minus and plus inﬁnity, and lie somewhere in the whole volume V

occupied by the mixture, we have the relation

V

+∞

−∞

+∞

−∞

+∞

−∞

a

a

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

dψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

= 1. (122)

It is further evident that the average value of any quantity A which

depends on the momentum of the particles is given by the expression

[A]

av.

= V

+∞

−∞

+∞

−∞

+∞

−∞

a

a

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

Adψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

, (123)

where A is some function of ψ

x

, ψ

y

, and ψ

z

.

99. Polar Coördinates. We may express relations correspond-

ing to (122) and (123) more simply if we make use of polar coördi-

nates. Consider instead of the elementary volume dψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

the vol-

ume ψ

2

sin θ dθ dφdψ expressed in polar coördinates, where

ψ

2

= ψ

x

2

+ψ

y

2

+ψ

z

2

.

The probability that a particle m

a

will fall in the region

dx dy dz ψ

2

sin θ dθ dφdψ

will be

a

a

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

dx dy dz ψ

2

sin θ dθ dφdψ,

Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 123

and since each particle must fall somewhere in the space x y z ψ

x

ψ

y

ψ

z

we shall have corresponding to (122) the relation

V

π

0

2π

0

∞

0

a

a

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

ψ

2

sin θ dθ dφdψ = 1,

4πV

∞

0

a

a

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

ψ

2

dψ = 1.

(124)

Corresponding to equation (123), we also see that the average value of

any quantity A, which is dependent on the momentum of the molecules

of mass m

a

, will be given by the expression

[A]

av.

= 4πV

∞

0

a

a

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

Aψ

2

dψ. (125)

100. The Law of Equipartition. We may now obtain a law

which corresponds to that of the equipartition of vis viva in the classical

mechanics. Considering equation (124) let us integrate by parts, we

obtain

¸

4πV a

a

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

ψ

3

3

ψ=∞

ψ=0

−4πV

∞

0

ψ

3

3

a

a

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

(−hc)

ψ

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

dψ = 1.

Substituting the limits into the ﬁrst term we ﬁnd that it becomes zero

and may write

4πV

∞

0

a

a

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

ψ

2

c

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

ψ

2

dψ =

3

h

.

But by equation (125) the left-hand side of this relation is the av-

erage value of

ψ

2

c

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

for the particles of mass m

a

. We have

¸

ψ

2

c

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

¸

av.

=

3

h

.

Chapter Eight. 124

Introducing equation (119) which deﬁnes ψ

2

, we may transform this

expression into

¸

m

a

u

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

av.

=

3

h

. (126)

Since we have shown that h is independent of the mass of the parti-

cles, we see that the average value of

m

0

u

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

is the same for particles

of all diﬀerent masses. This is the principle in relativity mechanics

that corresponds to the law of the equipartition of vis viva in the clas-

sical mechanics. Indeed, for low velocities the above expression reduces

to m

0

u

2

, the vis viva of Newtonian mechanics, a fact which aﬀords an

illustration of the general principle that the laws of Newtonian mechan-

ics are always the limiting form assumed at low velocities by the more

exact formulations of relativity mechanics.

We may now call attention in passing to the fact that this quantity

m

0

u

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

, whose value is the same for particles of diﬀerent masses, is

not the relativity expression for kinetic energy, which is given rather

by the formula c

2

¸

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

−m

0

¸

. So that in relativity mechanics the

principle of the equipartition of energy is merely an approximation. We

shall later return to this subject.

101. Criterion for Equality of Temperature. For a system of

particles of masses m

a

, m

b

, etc., enclosed in the volume V , and having

the deﬁnite energy content E, we have shown that

4πV a

a

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

ψ

2

dψ

Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 125

and

4πV a

b

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

b

2

c

2

ψ

2

dψ

are the respective probabilities that given particles of mass m

a

or

mass m

b

will have momenta between ψ and ψ + dψ. Suppose now

we consider a diﬀerently arranged system in which we have N

a

parti-

cles of mass m

a

by themselves in a space of volume V

a

and N

b

particles

of mass m

b

in a contiguous space of volume V

b

, separated from V

a

by

a partition which permits a transfer of energy, and let the total energy

of the double system be, as before, a deﬁnite quantity E (the energy

content of the partition being taken as negligible). Then, by reasoning

entirely similar to that just employed, we can obviously show that

4πV

a

a

a

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

a

2

c

2

ψ

2

dψ

and

4πV

b

a

b

e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

b

2

c

2

ψ

2

dψ

are now the respective probabilities that given particles of mass m

a

or

mass m

b

will have momenta between ψ and ψ + dψ, the only changes

in the expressions being the substitution of the volumes V

a

and V

b

in

the place of the one volume V . Furthermore, this distribution law will

evidently lead as before to the equality of the average values of

m

a

u

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

and

m

b

u

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

.

Since, however, the spaces containing the two kinds of particles are in

thermal contact, their temperature is the same. Hence we ﬁnd that the

equality of the average values of

m

0

u

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

is the necessary condition for

equality of temperature.

Chapter Eight. 126

The above distribution law also leads to the important corollary that

for any given system of particles at a deﬁnite temperature the momenta

and hence the total energy content is independent of the volume.

We may now proceed to the derivation of relations which will permit

us to show that the important quantity

m

0

u

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

is directly propor-

tional to the temperature as measured on the absolute thermodynamic

temperature scale.

102. Pressure Exerted by a System of Particles. We ﬁrst

need to obtain an expression for the pressure exerted by a system of

N particles enclosed in the volume V . Consider an element of surface dS

perpendicular to the X axis, and let the pressure acting on it be p. The

total force which the element dS exerts on the particles that impinge

will be p dS, and this will be equal to the rate of change of the momenta

in the X direction of these particles.

∗

Now by equation (122) the total number of particles having mo-

menta between ψ

x

and ψ

x

+dψ

x

in the positive direction is

NV

ψ

x

+dψ

x

ψ

x

+∞

−∞

+∞

−∞

a e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

0

2

c

2

dψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

.

But ˙ x dS gives us the volume which contains the number of particles

having momenta between ψ

x

and ψ

x

+ dψ

x

which will reach dS in a

second. Hence the number of such particles which impinge per second

will be

NV

˙ x dS

V

ψ

x

+dψ

x

ψ

x

+∞

−∞

+∞

−∞

a e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

0

2

c

2

dψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

.

and their change in momentum, allowing for the eﬀect of the rebound,

∗

The system is considered dilute enough for the mutual attractions of the par-

ticles to be negligible in their eﬀect on the external pressure.

Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 127

will be

2N dS

ψ

x

+dψ

x

ψ

x

+∞

−∞

+∞

−∞

a e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

0

2

c

2

ψ

x

˙ x dψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

.

Finally, the total change in momentum per second for all particles can

be found by integrating for all possible positive values of ψ

x

. Equating

this to the total force p dS we have

p dS = 2N dS

∞

0

+∞

−∞

+∞

−∞

a e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

0

2

c

2

ψ

x

˙ x dψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

.

Cancelling dS, multiplying both sides of the equation by the volume V ,

changing the limits of integration and substituting

m

0

˙ x

1 +

u

2

c

2

for ψ

x

, we

have

pV = NV

+∞

−∞

+∞

−∞

+∞

−∞

a e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

0

2

c

2

m

0

˙ x

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

dψ

x

dψ

y

dψ

z

.

But this by equation (123) reduces to

pV = N

¸

m

0

˙ x

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

av.

or, since

m

0

u

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

=

m

0

˙ x

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

+

m

0

˙ y

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

+

m

0

˙ z

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

we have from symmetry

pV =

N

3

¸

m

0

u

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

av.

. (127)

Chapter Eight. 128

Since at a given temperature we have seen that the term in parenthesis

is independent of the volume and the nature of the particles, we see

that the laws of Boyle and Avogadro hold also in relativity mechanics

for a system of particles.

For slow velocities equation (127) reduces to the familiar expression

pV =

N

3

(m

0

u

2

)

av.

.

103. The Relativity Expression for Temperature. We are now

in a position to derive the relativity expression for temperature. The

thermodynamic scale of temperature may be deﬁned in terms of the

eﬃciency of a heat engine. Consider a four-step cycle performed with

a working substance contained in a cylinder provided with a piston.

In the ﬁrst step let the substance expand isothermally and reversibly,

absorbing the heat Q

2

from a reservoir at temperature T

2

; in the second

step cool the cylinder down at constant volume to T

1

; in the third step

compress to the original volume, giving out the heat Q

1

at tempera-

ture T

1

, and in the fourth step heat to the original temperature. Now

if the working substance is of such a nature that the heat given out in

the second step could be used for the reversible heating of the cylinder

in the fourth step, we may deﬁne the absolute temperatures T

2

and T

1

by the relation

T

2

T

1

=

Q

2

Q

1

.

∗

Consider now such a cycle performed on a cylinder which contains

one of our systems of particles. Since we have shown (Section 101) that

at a deﬁnite temperature the energy content of such a system is inde-

pendent of the volume, it is evident that our working substance fulﬁls

the requirement that the heat given out in the second step shall be suf-

ﬁcient for the reversible heating in the last step. Hence, in accordance

with the thermodynamic scale, we may measure the temperatures of

the two heat reservoirs by the relation

T

2

T

1

=

Q

2

Q

1

and may proceed to

∗

We have used this cycle for deﬁning the thermodynamic temperature scale

instead of the familiar Carnot cycle, since it avoids the necessity of obtaining an

expression for the relation between pressure and volume in an adiabatic expansion.

Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 129

obtain expressions for Q

2

and Q

1

.

In order to obtain these expressions we may again make use of the

principle that the energy content at a deﬁnite temperature is indepen-

dent of the volume. This being true, we see that Q

2

and Q

1

must

be equal to the work done in the changes of volume that take place

respectively at T

2

and T

1

, and we may write the relations

Q

2

=

V

V

p dV (at T

2

),

Q

1

=

V

V

p dV (at T

1

).

But equation (127) provides an expression for p in terms of V , leading

on integration to the relations

Q

2

=

N

3

¸

m

0

u

2

2

1 −

u

2

2

c

2

¸

av.

log

V

V

,

Q

1

=

N

3

¸

m

0

u

1

2

1 −

u

1

2

c

2

¸

av.

log

V

V

,

which gives us on division

T

2

T

1

=

Q

2

Q

1

=

¸

m

0

u

2

2

1 −

u

2

2

c

2

¸

av.

¸

m

0

u

1

2

1 −

u

1

2

c

2

¸

av.

.

We see that the absolute temperature measured on the thermody-

namic scale is proportional to the average value of

m

0

u

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

.

Chapter Eight. 130

We may ﬁnally express our temperature in the same units custom-

arily employed by comparing equation (127)

pV =

N

3

¸

m

0

u

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

av.

,

with the ordinary form of the gas law

pV = nRT,

where n is the number of mols of gas present.

We evidently obtain

nRT =

N

3

¸

m

0

u

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

av.

,

T =

N

3nR

¸

m

0

u

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

av.

=

1

3k

¸

m

0

u

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

av.

,

(128)

where the quantity

nR

N

, which may be called the gas constant for a

single molecule, has been denoted, as is customary, by the letter k.

Remembering the relation

¸

m

0

˙ x

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

av.

=

3

h

, we have

kT =

1

h

. (129)

104. The Partition of Energy. We have seen that our new

equipartition law precludes the possibility of an exact equipartition of

energy. It becomes very important to see what the average energy of a

particle of a given mass does become at any temperature.

Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 131

Equation (125) provides a general expression for the average value

of any property of the particles. For the average value of the energy

c

ψ

2

+m

0

2

c

2

of particles of mass m

0

(see equation 120) we shall have

[E]

av.

= 4πV

∞

0

a e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

0

2

c

2

c

ψ

2

+m

0

2

c

2

ψ

2

dψ.

The unknown constant a may be eliminated with the help of the rela-

tion (124)

4πV

∞

0

a e

−hc

√

ψ

2

+m

0

2

c

2

ψ

2

dψ = 1

and for h we may substitute the value given by (129), which gives us

the desired equation

[E]

av.

=

∞

0

e

−(c/kT)

√

ψ

2

+m

0

2

c

2

c

ψ

2

+m

0

2

c

2

ψ

2

dψ

∞

0

e

−(c/kT)

√

ψ

2

+m

0

2

c

2

ψ

2

dψ

. (130)

105. Partition of Energy for Zero Mass. Unfortunately, no gen-

eral method for the evaluation of this expression seems to be available.

For the particular case that the mass m

0

of the particles approaches

zero compared to the momentum, the expression reduces to

[E]

av.

=

c

∞

0

e

−(cψ/kT)

ψ

3

dψ

∞

0

e

−(cψ/kT)

ψ

2

dψ

in terms of integrals whose values are known. Evaluating, we obtain

[E]

av.

= 3kT.

For the total energy of N such particles we obtain

E = 3NkT,

Chapter Eight. 132

and introducing the relation k =

nR

N

by which we deﬁned k we have

E = 3nRT (131)

as the expression for the energy of n mols of particles if their value

of m

0

is small compared with their momentum.

It is instructive to compare this with the ordinary expression of

Newtonian mechanics

E =

3

2

nRT,

which undoubtedly holds when the masses are so large and the velocities

so small that no appreciable deviations from the laws of Newtonian

mechanics are to be expected. We see that for particles of very small

mass the average kinetic energy at any temperature is twice as large as

that for large particles at the same temperature. It is also interesting

to note that in accordance with equation (131) a mol of particles which

approach zero mass at the absolute zero, would have a mass of

3 ×8.31 ×10

7

×300

10

21

= 7.47 ×10

−11

grams at room temperature (300

◦

absolute). This suggests a ﬁeld of

fascinating if proﬁtless speculation.

106. Approximate Partition of Energy for Particles of any

Desired Mass. For particles of any desired mass we may obtain an

approximate idea of the relation between energy and temperature by

expanding the expression for kinetic energy into a series. For the aver-

age kinetic energy of a particle we have

[K]

av.

= c

2

¸

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

−m

0

¸

av.

.

Expanding into a series we obtain for the total kinetic energy of N par-

ticles

K = Nm

0

1

2

u

2

+

3

8

u

4

c

2

+

15

48

u

6

c

4

+

105

384

u

8

c

6

+· · ·

, (132)

Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 133

where u

2

, u

4

, etc., are the average values of u

2

, u

4

, etc., for the indi-

vidual particles.

To determine approximately how the value of K varies with the

temperature we may also expand our expression (128) for temperature,

T =

1

3k

¸

m

0

u

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

Av.

,

into a series; we obtain

3

2

kNT =

3

2

nRT = Nm

0

1

2

u

2

+

1

4

u

4

c

2

+

3

16

u

6

c

4

+

15

96

u

8

c

6

+· · ·

. (133)

Combining expressions (132) and (133) by subtraction and transposi-

tion, we obtain

K =

3

2

nRT +Nm

0

1

8

u

4

c

2

+

1

8

u

6

c

4

+

15

128

u

8

c

6

+· · ·

. (134)

For the case of velocities low enough so that u

4

and higher powers

can be neglected, this reduces to the familiar expression of Newtonian

mechanics, K =

3

2

nRT.

In case we neglect in expression (134) powers higher than u

4

we

have the approximate relation

Nm

0

u

4

8c

2

=

1

2Nm

0

c

2

Nm

0

u

2

2

2

,

the left-hand term really being the larger, since the average square of a

quantity is greater than the square of its average. Since

Nm

0

u

2

2

2

is

approximately equal to

3

2

nRT

2

, we may write the approximation

K =

3

2

nRT +

1

2Nm

0

c

2

3

2

nRT

2

,

Chapter Eight. 134

or, noting that Nm

0

= M, the total mass of the system at the absolute

zero, we have

K =

3

2

nRT +

9

8

n

2

R

2

Mc

2

T

2

.

If we use the erg as our unit of energy, R will be 8.31 ×10

7

; expressing

velocities in centimeters per second, c

2

will be 10

21

, and M will be the

mass of the system in grams.

For one mol of a monatomic gas we should have in ergs

K = 12.4 ×10

7

T +

7.77

M

10

−6

T

2

.

In the case of the electron M may be taken as approximately 1/1800.

At room temperature the second term of our equation would be en-

tirely negligible, being only 3.5 × 10

−6

per cent of the ﬁrst, and still

be only 3.5 × 10

−4

per cent in a ﬁxed star having a temperature of

30, 000

◦

. Hence at all ordinary temperatures we may expect the law

of the equipartition of energy to be substantially exact for particles of

mass as small as the electron.

Our purpose in carrying through the calculations of this chapter has

been to show that a very important and interesting problem in the clas-

sical mechanics can be handled just as easily in the newer mechanics,

and also to point out the nature of the modiﬁcations in existing theory

which will have to be introduced if the later developments of physics

should force us to consider equilibrium relations for particles of mass

much smaller than that of the electron.

We may also call attention to the fact that we have here considered a

system whose equations of motion agree with the principles of dynamics

and yet do not lead to the equipartition of energy. This is of particular

interest at a time when many scientists have thought that the failure

of equipartition in the hohlraum stood in necessary conﬂict with the

principles of dynamics.

CHAPTER IX.

THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY AND THE PRINCIPLE OF

LEAST ACTION.

It has been shown by the work of Helmholtz, J. J. Thomson, Planck

and others that the principle of least action is applicable in the most

diverse ﬁelds of physical science, and is perhaps the most general dy-

namical principle at our disposal. Indeed, for any system whose future

behavior is determined by the instantaneous values of a number of

coördinates and their time rate of change, it seems possible to throw

the equations describing the behavior of the system into the form pre-

scribed by the principle of least action. This generality of the principle

of least action makes it very desirable to develop the relation between it

and the principle of relativity, and we shall obtain in this way the most

important and most general method for deriving the consequences of

the theory of relativity. We have already developed in Chapter VII the

particular application of the principle of least action in the case of a

system of particles, and with the help of the more general development

which we are about to present, we shall be able to apply the princi-

ple of relativity to the theories of elasticity, of thermodynamics and of

electricity and magnetism.

107. The Principle of Least Action. For our purposes the prin-

ciple of least action may be most simply stated by the equation

t

2

t

1

(δH +W) dt = 0. (135)

This equation applies to any system whose behavior is determined by

the values of a number of independent coördinates φ

1

φ

2

φ

3

· · · and their

rate of change with the time

˙

φ

1

˙

φ

2

˙

φ

3

· · · , and the equation describes the

path by which the system travels from its conﬁguration at any time t

1

to its conﬁguration at any subsequent time t

2

.

H is the so-called kinetic potential of the system and is a function

135

Chapter Nine. 136

of the coördinates and their generalized velocities:

H = F(φ

1

φ

2

φ

3

· · ·

˙

φ

1

˙

φ

2

˙

φ

3

· · · ). (136)

δH is the variation of H at any instant corresponding to a slightly

displaced path by which the system might travel from the same initial

to the same ﬁnal state in the same time interval, and W is the external

work corresponding to the variation δ which would be done on the

system by the external forces if at the instant in question the system

should be displaced from its actual conﬁguration to its conﬁguration

on the displaced path. Thus

W = Φ

1

δφ

1

+ Φ

2

δφ

2

+ Φ

3

δφ

3

+· · · , (137)

where Φ

1

, Φ

2

, etc., are the so-called generalized external forces which

act in such a direction as to increase the values of the corresponding

coördinates.

The form of the function which determines the kinetic potential H

depends on the particular nature of the system to which the principle

of least action is being applied, and it is one of the chief tasks of gen-

eral physics to discover the form of the function in the various ﬁelds

of mechanical, electrical and thermodynamic investigation. As soon as

we have found out experimentally what the form of H is for any par-

ticular ﬁeld of investigation, the principle of least action, as expressed

by equation (135), becomes the basic equation for the mathematical

development of the ﬁeld in question, a development which can then be

carried out by well-known methods.

The special task for the theory of relativity will be to ﬁnd a general

relation applicable to any kind of a system, which shall connect the

value of the kinetic potential H as measured with respect to a set of

coördinates S with its value H

**as measured with reference to another
**

set of coördinates S

**which is in motion relative to S. This relation
**

will of course be of such a nature as to agree with the principle of the

relativity of motion, and in this way we shall introduce the principle of

Relativity and the Principle of Least Action. 137

relativity at the very start into the fundamental equation for all ﬁelds

of dynamics.

Before proceeding to the solution of that problem we may put the

principle of least action into another form which is sometimes more

convenient, by obtaining the equations for the motion of a system in

the so-called Lagrangian form.

108. The Equations of Motion in the Lagrangian Form. To

obtain the equations of motion in the Lagrangian form we may evidently

rewrite our fundamental equation (135) in the form

t

2

t

1

∂H

∂φ

1

δφ

1

+

∂H

∂φ

2

δφ

2

+· · · +

∂H

∂

˙

φ

1

δ

˙

φ

1

+

∂H

∂

˙

φ

2

δ

˙

φ

2

+· · ·

+ Φ

1

δφ

1

+ Φ

2

δφ

2

+· · ·

dt = 0

(138)

We have now, however,

δ

˙

φ

1

=

d

dt

(δφ

1

), δ

˙

φ

2

=

d

dt

(δφ

2

), etc.,

which gives us

t

2

t

1

∂H

∂

˙

φ

1

δ

˙

φ

1

dt =

t

2

t

1

∂H

∂

˙

φ

1

d

dt

(δφ

1

) dt

=

¸

∂H

∂

˙

φ

1

δφ

1

t

2

t

1

−

t

2

t

1

δφ

1

d

dt

∂H

∂

˙

φ

1

dt,

or, since δφ

1

, δφ

2

, etc., are by hypothesis zero at times t

1

and t

2

, we

obtain

t

2

t

1

∂H

∂

˙

φ

1

δ

˙

φ

1

= −

t

2

t

1

d

dt

∂H

∂

˙

φ

1

δφ

1

dt,

t

2

t

1

∂H

∂

˙

φ

2

δ

˙

φ

2

= −

t

2

t

1

d

dt

∂H

∂

˙

φ

2

δφ

2

dt,

etc.

Chapter Nine. 138

On substituting these expressions in (138) we obtain

t

2

t

1

¸

∂H

∂φ

1

−

d

dt

∂H

∂

˙

φ

1

+ Φ

1

δφ

1

+

∂H

∂φ

2

−

d

dt

∂H

∂

˙

φ

2

+ Φ

2

δφ

2

+· · ·

dt = 0,

and since the variations of φ

1

, φ

2

, etc., are entirely independent and the

limits of integration t

1

and t

2

are entirely at our disposal, this equation

will be true only when each of the following equations is true. And

these are the equations of motion in the desired Lagrangian form,

d

dt

∂H

∂

˙

φ

1

−

∂H

∂φ

1

= Φ

1

,

d

dt

∂H

∂

˙

φ

2

−

∂H

∂φ

2

= Φ

2

,

etc.

(139)

In these equations H is the kinetic potential of a system whose state

is determined by the generalized coördinates φ

1

, φ

2

, etc., and their time

derivatives

˙

φ

1

,

˙

φ

2

etc., where Φ

1

, Φ

2

, etc., are the generalized external

forces acting on the system in such a sense as to tend to increase the

values of the corresponding generalized coördinates.

109. Introduction of the Principle of Relativity. Let us now

investigate the relation between our dynamical principle and the prin-

ciple of the relativity of motion. To do this we must derive an equation

for transforming the kinetic potential H for a given system from one

set of coördinates to another. In other words, if S and S

**are two sets of
**

reference axes, S

**moving past S in the X direction with the velocity V ,
**

what will be the relation between H and H

**, the values for the kinetic
**

potential of a given system as measured with reference to S and S

?

It is evident from the theory of relativity that our fundamental

equation (135) must hold for the behavior of a given system using either

Relativity and the Principle of Least Action. 139

set of coördinates S or S

, so that both of the equations

t

2

t

1

(δH +W) dt = 0 and

t

2

t

1

(δH

+W

) dt

= 0, (140)

or

t

2

t

1

(δH +W) dt =

t

2

t

1

(δH

+W

) dt

= 0,

must hold for a given process, where it will be necessary, of course, to

choose the limits of integration t

1

and t

2

, t

1

and t

2

**wide enough apart
**

so that for both sets of coördinates the varied motion will be completed

within the time interval. Since we shall ﬁnd it possible now to show

that in general

W dt =

W

dt

**, we shall be able to obtain from the
**

above equations a simple relation between H and H

.

110. Relation between

W dt and

W

dt

. To obtain the de-

sired proof we must call attention in the ﬁrst place to the fact that all

kinds of force which can act at a given point must be governed by the

same transformation equations when changing from system S to sys-

tem S

**. This arises because when two forces of a diﬀerent nature are of
**

such a magnitude as to exactly balance each other and produce no ac-

celeration for measurements made with one set of coördinates they must

evidently do so for any set of coördinates (see Chapter IV, Section 42).

Since we have already found transformation equations for the force act-

ing at a point, in our consideration of the dynamics of a particle, we

may now use these expressions in general for the evaluation

W

dt

.

W

**is the work which would be done by the external forces if at any
**

instant t

**we should displace our system from its actual conﬁguration
**

to the simultaneous conﬁguration on the displaced path. Hence it is

evident that

W

dt

will be equal to a sum of terms of the type

(F

x

δx

+F

y

δy

+F

z

δz

) dt

,

where F

x

, F

y

, F

z

**, is the force acting at a given point of the system and
**

δx

, δy

, δz

**are the displacements necessary to reach the corresponding
**

Chapter Nine. 140

point on the displaced path, all these quantities being measured with

respect to S

.

Into this expression we may substitute, however, in accordance with

equations (61), (62), (63) and (13), the values

F

x

= F

x

−

˙ yV

c

2

1

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

F

y

−

˙ zV

c

2

1

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

F

z

,

F

y

=

F

y

κ

−1

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

,

F

z

=

F

z

κ

−1

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

,

dt

= κ

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

dt.

(141)

We may also make substitutions for δx

, δy

and δz

in terms of

δx, δy and δz, but to obtain transformation equations for these quan-

tities is somewhat complicated owing to the fact that positions on the

actual and displaced path, which are simultaneous when measured with

respect to S

**, will not be simultaneous with respect to S. We have de-
**

noted by t

the time in system S

**when the point on the actual path
**

has the position x

, y

, z

**and simultaneously the point on the displaced
**

path has the position (x

+ δx

), (y

+ δy

), (z

+ δz

), when measured

in system S

**, or by our fundamental transformation equations (9), (10)
**

and (11) the positions κ(x

+V t

), y

, z

and κ

[x

+δx

]+V t

, (y

+δy

),

(z

+ δz

**) when measured in system S. If now we denote by t
**

A

and t

D

the corresponding times in system S we shall have, by our fundamental

transformation equation (12),

t

A

= κ

t

+

V x

c

2

,

t

D

= κ

t

+

V

c

2

[x

+δx

]

,

Relativity and the Principle of Least Action. 141

and we see that in system S the point has reached the displaced position

at a time later than that of the actual position by the amount

t

D

−t

A

=

κV

c

2

δx

,

and, since during this time-interval the displaced point would have

moved, neglecting higher-order terms, the distances

˙ x

κV

c

2

δx

, ˙ y

κV

c

2

δx

, ˙ z

κV

c

2

δx

,

these quantities must be subtracted from the coördinates of the dis-

placed point in order to obtain a position on the displaced path which

will be simultaneous with t

A

as measured in system S. We obtain for

the simultaneous position on the displaced path

κ

[x

+δx

] +V t

−κ

˙ xV

c

2

δx

, y

+δy

−κ

˙ xV

c

2

x

,

z

+δz

−κ

˙ zV

c

2

δx

,

and for the corresponding position on the actual path

κ(x

+V t

), y

, z

,

and obtain by subtraction

δx = κ

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

δx

,

δy = δy

−κ

˙ yV

c

2

δx

,

δz = δz

−κ

˙ zV

c

2

δx

.

(142)

Chapter Nine. 142

Substituting now these equations, together with the other transforma-

tion equations (141), in our expression we obtain

(F

x

δx

+F

y

δy

+F

z

δz

) dt

=

¸

F

x

−

˙ yV

c

2

F

y

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

−

˙ zV

c

2

F

z

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

¸

κ

−1

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

δx

+

κ

−1

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

F

y

¸

δy +

˙ yV/c

2

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

δx

¸

+

κ

−1

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

F

z

¸

δz +

˙ zV/c

2

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

δx

¸

κ

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

=

(F

x

δx +F

y

δy +F

z

δz) dt

.

(143)

We thus see that we must always have the general equality

W

dt

=

W dt. (144)

111. Relation between H

**and H. Introducing this equation
**

into our earlier expression (140) we obtain as a general relation between

H

and H

δH

dt

=

δH dt. (145)

Restricting ourselves to systems of such a nature that we can assign

them a deﬁnite velocity u = ˙ xi + ˙ yj + ˙ zk, we can rewrite this expression

in the following form, where by H

D

and H

A

we denote the values of the

kinetic potential respectively on the displaced and actual paths

δH

dt

=

H

D

dt

−

H

A

dt

=

H

D

κ

1 −

( ˙ x +δ ˙ x)V

c

2

dt

−

H

A

κ

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

dt =

H

D

dt −

H

A

dt,

Relativity and the Principle of Least Action. 143

and hence obtain for such systems the simple expression

H

=

H

κ

1 −

˙ xV

c

2

.

Noting the relation between

1 −

u

2

c

2

and

1 −

u

2

c

2

given in equa-

tion (17), this can be rewritten

H

1 −

u

2

c

2

=

H

1 −

u

2

c

2

, (146)

and this is the expression which we shall ﬁnd most useful for our future

development of the consequences of the theory of relativity. Expressing

the requirement of the equation in words we may say that the theory

of relativity requires an invariance of

H

1 −

u

2

c

2

in the Lorentz transfor-

mation.

112. As indicated above, the use of this equation is obviously

restricted to systems moving with some perfectly deﬁnite velocity u.

Systems satisfying this condition would include particles, inﬁnitesimal

portions of continuous systems, and larger systems in a steady state.

113. Our general method of procedure in diﬀerent ﬁelds of inves-

tigation will now be to examine the expression for kinetic potential

which is known to hold for the ﬁeld in question, provided the veloci-

ties involved are low and by making slight alterations when necessary,

see if this expression can be made to agree with the requirements of

equation (146) without changing its value for low velocities. Thus it is

well known, for example, that, in the case of low velocities, for a single

particle acted on by external forces the kinetic potential may be taken

as the kinetic energy

1

2

m

0

u

2

. For relativity mechanics, as will be seen

from the developments of Chapter VII, we may take for the kinetic

Chapter Nine. 144

potential, −m

0

c

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

, an expression which, except for an additive

constant, becomes identical with

1

2

m

0

u

2

at low velocities, and which at

all velocities agrees with equation (146).

CHAPTER X.

THE DYNAMICS OF ELASTIC BODIES.

We shall now treat with the help of the principle of least action

the rather complicated problem of the dynamics of continuous elastic

media. Our considerations will extend the appreciation of the intimate

relation between mass and energy which we found in our treatment

of the dynamics of a particle. We shall also be able to show that the

dynamics of a particle may be regarded as a special case of the dynamics

of a continuous elastic medium, and to apply our considerations to a

number of other important problems.

114. On the Impossibility of Absolutely Rigid Bodies. In

the older treatises on mechanics, after considering the dynamics of a

particle it was customary to proceed to a discussion of the dynamics

of rigid bodies. These rigid bodies were endowed with deﬁnite and

unchangeable size and shape and hence were assigned ﬁve degrees of

freedom, since it was necessary to state the values of ﬁve variables

completely to specify their position in space. As pointed out by Laue,

however, our newer ideas as to the velocity of light as a limiting value

will no longer permit us to conceive of a continuous body as having only

a ﬁnite number of degrees of freedom. This is evident since it is obvious

that we could start disturbances simultaneously at an indeﬁnite number

of points in a continuous body, and as these disturbances cannot spread

with inﬁnite velocity it will be necessary to give the values of an inﬁnite

number of variables in order completely to specify the succeeding states

of the system. For our newer mechanics the nearest approach to an

absolutely rigid body would of course be one in which disturbances

are transmitted with the velocity of light. Since, then, the theory of

relativity does not permit rigid bodies we may proceed at once to the

general theory of deformable bodies.

145

Chapter Ten. 146

part i. stress and strain.

115. Deﬁnition of Strain. In the more familiar developments of

the theory of elasticity it is customary to limit the considerations to

the case of strains small enough so that higher powers of the displace-

ments can be neglected, and this introduces considerable simpliﬁcation

into a science which under any circumstances is necessarily one of great

complication. Unfortunately for our purposes, we cannot in general in-

troduce such a simpliﬁcation if we wish to apply the theory of relativity,

since in consequence of the Lorentz shortening a body which appears

unstrained to one observer may appear tremendously compressed or

elongated to an observer moving with a diﬀerent velocity. The best

that we can do will be arbitrarily to choose our state of zero deforma-

tion such that the strains will be small when measured in the particular

system of coördinates S in which we are specially interested.

A theory of strains of any magnitude was ﬁrst attempted by Saint-

Venant and has been ampliﬁed and excellently presented by Love in

his Treatise on the Theory of Elasticity, Appendix to Chapter I. In

accordance with this theory, the strain at any point in a body is com-

pletely determined by six component strains which can be deﬁned by

the following equations, wherein (u, v, w) is the displacement of a point

having the unstrained position (x, y, z):

xx

=

∂u

∂x

+

1

2

∂u

∂x

2

+

∂v

∂x

2

+

∂w

∂x

2

¸

,

yy

=

∂y

∂v

+

1

2

∂u

∂y

2

+

∂v

∂y

2

+

∂w

∂y

2

¸

,

zz

=

∂w

∂z

+

1

2

∂u

∂z

2

+

∂v

∂z

2

+

∂w

∂z

2

¸

,

(148)

Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 147

yz

=

∂w

∂y

+

∂v

∂z

+

∂u

∂y

∂u

∂z

+

∂v

∂y

∂v

∂z

+

∂w

∂y

∂w

∂z

,

xz

=

∂w

∂x

+

∂u

∂z

+

∂u

∂x

∂u

∂z

+

∂v

∂x

∂v

∂z

+

∂w

∂x

∂w

∂z

,

xy

=

∂v

∂x

+

∂u

∂y

+

∂u

∂x

∂u

∂y

+

∂v

∂x

∂v

∂y

+

∂w

∂x

∂w

∂y

.

(148)

It will be seen that these expressions for strain reduce to those

familiar in the theory of small strains if such second-order quantities as

∂u

∂x

2

or

∂u

∂y

∂u

∂z

can be neglected.

116. A physical signiﬁcance for these strain components will be ob-

tained if we note that it can be shown from geometrical considerations

that lines which are originally parallel to the axes have, when strained,

the elongations

e

x

=

√

1 + 2

xx

−1,

e

y

=

1 + 2

yy

−1,

e

z

=

√

1 + 2

zz

−1,

(149)

and that the angles between lines originally parallel to the axes are

given in the strained condition by the expressions

cos θ

yz

=

yz

1 + 2

yy

√

1 + 2

zz

,

cos θ

xz

=

xz

√

1 + 2

xx

√

1 + 2

zz

,

cos θ

xy

=

xy

√

1 + 2

xx

1 + 2

yy

,

(150)

Geometrical considerations are also suﬃcient to show that in case

the strain is a simple elongation of amount e the following equation will

be true:

xx

l

2

=

yy

m

2

=

zz

n

2

=

yz

2mn

=

xz

2ln

=

xy

2lm

= e +

1

2

e

2

, (151)

Chapter Ten. 148

where l, m, n are the cosines which determine the direction of the

elongation.

117. Deﬁnition of Stress. We have just considered the expres-

sions for the strain at a given point in an elastic medium; we may now

deﬁne stress in terms of the work done in changing from one state of

strain to another. Considering the material contained in unit volume

when the body is unstrained, we may write, for the work done by this

material on its surroundings when a change in strain takes place,

δW = −δE = t

xx

δ

xx

+t

yy

δ

yy

+t

zz

δ

zz

+t

yz

δ

yz

+t

xz

δ

xz

+t

xy

δ

xy

,

(152)

and this equation serves to deﬁne the stresses t

xx

, t

yy

, etc. In case the

strain varies from point to point we must consider of course the work

done per unit volume of the unstrained material. In case the strains

are small it will be noticed that the stresses thus deﬁned are identical

with those used in the familiar theories of elasticity.

118. Transformation Equations for Strain. We must now pre-

pare for the introduction of the theory of relativity into our considera-

tions, by determining the way the strain at a given point P appears to

observers moving with diﬀerent velocities. Let the point P in question

be moving with the velocity u = xi +yj +zk as measured in system S.

Since the state of zero deformation from which to measure strains can

be chosen perfectly arbitrarily, let us for convenience take the strain as

zero as measured in system S, giving us

xx

=

yy

=

zz

=

yz

=

xz

=

xy

= 0. (153)

What now will be the strains as measured by an observer moving along

with the point P in question? Let us call the system of coördinates

used by this observer S

◦

. It is evident now from our considerations

as to the shape of moving systems presented in Chapter V that in

system S

◦

the material in the neighborhood of the point in question

will appear to have been elongated in the direction of motion in the ratio

Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 149

of 1 :

1 −

u

2

c

2

. Hence in system S

◦

the strain will be an elongation

e =

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

−1 (154)

in the line determined by the direction cosines

l =

˙ x

u

, m =

˙ y

u

, n =

˙ z

u

. (155)

We may now calculate from this elongation the components of strain

by using equation (151). We obtain

◦

xx

=

˙ x

2

2c

2

¸

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

,

◦

yy

=

˙ y

2

2c

2

¸

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

,

◦

zz

=

˙ z

2

2c

2

¸

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

,

◦

yz

=

˙ y ˙ z

c

2

¸

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

,

◦

xz

=

˙ x ˙ z

c

2

¸

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

,

◦

xy

=

˙ x ˙ y

c

2

¸

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

,

(156)

and these are the desired equations for the strains at the point P, the

accent

◦

indicating that they are measured with reference to a system

of coördinates S

◦

moving along with the point itself.

119. Variation in the Strain. We shall be particularly interested

in the variation in the strain as measured in S

◦

when the velocity

experiences a small variation δu, the strains remaining zero as measured

in S. For the sake of simplicity let us choose our coördinates in such

a way that the X axis is parallel to the original velocity, so that our

change in velocity will be from u = ˙ xi to

u +δu = ( ˙ x +δ ˙ x) i +δ ˙ y j +δ ˙ z k.

Taking δu small enough so that higher orders can be neglected, and

Chapter Ten. 150

noting that ˙ y = ˙ z = 0, we shall then have, from equations (156),

δ

◦

xx

=

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

2

˙ x

c

2

δ ˙ x, δ

◦

yy

= 0,

δ

◦

zz

= 0, δ

◦

yz

= 0,

δ

◦

xz

=

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

2

˙ x

c

2

δ ˙ z, δ

◦

xy

=

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

2

˙ x

c

2

δ ˙ y.

(157)

We shall also be interested in the variation in the strain as measured

in S

◦

produced by a variation in the strain as measured in S. Consid-

ering again for simplicity that the X axis is parallel to the motion of

the point, we must calculate the variation produced in

◦

xx

,

◦

yy

, etc.,

by changing the values of

xx

,

yy

, etc., from zero to δ

xx

, δ

yy

, etc.

The variation δ

xx

will produce a variation in

◦

xx

whose amount

can be calculated as follows: By equations (149) a line which has unit

length and is parallel to the X axis in the unstrained condition will

have when strained the length

√

1 + 2

xx

when measured in system S

and

√

1 + 2

◦

xx

when measured in system S

◦

. Since the strain in sys-

tem S is small, the line remains sensibly parallel to the X axis, which

is also the direction of motion, and these quantities will be connected

in accordance with the Lorentz shortening by the equation

√

1 + 2

xx

=

1 −

u

2

c

2

√

1 + 2

◦

xx

. (158)

Carrying out now our variation δ

xx

, neglecting

xx

in comparison with

larger quantities and noting that except for second order quantities,

√

1 + 2

◦

xx

=

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

(159)

we obtain

δ

◦

xx

=

δ

xx

1 −

u

2

c

2

. (160)

Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 151

Since the variations δ

yy

, δ

zz

, δ

yz

aﬀect only lines which are at

right angles to the direction of motion, we may evidently write

δ

◦

yy

= δ

yy

, δ

◦

zz

= δ

zz

, δ

◦

yz

= δ

yz

. (161)

To calculate δ

◦

xz

we may note that in accordance with equations (150)

we must have

cos θ

xz

=

xz

√

1 + 2

xx

√

1 + 2

zz

,

cos θ

◦

xz

=

◦

xz

√

1 + 2

◦

xx

√

1 + 2

◦

zz

,

where θ

xz

is the angle between lines which in the unstrained condition

are parallel to the X and Z axes respectively. In accordance with the

Lorentz shortening, however, we shall have

cos θ

xz

=

1 −

u

2

c

2

cos θ

◦

xz

.

Introducing this relation, remembering that

xx

=

◦

zz

= 0, and noting

equation (159), we obtain

δ

◦

xz

=

δ

xz

1 −

u

2

x

2

, (162)

and similarly

δ

◦

xy

=

δ

xy

1 −

u

2

x

2

. (163)

We may now combine these equations (160), (161), (162) and (163)

with those for the variation in strain with velocity and obtain the ﬁnal

Chapter Ten. 152

set which we desire:

δ

◦

xx

=

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

2

˙ x

c

2

δ ˙ x +

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

δ

xx

,

δ

◦

yy

= δ

yy

,

δ

◦

zz

= δ

zz

,

δ

◦

yz

= δ

yz

,

δ

◦

xz

=

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

2

˙ x

c

2

δ ˙ z +

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

δ

xz

,

δ

◦

xy

=

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

2

˙ x

c

2

δ ˙ y +

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

δ

xy

.

(164)

These equations give the variation in the strain measured in sys-

tem S

◦

at a point P moving in the X direction with velocity u, provided

the strains are negligibly small as measured in S.

part ii. introduction of the principle of least action.

120. The Kinetic Potential for an Elastic Body. We are now

in a position to develop the mechanics of an elastic body with the help

of the principle of least action. In Newtonian mechanics, as is well

known, the kinetic potential for unit volume of material at a given

point P in an elastic body may be put equal to the density of kinetic

energy minus the density of potential energy, and it is obvious that our

choice for kinetic potential must reduce to that value at low velocities.

Our choice of an expression for kinetic potential is furthermore limited

by the fundamental transformation equation for kinetic potential which

we found in the last chapter

H

1 −

u

2

c

2

=

H

1 −

u

2

c

2

. (146)

Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 153

Taking these requirements into consideration, we may write for the

kinetic potential per unit volume of the material at a point P moving

with the velocity u the expression

H = −E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

where E

◦

is the energy as measured in system S

◦

of the amount of ma-

terial which in the unstrained condition (i.e., as measured in system S)

is contained in unit volume.

The above expression obviously satisﬁes our fundamental transfor-

mation equation (146) and at low velocities reduces in accordance with

the requirements of Newtonian mechanics to

H =

1

2

m

◦

u

2

−E

◦

,

provided we introduce the substitution made familiar by our previous

work, m

◦

=

E

◦

c

2

.

121. Lagrange’s Equations. Making use of this expression for the

kinetic potential in an elastic body, we may now obtain the equations

of motion and stress for an elastic body by substituting into Lagrange’s

equations (139) Chapter IX.

Considering the material at the point P contained in unit volume in

the unstrained condition, we may choose as our generalized coördinates

the six component strains

xx

,

yy

, etc., with the corresponding stresses

−t

xx

, −t

yy

, etc., as generalized forces, and the three coördinates x, y, z

which give the position of the point with the corresponding forces F

x

, F

y

and F

z

.

It is evident that the kinetic potential will be independent of the

time derivatives of the strains, and if we consider cases in which E

◦

is

independent of position, the kinetic potential will also be independent

of the absolute magnitudes of the coördinates x, y and z. Substituting

Chapter Ten. 154

in Lagrange’s equations (139), we then obtain

−

∂

∂

xx

−E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

= −t

xx

,

−

∂

∂

yy

−E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

= −t

yy

,

−

∂

∂

zz

−E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

= −t

zz

,

−

∂

∂

yz

−E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

= −t

yz

,

−

∂

∂

xz

−E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

= −t

xz

,

−

∂

∂

xy

−E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

= −t

xy

,

(165)

d

dt

∂

∂ ˙ x

−E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

= F

x

,

d

dt

∂

∂ ˙ y

−E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

= F

y

,

d

dt

∂

∂ ˙ z

−E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

= F

z

.

(166)

We may simplify these equations, however; by performing the indi-

cated diﬀerentiations and making suitable substitutions, we have

∂E

◦

xx

∂

xx

=

∂E

◦

xx

∂

◦

xx

∂

◦

xx

∂

xx

.

Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 155

But in accordance with equation (152) we may write

∂E

◦

xx

∂

◦

xx

= −t

◦

xx

and from equations (164) we may put

∂

◦

xx

∂

xx

=

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

.

Making the substitutions in the ﬁrst of the Lagrangian equations we

obtain

t

xx

= −

∂

∂

xx

E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

= t

◦

xx

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

=

t

◦

xx

1 −

u

2

c

2

.

122. Transformation Equations for Stress. Similar substitu-

tions can be made in all the equations of stress, and we obtain as our

set of transformation equations

t

xx

=

t

◦

xx

1 −

u

2

c

2

, t

yy

=

1 −

u

2

c

2

t

◦

yy

, t

zz

=

1 −

u

2

c

2

t

◦

zz

,

t

yx

=

1 −

u

2

c

2

t

◦

yx

, t

xz

=

t

◦

xz

1 −

u

2

c

2

, t

xy

=

t

◦

xy

1 −

u

2

c

2

.

(167)

123. Value of E

◦

. With the help of these transformation equations

for stress we may calculate the value of E

◦

, the energy content, as

measured in system S

◦

, of material which in the unstrained condition

is contained in unit volume.

Consider unit volume of the material in the unstrained condition

and call its energy content w

◦◦

. Give it now the velocity u = ˙ x, keep-

ing its state of strain unchanged in system S. Since the strain is not

Chapter Ten. 156

changing in system S, the stresses t

xx

, etc., will also be constant in

system S. In system S

◦

, however, the component strain will change in

accordance with equations (156) from zero to

◦

xx

=

˙ x

2

2c

2

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

and the corresponding stress will be given at any instant by the expres-

sion just derived,

t

◦

xx

= t

xx

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

t

xx

being, as we have just seen, a constant. We may then write for E

◦

the expression

E

◦

= w

◦◦

−t

xx

w

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

d

¸

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

˙ x

2c

2

¸

.

Noting that u = ˙ x we obtain on integration,

E

◦

= w

◦◦

+t

xx

−

t

xx

1 −

u

2

c

2

(168)

as the desired expression for the energy as measured in system S

◦

con-

tained in the material which in system S is unstrained and has unit

volume.

124. The Equations of Motion in the Lagrangian Form. We

are now in a position to simplify the three Lagrangian equations (166)

for F

x

, F

y

and F

z

. Carrying out the indicated diﬀerentiation we have

F

x

=

d

dt

∂

∂ ˙ x

−E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

=

d

dt

¸

E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

˙ x

c

2

−

1 −

u

2

c

2

∂E

◦

∂ ˙ x

¸

,

Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 157

and introducing the value of E

◦

given by equation (168) we obtain

F

x

=

d

dt

¸

w

◦◦

+t

xx

1 −

u

2

c

2

˙ x

c

2

¸

. (169)

Simple calculations will also give us values for F

y

and F

z

. We have

from (166)

F

y

=

d

dt

∂

∂ ˙ y

−E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

=

d

dt

¸

E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

˙ y

c

2

−

1 −

u

2

c

2

∂E

◦

∂ ˙ y

¸

.

But since we have adapted our considerations to cases in which the

direction of motion is along the X axis, we have ˙ y = 0; furthermore we

may substitute, in accordance with equations (152), (157) and (167),

∂E

◦

∂ ˙ y

=

∂E

◦

∂

◦

xy

∂

◦

xy

∂ ˙ y

= −t

◦

xy

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

˙ x

c

2

=

−t

xy

1 −

u

2

c

2

˙ x

c

2

.

We thus obtain as our three equations of motion

F

x

=

d

dt

¸

w

◦◦

+t

xx

1 −

u

2

c

2

˙ x

c

2

¸

,

F

y

=

d

dt

t

xy

˙ x

c

2

,

F

z

=

d

dt

t

xz

˙ x

c

2

.

(170)

In these equations the quantities F

x

, F

y

and F

z

are the components of

force acting on a particular system, namely that quantity of material

which at the instant in question has unit volume. Since the volume of

Chapter Ten. 158

this material will in general be changing, F

x

, F

y

and F

z

do not give us

the force per unit volume as usually deﬁned. If we represent, however,

by f

x

, f

y

and f

z

the components of force per unit volume, we may

rewrite these equations in the form

F

x

δV =

d

dt

¸

w

◦◦

+t

xx

1 −

u

2

c

2

˙ x

c

2

δV

¸

,

F

y

δV =

d

dt

t

xy

˙ x

c

2

δV

,

F

z

δV =

d

dt

t

xz

˙ x

c

2

δV

,

(171)

where by δV we mean a small element of volume at the point in ques-

tion.

125. Density of Momentum. Since we customarily deﬁne force

as equal to the time rate of change of momentum, we may now write

for the density of momentum g at a point in an elastic body which is

moving in the X direction with the velocity u = ˙ x

g

x

=

w

◦◦

+t

xx

1 −

u

2

c

2

˙ x

c

2

, g

y

= t

xy

˙ x

c

2

, g

y

= t

xy

˙ x

c

2

. (172)

It is interesting to point out that there are components of momen-

tum in the Y and Z directions in spite of the fact that the material at

the point in question is moving in the X direction. We shall later see

the important signiﬁcance of this discovery.

126. Density of Energy. It will be remembered that the forces

whose equations we have just obtained are those acting on unit volume

of the material as measured in system S, and hence we are now in a

position to calculate the energy density of our material. Let us start out

with unit volume of our material at rest, with the energy content w

◦◦

and determine the work necessary to give it the velocity u = ˙ x without

Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 159

change in stress or strain. Since the only component of force which

suﬀers displacement is F

x

, we have

w = w

◦◦

+

u

0

d

dt

¸

w

◦◦

+t

xx

1 −

u

2

c

2

˙ x

c

2

¸

˙ x dt,

= w

◦◦

+ (w

◦◦

+t

xx

)

u

0

˙ x d

¸

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

˙ x

c

2

¸

,

=

w

◦◦

+t

xx

1 −

u

2

c

2

−t

xx

¸

(173)

as an expression for the energy density of the elastic material.

127. Summary of Results Obtained from the Principle of

Least Action. We may now tabulate for future reference the results

obtained from the principle of least action.

At a given point in an elastic medium which is moving in the X di-

rection with the velocity u = ˙ x, we have for the components of stress

t

xx

=

t

◦

xx

1 −

u

2

c

2

, t

yy

=

1 −

u

2

c

2

t

◦

yy

, t

zz

=

1 −

u

2

c

2

t

◦

zz

,

t

yz

=

1 −

u

2

c

2

t

◦

yz

, t

xz

=

t

◦

xz

1 −

u

2

c

2

, t

xy

=

t

◦

xz

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

(167)

For the density of energy at the point in question we have

w =

w

◦◦

+t

xx

1 −

u

2

c

2

−t

xx

. (173)

Chapter Ten. 160

For the density of momentum we have

g

x

=

w

◦◦

+t

xx

1 −

u

2

c

2

˙ x

c

2

, g

y

= t

xy

˙ x

c

2

, g

z

= t

xz

˙ x

c

2

. (172)

part iii. some mathematical relations.

Before proceeding to the applications of these results which we have

obtained from the principle of least action, we shall ﬁnd it desirable

to present a number of mathematical relations which will later prove

useful.

128. The Unsymmetrical Stress Tensor t. We have deﬁned

the components of stress acting at a point by equation (152)

δW = t

xx

δ

xx

+t

yy

δ

yy

+t

zz

δ

zz

+t

yz

δ

yz

+t

xz

δ

xz

+t

xy

δ

xy

,

where δW is the work which accompanies a change in strain and is

performed on the surroundings by the amount of material which was

contained in unit volume in the unstrained state. Since for convenience

we have taken as our state of zero strain the condition of the body as

measured in system S, it is evident that the components t

xx

, t

yy

, etc.,

may be taken as the forces acting on the faces of a unit cube of material

at the point in question, the ﬁrst letter of the subscript indicating the

direction of the force and the second subscript the direction of the

normal to the face in question.

Interpreting the components of stress in this fashion, we may now

add three further components and obtain a complete tensor

t =

t

xx

t

xy

t

xz

t

yx

t

yy

t

yz

t

zx

t

zy

t

zz

(174)

Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 161

The three new components t

yx

, t

zx

, t

zy

are forces acting on the unit

cube, in the directions and on the faces indicated by the subscripts.

A knowledge of their value was not necessary for our developments of

the consequences of the principle of least action, since it was possible

to obtain an expression for the work accompanying a change in strain

without their introduction. We shall ﬁnd them quite important for

our later considerations, however, and may proceed to determine their

value.

t

yz

is the force acting in the Y direction tangentially to a face of the

cube perpendicular to the X axis, and measured with a system of coör-

dinates S. Using a system of coördinates S

◦

which is stationary with

respect to the point in question, we should obtain, for the measurement

of this force,

t

◦

yx

=

t

yx

1 −

u

2

c

2

in accordance with our transformation equation for force (62), Chap-

ter VI. Similarly we shall have the relation

t

◦

xy

= t

xy

.

In accordance with the elementary theory of elasticity, however, the

forces t

◦

yx

and t

◦

xy

which are measured by an observer moving with

the body will be connected by the relation

t

◦

xy

=

t

◦

yx

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

t

◦

xy

being larger than t

◦

yx

in the ratio of the areas of face upon which

they act. Combining these three equations, and using similar methods

for the other quantities, we can obtain the desired relations

t

yx

=

1 −

u

2

c

2

t

xy

, t

zx

=

1 −

u

2

c

2

t

xz

, t

zy

= t

yz

. (175)

Chapter Ten. 162

We see that t is an unsymmetrical tensor.

129. The Symmetrical Tensor p. Besides this unsymmetrical

tensor t we shall ﬁnd it desirable to deﬁne a further tensor p by the

equation

p = t +gu. (176)

We shall call gu the tensor product of g and u and may indicate

tensor products in general by a simple juxtaposition of vectors. gu is

itself a tensor with components as indicated below:

gu =

g

x

u

x

g

x

u

y

g

x

u

z

,

g

y

u

x

g

y

u

y

g

y

u

z

,

g

z

u

x

g

z

u

y

g

z

u

z

.

(177)

Unlike t, p will be a symmetrical tensor, since we may show, by

substitution of the values for g and u already obtained, that

p

yx

= p

xy

, p

zx

= p

xz

, p

zy

= p

yz

. (178)

Consider for example the value of p

yx

; we have from our deﬁnition

p

yx

= t

yx

+g

y

u

x

,

and by equations (175) and (172) we have

t

xy

=

1 −

u

2

c

2

t

xy

, g

y

= t

xy

u

x

c

2

,

and hence by substitution obtain

p

yx

= t

xy

.

We also have, however, by deﬁnition

p

xy

= t

xy

+g

x

u

y

,

Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 163

and since for the case we are considering u

y

= 0, we arrive at the

equality

p

xy

= p

yx

.

The other equalities may be shown in a similar way.

130. Relation between div t and t

n

. At a given point P in

our elastic body we shall deﬁne the divergence of the tensor t by the

equation

div t =

∂t

xx

∂x

+

∂t

xy

∂y

+

∂t

xz

∂z

i

+

∂t

yx

∂x

+

∂t

yy

∂y

+

∂t

yz

∂z

j

+

∂t

zx

∂x

+

∂t

zy

∂y

+

∂t

zz

∂z

k,

(179)

where i, j and k are unit vectors parallel to the axes, div t thus being

an ordinary vector. It will be seen that div t is the elastic force acting

per unit volume of material at the point P.

Considering an element of surface dS, we shall deﬁne a further vec-

tor t

n

by the equation

t

n

= (t

xx

cos α +t

xy

cos β +t

xz

cos γ) i

+ (t

yx

cos α +t

yy

cos β +t

yz

cos γ) j

+ (t

zx

cos α +t

zy

cos β +t

zz

cos γ) k,

(180)

where cos α, cos β and cos γ are the direction cosines of the inward-

pointing normal to the element of surface dS.

Considering now a deﬁnite volume V enclosed by the surface S it is

evident that div t and t

n

will be connected by the relation

−

div t dV =

0

t

n

dS, (181)

where the symbol 0 indicates that the integration is to be taken over

the whole surface which encloses the volume V . This equation is of

Chapter Ten. 164

course merely a direct application of Gauss’s formula, which states in

general the equality

−

∂P

∂x

+

∂Q

∂y

+

∂R

∂z

dV =

0

(P cos α +Qcos β +Rcos γ) dS, (182)

where P, Q and R may be any functions of x, y and z.

We shall also ﬁnd use for a further relation between div t and t

n

.

Consider a given point of reference O, and let r be the radius vector

to any point P in the elastic body; we can then show with the help of

Gauss’s Formula (182) that

−

(r ×div t) dV =

0

(r ×t

n

) dS

−

(t

yz

−t

zy

)jk + (t

xz

−t

zx

)ik + (t

xy

−t

yx

)ij

dV,

where × signiﬁes as usual the outer product. Taking account of equa-

tions (172) and (175) this can be rewritten

−

(r ×div t) dV =

0

(r ×t

n

) dS −

(u ×g) dV. (183)

131. The Equations of Motion in the Eulerian Form. We saw

in Sections 124 and 125 that the equations of motion in the Lagrangian

form might be written

f δV =

d

dt

(g δV ),

where f is the density of force acting at any point and g is the density

of momentum.

Provided that there are no external forces acting and f is produced

solely by the elastic forces, our deﬁnition of the divergence of a tensor

will now permit us to put

f = −div t,

Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 165

and write for our equation of motion

(−div t) δV =

d

dt

(g δV ) = δV

dg

dt

+g

d(δV )

dt

.

Expressing

dg

dt

in terms of partial diﬀerentials, and putting

d(δV )

dt

= δV div u

we obtain

−div t =

∂g

∂t

+u

x

∂g

∂x

+u

y

∂g

∂y

+u

z

∂g

∂z

+g div u.

Our symmetrical tensor p, however, was deﬁned by the equation (176)

p = t +gu,

and hence we may now write our equations of motion in the very beau-

tiful Eulerian form

−div p =

∂g

∂t

. (184)

We shall ﬁnd this simple form for the equations of motion very

interesting in connection with our considerations in the last chapter.

part iv. applications of the results.

We may now use the results which we have obtained from the princi-

ple of least action to elucidate various problems concerning the behavior

of elastic bodies.

132. Relation between Energy and Momentum. In our work

on the dynamics of a particle we found that the mass of a particle was

equal to its energy divided by the square of the velocity of light, and

hence have come to expect in general a necessary relation between the

Chapter Ten. 166

existence of momentum in any particular direction and the transfer of

energy in that same direction. We ﬁnd, however, in the case of elasti-

cally stressed bodies a somewhat more complicated state of aﬀairs than

in the case of particles, since besides the energy which is transported

bodily by the motion of the medium an additional quantity of energy

may be transferred through the medium by the action of the forces

which hold it in its state of strain. Thus, for example, in the case of a

longitudinally compressed rod moving parallel to its length, the forces

holding it in its state of longitudinal compression will be doing work at

the rear end of the rod and delivering an equal quantity of energy at

the front end, and this additional transfer of energy must be included

in the calculation of the momentum of the bar.

As a matter of fact, an examination of the expressions for momen-

tum which we obtained from the principle of least action will show the

justice of these considerations. For the density of momentum in the

X direction we obtained the expression

g

x

= (w +t

xx

)

˙ x

c

2

,

and we see that in order to calculate the momentum in the X direction

we must consider not merely the energy w which is being bodily carried

along in that direction with the velocity ˙ x, but also must take into

account the additional ﬂow of energy which arises from the stress t

xx

.

As we have already seen in Section 128, this stress t

xx

can be thought

of as resulting from forces which act on the front and rear faces of

a centimeter cube of our material. Since the cube is moving with the

velocity ˙ x, the force on the rear face will do the work t

xx

˙ x per second and

this will be given up at the forward face. We thus have an additional

density of energy-ﬂow in the X direction of the magnitude t

xx

˙ x and

hence a corresponding density of momentum

t

xx

˙ x

c

2

.

Similar considerations explain the interesting occurrence of compo-

Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 167

nents of momentum in the Y and Z directions,

g

y

= t

xy

˙ x

c

2

, g

z

= t

xz

˙ x

c

2

,

in spite of the fact that the material involved is moving in the X direc-

tion. The stress t

xy

, for example, can be thought of as resulting from

forces which act tangentially in the X direction on the pair of faces of

our unit cube which are perpendicular to the Y axis. Since the cube

is moving in the X direction with the velocity ˙ x, we shall have the

work t

xy

˙ x, done at one surface per second and transferred to the other,

and the resulting ﬂow of energy in the X direction is accompanied by

the corresponding momentum

t

xy

˙ x

c

2

.

133. The Conservation of Momentum. It is evident from our

previous discussions that we may write the equation of motion for an

elastic medium in the form

f δV =

d(g δV )

dt

,

where g is the density of momentum at any given point and f is the

force acting per unit volume of material. We have already obtained,

from the principle of least action, expressions (172) which permit the

calculation of g in terms of the energy density, stress and velocity at

the point in question, and our present problem is to discuss somewhat

further the nature of the force f .

We shall ﬁnd it convenient to analyze the total force per unit volume

of material f into those external forces f

ext.

like gravity, which are pro-

duced by agencies outside of the elastic body and the internal force f

int.

which arises from the elastic interaction of the parts of the strained

body itself. It is evident from the way in which we have deﬁned the

divergence of a tensor (179) that for this latter we may write

f

int.

= −div t. (185)

Chapter Ten. 168

Our equation of motion then becomes

(f

ext.

−div t) δV =

d(g δV )

dt

, (186)

or, integrating over the total volume of the elastic body,

f

ext.

dV −

div t dV =

d

dt

g dV =

dG

dt

, (187)

where G is the total momentum of the body. With the help of the

purely analytical relation (181) we may transform the above equation

into

f

ext.

dV +

t

n

dS =

dG

dt

, (188)

where t

n

is deﬁned in accordance with (180) so that the integral

0

t

n

dS

becomes the force exerted by the surroundings on the surface of the

elastic body.

In the case of an isolated system both f

ext.

and t

n

would evidently

be equal to zero and we have the principle of the conservation of mo-

mentum.

134. The Conservation of Angular Momentum. Consider the

radius vector r from a point of reference O to any point P in an elastic

body; then the angular momentum of the body about O will be

M =

(r ×g) dV,

and its rate of change will be

dM

dt

=

r ×

dg

dt

dV +

dr

dt

×g

dV. (189)

Substituting equation (186), this may be written

dM

dt

=

(r ×f

ext.

) dV −

(r ×div t) dV +

(u ×g) dV,

Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 169

or, introducing the purely mathematical relation (183) we have,

dM

dt

=

(r ×f

ext.

) dV +

0

(r ×t

n

) dS. (190)

We see from this equation that the rate of change of the angular mo-

mentum of an elastic body is equal to the moment of the external forces

acting on the body plus the moment of the surface forces.

In the case of an isolated system this reduces to the important

principle of the conservation of angular momentum.

135. Relation between Angular Momentum and the Un-

symmetrical Stress Tensor. The fact that at a point in a strained

elastic medium there may be components of momentum at right angles

to the motion of the point itself, leads to the interesting conclusion that

even in a state of steady motion the angular momentum of a strained

body will in general be changing.

This is evident from equation (189), in the preceding section, which

may be written

dM

dt

=

r ×

dg

dt

dV +

(u ×g) dV. (191)

In the older mechanics velocity u and momentum g were always in

the same direction so that the last term of this equation became zero.

In our newer mechanics, however, we have found (172) components of

momentum at right angles to the velocity and hence even for a body

moving in a straight line with unchanging stresses and velocity we ﬁnd

that the angular momentum is increasing at the rate

dM

dt

=

(u ×g) dV, (192)

and in order to maintain the body in its state of uniform motion we must

apply external forces with a turning moment of this same amount.

The presence of this increasing angular momentum in a strained

body arises from the unsymmetrical nature of the stress tensor, the

Chapter Ten. 170

integral

(u × g) dV being as a matter of fact exactly equal to the

integral over the same volume of the turning moments of the unsym-

metrical components of the stress. Thus, for example, if we have a body

moving in the X direction with the velocity u = ˙ xi we can easily see

from equations (172) and (175) the truth of the equality

(u ×g) =

(t

yz

−t

zy

) jk + (t

xz

−t

zx

) ik + (t

xy

−t

yx

) ij

.

136. The Right-Angled Lever. An interesting example of the

l

1

l

2

F

1

F

2

B C

A

Fig. 14.

principle that in general a turning mo-

ment is needed for the uniform transla-

tory motion of a strained body is seen

in the apparently paradoxical case of

the right-angled lever.

Consider the right-angled lever

shown in Fig. 14. This lever is station-

ary with respect to a system of coördi-

nates S

◦

. Referred to S

◦

the two lever

arms are equal in length:

l

1

◦

= l

2

◦

,

and the lever is in equilibrium under the action of the equal forces

F

1

◦

= F

2

◦

.

Let us now consider the equilibrium as it appears, using a system of

coördinates S with reference to which the lever is moving in X direction

with the velocity V . Referred to this new system of coördinates the

length l

1

of the arm which lies in the Y direction will be the same as

in system S

◦

, giving us

l

1

= l

1

◦

.

But for the other arm which lies in the direction of motion we shall

have, in accordance with the Lorentz shortening,

l

2

= l

2

◦

1 −

V

2

c

2

.

Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 171

For the forces F

1

and F

2

we shall have, in accordance with our equations

for the transformation of force (61) and (62),

F

1

= F

1

◦

,

F

2

= F

2

◦

1 −

V

2

c

2

.

We thus obtain for the moment of the forces around the pivot B

F

1

l

1

−F

2

l

2

= F

1

◦

l

1

◦

−F

2

◦

l

2

◦

1 −

V

2

c

2

= F

1

◦

l

1

◦

V

2

c

2

, = F

1

l

1

V

2

c

2

,

and are led to the remarkable conclusion that such a moving lever will

be in equilibrium only if the external forces have a deﬁnite turning

moment of the magnitude given above.

The explanation of this apparent paradox is obvious, however, in the

light of our previous discussion. In spite of the fact that the lever is in

uniform motion in a straight line, its angular momentum is continually

increasing owing to the fact that it is elastically strained, and it can

be shown by carrying out the integration indicated in equation (192)

that the rate of change of angular momentum is as a matter of fact just

equal to the turning moment F

1

l

1

V

2

c

2

.

This necessity for a turning moment F

1

l

1

V

2

c

2

can also be shown

directly from a consideration of the energy ﬂow in the lever. Since the

force F

1

is doing the work F

1

V per second at the point A, a stream of

energy of this amount is continually ﬂowing through the lever from A

to the pivot B. In accordance with our ideas as to the relation between

energy and mass, this new energy which enters at A each second has

the mass

F

1

V

c

2

, and hence each second the angular momentum of the

system around the point B is increased by the amount

F

1

V

c

2

V l

1

= F

1

l

1

V

2

c

2

.

Chapter Ten. 172

We have already found, however, exactly this same expression for the

moment of the forces around the pivot B and hence see that they are

of just the magnitude necessary to keep the lever from turning, thus

solving completely our apparent paradox.

137. Isolated Systems in a Steady State. Our considerations

have shown that the density of momentum is equal to the density of

energy ﬂow divided by the square of the velocity of light. If we have

a system which is in a steady internal state, and is either isolated or

merely subjected to an external pressure with no components of force

tangential to the bounding surface, it is evident that the resultant ﬂow

of energy for the whole body must be in the direction of motion, and

hence for these systems momentum and velocity will be in the same

direction without the complications introduced by a transverse energy

ﬂow.

Thus for an isolated system in a steady internal state we may write,

G =

E

c

2

u =

E

◦

c

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

u. (193)

138. The Dynamics of a Particle. It is important to note that

particles are interesting examples of systems in which there will obvi-

ously be no transverse component of energy ﬂow since their inﬁnitesimal

size precludes the action of tangential surface forces. We thus see that

the dynamics of a particle may be regarded as a special case of the

more general dynamics which we have developed in this chapter, the

equation of motion for a particle being

F =

d

dt

E

◦

c

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

u

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

d

dt

¸

m

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

u

¸

,

in agreement with the work of Chapter VI.

Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 173

139. Conclusion. We may now point out in conclusion the chief

results of this chapter. With the help of Einstein’s equations for spatial

and temporal considerations, we have developed a set of transformation

equations for the strain in an elastic body. Using the components of

strain and velocity as generalized coördinates, we then introduced the

principle of least action, choosing a form of function for kinetic potential

which agrees at low velocities with the choice made in the older theories

of elasticity and at all velocities agrees with the requirements of the

principle of relativity. Using the Lagrangian equations, we were then

able to develop all that is necessary for a complete theory of elasticity.

The most important consequence of these considerations is an ex-

tension in our ideas as to the relation between momentum and energy.

We ﬁnd that the density of momentum in any direction must be placed

equal to the total density of energy ﬂow in that same direction divided

by the square of the velocity of light; and we ﬁnd that we must include

in our density of energy ﬂow that transferred through the elastic body

by the forces which hold it in its state of strain and suﬀer displacement

as the body moves. This involves in general a ﬂow of energy and hence

momentum at right angles to the motion of the body itself.

At present we have no experiments of suﬃcient accuracy so that

we can investigate the diﬀerences between this new theory of elasticity

and the older ones, and hence of course have found no experimental

contradiction to the new theory. It will be seen, however, from the

expressions for momentum that even at low velocities the consequences

of this new theory will become important as soon as we run across

elastic systems in which very large stresses are involved. It is also

important to show that a theory of elasticity can be developed which

agrees with the requirements of the theory of relativity. In fairness, it

must, however, be pointed out in conclusion that since our expression

for kinetic potential was not absolutely uniquely determined there may

also be other theories of elasticity which will agree with the principle

of relativity and with all the facts as now known.

CHAPTER XI.

THE DYNAMICS OF A THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM.

We may now use our conclusions as to the relation between the prin-

ciple of least action and the theory of relativity to obtain information

as to the behavior of thermodynamic systems in motion.

140. The Generalized Coördinates and Forces. Let us con-

sider a thermodynamic system whose state is deﬁned by the generalized

coördinates volume v, entropy S and the values of x, y and z which

determine its position. Corresponding to these coördinates we shall

have the generalized external forces, the negative of the pressure, −p,

temperature, T, and the components of force, F

x

, F

y

and F

z

. These

generalized coördinates and forces are related to the energy change δE

accompanying a small displacement δ, in accordance with the equation

δE = −δW = −p δv +T δS +F

x

δx +F

y

δy +F

z

δz. (194)

141. Transformation Equation for Volume. Before we can

apply the principle of least action we shall need to have transformation

equations for the generalized coördinates, volume and entropy.

In accordance with the Lorentz shortening, we may write the follow-

ing expression for the volume v of the system in terms of v

◦

as measured

with a set of axes S

◦

with respect to which the system is stationary:

v = v

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

= v

◦

1 −

˙ x

2

+ ˙ y

2

+ ˙ z

2

c

2

,

where u is the velocity of the system.

By diﬀerentiation we may obtain expressions which we shall ﬁnd

useful,

∂v

◦

∂v

=

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

, (195)

174

Dynamics of a Thermodynamic System. 175

∂v

◦

∂ ˙ x

=

v

1 −

u

2

c

2

3

2

˙ x

c

2

=

v

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

˙ x

c

2

. (196)

142. Transformation Equation for Entropy. As for the entropy

of a thermodynamic system, this is a quantity which must appear the

same to all observers regardless of their motion. This invariance of

entropy is a direct consequence of the close relation between the entropy

of a system in a given state and the probability of that state. Let

us write, in accordance with the Boltzmann-Planck ideas as to the

interdependence of these quantities,

S = k log W,

where S is the entropy of the system in the state in question, k is

a universal constant, and W the probability of having a microscopic

arrangement of molecules or other elementary constituent parts which

corresponds to the desired thermodynamic state. Since this probability

is evidently independent of the relative motion of the observer and the

system we see that the entropy of a system S must be an invariant and

may write

S = S

◦

. (197)

143. Introduction of the Principle of Least Action. The

Kinetic Potential. We are now in a position to introduce the principle

of least action into our considerations by choosing a form of function for

the kinetic potential which will agree at low velocities with the familiar

principles of thermodynamics and will agree at all velocities with the

requirements of the theory of relativity.

If we use volume and entropy as our generalized coördinates, these

conditions are met by taking for kinetic potential the expression

H = −E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

. (198)

Chapter Eleven. 176

This expression agrees with the requirements of the theory of rela-

tivity that

H

1 −

u

2

c

2

shall be an invariant (see Section 111) and at low

velocities reduces to H = −E, which with our choice of coördinates is

the familiar form for the kinetic potential of a thermodynamic system.

It should be noted that this expression for the kinetic potential

of a thermodynamic system applies of course only provided we pick

out volume v and entropy S as generalized coördinates. If, following

Helmholtz, we should think it more rational to take v as one coördi-

nate and a quantity θ whose time derivative is equal to temperature,

˙

θ = T, as the other coördinate, we should obtain of course a diﬀerent

expression for the kinetic potential; in fact should have under those

circumstances

H = (E

◦

−T

◦

S

◦

)

1 −

u

2

c

2

.

Using this value of kinetic potential, however, with the corresponding

coördinates we should obtain results exactly the same as those which we

are now going to work out with the help of the other set of coördinates.

144. The Lagrangian Equations. Having chosen a form for the

kinetic potential we may now substitute into the Lagrangian equa-

tions (139) and obtain the desired information with regard to the be-

havior of thermodynamic systems.

Since we shall consider cases in which the energy of the system

is independent of the position in space, the kinetic potential will be

independent of the coördinates x, y and z, depending only on their time

derivatives. Noting also that the kinetic potential is independent of the

time derivatives of volume and entropy, we shall obtain the Lagrangian

Dynamics of a Thermodynamic System. 177

equations in the simple form

−

∂

∂v

−E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

= −p,

−

∂

∂S

−E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

= T,

d

dt

∂

∂ ˙ x

−E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

= F

x

,

d

dt

∂

∂ ˙ y

−E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

= F

y

,

d

dt

∂

∂ ˙ z

−E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

= F

z

.

(199)

145. Transformation Equation for Pressure. We may use the

ﬁrst of these equations to show that the pressure is a quantity which

appears the same to all observers regardless of their relative motion.

We have

p =

∂

∂v

−E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

= −

1 −

u

2

c

2

∂E

◦

∂v

= −

1 −

u

2

c

2

∂E

◦

∂v

◦

∂v

◦

∂v

.

But, in accordance with equation (194), p

◦

= −

∂E

◦

∂v

◦

, and in accordance

with equation (195),

∂v

◦

∂v

=

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

which gives us the desired relation

p = p

◦

. (200)

Chapter Eleven. 178

Deﬁning pressure as force per unit area, this result will be seen to be

identical with that which is obtained from the transformation equations

for force and area which result from our earliest considerations.

146. Transformation Equation for Temperature. The second

of the Lagrangian equations (199) will provide us information as to

measurements of temperature made by observers moving with diﬀerent

velocities. We have

T =

∂

∂S

E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

=

1 −

u

2

c

2

∂E

◦

∂S

◦

∂S

◦

∂S

.

But, in accordance with equation (194),

∂E

◦

∂S

◦

= T

◦

and in accordance

with (197)

∂S

◦

∂S

= 1. We obtain as our transformation equation,

T = T

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

, (201)

and see that the quantity

T

1 −

u

2

c

2

is an invariant for the Lorentz

transformation.

147. The Equations of Motion for Quasistationary Adia-

batic Acceleration. Let us now turn our attention to the last three

of the Lagrangian equations. These are the equations for the motion of

a thermodynamic system under the action of external force. It is evi-

dent, however, that these equations will necessarily apply only to cases

of quasistationary acceleration, since our development of the principle

of least action gave us an equation for kinetic potential which was true

only for systems of inﬁnitesimal extent or large systems in a steady

internal state. It is also evident that we must conﬁne our considera-

tions to cases of adiabatic acceleration, since otherwise the value of E

◦

which occurs in the expression for kinetic potential might be varying

in a perfectly unknown manner.

Dynamics of a Thermodynamic System. 179

The Lagrangian equations for force may be advantageously trans-

formed. We have

F

x

=

d

dt

∂

∂ ˙ x

−E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

=

d

dt

¸

E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

˙ x

c

2

−

1 −

u

2

c

2

∂E

◦

∂ ˙ x

¸

=

d

dt

E

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

˙ x

c

2

−

1 −

u

2

c

2

∂E

◦

∂v

◦

∂v

◦

∂ ˙ x

+

∂E

◦

∂S

◦

∂S

◦

∂ ˙ x

¸

.

But by equations (194), (196) and (197) we have

∂E

◦

∂v

◦

= −p

◦

,

∂v

◦

∂ ˙ x

=

v

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

˙ x

c

2

, and

∂S

◦

∂ ˙ x

= 0.

We obtain

F

x

=

d

dt

E

◦

+p

◦

v

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

˙ x

c

2

¸

. (202)

Similar equations may be obtained for the components of force in

the Y and Z directions and these combined to give the vector equation

F =

d

dt

E

◦

+p

◦

v

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

u

c

2

¸

. (203)

This is the fundamental equation of motion for the dynamics of a

thermodynamic system.

148. The Energy of a Moving Thermodynamic System. We

may use this equation to obtain an expression for the energy of a mov-

ing thermodynamic system. If we adiabatically accelerate a thermo-

dynamic system in the direction of its motion, its energy will increase

Chapter Eleven. 180

both because of the work done by the force

F =

d

dt

E

◦

+p

◦

v

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

u

c

2

¸

which produces the acceleration and because of the work done by the

pressure p = p

◦

which acts on a volume which is continually dimin-

ishing as the velocity u increases, in accordance with the expression

v = v

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

. Hence we may write for the total energy

E = E

◦

+

u

0

d

dt

E

◦

+p

◦

v

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

u

c

2

¸

udt +p

◦

v

◦

1 −

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

E =

E

◦

+p

◦

v

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

−p

◦

v

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

=

E

◦

+p

◦

v

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

−pv. (204)

149. The Momentum of a Moving Thermodynamic System.

We may compare this expression for the energy of a thermodynamic

system with the following expression for momentum which is evident

from the equation (203) for force:

G =

E

◦

+p

◦

v

◦

1 −

u

2

c

2

u

c

2

. (205)

We ﬁnd again, as in our treatment of elastic bodies presented in the

last chapter, that the momentum of a moving system may be calculated

by taking the total ﬂow of energy in the desired direction and dividing

by c

2

. Thus, comparing equations (204) and (205), we have

G =

E

c

2

u +

pv

c

2

u, (206)

Dynamics of a Thermodynamic System. 181

where the term

E

c

2

u takes care of the energy transported bodily along

by the system and the term

pv

c

2

u takes care of the energy transferred

in the u direction by the action of the external pressure on the rear and

front end of the moving system.

150. The Dynamics of a Hohlraum. As an application of our

considerations we may consider the dynamics of a hohlraum, since a

hohlraum in thermodynamic equilibrium is of course merely a special

example of the general dynamics which we have just developed. The

simplicity of the hohlraum and its importance from a theoretical point

of view make it interesting to obtain by the present method the same

expression for momentum that can be obtained directly but with less

ease of calculation from electromagnetic considerations.

As is well known from the work of Stefan and Boltzmann, the energy

content E

◦

and pressure p

◦

of a hohlraum at rest and in thermodynamic

equilibrium are completely determined by the temperature T

◦

and vol-

ume v

◦

in accordance with the equations

E

◦

= av

◦

T

◦4

,

p

◦

=

a

3

T

◦4

,

where a is the so-called Stefan’s constant.

Substituting these values of E

◦

and p

◦

in the equation for the motion

of a thermodynamic system (203), we obtain

F =

d

dt

¸

4

3

av

◦

T

◦

4

1 −

u

2

c

2

u

c

2

¸

=

d

dt

¸

4

3

avT

4

1 −

u

2

c

2

3

u

c

2

¸

(207)

as the equation for the quasistationary adiabatic acceleration of a

hohlraum. In view of this equation we may write for the momentum

Chapter Eleven. 182

of a hohlraum the expression

G =

4

3

av

◦

T

◦

4

1 −

u

2

c

2

u

c

2

. (208)

It is a fact of signiﬁcance that our dynamics leads to a result for the

momentum of a hohlraum which had been adopted on the ground of

electromagnetic considerations even without the express introduction

of relativity theory.

CHAPTER XII.

ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY.

The Einstein theory of relativity proves to be of the greatest signif-

icance for electromagnetics. On the one hand, the new electromagnetic

theory based on the ﬁrst postulate of relativity obviously accounts in

a direct and straightforward manner for the results of the Michelson-

Morley experiment and other unsuccessful attempts to detect an ether

drift, and on the other hand also accounts just as simply for the phe-

nomena of moving dielectrics as did the older theory of a stationary

ether. Furthermore, the theory of relativity provides considerably sim-

pliﬁed methods for deriving a great many theorems which were already

known on the basis of the ether theory, and gives us in general a clariﬁed

insight into the nature of electromagnetic action.

151. The Form of the Kinetic Potential. In Chapter IX we in-

vestigated the general relation between the principle of least action and

the theory of the relativity of motion. We saw that the development

of any branch of dynamics would agree with the requirements of rela-

tivity provided only that the kinetic potential H has such a form that

the quantity

H

1 −

u

2

c

2

is an invariant for the Lorentz transformation.

Making use of this discovery we have seen the possibility of developing

the dynamics of a particle, the dynamics of an elastic body, and the

dynamics of a thermodynamic system, all of them in forms which agree

with the theory of relativity by merely introducing slight modiﬁcations

into the older expressions for kinetic potential in such a way as to obtain

the necessary invariance for

H

1 −

u

2

c

2

. In the case of electrodynamics,

however, on account of the closely interwoven historical development of

the theories of electricity and relativity, we shall not ﬁnd it necessary

to introduce any modiﬁcation in the form of the kinetic potential, but

183

Chapter Twelve. 184

may take for H the following expression, which is known to lead to the

familiar equations of the Lorentz electron theory

H =

dV

e

2

2

+

curl φ)

2

2

−φ ·

˙ e

c

+ρ

u

c

, (209)

where the integration is to extend over the whole volume of the sys-

tem V , e is the intensity of the electric ﬁeld at the point in question,

φ is the value of the vector potential, ρ the density of charge and u its

velocity.

∗

Let us now show that the expression which we have chosen for ki-

netic potential does lead to the familiar equations of the electron theory.

152. The Principle of Least Action. If now we denote by f the

force per unit volume of material exerted by the electromagnetic action

it is evident that we may write in accordance with the principle of least

action (135)

dt dV

¸

δ

e

2

2

+

(curl φ)

2

2

−φ ·

˙ e

c

+ρ

u

c

+f · δr

= 0, (210)

where δr is the variation in the radius vector to the particle under con-

sideration, and where the integration is to be taken over the whole vol-

ume occupied by the system and between two instants of time t

1

and t

2

at which the actual and displaced conﬁgurations of the system coincide.

153. The Partial Integrations. In order to simplify this equation,

we shall need to make use of two results which can be obtained by

partial integrations with respect to time and space respectively.

∗

Strictly speaking this expression for kinetic potential is not quite correct, since

kinetic potential must have the dimensions of energy. To complete the equation

and give all the terms their correct dimensions, we could multiply the ﬁrst term by

the dielectric inductivity of free space , and the last two terms by the magnetic

permeability µ. Since, however, and µ have the numerical value unity with the

usual choice of units, we shall not be led into error in our particular considerations

if we omit these factors.

Electromagnetic Theory. 185

Thus we may write

t

2

t

1

dt (a

˙

δb) =

t

2

t

1

a d(δb) = [a δb]

t

2

t

1

−

t

2

t

1

dt

da

dt

δb

,

or, since the displaced and actual motions coincide at t

1

and t

2

,

dt (a

˙

δb) = −

dt

da

dt

δb

. (211)

We may also write

dV

a

db

dx

=

dy dz (a db) =

dy dz [ab]

x=+∞

x=−∞

−

dV

b

da

dx

,

or, since we are to carry out our integrations over the whole volume

occupied by the system, we shall take our functions as zero at the

limits of integration and may write

dV

a

db

dx

= −

dV

b

da

dx

. (212)

Since similar considerations apply to derivatives with respect to the

other variables y and z, we can also obtain

dV a div b = −

dV b · grad a, (213)

dV a · curl b =

dV b · curl a. (214)

154. Derivation of the Fundamental Equations of Electro-

magnetic Theory. Making use of these purely mathematical re-

lationships we are now in a position to develop our fundamental

equation (210). Carrying out the indicated variation, noting that

Chapter Twelve. 186

δu =

d(δr)

dt

and making use of (211) and (214) we easily obtain

dt dV

¸

e +

1

c

∂φ

∂t

· δe +

curl curl φ −

˙ e

c

+ρ

u

c

· δφ

−

φ

c

· δ(ρu) +f · δr

¸

= 0.

(215)

In developing the consequences of this equation, it should be noted,

however, that the variations are not all of them independent; thus, since

we shall deﬁne the density of charge by the equation

ρ = div e, (216)

it is evident that it will be necessary to preserve the truth of this equa-

tion in any variation that we carry out. This can evidently be done if

we add to our equation (215) the expression

dt dV ψ[δρ −div δe] = 0,

where ψ is an undetermined scalar multiplier. We then obtain with the

help of (213)

dt dV

¸

e +

1

c

∂φ

∂t

+ grad ψ

· δe

+

curl curl φ −

˙ e

c

+ρ

u

c

· δφ −

φ

c

· δ(ρu) +ψ δρ +f · δr

¸

= 0,

(217)

and may now treat the variations δe and δφ as entirely independent of

the others; we must then have the following equations true

e = −

1

c

∂φ

∂t

−grad ψ, (218)

curl curl φ =

˙ e

c

+

ρu

c

, (219)

Electromagnetic Theory. 187

and have thus derived from the principle of least action the fundamental

equations of modern electron theory. We may put these in their familiar

form by deﬁning the magnetic ﬁeld strength h by the equation

h = curl φ. (220)

We then obtain from (219)

curl h =

1

c

∂e

∂t

+ρ

u

c

, (221)

and, noting the mathematical identity curl grad ψ = 0, we obtain from

(218)

curl e = −

1

c

∂h

∂t

. (222)

We have furthermore by deﬁnition (216)

div e = ρ, (223)

and noting equation (220) may write the mathematical identity

div h = 0. (224)

These four equations (221)–(224) are the familiar expressions which

have been made the foundation of modern electron theory. They diﬀer

from Maxwell’s original four ﬁeld equations only by the introduction

in (221) and (223) of terms which arise from the density of charge ρ of

the electrons, and reduce to Maxwell’s set in free space.

155. We have not yet made use of the last three terms in the

fundamental equation (217) which results from the principle of least

action. As a matter of fact, it can be shown that these terms can be

transformed into the expression

dt dV

¸

ρ

c

∂φ

∂t

−

ρ

c

[u ×curl φ]

∗

+ρ grad ψ +f

· δr, (225)

Chapter Twelve. 188

and hence lead to the familiar ﬁfth fundamental equation of modern

electron theory,

f = ρ

−

∂φ

c∂t

−grad ψ +

u

c

×curl Φ

∗

,

f = ρ

e +

u

c

×h

∗

¸

. (226)

The transformation of the last three terms of (217) into the form given

above (225) is a complicated one and it has not seemed necessary to

present it here since in a later paragraph we shall show the possibility

of deriving the ﬁfth fundamental equation of the electron theory (226)

by combining the four ﬁeld equations (221)–(224) with the transforma-

tion equations for force already obtained from the principle of relativity.

The reader may carry out the transformation himself, however, if he

makes use of the partial integrations which we have already obtained,

notes that in accordance with the principle of the conservation of elec-

tricity we must have δρ = −div ρ δr and notes that δu =

d(δr)

dt

, where

the diﬀerentiation

d

dt

indicates that we are following some particular

particle in its motion, while the diﬀerentiation

∂

∂t

occurring in

∂φ

∂t

in-

dicates that we intend the rate of change at some particular stationary

point.

156. The Transformation Equations for e, h and ρ. We have

thus shown the possibility of deriving the fundamental equations of

modern electron theory from the principle of least action. We now wish

to introduce the theory of relativity into our discussions by presenting

a set of equations for transforming measurements of e, h and ρ from

one set of space-time coördinates S to another set S

moving past S in

the X direction with the velocity V . This set of equations is as follows:

e

x

= e

x

, e

y

= κ

e

y

−

V

c

h

z

, e

z

= κ

e

z

+

V

c

h

y

, (227)

h

x

= h

x

, h

y

= κ

h

y

+

V

c

e

z

, h

z

= κ

h

z

−

V

c

e

y

, (228)

Electromagnetic Theory. 189

ρ

= ρκ

1 −

u

z

V

c

2

, (229)

where κ has its customary signiﬁcance

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

.

As a matter of fact, this set of transformation equations fulﬁlls all

the requirements imposed by the theory of relativity. Thus, in the ﬁrst

place, it will be seen, on development, that these equations are them-

selves perfectly symmetrical with respect to the primed and unprimed

quantities except for the necessary change from +V to −V . In the

second place, it will be found that the substitution of these equations

into our ﬁve fundamental equations for electromagnetic theory (221),

(222), (223), (224), (226) will successfully transform them into an en-

tirely similar set with primed quantities replacing the unprimed ones.

And ﬁnally it can be shown that these equations agree with the general

requirement derived in Chapter IX that the quantity

H

1 −

u

2

c

2

shall be

an invariant for the Lorentz transformation.

To demonstrate this important invariance of

H

1 −

u

2

c

2

we may point

out that by introducing equations (220), (221) and (214), our original

expression for kinetic potential

H =

dV

e

2

2

+

(curl φ)

2

2

−φ ·

˙ e

c

+ρ

u

c

can easily be shown equal to

dV

e

2

2

−

h

2

2

, (230)

Chapter Twelve. 190

and, noting that our fundamental equations for space and time provide

us with the relation

dV

1 −

u

2

c

2

=

dV

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

we can easily show that our transformation equations for e and h do

lead to the equality

H

1 −

u

2

c

2

=

H

1 −

u

2

c

2

.

We thus know that our development of the fundamental equations

for electromagnetic theory from the principle of least action is indeed

in complete accordance with the theory of relativity, since it conforms

with the general requirement which was found in Chapter IX to be

imposed by the theory of relativity on all dynamical considerations.

157. The Invariance of Electric Charge. As to the signiﬁcance

of the transformation equations which we have presented for e, h and ρ,

we may ﬁrst show, in accordance with the last of these equations, that

a given electric charge will appear the same to all observers no matter

what their relative motion.

To demonstrate this we merely have to point out that, by introduc-

ing equation (17), we may write our transformation equation for ρ (229)

in the form

ρ

ρ

=

1 −

u

2

c

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

which shows at once that the two measurements of density of charge

made by O and O

**are in exactly the same ratio as the corresponding
**

measurements for the Lorentz shortening of the charged body, so that

the total charge will evidently measure the same for the two observers.

Electromagnetic Theory. 191

We might express this invariance of electric charge by writing the

equation

Q

= Q. (231)

It should be noted in passing that this result is in entire accord

with the whole modern development of electrical theory, which lays

increasing stress on the fundamentality and indivisibility of the electron

as the natural unit quantity of electricity. On this basis the most direct

method of determining the charge on an electriﬁed body would be to

count the number of electrons present and this number must obviously

appear the same both to observer O and observer O

.

∗

158. The Relativity of Magnetic and Electric Fields. As

to the signiﬁcance of equations (227) and (228) for transforming the

values of the electric and magnetic ﬁeld strengths from one system

to another, we see that at a given point in space we may distinguish

between the electric vector e = e

x

i + e

y

j + e

z

k as measured by our

original observer O and the vector e

= e

x

i +e

y

j +e

z

k as measured

in units of his own system by an observer O

**who is moving past O
**

with the velocity V in the X direction. Thus if O ﬁnds in an unvarying

electromagnetic ﬁeld that Qe is the force on a small test charge Q which

is stationary with respect to his system, O

**will ﬁnd experimentally for a
**

similar test charge that moves along with him a value for the force Qe

,

where e

**can be calculated from with the help of these equations (227).
**

Similar remarks would apply to the forces which would act on magnetic

poles.

These considerations show us that we should now use caution in

speaking of a pure electrostatic or pure magnetic ﬁeld, since the de-

scription of an electromagnetic ﬁeld is determined by the particular

choice of coördinates with reference to which the ﬁeld is measured.

159. Nature of Electromotive Force. We also see that the

“electromotive” force which acts on a charge moving through a magnetic

∗

A similar invariance of electric charge has been made fundamental in the au-

thor’s development of the theory of similitude (i.e., the theory of the relativity of

size). See for example Phys. Rev., vol. 3, p. 244 (1914).

Chapter Twelve. 192

ﬁeld ﬁnds its interpretation as an “electric” force provided we make use

of a system of coördinates which are themselves stationary with respect

to the charge. Such considerations throw light on such questions, for

example, as to the seat of the “electromotive” forces in “homopolar”

electric dynamos where there is relative motion of a conductor and a

magnetic ﬁeld.

Derivation of the Fifth Fundamental Equation.

160. We may now make use of this fact that the forces acting on

a moving charge of electricity may be treated as purely electrostatic,

by using a set of coördinates which are themselves moving along with

the charge, to derive the ﬁfth fundamental equation of electromagnetic

theory.

Consider an electromagnetic ﬁeld having the values e and h for the

electric and magnetic ﬁeld strengths at some particular point. What

will be the value of the electromagnetic force f acting per unit volume

on a charge of density ρ which is passing through the point in question

with the velocity u?

To solve the problem take a system of coördinates S

which itself

moves with the same velocity as the charge, for convenience letting the

X axis coincide with the direction of the motion of the charge. Since the

charge of electricity is stationary with respect to this system, the force

acting on it as measured in units of this system will be by deﬁnition

equal to the product of the charge by the strength of the electric ﬁeld

as it appears to an observer in this system, so that we may write

F = Q

e

,

or

F

x

= Q

e

x

, F

y

= Q

e

y

, F

z

= Q

e

z

.

For the components of the electrical ﬁeld e

x

, e

y

, e

z

, we have just ob-

tained the transformation equations (227), while in our earlier dynami-

cal considerations in Chapter VI we obtained transformation equations

Electromagnetic Theory. 193

(61), (62), and (63) for the components of force. Substituting above

and bearing in mind that u

x

= V , u

y

= u

z

= 0, and that Q

= Q, we

obtain on simpliﬁcation

F

x

= Qe

x

,

F

y

= Q

e

y

−

u

x

c

h

z

,

F

z

= Q

e

z

−

u

x

c

h

y

,

which in vectorial form gives us the equation

F = Q

e −

1

c

[u ×h]

∗

**or for the force per unit volume
**

f = ρ

e +

1

c

[u ×h]

∗

. (226)

This is the well-known ﬁfth fundamental equation of the Maxwell-

Lorentz theory of electromagnetism. We have already indicated the

method by which it could be derived from the principle of least action.

This derivation, however, from the transformation equations, provided

by the theory of relativity, is particularly simple and attractive.

Diﬀerence between the Ether and the Relativity Theories of

Electromagnetism.

161. In spite of the fact that we have now found ﬁve equations

which can be used as a basis for electromagnetic theory which agree

with the requirements of relativity and also have exactly the same form

as the ﬁve fundamental equations used by Lorentz in building up the

stationary ether theory, it must not be supposed that the relativity

and ether theories of electromagnetism are identical. Although the

older equations have exactly the same form as the ones which we shall

Chapter Twelve. 194

henceforth use, they have a diﬀerent interpretation, since our equations

are true for measurements made with the help of any non-accelerated

set of coördinates, while the equations of Lorentz were, in the ﬁrst in-

stance, supposed to be true only for measurements which were referred

to a set of coördinates which were stationary with respect to the as-

sumed luminiferous ether. Suppose, for example, we desire to calculate

with the help of equation (226),

t = ρ

e +

1

c

[u ×h]

∗

,

the force acting on a charged body which is moving with the velocity u;

we must note that for the stationary ether theory, u must be the velocity

of the charged body through the ether, while for us u may be taken as

the velocity past any set of unaccelerated coördinates, provided e and h

are measured with reference to the same set of coördinates. It will be

readily seen that such an extension in the meaning of the fundamental

equations is an important simpliﬁcation.

162. A word about the development from the theory of a station-

ary ether to our present theory will not be out of place. When it was

found that the theory of a stationary ether led to incorrect conclusions

in the case of the Michelson-Morley experiment, the hypothesis was

advanced by Lorentz and Fitzgerald that the failure of that experiment

to show any motion through the ether was due to a contraction of the

apparatus in the direction of its motion through the ether in the ratio

1 :

1 −

u

2

c

2

. Lorentz then showed that if all systems should be thus

contracted in the line of their motion through the ether, and observers

moving with such system make use of suitably contracted meter sticks

and clocks adjusted to give what Lorentz called the “local time,” their

measurements of electromagnetic phenomena could be described by a

set of equations which have nearly the same form as the original four

ﬁeld equations which would be used by a stationary observer. It will

be seen that Lorentz was thus making important progress towards our

Electromagnetic Theory. 195

present idea of the complete relativity of motion. The ﬁnal step could

not be taken, however, without abandoning our older ideas of space

and time and giving up the Galilean transformation equations as the

basis of kinematics. It was Einstein who, with clearness and boldness

of vision, pointed out that the failure of the Michelson-Morley experi-

ment, and all other attempts to detect motion through the ether, is not

due to a fortuitous compensation of eﬀects but is the expression of an

important general principle, and the new transformation equations for

kinematics to which he was led have not only provided the basis for an

exact transformation of the ﬁeld equations but have so completely rev-

olutionized our ideas of space and time that hardly a branch of science

remains unaﬀected.

163. With regard to the present status of the ether in scientiﬁc

theory, it must be deﬁnitely stated that this concept has certainly lost

both its fundamentality and the greater part of its usefulness, and this

has been brought about by a gradual process which has only found

its culmination in the work of Einstein. Since the earliest days of the

luminiferous ether, the attempts of science to increase the substantiality

of this medium have met with little success. Thus we have had solid

elastic ethers of most extreme tenuity, and ethers with a density of a

thousand tons per cubic millimeter; we have had quasi-material tubes

of force and lines of force; we have had vibratory gyrostatic ethers

and perfect gases of zero atomic weight; but after every debauch of

model-making, science has recognized anew that a correct mathematical

description of the actual phenomena of light propagation is superior to

any of these sublimated material media. Already for Lorentz the ether

had been reduced to the bare function of providing a stationary system

of reference for the measurement of positions and velocities, and now

even this function has been taken from it by the work of Einstein, which

has shown that any unaccelerated system of reference is just as good

as any other.

To give up the notion of an ether will be very hard for many physi-

cists, in particular since the phenomena of the interference and polar-

Chapter Twelve. 196

ization of light are so easily correlated with familiar experience with

wave motions in material elastic media. Consideration will show us,

however, that by giving up the ether we have done nothing to destroy

the periodic or polarizable nature of a light disturbance. When a plane

polarized beam of light is passing through a given point in space we

merely ﬁnd that the electric and magnetic ﬁelds at that point lie on

perpendiculars to the direction of propagation and undergo regular pe-

riodic changes in magnitude. There is no need of going beyond these

actual experimental facts and introducing any hypothetical medium. It

is just as simple, indeed simpler, to say that the electric or magnetic

ﬁeld has a certain intensity at a given point in space as to speak of a

complicated sort of strain at a given point in an assumed ether.

Applications to Electromagnetic Theory.

164. The signiﬁcant fact that the fundamental equations of the new

electromagnetic theory have the same form as those of Lorentz makes it

of course possible to retain in the structure of modern electrical theory

nearly all the results of his important researches, care being taken to

give his mathematical equations an interpretation in accordance with

the fundamental ideas of the theory of relativity. It is, however, entirely

beyond our present scope to make any presentation of electromagnetic

theory as a whole, and in the following paragraphs we shall conﬁne

ourselves to the proof of a few theorems which can be handled with

special ease and directness by the methods introduced by the theory of

relativity.

165. The Electric and Magnetic Fields around a Moving

Charge. Our transformation equations for the electromagnetic ﬁeld

make it very easy to derive expressions for the ﬁeld around a point

charge in uniform motion. Consider a point charge Q moving with the

velocity V . For convenience consider a system of reference S such that

Q is moving along the X axis and at the instant in question, t = 0, let

the charge coincide with the origin of coördinates O. We desire now to

Electromagnetic Theory. 197

calculate the values of electric ﬁeld e and the magnetic ﬁeld h at any

point in space x, y, z.

Consider another system of reference, S

**, which moves along with
**

the same velocity as the charge Q, the origin of coördinates O

and

the charge always coinciding in position. Since the charge is stationary

with respect to their new system of reference, we shall have the electric

ﬁeld at any point x

, y

, z

**in this system given by the equations
**

e

x

=

Qx

(x

2

+y

2

+z

2

)

3/2

,

e

y

=

Qy

(x

2

+y

2

+z

2

)

3/2

,

e

z

=

Qz

(x

2

+y

2

+z

2

)

3/2

,

while the magnetic ﬁeld will obviously be zero for measurements made

in system S

, giving us

h

x

= 0, h

y

= 0, h

z

= 0.

Introducing our transformation equations (9), (10) and (11) for x

, y

and z

**and our transformation equations (227) and (228) for the electric
**

and magnetic ﬁelds and substituting t = 0, we obtain for the values of

e and h in system S at the instant when the charge passes through the

point O,

e

x

=

Qκx

(κ

2

x

2

+y

2

+z

2

)

3/2

=

Q

1 −

V

2

c

2

x

x

2

+

1 −

V

2

c

2

(y

2

+z

2

)

3/2

,

e

y

=

Qκy

(κ

2

x

2

+y

2

+z

2

)

3/2

=

Q

1 −

V

2

c

2

y

x

2

+

1 −

V

2

c

2

(y

2

+z

2

)

3/2

,

Chapter Twelve. 198

e

z

=

Qκz

(κ

2

x

2

+y

2

+z

2

)

3/2

=

Q

1 −

V

2

c

2

z

x

2

+

1 −

V

2

c

2

(y

2

+z

2

)

3/2

,

h

x

= 0,

h

y

= −

V

c

e

z

,

h

z

=

V

c

e

y

,

or, putting s for the important quantity

x

2

+

1 −

V

2

c

2

(y

2

+z

2

)

and writing the equations in the vectorial form where we put

r = (x i +y j +z k),

we obtain the familiar equations for the ﬁeld around a point charge in

uniform motion with the velocity u = V in the X direction

e = Q

1 −

u

2

c

2

r

s

3

, (232)

h =

1

c

[u ×e]

∗

. (233)

166. The Energy of a Moving Electromagnetic System. Our

transformation equations will permit us to obtain a very important

expression for the energy of an isolated electromagnetic system in terms

of the velocity of the system and the energy of the same system as it

appears to an observer who is moving along with it.

Consider a physical system surrounded by a shell which is imperme-

able to electromagnetic radiation. This system is to be thought of as

consisting of the various mechanical parts, electric charges and electro-

magnetic ﬁelds which are inside of the impermeable shell. The system

is free in space, except that it may be acted on by external electromag-

netic ﬁelds, and its energy content thus be changed.

Electromagnetic Theory. 199

Let us now equate the increase in the energy of the system to the

work done by the action of the external ﬁeld on the electric charges in

the system. Since the force which a magnetic ﬁeld exerts on a charge

is at right angles to the motion of the charge it does no work and we

need to consider only the work done by the external electric ﬁeld and

may write for the increase in the energy of the system

∆E =

ρ(e

x

u

x

+e

y

u

y

+e

z

u

z

) dx dy dz dt, (234)

where the integration is to be taken over the total volume of the system

and over any time interval in which we may be interested.

Let us now transform this expression with the help of our transfor-

mation equations for the electric ﬁeld (227) for electric charge (229),

and for velocities (14), (15), (16). Noting that our fundamental equa-

tions for kinematic quantities give us dx dy dz dt = dx

dy

dz

dt

, we

obtain

∆E = κ

ρ

(e

x

u

x

+e

y

u

y

+e

z

u

z

) dx

dy

dz

dt

+κV

ρ

e

x

+

u

y

c

h

z

−

u

z

c

h

y

dx

dy

dz

dt

.

Consider now a system which both at the beginning and end of our

time interval is free from the action of external forces; we may then

rewrite the above equation for this special case in the form

∆E = κ∆E

+κV

¸

F

x

dt

,

where, in accordance with our earlier equation (234), ∆E

is the increase

in the energy of the system as it appears to observer O

and

¸

F

x

is

the total force acting on the system in X direction as measured by O

.

The restriction that the system shall be unacted on by external

forces both at the beginning and end of our time interval is necessary

Chapter Twelve. 200

because it is only under those circumstances that an integration be-

tween two values of t can be considered as an integration between two

deﬁnite values of t

**, simultaneity in diﬀerent parts of the system not
**

being the same for observers O and O

.

We may now apply this equation to a specially interesting case. Let

the system be of such a nature that we can speak of it as being at

rest with respect to S

**, meaning thereby that all the mechanical parts
**

have low velocities with respect to S

**and that their center of gravity
**

moves permanently along with S

**. Under these circumstances we may
**

evidently put

¸

F

x

dt

**= 0 and may write the above equation in the
**

form

∆E =

∆E

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

or

∂∆E

∂E

0

=

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

where u is the velocity of the system, and E

◦

is its energy as measured

by an observer moving along with it. The energy of a system which

is unacted on by external forces is thus a function of two variables, its

energy E

0

as measured by an observer moving along with the system

and its velocity u.

We may now write

E =

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

E

0

+φ(u) + const.,

where φ(u) represents the energy of the system which depends solely

on the velocity of the system and not on the changes in its E

0

values.

Electromagnetic Theory. 201

φ(u) will thus evidently be the kinetic energy of the mechanical masses

in the system which we have already found (82) to have the value

m

0

c

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

− m

0

c

2

where m

0

is to be taken as the total mass of the

mechanical part of our system when at rest. We may now write

E =

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

(m

0

c

2

+E

0

) −m

0

c

2

+ const.

Or, assuming as before that the constant is equal to m

0

c

2

, which will

be equivalent to making a system which has zero energy also have zero

mass, we obtain

E =

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

(m

0

c

2

+E

0

), (235)

which is the desired expression for the energy of an isolated system

which may contain both electrical and mechanical parts.

167. Relation between Mass and Energy. This expression for

the energy of a system that contains electrical parts permits us to show

that the same relation which we found between mass and energy for

mechanical systems also holds in the case of electromagnetic energy.

Consider a system containing electromagnetic energy and enclosed by

a shell which is impermeable to radiation. Let us apply a force F to the

system in such a way as to change the velocity of the system without

changing its E

0

value. We can then equate the work done per second

by the force to the rate of increase of the energy of the system. We

have

F · u =

dE

dt

.

But from equation (235) we can obtain a value for the rate of increase

Chapter Twelve. 202

of energy

dE

dt

, giving us

F · u = F

x

u

x

+F

y

u

y

+F

z

u

z

=

m

0

+

E

0

c

2

u

du

dt

1 −

u

2

c

2

3

2

,

and solving this equation for F we obtain

F =

d

dt

m

0

+

E

0

c

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

u

¸

¸

¸

¸

, (236)

which for low velocities assumes the form

F =

d

dt

¸

m

0

+

E

0

c

2

u

. (237)

Examination of these expressions shows that our system which con-

tains electromagnetic energy behaves like an ordinary mechanical sys-

tem with the mass

m

0

+

E

0

c

2

at low velocities or

m

0

+

E

0

c

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

at any

desired velocity u. To the energy of the system E

0

, part of which is

electromagnetic, we must ascribe the mass

E

0

c

2

just as we found in the

case of mechanical energy. We realize again that matter and energy

are but diﬀerent names for the same fundamental entity, 10

21

ergs of

energy having the mass 1 gram.

The Theory of Moving Dielectrics.

168. The principle of relativity proves to be very useful for the

development of the theory of moving dielectrics.

Electromagnetic Theory. 203

It was ﬁrst shown by Maxwell that a theory of electromagnetic phe-

nomena in material media can be based on a set of ﬁeld equations

similar in form to those for free space, provided we introduce besides

the electric and magnetic ﬁeld strengths, E and F, two new ﬁeld vec-

tors, the dielectric displacement D and the magnetic induction B, and

also the density of electric current in the medium i. These quantities

are found to be connected by the four following equations similar in

form to the four ﬁeld equations for free space:

curl H =

1

c

∂D

∂t

+i

, (238)

curl E = −

1

c

∂B

∂t

, (239)

div D = ρ, (240)

div B = 0. (241)

For stationary homogeneous media, the dielectric displacement,

magnetic induction and electric current are connected with the electric

and magnetic ﬁeld strengths by the following equations:

D = E, (242)

B = µH, (243)

i = σE, (244)

where is the dielectric constant, µ the magnetic permeability and

σ the electrical conductivity of the medium in question.

169. Relation between Field Equations for Material Media

and Electron Theory. It must not be supposed that the four ﬁeld

equations (238)–(241) for electromagnetic phenomena in material me-

dia are in any sense contradictory to the four equations (221)–(224)

for free space which we took as the fundamental basis for our develop-

ment of electromagnetic theory. As a matter of fact, one of the main

achievements of modern electron theory has been to show that the elec-

tromagnetic behavior of material media can be explained in terms of

Chapter Twelve. 204

the behavior of the individual electrons and ions which they contain,

these electrons and ions acting in accordance with the four fundamen-

tal ﬁeld equations for free space. Thus our new equations for material

media merely express from a macroscopic point of view the statisti-

cal result of the behavior of the individual electrons in the material in

question. E and H in these new equations are to be looked upon as the

average values of e and h which arise from the action of the individual

electrons in the material, the process of averaging being so carried out

that the results give the values which a macroscopic observer would

actually ﬁnd for the electric and magnetic forces acting respectively on

a unit charge and a unit pole at the point in question. These average

values, E and H, will thus pay no attention to the rapid ﬂuctuations of

e and h which arise from the action and motion of the individual elec-

trons, the macroscopic observer using in fact diﬀerentials for time, dt,

and space, dx, which would be large from a microscopic or molecular

viewpoint.

Since from a microscopic point of view E and H are not really

the instantaneous values of the ﬁeld strength at an actual point in

space, it has been found necessary to introduce two new vectors, electric

displacement, D, and magnetic induction, B, whose time rate of change

will determine the curl of E and H respectively. It will evidently be

possible, however, to relate D and B to the actual electric and magnetic

ﬁelds e and h produced by the individual electrons, and this relation

has been one of the problems solved by modern electron theory, and the

ﬁeld equations (238)–(241) for material media have thus been shown

to stand in complete agreement with the most modern views as to the

structure of matter and electricity. For the purposes of the rest of

our discussion we shall merely take these equations as expressing the

experimental facts in stationary or in moving media.

170. Transformation Equations for Moving Media. Since

equations (238) to (241) are assumed to give a correct description of

electromagnetic phenomena in media whether stationary or moving

with respect to our reference system S, it is evident that the equa-

Electromagnetic Theory. 205

tions must be unchanged in form if we refer our measurements to a

new system of coördinates S

**moving past S, say, with the velocity V
**

in the X direction.

As a matter of fact, equations (238) to (241) can be transformed

into an entirely similar set

curl H

=

1

c

∂D

∂t

+i

,

curl E

= −

1

c

∂B

∂t

,

div D

= ρ

,

div B

= 0,

provided we substitute for x, y, z and t the values of x

, y

, z

and t

**given by the fundamental transformation equations for space and time
**

(9) to (12), and substitute for the other quantities in question the re-

lations

E

x

= E

x

, E

y

= κ

E

y

−

V

c

B

z

, E

z

= κ

E

z

+

V

c

B

y

,

D

x

= D

x

, D

y

= κ

D

y

−

V

c

H

z

, D

z

= κ

D

z

+

V

c

H

y

,

(245)

H

x

= H

x

, H

y

= κ

H

y

+

V

c

D

z

, H

z

= κ

H

z

−

V

c

D

y

,

B

x

= B

x

, B

y

= κ

B

y

+

V

c

E

z

, B

z

= κ

B

z

−

V

c

E

y

,

(246)

ρ

= κ

ρ −

V

c

2

i

x

, i

x

= κ(i

x

−V

ρ

), i

y

= i

y

, i

z

= i

z

. (247)

It will be noted that for free space these equations will reduce to

the same form as our earlier transformation equations (227) to (229)

since we shall have the simpliﬁcations D = E, B = H and i = ρu.

Chapter Twelve. 206

We may also call attention at this point to the fact that our funda-

mental equations for electromagnetic phenomena (238)–(241) in dielec-

tric media might have been derived from the principle of least action,

making use of an expression for kinetic potential which could be shown

equal to H =

dV

E · D

2

−

H· B

2

**, and it will be noticed that our
**

transformation equations for these quantities are such as to preserve

that necessary invariance for

H

1 −

u

2

c

2

which we found in Chapter IX

to be the general requirement for any dynamical development which

agrees with the theory of relativity.

171. We are now in a position to handle the theory of moving me-

dia. Consider a homogeneous medium moving past a system of coör-

dinates S in the X direction with the velocity V ; our problem is to

discover relations between the various electric and magnetic vectors in

this medium. To do this, consider a new system of coördinates S

also

moving past our original system with the velocity V . Since the medium

is stationary with respect to this new system S

**we may write for mea-
**

surements referred to S

**in accordance with equations (242) to (244)
**

the relations

D

= E

,

B

= µH

,

i

= σE

,

which, as we have already pointed out, are known experimentally to be

true in the case of stationary, homogeneous media. , µ and σ are evi-

dently the values of dielectric constant, permeability and conductivity

of the material in question, which would be found by an experimenter

with respect to whom the medium is stationary.

Making use of our transformation equations (245) to (247) we can

obtain by obvious substitutions the following set of relations for mea-

Electromagnetic Theory. 207

surements made with respect to the original system of coördinates S:

D

x

= E

x

,

D

y

−

V

c

H

z

=

E

y

−

V

c

B

z

,

D

z

+

V

c

H

y

=

E

z

+

V

c

B

y

,

(248)

B

x

= µH

x

,

B

y

+

V

c

E

z

= µ

H

y

+

V

c

D

z

,

B

z

−

V

c

E

y

= µ

H

z

−

V

c

D

y

,

(249)

κ(i

x

−V

ρ

) = σE

x

,

i

y

= σκ

E

y

−

V

c

B

z

,

i

z

= σκ

E

z

+

V

c

B

y

.

(250)

172. Theory of the Wilson Experiment. The equations which

we have just developed for moving media are, as a matter of fact, in

complete accord with the celebrated experiment of H. A. Wilson on

moving dielectrics and indeed all other experiments that have been

performed on moving media.

Wilson’s experiment consisted in the rotation of a hollow cylinder

of dielectric, in a magnetic ﬁeld which was parallel to the axis of the

cylinder. The inner and outer surfaces of the cylinder were covered

with a thin metal coating, and arrangements made with the help of wire

brushes so that electrical contact could be made from these coatings to

the pairs of quadrants of an electrometer. By reversing the magnetic

ﬁeld while the apparatus was in rotation it was possible to measure with

Chapter Twelve. 208

the electrometer the charge produced by the electrical displacement in

the dielectric. We may make use of our equations to compute the

quantitative size of the eﬀect.

Y

Z

X

A A

Fig. 15.

Let Fig. 15 represent a cross-section of the rotating cylinder. Con-

sider a section of the dielectric AA which is moving perpendicularly to

the plane of the paper in the X direction with the velocity V . Let the

magnetic ﬁeld be in the Y direction parallel to the axis of rotation. The

problem is to calculate dielectric displacement D

z

in the Z direction.

Referring to equations (248) we have

D

z

+

V

c

H

y

=

E

z

+

V

c

B

y

,

and, substituting the value of B

y

given by equations (249),

B

y

+

V

c

E

z

= µ

H

y

+

V

c

D

z

we obtain

1 −µ

V

2

c

2

D

z

=

1 −

V

2

c

2

E

z

+

V

c

(µ −1) H

y

,

or, neglecting terms of orders higher than

V

c

, we have

D

z

= E

z

+

V

c

(µ −1) H

y

. (251)

Electromagnetic Theory. 209

For a substance whose permeability is practically unity such as Wil-

son actually used the equation reduces to

D

z

= E

z

+

V

c

( −1) H

y

,

and this was found to ﬁt the experimental facts, since measurements

with the electrometer show the surface charge actually to have the

magnitude D

z

per square centimeter in accordance with our equation

div D = ρ.

It would be a matter of great interest to repeat the Wilson exper-

iment with a dielectric of high permeability so that we could test the

complete equation (251). This is of some importance since the original

Lorentz theory led to a diﬀerent equation,

D

z

= E

z

+

V

c

( −1) µH

y

.

CHAPTER XIII.

FOUR-DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS.

173. In the present chapter we shall present a four-dimensional

method of expressing the results of the Einstein theory of relativity, a

method which was ﬁrst introduced by Minkowski, and in the form which

we shall use, principally developed by Wilson and Lewis. The point of

view adopted consists essentially in considering the properties of an

assumed four-dimensional space in which intervals of time are thought

of as plotted along an axis perpendicular to the three Cartesian axes of

ordinary space, the science of kinematics thus becoming the geometry

of this new four-dimensional space.

The method often has very great advantages not only because it

sometimes leads to considerable simpliﬁcation of the mathematical form

in which the results of the theory of relativity are expressed, but also

because the analogies between ordinary geometry and the geometry of

this imaginary space often suggest valuable modes of attack. On the

other hand, in order to carry out actual numerical calculations and

often in order to appreciate the physical signiﬁcance of the conclusions

arrived at, it is necessary to retranslate the results obtained by this

four-dimensional method into the language of ordinary kinematics. It

must further be noted, moreover, that many important results of the

theory of relativity can be more easily obtained if we do not try to

employ this four-dimensional geometry. The reader should also be on

his guard against the fallacy of thinking that extension in time is of

the same nature as extension in space merely because intervals of space

and time can both be represented by plotting along axes drawn on the

same piece of paper.

174. Idea of a Time Axis. In order to grasp the method let us

consider a particle constrained to move along a single axis, say OX, and

let us consider a time axis OT perpendicular to OX. Then the position

of the particle at any instant of time can be represented by a point in

the XT plane, and its motion as time progresses by a line in the plane.

210

Four-Dimensional Analysis. 211

If, for example, the particle were stationary, its behavior in time and

space could be represented by a line parallel to the time axis OT as

shown for example by the line ab in Fig. 16. A particle moving with

O X

T

a

b

c

∆x

∆t

Fig. 16.

the uniform velocity u =

dx

dt

could be represented by a straight line ac

making an angle with the time axes, and the kinematical behavior of

an accelerated particle could be represented by a curved line.

By conceiving of a four-dimensional space we can extend this

method which we have just outlined to include motion parallel to

all three space axes, and in accordance with the nomenclature of

Minkowski might call such a geometrical representation of the space-

time manifold “the world,” and speak of the points and lines which

represent the instantaneous positions and the motions of particles as

“world-points” and “world-lines.”

175. Non-Euclidean Character of the Space. It will be at once

Chapter Thirteen. 212

evident that the graphical method of representing kinematical events

which is shown by Fig. 16 still leaves something to be desired. One

of the most important conclusions drawn from the theory of relativity

was the fact that it is impossible for a particle to move with a velocity

greater than that of light, and it is evident that there is nothing in our

plot to indicate that fact, since we could draw a line making any desired

angle with the time axis, up to perpendicularity, and thus represent

particles moving with any velocity up to inﬁnity,

u =

∆x

∆t

= ∞.

It is also evident that there is nothing in our plot to correspond to

that invariance in the velocity of light which is a cornerstone of the

theory of relativity. Suppose, for example, the line OC, in Fig. 17,

represents the trajectory of a beam of light with the velocity

∆x

∆t

= c;

there is then nothing so far introduced into our method of plotting to

indicate the fact that we could not equally well make use of another

set of axes OX

T

**, inclined to the ﬁrst and thus giving quite a diﬀerent
**

value,

∆x

∆t

**, to the velocity of the beam of light.
**

There are a number of methods of meeting this diﬃculty and obtain-

ing the invariance for the four-dimensional expression x

2

+y

2

+z

2

−c

2

t

2

(see Chapter IV) which must characterize our system of kinematics.

One of these is to conceive of a four-dimensional Euclidean space with

an imaginary time axis, such that instead of plotting real instants

in time along this axis we should plot the quantity l = ict where

i =

√

−1. In this way we should obtain invariance for the quantity

x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

+ l

2

= x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

− c

2

t

2

, since it may be regarded as

the square of the magnitude of an imaginary four-dimensional radius

vector. This method of treatment has been especially developed by

Minkowski, Laue, and Sommerfeld. Another method of attack, which

has been developed by Wilson and Lewis and is the one which we shall

adopt in this chapter, is to use a real time axis, for plotting the real

Four-Dimensional Analysis. 213

X

′

T

′

∆x

∆t

c

∆

x

′

∆

t

′

O

X

T

Fig. 17.

quantity ct, but to make use of a non-Euclidean four-dimensional space

in which the quantity (x

2

+y

2

+z

2

−c

2

t

2

) is itself taken as the square of

the magnitude of a radius vector. This latter method has of course the

disadvantages that come from using a non-Euclidean space; we shall

ﬁnd, however, that these reduce largely to the introduction of certain

rules as to signs. The method has the considerable advantage of retain-

ing a real time axis which is of some importance, if we wish to visualize

the methods of attack and to represent them graphically.

Chapter Thirteen. 214

We may now proceed to develop an analysis for this non-Euclidean

space. We shall ﬁnd this to be quite a lengthy process but at its com-

pletion we shall have a very valuable instrument for expressing in con-

densed language the results of the theory of relativity. Our method of

treatment will be almost wholly analytical, and the geometrical analo-

gies may be regarded merely as furnishing convenient names for useful

analytical expressions. A more geometrical method of attack will be

found in the original work of Wilson and Lewis.

part i. vector analysis of the non-euclidean

four-dimensional manifold.

176. Consider a four-dimensional manifold in which the position

of a point is determined by a radius vector

r = (x

1

k

1

+x

2

k

2

+x

3

k

3

+x

4

k

4

),

where k

1

, k

2

, k

3

and k

4

may be regarded as unit vectors along four

mutually perpendicular axes and x

1

, x

2

, x

3

, and x

4

as the magnitudes

of the four components of r along these four axes. We may identify

x

1

, x

2

, and x

3

with the three spatial coördinates of a point x, y and z

with reference to an ordinary set of space axes and consider x

4

as a

coördinate which speciﬁes the time (multiplied by the velocity of light)

when the occurrence in question takes place at the point xyz. We have

x

1

= x, x

2

= y, x

3

= z, x

4

= ct, (252)

and from time to time we shall make these substitutions when we wish

to interpret our results in the language of ordinary kinematics. We

shall retain the symbols x

1

, x

2

, x

3

, and x

4

throughout our development,

however, for the sake of symmetry.

177. Space, Time and Singular Vectors. Our space will diﬀer

in an important way from Euclidean space since we shall consider three

classes of one-vector, space, time and singular vectors. Considering

Four-Dimensional Analysis. 215

the coördinates x

1

, x

2

, x

3

, and x

4

which determine the end of a radius

vector,

Space or γ-vectors will have components such that

(x

1

2

+x

2

2

+x

3

2

) > x

4

2

,

and we shall put for their magnitude

s =

x

1

2

+x

2

2

+x

3

2

−x

4

2

. (253)

Time or δ-vectors will have components such that

x

4

2

> (x

1

2

+x

2

2

+x

3

2

),

and we shall put for their magnitude

s =

x

4

2

−x

1

2

−x

2

2

−x

3

2

. (254)

Singular or α-vectors will have components such that

(x

1

2

+x

2

2

+x

3

2

) = x

4

2

,

and their magnitude will be zero.

178. Invariance of x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

− c

2

t

2

. Since we shall naturally

consider the magnitude of a vector to be independent of any particular

choice of axes we have obtained at once by our deﬁnition of magnitude

for any rotation of axes that invariance for the expression

(x

1

2

+x

2

2

+x

3

2

−x

4

2

) = (x

2

+y

2

+z

2

−c

2

t

2

),

which is characteristic of the Lorentz transformation, and have thus

evidently set up an imaginary space which will be suitable for plotting

kinematical events in accordance with the requirements of the theory

of the relativity of motion.

Chapter Thirteen. 216

179. Inner Product of One-Vectors. We shall deﬁne the inner

product of two one-vectors with the help of the following rules for the

multiplication of unit vectors along the axes

k

1

· k

1

= k

2

· k

2

= k

3

· k

3

= 1, k

4

· k

4

= −1, k

n

· k

m

= 0. (255)

It should be noted, of course, that there is no particular signiﬁcance

in picking out the product k

4

· k

4

as the one which is negative; it

would be equally possible to develop a system in which the products

k

1

· k

1

, k

2

· k

2

and k

3

· k

3

should be negative and k

4

· k

4

positive.

The above rules for unit vectors are suﬃcient to deﬁne completely

the inner product provided we include the further requirements that

this product shall obey the associative law for a scalar factor and the

distributive and commutative laws, namely

(na) · b = n(a · b) = (a · b)(n),

a · (b + c) = a · b +a · c,

a · b = b · a.

(256)

For the inner product of a one-vector by itself we shall have, in

accordance with these rules,

r · r = (x

1

k

1

+x

2

k

2

+x

3

k

3

+x

4

k

4

) · (x

1

k

1

+x

2

k

2

+x

3

k

3

+x

4

k

4

)

= (x

2

1

+x

2

2

+x

2

3

−x

2

4

) (257)

and hence may use the following expressions for the magnitudes of

vectors in terms of inner product

s =

√

r · r for γ-vectors, s =

√

−r · r for δ-vectors. (258)

For curved lines we shall deﬁne interval along the curve by the

equations

ds =

√

dr · dr for γ-curves,

ds =

√

−dr · dr for δ-curves.

(259)

Four-Dimensional Analysis. 217

Our rules further show us that we may obtain the space components

of any one vector by taking its inner product with a unit vector along

the desired axis and may obtain the time component by taking the

negative of the corresponding product. Thus

r · k

1

= (x

1

k

1

+x

2

k

2

+x

3

k

3

+x

4

k

4

) · k

1

= x

1

,

r · k

2

= (x

1

k

1

+x

2

k

2

+x

3

k

3

+x

4

k

4

) · k

2

= x

2

,

r · k

3

= (x

1

k

1

+x

2

k

2

+x

3

k

3

+x

4

k

4

) · k

3

= x

3

,

r · k

4

= (x

1

k

1

+x

2

k

2

+x

3

k

3

+x

4

k

4

) · k

4

= −x

4

.

(260)

We see ﬁnally moreover in general that the inner product of any pair

of vectors will be numerically equal to the product of the magnitude

of either by the projection of the other upon it, the sign depending on

the nature of the vectors involved.

180. Non-Euclidean Angle. We shall deﬁne the non-Euclidean

angle θ between two vectors r

1

and r

2

in terms of their magnitudes

s

1

and s

2

by the expressions

±r

1

· r

2

= (s

1

×projection s

2

) = s

1

s

2

cosh θ, (261)

the sign depending on the nature of the vectors in the way indicated in

the preceding section. We note the analogy between this equation and

those familiar in Euclidean vector-analysis, the hyperbolic trigonomet-

ric functions taking the place of the circular functions used in the more

familiar analysis.

For the angle between unit vectors k and k

we shall have

cosh θ = ±k · k

, (262)

where the sign must be chosen so as to make cosh θ positive, the plus

sign holding if both are γ-vectors and the minus sign if both are δ-

vectors.

181. Kinematical Interpretation of Angle in Terms of Ve-

locity. At this point we may temporarily interrupt the development of

Chapter Thirteen. 218

our four-dimensional analysis to consider a kinematical interpretation

of non-Euclidean angles in terms of velocity. It will be evident from our

introduction that the behavior of a moving particle can be represented

in our four-dimensional space by a δ-curve,

∗

each point on this curve

denoting the position of the particle at a given instant of time, and it

is evident that the velocity of the particle will be determined by the

angle which this curve makes with the axes.

Let r be the radius vector to a given point on the curve and consider

the derivative of r with respect to the interval s along the curve; we

have

w =

dr

ds

=

dx

1

ds

k

1

+

dx

2

ds

k

2

+

dx

3

ds

k

3

+

dx

4

ds

k

4

, (263)

and this may be regarded as a unit vector tangent to the curve at the

point in question.

If φ is the angle between the k

4

axis and the tangent to the curve

at the point in question, we have by equation (262)

cosh φ = −w· k

4

=

dx

4

ds

;

making the substitutions for x

1

, x

2

, x

3

, and x

4

, in terms of x, y, z and t

we may write, however,

ds =

dx

2

4

−dx

2

1

−dx

2

2

−dx

2

3

=

1 −

u

2

c

2

c dt, (264)

which gives us

cosh φ =

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

(265)

∗

It is to be noted that the actual trajectories of particles are all of them rep-

resented by δ-curves since as we shall see γ-curves would correspond to velocities

greater than that of light.

Four-Dimensional Analysis. 219

and by the principles of hyperbolic trigonometry we may write the

further relations

sinh φ =

u

c

1 −

u

2

c

2

, (266)

tanh φ =

u

c

. (267)

Vectors of Higher Dimensions

182. Outer Products. We shall deﬁne the outer product of two

one-vectors so that it obeys the associative law for a scalar factor, the

distributive law and the anti-commutative law, namely,

(na) ×b = n(a ×b) = a ×(nb),

a ×(b +c) = a ×b +a ×c, (a +b) ×c = a ×c +b ×c,

a ×b = −b ×a.

(268)

From a geometrical point of view, we shall consider the outer prod-

uct of two one-vectors to be itself a two-vector, namely the parallelo-

gram, or more generally, the area which they determine. The sign of

the two-vector may be taken to indicate the direction of progression

clockwise or anti-clockwise around the periphery. In order to accord

with the requirement that the area of a parallelogram determined by

two lines becomes zero when they are rotated into the same direction,

we may complete our deﬁnition of outer product by adding the require-

ment that the outer product of a vector by itself shall be zero.

a ×a = 0. (269)

We may represent the outer products of unit vectors along the cho-

sen axes as follows:

k

1

×k

1

= k

2

×k

2

= k

3

×k

3

= k

4

×k

4

= 0,

k

1

×k

2

= −k

2

×k

1

= k

12

= −k

21

,

k

1

×k

3

= −k

3

×k

1

= k

13

= −k

31

, etc.,

(270)

Chapter Thirteen. 220

where we may regard k

12

, for example, as a unit parallelogram in the

plane X

1

OX

2

.

We shall continue to use small letters in Clarendon type for one-

vectors and shall use capital letters in Clarendon type for two-vectors.

The components of a two-vector along the six mutually perpendicu-

lar planes X

1

OX

2

, X

1

OX

3

, etc., may be obtained by expressing the

one-vectors involved in terms of their components along the axes and

carrying out the indicated multiplication, thus:

A = a ×b = (a

1

k

1

+a

2

k

2

+a

3

k

3

+a

4

k

4

)

×(b

1

k

1

+b

2

k

2

+b

3

k

3

+b

4

k

4

)

= (a

1

b

2

−a

2

b

1

)k

12

+ (a

1

b

3

−a

3

b

1

)k

13

+ (a

1

b

4

−a

4

b

1

)k

14

+ (a

2

b

3

−a

3

b

2

)k

23

+ (a

2

b

4

−a

4

b

2

)k

24

+ (a

3

b

4

−a

4

b

3

)k

34

,

(271)

or, calling the quantities (a

1

b

2

−a

2

b

1

), etc., the component magnitudes

of A, A

12

, etc., we may write

A = A

12

k

12

+A

13

k

13

+A

14

k

14

+A

23

k

23

+A

24

k

24

+A

34

k

34

. (272)

The concept of outer product may be extended to include the idea

of vectors of higher number of dimensions than two. Thus the outer

product of three one-vectors, or of a one-vector and a two-vector will

be a three-vector which may be regarded as a directed parallelopiped

in our four-dimensional space. The outer product of four one-vectors

will lead to a four-dimensional solid which would have direction only

in a space of more than four dimensions and hence in our case will be

called a pseudo-scalar. The outer product of vectors the sum of whose

dimensions is greater than that of the space considered will vanish.

The results which may be obtained from diﬀerent types of outer

multiplication are tabulated below, where one-vectors are denoted by

small Clarendon type, two-vectors by capital Clarendon type, three-

vectors by Tudor black capitals, and pseudo-scalars by bold face Greek

Four-Dimensional Analysis. 221

letters.

A = a ×b = −b ×a

= (a

1

b

2

−a

2

b

1

)k

12

+ (a

1

b

4

−a

3

b

1

)k

13

+ (a

1

b

4

−a

4

b

1

)k

14

+ (a

2

b

3

−a

3

b

2

)k

23

+ (a

2

b

4

−a

4

b

2

)k

21

+ (a

3

b

4

−a

4

b

3

)k

34

,

A = c ×A

= (c

1

A

23

−c

2

A

13

+c

3

A

12

)k

123

+ (c

1

A

24

−c

2

A

14

+c

4

A

12

)k

124

+ (c

1

A

34

−c

2

A

14

+c

4

A

15

)k

134

+ (c

2

A

34

−c

3

A

24

+c

4

A

23

)k

234

(273)

α = d ×A = −A×d

= (d

1

A

234

−d

2

A

134

+d

3

A

124

−d

4

A

123

)k

1234

,

α = A×B

= (A

12

B

34

−A

13

B

24

+A

14

B

23

+A

23

B

14

−A

24

B

13

+A

34

B

12

)k

1234

.

The signs in these expressions are determined by the general rule

that the sign of any unit vector

¯

k

nmo

will be reversed by each transpo-

sition of the order of a pair of adjacent subscripts, thus:

k

abcd

= −k

bacd

= k

bcad

, etc., · · · . (274)

183. Inner Product of Vectors in General. We have previously

deﬁned the inner product for the special case of a pair of one-vectors,

in order to bring out some of the important characteristics of our non-

Euclidean space. We may now give a general rule for the inner product

of vectors of any number of dimensions.

The inner product of any pair of vectors follows the associative law

for scalar factors, and follows the distributive and commutative laws.

Since we can express any vector in terms of its components, the

above rules will completely determine the inner product of any pair

of vectors provided that we also have a rule for obtaining the inner

products of the unit vectors determined by the mutually perpendicular

axes. This rule is as follows: Transpose the subscripts of the unit

vectors involved so that the common subscripts occur at the end and

Chapter Thirteen. 222

in the same order and cancel these common subscripts. If both the

unit vectors still have subscripts the product is zero; if neither vector

has subscripts the product is unity, and if one of the vectors still has

subscripts that itself will be the product. The sign is to be taken as that

resulting from the transposition of the subscripts (see equation (274)),

unless the subscript 4 has been cancelled, when the sign will be changed.

For example:

k

124

· k

34

= k

12

· k

3

= 0,

k

132

· k

123

= −k

123

· k

123

= −1,

k

124

· k

42

= −k

124

· k

24

= k

1

.

(275)

It is evident from these rules that we may obtain the magnitude

of any desired component of a vector by taking the inner product of

the vector by the corresponding unit vector, it being noticed, of course,

that when the unit vector involved contains the subscript 4 we obtain

the negative of the desired component. For example, we may obtain

the k

12

component of a two-vector as follows:

A

12

= A· k

12

= (A

12

k

12

+A

13

k

13

+A

14

k

14

+A

23

k

23

+A

24

k

24

+A

34

k

34

) · k

12

.

(276)

184. The Complement of a Vector. In an n-dimensional space

any m-dimensional vector will uniquely determine a new vector of di-

mensions (n −m) which may be called the complement of the original

vector. The complement of a vector may be exactly deﬁned as the inner

product of the original vector with the unit pseudo-scalar k

123···n

. In

general, we may denote the complement of a vector by placing an aster-

isk ∗ after the symbol. As an example we may write as the complement

of a two-vector A in our non-Euclidean four-dimensional space:

A

∗

= A· k

1234

= (A

12

k

12

+A

13

k

13

+A

14

k

14

+A

23

k

23

+A

24

k

24

+A

34

k

34

) · k

1234

= (A

12

k

34

−A

13

k

24

−A

14

k

23

+A

23

k

14

+A

24

k

13

−A

34

k

12

).

(277)

Four-Dimensional Analysis. 223

185. The Vector Operator, ♦ or Quad. Analogous to the fa-

miliar three-dimensional vector-operator del,

∇ = k

1

∂

∂x

1

+k

2

∂

∂x

2

+k

3

∂

∂x

3

, (278)

we may deﬁne the four-dimensional vector-operator quad,

♦ = k

1

∂

∂x

1

+k

2

∂

∂x

2

+k

3

∂

∂x

3

−k

4

∂

∂x

4

. (279)

If we have a scalar or a vector ﬁeld we may apply these operators

by regarding them formally as one-vectors and applying the rules for

inner and outer multiplication which we have already given.

Thus if we have a scalar function F which varies continuously from

point to point we can obtain a one-vector which we may call the four-

dimensional gradient of F at the point in question by simple multipli-

cation; we have

grad F = ♦F = k

1

∂F

∂x

1

+k

2

∂F

∂x

2

+k

3

∂F

∂x

3

−k

4

∂F

∂x

4

. (280)

If we have a one-vector ﬁeld, with a vector f whose value varies from

point to point we may obtain by inner multiplication a scalar quantity

which we may call the four-dimensional divergence of f . We have

div f = ♦ · f =

∂f

1

∂x

1

+

∂f

2

∂x

2

+

∂f

3

∂x

3

+

∂f

4

∂x

4

. (280)

Taking the outer product with quad we may obtain a two-vector, the

four-dimensional curl of f ,

curl f = ♦ ×f =

∂f

2

∂x

1

−

∂f

1

∂x

2

k

12

+

∂f

3

∂x

1

−

∂f

1

∂x

3

k

13

+

∂f

4

∂x

1

+

∂f

1

∂x

4

k

14

+

∂f

3

∂x

2

−

∂f

2

∂x

3

k

23

+

∂f

4

∂x

2

+

∂f

2

∂x

4

k

24

+

∂f

4

∂x

3

+

∂f

3

∂x

4

k

34

.

(282)

Chapter Thirteen. 224

By similar methods we could apply quad to a two-vector function F

and obtain the one-vector function ♦ · F and the three-vector function

♦ ×F.

186. Still regarding ♦ as a one-vector we may obtain a number of

important expressions containing ♦ more than once; we have:

♦ ×(♦F) = 0, (283) ♦ ×(♦ ×f ) = 0, (286)

♦ · (♦ · F) = 0, (284) ♦ ×(♦ ×F) = 0, (287)

♦ · (♦ · F) = 0, (285)

♦ · (♦ ×f ) = ♦(♦ · f ) −(♦ · ♦)f , (288)

♦ · (♦ ×F) = ♦ ×(♦ · F) + (♦ · ♦)F, (289)

♦ · (♦ ×F) = ♦ ×(♦ · F) −(♦ · ♦)F. (290)

The operator ♦ · ♦ or ♦

2

has long been known under the name of

the D’Alembertian,

♦

2

=

∂

2

∂x

1

2

+

∂

2

∂x

2

2

+

∂

2

∂x

3

2

−

∂

2

∂x

4

2

= ∆

2

−

∂

2

c

2

∂t

2

. (291)

From the deﬁnition of the complement of a vector given in the pre-

vious section it may be shown by carrying out the proper expansions

that

(♦ ×φ)

∗

= ♦ · φ

∗

, (292)

where φ is a vector of any number of dimensions.

187. Tensors. In analogy to three-dimensional tensors we may

deﬁne a four-dimensional tensor as a quantity with sixteen components

as given in the following table:

T =

T

11

T

12

T

13

T

14

,

T

21

T

22

T

23

T

24

,

T

31

T

32

T

33

T

34

,

T

41

T

42

T

43

T

44

,

(293)

Four-Dimensional Analysis. 225

with the additional requirement that the divergence of the tensor, de-

ﬁned as follows, shall itself be a one-vector.

div T =

∂T

11

∂x

1

+

∂T

12

∂x

2

+

∂T

13

∂x

3

+

∂T

14

∂x

4

k

1

+

∂T

21

∂x

1

+· · ·

k

2

+

∂T

31

∂x

1

+· · ·

k

3

+

∂T

41

∂x

1

+· · ·

k

4

(294)

188. The Rotation of Axes. Before proceeding to the application

of our four-dimensional analysis to the actual problems of relativity

theory we may ﬁnally consider the changes in the components of a

vector which would be produced by a rotation of the axes. We have

already pointed out that the quantity (x

1

2

+ x

2

2

+ x

3

2

− x

4

2

) is an

invariant in our space for any set of rectangular coördinates having the

same origin since it is the square of the magnitude of a radius vector,

and have noted that in this way we have obtained for the quantity

(x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

− c

2

t

2

) the desired invariance which is characteristic of

the Lorentz transformation. In fact we may look upon the Lorentz

transformation as a rotation from a given set of axes to a new set,

with a corresponding re-expression of quantities in terms of the new

components. The particular form of Lorentz transformation, familiar

in preceding chapters, in which the new set of spatial axes has a velocity

component relative to the original set, in the X direction alone, will

be found to correspond to a rotation of the axes in which only the

directions of the X

1

and X

4

axes are changed, the X

2

and X

3

axes

remaining unchanged in direction.

Let us consider a one-vector

a = (a

1

k

1

+a

2

k

2

+a

3

k

3

+a

4

k

4

) = (a

1

k

1

+a

2

k

2

+a

3

k

3

+a

4

k

4

),

Chapter Thirteen. 226

where a

1

, a

2

, a

3

and a

4

are the component magnitudes, using a set

of axes which have k

1

, k

2

, k

3

and k

4

as unit vectors and a

1

, a

2

, a

3

and a

4

**the corresponding magnitudes using another set of mutually
**

perpendicular axes with the unit vectors k

1

, k

2

, k

3

and k

4

. Our

problem, now, is to ﬁnd relations between the magnitudes a

1

, a

2

, a

3

and a

4

and a

1

, a

2

, a

3

and a

4

.

We have already seen, Sections 179 and 183, that we may obtain any

desired component magnitude of a vector by taking its inner product

with a unit vector in the desired direction, reversing the sign if the

subscript 4 is involved. We may obtain in this way an expression for a

1

in terms of a

1

, a

2

, a

3

and a

4

. We have

a

1

= a · k

1

= (a

1

k

1

+a

2

k

2

+a

3

k

3

+a

4

k

4

) · k

1

= a

1

k

1

· k

1

+a

2

k

2

· k

1

+a

3

k

3

· k

1

+a

4

k

4

· k

1

. (295)

By similar multiplications with k

2

, k

3

and k

4

we may obtain expres-

sions for a

2

, a

3

and −a

4

. The results can be tabulated in the convenient

form

a

1

a

2

a

3

a

4

a

1

k

1

· k

1

k

2

· k

1

k

3

· k

1

k

4

· k

1

a

2

k

1

· k

2

k

2

· k

2

k

3

· k

2

k

4

· k

2

a

3

k

1

· k

3

k

2

· k

3

k

3

· k

3

k

4

· k

3

a

4

−k

1

· k

4

−k

2

· k

4

−k

3

· k

4

−k

4

· k

4

(296)

Since the square of the magnitude of the vector, (a

1

2

+a

2

2

+a

3

2

−a

4

2

),

is a quantity which is to be independent of the choice of axes, we shall

have certain relations holding between the quantities k

1

· k

1

, k

1

· k

2

,

etc. These relations, which are analogous to the familiar conditions of

Four-Dimensional Analysis. 227

orthogonality in Euclidean space, can easily be shown to be

(k

1

· k

1

)

2

+ (k

1

· k

2

)

2

+ (k

1

· k

3

)

2

−(k

1

· k

4

)

2

= 1,

(k

2

· k

1

)

2

+ (k

2

· k

2

)

2

+ (k

2

· k

3

)

2

−(k

2

· k

4

)

2

= 1,

(k

3

· k

1

)

2

+ (k

3

· k

2

)

2

+ (k

3

· k

3

)

2

−(k

3

· k

4

)

2

= 1,

(k

4

· k

1

)

2

+ (k

4

· k

2

)

2

+ (k

4

· k

3

)

2

−(k

4

· k

4

)

2

= −1,

(297)

and

(k

1

· k

1

)(k

2

· k

1

) + (k

1

· k

2

)(k

2

· k

2

)

+ (k

1

· k

3

)(k

2

· k

3

) −(k

1

· k

4

)(k

2

· k

4

) = 0,

etc., for each of the six pairs of vertical columns in table (296).

Since we shall often be interested in a simple rotation in which the

directions of the X

2

and X

3

axes are not changed, we shall be able to

simplify this table for that particular case by writing

k

2

= k

2

, k

3

= k

3

,

and noting the simpliﬁcations thus introduced in the products of the

unit vectors, we shall obtain

a

1

a

2

a

3

a

4

a

1

k

1

· k

1

0 0 k

4

· k

1

a

2

0 1 0 0

a

3

0 0 1 0

a

4

−k

1

· k

4

0 0 −k

4

· k

4

(298)

If now we call φ the angle of rotation between the two time axes

OX

4

and OX

4

, we may write, in accordance with equation (262),

−k

4

· k

4

= cosh φ.

Chapter Thirteen. 228

Since we must preserve the orthogonal relations (297) and may also

make use of the well-known expression of hyperbolic trigonometry

cosh

2

φ −sinh

2

φ = 1,

we may now rewrite our transformation table in the form

a

1

a

2

a

3

a

4

a

1

cosh φ 0 0 sinh φ

a

2

0 1 0 0

a

3

0 0 1 0

a

4

sinh φ 0 0 cosh φ

(299)

By a similar process we may obtain transformation tables for the

components of a two-vector A. Expressing A in terms of the unit vec-

tors k

12

, k

13

, k

14

**, etc., and taking successive inner products with the
**

unit vectors k

12

, k

13

, k

14

, etc., we may obtain transformation equations

which can be expressed by the tabulation (300) shown on the following

page.

For the particular case of a rotation in which the direction of the

X

2

and X

3

axes are not changed we shall have

k

2

= k

2

, k

3

= k

3

,

and very considerable simpliﬁcation will be introduced. We shall have,

for example,

k

12

· k

12

= (k

1

×k

2

) · (k

1

×k

2

) = (k

1

×k

2

) · (k

1

×k

2

) = k

1

· k

1

,

k

13

· k

12

= (k

1

×k

3

) · (k

1

×k

2

) = (k

1

×k

3

) · (k

1

×k

2

) = 0,

etc.

Making these and similar substitutions and introducing, as before, the

relation −k

4

· k

4

= cosh φ where φ is the non-Euclidean angle between

Four-Dimensional Analysis. 229

A

1

2

A

1

3

A

1

4

A

2

3

A

2

4

A

3

4

A

1

2

k

1

2

·

k

1

2

k

1

3

·

k

1

2

k

1

4

·

k

1

2

k

2

3

·

k

1

2

k

2

4

·

k

1

2

k

3

4

·

k

1

2

A

1

3

k

1

2

·

k

1

3

k

1

3

·

k

1

3

k

1

4

·

k

1

3

k

2

3

·

k

1

3

k

2

4

·

k

1

3

k

3

4

·

k

1

3

A

1

4

−

k

1

2

·

k

1

4

−

k

1

3

·

k

1

4

−

k

1

4

·

k

1

4

−

k

2

3

·

k

1

4

−

k

2

4

·

k

1

4

−

k

3

4

·

k

1

4

A

2

3

k

1

2

·

k

2

3

k

1

3

·

k

2

3

k

1

4

·

k

2

3

k

2

3

·

k

2

3

k

2

4

·

k

2

3

k

3

4

·

k

2

3

A

2

4

−

k

1

2

·

k

2

4

−

k

1

3

·

k

2

4

−

k

1

4

·

k

2

4

−

k

2

3

·

k

2

4

−

k

2

4

·

k

2

4

−

k

3

4

·

k

2

4

A

3

4

−

k

1

2

·

k

3

4

−

k

1

3

·

k

3

4

−

k

1

4

·

k

3

4

−

k

2

3

·

k

3

4

−

k

2

4

·

k

3

4

−

k

3

4

·

k

3

4

(

3

0

0

)

Chapter Thirteen. 230

the two time axes, we may write our transformation table in the form

A

12

A

13

A

14

A

23

A

24

A

34

A

12

cosh φ 0 0 0 sinh φ 0

A

13

0 cosh φ 0 0 0 sinh φ

A

14

0 0 1 0 0 0

A

23

0 0 0 1 0 0

A

24

−sinh φ 0 0 0 cosh φ 0

A

34

0 −sinh φ 0 0 0 cosh φ

(301)

189. Interpretation of the Lorentz Transformation as a Ro-

tation of Axes. We may now show that the Lorentz transformation

may be looked upon as a change from a given set of axes to a rotated

set.

Since the angle φ which occurs in our transformation tables is that

between the k

4

axis and the new k

4

**axis, we may write, in accordance
**

with equations (265) and (266),

cosh φ =

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

, sinh φ =

V

c

1 −

V

2

c

2

,

where V is the velocity between the two sets of space axes which corre-

spond to the original and the rotated set of four-dimensional axes. This

will permit us to rewrite our transformation table for the components

Four-Dimensional Analysis. 231

of a one-vector in the forms

a

1

a

2

a

3

a

4

a

1

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

0 0

V/c

1 −

V

2

c

2

a

2

0 1 0 0

a

3

0 0 1 0

a

4

V/c

1 −

V

2

c

2

0 0

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

(302)

a

1

a

2

a

3

a

4

a

1

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

0 0

−V/c

1 −

V

2

c

2

a

2

0 1 0 0

a

3

0 0 1 0

a

4

−V/c

1 −

V

2

c

2

0 0

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

Consider now any point P(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

, x

4

). The radius vector from

the origin to this point will be r = (x

1

k

1

+ x

2

k

2

+ x

3

k

3

+ x

4

k

4

), or,

making use of the relations between x

1

, x

2

, x

3

, x

4

and x, y, z, t given

Chapter Thirteen. 232

by equations (252), we may write

r = (xk

1

+yk

2

+zk

3

+ctk

4

).

Applying our transformation table to the components of this one-vector,

we obtain the familiar equations for the Lorentz transformation

x

=

x −V t

1 −

V

2

c

2

,

y

= y,

z

= z,

t

=

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

t −

V

c

2

x

.

We thus see that the Lorentz transformation is to be interpreted in

our four-dimensional analysis as a rotation of axes.

190. Graphical Representation. Although we have purposely

restricted ourselves in the foregoing treatment to methods of attack

which are almost purely analytical rather than geometrical in nature,

the importance of a graphical representation of our four-dimensional

manifold should not be neglected. The diﬃculty of representing all

four axes on a single piece of two-dimensional paper is not essentially

diﬀerent from that encountered in the graphical representation of the

facts of ordinary three-dimensional solid geometry, and these diﬃculties

can often be solved by considering only one pair of axes at a time, say

OX

1

and OX

4

, and plotting the occurrences in the X

1

OX

4

plane. The

fact that the geometry of this plane is a non-Euclidean one presents a

more serious complication since the ﬁgures that we draw on our sheet of

paper will obviously be Euclidean in nature, but this diﬃculty also can

be met if we make certain conventions as to the signiﬁcance of the lines

we draw, conventions which are fundamentally not so very unlike the

Four-Dimensional Analysis. 233

conventions by which we interpret as solid, a ﬁgure drawn in ordinary

perspective.

Consider for example the diagram shown in Fig. 18, where we have

drawn a pair of perpendicular axes, OX

1

, and OX

4

and the two unit

hyperbolæ given by the equations

x

1

2

−x

4

2

= 1,

x

1

2

−x

4

2

= −1,

(303)

together with their asymptotes, OA and OB, given by the equation

x

1

2

−x

4

2

= 0. (304)

This purely Euclidean ﬁgure permits, as a matter of fact, a fairly satis-

factory representation of the non-Euclidean properties of the manifold

with which we have been dealing.

OX

1

and OX

4

may be considered as perpendicular axes in the non-

Euclidean X

1

OX

4

plane. Radius vectors lying in the quadrant AOB

will have a greater component along the X

4

than along the X

1

axis

and hence will be δ-vectors with the magnitude s =

√

x

4

2

−x

1

2

, where

x

1

and x

4

are the coördinates of the terminal of the vector. γ-radius-

vectors will lie in the quadrant BOC and will have the magnitude

s =

√

x

1

2

−x

4

2

. Radius vectors lying along the asymptotes OAand OB

will have zero magnitudes (s =

√

x

1

2

−x

4

2

= 0) and hence will be

singular vectors.

Since the two hyperbolæ have the equations x

1

2

− x

4

2

= 1 and

x

1

2

−x

4

2

= −1, rays such as Oa, Oa

**, Ob, etc., starting from the origin
**

and terminating on the hyperbolæ, will all have unit magnitude. Hence

we may consider the hyperbolæ as representing unit pseudo-circles in

our non-Euclidean plane and consider the rays as representing the radii

of these pseudo-circles.

A non-Euclidean rotation of axes will then be represented by

changing from the axes OX

1

and OX

4

to OX

1

and OX

4

, and taking

Oa

and Ob

**as unit distances along the axes instead of Oa and Ob.
**

Chapter Thirteen. 234

A

C

B

D

O a

a

′

b

b

′

X

1

X

4

X

′

1

X

′

4

θ

θ

dx

1

dx

4

Fig. 18.

It is easy to show, as a matter of fact, that such a change of

axes and units does correspond to the Lorentz transformation. Let

x

1

and x

4

be the coördinates of any point with respect to the origi-

nal axes OX

1

and OX

4

, and x

1

and x

4

**the coördinates of the same
**

point referred to the oblique axes OX

1

and OX

4

**, no change having yet
**

been made in the actual lengths of the units of measurement. Then,

by familiar equations of analytical geometry, we shall have

x

1

= x

1

cos θ +x

4

sin θ,

x

4

= x

1

sin θ +x

4

cos θ,

(305)

Four-Dimensional Analysis. 235

where θ is the angle X

1

OX

1

.

We have, moreover, from the properties of the hyperbola,

Oa

Oa

=

Ob

Ob

=

1

cos

2

θ −sin

2

θ

,

and hence if we represent by x

1

and x

4

**the coördinates of the point
**

with respect to the oblique axes and use Oa

and Ob

as unit distances

instead of Oa and Ob, we shall obtain

x

1

= x

1

cos θ

cos

2

θ −sin

2

θ

+x

4

sin θ

cos

2

θ −sin

2

θ

,

x

4

= x

1

sin θ

cos

2

θ −sin

2

θ

+x

4

cos θ

cos

2

θ −sin

2

θ

.

It is evident, however, that we may write

sin θ

cos θ

= tan θ =

dx

1

dx

4

=

V

c

,

where V may be regarded as the relative velocity of our two sets of space

axes. Introducing this into the above equations and also writing x

1

= x,

x

4

= ct, x

1

= x

, x

4

= ct

**, we may obtain the familiar equations
**

x =

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

(x

+V t

),

t =

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

t

+

V

c

2

x

.

We thus see that our diagrammatic representation of non-Euclidean

rotation in the X

1

OX

4

plane does as a matter of fact correspond to the

Lorentz transformation.

Chapter Thirteen. 236

Diagrams of this kind can now be used to study various kinematical

events. δ-curves can be drawn in the quadrant AOB to represent the

space-time trajectories of particles, their form can be investigated using

diﬀerent sets of rotated axes, and the equations for the transformation

of velocities and accelerations thus studied. γ-lines perpendicular to

the particular time axis used can be drawn to correspond to the instan-

taneous positions of actual lines in ordinary space and studies made of

the Lorentz shortening. Singular vectors along the asymptote OB can

be used to represent the trajectory of a ray of light and it can be shown

that our rotation of axes is so devised as to leave unaltered, the angle

between such singular vectors and the OX

4

axis, corresponding to the

fact that the velocity of light must appear the same to all observers.

Further development of the possibilities of graphical representation of

the properties of our non-Euclidean space may be left to the reader.

part ii. applications of the four-dimensional analysis.

191. We may now apply our four-dimensional methods to a number

of problems in the ﬁelds of kinematics, mechanics and electromagnetics.

Our general plan will be to express the laws of the particular ﬁeld in

question in four-dimensional language, making use of four-dimensional

vector quantities of a kinematical, mechanical, or electromagnetic na-

ture. Since the components of these vectors along the three spatial axes

and the temporal axis will be closely related to the ordinary quantities

familiar in kinematical, mechanical, and electrical discussions, there

will always be an easy transition from our four-dimensional language

to that ordinarily used in such discussions, and necessarily used when

actual numerical computations are to be made. We shall ﬁnd, however,

that our four-dimensional language introduces an extraordinary brevity

into the statement of a number of important laws of physics.

Four-Dimensional Analysis. 237

Kinematics.

192. Extended Position. The position of a particle and the par-

ticular instant at which it occupies that position can both be indicated

by a point in our four-dimensional space. We can call this the ex-

tended position of the particle and determine it by stating the value of

a four-dimensional radius vector

r = (x

1

k

1

+x

2

k

2

+x

3

k

3

+x

4

k

4

). (306)

193. Extended Velocity. Since the velocity of a real particle can

never exceed that of light, its changing position in space and time will

be represented by a δ-curve.

The equation for a unit vector tangent to this δ-curve will be

w =

dr

ds

=

dx

1

ds

k

1

+

dx

2

ds

k

2

+

dx

3

ds

k

3

+

dx

4

ds

k

4

, (307)

where ds indicates interval along the δ-curve; and this important vec-

tor w may be called the extended velocity of the particle.

Remembering that for a δ-curve

ds =

dx

4

2

−dx

1

2

−dx

2

2

−dx

3

2

= c dt

1 −

u

2

c

2

, (308)

we may rewrite our expression for extended velocity in the form

w =

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

u

c

+k

4

¸

, (309)

where u is evidently the ordinary three-dimensional velocity of the par-

ticle.

Since w is a four-dimensional vector in our imaginary space, we

may use our tables for transforming the components of w from one set

Chapter Thirteen. 238

of axes to another. We shall ﬁnd that we may thus obtain transfor-

mation equations for velocity identical with those already familiar in

Chapter IV.

The four components of w are

u

x

c

1 −

u

2

c

2

k

1

,

u

y

c

1 −

u

2

c

2

k

2

,

u

z

c

1 −

u

2

c

2

k

3

,

k

4

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

and with the help of table (302) we may easily obtain, by making simple

algebraic substitutions, the following familiar transformation equations:

u

x

=

u

x

−V

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

, u

y

=

u

y

1 −

V

2

c

2

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

, u

z

=

u

z

1 −

V

2

c

2

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

,

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

=

1 −

u

x

V

c

2

1 −

u

2

c

2

1 −

V

2

c

2

.

This is a good example of the ease with which we can derive our

familiar transformation equations with the help of the four-dimensional

method.

194. Extended Acceleration. We may deﬁne the extended ac-

celeration of a particle as the rate of curvature of the δ-line which

determines its four-dimensional position. We have

c =

d

2

r

ds

2

=

dw

ds

=

d

ds

u

c

+k

4

1 −

u

2

c

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

. (310)

Four-Dimensional Analysis. 239

Or, introducing as before the relation ds = c dt

1 −

u

2

c

2

, we may write

c =

1

c

2

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

du

dt

+

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

2

u

c

2

du

dt

u

+

1

1 −

u

2

c

2

2

u

c

du

dt

k

4

¸

, (311)

where u is evidently the ordinary three-dimensional velocity, and

du

dt

the three-dimensional acceleration; and we might now use our transfor-

mation table to determine the transformation equations for acceleration

which we originally obtained in Chapter IV.

195. The Velocity of Light. As an interesting illustration of

the application to kinematics of our four-dimensional methods, we may

point out that the trajectory of a ray of light will be represented by

a singular line. Since the magnitude of all singular vectors is zero by

deﬁnition, we have for any singular line

dx

1

2

+dx

2

2

+dx

3

2

= dx

4

2

,

or, since the magnitude will be independent of any particular choice of

axes, we may also write

dx

1

2

+dx

2

2

+dx

3

2

= dx

4

2

.

Transforming the ﬁrst of these equations we may write

dx

1

2

+dx

2

2

+dx

3

2

dx

4

2

=

dx

2

+dy

2

+dz

2

c

2

dt

2

= 1

or

dl

dt

= c.

Chapter Thirteen. 240

Similarly we could obtain from the second equation

dl

dt

= c.

We thus see that a singular line does as a matter of fact correspond to

the four-dimensional trajectory of a ray of light having the velocity c,

and that our four-dimensional analysis corresponds to the requirements

of the second postulate of relativity that a ray of light shall have the

same velocity for all reference systems.

The Dynamics of a Particle.

196. Extended Momentum. We may deﬁne the extended mo-

mentum of a material particle as equal to the product m

0

w of its

mass m

0

, measured when at rest, and its extended velocity w. In

accordance with equation (309) for extended velocity, we may write

then, for the extended momentum,

m

0

w =

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

u

c

+k

4

. (312)

Or, if in accordance with our considerations of Chapter VI we put for

the mass of the particle at the velocity u

m =

m

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

,

we may write

m

0

w = m

u

c

+mk

4

. (313)

We note that the space component of this vector is ordinary momen-

tum and the time component has the magnitude of mass, and by ap-

plying our transformation table (302) we can derive very simply the

Four-Dimensional Analysis. 241

transformation equations for mass and momentum already obtained in

Chapter VI.

197. The Conservation Laws. We may now express the laws for

the dynamics of a system of particles in a very simple form by stating

the principle that the extended momentum of a system of particles is a

quantity which remains constant in all interactions of the particles, we

have then

¸

m

0

w =

¸

mu

c

+mk

4

= a constant, (314)

where the summation

¸

extends over all the particles of the system.

It is evident that this one principle really includes the three princi-

ples of the conservation of momentum, mass, and energy. This is true

because in order for the vector

¸

m

0

w to be a constant quantity, its

components along each of the four axes must be constant, and as will be

seen from the above equation this necessitates the constancy of the mo-

mentum

¸

mu, of the total mass

¸

m, and of the total energy

¸

m

c

2

.

The Dynamics of an Elastic Body.

Our four-dimensional methods may also be used to present the re-

sults of our theory of elasticity in a very compact form.

198. The Tensor of Extended Stress. In order to do this we

shall ﬁrst need to deﬁne an expression which may be called the four-

dimensional stress in the elastic medium. For this purpose we may take

the symmetrical tensor T

m

deﬁned by the following table:

T

m

=

p

xx

p

xy

p

xz

cg

x

,

p

yx

p

yy

p

yz

cg

y

,

p

zx

p

zy

p

zz

cg

z

,

s

x

c

s

y

c

s

z

c

w,

(315)

Chapter Thirteen. 242

where the spatial components of T

m

are equal to the components of the

symmetrical tensor p which we have already deﬁned in Chapter X and

the time components are related to the density of momentum g, density

of energy ﬂow s and energy density w, as shown in the tabulation.

From the symmetry of this tensor we may infer at once the simple

relation between density of momentum and density of energy ﬂow:

g =

s

c

2

, (316)

with which we have already become familiar in Section 132.

199. The Equation of Motion. We may, moreover, express the

equation of motion for an elastic medium unacted on by external forces

in the very simple form

div T

m

= 0. (317)

It will be seen from our deﬁnition of the divergence of a four-

dimensional tensor, Section 187, that this one equation is in reality

equivalent to the two equations

div p +

∂g

∂t

= 0 (318)

and

div s +

∂w

∂t

= 0.

The ﬁrst of these equations is identical with (184) of Chapter X, which

we found to be the equation for the motion of an elastic medium in the

absence of external forces, and the second of these equations expresses

the principle of the conservation of energy.

The elegance and simplicity of this four-dimensional method of ex-

pressing the results of our laborious calculations in Chapter X cannot

fail to be appreciated.

Four-Dimensional Analysis. 243

Electromagnetics.

We also ﬁnd it possible to express the laws of the electromagnetic

ﬁeld very simply in our four-dimensional language.

200. Extended Current. We may ﬁrst deﬁne the extended cur-

rent, a simple but important one-vector, whose value at any point will

depend on the density and velocity of charge at that point. We shall

take as the equation of deﬁnition

q = ρ

0

w = ρ

u

c

+k

4

¸

, (319)

where

ρ =

ρ

0

1 −

u

2

c

2

is the density of charge at the point in question.

201. The Electromagnetic Vector M. We may further deﬁne

a two-vector M which will be directly related to the familiar vectors

strength of electric ﬁeld e and strength of magnetic ﬁeld h by the

equation of deﬁnition

M = (h

1

k

23

+h

2

k

31

+h

3

k

12

−e

1

k

14

−e

2

k

24

−e

3

k

34

)

or (320)

M

∗

= (e

1

k

23

+e

2

k

31

+e

3

k

12

+h

1

k

14

+h

2

k

24

+h

3

k

34

),

where e

1

, e

2

, e

3

, and h

1

, h

2

, h

3

are the components of e and h.

202. The Field Equations. We may now state the laws of the

electromagnetic ﬁeld in the extremely simple form

♦ · M = q, (321)

♦ ×M = 0. (322)

Chapter Thirteen. 244

These two simple equations are, as a matter of fact, completely

equivalent to the four ﬁeld equations which we made fundamental for

our treatment of electromagnetic theory in Chapter XII. Indeed if we

treat ♦ formally as a one-vector

k

1

∂

∂x

1

+k

2

∂

∂x

2

+k

3

∂

∂x

3

−k

4

∂

∂x

4

**and apply it to the electromagnetic vector M expressed in the extended
**

form given in the equation of deﬁnition (320) we shall obtain from (321)

the two equations

curl h −

1

c

∂e

∂t

= ρ

u

c

,

div e = ρ,

and from (322)

div h = 0,

curl e +

1

c

∂h

∂t

= 0,

where we have made the substitution x

4

= ct. These are of course the

familiar ﬁeld equations for the Maxwell-Lorentz theory of electromag-

netism.

203. The Conservation of Electricity. We may also obtain very

easily an equation for the conservation of electric charge. In accordance

with equation (284) we may write as a necessary mathematical identity

♦ · (♦ · M) = 0. (323)

Noting that ♦ · M = q, this may be expanded to give us the equation

of continuity.

div ρu +

∂ρ

∂t

= 0. (324)

Four-Dimensional Analysis. 245

204. The Product M· q. We have thus shown the form taken by

the four ﬁeld equations when they are expressed in four dimensional

language. Let us now consider with the help of our four-dimensional

methods what can be said about the forces which determine the motion

of electricity under the action of the electromagnetic ﬁeld.

Consider the inner product of the electromagnetic vector and the

extended current:

M· q = (h

1

k

23

+h

2

k

31

+h

3

k

12

−e

1

k

14

−e

2

k

24

−e

3

k

34

) · ρ

u

c

+k

4

¸

= ρ

e +

[u ×h]

∗

c

+ρ

e · h

c

k

4

. (325)

We see that the space component of this vector is equal to the expres-

sion which we have already found in Chapter XII as the force acting on

the charge contained in unit volume, and the time component is pro-

portional to the work done by this force on the moving charge; hence

we may write the equation

M· q =

f +

f · u

c

k

4

, (326)

an expression which contains the same information as that given by the

so-called ﬁfth fundamental equation of electromagnetic theory, f being

the force exerted by the electromagnetic ﬁeld per unit volume of charged

material.

205. The Extended Tensor of Electromagnetic Stress. We

may now show the possibility of deﬁning a four-dimensional tensor T

e

,

such that the important quantity M· q shall be equal to −div T

e

. This

will be valuable since we shall then be able to express the equation

of motion for a combined mechanical and electrical system in a very

simple and beautiful form.

Chapter Thirteen. 246

Consider the symmetrical tensor

T

e

=

T

11

T

12

T

13

T

14

,

T

21

T

22

T

23

T

24

,

T

31

T

32

T

33

T

34

,

T

41

T

42

T

43

T

44

,

(327)

deﬁned by the expression

T

jk

=

1

2

{M

j1

M

k1

+M

j2

M

k2

+M

j3

M

k3

−M

j4

M

k4

+M

j1

∗

M

k1

∗

+M

j2

∗

M

k2

∗

+M

j3

∗

M

k3

∗

−M

j4

∗

M

k4

∗

},

(328)

where j, k = 1, 2, 3, 4.

It can then readily be shown by expansion that

−div T

e

= M· (♦ · M) +M

∗

· (♦ · M

∗

).

But, in accordance with equations (321), (326), (292) and (322), this is

equivalent to

−div T

e

= M· q =

f +

(f · u)

c

k

4

. (329)

Since in free space the value of the force f is zero, we may write for

free space the equation

div T

e

= 0. (330)

This one equation is equivalent, as a matter of fact, to two important

and well-known equations of electromagnetic theory. If we develop the

components T

11

, T

12

, etc., of our tensor in accordance with equations

Four-Dimensional Analysis. 247

(328) and (320) we ﬁnd that we can write

T

e

=

ψ

xx

ψ

xy

ψ

xz

S

x

c

,

ψ

yx

ψ

yy

ψ

yz

S

y

c

,

ψ

zx

ψ

zxy

ψ

zz

S

z

c

,

s

x

c

s

x

c

s

x

c

w,

(331)

where we shall have

ψ

xx

= −

1

2

(e

x

2

−e

y

2

−e

z

2

+h

x

2

−h

y

2

−h

z

2

),

ψ

xy

= −(e

x

h

y

+h

x

h

y

),

etc.

s

x

= c(e

y

h

z

−e

z

h

y

),

etc.

w =

1

2

(e

2

+h

2

),

(332)

ψ thus being equivalent to the well-known Maxwell three-dimensional

stress tensor, s

x

, s

y

, etc., being the components of the Poynting vector

c [e × h]

∗

, and w being the familiar expression for density of electro-

magnetic energy

e

2

+h

2

s

. We thus see that equation (330) is equivalent

to the two equations

div ψ +

1

c

2

∂s

∂t

= 0,

div s +

∂w

∂t

= 0.

The ﬁrst of these is the so-called equation of electromagnetic momen-

tum, and the second, Poynting’s equation for the ﬂow of electromag-

netic energy.

Chapter Thirteen. 248

206. Combined Electrical and Mechanical Systems. For a

point not in free space where mechanical and electrical systems are both

involved, taking into account our previous considerations, we may now

write the equation of motion for a combined electrical and mechanical

system in the very simple form

div T

m

+ div T

e

= 0.

And we may point out in closing that we may reasonably expect all

forces to be of such a nature that our most general equation of motion

for any continuous system can be written in the form

div T

1

+ div T

2

+· · · = 0.

APPENDIX I.—Symbols for Quantities.

Scalar Quantities. (Indicated by Italic type.)

c speed of light.

e electric charge.

E energy.

H kinetic potential.

K kinetic energy.

l, m, n direction cosines.

L Lagrangian function.

p pressure.

Q quantity of electricity.

S entropy.

t time.

T temperature, function

¸

m

0

c

2

1 −

1 −

u

2

c

2

.

U potential energy.

v volume.

V relative speed of coördinate systems, volume.

w energy density.

W work.

dielectric constant.

249

Appendix I. 250

κ

1

1 −

V

2

c

2

.

µ index of refraction, magnetic permeability.

ν frequency.

ρ density of charge.

σ electrical conductivity.

φ non-Euclidean angle between time axes.

φ

1

φ

2

φ

3

· · · generalized coördinates.

ψ scalar potential.

ψ

1

ψ

2

ψ

3

· · · generalized momenta.

Vector Quantities. (Indicated by Clarendon type.)

B magnetic induction.

c extended acceleration.

D dielectric displacement.

e electric ﬁeld strength in free space.

E electric ﬁeld strength in a medium.

f force per unit volume.

F force acting on a particle.

g density of momentum.

h magnetic ﬁeld strength in free space.

H magnetic ﬁeld strength in a medium.

Appendix I. 251

i density of electric current.

M angular momentum, electromagnetic vector.

p symmetrical elastic stress tensor.

q extended current.

r radius vector.

s density of energy ﬂow.

t unsymmetrical elastic stress tensor.

u velocity.

w extended velocity.

φ vector potential.

APPENDIX II.—Vector Notation.

Three Dimensional Space.

Unit Vectors, i j k

Radius Vector, r = xi +yj +zk

Velocity,

u =

dr

dt

= ˙ xi + ˙ yj + ˙ zk

= u

x

i +u

y

j +u

z

k

Acceleration,

˙ u =

d

2

r

dt

2

= ¨ xi + ¨ yj + ¨ zk

= ˙ u

x

i + ˙ u

y

j + ˙ u

z

k

Inner Product,

a · b = a

x

b

x

+a

y

b

y

+a

z

b

z

Outer Product,

a ×b = (a

x

b

y

−a

y

b

x

)ij + (a

y

b

z

−a

z

b

y

)jk + (a

z

b

x

−a

x

b

z

)ki

Complement of Outer Product,

[a ×b]

∗

= (a

y

b

z

−a

z

b

y

)i + (a

z

b

x

−a

x

b

z

)j + (a

x

b

y

−a

y

b

x

)k

The Vector Operator Del or ∇,

∇ = i

∂

∂x

+j

∂

∂y

+k

∂

∂z

252

Appendix II. 253

grad A = ∇A = i

∂A

∂x

+j

∂A

∂y

+k

∂A

∂z

div a = ∇· a =

∂a

x

∂x

+

∂a

y

∂y

+

∂a

z

∂z

curl a = [∇×a]

∗

=

∂a

z

∂y

−

∂a

y

∂z

i +

∂a

x

∂z

−

∂a

z

∂x

j +

∂a

y

∂x

−

∂a

x

∂y

k

Non-Euclidean Four Dimensional Space.

Unit Vectors, k

1

k

2

k

3

k

4

Radius Vector,

r = x

1

k

1

+x

2

k

2

+x

3

k

3

+x

4

k

4

= xi +yj +zk +ctk

4

One Vector,

a = a

1

k

1

+a

2

k

2

+a

3

k

3

+a

4

k

4

Two Vector,

A = A

12

k

12

+A

13

k

13

+A

14

k

14

+A

23

k

23

+A

24

k

24

+A

34

k

34

Three Vector,

A = A

123

k

123

+A

124

k

124

+A

134

k

134

+A

234

k

234

Pseudo Scalar,

α = αk

1234

Transposition of Subscripts,

k

abc···

= −k

bac···

= k

bca···

Appendix II. 254

Inner Product of One Vectors,

(See Section 183).

Outer Product of One Vectors,

k

ab···

×k

nm···

= k

ab···nm···

Complement of a Vector,

φ

∗

= φ · k

1234

The Vector Operator Quad or ♦,

♦ = k

1

∂

∂x

1

+k

2

∂

∂x

2

+k

3

∂

∂x

3

+k

4

∂

∂x

4

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transcriber’s note

Minor typographical corrections and presentational changes have been made without comment. This PDF ﬁle is formatted for screen viewing, but may be easily A formatted for printing. Please consult the preamble of the L TEX source ﬁle for instructions.

THE THEORY OF THE RELATIVITY OF MOTION

BY

RICHARD C. TOLMAN

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS BERKELEY 1917

Press of The New Era Printing Company Lancaster, Pa

TO

H. E.

. . . . . . . Newtonian Space. . Chapter I. The Space and Time of the Ether Theory. . . TOLMAN. . . .D. . . . . . . Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rise of the Ether Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . Rise of the Einstein Theory of Relativity. . . . . . . . .THE THEORY OF THE RELATIVITY OF MOTION. Idea of a Stationary Ether. Ether in the Neighborhood of Moving Bodies. . . The Lorentz Theory of a Stationary Ether. The First Postulate of Relativity. . PH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Newtonian Time. . . . . . . . . 1 5 5 7 7 9 11 11 12 12 13 14 17 18 19 21 21 22 24 iv . . . . . . . . . . . Ether Entrained in Dielectrics. . . The Galileo Transformation Equations. . . . . . . . . . TABLE OF CONTENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suggested Alternative to the Postulate of the Independence of the Velocity of Light and the Velocity of the Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Postulates of Einstein. . . Chapter II. . . . . . . . . . Historical Development of Ideas as to the Nature of Space and Time. . . The Michelson-Morley Experiment. . . . . . . . . The Second Postulate of the Einstein Theory of Relativity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BY RICHARD C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Space and Time of Galileo and Newton. . . . . . . . . Part II. . . The Two Postulates of the Einstein Theory of Relativity. Part I. . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . The Composition of Velocities. . . . . . Velocities Greater than that of Light. . . . . . . . . . . The Relation Between Mass and Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Einstein Transformation Equations for Space and Time.Evidence Against Emission Theories of Light. . . . . The Doppler Eﬀect. . . . . . The Kinematical Rate of a Clock. . . . . Chapter V. . . . Some Elementary Deductions. . The Kinematical Shape of a Rigid Body. . . . . . . . . . . . Three Conditions to be Fulﬁlled. . . . The Transformation Equations. . The Composition of Velocities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Velocity of Light in Moving Media. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Composition of Velocities in General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Lorentz Transformation. . . . Kinematical Applications. . . . Chapter III. . The Setting of Clocks in a Moving System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deduction of the Fundamental Transformation Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Postulates of the Theory of Relativity. . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter IV. . . . . . . . . . The Idea of Simultaneity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u2 1− 2 c 25 27 29 30 30 32 35 38 40 42 45 45 46 47 49 50 51 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 56 57 59 60 63 64 65 Transformation Equations for Acceleration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Transformation Equations for the Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurements of Length in a Moving System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Transformation Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurements of Time in a Moving System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Mass of a Moving Body. . . . . . . Application of the Principles of Kinematics to Certain Optical Problems. The Aberration of Light. . . . . . . . . . Diﬀerent Forms of Emission Theory. . . . . . . . The Case of Parallel Velocities. . . . Transformation Equations for Velocity. .

. . Chapter VII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diﬀerence between Newtonian and Relativity Mechanics. . . . . Application to a Speciﬁc Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 67 67 67 68 69 72 73 74 78 79 80 80 82 84 87 87 89 89 91 91 93 96 96 97 99 101 102 102 104 105 107 109 110 113 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Dynamics of a Particle. . . . . . . . . . . . On the Nature of a System of Particles. . . . . . The Dynamics of a System of Particles. . The Laws of Motion. . . . . . . . . . . Work. . . . . . . . . . . . The Relation between Force and Acceleration. . . . The Mass of a Moving Particle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter VIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Principle of the Conservation of Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On the Location of Energy in Space. . . . . . . . Longitudinal Collision. . . Mass the Same in All Directions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Application to a Speciﬁc Problem. . . . . . . The Function T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Relation between Mass and Energy. Lagrange’s Equations. . . . . . . . . . . The Modiﬁed Lagrangian Function. . . . . . . . . . . . The Equation of Angular Momentum. . Transformation Equations for Force. . . . . Kinetic Energy. . . Collision of Any Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Force Exerted by a Moving Charge. . . . . Equation for the Force Acting on a Moving Particle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transverse and Longitudinal Acceleration. . . . The Principle of Least Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Field around a Moving Charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . Value of the Function T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Potential Energy. . . . . . . . . The Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equations of Motion in the Hamiltonian Form.Group Velocity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter VI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Conservation of Momentum. . . . . . . . . . . . . Transformation Equations for Mass. . . . . . . . . Transverse Collision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liouville’s Theorem. . . . . . . . . . Introduction of the Principle of Relativity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transformation Equations for Strain. . . . . . . . Representation in Generalized Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Kinetic Potential for an Elastic Body. . Equilibrium Relations. . . . . Part II. . 113 114 114 116 116 118 119 121 122 123 124 126 128 130 131 132 135 135 137 138 139 142 145 145 145 146 148 148 149 152 152 153 155 . . . . . . The Law of Equipartition. Probability of a Given Statistical State. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deﬁnition of Strain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deﬁnition of Stress. . . . Chapter X. . . . . . . . The Principle of Least Action. Relation between H and H. . . . . . . . The Relativity Expression for Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transformation Equations for Stress. . . . . . . . . . Criterion for Equality of Temperature. . . . . . .The Equations of Motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Approximate Partition of Energy for Particles of any Desired Mass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Energy as a Function of the Momentum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lagrange’s Equations. . Partition of Energy for Zero Mass. Chapter IX. . . . . . . . Stress and Strain. . . . . . . . . . Relation between W dt and W dt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Principle of Relativity and the Principle of Least Action. . . . Variation in the Strain. . . . . . . . . . . On the Impossibility of Absolutely Rigid Bodies. . . . . . . . . . . . Part I. . . . . . The Equations of Motion in the Lagrangian Form. . . . . . . . . . . Introduction of the Principle of Least Action. . . . . . . . Pressure Exerted by a System of Particles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Distribution Law. The Partition of Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A System of Particles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. . . Polar Coördinates. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part IV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Relation between div t and tn . . . . . . . . . . The Conservation of Angular Momentum. . . . . Transformation Equation for Pressure. . . Part III. . . . . . . . . . . . . Density of Momentum. . . . . . The Conservation of Momentum. . . . . . . The Equations of Motion for Quasistationary Adiabatic Acceleration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Lagrangian Equations. . . . Conclusion. . . . Isolated Systems in a Steady State. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Dynamics of a Hohlraum. . . . . . . . . . 155 156 158 158 159 160 160 162 163 164 165 165 167 168 169 170 172 172 172 174 174 174 175 175 176 177 178 178 179 180 181 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Dynamics of a Particle. . . . . . . The Energy of a Moving Thermodynamic System. . Transformation Equation for Volume. . . . . . . . . The Equations of Motion in the Lagrangian Form. Relation between Angular Momentum and the Unsymmetrical Stress Tensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Dynamics of a Thermodynamic System. . . . . . The Kinetic Potential. . . . . . . . . . . Summary of Results Obtained from the Principle of Least Action. . . . . . . . . . . . Applications of the Results. . . . . . . Relation between Energy and Momentum. . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction of the Principle of Least Action. . . . . . . . . . Transformation Equation for Temperature. . The Symmetrical Tensor p. . . . The Momentum of a Moving Thermodynamic System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transformation Equation for Entropy. . . . . . . . . . .Value of E ◦ . . The Generalized Coördinates and Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter XI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Equations of Motion in the Eulerian Form. . . . . The Unsymmetrical Stress Tensor t. . . . . . . . . . . . Density of Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Some Mathematical Relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Right-Angled Lever. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Inner Product of Vectors in General. . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Vectors of Higher Dimensions . . 219 Outer Products. . . . . . . . . . 221 . . . 207 Chapter XIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Idea of a Time Axis. Time and Singular Vectors. . 217 Kinematical Interpretation of Angle in Terms of Velocity. . . . . . Vector Analysis of the Non-Euclidean Four-Dimensional Manifold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Diﬀerence between the Ether and the Relativity Theories of Electromagnetism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Nature of Electromotive Force. . . . . . . . . . 204 Theory of the Wilson Experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Derivation of the Fifth Fundamental Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h and ρ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Applications to Electromagnetic Theory. . . .Chapter XII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Inner Product of One-Vectors. . 183 The Form of the Kinetic Potential. . . . 184 The Partial Integrations. . . . . . . . . . 201 The Theory of Moving Dielectrics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Invariance of x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196 The Energy of a Moving Electromagnetic System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 The Electric and Magnetic Fields around a Moving Charge. . . . . . . . . 190 The Relativity of Magnetic and Electric Fields. . . . 198 Relation between Mass and Energy. 210 Non-Euclidean Character of the Space. . . . . . . . . . 183 The Principle of Least Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Part I. . . . Four-Dimensional Analysis. . . . . . 215 Non-Euclidean Angle. . . . . . . . . . 185 The Transformation Equations for e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Space. . . . . . . . Electromagnetic Theory. . . 188 The Invariance of Electric Charge. . . . . . . . . 202 Relation between Field Equations for Material Media and Electron Theory. . . 184 Derivation of the Fundamental Equations of Electromagnetic Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Transformation Equations for Moving Media. . . . .

. . . . . . . . The Conservation of Electricity. Graphical Representation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three Dimensional Space . . . . . Extended Position. . . . . . . . The Product M · q. . . . . . . . . . . . . The Field Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Dynamics of a Particle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extended Current. . . . . Non-Euclidean Four Dimensional Space. . . . . . . . . . . . ♦ or Quad. . . . . The Tensor of Extended Stress. . . . The Electromagnetic Vector M. . . The Conservation Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Velocity of Light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Rotation of Axes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electromagnetics. . . . . . . . Tensors. . . The Dynamics of an Elastic Body. . . . Extended Velocity. . . . . . . . . . Applications of the Four-Dimensional Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Complement of a Vector. . . Part II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Vector Operator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kinematics. . . . . . . . . . . . Rota. . . . . . . . . . . . . Extended Acceleration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix I. . . . . . Scalar Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 223 224 225 230 232 236 236 237 237 238 239 240 240 241 241 241 242 242 243 243 243 244 245 245 247 249 249 250 252 252 253 . . . . . . . . . . Appendix II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Symbols for Quantities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vector Notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Extended Tensor of Electromagnetic Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interpretation of the Lorentz Transformation as a tion of Axes. . . . . Extended Momentum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vector Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Equation of Motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combined Electrical and Mechanical Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

the study of the distribution of energy in the hohlraum. the exhaustive study of the conduction of electricity through gases. the application of thermodynamic and statistical reasoning to the phenomena of radiation. however. the intervening years have seen the discovery of radioactivity. the accompanying discoveries of cathode. and the conservative physicist was only too happy to devote his life to the measurement to the sixth decimal place of quantities whose signiﬁcance for physical theory was already an old story. there was a widespread feeling that the days of adventurous discovery had passed forever. During this same time.PREFACE. The passage of time. has completely upset such bourgeois ideas as to the state of physical science. have been the development of the modern theory of electrons. the theoretical physicist has been working hand in hand with the experimenter endeavoring to correlate the facts already discovered and to point the way to further research. canal and X-rays. and the development of Einstein’s brilliant theory of the relativity of motion. its importance to the physicist is very great. in the ﬁeld of physical science. The theoretical achievements. and the ﬁnal failure of all attempts to detect the earth’s motion through the supposititious ether. On the experimental side. Even if we regard the Einstein theory of relativity merely as a convenient tool for the prediction of electromagnetic and optical phenomena. not only because its introduction greatly simpliﬁes the deduction of many theorems which were 1 . through the discovery of some most extraordinary experimental facts and the development of very fundamental theories for their explanation. which have been found particularly helpful in performing these functions of explanation and prediction. which in the decade since the publication of Einstein’s ﬁrst paper in 1905 (Annalen der Physik ) has become a necessary part of the theoretical equipment of every physicist. It has been the endeavor of the following book to present an introduction to this theory of relativity. Thirty or forty years ago. the isolation of the electron.

vol. 458 (1911). 572 (1914).. vol. 389 (1912). ∗ . 510 (1909). Regarded from a more philosophical point of view. p. vol. 18. p. Rev..‡ The writer must also express his special obligations to the works of Einstein. 375 (1912). 25.. 136 (1912). vol. vol. In particular we shall now do well to change our concepts of space and time in such a way as to give up the old idea of their complete independence.. p. ibid. 28. 23.Preface. 2 already familiar in the older theories based on a stationary ether. 583 (1914). but also because it leads simply and directly to correct conclusions in the case of such experiments as those of Michelson and Morley. ibid. p. p. vol. partly appearing here for the ﬁrst time and partly already published elsewhere. a notion which we have received as the inheritance of a long ancestral experience with bodies moving with slow velocities. Trouton and Noble. The method of treatment adopted in the following chapters is to a considerable extent original. † Phil. Phil. which can be made to agree with the idea of a stationary ether only by the introduction of complicated and ad hoc assumptions. Mag. 22. 48. 31. 35. vol. 150 (1913). Poincaré. 21. 18. but which no longer proves pragmatic when we deal with velocities approaching that of light. vol. 510 (1909). Laue.∗ Chapter III follows a method which was ﬁrst developed by Lewis and Tolman... p. p. Mag. Ishiwara and Laub. p.† and the last chapter a method developed by Wilson and Lewis. Planck. vol. 28.. It is hoped that the mode of presentation is one that will be found well adapted not only to introduce the study of relativity theory to those previously unfamiliar with the subject but also to provide the necessary methodological equipment for those who wish to pursue the theory into its more complicated applications. ‡ Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 296 (1911).. Mag. vol. Physical Review. Phys. an acceptance of the Einstein theory of relativity shows us the advisability of completely remodelling some of our most fundamental ideas. ibid. Philosophical Magazine. p. Phil. and Kaufman and Bucherer. vol. ibid. 26 (1910). p. p.

and then proceed in Chapters . VII and VIII we develop and apply a theory of the dynamics of a particle which is based on the Einstein transformation equations for space and time. the two main postulates upon which the theory of relativity rests and discuss the direct experimental evidence for their truth. Newton’s three laws of motion. a brief outline of the historical development of ideas as to the nature of the space and time of science. We then examine. In Chapter IV we commence the more analytical treatment of the theory of relativity by obtaining from the two postulates of relativity Einstein’s transformation equations for space and time as well as transformation equations for velocities. we consider. and the principle of the conservation of mass. the non-additivity of velocities.Preface. and for an important function of the velocity. without encountering any mathematics beyond the elements of analysis and geometry. We point out that we might indeed have used this adapted form of the principle of least action. The third chapter then presents an elementary and non-mathematical deduction of a number of the most important consequences of the postulates of relativity. In particular we may call attention to the ease with which we may handle the optics of moving media by the methods of the theory of relativity as compared with the diﬃculty of treatment on the basis of the ether theory. the relation between the theory of relativity and the principle of least action. and ﬁnd it possible to introduce the requirements of relativity theory at the very start into this basic principle for physical science. accelerations. In Chapters VI. since they will there be able to obtain a real grasp of such important new ideas as the change of mass with velocity. in Chapter II. for developing the dynamics of a particle. in Chapter IX. and it is hoped that this chapter will prove especially valuable to readers without unusual mathematical equipment. Chapter V presents various kinematical applications of the theory of relativity following quite closely Einstein’s original method of development. 3 After presenting. in the ﬁrst chapter. and the relation of mass and energy.

Finally. William H. and in this connection Einstein’s latest work on the relation between gravity and acceleration is of great interest. In the present book. Williams for assisting in the preparation of Chapter I. at the present time to include such considerations in a book which intends to present a survey of accepted theory. It does not seem wise. an epitome of some of the more important methods in four-dimensional vector analysis and it is hoped that it can also be used in connection with the earlier parts of the book as a convenient reference for those who are not familiar with ordinary three-dimensional vector analysis. XI and XII to develop the dynamics of an elastic body. and that these spatial and temporal concepts should be altered whenever the discovery of new facts makes such a change pragmatic. The writer wishes to express his indebtedness to Mr. in Part I. however. This chapter contains. the writer has conﬁned his considerations to cases in which there is a uniform relative velocity between systems of coördinates. the dynamics of a thermodynamic system. and the dynamics of an electromagnetic system. but are rather in the nature of human constructs devised for use in the description and correlation of scientiﬁc phenomena. The author will feel amply repaid for the work involved in the preparation of the book if. He is also glad to have this opportunity to add his testimony to the growing conviction that the conceptual space and time of science are not God-given and unalterable. through his eﬀorts. all on the basis of our adapted form of the principle of least action. In the future it may be possible greatly to extend the applications of the theory of relativity by considering accelerated systems of coördinates.Preface. we consider a four-dimensional method of expressing and treating the results of relativity theory. in Chapter XIII. some of the younger American physicists can be helped to obtain a real knowledge of the important work of Einstein. . 4 X.

that it seemed as though the ideas of Galileo and Newton as to the nature of space and time. Throughout this work by “space” and “time” we shall mean the conceptual space and time of science. and this revolution has in turn profoundly modiﬁed those dependent sciences. would certainly remain forever suitable for the interpretation of natural phenomena. Since the year 1905. however. And indeed upon this basis has been built the whole structure of classical mechanics which. we may well review those older ideas as to space and time which until now appeared quite suﬃcient for the correlation of scientiﬁc phenomena. which marked the publication of Einstein’s momentous article on the theory of relativity. 2. Before proceeding to this task. and then the space and time of the ether theory of light. part i. which were there employed. until our recent familiarity with very high velocities. which make use of these two fundamental concepts in their considerations. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF IDEAS AS TO THE NATURE OF SPACE AND TIME. We shall ﬁrst consider the space and time of Galileo and Newton which were employed in the development of the classical mechanics. in particular mechanics and electromagnetics.CHAPTER I. the space and time of galileo and newton.∗ and to give a partial account of the consequent modiﬁcations which have been introduced into various ﬁelds of science. the development of scientiﬁc thought has led to a complete revolution in accepted ideas as to the nature of space and time. In the following pages it will be our endeavor to present a description of these new notions as to the nature of space and time. 1. The publication in 1687 of Newton’s Principia laid down so satisfactory a foundation for further dynamical considerations. ∗ 5 .

d dx . The necessary dependence of this mechanics upon the concepts of space and time becomes quite evident on an examination of this fundamental equation (2). and the whole of Newton’s laws of motion may be summed up in the statement that in the case of two interacting particles the forces which they mutually exert on each other are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.Chapter One.. An examination of the fundamental laws of mechanics will show how the concepts of space and time entered into the Newtonian system of mechanics. forms the starting-point for the whole of classical mechanics. 6 has been found completely satisfactory for an extremely large number of very diverse dynamical considerations. from which the whole of the classical mechanics could be derived. dt This equation deﬁnes the force F acting on a particle as equal to the rate of change in its momentum (i. the product of its mass m and its velocity u). equation (1) may be more conveniently written F=m or d du =m dt dt dr dt . in which the expression for the force acting on a Fx = m . Fz = m dt dt and this deﬁnition of force. Newton’s laws of motion.e. together with the above-stated principle of the equality of action and reaction. dt dt d dy Fy = m . (2) dt dt d dz . Since in Newtonian mechanics the mass of a particle is assumed constant. can best be stated with the help of the equation d (1) F = (mu).

and this same law requires that the continuum shall be one-valued since it excludes the possibility that time ever returns upon itself. To attempt a deﬁnite statement as to the meaning of so fundamental and underlying a notion as that of time is a task from which even philosophy may shrink. are measured by the periods of certain continually recurring cyclic processes such as the daily rotation of the earth. y. the Newtonian mechanics always assumed a complete independence of time and the three-dimensional space continuum which exists along with it. Newtonian Space. which speciﬁes the time. one-valued continuum. . In a general way. which have been in no way modiﬁed by the theory of relativity. In a general way we think of space as a three-dimensional. and z. 4. In addition to these characteristics of the time continuum. unidirectional. An exact description of the concept of space is perhaps just as diﬃcult as a description of the concept of time. 3. which requires that actual progression in time shall be accompanied by an increase in the entropy of the material world.Historical Development. however. and the variable t. conceptual time may be thought of as a one-dimensional. A unidirectional nature is imposed upon the time continuum among other things by an acceptance of the second law of thermodynamics. In the following pages. that is intervals of time. which specify the position of the particle in space. and in the Einstein transformation equations we shall see the exact way in which measurements of time depend upon the choice of a set of variables for measuring position in space. 7 particle is seen to contain both the variables x. In dynamical equations time entered as an entirely independent variable in no way connected with the variables whose speciﬁcation determines position in space. This continuum is a sort of framework in which the instants at which actual occurrences take place ﬁnd an ordered position. Distances from point to point in the continuum. either to commence a new cycle or to intersect its former path even at a single point. homogeneous. we shall ﬁnd that the theory of relativity requires a very deﬁnite interrelation between time and space. Newtonian Time.

however. for example. When. y and z.Chapter One. and the problem is simpliﬁed. in its turn. In particular we may make use of a set of Cartesian axes and determine. The space of Newton. and these ideas are common to the conceptual spaces of Newton. so far as planetary motions are concerned. and it is ﬁnally convenient to take a reference system relative to which the sun is moving with a velocity of twelve miles per second in the direction of the constellation Hercules. and diﬀers on the other hand from that of the ether theory of light by the fact that “free” space was assumed completely empty instead of ﬁlled with an all-pervading quasi-material medium— the ether. we meet diﬃculties. the equations of motion based on Newton’s laws give us a simple description of nearly all dynamical phenomena which are merely terrestrial. In Newtonian mechanics the particular set of axes chosen for specifying position in space has in general been determined in the ﬁrst instance by considerations of convenience. becomes somewhat unsatisfactory when we take account of the observed motions of the stars themselves. But this system. if we take as a reference system lines drawn upon the surface of the earth. however. it is found by experience that. by taking a new reference system determined by the sun and the ﬁxed stars. 8 isotropic continuum. For example. and the actual motion of any particular star with respect . diﬀers on the one hand from that of Einstein because of a tacit assumption of the complete independence of space and time measurements. and the ether theory of light. A more deﬁnite idea of the particularly important characteristics of the Newtonian concept of space may be obtained by considering somewhat in detail the actual methods of space measurement. This system of axes is so chosen that the great majority of stars have on the average no motion with respect to it. Einstein. we try to interpret with these same axes the motion of the heavenly bodies. Positions in space are in general measured with respect to some arbitrarily ﬁxed system of reference which must be threefold in character corresponding to the three dimensions of space. the position of a particle by specifying its three Cartesian coördinates x.

we have a number of such systems of axes in uniform relative motion. what substitutions for the quantities involved can be made so that the new equation thereby obtained will again correctly describe the same phenomena when we measure the displacements of the point relative to a new system of reference S which is in uniform motion with respect to S? The assumption of Galileo and Newton that “free” space is entirely empty. and for further simpliﬁcation let us take as our zero point for time measurements the instant when the two origins O and O coincide. Consider two systems of right-angled coördinates. Then. y and z measured in system S. and the transformation equations which they used are generally called the Galileo Transformation Equations to distinguish them from the Einstein Transformation Equations which we shall later consider. and the further tacit assumption of the complete independence of space and time. = z. Suppose. according to the space and time considerations of Galileo and Newton. For example. for convenience let the X axes. Consider now a point which at the time t has the coördinates x. now. 9 to these coördinates is called the peculiar motion of the star. if we have chosen a system of axes S and have found an equation in x. S and S . y. of the two systems coincide in direction. (3) (4) (5) (6) . and t which accurately describes the motion of a given point. z. The Galileo Transformation Equations. which are in relative motion in the X direction with the velocity V . OX and O X . = y. = t. 5. led them to propose a very simple solution of the problem. we are confronted by the problem of ﬁnding some method of transposing the description of a given kinematical occurrence from the variables of one of these sets of axes to those of another.Historical Development. the coördinates of the point with reference to system S are given by the following transformation equations: x y z t = x − V t.

should appear so self-evident. the truth of the ﬁrst and the last of these equations is absolutely dependent on the unsupported assumption of the complete independence of space and time measurements. If we have two systems of axes such as those we have just been considering. is not characteristic of the space assumed by the classical theory of light. We shall later ﬁnd that this important principle of the relativity of motion is permanently incorporated into our system of physical science as the ﬁrst postulate of relativity. (5) and (6) will be found. which are true merely at the limit. Relations (3). common both to the space of Newton and to that of Einstein. we may with equal right consider either one of them at rest and the other moving past it. it need not cause surprise that the above equations. Of all possible systems no particular set of axes holds a unique position among the others.Chapter One. 6. Nevertheless. however. Since until very recent times the human race in its entire past history has been familiar only with velocities that are small compared with that of light. 10 These equations are fundamental for Newtonian mechanics. The equation x = x − V t which we use in transforming the description of a kinematical event from the variables of system S to those of system S is perfectly symmetrical with the equation x = x + V t which we should use for a transformation in the reverse direction. it is meaningless to speak of either one as in any sense “absolutely” at rest. The space of this . This principle. (4). Before leaving the discussion of the space and time system of Newton and Galileo we must call attention to an important characteristic which it has in common with the system of Einstein but which is not a feature of that assumed by the ether theory. and since in the Einstein theory we shall ﬁnd a very deﬁnite relation between space and time measurements we shall be led to quite a diﬀerent set of transformation equations. to be the limiting form which the correct transformation equations assume when the velocity between the systems V becomes small compared with that of light. and may appear to the casual observer to be self-evident and bound up with necessary ideas as to the nature of space and time. All we can say is that the two systems are in relative motion.

Newton’s theory that it consisted of particles or corpuscles thrown out by a luminous body was attacked by Hooke and later by Huygens. a contribution which is now codiﬁed as the second postulate of relativity. He explained this delay by the hypothesis that it took light twenty-two minutes to travel across the earth’s orbit. At the time of Römer’s discovery there was much discussion as to the nature of light.9986 × 1010 cm. 11 theory was supposed to be ﬁlled with a stationary medium. part ii. per second. Indeed Galileo had endeavored to ﬁnd the speed of light by direct experiments over distances of a few miles and had failed to detect any lapse of time between the emission of a light ﬂash from a source and its observation by a distant observer. who advanced the view that it was something in the nature of wave motions in a supposed space-ﬁlling medium or ether. 8. By this theory Huygens was able to explain reﬂection and refraction and the phenomena of color. the space and time of the ether theory. We may now brieﬂy sketch the rise of the ether theory of light and point out the permanent contribution which it has made to physical science. The mean of the later determinations is 2. Twelve years before the appearance of the Principia. the luminiferous ether. 7. a Danish astronomer. Römer. Rise of the Ether Theory. Römer’s hypothesis has been repeatedly veriﬁed and the speed of light measured by diﬀerent methods with considerable exactness. but assuming longitudinal vibrations he was . observed that an eclipse of one of the satellites of Jupiter occurred some ten minutes later than the time predicted for the event from the known period of the satellite and the time of the preceding eclipse. and a system of axes stationary with respect to this ether would hold a unique position among the other systems and be the one peculiarly adapted for use as the ultimate system of reference for the measurement of motions.Historical Development. light was generally supposed to travel with inﬁnite velocity. Previous to Römer’s discovery.

second. This theory has for its essential postulate the existence of an all-pervading medium. in his eﬀorts to measure the parallax of certain ﬁxed stars. and. The scientiﬁc prestige of Newton was so great that the emission or corpuscular theory continued to hold its ground for a hundred and ﬁfty years. was independently led to an undulatory theory and added to Young’s arguments the weight of his more searching mathematical analysis. that the balance began to turn. about 1815. 10. discovered that the apparent position of a star continually changes in such a way as to trace annually a small ellipse in the sky. And the physical properties of this medium became an enticing ﬁeld of inquiry and speculation. in which wave disturbances can be set up and propagated. Diﬀraction had not yet been observed and Newton contested the Hooke-Huygens theory chieﬂy on the grounds that it was contradicted by the fact of rectilinear propagation and the formation of shadows.Chapter One. whether the ether enclosed in a moving medium such as water or glass would partake in the latter’s motion. 9. On the corpuscular theory of light this admits of ready explanation as Bradley himself discovered. This conclusion was ﬁnally reached through several lines of investigation. since we should expect . unaﬀected by the motion of matter through it. Even the masterly researches of Thomas Young at the beginning of the nineteenth century were unable to dislodge the old theory. the apparent position always lying in the plane determined by the line from the earth to the center of the ellipse and by the direction of the earth’s motion. for us the most important is the fact that it must apparently remain stationary. 12 unable to account for polarization. Ether in the Neighborhood of Moving Bodies. the ether. Of all the various properties with which the physicist found it necessary to endow the ether. From this time on the wave theory grew in power and for a period of eighty years was not seriously questioned. Fresnel. About the year 1725 the astronomer Bradley. Idea of a Stationary Ether. and it was not until the French physicist. We may ﬁrst consider whether the ether would be dragged along by the motion of nearby masses of matter.

was that the entrained ether did receive a fraction of the total velocity of the moving medium. c Upon the wave theory. The earlier view ﬁrst expressed by Fresnel. one travelling in the direction of rotation and the other in the opposite direction.Historical Development. in a letter written to Arago in 1818. His ﬁnal experiments were performed with a large rotating spheroid of iron with a narrow groove around its equator. Fresnel gave to this fraction The most notable exception is the theory of Stokes. experimental evidence and theoretical consideration here too ﬁnally led to the supposition that the ether itself must remain perfectly stationary. Since by interference methods no diﬀerence could be detected in the velocities of the two rays. the apparent or relative velocity would be c−v and the tangent v of the angle of aberration would be . it is obvious that we should also expect a similar aberration of light. here also the conclusion was reached that the ether was not appreciably dragged along by the rotating metal. Ether Entrained in Dielectrics. With regard to the action of a moving medium on the ether which might be entrained within it. ∗ . but this led to diﬃculties. which was made the path for two rays of light. which did assume that the ether moved along with the earth and then tried to account for aberration with the help of a velocity potential. as was shown by Lorentz. 13 the earth’s motion to produce an apparent change in the direction of the oncoming light. 11. and this is one of the important reasons that most ether theories have assumed a stationary ether unaﬀected by the motion of neighboring matter. provided only that the ether shall be quite stationary and unaﬀected by the motion of the earth through it. in just the same way that the motion of a railway train makes the falling drops of rain take a slanting path across the window pane.∗ In more recent years further experimental evidence for assuming that the ether is not dragged along by the neighboring motion of large masses of matter was found by Sir Oliver Lodge. If c be the velocity of a light particle and v the earth’s velocity.

the later work of Fizeau and the accurate determinations of Michelson and Morley on the velocity of light in a moving stream of water did show that the speed was changed by an amount corresponding to Fresnel’s fraction. and for the fact that Airy found the same angle of aberration with a telescope ﬁlled with water as with air. Maxwell in his treatise had conﬁned himself to phenomena in stationary media. and we may now brieﬂy sketch the developments which culminated in the Lorentz theory of a completely stationary ether. Fresnel was able to account for the fact that Arago’s experiments upon the reﬂection and refraction of stellar rays show no inﬂuence whatever of the earth’s motion. In 1873. in his Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. The considerations of Lorentz as to the velocity of light in moving media became possible only after it was evident that optics itself is a branch of the wider science of electromagnetics. however. and Maxwell’s theory was conﬁrmed by the actual discovery of electromagnetic waves in 1888 by Hertz. and it became possible to treat transparent media as a special case of dielectrics in general. Moreover. did not lead scientists to look upon this increased velocity of light in a moving medium as an evidence that the ether is pulled along by the stream of water.Chapter One. The Lorentz Theory of a Stationary Ether. however. On this supposition. that in the ﬁeld of optical theory such an assumption could not be expected to account for the Fizeau experiment. Maxwell ﬁrst advanced the theory that electromagnetic phenomena also have their seat in the luminiferous ether and further that light itself is merely an electromagnetic disturbance in that medium. which had althe value . 14 µ2 − 1 . It is evident. extended Maxwell’s considerations to moving matter on the assumption that the entrained ether is carried bodily along by it. where µ is the index of refraction of the substance µ2 forming the medium. however. The attack upon the problem of the relative motion of matter and ether was now renewed with great vigor both theoretically and experimentally from the electromagnetic side. Hertz. The fuller theoretical investigations of Lorentz. 12.

the electron. the theoretical physicists and in particular Lorentz were increasingly successful in explaining the electrical and optical properties of matter in general on the basis of the behavior of the electrons which it contains. while in the ﬁeld of electromagnetic theory it was found that Hertz’s assumptions would lead us to expect no production of a magnetic ﬁeld in the neighborhood of a rotating electric condenser providing the plates of the condenser and the dielectric move together with the same speed and this was decisively disproved by the experiment of Eichenwald. have led us to a very deﬁnite knowledge of many of the properties of the electron. Wilson on moving dielectrics. Since Faraday’s time. It remained for Lorentz to develop a general theory for moving dielectrics which was consistent with the facts. A. The theory of Lorentz developed from that of Maxwell by the addition of the idea of the electron. is always some small multiple of a deﬁnite quantum of electricity. and ﬁnally indeed the isolation and exact measurement of these atoms of electrical charge. While the experimental physicists were at work obtaining this more or less ﬁrst-hand acquaintance with the electron. the study of the phenomena accompanying the conduction of electricity through gases. while the electrical and optical properties of di- . as the atom of electricity. The conclusions of the Hertz theory were also out of agreement with the important experiments of H. either free as in the case of metals or combined with atoms to form ions as in electrolytes. and his treatment is often called the “electron theory. the properties of conductors being accounted for by the presence of movable electrons. a relation which indicates that the atoms act as carriers of electricity and that the quantity of electricity carried by a single particle. the study of radioactivity. 15 ready been explained on the assumption that the ether receives only a fraction of the velocity of the moving medium.Historical Development.” This atomistic conception of electricity was foreshadowed by Faraday’s discovery of the quantitative relations between the amount of electricity associated with chemical reactions in electrolytes and the weight of substance involved. whatever its nature.

With regard now to our original question as to the behavior of moving optical and dielectric media. Fresnel’s coeﬃcient for the velocity of light in moving media. of which the ﬁrst four are merely Maxwell’s four ﬁeld equations.Chapter One. For us the particular signiﬁcance of the Lorentz method of explaining these phenomena is that he does not assume. and the electromagnetic experiments upon moving dielectrics made by Röntgen. and others. Wilson. the Lorentz theory was found capable of accounting quantitatively for all known phenomena. H. His investigations show rather that the ether must remain perfectly stationary. rather than by a dragging along of the ether itself. Arago’s experiments on the reﬂection and refraction of stellar rays. are now explainable as the statistical result of the behavior of the individual electrons. magnetic permeability and dielectric inductivity. and that such phenomena as the changed velocity of light in moving media are to be accounted for by the modifying inﬂuence which the electrons in the moving matter have upon the propagation of electromagnetic disturbances. that the ether is partially dragged along by moving matter. as did Fresnel. Although it would not be proper in this place to present the mathematical details of Lorentz’s treatment of moving media. Perhaps the greatest signiﬁcance of the Lorentz theory is that such properties of matter as electrical conductivity. A. 16 electrics were ascribed to the presence of electrons more or less bound by quasi-elastic forces to positions of equilibrium. This Lorentz electron theory of matter has been developed in great mathematical detail by Lorentz and has been substantiated by numerous quantitative experiments. Eichenwald. we may obtain a clearer idea of what is meant in the Lorentz theory by a stationary ether if we look for a moment at the ﬁve fundamental equations upon which the theory rests. modiﬁed by the introduction . which occupied the position of rather accidental experimental constants in Maxwell’s original theory. including Airy’s experiment on aberration. These familiar equations.

. c ∂t c 1 ∂h curl e = − . We have thus brieﬂy traced the development of the ether theory of light and electromagnetism. since his work marks the culmination of the ether theory of light and electromagnetism. which contain the velocity u with which the charge in question is moving. 13. including of course his treatment of moving media. u f =ρ e+ ×h c 17 ∗ in which the letters have their usual signiﬁcance.Historical Development. of the idea of the electron. and for Lorentz this velocity is to be measured with respect to the assumed stationary ether. the ether. and for us the particularly signiﬁcant fact is that by this line of attack science was inevitably led to the idea of an absolutely immovable and stationary ether. and the fact that the idea of a stationary ether does lie at the basis of his theory is most clearly shown by the ﬁrst and last of these equations.) Now the whole of the Lorentz theory. and in conclusion should further point out that the time continuum assumed by the ether theory was apparently the same as that of Newton and Galileo. div h = 0. may be written curl h = 1 ∂e u +ρ . c ∂t div e = ρ. is derivable from these ﬁve equations. We have devoted this space to the Lorentz theory. We have seen that the space continuum assumed by this theory is not empty as was the space of Newton and Galileo but is assumed ﬁlled with a stationary medium. (See Chapter XII. and in particular that the old ideas as to the absolute independence of space and time were all retained.

one of which travels to the mirror B and the other to the mirror C. the velocity of the light with . through the ether. On the basis of the stationary ether theory. we must now call attention to an experiment. contrary to the expectations of Newton. (See Fig. 18 14. The Michelson-Morley Experiment. whose result was in direct contradiction to its predictions. In spite of all the brilliant achievements of the theory of a stationary ether. 1. where it is divided into two rays. performed at the very time when the success of the ether theory seemed most complete. This is the celebrated MichelsonMorley experiment. From the point of view of the ether theory one of the most important physical problems would be to determine the velocity of various bodies.Chapter One. A ray of light from the source S falls on the half silvered mirror A. part iii. The rays are recombined and produce a set of interference fringes at O. where they are totally reﬂected. a system of axes ﬁxed relatively to the ether would hold a unique position among all other systems moving relative to it and would be peculiarly adapted for the measurement of displacements and velocities. for example that of the earth. The experiment consists essentially in a comparison of the velocities of light parallel and perpendicular to the earth’s motion in its orbit. rise of the einstein theory of relativity. a theory which will nevermore permit us to assume that space and time are independent. that systems of coördinates in relative motion are not symmetrical. Now the Michelson-Morley experiment was devised for the very purpose of determining the relative motion of the earth and the ether. If the theory of a stationary ether were true we should ﬁnd. Bodies at rest with respect to this system of axes ﬁxed in the ether would be spoken of as “absolutely” at rest and bodies in motion through the ether would be said to have “absolute” motion. and to the masterful interpretation of its consequences at the hands of Einstein we owe the whole theory of relativity.) We may now think of the apparatus as set so that one of the divided paths is parallel to the earth’s motion and the other perpendicular to it.

it is quite possible to calculate the magnitude of the expected shift. In fact. nation. Nevertheless the most careful experiments made at diﬀerent times of day and at diﬀerent seasons of the year entirely failed to show any such shift at all. Knowing the magnitude of the earth’s velocity in its orbit and the dimensions of the apparatus. a quantity entirely susceptible of experimental determiB + S× A C O Fig.Historical Development. 1. 19 reference to the apparatus would evidently be diﬀerent over the two paths. This result is in direct contradiction to the theory of a stationary ether and could be reconciled with that theory only by very arbitrary assumptions. Instead of making such assumptions. in accordance with the results of this work of Michelson-Morley and other conﬁrmatory . The Postulates of Einstein. 15. and hence on rotating the apparatus through an angle of ninety degrees we should expect a shift in the position of the fringes. the Einstein theory of relativity ﬁnds it preferable to return in part to the older ideas of Newton and Galileo.

Quite on the contrary. always remain incorporated in every optical theory. but in particular the Einstein theory of relativity takes as the basis for its second postulate a principle that has long been familiar to the ether theory. that there is no such thing as absolute motion. namely that the velocity of light is independent of the velocity of the source. it is not to be supposed that the ether theory of light and electromagnetism has made no lasting contribution to physical science. It states that there is nothing out in space in the nature of an ether or of a ﬁxed set of coördinates with regard to which motion can be measured. . the Einstein theory takes as its ﬁrst postulate the idea familiar to Newton of the relativity of all motion. We shall see in following chapters that it is the combination of this principle with the ﬁrst postulate of relativity that leads to the whole theory of relativity and to our new ideas as to the nature and interrelation of space and time.Chapter One. which were ﬁrst appreciated and understood with the help of the ether theory. not only must the ideas as to the periodic and polarizable nature of the light disturbance. Although we thus see that the Einstein theory of relativity has returned in part to the ideas of Newton and Galileo as to the nature of space. 20 experiments. and that all we can speak of is the relative motion of one body with respect to another.

21 . If we ﬁnd that the conclusions drawn from the theory are neither self-contradictory nor contradictory of each other. 16. No objections have ever been made to this statement of the postulate in its original form. we may again feel that our theory has achieved a measure of success. The ﬁrst postulate of relativity as originally stated by Newton was that it is impossible to measure or detect absolute translatory motion through space. If these postulates are found to agree with the facts. THE TWO POSTULATES OF THE EINSTEIN THEORY OF RELATIVITY. and indicate the direct experimental evidence in favor of their truth. In following chapters we shall develop the consequences of these postulates.CHAPTER II. and wherever possible compare the predictions of the theory with experimental facts. providing false logic or unsuspected and incorrect assumptions have not later crept in to vitiate the conclusions. The First Postulate of Relativity. One of these methods is to test by direct experiment the fundamental postulates upon which the theory rests. The other method of testing a theory is to develop its interlacing chain of propositions and theorems and examine the results both for their internal coherence and for their objective validity. In the present chapter we shall present the two main postulates of the theory of relativity. the postulate has been modiﬁed to include the impossibility of detecting translatory motion through any medium or ether which might be assumed to pervade space. 17. There are two general methods of evaluating the theoretical development of any branch of science. In the development of the theory of relativity. we may feel justiﬁed in assuming that the whole theoretical structure is a valid one. and furthermore that they agree with the facts of the external world. show that the system of consequences stands the test of internal coherence.

in particular those of Michelson and Morley. ∗ Jahrbuch der Radioaktivität. For details as to the nature of these experiments the reader may refer to the original articles or to an excellent discussion by Laub of the experimental basis of the theory of relativity. Des Coudres. Ketteler and Mascart. Others of the experiments mentioned. . the experiments of Fizeau. 22 In support of the principle is the general fact that no eﬀects due to the motion of the earth or other body through the supposed ether have ever been observed. and Trouton and Rankine. Trouton. 7. p. Trouton and Noble.∗ In none of the above investigations was it possible to detect any effect attributable to the earth’s motion through the ether. the electromagnetic experiments of Röntgen. however. the experiments of Mascart and of Rayleigh on the rotation of the plane of polarized light in naturally active substances. 405 (1910). the interference experiments of Ketteler and Mascart. vol. the work of Klinkerfuess and Haga on the position of the absorption bands of sodium. Nevertheless a number of these experiments are in accord with the ﬁnal form given to the ether theory by Lorentz. with the further work of Morley and Miller. and ﬁnally the Michelson and Morley experiment. For the purposes of our discussion we shall accept the principle of the relativity of motion as an experimental fact. J. could be made to accord with the Lorentz theory only by very arbitrary assumptions. and Trouton and Noble.Chapter Two. Hoek. the experiment of Nordmeyer on the intensity of radiation. Brace and Strasser on the rotation of the plane of polarized light by transmission through glass plates. Respighi. Koenigsberger. Of the many unsuccessful attempts to detect the earth’s motion through the ether we may call attention to the experiments on the refraction of light made by Arago. Mascart and Rayleigh. especially since his work satisfactorily accounts for the Fresnel coeﬃcient for the changed velocity of light in moving media.

The ﬁrst postulate of relativity adds the idea that a motion of the source of light towards the observer is identical with a motion of the observer towards the source. . since it states that the velocity of light in free space appears the same to all observers regardless both of the motion of the source of light and of the observer. that the velocity with which light travels past any observer is not increased by a motion of the source of light towards the observer. The ﬁrst postulate of relativity practically denies the existence of any stationary ether through which the earth. 23 18. which from a historical point of view seem somewhat contradictory in nature. 19. The Second Postulate of the Einstein Theory of Relativity. has given to the second postulate of relativity a very extraordinary content. It should be pointed out that the two principles whose combination thus leads to the second postulate of Einstein have come from very diﬀerent sources. The second postulate of relativity is seen to be merely a combination of these two principles. This postulate may be obtained by combining the ﬁrst postulate of relativity with a principle which has long been familiar to the ether theory of light.The Two Postulates. A simple example of the conclusions which can be drawn from this postulate will make its extraordinary nature evident. On the other hand. in other words. This combination of two principles. might be moving. This principle states that the velocity of light is unaﬀected by a motion of the emitting source. Indeed it should be particularly emphasized that the remarkable conclusions as to the nature of space and time forced upon science by the theory of relativity are the special product of the second postulate of relativity. The second postulate of relativity states that the velocity of light in free space appears the same to all observers regardless of the relative motion of the source of light and the observer. the principle that the velocity of light is unaﬀected by a motion of the source was originally derived from the idea that light is transmitted by a stationary medium which does not partake in the motion of the source. for instance.

Chapter Two. Suggested Alternative to the Postulate of the Independence of the Velocity of Light and the Velocity of the Source. ideas which are in direct opposition to the requirements of so-called common sense. the second postulate requires that the time taken for the light to pass from a to a shall measure the same as the time for the light to go from b to b . Contrary to what seem the simple conclusions of common sense. A is moving towards the source S. of the additivity of the velocity of source and light. 20. 2. Before examining the available evidence for deciding between the rival principles as to the velocity of light. Observers on the systems mark oﬀ equal distances aa and bb along the path of the light and determine the time taken for light to pass from a to a and b to b respectively. a number of attempts have been made to develop so-called emission theories of relativity based on the principle of the relativity of motion and the further postulate that the velocity of light and the velocity of its source are additive. would as a matter of fact lead to a very simple kind of relativity theory . we may point out that this proposed postulate. B b′ A a′ 24 S is a source of light and A and B two moving systems. and B away from it. Hence if the second postulate of relativity is correct it is not surprising that science is forced in general to new ideas as to the nature of space and time. Because of the extraordinary conclusions derived by combining the principle of the relativity of motion with the postulate that the velocity of light is independent of the velocity of its source. a × + S b Fig.

The problem now before us is to decide between the two rival principles as to the velocity of light. the Michelson-Morley experiment shows that the time taken for light to travel to A and back is the same Direction of Earth’s Motion as for the light to travel to B and back. As a particular example of the simplicity of emission theories we may show. however. 3. how easily they would account for the negative result of the Michelson-Morley experiment. . is a source of light A and A and B are mirrors placed a meter away from O. for instance. and we shall ﬁnd that the bulk of the evidence is all in favor of the principle which has led to the Einstein theory of relativity with its complete revolution in our ideas as to space and time. 25 without requiring any changes in our notions of space and time. it is evident that a system consisting of the source and its surrounding disturbances would act as a whole and suﬀer no permanent change in conﬁguration if the velocity of the source were changed. and not with respect to some ether through which O is supposed to be moving. If O. due to the earth’s motion Fig. since it says that light travels out from O with a constant velocity in all directions with respect to O. and against the principle which has led to the superﬁcially simple emission theories of relativity. This result would of course be in direct agreement with the idea of the relativity of motion which merely requires that the physical properties of a system shall be independent of its velocity through space. For if light or other electromagnetic disturbance which is being emitted from a source did partake in the motion of that source in such a way that the velocity of the source is added to the velocity of emission. 3. Fig. around the sun.The Two Postulates. in spite of the fact that the whole apparatus is moving through space in the diO B rection O − B. The basic assumption of emission theories. would require exactly this result.

and in position B. where u is the velocity of the star in its orbit. c+u l seconds after the event has occurred. c2 2ul Now in the case of most spectroscopic binaries the quantity 2 is c not only of the same order of magnitude as ∆t but oftentimes probably ∗ † Phys. vol. 26 21.† Consider the rotation of a binary star as it would appear to an observer situated at a considerable distance from the star and in its plane of rotation. c+u c−u c where ∆t is the actual time of a half rotation in the orbit. pp.) If an emission theory of light be true. Evidence Against Emission Theories of Light. 291 (1910). p.Chapter Two. Rev. This evidence was pointed out by Comstock∗ and later by de Sitter. which for simplicity may be taken as circular. Zeitschr. vol.. . the period of the next half rotation from B back to A would appear to be ∆t − 2ul . Hence the star will be observed to arrive in position A. 4.. 14. while in the position B the velocity will be c − u. 1267 (1913). (See Fig. This will make the period c−u of half rotation from A to B appear to be ∆t − l l 2ul + = ∆t + 2 . On the other hand. All emission theories agree in assuming that light from a moving source has a velocity equal to the vector sum of the velocity of light from a stationary source and the velocity of the source itself at the instant of emission. 429. the velocity of light from the star in position A will be c + u. l seconds after the event has actually occurred. 30. And without ﬁrst considering the special assumptions which distinguish one emission theory from another we may ﬁrst present certain astronomical evidence which apparently stands in contradiction to this basic assumption of all forms of emission theory. Phys.

As we have seen. even larger. as is actually the case. emission theories all agree in assuming that light from a moving source has a velocity equal to the vector sum of the velocity of light from a stationary source and the velocity of the source itself at the instant of emission. Hence. if an emission theory of light were true. in their assumptions as to the velocity of light after its reﬂection from a mirror. Diﬀerent Forms of Emission Theory. Emission theories diﬀer. 22.The Two Postulates. A u l O Observer 27 l u B O Observer Fig. to state brieﬂy the diﬀerent forms of emission theory which have been tried. however. . however. It may not be out of place. This is certainly very strong evidence against any form of emission theory. The three assumptions which up to this time have been particularly considered are (1) that the excited portion of the reﬂecting mirror acts as a new source of light and that the reﬂected light has the same velocity c with respect to the mirror as has original light with respect to its source. we could hardly expect without correcting for the variable velocity of light to ﬁnd that these orbits obey Kepler’s laws. 4.

Arch. has been the deduction of an expression for the mass of a moving body which has been closely veriﬁed by the KaufmannPhys. vol.† The second assumption as to the velocity of light was made by Stewart.. and hence after reﬂection spreads out with velocity c in a spherical form around a center which moves with the same speed as the original source. One of the consequences of the Einstein theory. the observations described above. although such experiments are entirely possible of performance. 31. 232 (1908). and hence has the velocity c with respect to this mirror image.. 136 (1912). Phys. however. 418 (1911). the ﬁrst seems to be the most natural and was early considered by the author but shown to be incompatible. 28 (2) that light reﬂected from a mirror acquires a component of velocity equal to the velocity of the mirror image of the original source. 32. Making use of the third assumption as to the velocity of reﬂected light. Rev. comprise the whole of the direct experimental evidence against emission theories of light and in favor of the principle which has led to the second postulate of the Einstein theory.‡ but has also been shown† to be incompatible with measurements of the Stark eﬀect in canal rays. 26 (1910). Rev.∗ but also with measurements of the Stark eﬀect in canal rays. vol. 13..† Against the Ritz theory. † ∗ . p. p. we have of course the general astronomical evidence of Comstock and de Sitter which we have already described above. et phys. de Génève vol. Of these possible assumptions as to the velocity of reﬂected light. not only with an experiment which he performed on the velocity of light from the two limbs of the sun. and (3) that light retains throughout its whole path the component of velocity which it obtained from its original moving source. however. p. Scientia. de chim. § Ann.. For the present. ‡ Phys. a somewhat complete emission theory has been developed by Ritz.§ and unfortunately optical experiments for deciding between the Einstein and Ritz relativity theories have never been performed. vol.Chapter Two. Rev. 145 (1908). p. 5 (1909). 26. p. vol. vol. 35.

31. In the development of the theory of relativity to which we shall now proceed we shall of course make use of many postulates. which we shall ﬁnd a powerful principle in all the ﬁelds of dynamics. vol.The Two Postulates. that starting with what has thus become an experimental expression for the mass of a moving body. one-valued. Now it is very interesting to note. We shall also make extensive use of the principle of least action. are the only ones. one-dimensional character of the time continuum. In particular in our further work we shall assume without examination all such general principles as the homogeneity and isotropism of the space continuum. Rev. and the principle of the conservation of mass.∗ Further Postulates of the Theory of Relativity. For the details of the proof we must refer the reader to the original article. p.. 23. so far as we are aware. it is possible to work backwards to a derivation of the second postulate of relativity. which are essentially diﬀerent from those common to the usual theoretical developments of physical science. however. The two which we have just considered. although we shall ﬁnd. . In our treatment of the dynamics of a particle we shall also assume Newton’s laws of motion. 26 (1910). that the Einstein ideas as to the connection between space and time will lead us to a nonNewtonian mechanics. and the unidirectional. 29 Bucherer experiment. of course. ∗ Phys.

24. 5) provided with a plane mirror a a. 5. however. SOME ELEMENTARY DEDUCTIONS. In this preliminary consideration we shall lay no stress on mathematical elegance or logical exactness. and an observer A. that the chapter will present a substantially correct account of some of the more important conclusions of the theory of relativity. who has a clock a m a S A Fig. provided with a mirror b b. System S is moving past S with the velocity V . the 30 . We may ﬁrst derive from the postulates of relativity a relation connecting measurements of time intervals as made by observers in systems moving with diﬀerent velocities. Measurements of Time in a Moving System. Consider also another similar system S . In order gradually to familiarize the reader with the consequences of the theory of relativity we shall now develop by very elementary methods a few of the more important relations. 25. Consider a system S (Fig. who also has a clock for measuring the time it takes for light to go up to his mirror and back. It is believed.CHAPTER III. B b S′ V b so that he can determine the time taken for a beam of light to travel up to the mirror and back along the path A m A. in a form which can be understood even by readers without mathematical equipment. and an observer B.

A. in accordance with the second postulate of relativity. 6. considering his system at rest and the other in motion. measures the time taken for a beam of light to pass to his mirror and return. it is evident that the ratio of these two time intervals will be proportional to the ratio of the two paths A m A and B n B . the velocity of light is independent of the velocity of its source. p B′ during the time taken for the passage of the light up to the mirror and back. 6. Dividing by (B n)2 . over the path A m A. so that when they pass one another the two mirrors a a and b b will coincide. in which the light has to pass over a longer path such as B n B . 6 we have (A m)2 = (p n)2 = (B n)2 − (B p)2 .Some Elementary Deductions. 31 direction of motion being parallel to the mirrors a a and b b. shown in Fig. (B n)2 (B n)2 . and compares the time interval thus obtained with that necessary for the performance of a similar experiment by B. the two systems being arranged. From Fig. where B B is the distance through which the observer B has moved a m a b n b A B Fig. (A m)2 (B p)2 =1− . and the two observers A and B will also come into coincidence. Since. moreover. and this can easily be calculated in terms of the velocity of light c and the velocity V of the system S .

either by calculation or by direct measurement if he has arranged clocks at B and B . It is sometimes more convenient to state this principle in the form: A stationary observer using a set of stationary clocks will obtain a V2 greater measurement in the ratio 1 : 1 − 2 for a given time interval c than an observer who uses a clock moving with the velocity V . that it takes a longer time for the performance of B’s experiment than for the performance of his own in V2 the ratio 1 : 1 − 2 . that B himself must ﬁnd exactly the same length of time for the light to pass up to his mirror and come back as did A in his experiment. we may go further and make the quantitative statement that measurements of time intervals made with a moving clock must be multiplied by the 1 in order to agree with measurements made with a quantity 1− V2 c2 stationary system of clocks. who are in relative motion will not in general agree in their measurements of the time interval necessary for a given event to take place. A and B. because the two systems are. But the distance B p is to B n as V is to c. c It is evident from the ﬁrst postulate of relativity. . however.Chapter Three. giving us Am = Bn 1− V2 . making use of the ratio obtained in a preceding paragraph. the event in this particular case. entirely symmetrical and we could with equal right consider B’s system to be the one at rest and A’s the one in motion. as a matter of fact. having been the performance of B’s experiment. indeed. c2 32 and hence A will ﬁnd. We thus ﬁnd that two observers. for example.

33 26. and such an occurrence is ruled out by our ﬁrst postulate. As to measurements of length perpendicular to the line of motion of the two systems S and S . When the relative motion of the two systems brings such meter sticks into juxtaposition. A and B are observers on these systems provided with clocks and meter sticks. lays oﬀ the distance B n. This is true because the possibility is always present of making a direct comparison of the meter sticks which A and B use for such measurements by holding them perpendicular to the line of motion. A lays oﬀ a distance of one meter. it is evident from the ﬁrst postulate of relativity that A’s meter and B’s meter must coincide in length. the aﬀair is much more complicated. of a simple experiment on the velocity of light parallel to the motion of the systems will lead to the desired relation. Measurements of Length in a Moving System. The two observers lay oﬀ. Let us again consider two systems S and S (Fig. using a meter stick which has the same length as A’s when they are both at rest. S moving past S with the velocity V . each on his own system. Hence measurements made with a moving meter stick held perpendicular to its line of motion will agree with those made with stationary meter sticks. With regard to measurements of length parallel to the line of motion of the systems. Any diﬀerence in length could be due only to the diﬀerent velocity of the two systems through space. 7). Any direct comparison of the lengths of meter sticks in the two systems would be very diﬃcult to carry out. 27.Some Elementary Deductions. however. We may now extend our considerations. paths for measuring the velocity of light. Each observer measures the length of time it takes for light to travel . A m. so that he can measure the time for light to travel to the mirror m and return. and B. the consideration. a little consideration will make it at once evident that both A and B must obtain identical results. to obtain a relation between measurements of length made in stationary and moving systems.

and will evidently have to ﬁnd the same length of time. n n′ which the mirror n moves while the light is travelling up to it. and B B is the distance through which the source travels before the light gets back. taking himself as at rest. 8). 7. A m 34 B n V Fig. We have nn V = Bn c and BB V = . 8. It is easy to calculate the length of this path. where n n is the distance through B B′ Fig. ﬁnds that B’s light travels over a path B n B (Fig. Bn B c .Chapter Three. to his mirror and return. since the postulates of relativity require that the velocity of light shall be the same for all observers. Now the observer A.

B n B = B nB + 2nn − B B . Also. will be longer in the ratio of 1 : V2 1 − 2 . instead of being exactly two meters as was his own. from the ﬁgure. To account for the remaining discrepancy the further conclusion is now obtained that measurements of length made with a moving meter stick. the shortening occurring in the ratio 1− in the line of motion. Bn = Bn + nn . and sees that this will account 1− V2 c2 for part of the discrepancy between the expected and observed results. = V2 BnB 1− 2 c 35 Thus A ﬁnds that the path traversed by B’s light. that he has already found that measurements of time made with a moving clock must be multiplied by the quantity 1 in order to agree with his own. V2 :1 c2 .Some Elementary Deductions. however. must be multiplied by the quantity 1 − 2 in c order to agree with those made in a stationary system. For this reason A is rather surprised that B does not report c a longer time interval for the passage of the light than he himself found. He remembers. V2 parallel to its motion. we obtain Bn B 1 . Combining. In accordance with this principle. This has been called the Lorentz shortening. a stationary observer will obtain a smaller measurement for the length of a moving body than will an observer moving along with the object.

since we shall ﬁnd. The time interval obtained in the two sets of readings must be the same. It will be noticed that in our considerations up to this point we have considered cases where only a single moving clock was needed in performing the desired experiment. from the point of view of the stationary observer. 36 28. The Setting of Clocks in a Moving System. while B’s measurements of the length of a moving object are greater than his own. but that a system of moving clocks which have been set in synchronism by an observer moving along with them will not be set in synchronism for a stationary observer. clocks must be set further and further ahead as we proceed towards the rear of the system. however. Consider again two systems S and S in relative motion with the velocity V . each by V2 the factor 1 − 2 . The observer A. and this was done purposely. unit distance apart. and familiar with the change in the measurements of length and time in the moving system which have already been deduced. and has the time on each clock read when a given point on the other system passes it. From what has preceded it is easy to see that in the moving system. taking himself as at rest. in the line of motion. An observer B on system S performs a similar experiment. not only that a given time interval measures shorter on a moving clock than on a system of stationary clocks. expects that the velocity as measured by B will be greater than the value that he himself obtains in 1 . since the ﬁrst postulate of relativity obviously requires that the relative velocity of the two systems V shall have the same value for both observers. In order to explain the actual result of B’s exc periment he now has to conclude that the clocks which for B are set synchronously are not set in synchronism for himself. An observer A on system S places two carefully compared clocks. since any particular one of B’s clocks gives a shorter the ratio V2 1− 2 c value for a given time interval than his own. .Chapter Three.

37 since otherwise B would not obtain a great enough diﬀerence in the readings of the clocks as they come opposite the given point on the other system. that our choice of A’s system as the one which we should call stationary was of course entirely arbitrary and immaterial. however. and indeed all that we shall mean when we call one of our systems stationary is that for reasons of convenience we have picked out that particular system as the one with reference to which we particularly wish to make our measurements. one in front of the other by the distance l . Indeed. before proceeding to the application of these considerations. The remarkable nature of these consequences merely indicates the very . The mere fact. We may point out. S . however. as measured by B. since the older ideas of space and time were obtained from an ancestral experience which never included experiments with high relaV2 tive velocities.Some Elementary Deductions. c 29. that they appear strange to so-called “common sense” need cause us no diﬃculty. These conclusions as to measurements of space and time are of course very startling when ﬁrst encountered. We may also point out that of course B has to subject A’s measurements of time and length to just 1 as did A in order to the same multiplications by the factor 1− V2 c2 make them agree with his own. To those scientists who do not wish to give up their “common sense” ideas of space and time we can merely say that if they accept the two postulates of relativity then they will also have to accept the consequences which can be deduced therefrom. We can at any time equally well take B’s system as the one to which we shall ultimately refer all our measurements. and it is only when the ratio 2 becomes appreciable c that we obtain unexpected results. then for A it lV will appear as though B had set his rear clock ahead by the amount 2 . We have now obtained all the information which we shall need in this chapter as to measurements of time and length in systems moving with diﬀerent velocities. if two clocks are situated in the moving system.

that the two clocks are for A set lV units apart and hence for clocks set together the time interval c2 lV would have measured t + 2 . for the fact that u is measured with clocks which to A appear to be set in a peculiar fashion and running at a diﬀerent rate from his own. we have l u = . however. t We have already seen. imperfect nature of our older conceptions of space and time. Our conclusions as to the setting of clocks make it possible to obtain an important expression for the composition of velocities. Suppose we have a system S. Moving past S with the velocity V is another system S with an observer B. What will be the velocity u of this body as measured by A? Our older ideas led us to believe in the simple additivity of velocities and we should have calculated u in accordance with the simple expression u=V +u. 38 30. If t is the diﬀerence in the respective clock readings when the body reaches the ends of the line l . and ﬁnally moving past S in the same direction is a body whose velocity is u as measured by observer B.Chapter Three. The Composition of Velocities. Furthermore these moving clocks give c V2 time measurements which are shorter in the ratio 1 − 2 : 1 than c . however. which we shall take as stationary. The determination of u by observer B would be obtained by measuring the time interval necessary for the body in question to move a given distance l along the system S . and on the system an observer A. and with meter sticks which give longer measurements than those used in the stationary system. We must now allow.

Until very recently the human race has had practically no experience with high velocities and we now see that for . l V2 c2 lV t + 2 c V2 1− 2 c 1− = l t 1− 1+ V2 c2 l V t c2 = u 1− 1+ V2 c2 uV c2 . 1− furthermore. When the velocities u and V are small compared with the velocity of light c. This new expression for the composition of velocities is extremely important. owing to the diﬀerence in measurements of length. V +u 1+ uV c2 . This makes the total velocity of the body past S equal to the sum u=V + or u= u 1− 1+ V2 c2 uV c2 .Some Elementary Deductions. 39 those obtained by A. so that for A the time interval for the body to move from one end of l to the other would measure t + lV c2 V2 c2 . this V2 line l has for A the length l 1 − 2 . we observe that the formula reduces to the simple additivity principle which we know by common experience to be true for all ordinary velocities. Hence A ﬁnds that the body is c moving past S with the velocity.

Chapter Three.

40

velocities in the neighborhood of that of light, the simple additivity principle is nowhere near true. In particular it should be noticed that by the composition of velocities which are themselves less than that of light we can never obtain any velocity greater than that of light. As an extreme case, suppose for example that the system S were moving past S itself with the velocity of light (i.e., V = c) and that in the system S a particle should itself be given the velocity of light in the same direction (i.e., u = c); we ﬁnd on substitution that the particle still has only the velocity of light with respect to S. We have u= c+c 1+

c2 c2

=

2c = c. 2

By the consideration of such conclusions as these the reader will appreciate more and more the necessity of abandoning his older naïve ideas of space and time which are the inheritance of a long human experience with physical systems in which only slow velocities were encountered. The Mass of a Moving Body. 31. We may now obtain an important relation for the mass of a moving body. Consider again two similar systems, S at rest and S moving past with the velocity V . The observer A on system S has a sphere made from some rigid elastic material, having a mass of m grams, and the observer B on system S is also provided with a similar sphere. The two spheres are made so that they are exactly alike when both are at rest; thus B’s sphere, since it is at rest with respect to him, looks to him just the same as the other sphere does to A. As the two systems pass each other (Fig. 9) each of these clever experimenters rolls his sphere towards the other system with a velocity of u cm. per second, so that they will just collide and rebound in a line perpendicular to the direction of motion. Now, from the ﬁrst postulate of relativity,

Some Elementary Deductions.

41

system S appears to B just the same as system S appears to A, and B’s ball appears to him to go through the same evolutions that A ﬁnds for his ball. A ﬁnds that his ball on collision undergoes the algebraic change of velocity 2u, B ﬁnds the same change in velocity 2u for his ball. B reports this fact to A, and A knowing that B’s measurements of length agree with his own in this transverse direction, but that his

S

A

S′

B

V

Fig. 9.

clock gives time intervals that are shorter than his own in the ratio V2 1 − 2 : 1, calculates that the change in velocity of B’s ball must c V2 be 2u 1 − 2 . c From the principle of the conservation of momentum, however, A knows that the change in momentum of B’s ball must be the same as that of his own and hence can write the equation ma u = mb u 1 − V2 , c2

Chapter Three.

42

**where ma is the mass of A’s ball and mb is the mass of B’s ball. Solving we have ma . mb = 1−
**

V2 c2

In other words, B’s ball, which had the same mass ma as A’s when ma both were at rest, is found to have the larger mass when 1− placed in a system that is moving with the velocity V .∗ The theory of relativity thus leads to the general expression m0 m= 1−

v2 c2 v2 c2

for the mass of a body moving with the velocity u and having the mass m0 when at rest. Since we have very few velocities comparable with that of light it v2 is obvious that the quantity 1 − 2 seldom diﬀers much from unity, c which makes the experimental veriﬁcation of this expression diﬃcult. In the case of electrons, however, which are shot oﬀ from radioactive substances, or indeed in the case of cathode rays produced with high potentials, we do have particles moving with velocities comparable to that of light, and the experimental work of Kaufmann, Bucherer, Hupka and others in this ﬁeld provides one of the most striking triumphs of the theory of relativity. The Relation Between Mass and Energy. 32. The theory of relativity has led to very important conclusions as to the nature of mass and energy. In fact, we shall see that matter

In carrying out this experiment the transverse velocities of the balls should be made negligibly small in comparison with the relative velocity of the systems V .

∗

Some Elementary Deductions.

43

and energy are apparently diﬀerent names for the same fundamental entity. When we set a body in motion it is evident from the previous section that we increase both its mass as well as its energy. Now we can show that there is a deﬁnite ratio between the amount of energy that we give to the body and the amount of mass that we give to it. If the force f acts on a particle which is free to move, its increase in kinetic energy is evidently ∆E = f dl.

But the force acting is, by deﬁnition, equal to the rate of increase in the momentum of the particle f= Substituting we have ∆E = d(mu) dl = dt dl d(mu) = dt m0 1− which, solved for u, gives us u=c 1− m0 2 . m2

u2 c2

d (mu). dt

u d(mu).

We have, however, from the previous section, m= ,

Substituting this value of u in our equation for ∆E we obtain, after simpliﬁcation, ∆E = c2 dm = c2 ∆m.

Chapter Three.

44

This says that the increase of the kinetic energy of the particle, in ergs, is equal to the increase in mass, in grams, multiplied by the square of the velocity of light. If now we bring the particle to rest it will give up both its kinetic energy and its excess mass. Accepting the principles of the conservation of mass and energy, we know, however, that neither this energy nor the mass has been destroyed; they have merely been passed on to other bodies. There is, moreover, every reason to believe that this mass and energy, which were associated together when the body was in motion and left the body when it was brought to rest, still remain always associated together. For example, if the body should be brought to rest by setting another body into motion, it is of course a necessary consequence of our considerations that the kinetic energy and the excess mass both pass on together to the new body which is set in motion. A similar conclusion would be true if the body is brought to rest by frictional forces, since the heat produced by the friction means an increase in the kinetic energies of ultimate particles. In general we shall ﬁnd it pragmatic to consider that matter and energy are merely diﬀerent names for the same fundamental entity. One gram of matter is equal to 1021 ergs of energy. c2 = (2.9986 × 1010 )2 = approx. 1021 . This apparently extraordinary conclusion is in reality one which produces the greatest simpliﬁcation in science. Not to mention numerous special applications where this principle is useful, we may call attention to the fact that the great laws of the conservation of mass and of energy have now become identical. We may also point out that those opposing camps of philosophic materialists who defend matter on the one hand or energy on the other as the fundamental entity of the universe may now forever cease their unimportant bickerings.

the clocks of 45 . we may think of each system of coördinates as provided with a whole series of clocks placed at convenient intervals throughout the system. The Lorentz Transformation. The Y Y′ O X O′ V X′ Z Z′ Fig. THE EINSTEIN TRANSFORMATION EQUATIONS FOR SPACE AND TIME. position of any given point in space can be determined by specifying its coördinates x. 33. y and z with respect to system S . We may now proceed to a systematic study of the consequences of the theory of relativity. 10) in relative motion in the X direction with the velocity V . Consider two systems of right-angled Cartesian coördinates S and S (Fig.CHAPTER IV. The fundamental problem that ﬁrst arises in considering spatial and temporal measurements is that of transforming the description of a given kinematical occurrence from the variables of one system of coördinates to those of another system which is in motion relative to the ﬁrst. for the purpose of determining the time at which any event takes place. and z with respect to system S or its coördinates x . Furthermore. y. 10.

in accordance with our ideas of the homogeneity of space. that they will continue to “keep time” after they have been distributed throughout the system. The speciﬁc problem now before us is as follows: If a given kinematical occurrence has been observed and described in terms of the variables x . so that we may write for them the expressions x = F1 (V. what substitutions must we make for the values of these variables in order to obtain a correct description of the same kinematical event in terms of the variables x. as our starting-point for time measurements. It is evident that these transformation equations are going to depend on the relative velocity V of the two systems. The signiﬁcance of these equations from the point of view of the theory of relativity was ﬁrst appreciated by Einstein. Deduction of the Fundamental Transformation Equations. y . t). and for further simpliﬁcation we choose. Perhaps the simplest is to consider the clocks as mechanisms which have been found to “keep time” when they are all together where they can be examined by one individual observer. The equations which we shall present were ﬁrst obtained by Lorentz. 34. z and t . The time at which the event in question takes place may be denoted by t if determined by the clocks belonging to system S and by t if determined by the clocks of system S . 46 each series being set and regulated∗ by observers in the corresponding system. and the process of changing from one set of variables to the other has generally been called the Lorentz transformation. For convenience the two systems S and S are chosen so that the axes OX and O X lie in the same line. ∗ . y. y. t and t both equal to zero when the two origins come into coincidence. z. x. The assumption can then be made. we want to obtain a set of transformation equations from the variables of system S to those of system S. z and t? In other words.Chapter Four. We may think of the clocks as being set in any of the ways that are usual in practice.

47 where F1 . t). x). = y. y = F2 (V. = F2 (V. of the system can be directly compared with meter sticks held similarly in system S. t). = z. z. and hence our two equations for x and t must be independent of y and z. This is obvious because a meter stick held in the system S perpendicular to the line of relative motion. x. z = F3 (V. however. t. We may now rewrite our transformation equations in the simpliﬁed form x y z t = F1 (V. whose form has to be determined. 35. F2 . OX . To complete the solution of the problem we may make use of three further conditions which must govern the transformation equations. since we know both from measurements and from everyday experience that the Newtonian concepts of space and . and have only two functions.. If we accept the idea of the homogeneity of space it is evident that any other line parallel to OXX might just as well have been chosen as our line of X-axes. etc. t). F1 and F2 . In the ﬁrst place. when the velocity V between the systems is small. greatly to simplify these relations. It is possible at the outset. z. y. it is evident that the transformation equations must reduce to the form that they had in Newtonian mechanics. y. Moreover. t. are the unknown functions whose form we wish to determine. as to the equations for y and z it is at once evident that the only possible solutions are y = y and z = z. y. x. and in accordance with the ﬁrst postulate of relativity they must agree in length in order that the systems may be entirely symmetrical. x).Transformation Equations for Space and Time. Three Conditions to be Fulﬁlled. t = F4 (V. x. z.

A ﬁnal condition is imposed upon the form of F1 and F2 by the second postulate of relativity. = z. t . Then. a light impulse is started from the common point occupied by O and O . t . when measured in the variables of either system. (4). Hence our transformation equations must be of such a form that a given beam of light has the same velocity. Hence the transformation equations for changing from the variables of system S to those of system S must be of exactly the same form as those used in the reverse transformation. which states that the velocity of a beam of light appears the same to all observers regardless of the motion of the source of light or of the observer. 48 time are correct as long as we deal with slow velocities. when the two origins come into coincidence. containing. the optical disturbance which is generated must spread out from the origin in a spherical form with the velocity c. Expressing this requirement in mathematical form. = y. where F1 and F2 must have the same form as above. A second condition is imposed upon the form of the functions F1 and F2 by the ﬁrst postulate of relativity. x ). using . that at the instant t = t = 0. for example. = t. −V wherever +V occurs in the latter equations. (6)) x y z t = x − V t.Chapter Four. which requires that the two systems S and S shall be entirely symmetrical. Chapter I. 37. c. x ). equations (3). (5). measured in the coördinates of either system. we may write as true equations x = F1 (−V. Let us suppose. Hence. Hence the limiting form of the equations as V approaches zero will be (cf. however. t = F2 (−V. 36.

In other words.Transformation Equations for Space and Time. (9) (10) (11) t− V x c2 =κ t− V x . 1− V2 c2 . whose description is known in the variables of either system. (8) Thus we have a particular kinematical occurrence. c2 (12) where we have placed κ to represent the important and continually 1 recurring quantity . are imposed upon the form of F1 and F2 are suﬃcient to determine the solution of the problem. t = 1 1− V2 c2 1 1− V2 c2 (x − V t) = κ(x − V t). The natural method of solution is obviously that of trial. The Transformation Equations. and our transformation equations must be of such a form that their substitution will change equation (8) to equation (7). The three sets of conditions which. as we have seen in the last three paragraphs. the expression x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t2 is to be an invariant for the Lorentz transformation. and we may suggest the solution: x = y = y. z = z. (7) while using the variables of system S we should have the similar expression x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = c2 t 2 . 38. the spreading out of a light disturbance. 49 the variables of system S. the coördinates of any point on the surface of the disturbance will be given by the expression x2 + y 2 + z 2 = c2 t2 .

we shall obtain the expression x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t2 and have thus secured the invariance of x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t2 which is required by the second postulate of relativity. thus fulﬁlling the requirements of symmetry imposed by the ﬁrst postulate of relativity. Before making any applications of our equations we shall ﬁnd it desirable to obtain by simple substitutions and diﬀerentiations a series of further transformation equations which will be of great value in our future work. z and t in the polynomial x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = c2 t 2 . c. We may further point out that the whole series of possible Lorentz transformations form a group such that the result of two successive transformations could itself be represented by a single transformation provided we picked out suitable magnitudes and directions for the velocities between the various systems. Further Transformation Equations.Chapter Four. when V becomes small compared with the velocity of light. 39. the resulting expressions have an unchanged form except for the introduction of −V in place of +V . if the equations are solved for the unprimed quantities in terms of the primed. Secondly. 50 It will be found as a matter of fact by examination that these solutions do ﬁt all three requirements which we have stated. and we shall ﬁnd that this agrees with ideas obtained in other ways as to the speed of light being an upper limit for the magnitude of all velocities. (13) . y . Thus. And ﬁnally. the equations do reduce to those of Galileo and Newton. if we substitute the expressions for x . It is also to be noted that the transformation becomes imaginary for cases where V > c. By the simple diﬀerentiation of equation (12) we can obtain xV ˙ dt =κ 1− 2 dt c .

Transformation Equations for Space and Time.

51

dx . where we have put x for ˙ dt 40. Transformation Equations for Velocity. By diﬀerentiation of the equations for x , y and z , nos. (9), (10) and (11), and subdt stitution of the value just found for we may obtain the following dt transformation equations for velocity: x = ˙ y = ˙ z = ˙ x−V ˙ 1− 1− 1− yκ−1 ˙ zκ−1 ˙

xV ˙ c2 yV ˙ c2 zV ˙ c2

or

ux = uy = uz =

**ux − V 1− 1− 1− uy κ−1 uz κ−1
**

ux V c2 ux V c2 ux V c2

, , ,

(14)

(15)

(16)

where the placing of a dot has the familiar signiﬁcance of diﬀerentiation dx dx with respect to time, being represented by x and ˙ by x . ˙ dt dt The signiﬁcance of these equations for the transformation of velocities is as follows: If for an observer in system S a point appears to be moving with the uniform velocity (x, y, z) its velocity (x , y , z ), as ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ measured by an observer in system S , is given by these expressions (14), (15) and (16). 1 . 41. Transformation Equations for the Function 1−

u2 c2

These three transformation equations for the velocity components of a point permit us to obtain a further transformation equation for an important function of the velocity which we shall ﬁnd continually re1 curring in our later work. This is the function , where we have 1− indicated the total velocity of the point by u, according to the expresu2 c2

Chapter Four.

52

**sion u2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 . By the substitution of equations (14), (15) ˙ ˙ ˙ and (16) we obtain the transformation equation 1 1−
**

u2 c2

=

1−

ux V c2 u2 c2

κ

.

(17)

1−

42. Transformation Equations for Acceleration. By further diﬀerentiating equations (14), (15) and (16) and simplifying, we easily obtain three new equations for transforming measurements of acceleration from system S to S, viz.: x = ¨ y = ¨ z = ¨ or ux = ˙ uy = ˙ uz = ˙ 1− ux V c2

−3

xV ˙ 1− 2 c xV ˙ 1− 2 c 1− xV ˙ c2

−3

κ−3 x, ¨ V κ y+y 2 ¨ ˙ c

−2

(18) xV ˙ 1− 2 c 1− xV ˙ c2

−3

−2

κ−2 x, ¨ κ−2 x, ¨

(19) (20)

−2

κ−2 z + z ¨ ˙

V c2

−3

κ−3 ux , ¨ V κ uy + uy 2 ¨ c

−2

(18) ux V 1− 2 c ux V 1− 2 c

−3

ux V 1− 2 c ux V 1− 2 c

−2

κ−2 ux , ˙ κ−2 ux . ˙

(19) (20)

−2

V κ uz + uz 2 ¨ c

−2

−3

CHAPTER V. KINEMATICAL APPLICATIONS. 43. The various transformation equations for spatial and temporal measurements which were derived in the previous chapter may now be used for the treatment of a number of kinematical problems. In particular it will be shown in the latter part of the chapter that a number of optical problems can be handled with extraordinary facility by the methods now at our disposal. The Kinematical Shape of a Rigid Body. 44. We may ﬁrst point out that the conclusions of relativity theory lead us to quite new ideas as to what is meant by the shape of a rigid body. We shall ﬁnd that the shape of a rigid body will depend entirely upon the relative motion of the body and the observer who is making measurements on it. Consider a rigid body which is at rest with respect to system S . Let x1 , y1 , z1 and x2 , y2 , z2 be the coördinates in system S of two points in the body. The coördinates of the same points as measured in system S can be found from transformation equations (9), (10) and (11), and by subtraction we can obtain the following expressions (x2 − x1 ) = V2 (x2 − x1 ), c2 (y2 − y1 ) = (y2 − y1 ), (z2 − z1 ) = (z2 − z1 ), 1− (21) (22) (23)

connecting the distances between the pair of points as viewed in the two systems. In making this subtraction terms containing t have been cancelled out since we are interested in the simultaneous positions of the points. In accordance with these equations we may distinguish then between the geometrical shape of a body, which is the shape that it has 53

Chapter Five.

54

when measured on a system of axes which are at rest relative to it, and its kinematical shape, which is given by the coördinates which express the simultaneous positions of its various points when it is in motion with respect to the axes of reference. We see that the kinematical shape of a rigid body diﬀers from its geometrical shape by a shortening V2 of all its dimensions in the line of motion in the ratio 1 − 2 : 1; c thus a sphere, for example, becomes a Heaviside ellipsoid. In order to avoid incorrectness of speech we must be very careful not to give the idea that the kinematical shape of a body is in any sense either more or less real than its geometrical shape. We must merely learn to realize that the shape of a body is entirely dependent on the particular set of coördinates chosen for the making of space measurements. The Kinematical Rate of a Clock. 45. Just as we have seen that the shape of a body depends upon our choice of a system of coördinates, so we shall ﬁnd that the rate of a given clock depends upon the relative motion of the clock and its observer. Consider a clock or any mechanism which is performing a periodic action. Let the clock be at rest with respect to system S and let a given period commence at t1 and end at t2 , the length of the interval thus being ∆t = t2 − t1 . From transformation equation (12) we may obtain t1 = 1 1− t2 = 1 1−

V2 c2 V2 c2

t1 −

V x1 , c2 V x2 , c2

t2 −

**Kinematical Applications. and by subtraction, since x2 − x1 is obviously equal to V t, we have t2 − t1 = 1 1− ∆t = 1 1−
**

V2 c2 V2 c2

55

(t2 − t1 ),

∆t .

Thus an observer who is moving past a clock ﬁnds a longer period for V2 the clock in the ratio 1 : 1 − 2 than an observer who is stationary c with respect to it. Suppose, for example, we have a particle which is turning alternately red and blue. For an observer who is moving past the particle the periods for which it remains a given color measure V2 longer in the ratio 1 : 1 − 2 than they do to an observer who is c stationary with respect to the particle. 46. A possible opportunity for testing this interesting conclusion of the theory of relativity is presented by the phenomena of canal rays. We may regard the atoms which are moving in these rays as little clocks, the frequency of the light which they emit corresponding to the period of the clock. If now we should make spectroscopic observations on canal rays of high velocity, the frequency of the emitted light ought to be less than that of light from stationary atoms of the same kind if our considerations are correct. It would of course be necessary to view the canal rays at right angles to their direction of motion, to prevent a confusion of the expected shift in the spectrum with that produced by the ordinary Doppler eﬀect (see Section 54). The Idea of Simultaneity. 47. We may now also point out that the idea of the absolute simultaneity of two events must henceforth be given up. Suppose, for

Chapter Five.

56

example, an observer in the system S is interested in two events which take place simultaneously at the time t. Suppose one of these events occurs at a point having the X coördinate x1 and the other at a point having the coördinate x2 ; then by transformation equation (12) it is evident that to an observer in system S , which is moving relative to S with the velocity V , the two events would take place respectively at the times t1 = 1 1− and t2 = 1 1−

V2 c2 V2 c2

t−

V x1 c2

t−

V x2 c2

or the diﬀerence in time between the occurrence of the events would appear to this other observer to be t2 − t1 = c2 V 1−

V2 c2

(x1 − x2 ).

(25)

The Composition of Velocities. 48. The Case of Parallel Velocities. We may now present one of the most important characteristics of Einstein’s space and time, which can be best appreciated by considering transformation equation (14), or more simply its analogue for the transformation in the reverse direction ux = ux + V 1+

ux V c2

.

(26)

the ux V quantity 2 is very nearly zero and the direct addition of velocities c is a close approximation to the truth. If we have a particle which is moving in the X direction with the velocity ux as measured in system S . the total velocity with respect to S would be ux = 1 c 2 + 1c 2 1 2 4c c2 1+ = 4 c. when ux and V are both small compared with the velocity of light. 57 Consider now the signiﬁcance of the above equation. ux = c). which are in the neighborhood of the speed of light.e. its velocity ux with respect to system S is to be obtained by adding the relative velocity of the two systems V and ux V dividing the sum of the two velocities by 1 + 2 . for example. that the system S were moving past S with the velocity of light (i. In particular it should be noticed that by the composition of velocities which are themselves less than that of light we can never obtain any velocity greater than that of light. the direct addition of velocities would lead to extremely erroneous results.. 49. we ﬁnd on substitution that the particle still has only the velocity of light with respect to S. Of course.. V = c). ux = 2 = c 2 1+ 2 c If the relative velocity between the systems should be one half the c velocity of light. Suppose.Kinematical Applications. and that in the system S a particle should itself be given the velocity of light in the X direction (i. In the case of velocities. however. Thus we see that c we must completely throw overboard our old naïve ideas of the direct additivity of velocities. in the case of very slow velocities.e. and an experimenter on S should shoot oﬀ a particle 2 in the X direction with half the velocity of light. 5 . . We have 2c c+c = c.

u = ux + uy + uz . which we have already considered. An examination. however. we may obtain by the substitution of equations (14). y . If we place u2 = ux 2 + uy 2 + uz 2 . of the transformation equations for acceleration (18). It will be noted from an examination of these equations that if to any observer a particle appears to have a constant velocity. 58 50. (27) where α is the angle in the system S between the X axis and the velocity of the particle u . i. (15) and (16) u 2 + V 2 + 2u V cos α − u= 1+ u V 2 sin2 α c2 2 2 2 2 2 1/2 u V cos α c2 ..Chapter Five. We may also call attention at this point to an interesting characteristic of the equations for the transformation of velocities. it will also appear to have a uniform although of course diﬀerent velocity to any observer who is himself in uniform motion with respect to the ﬁrst. to be unacted on by any force. 51. (20) will show that here a diﬀerent state of aﬀairs is true. For the particular case that V and u are in the same direction. In the case of particles which have components of velocity in other than the X direction it is obvious that our transformation equations will here also provide methods of calculation to supersede the simple addition of velocities.e. (19). the equation obviously reduces to the simpler form u= u +V 1+ uV c2 . z ) with respect to an observer in system S x ¨ ¨ . Composition of Velocities in General. since it will be seen that a point which has uniform acceleration (¨.

Consider two points A and B on the X axis of the system S. travels to B with the velocity u and at B produces some observable phenomenon. 59 will not in general have a uniform acceleration in another system S .Kinematical Applications. and suppose that some impulse originates at A. which is necessarily varying. u (28) where xA and xB are the coördinates of the two points A and B. the starting of the impulse at A and the resulting phenomenon at B thus being connected by the relation of cause and eﬀect. Now in another system S . Velocities Greater than that of Light. In the preceding section we have called attention to the fact that the mere composition of velocities which are not themselves greater than that of light will never lead to a speed that is greater than that of light. c2 where we have substituted for tB and tA in accordance with equa- . The time elapsing between the cause and its eﬀect as measured in the units of system S will evidently be ∆t = tB − tA = xB − xA . which has the velocity V with respect to S. since the acceleration in system S depends not only on the constant acceleration but also on the velocity in system S. The question naturally arises whether velocities which are greater than that of light could ever possibly be obtained in any way. the time elapsing between cause and eﬀect would evidently be ∆t = t B − t A = 1 1− V2 c2 tB − V xB c2 − 1 1− V2 c2 tA − V xA . This problem can be attacked in an extremely interesting manner. 52.

We may point out in passing. In fact. It is to be noticed here. Such a condition of aﬀairs might not be a logical impossibility. . and no transfer of energy. Consider. which would correspond to an inﬁnite velocity.Chapter Five. however. however. Simplifying and introducing equation (28) we obtain ∆t = 1− uV c2 V2 c2 60 ∆t. tion (12). the blocks could evidently all be ﬁxed to fall just at the same instant. that in the case of kinematic occurrences in which there is no causal connection there is no reason for supposing that the velocity must be less than that of light. a set of blocks arranged side by side in a long row. that there is no causal connection between the falling of one block and that of the next. (29) 1− Let us suppose now that there are no limits to the possible magnitude of the velocities u and V . and in particular that the causal impulse can travel from A to B with a velocity u greater than that of light. for an observer in system S the eﬀect which occurs at B would precede in time its cause which originates at A. It is evident that we could then take a velocity u great enough so uV that 2 would be greater than unity and ∆t would become negative. for example. The velocity with which the phenomenon would travel along the line of blocks could be arranged to have any value. nevertheless its extraordinary nature might incline us to believe that no causal impulse can travel with a velocity greater than that of light. c In other words. For each block there could be an independent time mechanism like an alarm clock which would go oﬀ at just the right instant so that the blocks would fall down one after another along the line.

t is the time. If now this same beam of light were examined by an observer in system S which is moving past the original system in the X direction with the velocity V . Let us now apply our kinematical considerations to some problems in the ﬁeld of optics.e. For the case of a simple plane wave (i. the statement of a single vector is suﬃcient to determine the instantaneous condition at any point in the path of a beam of light. At any point in the path of a beam of light the intensity of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds will be undergoing periodic changes in magnitude. y and z are the coördinates of the point under observation. We may consider a beam of light as a periodic electromagnetic disturbance which is propagated through a vacuum with the velocity c. Since the intensities of both the electric and the magnetic ﬁelds vary together. a beam of monochromatic light from a distant source) the light vector at any point in the path of the light may be put proportional to sin ω t − lx + my + nz c . l. 61 Application of the Principles of Kinematics to Certain Optical Problems.. (30) where x. and ω is a constant which determines the period of the light. we could write the light vector proportional to sin ω t − lx +my +nz c . β and γ which determine the direction of the beam of light with reference to our system. (31) It is not diﬃcult to show that the transformation equations which we have already developed must lead to the following relations between .Kinematical Applications. 53. It is customary to call this vector (which might be either the strength of the electric or of the magnetic ﬁeld) the light vector. m and n are the cosines of the angles α.

a transformation equation for t . m . we shall have in accordance with expression (30) the light vector proportional to sin ωt. But the point O as observed from system S moves with the velocity V along the X axis and at any instant has the position x = V t.Chapter Five. Making these substitutions and comparing expressions (36) and (37) we see that we must have the relation ω = ωκ 1 − l V c . which is the origin of coördinates in system S . Methods of obtaining the relation between the cosines l. c2 (37) and further may place x = V t. however. We have already obtained. the measurements in the two systems∗ ω = ωκ 1 − l l = m = n = ∗ 62 V c . and n as measured in system S may be left to the reader. we shall have the light vector proportional to sin ω t . . consider the relation between ω and ω . For example. m V κ 1−l c n κ V 1−l c (34) (35) Methods for deriving the relation between the accented and unaccented quantities will be obvious to the reader. hence substituting in expression (30) we have the light vector at the point O as measured in system S proportional to sin ωt 1 − l V c . . . t =κ t− V x . m and n and the corresponding cosines l . namely. and hence similarly at the point O . (32) (33) V c V 1−l c l− . At the origin of coördinates x = y = z = 0 in system S. (36) while as measured in system S the intensity is proportional to sin ω t .

where N is any integer. ν = 2π Combining these two equations and substituting the equation connecting ω and ω we have ν ν= . x = y = z = 0. (38) V κ 1 − cos φ c This is the most general equation for the Doppler eﬀect.Kinematical Applications. 2π Similarly the frequency of the light as measured by an observer in system S would be ω . in system S we shall evidently have from expression (30) the light vector proportional to sin ωt. 63 With the help of these equations we may now treat some important optical problems. and for l we may write cos φ. ν0 . in other words. If we consider a source of light at rest with respect to system S and at a considerable distance from the observer in system S. At the origin of coördinates. where φ is the angle between the line connecting source and observer and the direction of motion of the source. The Doppler Eﬀect. 54. When the source of light is moving directly in the line connecting source and . V κ 1−l c This is the relation between the frequencies of a given beam of light as it appears to observers who are in relative motion. That means that the vector becomes zero whenever ωt = 2N π. we may substitute for ν the frequency of the source itself. the 2π or the frequency period of the light is p = ω ν= ω . leading to the expression ν0 ν= .

in contradiction to the predictions of older theories.Chapter Five. c This is the change in frequency which we have already considered when we discussed the rate of a moving clock. then we can obviously substitute in equation (33). that even when the source of light moves at right angles to the line connecting source and observer there still remains a second-order eﬀect on the observed frequency. We must also observe. cos φ = l. Let φ be the angle between the X axis and the line connecting source of light and observer and let φ be the same angle as it appears to the moving observer. The possibilities of direct experimental veriﬁcation should not be overlooked (see Section 46). observer. and hence agrees with experimental determinations. (39) which except for second order terms is identical with the older expressions for the Doppler eﬀect. cos φ = l . Let us consider that the source of light is stationary with respect to system S. Returning now to our transformation equations. cos φ = (41) V 1 − cos φ c This is a general equation for the aberration of light. We have in this case cos φ = 0. giving us V cos φ − c . and let there be an observer situated at the origin of coördinates of system S and thus moving past the source with the velocity V in the X direction. V2 (40) ν = ν0 1 − 2 . and the equation reduces to ν= ν0 κ 1− V c 64 . we see that equation (33) provides an expression for calculating the aberration of light. however. . 55. we have cos φ = 1. The Aberration of Light.

It is also possible to treat very simply by kinematic methods the problem of the velocity of light in moving media. Let the medium be moving with the velocity V in the X direction. is identical with the familiar expression which makes the tangent of the angle of aberration numerically equal to V /c. (44) The equation thus obtained is identical with that of Fresnel. The experimental veriﬁcation of the formula by astronomical measurements is familiar. We shall conﬁne ourselves to the particular case of a beam of light in a medium which is itself moving parallel to the light. Velocity of Light in Moving Media. (43) 1+ c2 Carrying out the division and neglecting terms of higher order we obtain u= c + µ µ2 − 1 µ2 V. 56. u= c µ +V V c µ . as measured by observers in S. The empirical tity µ2 . If now we use our equation (26) for the addition of velocities we shall obtain for the velocity of light.Kinematical Applications. where µ is index of refraction for the medium. and let us consider the system of coördinates S as stationary with respect to the medium. Now since the medium appears to be stationary with respect to observers in S it is evident that the velocity of the light with respect to S will be c/µ. except for second-order diﬀerences. 65 For the particular case that the direction of the beam of light is perpendicular to the motion of the observer we have cos φ = 0 V cos φ = − . c (42) which. the quanµ2 − 1 being the well-known Fresnel coeﬃcient.

G is. 66 veriﬁcation of this equation by the experiments of Fizeau and of Michelson and Morley is too well known to need further mention. of course.Chapter Five. which the light has in system S . in a way to be determined by experiments on the stationary medium. In conclusion we wish to call particular attention to the extraordinary simplicity of this method of handling the optics of moving media as compared with those that had to be employed before the introduction of the principle of relativity. ν . (45) ν =κ 1− c 57. an experimental quantity. are in reality connected by an expression which can easily be shown (see Section 54) to have the form V ν. Group Velocity. In an entirely similar way we may treat the problem of group velocity and obtain the equation G= G +V 1+ GV c2 . It should be noticed in this connection that the frequencies ν and ν which the light has respectively in system S and system S . (46) where G is the group velocity as it appears to an observer who is stationary with respect to the medium. connected with frequency and the properties of the medium. although nearly enough the same for the practical use of equation (44). For the case of a dispersive medium we should obviously have to substitute in equation (44) the value of µ corresponding to the particular frequency. .

The Laws of Motion. we shall present a system of “relativity mechanics” based on Newton’s three laws of motion. since it requires for every change in the momentum of a body an equal and opposite change in the momentum of some other body. 67 . Quite diﬀerent in its nature from the ﬁrst two laws. The truth of this postulate will of course be tested by comparing with experiment the results of the theory of mechanics which we base upon its assumption. II. and their content may be expressed in mathematical form by the following equation of deﬁnition F= d du dm (mu) = m + u. and hence the momentum mu.CHAPTER VI. and the principle of the conservation of mass. THE DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE. the third law states a very deﬁnite physical postulate. dt dt dt (47) where F is the force acting on a particle of mass m which has the velocity u. which merely give us a deﬁnition of force. Newton’s laws of motion may be stated in the following form: I. III. Every particle continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line. Of these laws the ﬁrst two merely serve to deﬁne the concept of force. the Einstein transformation equations for space and time. unless it is acted upon by an external force. 58. In this chapter and the two following. The rate of change of the momentum of the particle is equal to the force acting and is in the same direction. For the action of every force there is an equal force acting in the opposite direction.

68 59. Before proceeding we may point out the particular diﬀerence between the older Newtonian mechanics. Diﬀerence between Newtonian and Relativity Mechanics. we should ﬁnd that the application of Newton’s third law of motion would then lead to very peculiar results. which were based on the laws of motion and the Galilean transformation equations for space and time. however. If we should try dt to deﬁne force in “relativity mechanics” as merely equal to mass times acceleration. and in particular to show that . we are now in a position to handle this problem much more generally.Chapter Six. In Section 31 we have already obtained in an elementary way an expression for the mass of a moving particle. Since we now have at our command general formulæ for the transformation of velocities. In the older mechanics there was no reason for supposing that the mass of a body varied in any way with its velocity. and hence force could be deﬁned interchangeably as the rate of change of momentum or as mass times acceleration. and hence in our new mechanics we must deﬁne force as equal to the total rate of change of momentum du dm d(mu) =m + u dt dt dt du instead of merely as mass times acceleration m . by considering a collision between elastic particles and calculating how the resulting changes in velocity would appear to diﬀerent observers who are themselves in relative motion. we shall be forced to conclude that the mass of a body increases in a perfectly deﬁnite way with its velocity. which would make the mass of a body diﬀerent in diﬀerent directions and force us to give up the idea of the conservation of mass. The Mass of a Moving Particle. since the two were identical. 60. In relativity mechanics. and our new system of relativity mechanics based on those same laws of motion and the Einstein transformation equations.

(See Fig. 11. (It is evident from the symmetry of the arrangement that the experiment would actually occur as we have stated. Let us ﬁrst treat the case of a socalled “transverse” collision. 11. but in the reverse direction. it can be seen that this new observer would ﬁnd for the X component velocities of the two particles the values u1 = u−V 1− uV c2 and u2 = −u − V 1+ uV c2 (48) and from equation (15) for the Y component velocities would ﬁnd the . The experiment is so arranged that the particles will just undergo a glancing collision as they pass each other and rebound with components of velocity in the Y direction of the same magnitude. the other with the velocity −u. +v and −v. each having the −v mass m0 when at rest. Transverse Collision. which they originally had. one +v moving in the X direction −u with the velocity +u and Fig. v. 69 the expression obtained for the mass of a moving particle is entirely independent of the consideration of any particular type of collision.Dynamics of a Particle.) We shall now be interested in the way this experiment would appear to an observer who is in motion in the X direction with the velocity V relative to our original system of coördinates. From equation (14) for the transformation of velocities.) Besides the large components of velocity +u and −u which they have in the X direction let them also have small components of velocity in the Y direction. Consider a system of coördinates and two exactly similar elastic par+u ticles. 61.

Now from Newton’s third law of motion (i. For the experiment that we have chosen the only change in momentum is in the Y direction..e. uV c2 (49) the signs depending on whether the velocities are measured before or after the collision. This diﬀerence in the mass of the particles. values v 1− 1− V2 c2 uV c2 70 v1 = ± and v2 = v 1− 1− V2 c2 . arises from the fact that the mass of a particle is a function of its velocity and for the observer in question the two particles are not moving with the same velocity. it is evident that their masses must also be unequal if the principle of the equality of action and reaction is true for all observers. . each of which has the mass m0 when at rest. Since these changes in the velocities of the particles are not equal. the principle of the equality of action and reaction) it is evident that on collision the two particles must undergo the same numerical change in momentum. and the observer whose measurements we are considering ﬁnds that one particle undergoes the total change in velocity 2v 1− 1− uV c2 V2 c2 2v1 = and that the other particle undergoes the change in velocity 2v 1− 1+ uV c2 V2 c2 2v2 = .Chapter Six. as we have assumed.

we obtain by direct algebraic transformation −u − V 1 + uV c2 c2 u−V 1 − uV c2 c2 2 2 1− 2 m1 c = = uV m2 1+ 2 c uV 1− . 71 Using the symbols m1 and m2 for the masses of the particles. denoting the c mass of the particle at rest by m0 . we may now write as a mathematical expression of the requirements of the third law of motion 2m1 v 1− 1− uV c2 V2 c2 = 2m2 v 1+ 1− uV c2 V2 c2 . ∗ . and. (50) This equation thus shows that the mass of a particle moving with u2 the velocity u∗ is inversely proportional to 1 − 2 . we may write as a general expression For simplicity of calculation we consider the case where the components of velocity in the Y direction are small enough to be negligible in their eﬀect on the mass of the particles compared with the large components of velocity u1 and u2 in the X direction. 1− which on the substitution of equations (48) gives us m1 = m2 1− 1− u2 2 c2 u1 2 c2 . Simplifying.Dynamics of a Particle.

” and in fact the expression obtained has often been spoken of as that for the transverse mass of a moving particle. As already stated. and mass of the particle. the consideration of a “longitudim0 .Chapter Six. Aside from the unnecessary complexity which would be introduced. These expressions u2 3/2 u2 1− 2 1− 2 c c as a matter of fact. u2 3/2 1− 2 c m0 m0 are. while a diﬀerent m0 . Mass the Same in All Directions. and we shall presently see that this more suitable deﬁnition is in perfect accord with the idea that the mass of a particle is the same in all directions. for force. for the mass of a moving particle m= m0 1− u2 c2 72 . 1− u2 c2 . The method of derivation that we have just used to obtain this expression for the mass of a moving particle is based on the consideration of a so-called “transverse collision. and hence such expressions would be proper for the mass of a moving particle if we should deﬁne force as mass times acceleration. the values of the electric force necessary to give a charged particle unit acceleration respectively at right angles and in the same direction as its original velocity. has been used for the so-called longitudinal expression. Newton’s original deﬁnition which makes it equal to the rate of change of momentum. the particular reason making it unfortunate to have diﬀerent expressions for mass in diﬀerent directions is that under such conditions it would be impossible to retain or interpret the principle of the conservation of mass. (51) 62. nal collision” will also lead to exactly the same expression. And we shall now proceed to show that by introducing the principle of the conservation of mass. it has seemed preferable to retain. however.

it is evident that we shall have u1 = u−V 1− uV c2 and u2 = −u − V 1+ uV c2 . each of them having the mass m0 when at rest. Now during the collision the velocities of the particles will all the time be changing. Then.e. Substituting our . Let u1 and u2 be the velocities of the particles as they appear to this new observer before the collision has taken place.. When in the course of the collision the particles have come to relative rest. 73 for the mass of a moving particle as we have already obtained from the consideration of a transverse collision. Let us call the masses before collision m1 and m2 . they will be moving past our observer with the velocity −V . head-on) collision will occur. But. but from the principle of the conservation of mass the sum of the two masses must all the time be equal to m1 + m2 . from our formula for the transformation of velocities (14). Longitudinal Collision. the two particles which have the same mass when at rest do not have the same mass for this observer. and their momentum will be −(m1 + m2 )V . 63.Dynamics of a Particle. Consider a system of coördinates and two elastic particles moving in the X direction with the velocities +u and −u so that a “longitudinal” (i. and then under the action of the elastic forces developed start up and move back over their original paths with the respective velocities −u and +u of the same magnitude as before. Let us now consider how this collision would appear to an observer who is moving past the original system of coördinates with the velocity V in the X direction. Let the particles be exactly alike. it is evident that this momentum must be equal to the original momentum before collision occurred. (52) Since these velocities u1 and u2 are not of the same magnitude. from the principle of the equality of action and reaction. This gives us the equation −(m1 + m2 )V = m1 u1 + m2 u2 . On collision the particles will evidently come to rest.

and the mass is made proportional to the mass at rest. The mass is written as a function of the square of the velocity. since from the homogeneity of space the mass will be independent of the direction of the velocity. viz. this can be shown to be identical with m1 = m2 1− 1− u2 2 c2 u1 2 c2 . that the consideration of any type of collision between particles of any mass leads to the same formula for the mass of a moving particle. It seems to be desirable to show. . where F ( ) is the function whose form we wish to determine. as in the previous proof. however. since a moving body may evidently be thought of as divided into parts without change in mass. 1− u2 c2 64. Collision of Any Type. and by direct algebraic transformation.: m0 m= . values (52) for u1 and u2 we have m1 1− uV c2 74 = m2 1+ uV c2 . For the mass m of a particle moving with the velocity u let us write the equation m = m0 F (u2 ).Chapter Six. We have derived this formula for the mass of a moving particle ﬁrst from the consideration of a transverse and then of a longitudinal collision between particles which are elastic and have the same mass when at rest. It may be further remarked that the form of the function F ( ) must be such that its value approaches unity as the variable approaches zero. leading to the same expression that we obtained before for the mass of a moving particle.

Newton’s third law of motion) m0 F (ux 2 + uy 2 + uz 2 )ux + n0 F (wx 2 + wy 2 + wz 2 )wx = m0 F (Ux 2 + Uy 2 + Uz 2 )Ux + n0 F (Wx 2 + Wy 2 + Wz 2 )Wx . as given by our transformation equations for velocity (14). moving with the velocities u and w before collision. are measured..e. with respect to some deﬁnite system of “space-time” coördinates. of course. 75 Let us now consider two particles having respectively the masses m0 and n0 when at rest. ux V 1− 1− V2 c2 ux V c2 uy . wx − V 1− wx V c2 . ux . etc. Ux . (55) m0 F (ux 2 + uy 2 + uz 2 )uz + n0 F (wx 2 + wy 2 + wz 2 )wz = m0 F (Ux 2 + Uy 2 + Uz 2 )Uz + n0 F (Wx 2 + Wy 2 + Wz 2 )Wz . wx . (53) and from the principle of the equality of action and reaction (i.. wy . and with the velocities U and W after a collision has taken place. ux . 1− 1− V2 c2 ux V c2 uz . (15).Dynamics of a Particle. uy . From the principle of the conservation of mass we have m0 F (ux 2 + uy 2 + uz 2 ) + n0 F (wx 2 + wy 2 + wz 2 ) = m0 F (Ux 2 + Uy 2 + Uz 2 ) + n0 F (Wx 2 + Wy 2 + Wz 2 ). An observer moving past this system of coördinates with the velocity V in the X direction would ﬁnd for the corresponding component velocities the values ux − V 1− c2 . (54) m0 F (ux 2 + uy 2 + uz 2 )uy + n0 F (wx 2 + wy 2 + wz 2 )wy = m0 F (Ux 2 + Uy 2 + Uz 2 )Uy + n0 F (Wx 2 + Wy 2 + Wz 2 )Wy . wz . (16). (56) These velocities. .. etc.

Wx V Wx V 1− 2 1− 2 c c m0 F +n0 F (53a) = m0 F +n0 F m0 F {ux · · · } ux − V 1− ux V c2 + n0 F {wx · · · } Ux − V 1− Ux V c2 wx − V 1− wx V c2 = m0 F {Ux · · · } + n0 F {Wx · · · } Wx − V 1− Wx V c2 (54a) .Chapter Six. we may write the following new relations corresponding to equations (53) to (56): 2 u −V x + ux V 1− 2 c 2 w −V x + wx V 1− 2 c 2 U −V x + 1 − Ux V c2 2 W −V x + 1 − Wx V 2 c 2 2 V2 V2 1 − 2 uy 1 − c2 uz c + ux V ux V 1− 2 1− 2 c c 2 2 V2 V2 1 − 2 wy 1 − c2 w z c + wx V wx V 1− 2 1− 2 c c 2 2 V2 V2 1 − 2 Uy 1 − c2 Uz c + Ux V Ux V 1− 2 1− 2 c c 2 2 V2 V2 1 − 2 Wy 1 − c2 Wz c + . . 76 Since the law of the conservation of mass and Newton’s third law of motion must also hold for the measurements of the new observer.

wx .. it is found by trial that V can be cancelled from all 1 the equations if we make F ( ) of the form . perfectly deﬁnite quantities. and Hupka have in reality shown that the mass of the elec- . uy .Dynamics of a Particle. V2 uy c2 + n0 F {wx · · · } u V 1 − x2 c 77 m0 F {ux · · · } 1− V2 wy c2 w V 1 − x2 c 1− = m0 F {Ux · · · } V2 1 − 2 Uy c + n0 F {Wx · · · } Ux V 1− 2 c V2 1 − 2 Wy c . If these equations are to be true for perfectly deﬁnite values of ux . etc. it is evident that the function F ( ) must be of such a form that the equations are identities in V . wx . uz . although perhaps not necessarily a unique solution. Before proceeding to use our formula for the mass of a moving particle for the further development of our system of mechanics.. uy . Wx V 1− 2 c (55a) m0 F ux · · · 1− 1− V2 ux c2 ux V c2 + n0 F w x · · · 1− 1− V2 wx c2 wx V c2 V2 1 − 2 Wx c . we may call attention in passing to the fact that the experiments of Kaufmann. are. and for all values of V . Bucherer. that is. true for all values of V . W V 1− x c2 (56a) = m0 F Ux · · · V2 1 − 2 Ux c U V 1 − x2 c + n0 F Wx · · · It is evident that these equations (53a)–(56a) must be true no matter what the velocity between the new observer and the original system of coördinates. As a matter of fact. and we see that () 1− 2 c the expected relation is a solution of the equations. measured with reference to a deﬁnite system of coördinates and entirely independent of V . etc. The velocities ux . uz . however.

For the further development of our system of dynamics. however.Chapter Six. however. Similarly with respect to a system of coördinates S which is moving relatively to S with the velocity V in the X direction we shall have m0 . 65. it is evident that the mass of the particle will also depend on our reference system of coördinates. acceleration. S. etc. m= 1− u2 c2 where the velocity u is measured with respect to some deﬁnite system of coördinates. We shall consider the dynamics of the electron more in detail in the chapter devoted to electromagnetic theory. 78 tron increases with its velocity according to the formula which we have just obtained. since the increase in mass is alone suﬃcient to account for the results of the measurement. We wish to point out now. Transformation Equations for Mass. Since the velocity of a particle depends on the particular system of coördinates chosen for the measurement. a transformation equation (17) for the function of the velocity occurring in these equations and on . that in this derivation we have made no reference to any electrical charge which might be carried by the particle whose mass is to be determined. We have m0 . Hence we may reject the possibility of explaining the Kaufmann experiment by assuming that the charge of the electron decreases with its velocity. m = 1− u c2 2 We have already obtained. we shall ﬁnd it desirable to obtain transformation equations for mass similar to those already obtained for velocity.

In the ﬁrst place. substitution we obtain the desired transformation equation m = 1− ux V c2 κm. By diﬀerentiation of (57) with respect to the time and simpliﬁcation. gives us F= d dt m0 1− u2 c2 u = m0 1− du d + dt u2 dt c2 m0 1− u2 c2 u (59) . We have our equation of deﬁnition (47) F= d du dm (mu) = m + u. we obtain the following transformation equation for the rate at which the mass of a particle is changing owing to change in velocity mV m =m− 2 ˙ ˙ c ux V 1− 2 c −1 dux . 79 (57) where κ has the customary signiﬁcance κ= 1 1− V2 c2 . 66.Dynamics of a Particle. dt dt dt which. the equation which we have now obtained for the mass of a moving particle will permit us to rewrite the original equation by which we deﬁned force. on substitution of the expression for m. dt (58) Equation for the Force Acting on a Moving Particle. in a number of ways which will be useful for future reference. We are now in a position to return to our development of the dynamics of a particle.

− ux V c − ux V (61) ux V c2 ux V c2 (62) (63) We may now consider a few applications of the principles governing the dynamics of a particle. ˙ ˙ Fy = muy + muy . c2 dt (60) Transformation Equations for Force. (15) and (16). for the accelerations (18). or. ˙ ˙ We have transformation equations. F= m0 du + u2 u2 dt 1− 2 1− 2 c c 80 m0 3/2 u du u. equation (58). We are also in position to obtain transformation equations for force. for mass. c2 uz V uy V Fy − 2 Fz . ˙ ˙ Fz = muz + muz . carrying out the indicated diﬀerentiation. for all the quantities on the right-hand side of these equations. however. equation (57) and for rate of change of mass. We have d ˙ ˙ F = (mu) = mu + mu dt or Fx = mux + mux . (19) and (20). Fz . For the velocities we have equations (14). Substituting above we obtain as our transformation equations for force Fx = Fy = Fz = Fx − mV ˙ 1− 1− 1− κ−1 κ−1 ux V c2 = Fx − Fy . . 67.Chapter Six.

12) in plane space moving with the O X velocity Fig. (59) we see that the force is equal to the sum of two vectors.Dynamics of a Particle. u = ux i + uy j. We shall ﬁnd it interesting to see. Let it be accelerated in the X direction by the action of the component forces Fx and Fy . If we examine our equation (59) for the force acting on a particle F = m0 1− du d + dt u2 dt c2 m0 1− u2 c2 u. however. that if the force which does produce acceleruy u ation in a given direction be resolved perpendicular and parallel to the acceleration. so that in general force and the acceleration Y it produces are not in the same direction. 81 68. Consider a particle (Fig. one of which is du in the direction of the acceleration and the other in the direction of dt the existing velocity u. From our general equation (59) for the force acting on a particle we . the two components will be connected by a m ux deﬁnite relation. 12. The Relation between Force and Acceleration.

which makes = 0. Fx = 2 c − ux 2 (66) Hence. . a simple qualitative consideration will show the necessity of a component of force perpendicular to the desired acceleration. we may apply any force Fy in the desired direction. Fy c − ux 2 ux uy Fy . (65) Introducing the condition that all the acceleration is to be in the dux Y direction. (64) d duy + dt u2 dt c2 uy . y x dt by the division of equation (64) by (65). In a later paragraph we shall show an application of equation (66) in electrical theory. This increasing mass is accompanied by increasing momentum in the X direction even when the velocity in that direction remains constant. we obtain Fx ux uy = 2 . 12. have for these component forces Fx = m0 1− Fy = m0 1− dux d + dt u2 dt c2 82 m0 1− m0 1− u2 c2 u2 c2 ux .Chapter Six. its total velocity and hence its mass are increasing. The component force Fx is necessary for the production of this increase in X-momentum. since the particle is being accelerated in the Y direction. Although at ﬁrst sight this state of aﬀairs might seem rather unexpected. in order to accelerate a particle in a given direction. but must at the same time apply at right angles another force Fx whose magnitude is given by equation (66). and further noting that u2 = u2 +u2 . Refer again to Fig.

An examination of equation (66) shows that there are two special cases in which the component force Fx disappears and the force and acceleration are in the same direction. so that we may rewrite the acceleration dt second term of (60). It is instructive to obtain simpliﬁed expressions for force for these two cases of transverse and longitudinal acceleration. the velocity u and the du are in the same direction. Fx will disappear when either ux or uy is equal to zero. so that force and acceleration will be in the same direction when the force acts exactly at right angles to the line of motion of the particle. 83 69. (60) F= 2 3/2 c2 dt u u2 dt 1− 2 1− 2 c c For the case of a transverse acceleration there is no component of force in the direction of the velocity u and the second term of the equation is equal to zero. Let us again examine our equation (60) for the force acting on a particle du m0 u du m0 + u. Transverse and Longitudinal Acceleration. u2 dt c2 (67) For the case of longitudinal acceleration. giving us F= du m0 + u2 u2 dt 1− 2 1− 2 c c m0 3/2 u2 du . c2 dt .Dynamics of a Particle. giving us F= m0 1− du . or in the direction of the motion (or of course also when ux and uy are both equal to zero and the particle is at rest).

and z and any desired velocity ux . We can solve this problem by considering a system of coördinates which move with the same velocity as the charge itself. however. it may not be amiss to point out that the principles of mechanics themselves may sometimes be employed to obtain a simple and direct solution of electrical problems. and the magnitude of the force as measured in the original system of coördinates can then be determined from our transformation equations for force.Chapter Six. In a later chapter we shall present a consistent development of the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory based on the Einstein transformation equations for space and time and the four ﬁeld equations. Suppose. for example. u2 3/2 . An observer making use of the new system of coördinates could evidently calculate the force exerted by the charge in question by Coulomb’s familiar inverse square law for static charges. The Force Exerted by a Moving Charge. 70. Consider a system of coördinates S. and a charge e in uniform motion along the X axis with the velocity V . y. uy and uz . and on simpliﬁcation this becomes F= m0 1− u c2 2 84 3/2 du . dt m0 (68) An examination of this expression shows the reason why 1− 2 c is sometimes spoken of as the expression for the longitudinal mass of a particle. we wish to calculate the force with which a point charge in uniform motion acts on any other point charge. At this point. Let us proceed to the speciﬁc solution of the problem. We desire to know the force acting at the time t on any other charge e1 which has any desired coördinates x.

since they would both count the same number of electrons on the charge. That such is the case. in accordance with Coulomb’s law∗ ee1 r F = r3 or Fx = ee1 x . 2 (y + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 ee1 x Fz = 2 . (z + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 2 (69) (70) (71) where x . (62). y . Hence in system S the force with which e acts on e1 will be. (10). To an observer moving with the system S . z = z. then from transformation equations (9). (70). is an evident consequence of the atomic nature of electricity. we obtain the following equations for It should be noted that in its original form Coulomb’s law merely stated that the force between two stationary charges was proportional to the product of the charges and inversely to the distance between them. moving with the same velocity as the charge e which is taken coincident with the origin. (71) and also using our transformation equations for force (61). (x + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 ee1 x Fy = .) ∗ . For simplicity let us consider the force at the time t = 0.Dynamics of a Particle. y = y. (70). the charge e appears to be always at rest and surrounded by a pure electrostatic ﬁeld. The charge e would appear of the same magnitude to observers both in system S and system S . (See Section 157. The fact that a charge of electricity appears the same to observers in all systems is obviously also necessary for the setting up of equations (69). however. (63). (11). Substituting in (69). In the present derivation we have extended this law to apply to the instantaneous force exerted by a stationary charge upon any other charge. S . (12) we shall have x = κ−1 x. and z are the coördinates of the charge e1 at the time t . (71). 85 Assume a system of coördinates.

From V transformation equation (12) we have t = 2 x. . V 2 κ (yuy + zuz ) . V2 c2 V2 1− 2 c V2 1− 2 c 1− V (Y Uy + ZUz ) . the force acting on e1 . c2 Ux V 1 − 2 ) Y. Z = z. (73). c2 For convenience we may now refer our results to a system of coördinates whose origin coincides with the position of the charge e at the instant under consideration. If X. c X+ Substituting into (72). c2 (72) ee1 1 − ee1 1 − (κ−2 x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 (κ−2 x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 ux V c2 ux V c2 κy κz (73) (74) These equations give the force acting on e1 at the time t. c Ux V 1 − 2 ) Z. c2 Ux = ux . ye = 0. as it appears to an observer in system S: Fx = Fy = Fz = ee1 x (x + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 2 86 x+ . since t = 0. At this c time the charge e. will evidently have the position V2 x. (74) we obtain Fx = ee1 s3 ee1 Fy = 3 s ee1 Fz = 3 s (75) (76) (77) . Y and Z are the coördinates of e1 with respect to this new system. ze = 0. Uy = uy . we shall evidently have the relations xe = X =x− V2 x = κ−2 x.Chapter Six. which is moving with the uniform velocity V along the X axis. Uz = uz . Y = y.

and are seen to come directly from Coulomb’s law. Consider a charge e constrained to move in the X direction with the velocity V and at the instant under consideration let it coincide with the origin of a system of stationary coördinates Y eX (Fig. Evidently we may also use these considerations to obtain an expression for the electric ﬁeld produced by a moving charge e. Ux = Uy = Uz = 0) and equal to unity. situated at the point X = 0. The Field around a Moving Charge. f = ρ e + [u × h]∗ . Let us . Application to a Speciﬁc Problem. where for simplicity we have placed s= X2 + 1 − V2 c2 (Y 2 + Z 2 ).Dynamics of a Particle. if we consider the particular case that the charge e1 is stationary (i. and also having a component velocity in the Y direction Uy . 87 These are the same equations which would be obtained by substituting the well-known formulæ for the strength of the electric and magnetic ﬁeld around a moving point charge into the ﬁfth fundamental 1 equation of the Maxwell-Lorentz theory. Equations (75).e. (77) can also be applied in the solution of a rather interesting speciﬁc problem. s c where r = Xi + Y j + Zk. Y = Y and moving in the X direction with the same velocity V as the charge e.. (76). Suppose now a second charge e1 . (76). They c are really obtained in this way more easily. 13). however. 71. Making these substitutions in (75). (77) we obtain the well-known expression for the electrical ﬁeld in the neighborhood of a moving point charge V2 e (78) F = e = 3 1 − 2 r.

since from the point of view of an observer moving along with e the phenomenon is merely one of ordinary electrostatic repulsion. it seems evident that the charge e1 ought merely to increase its component of veloce1 ity in the Y direction and retain unUx = V changed its component in the X direction.Chapter Six. Now under the action of the component force Fx we might at ﬁrst sight expect the charge e1 to obtain an acceleration in the X direction. c2 2 (79) (80) ee1 Fx = 3 s V2 1− 2 c Y. Fy c −V2 . Let us see whether our equations e for the force exerted by a moving X Fig. From the simple qualitative considerations placed at our disposal by Uy the theory of relativity. that equation (66) prescribes a deﬁnite ratio between the component forces Fx and Fy if the acceleration is to be in the Y direction. Y 88 predict the nature of its motion under the inﬂuence of the charge e. charge actually lead to this result. it being otherwise unconstrained. We remember. however. By making the obvious substitutions in equations (75) and (76) we obtain for the component forces on e1 Fx = ee1 s3 1− V2 c2 V Y Uy . in contradiction to the simple qualitative prediction that we have just made on the basis of the theory of relativity. 13. and dividing (79) by (80) we actually obtain the necessary relation Fx V Uy = 2 .

Kinetic Energy.Dynamics of a Particle. Since. the kinetic energy of a particle turns out to be entirely independent of the particular choice of forces used in producing the ﬁnal velocity. When a particle is brought from a state of rest to the velocity u by the action of an unbalanced force F. (81) where r is the radius vector determining the position of the particle. kinetic. Thus W = F · dr. . and potential energy. Before proceeding with the further development of our theory of dynamics we shall ﬁnd it desirable to deﬁne the quantities work. however. 72. We have K= F · dr = F· dr dt = dt F · u dt. magnetic and gravitational problems will be evident to the reader. 89 Other applications of the new principles of dynamics to electrical. 73. Work. Thus K=W = F · dr. we shall deﬁne its kinetic energy as numerically equal to the work done in producing the velocity. it is much more useful to have an expression for kinetic energy in terms of the mass and velocity of the particle. We have already obtained an expression for the force acting on a particle and shall deﬁne the work done on the particle as the integral of the force times the distance through which the particle is displaced.

Chapter Six. we easily obtain the desired expression for the kinetic energy of a particle: K = m 0 c2 1 1− = c2 (m − m0 ). m u · du + mu du + Introducing the expression (51) for the mass of a moving particle m = m0 . (82) (83) It should be noticed. 90 Substituting the value of F given by the equation of deﬁnition (47) we obtain K= = = m du · u dt + dt dm u · udt dt u · u dm u2 dm. that our expression (82) for the kinetic energy of a particle approaches at low velocities . that the kinetic energy of a particle does depend merely on its mass and ﬁnal velocity and is entirely independent of the particular choice of forces which happened to be used in producing the state of motion. It will also be noticed. as was stated above. u2 c2 −1 . on expansion into a series. we obtain 1− u2 c2 K= m0 u 1− u2 c2 du + m0 c2 u3 1− u2 3/2 c2 du and on integrating and evaluating the constant of integration by placing the kinetic energy equal to zero when the velocity is zero.

75. (84) The Relation between Mass and Energy. Since we believe that the forces which act on the ultimate particles and constituents of matter are in reality all of them conservative. giving us the equation ∆U = −W = − F · dr. Section 89. A conservative force is one such that any work done by displacing a system against it would be completely regained if the motion of the system should be reversed.Dynamics of a Particle. 1 K = 2 m0 u2 . both its mass and energy are increased. 74. (For a logical deduction of the principle of the conservation of energy in a system of particles. We may now consider a very important relation between the mass and energy of a particle.” When an isolated particle is set in motion. see the next chapter. 91 Potential Energy. The increase in the potential energy of the particle is equal to the kinetic energy which has been destroyed and hence equal to the work done by the particle against the force. we shall accept the general principle of the conservation of energy just as in Newtonian mechanics. the form familiar in the older Newtonian mechanics. When a moving particle is brought to rest by the action of a conservative ∗ force we say that its kinetic energy has been transformed into potential energy. which was ﬁrst pointed out in our chapter on “Some Elementary Deductions. For the increase in mass we may write ∆m = m − m0 .) ∗ .

when a moving particle is brought to rest and thus loses both its kinetic energy and its extra (“kinetic”) mass. if the particle is brought to rest by collision with another particle. ∆E = c2 ∆m. energy and mass very fruitful in the simpliﬁcation of . Such considerations have led us to believe that matter and energy may be best regarded as diﬀerent names for the same fundamental entity: matter. the kinetic energy which leaves the particle will be transformed into the potential energy of the stretched spring. For example. the name applied when we have been interested in the part taken by the entity in the production of motion and other changes in the physical universe. we shall believe that this mass is now associated with the potential energy of the stretched spring. 92 and for the increase in energy we have the expression for kinetic energy given in equation (83). or. the name which has been applied when we have been interested in the property of mass or inertia possessed by the entity. On the other hand. Furthermore. giving us ∆E = c2 (m − m0 ). (85) Thus the increase in the kinetic energy of a particle always bears the same deﬁnite ratio (the square of the velocity of light) to its increase in mass. combining with the previous equation. say for example that exerted by an elastic spring. We shall ﬁnd these ideas as to the relations between matter. and energy. there seems to be every reason for believing that this mass and energy which are associated together when the particle is in motion and leave the particle when it is brought to rest will still remain always associated together. if the particle is brought to rest by the action of a conservative force.Chapter Six. 76. and since the mass which has undoubtedly left the particle must still be in existence. it is an evident consequence of our considerations that the energy and the mass corresponding to it do remain associated together since they are both passed on to the new particle.

already mentioned in Section 64 and the well-known relations between the energy and momentum of a beam of light. (87) The enormous number of ergs necessary for increasing the mass of a system to the amount of a single gram makes it evident that experimental proofs of the relation between mass and energy will be hard to ﬁnd. Philosophical Magazine. 15. such evidence has not yet been forthcoming.∗ In the case of some radioactive processes. however. 93 physical reasoning. the gram and the erg. taking the velocity of light as 3 × 1010 centimeters per second. vol. p. we shall have 1 gram = 9 × 1020 ergs. And making use of this point of view we might account for the lack of exact relations between the atomic weights of the successive products of radioactive decomposition. both of which are used for the measurement of the one fundamental entity.Dynamics of a Particle.† It should be noticed that our theory points to the presence of enormous stores of interatomic energy which are still left in substances cooled to the absolute zero. ∗ . (86) where E is expressed in ergs and m in grams. we certainly cannot look towards thermal experiments with any degree of conﬁdence. call it matter or energy as we please. not only because it identiﬁes the two laws of the conservation of mass and the conservation of energy. for example. hence. since even on cooling a body down to the absolute zero of temperature it loses but an inappreciable fraction of its mass at ordinary temperatures. 77. Equation (85) gives us the relation E = c2 m. we may ﬁnd a transfer of energy large enough to bring about measurable diﬀerences in mass. and outside of the experimental work on electrons at high velocities. 1 (1908). Comstock. We must call attention to the great diﬀerence in size between the two units. † See. As to the possibility of obtaining further direct experimental evidence of the relation between mass and energy. but also for its frequent application in the solution of speciﬁc problems.

in the treatment of a speciﬁc problem. when in the course of the collision the particles have come to relative rest they will obviously be moving past our observer with the velocity −V . one moving in the X direction with the velocity +u and the other with the velocity −u. Consider. To this new observer the particles will be moving before the collision with the respective velocities u1 = u−V 1− uV c2 and u2 = −u − V 1− uV c2 . the mass of the ﬁrst particle will be m0 1− u1 2 c2 = 1− m0 u−V 1 − uV c2 c2 2 = m0 1 − 1− V2 c2 uV c2 1− u2 c2 . Let us see what the masses of the particles will be both before and during the collision.Chapter Six. Furthermore. Let us now consider how this collision would appear to an observer who is moving past the original system of coördinates with the velocity V in the X direction. just as in Section 63. 94 78. two elastic particles both of which have the mass m0 at rest. We may show an interesting application of our ideas as to the relation between mass and energy. in such a way that a head-on collision between the particles will occur and they will rebound over their original paths with the respective velocities −u and +u of the same magnitude as before. Before the collision. (88) as given by equation (14) for the transformation of velocities. Application to a Speciﬁc Problem.

2m0 1− V2 c2 u2 c2 . . which is just suﬃcient to restore them to their original velocities.Dynamics of a Particle. we obtain for the sum of the masses of the two particles before collision. however. 1− Now during the collision. they will evidently both be moving past our observer with the velocity −V and hence the sum of their masses at the instant of relative rest would appear to be 2m0 1− V2 c2 . and the mass corresponding to this potential energy will evidently be just suﬃcient to make the total mass of the system the same as before collision. This apparent discrepancy between the total mass of the system before and during the collision. a quantity which is smaller than that which we have just found for the sum of the two masses before the collision occurred. when the two particles have come to relative rest. is removed. Adding these two expressions. In the following chapter on the dynamics of a system of particles we shall make further use of our ideas as to the mass corresponding to potential energy. and the mass of the second particle will be m0 1− u2 2 c2 95 = 1− m0 −u − V 1 + uV c2 c2 2 = m0 1 + 1− V2 c2 uV c2 1− u2 c2 . if we realize that when the particles have come to relative rest an amount of potential energy of elastic deformation has been produced.

dt dt dt 96 (47) . of the conservation of moment of momentum. and in the following chapter shall consider an application of some of these principles to the kinetic theory of gases. For cases where the velocities of all the particles involved are slow compared with that of light. F= du dm d (mu) = m + u. 80. Our purpose in this chapter is to treat dynamical systems consisting of a ﬁnite number of particles. In particular we shall ﬁnd among other differences that in the case of high velocities it will no longer be possible to deﬁne the Lagrangian function as the diﬀerence between the kinetic and potential energies of the system. each obeying the equation of motion which we have already written in the forms. Where high velocities are involved. With the help of those laws we shall now derive some useful general dynamical principles which describe the motions of a system of particles. with the corresponding principles of the classical mechanics. as well as the equations of motion in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian (canonical) forms. however. as well as in form. The general dynamical principles which we shall present in this chapter will be similar in form to principles which are already familiar in the classical Newtonian mechanics. THE DYNAMICS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES. we shall ﬁnd. On the Nature of a System of Particles. In the preceding chapter we discussed the laws of motion of a particle. our new principles will diﬀer from those of Newtonian mechanics. moreover.CHAPTER VII. Thus we shall deduce principles corresponding to the principles of the conservation of momentum. of least action and of vis viva. that our principles become identical in content. 79. nor to deﬁne the generalized momenta used in the Hamiltonian equations as the partial diﬀerential of the kinetic energy with respect to the generalized velocity.

. (59) It is not to be supposed. that there will in general be mass distributed more or less continuously throughout the space in the neighborhood of the particles. We shall assume. Let us proceed to the solution of our speciﬁc problems. however. f δV = d (g δV ). 81. that the total mass of such a system can be taken as located solely in these particles. This equation is of course merely an equation of deﬁnition for the intensity of force at a point. that is.Dynamics of a System of Particles. but for the purposes of this chapter we shall not need any further information as to the nature of the distributed momentum. We may ﬁrst show from Newton’s third law of motion that the momentum of an isolated system of particles remains constant. holds for forces of this type as well as for those acting on particles. since potential energy has mass. however. state of strain. Indeed we have shown at the end of the preceding chapter (Section 78) that unless we take account of the mass corresponding to potential energy we can not maintain the principle of the conservation of mass. dt (47A) where f is the force per unit volume and g is the density of momentum. d dt m0 1− u2 c 97 F= u = m0 1− du d + dt u2 dt c m0 1− u2 c u. In later chapters we shall investigate the way in which g depends on velocity. The Conservation of Momentum. etc. It is evident rather. and we should also ﬁnd it impossible to retain the principle of the conservation of momentum unless we included the momentum corresponding to potential energy. the principle of the equality of action and reaction. For a continuous distribution of mass we may write for the force acting at any point on the material in a small volume.. δV . that Newton’s third law.

we may write in accordance with equation (47).. which arise from mutual reactions within the . m3 . are the external forces impressed on the individual particles from outside the system and I1 . are the internal forces arising from mutual reactions within the interior of the system.. dt But from Newton’s third law of motion (i. F2 .e. dt (90) where f and i are respectively the external and internal forces acting per unit volume of the distributed mass. m2 . the principle of the equality of action and reaction) it is evident that the sum of the internal forces. we have F1 + I1 + f dV + i dV = d dt m1 u1 + dG . etc. dt (91) where G is the total distributed momentum in the system. d (m1 u1 ). 98 Considering a system of particles of masses m1 . in accordance with (47A) the further equation (f + i) δV = d (g δV ).. etc. dt etc. Considering the distributed mass in the system. dt d F2 + I2 = (m2 u2 ). Adding this to our previous equations (89) for the forces acting on the individual particles. etc. F1 + I1 = (89) where F1 .. I2 . we may also write.. I1 + i dV .Chapter Seven. Integrating throughout the whole volume of the system V we have (f + i) dV = dG .

(93) Similarly. Then for the moment of momentum of the particle about the point we may write M1 = r1 × m1 u1 . The Equation of Angular Momentum. for the moment of momentum of the distributed mass we may write Mdist. 82. We may next obtain an equation for the moment of momentum of a system about a point. Consider a particle of mass m1 and velocity u1 . . and summing up for all the particles of the system we may write M1 = (r1 × m1 u1 ). For the particular case of an isolated system there are no external forces and our equation becomes a statement of the principle of the conservation of momentum. V . we obtain for the total amount of momentum of the system about our chosen point M= (r1 × m1 u1 ) + (r × g) dV .Dynamics of a System of Particles. dt In words this equation states that at any given instant the vector sum of the external forces acting on the system is equal to the rate at which the total momentum of the system is changing. (94) where r is the radius vector from our chosen point of reference to a point in space where the density of momentum is g and the integration is to be taken throughout the whole volume. Let r1 be the radius vector from any given point of reference to the particle. = (r × g) dV. of the system. Adding these two equations (93) and (94). 99 system must be equal to zero. which leads to the desired equation of momentum d (92) F1 + f dv = ( m1 u1 + G).

In our consideration of the “Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. etc.Chapter Seven.. if we accept the principle of the equality of action and reaction. for the rate of change of the moment of momentum. dM = dt r1 × d (m1 u1 ) + dt + dr1 × m1 u1 dt dg r× dV + dt dr × g dV .” however. we have dt dM = dt (r1 × F1 ) + + (r1 × I1 ) + (r × f ) dV + (u1 × m1 u1 ) (r × i) dV + (u × g) dV. (95) We may call attention to the inclusion in this equation of the interesting term (u × g) dV . dt or. since the outer product of a vector by itself is equal to zero. and dr1 writing = u1 . 100 and diﬀerentiating with respect to the time we have. together with the further requirement that forces are not only equal and opposite but that their points of application be in the same straight line. making the substitutions given by equations (89) and (90). We obtain as the equation of angular momentum dM = dt (r1 × F1 ) + (r × f ) dV + (u × g) dV. To simplify this equation we may note that the third term is equal to zero because it contains the outer product of a vector by itself. we shall ﬁnd bodies with . Furthermore. If density of momentum and velocity should always be in the same direction this term would vanish. we may put the moment of all the internal forces equal to zero and thus eliminate the second and ﬁfth terms.

T . dT d = −m0 c2 du du 1− u2 = c2 m0 u 1− u2 c2 = mu. and for that reason in our non-Newtonian mechanics we shall ﬁnd it desirable to deﬁne a new function. u2 (96) T = m 0 c2 1 − 1 − 2 . that the derivative of our new expression for 1 −1 . by the equation. (97) showing that the diﬀerential of T with respect to velocity is momentum. The Function T . small values of u) this reduces to the Newtonian expression for kinetic energy and at all velocities we have the relation. c For slow velocities (i. with respect to vekinetic energy (see Section 73). For a completely isolated system it can be shown. however.e.. for kinetic energy was the fact that its derivative with respect 2 0 to velocity is evidently the Newtonian expression for momentum. that this term vanishes along with the external forces and we then have the principle of the conservation of moment of momentum. however. It is not true. 101 a component of momentum at right angles to their direction of motion and hence must include this term in a general treatment. One of the most valuable properties of the Newtonian expression. m0 c2 1− u2 c2 locity is equal to momentum. We may now proceed to the deﬁnition of a function which will be needed in our treatment of the principle of least action.Dynamics of a System of Particles. . 83. 1 m u2 . m0 u.

(98) The Modiﬁed Lagrangian Function. The value of the deﬁnition rested. . dt Let us now compare the actual path by which the system moves from state (1) to state (2) with a slightly displaced path in which the laws of motion are not obeyed. however. We are now in a position to derive a principle corresponding to that of least action in the older mechanics. on the fact that the diﬀerential of the kinetic energy with respect to velocity was equal to momentum. so that we shall now ﬁnd it advisable to deﬁne the Lagrangian function with the help of our new function T in accordance with the equation L = T − U. 84. 85. (99) The Principle of Least Action.Chapter Seven. In the older mechanics the Lagrangian function for a system of particles was deﬁned as the diﬀerence between the kinetic and potential energies of the system. and let the displacement of the particle at the instant in question be δr. 102 For a system of particles we shall deﬁne T as the summation of the values for the individual particles: T = m 0 c2 1 − 1− u2 c2 . Consider the path by which our dynamical system actually moves from state (1) to state (2). The motion of any particle in the system of mass m will be governed by the equation d (100) F = (mu).

F · δr = Summing up for all the particles of the system and integrating between the limits t1 and t2 . t1 Since t1 and t2 are the times when the actual and displaced motions coincide. This gives us δ t2 t1 (T − U ) dt = 0 . we have t2 t1 ( mu · δu + F · δr) dt = [ mu · δr]t2 . 103 Let us take the inner product of both sides of equation (100) with δr. (101) With the help of equation (97). where δU is the diﬀerence between the potential energies of the displaced and the actual conﬁgurations. we see that giving us t2 t1 (δT + F · δr) dt = 0. If the forces F are conservative. however. we have at these times δr = 0. so that we may write t2 t1 ( mu δu + F · δr) dt = 0. we may write F · δr = −δU . furthermore we also have u · δu = u δu. mu δu = δT . we have d (mu) · δr dt d d δr = (mu · δr) − mu · dt dt d = (mu · δr) − mu · δu) dt (mu · δu + F · δr) dt = d(mu · δr).Dynamics of a System of Particles.

φ2 . ˙ ∂ φi (103) But ˙ δ φi = which gives us t2 t1 d (δφi ). φ3 · · · φn and ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ hence that L is some function of φ1 . φ1 . φ2 . where for simplicity we have put φ1 = dt dt From equation (102) we have t2 t1 (δL) dt = t2 t1 n 1 ∂L δφi + ∂φi n 1 ∂L ˙ δ φi dt = 0. or δ 104 t2 t1 L dt = 0. δφi is zero. φ3 · · · φn . φ2 . 86. . the ﬁrst term in this expression disappears and on substituting in equation (103) we obtain t2 t1 n 1 δφi ∂L d − ∂φi dt ∂L ˙ ∂ φi dt = 0. etc. The principle evidently requires that for the actual path by which the system goes from state (1) t2 to state (2). since at times t1 and t2 . (102) which is the modiﬁed principle of least action. Lagrange’s Equations. φ3 · · · φn . Let us suppose that the position of each particle of the system under consideration is completely determined by n independent generalized coördinates φ1 . the quantity t1 L dt shall be a minimum (or maximum). dt ∂L ˙ δ φi dt = ˙ ∂ φi t2 t1 ∂L d (δφi ) dt ˙ ∂ φi dt t2 t1 ∂L = δφi ˙ ∂ φi − t2 t1 δφi d dt ∂L ˙ ∂ φi dt or. dφ2 dφ1 ˙ ˙ . φ2 = .Chapter Seven. We may now derive the Lagrangian equations of motion from the above principle of least action.

and hence must have the series of equations d dt d dt etc. We shall also ﬁnd it desirable to obtain equations of motion in the Hamiltonian or canonical form. (106) . Consider now a function T deﬁned by the equation ˙ ˙ T = ψ1 φ1 + ψ2 φ2 + · · · − T. Equations of Motion in the Hamiltonian Form. moreover. differing only in the deﬁnition of L. since the φ’s are independent parameters. 87. Let us deﬁne the generalized momentum ψi corresponding to the coördinate φi by the equation. Finally. ˙ ∂ φi (105) ∂L ˙ ∂ φ1 ∂L ˙ ∂ φ2 ∂L = 0. however. ψi = ∂T .Dynamics of a System of Particles. the limits t1 and t2 are entirely at our disposal we must have at every instant n 1 δφi d ∂L − ∂φi dt ∂L ˙ ∂ φi = 0. These correspond to Lagrange’s equations in the older mechanics. ∂φ1 ∂L = 0. − ∂φ2 − (104) It should be noted that the generalized momentum is not as in ordinary mechanics the derivative of the kinetic energy with respect to the generalized velocity but approaches that value at low velocities. etc. we can assign perfectly arbitrary values to δφ1 .. 105 Since. δφ2 .

by the introduction of (105). dT = φ1 dψ1 + φ2 dψ2 + · · · − ∂φ1 ∂φ2 Examining this equation we have ∂T ∂T =− . becomes ∂T ∂T ˙ ˙ dφ1 − dφ2 − · · · . ˙ ∂φi ∂ φi 106 (107) (108) (109) But since U is independent of ψi we may write ∂(T − U ) ∂T = = ψi . ∂φi ∂φi ∂T ˙ = φi . Diﬀerentiating we have ˙ ˙ dT = ψ1 dφ1 + ψ2 dφ2 + · · · ˙ ˙ + φ1 dψ1 + φ2 dψ2 + · · · ∂T ∂T dφ1 − dφ2 − · · · ∂φ1 ∂φ2 ∂T ˙ ∂T ˙ dφ1 − dφ2 − · · · . ∂T ∂T =− . ∂φi ∂φi . ∂ψi In Lagrange’s equations we have d dt ∂ ∂ (T − U ) − (T − U ) = 0. ˙ ˙ ∂ φi ∂ φi and furthermore by (108). − ˙ ˙ ∂ φ1 ∂ φ2 − and this.Chapter Seven.

writing T + U = E. To show that T is equal to K.Dynamics of a System of Particles. φ3 . (111) dt ∂ψi The set of equations corresponding to (110) and (111) for all the coördinates φ1 . equation (98). 107 Substituting these two expressions in Lagrange’s equations we obtain ∂(T + U ) dψi =− dt ∂φi or. we have by the equation of deﬁnition (106) T = φ1 ψ1 + φ2 ψ2 + · · · − T. ψ3 . since T actually turns out to be identical with the expression by which we deﬁned kinetic energy. Value of the Function T . ∂T ∂T + φ2 + · · · − T. . · · · φn and the momenta ψ1 . thus making E = T + U the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the system. · · · ψn are the desired equations of motion in the canonical form. We have given the symbol E to the quantity T + U . ψ2 . = φ1 ˙1 ˙ ∂φ ∂ φ2 But T by deﬁnition. φ2 . 88. is T = c2 m 0 1 − 1− u2 c2 . the kinetic energy. we have dψi ∂E =− dt ∂φi (110) and since U is independent of ψi we may rewrite equation (109) in the form ∂E dφi = .

˙ ∂φ1 ∂ φ1 ∂y ˙ ∂y . however. = ˙2 ∂φ2 ∂φ ∂x ˙ ∂x . z determine the position of the particle in question. which gives us ∂T = ˙ ∂ φi = and substituting we obtain ˙ T = φ1 = mu ∂u ˙ + φ2 ˙ ∂ φ1 mu ∂u + ··· − T ˙ ∂ φ2 − T. that the term in parenthesis is equal to u. = ˙ ∂φ2 ∂ φ2 ∂z ˙ ∂z = . If the coördinates x. we have. y.. ˙ ∂φ2 ∂ φ2 etc. . ∂x ˙ ∂f ( ) ∂x = .. = ˙3 ∂φ3 ∂φ etc. u2 m0 1 − 2 c ∂u mu ˙ ∂ φi −1/2 108 u ∂u ˙ ∂ φi ˙ ∂u + φ2 ∂u + · · · ˙ mu φ1 ˙ ˙ ∂ φ1 ∂ φ2 (112) We can show. etc. x = f (φ1 φ2 φ3 · · · φn ). ∂x ˙ ∂x . = ˙ ∂φ1 ∂ φ1 ∂z ∂z ˙ = . dx ˙ ∂f ( ) + φ2 ∂f ( ) + φ3 ∂f ( ) + · · · ˙ ˙ = φ1 x= ˙ dt ∂φ1 ∂φ2 ∂φ3 ˙ and diﬀerentiating with respect to the φ’s. = ˙1 ∂φ1 ∂φ1 ∂φ Similarly ∂y ˙ ∂y . we obtain.Chapter Seven.

we have. introducing the value of T given by equation (98). or making the substitutions for ∂u 1 = ˙ u ∂ φi x ˙ ˙ ∂x ∂y ˙ . ˙ i ∂ φi ˙ ∂φ .. ˙ ˙ ˙ 1 x2 + y 2 + z 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ 109 x ˙ ∂x ˙ ∂y ˙ ∂z ˙ +y ˙ +z ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ∂ φi ∂ φi ∂ φi . Hence we see that the Hamiltonian function E = T + U is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the system as in Newtonian mechanics. . Let us write now u= ∂u = ˙ ∂ φi x2 + y 2 + z 2 . . we have T = = m0 1− u2 c2 u 2 − c2 1− u2 u2 + c2 1 − 2 c2 c c2 (m − m0 ). given above. ∂x ∂y ∂z +y ˙ +z ˙ ∂φi ∂φi ∂φi Substituting now in (112) we shall obtain. which is the expression (83) for kinetic energy.Dynamics of a System of Particles. etc. T = mu x ˙ u φ1 ∂x ∂x + φ2 + ··· ∂φ1 ∂φ2 + y ˙ u z ˙ u φ1 φ1 ∂y ∂y + φ2 + ··· ∂φ1 ∂φ2 ∂z ∂z + φ2 + ··· ∂φ1 ∂φ2 −T + = mu2 − T or.

. ψ3 . ψ2 . · · · ψ1 . Since E = T + U is a function of φ1 .. We may now make use of our equations of motion in the canonical form to show that the total energy of a system of interacting particles remains constant. we have Substituting the values of dE ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ = −ψ1 φ1 − ψ2 φ2 − · · · dt ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ + ψ1 φ1 + ψ2 φ2 + · · · = 0. If such were not the case it is obvious that our deﬁnitions of potential and kinetic energy would not be very useful. 110 89.Chapter Seven. 90. The Principle of the Conservation of Energy. and . φ2 . etc. we may write ∂E ˙ ∂E ˙ dE = φ1 + φ2 + · · · dt ∂φ1 ∂φ2 ∂E ˙ ∂E ˙ ψ1 + ψ2 + · · · . Indeed. · · · . our newer considerations have augmented the important rôle of energy by adding to its properties the attribute of mass or inertia. φ3 . which gives us the desired proof that just as in the older Newtonian mechanics the total energy of an isolated system of particles is a conservative quantity. On the Location of Energy in Space. + ∂ψ1 ∂ψ2 ∂E ∂E . given by the canonical equa∂φ1 ∂ψ1 tions of motion (110) and (111). This proof of the conservation of energy in a system of interacting particles justiﬁes us in the belief that the concept of energy will not fail to retain in the newer mechanics the position of great importance which it gradually acquired in the older systems of physical theory.

for example. Consider. and by the principle of the conservation of momentum we can say that the velocity of this potential energy is just that necessary to keep the total momentum of the system constant. If now we consider the transformation of kinetic energy into potential energy we can also draw somewhat deﬁnite conclusions as to the location of potential energy. In our discussions of the dynamics of a particle (Chapter VI. By the principle of the conservation of mass we shall be able to say that the mass of any potential energy formed is just equal to the “kinetic” mass which has disappeared. In the older mechanics we had a hazy notion that the kinetic energy of a moving body was probably located in some way in the moving body itself. energy. although not a complete. and possibly a vague idea that the potential energy of a raised weight might be located in the space between the weight and the earth. The importance of this entity. This increase in the mass of the moving particle is necessarily located either in the particle itself or distributed in the surrounding space in such a way that its center of mass always coincides with the position of the particle. 111 thus leading to the further belief that matter and energy are in reality diﬀerent names for the same fundamental entity. Such considerations will often permit us to reach a good idea as to the location of potential energy.Dynamics of a System of Particles. a pair of similar attracting particles which are moving apart from each other with the velocities +u and −u and are . Our discovery of the relation between mass and energy has made it possible. Section 61) we saw that an acceptance of Newton’s principle of the equality of action and reaction forced us to ascribe an increased mass to a moving particle over that which it has at rest. and since the kinetic energy of the particle is the energy corresponding to this increased mass we may say that the kinetic energy of a moving particle is so distributed in space that its center of mass always coincides with the position of the particle. however. to give a much more deﬁnite. makes it very interesting to consider the possibility of ascribing a deﬁnite location in space to any given quantity of energy. answer to inquiries of this kind.

their kinetic energy thus being gradually changed into potential energy. Since the total momentum of the system must always remain zero. we may think of the potential energy which is formed as left stationary in the space between the two particles. 112 gradually coming to rest under the action of their mutual attraction. .Chapter Seven.

not as the diﬀerential of the kinetic energy with ˙ ˙ respect to the generalized velocities φ1 . and diﬀering only in the deﬁnition of the Lagrangian function. The Equations of Motion. The discussions of the previous chapter have placed at our disposal generalized equations of motion for a system of particles similar in form to those familiar in the classical mechanics. ∂φ1 dt ∂E dφ1 ˙ = = φ1 . This problem has received much attention in the classical mechanics because of the close relations between the theoretical behavior of such an ideal system of particles and the actual behavior of a monatomic gas. It has been shown that the Hamiltonian equations of motion dψ1 ∂E ˙ =− = −ψ1 . etc. THE CHAOTIC MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES. and in the present chapter we shall discuss the chaotic motion of a system of particles.. and our results will of course reduce to those of Newtonian mechanics in the case of slow velocities. (113) will hold in relativity mechanics provided we deﬁne the generalized momenta ψ1 . and an equipartition law for the average value of a function which at low velocities becomes identical with the kinetic energy of the particles. We shall ﬁnd no more diﬃculty in handling the problem than was experienced in the older mechanics.CHAPTER VIII. etc. φ2 . With the help of these equations it is possible to carry out investigations parallel to those already developed in the classical mechanics.. 91. ψ2 . but as the diﬀerential 113 . ∂ψ1 dt etc. Thus we shall ﬁnd a distribution law for momenta which reduces to that of Maxwell for slow velocities..

Liouville’s Theorem. Suppose now that the points were originally distributed in the generalized space with the uniform density ρ. φ3 . Take. dψ1 dψ2 dψ3 . 1916. . and as the systems changed their state. then for each system we should have at any instant a corresponding point in our 2n-dimensional space. 93. in the manner required by the laws of motion. Employing the methods so successfully used by Jeans. · · · . and ∂φ1 ∗ Jeans. 114 where m0 is the mass of a particle having the velocity u and the summation extends over all the particles of the system. . just as in the classical mechanics. Consider now the two parallel bounding surfaces of the cube which are perpendicular to the φ1 axis. . ψ2 .Chapter Eight. · · · . ψn . some particular cubical element of our generalized space dφ1 dφ2 dφ3 . The area of each of these surfaces is ˙ dφ2 dφ3 . . The density of distribution will evidently remain uniform if the number of points entering any such cube per second is equal to the number leaving. 92. of a function T = m 0 c2 1 − 1− u2 c2 . ψ3 . The Dynamical Theory of Gases. Representation in Generalized Space. . and the corresponding momenta ψ1 . if φ1 is the component of veloc˙ ∂ φ1 is the rate at ity which the points have parallel to the φ1 axis. .. the points would describe stream lines in this space. and hence. . . φn . . one cutting the axis at the point φ1 and the other at the point φ1 + dφ1 . φ2 .∗ we may think of the state of the system at any instant as determined by the position of a point plotted in a 2n-dimensional space. φ2 . . Cambridge. for example. ˙ ˙ with respect to φ1 . etc. . Consider now a system deﬁned by the n generalized coördinates φ1 . dψ1 dψ2 dψ3 . Suppose now we had a large number of systems of the same structure but diﬀering in state. the density of distribution remains uniform. Then it can be shown by familiar methods that.

we may obviously write the following expression for the diﬀerence between the number of points leaving and entering per second through these two parallel surfaces ρ ˙ ∂ φ1 ∂φ1 dφ1 dφ2 dφ3 . But the motions of the points are necessarily governed by the Hamiltonian equations (113) given above. and hence if we start some one system going and plot its state in our generalized space. . considering all the pairs of parallel bounding surfaces. . 115 which this component is changing as we move along the axis. after an indeﬁnite lapse of time. ∂φ1 Finally. the diﬀerent states of a system. which we . and these obviously lead to the relations ˙ ˙ ∂ φ1 ∂ ψ1 + = 0. dψ1 dψ2 dψ3 · · · = ρ ˙ ∂ φ1 dV. we ﬁnd for the total decrease per second in the contents of the element ρ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ∂ φ1 ∂ φ2 ∂ φ3 ∂ ψ1 ∂ ψ2 ∂ ψ3 + + + ··· + + + + ··· ∂φ1 ∂φ2 ∂φ3 ∂ψ1 ∂ψ2 ∂ψ3 dV. we may assume that. ∂φ1 ∂ψ1 ˙ ˙ ∂ φ2 ∂ ψ2 + = 0. the necessary requirement for preserving uniform density. In other words. This maintenance of a uniform distribution means that there is no tendency for the points to crowd into any particular region of the generalized space.Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. ∂φ2 ∂ψ2 etc. the point is equally likely to be in any one of the little elements dV . So that our expression for the change per second in the number of points in the cube becomes equal to zero.

It must be noticed. however. and the corresponding momenta ψx . ∗ .∗ 94. . and by the previous paragraph any microscopic state of the system in which we thus specify the six-dimensional position of each particle is just as likely to occur as any other microscopic state. ψz for each particle. If at any given instant we specify the particular diﬀerential element dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz which contains the coördinates x. 1913. are all equally likely to occur. dψ1 dψ2 dψ3 . . however. Wärmestrahlung. z. 116 can specify by stating the region dφ1 dφ2 dφ3 . y. Nb particles which have the mass mb . Leipzig. Nc particles which have the mass mc . The criterion here used for determining whether or not the states are equally liable to occur is obviously a necessary requirement. A System of Particles. For this reason we shall usually be interested in specifying the statistical state‡ of the system.Chapter Eight. that many of the possible microscopic states which are determined by specifying the six-dimensional position of each individual particle are in reality completely identical. for which purpose we shall merely state the number of particles of a given kind which have coördinates falling in a given range dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz . . † Planck. in implying a less minute observation as to the size of the elements dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz in which the representative points are found. it makes no diﬀerence which particular one of the various available identical particles we pick out to put into a speciﬁed range dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz . although it is not so evident that it is a suﬃcient requirement for equal probability. . We see that corresponding to any given statistical state there will be in general a large number of microscopic states. in which the values of the coördinates and momenta of the system fall. The word macroscopic is unfortunate. ‡ What we have here deﬁned as the statistical state is what Planck calls the macroscopic state of the system. since if all the particles having a given mass ma are alike among themselves. etc. Consider now a system containing Na particles which have the mass ma when at rest. we shall thereby completely determine what Planck† has well called the microscopic state of the system. ψy .

3a. and since Liouville’s theorem has justiﬁed our belief that all microscopic states are equally likely to occur. 117 95. is given by the expression W = Na ! Nb ! Nc ! · · · Na ! Na ! Na ! · · · Nb ! Nb ! Nb ! · · · and this number W is proportional to the probability that the system will be found in the particular statistical state considered. to contain a large number of particles is a familiar one in mathematics. · · · etc. · · · . mb .. Nb . etc. 1a. 1a. 2a. in other words. Nos. Na . · · · . that is. W . 3a. · · · . the number of microscopic states. Na . Probability of a Given Statistical State. Nb . Nb . is great enough to contain a large number of particles. 1b. etc. etc. 2a. Nos. We shall now be particularly interested in the probability that the system of particles will actually be in some speciﬁed statistical state. 2b. which correspond to the given statistical state. For the system under consideration let a particular statistical state be speciﬁed by stating that Na . which fall in the speciﬁed elementary regions dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz . ∗ . · · · .. If now we assume that each of the regions dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz .∗ we may apply the Stirling formula N √ N N ! = 2π N The idea of successive orders of inﬁnitesimals which permit the diﬀerential region dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz . are the number of particles of the corresponding masses ma . 1b.Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 3b. · · · . By familiar methods of calculation it is evident that the number of arrangements by which the particular distribution of particles can be eﬀected. 2b. 3b. we see that the probability of a given statistical state will be proportional to the number of microscopic states which correspond to it.

2b. 1a. δwb = 0. 2a. are evidently the probabilities. by the symbols Na Na wa . however. 96. and omitting negligible terms. Nb !. etc. that any given particle ma will be found in the respective regions Nos.. 2a. (115) Finally. Let us ﬁnd the most probable distribution of the particles. .. etc. etc. For this the necessary condition will be δ log W = −Na (log wa + 1) δwa − Nb (log wb + 1) δwb · · · = 0. 118 for evaluating Na !. Nb Nb Nb Nb Nb Nb where the summation extends over all the regions Nos. · · · 1b. Since the energy of a particle will be a deﬁnite function of its .Chapter Eight.. wa . shall obtain for log W the result log W = −Na − Nb etc. wa . etc. which will provide still a further relation. We may now write For simplicity let us denote the ratios log W = −Na wa log wa − Nb wb log wb − . etc. the number of particles of each kind must remain constant so that we have the added relations δwa = 0. These quantities wa . since the energy is to have a deﬁnite value E. it must also remain constant in the variation. 1a. Equilibrium Relations. etc. etc. etc. Let us now suppose that the system of particles is contained in an enclosed space and has the deﬁnite energy content E. Na Na .. Na Na Na Na Na Na log + log + log + ··· Na Na Na Na Na Na Nb Nb Nb Nb Nb Nb log + log + log + ··· . in the case of this particular statistical state. (114) In carrying out our variation.

Since in carrying out our variation the energy is to remain constant.. (115). αb . we have the relation E = Na Ea δwa + Nb Eb δwb + · · · = 0. depending on the mass of the particles ma . are undetermined constants. where Ea is the energy of a particle in the region 1a. wb = αb e−hEb . where λ. µb . (116) by familiar methods we obtain log wa + 1 + λEa + µb = 0. mb . etc. It should be noticed that h. (It should be specially noticed that λ is the same constant in each of the series of equations. etc. (116) Solving the simultaneous equations (114). µa . etc. log wb + 1 + λEb + µb = 0. is the same constant in all of the equations. when we have the distribution of maximum probability. which corresponds to the λ of the preceding equations.) Transforming we have wa = αa e−hEa . etc.Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. will fall in a given region dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz .∗ let us write the energy of the system in the form E = Na wa Ea + Nb wb Eb + · · · . mb . etc.. ∗ . are diﬀerent constants. 119 position and momentum. (117) as the expressions which determine the chance that a given particle of mass ma . while αa . etc. etc. We thus exclude from our considerations systems in which the potential energy depends appreciably on the relative positions of the independent particles....

are of course functions of x. the energy of a particle Ea will be independent of x.Chapter Eight.) It would be just as correct to substitute for Ea in 1 equation (117) the value of the kinetic energy ma c2 − 1 instead of the u2 1− 2 c ma c2 total energy . y. etc.. including that internal energy m0 c2 which. ψy . y. z. according to relativity theory. ψx . Let us now obtain an expression for Ea in terms of these quantities. Ea . ψz . . 120 97. (See Section 75. ψz . The Energy as a Function of the Momentum. In accordance with the theory of relativity we shall have∗ Ea = ma c2 1− u2 c2 . Eb . and z. This expression is that for the total energy of the particle. Let us now express Ea as a function of ψx . since the two diﬀer merely by a constant ma c2 which would u2 1− 2 c be taken care of by assigning a suitable value to αa . which were used for deﬁning momentum ψx = = = ∂ ma 1 − ∂x ˙ ∂ ma 1 − ∂x ˙ m0 x ˙ 1− ∗ 1− 1− u2 c2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 c u2 c2 . If there is no external ﬁeld of force acting. (118) where ma is the mass of the particle at rest. We have from our equations (105) and (98). and will be determined entirely by its velocity and mass. ψy . the particle has when it is at rest.

wa = αa e √ 2 2 2 (121) wb = αb e−hc ψ +mb c . for convenience. a new quantity aa e−hc ψ +ma c which will be the probability per unit volume that a given particle will have the six dimensional location in question. ∗ This is true only when. etc.. etc. By simple transformations and the introduction of equation (118) we obtain the desired relation Ea = c ψ 2 + ma 2 c2 .Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. y. no external ﬁeld of force is acting. Let √ 2 2 2 us now introduce. on −hc ψ 2 +ma 2 c2 αa e is the probability that a given particle will fall in a particular six-dimensional cube of volume dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz . the constants αa and aa standing in the same ratio as the volumes dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz and unity. These expressions determine the probability that a given particle of mass ma . We see that these probabilities are independent of the position x. mb . The Distribution Law. 121 Constructing the similar expressions for ψy and ψz we may write the relation 2 2 2 ψ 2 = ψx + ψy + ψz = ˙ ˙ m2 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) a ˙ 1− u2 c2 = m2 u2 a 1− u2 c2 . (120) 98. (119) which also deﬁnes ψ 2 . . will fall in a given region dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz . We may now rewrite equations (117) in the form √ −hc ψ 2 +ma 2 c2 . z ∗ but dependent√ the momentum. as assumed. and correspond to Maxwell’s distribution law in ordinary mechanics.

(123) where A is some function of ψx . we have the relation V +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ aa e −hc √ ψ 2 +ma 2 c2 dψx dψy dψz = 1.Chapter Eight. (122) It is further evident that the average value of any quantity A which depends on the momentum of the particles is given by the expression [A]av. = V +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ aa e−hc √ ψ 2 +ma 2 c2 A dψx dψy dψz . We may then write √ √ 2 2 2 2 2 2 wa = αa e−hc ψ +ma c = aa e−hc ψ +ma c dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz √ √ 2 2 2 2 2 2 wb = αb e−hc ψ +mb c = ab e−hc ψ +mb c dx dy dz dψx dψy dψz 122 etc. . The probability that a particle ma will fall in the region dx dy dz ψ 2 sin θ dθ dφ dψ will be aa e −hc √ ψ 2 +ma 2 c2 dx dy dz ψ 2 sin θ dθ dφ dψ. We may express relations corresponding to (122) and (123) more simply if we make use of polar coördinates. Consider instead of the elementary volume dψx dψy dψz the volume ψ 2 sin θ dθ dφ dψ expressed in polar coördinates. and ψz . and lie somewhere in the whole volume V occupied by the mixture. ψy . 99. where ψ 2 = ψx 2 + ψy 2 + ψz 2 . Since every particle must have components of momentum lying between minus and plus inﬁnity. Polar Coördinates.

We may now obtain a law which corresponds to that of the equipartition of vis viva in the classical mechanics.Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. we obtain √ 3 ψ=∞ −hc ψ 2 +ma 2 c2 ψ 4πV aa e 3 ψ=0 √ ∞ 3 ψ ψ 2 2 2 − 4πV aa e−hc ψ +ma c (−hc) dψ = 1. = 4πV aa e−hc ψ +ma c A ψ 2 dψ. 3 ψ 2 + m a 2 c2 0 Substituting the limits into the ﬁrst term we ﬁnd that it becomes zero and may write √ ∞ ψ2c 3 2 2 2 4πV aa e−hc ψ +ma c ψ 2 dψ = . we also see that the average value of any quantity A. Considering equation (124) let us integrate by parts. 0 Corresponding to equation (123). 0 100. The Law of Equipartition. will be given by the expression √ ∞ 2 2 2 (125) [A]av. 0 0 0 (124) √ ∞ −hc ψ 2 +ma 2 c2 2 aa e 4πV ψ dψ = 1. h . We have ψ 2 + ma 2 c2 ψ2c ψ2 + ma 2 c2 av. = 3 . h ψ 2 + m a 2 c2 0 But by equation (125) the left-hand side of this relation is the avψ2c erage value of for the particles of mass ma . 123 and since each particle must fall somewhere in the space x y z ψx ψy ψz we shall have corresponding to (122) the relation √ π 2π ∞ 2 2 2 V aa e−hc ψ +ma c ψ 2 sin θ dθ dφ dψ = 1. which is dependent on the momentum of the molecules of mass ma .

whose value is the same for particles of diﬀerent masses. etc. enclosed in the volume V . Criterion for Equality of Temperature. and having the deﬁnite energy content E. For a system of particles of masses ma .Chapter Eight.. 101. for low velocities the above expression reduces to m0 u2 . So that in relativity mechanics the by the formula c2 1− u2 c2 principle of the equipartition of energy is merely an approximation. which is given rather m0 − m0 . (126) u2 av. we may transform this expression into ma u2 3 = . We may now call attention in passing to the fact that this quantity m0 u2 . h 1− 2 c Since we have shown that h is independent of the mass of the partim0 u2 cles. mb . 124 Introducing equation (119) which deﬁnes ψ 2 . is 1− u2 c2 not the relativity expression for kinetic energy. the vis viva of Newtonian mechanics. We shall later return to this subject. a fact which aﬀords an illustration of the general principle that the laws of Newtonian mechanics are always the limiting form assumed at low velocities by the more exact formulations of relativity mechanics. Indeed. we see that the average value of is the same for particles 1− u2 c2 of all diﬀerent masses. we have shown that √ 2 2 2 4πV aa e−hc ψ +ma c ψ 2 dψ . This is the principle in relativity mechanics that corresponds to the law of the equipartition of vis viva in the classical mechanics.

as before. Then.Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. Since. Furthermore. Suppose now we consider a diﬀerently arranged system in which we have Na particles of mass ma by themselves in a space of volume Va and Nb particles of mass mb in a contiguous space of volume Vb . Hence we ﬁnd that the m0 u2 equality of the average values of is the necessary condition for 1− equality of temperature. the only changes in the expressions being the substitution of the volumes Va and Vb in the place of the one volume V . their temperature is the same. a deﬁnite quantity E (the energy content of the partition being taken as negligible). however. we can obviously show that √ 2 2 2 4πVa aa e−hc ψ +ma c ψ 2 dψ and 4πVb ab e−hc √ ψ 2 +mb 2 c2 ψ 2 dψ are now the respective probabilities that given particles of mass ma or mass mb will have momenta between ψ and ψ + dψ. this distribution law will evidently lead as before to the equality of the average values of ma u2 1− u2 c2 and mb u2 1− u2 c2 . separated from Va by a partition which permits a transfer of energy. by reasoning entirely similar to that just employed. and 4πV ab e √ 125 −hc ψ 2 +mb 2 c2 ψ 2 dψ are the respective probabilities that given particles of mass ma or mass mb will have momenta between ψ and ψ + dψ. the spaces containing the two kinds of particles are in thermal contact. and let the total energy of the double system be. u2 c2 .

We may now proceed to the derivation of relations which will permit m0 u2 is directly proporus to show that the important quantity 1− u2 c2 tional to the temperature as measured on the absolute thermodynamic temperature scale. and this will be equal to the rate of change of the momenta in the X direction of these particles. The system is considered dilute enough for the mutual attractions of the particles to be negligible in their eﬀect on the external pressure.Chapter Eight. and their change in momentum.∗ Now by equation (122) the total number of particles having momenta between ψx and ψx + dψx in the positive direction is NV ψx +dψx ψx +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ a e−hc √ ψ 2 +m0 2 c2 dψx dψy dψz . Consider an element of surface dS perpendicular to the X axis. But x dS gives us the volume which contains the number of particles ˙ having momenta between ψx and ψx + dψx which will reach dS in a second. 126 The above distribution law also leads to the important corollary that for any given system of particles at a deﬁnite temperature the momenta and hence the total energy content is independent of the volume. We ﬁrst need to obtain an expression for the pressure exerted by a system of N particles enclosed in the volume V . Pressure Exerted by a System of Particles. allowing for the eﬀect of the rebound. Hence the number of such particles which impinge per second will be NV x dS ˙ V ψx +dψx ψx +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ a e−hc √ ψ 2 +m0 2 c2 dψx dψy dψz . ∗ . The total force which the element dS exerts on the particles that impinge will be p dS. and let the pressure acting on it be p. 102.

multiplying both sides of the equation by the volume V . p dS = 2N dS ˙ 0 −∞ −∞ Cancelling dS. c2 = m0 x2 ˙ 1− u2 c2 + m0 y 2 ˙ 1− u2 c2 + m0 z 2 ˙ 1− u2 c2 . will be 2N dS ψx +dψx ψx +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ 127 ae −hc √ ψ 2 +m0 2 c2 ψx x dψx dψy dψz . ˙ Finally. we have from symmetry pV = N 3 m0 u2 1− u2 av. m0 x ˙ for ψx . (127) . we changing the limits of integration and substituting 1+ have pV = N V +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ u2 c2 ae −hc √ ψ 2 +m0 2 c2 m0 x2 ˙ 1− u2 c2 dψx dψy dψz .Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. But this by equation (123) reduces to pV = N m0 x2 ˙ 1− or. since m0 u2 1− u2 c2 u2 av. the total change in momentum per second for all particles can be found by integrating for all possible positive values of ψx . c2 . Equating this to the total force p dS we have √ ∞ +∞ +∞ 2 2 2 a e−hc ψ +m0 c ψx x dψx dψy dψz .

∗ .Chapter Eight. Hence. Consider a four-step cycle performed with a working substance contained in a cylinder provided with a piston. pV = 3 103. we may deﬁne the absolute temperatures T2 and T1 Q2 ∗ T2 = . giving out the heat Q1 at temperature T1 . in accordance with the thermodynamic scale. we may measure the temperatures of T2 Q2 the two heat reservoirs by the relation = and may proceed to T1 Q1 We have used this cycle for deﬁning the thermodynamic temperature scale instead of the familiar Carnot cycle. The Relativity Expression for Temperature. it is evident that our working substance fulﬁls the requirement that the heat given out in the second step shall be sufﬁcient for the reversible heating in the last step. Now if the working substance is of such a nature that the heat given out in the second step could be used for the reversible heating of the cylinder in the fourth step. Since we have shown (Section 101) that at a deﬁnite temperature the energy content of such a system is independent of the volume. The thermodynamic scale of temperature may be deﬁned in terms of the eﬃciency of a heat engine. In the ﬁrst step let the substance expand isothermally and reversibly. by the relation T1 Q1 Consider now such a cycle performed on a cylinder which contains one of our systems of particles. 128 Since at a given temperature we have seen that the term in parenthesis is independent of the volume and the nature of the particles. For slow velocities equation (127) reduces to the familiar expression N (m0 u2 )av. in the second step cool the cylinder down at constant volume to T1 . . in the third step compress to the original volume. we see that the laws of Boyle and Avogadro hold also in relativity mechanics for a system of particles. We are now in a position to derive the relativity expression for temperature. since it avoids the necessity of obtaining an expression for the relation between pressure and volume in an adiabatic expansion. and in the fourth step heat to the original temperature. absorbing the heat Q2 from a reservoir at temperature T2 .

c2 log which gives us on division m0 u2 2 u2 2 av. leading on integration to the relations Q2 = N 3 N 3 m0 u2 2 1− u2 2 av. V Q1 = m0 u1 2 1− u1 2 av. 129 obtain expressions for Q2 and Q1 . V V But equation (127) provides an expression for p in terms of V . and we may write the relations Q2 = Q1 = V V p dV p dV (at T2 ). In order to obtain these expressions we may again make use of the principle that the energy content at a deﬁnite temperature is independent of the volume. c2 2 T2 Q2 = = T1 Q1 1− .Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. 1− u2 c2 . V V . m0 u1 1− u1 2 av. c2 We see that the absolute temperature measured on the thermodym0 u2 namic scale is proportional to the average value of . This being true. c2 log V . (at T1 ). we see that Q2 and Q1 must be equal to the work done in the changes of volume that take place respectively at T2 and T1 .

as is customary. c2 N T = 3nR m0 u2 1− u2 av. 1 = 3k m0 u2 1− u2 av. It becomes very important to see what the average energy of a particle of a given mass does become at any temperature. with the ordinary form of the gas law pV = nRT. c2 . c2 (128) . m0 x2 ˙ 3 Remembering the relation = . c kT = 1 . h (129) 104. nR where the quantity . . c2 . has been denoted. We have seen that our new equipartition law precludes the possibility of an exact equipartition of energy. The Partition of Energy. we have h u2 1 − 2 av. which may be called the gas constant for a N single molecule. 130 We may ﬁnally express our temperature in the same units customarily employed by comparing equation (127) pV = N 3 m0 u2 1− u2 av. by the letter k. We evidently obtain nRT = N 3 m0 u2 1− u2 av.Chapter Eight. where n is the number of mols of gas present.

(130) √ ∞ −(c/kT ) ψ 2 +m0 2 c2 2 e ψ dψ 0 105. the expression reduces to c ∞ 0 ∞ 0 [E]av. Evaluating. The unknown constant a may be eliminated with the help of the relation (124) √ ∞ 2 2 2 4πV a e−hc ψ +m0 c ψ 2 dψ = 1 0 and for h we may substitute the value given by (129).Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. Partition of Energy for Zero Mass. we obtain [E]av. = e−(cψ/kT ) ψ 3 dψ e−(cψ/kT ) ψ 2 dψ in terms of integrals whose values are known. 131 Equation (125) provides a general expression for the average value of any property of the particles. For the total energy of N such particles we obtain E = 3N kT. no general method for the evaluation of this expression seems to be available. = 0 . . For the particular case that the mass m0 of the particles approaches zero compared to the momentum. Unfortunately. which gives us the desired equation √ ∞ 2 2 2 e−(c/kT ) ψ +m0 c c ψ 2 + m0 2 c2 ψ 2 dψ [E]av. = 3kT. For the average value of the energy c ψ 2 + m0 2 c2 of particles of mass m0 (see equation 120) we shall have [E]av. = 4πV ∞ 0 √ 2 2 2 a e−hc ψ +m0 c c ψ 2 + m0 2 c2 ψ 2 dψ.

2 which undoubtedly holds when the masses are so large and the velocities so small that no appreciable deviations from the laws of Newtonian mechanics are to be expected. Approximate Partition of Energy for Particles of any Desired Mass.47 × 10−11 21 10 grams at room temperature (300◦ absolute). For particles of any desired mass we may obtain an approximate idea of the relation between energy and temperature by expanding the expression for kinetic energy into a series. Expanding into a series we obtain for the total kinetic energy of N particles 1 2 3 u4 15 u6 105 u8 K = N m0 u + + + + ··· .Chapter Eight. (132) 2 8 c2 48 c4 384 c6 . would have a mass of 3 × 8. For the average kinetic energy of a particle we have [K]av. This suggests a ﬁeld of fascinating if proﬁtless speculation. and introducing the relation k = 132 nR by which we deﬁned k we have N E = 3nRT (131) as the expression for the energy of n mols of particles if their value of m0 is small compared with their momentum. 106. It is also interesting to note that in accordance with equation (131) a mol of particles which approach zero mass at the absolute zero.31 × 107 × 300 = 7. We see that for particles of very small mass the average kinetic energy at any temperature is twice as large as that for large particles at the same temperature. = c2 m0 1− u2 c2 − m0 av. It is instructive to compare this with the ordinary expression of Newtonian mechanics 3 E = nRT. .

we obtain K= 3 nRT + N m0 2 1 u4 1 u6 15 u8 + + + ··· 8 c2 8 c4 128 c6 . u4 . this reduces to the familiar expression of Newtonian 3 mechanics. the left-hand term really being the larger. . for the individual particles. Since is 2 2 3 approximately equal to nRT . (133) Combining expressions (132) and (133) by subtraction and transposition. To determine approximately how the value of K varies with the temperature we may also expand our expression (128) for temperature. into a series. 133 where u2 .Chaotic Motion of a System of Particles. (134) For the case of velocities low enough so that u4 and higher powers can be neglected. etc. 2 In case we neglect in expression (134) powers higher than u4 we have the approximate relation N m0 u4 1 = 8c2 2N m0 c2 N m0 u2 2 2 . c2 . u4 . T = 1 3k m0 u2 1− u2 Av.. are the average values of u2 . etc. we obtain 3 3 kN T = nRT = N m0 2 2 1 2 1 u4 3 u6 15 u8 u + + + + ··· 2 4 c2 16 c4 96 c6 . we may write the approximation 2 3 1 K = nRT + 2 2N m0 c2 3 nRT 2 2 . since the average square of a 2 N m0 u2 quantity is greater than the square of its average. K = nRT ..

Chapter Eight. . At room temperature the second term of our equation would be entirely negligible. Hence at all ordinary temperatures we may expect the law of the equipartition of energy to be substantially exact for particles of mass as small as the electron. Our purpose in carrying through the calculations of this chapter has been to show that a very important and interesting problem in the classical mechanics can be handled just as easily in the newer mechanics. 2 8 M c2 If we use the erg as our unit of energy. expressing velocities in centimeters per second. This is of particular interest at a time when many scientists have thought that the failure of equipartition in the hohlraum stood in necessary conﬂict with the principles of dynamics. being only 3.5 × 10−4 per cent in a ﬁxed star having a temperature of 30. 134 or. noting that N m0 = M . We may also call attention to the fact that we have here considered a system whose equations of motion agree with the principles of dynamics and yet do not lead to the equipartition of energy.5 × 10−6 per cent of the ﬁrst.77 −6 2 10 T . 000◦ .4 × 107 T + 7. the total mass of the system at the absolute zero. and still be only 3. and also to point out the nature of the modiﬁcations in existing theory which will have to be introduced if the later developments of physics should force us to consider equilibrium relations for particles of mass much smaller than that of the electron. and M will be the mass of the system in grams. M In the case of the electron M may be taken as approximately 1/1800. R will be 8. we have 3 9 n2 R 2 2 K = nRT + T . c2 will be 1021 .31 × 107 . For one mol of a monatomic gas we should have in ergs K = 12.

Planck and others that the principle of least action is applicable in the most diverse ﬁelds of physical science. and with the help of the more general development which we are about to present. of thermodynamics and of electricity and magnetism. For our purposes the principle of least action may be most simply stated by the equation t2 t1 (δH + W ) dt = 0. J. It has been shown by the work of Helmholtz. (135) This equation applies to any system whose behavior is determined by the values of a number of independent coördinates φ1 φ2 φ3 · · · and their ˙ ˙ ˙ rate of change with the time φ1 φ2 φ3 · · · . 107. it seems possible to throw the equations describing the behavior of the system into the form prescribed by the principle of least action. and we shall obtain in this way the most important and most general method for deriving the consequences of the theory of relativity. Indeed. and is perhaps the most general dynamical principle at our disposal. we shall be able to apply the principle of relativity to the theories of elasticity. Thomson. The Principle of Least Action. and the equation describes the path by which the system travels from its conﬁguration at any time t1 to its conﬁguration at any subsequent time t2 . J. This generality of the principle of least action makes it very desirable to develop the relation between it and the principle of relativity. We have already developed in Chapter VII the particular application of the principle of least action in the case of a system of particles. for any system whose future behavior is determined by the instantaneous values of a number of coördinates and their time rate of change. THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY AND THE PRINCIPLE OF LEAST ACTION.CHAPTER IX. H is the so-called kinetic potential of the system and is a function 135 .

As soon as we have found out experimentally what the form of H is for any particular ﬁeld of investigation. electrical and thermodynamic investigation. etc. of the coördinates and their generalized velocities: ˙ ˙ ˙ H = F (φ1 φ2 φ3 · · · φ1 φ2 φ3 · · · ). The form of the function which determines the kinetic potential H depends on the particular nature of the system to which the principle of least action is being applied. becomes the basic equation for the mathematical development of the ﬁeld in question.Chapter Nine. as expressed by equation (135). Φ2 . 136 (136) δH is the variation of H at any instant corresponding to a slightly displaced path by which the system might travel from the same initial to the same ﬁnal state in the same time interval. The special task for the theory of relativity will be to ﬁnd a general relation applicable to any kind of a system. and in this way we shall introduce the principle of . This relation will of course be of such a nature as to agree with the principle of the relativity of motion. which shall connect the value of the kinetic potential H as measured with respect to a set of coördinates S with its value H as measured with reference to another set of coördinates S which is in motion relative to S. and it is one of the chief tasks of general physics to discover the form of the function in the various ﬁelds of mechanical. and W is the external work corresponding to the variation δ which would be done on the system by the external forces if at the instant in question the system should be displaced from its actual conﬁguration to its conﬁguration on the displaced path. are the so-called generalized external forces which act in such a direction as to increase the values of the corresponding coördinates. the principle of least action. Thus W = Φ1 δφ1 + Φ2 δφ2 + Φ3 δφ3 + · · · . a development which can then be carried out by well-known methods.. (137) where Φ1 .

Before proceeding to the solution of that problem we may put the principle of least action into another form which is sometimes more convenient. since δφ1 . etc. ∂H ˙ δ φ1 dt = ˙ ∂ φ1 ∂H d (δφ1 ) dt ˙ t1 ∂ φ1 dt t2 t2 ∂H d = δφ1 − δφ1 ˙ dt ∂ φ1 t1 t1 ∂H ˙ ∂ φ1 dt. are by hypothesis zero at times t1 and t2 .. by obtaining the equations for the motion of a system in the so-called Lagrangian form. To obtain the equations of motion in the Lagrangian form we may evidently rewrite our fundamental equation (135) in the form t2 t1 ∂H ∂H ˙ ∂H ˙ ∂H δφ1 + δφ2 + · · · + δφ + δφ + · · · ˙ 1 1 ∂ φ2 2 ˙ ∂φ1 ∂φ2 ∂φ + Φ1 δφ1 + Φ2 δφ2 + · · · dt = 0 (138) We have now. etc. δφ2 . we obtain t2 t1 t2 t1 ∂H ˙ δ φ1 = − ˙ ∂ φ1 ∂H ˙ δ φ2 = − ˙ ∂ φ2 t2 t1 t2 t1 d dt d dt ∂H ˙ ∂ φ1 ∂H ˙ ∂ φ2 δφ1 dt. dt etc. dt t2 ˙ δ φ2 = d (δφ2 ). δφ2 dt. The Equations of Motion in the Lagrangian Form. however. or.Relativity and the Principle of Least Action. 137 relativity at the very start into the fundamental equation for all ﬁelds of dynamics. . 108. ˙ δ φ1 = which gives us t2 t1 d (δφ1 )..

Φ2 . if S and S are two sets of reference axes. and their time ˙ ˙ derivatives φ1 . this equation will be true only when each of the following equations is true. ˙ 1 ∂φ1 ∂φ ∂H ∂H − = Φ2 .. φ2 . S moving past S in the X direction with the velocity V . where Φ1 .Chapter Nine. ∂H ∂H − = Φ1 . are the generalized external forces acting on the system in such a sense as to tend to increase the values of the corresponding generalized coördinates. are entirely independent and the limits of integration t1 and t2 are entirely at our disposal. In other words. etc. And these are the equations of motion in the desired Lagrangian form. φ2 etc. etc.. ∂H d − ∂φ2 dt and since the variations of φ1 . d dt d dt (139) In these equations H is the kinetic potential of a system whose state is determined by the generalized coördinates φ1 . Introduction of the Principle of Relativity. what will be the relation between H and H . etc. 109.. On substituting these expressions in (138) we obtain t2 t1 138 ∂H d − ∂φ1 dt ∂H ˙ ∂ φ1 + + Φ1 δφ1 ∂H ˙ ∂ φ2 + Φ2 δφ2 + · · · dt = 0. φ2 . ˙ 2 ∂φ2 ∂φ etc. Let us now investigate the relation between our dynamical principle and the principle of the relativity of motion. the values for the kinetic potential of a given system as measured with reference to S and S ? It is evident from the theory of relativity that our fundamental equation (135) must hold for the behavior of a given system using either .. To do this we must derive an equation for transforming the kinetic potential H for a given system from one set of coördinates to another.

W is the work which would be done by the external forces if at any instant t we should displace our system from its actual conﬁguration to the simultaneous conﬁguration on the displaced path. so that both of the equations t2 t1 139 (δH + W ) dt = 0 t2 t1 t2 and t1 t2 t1 (δH + W ) dt = 0. Relation between W dt and W dt .Relativity and the Principle of Least Action. of course. This arises because when two forces of a diﬀerent nature are of such a magnitude as to exactly balance each other and produce no acceleration for measurements made with one set of coördinates they must evidently do so for any set of coördinates (see Chapter IV. where it will be necessary. we may now use these expressions in general for the evaluation W dt . Fz . 110. δz are the displacements necessary to reach the corresponding . Fy . t1 and t2 wide enough apart so that for both sets of coördinates the varied motion will be completed within the time interval. Since we have already found transformation equations for the force acting at a point. Since we shall ﬁnd it possible now to show that in general W dt = W dt . we shall be able to obtain from the above equations a simple relation between H and H . Hence it is evident that W dt will be equal to a sum of terms of the type (Fx δx + Fy δy + Fz δz ) dt . To obtain the desired proof we must call attention in the ﬁrst place to the fact that all kinds of force which can act at a given point must be governed by the same transformation equations when changing from system S to system S . in our consideration of the dynamics of a particle. where Fx . δy . (140) or (δH + W ) dt = (δH + W ) dt = 0. Section 42). set of coördinates S or S . is the force acting at a given point of the system and δx . must hold for a given process. to choose the limits of integration t1 and t2 .

δy and δz in terms of δx. (z + δz ). 2 xV y ˙ ˙ c 1− c 1 − xV 2 2 c c Fy κ−1 1− 1− Fz κ−1 xV ˙ c2 xV ˙ c2 . δy and δz. the values Fx = Fx − Fy = Fz = 1 zV ˙ 1 yV ˙ F − 2 Fz . (141) . by our fundamental transformation equation (12). (63) and (13). z and simultaneously the point on the displaced path has the position (x + δx ). dt = κ 1 − We may also make substitutions for δx . c tA = κ t + . We have denoted by t the time in system S when the point on the actual path has the position x . or by our fundamental transformation equations (9). z and κ [x +δx ]+V t . (62). all these quantities being measured with respect to S . xV ˙ c2 dt. but to obtain transformation equations for these quantities is somewhat complicated owing to the fact that positions on the actual and displaced path. when measured in system S .Chapter Nine. (z + δz ) when measured in system S. y . (10) and (11) the positions κ(x +V t ). (y +δy ). however. Into this expression we may substitute. will not be simultaneous with respect to S. Vx . (y + δy ). If now we denote by tA and tD the corresponding times in system S we shall have. in accordance with equations (61). which are simultaneous when measured with respect to S . c2 V tD = κ t + 2 [x + δx ] . y . 140 point on the displaced path.

c2 and. (142) . c zV ˙ δz = δz − κ 2 δx . since during this time-interval the displaced point would have moved. the distances x ˙ κV δx . z. 141 and we see that in system S the point has reached the displaced position at a time later than that of the actual position by the amount tD − tA = κV δx . c2 z ˙ κV δx . y + δy − κ 2 x . c2 yV ˙ δy = δy − κ 2 δx . neglecting higher-order terms. c2 y ˙ κV δx . c2 these quantities must be subtracted from the coördinates of the displaced point in order to obtain a position on the displaced path which will be simultaneous with tA as measured in system S. and obtain by subtraction δx = κ 1 − xV ˙ δx . c and for the corresponding position on the actual path κ(x + V t ). c y. We obtain for the simultaneous position on the displaced path κ [x + δx ] + V t − κ xV ˙ xV ˙ δx .Relativity and the Principle of Least Action. c2 c zV ˙ z + δz − κ 2 δx .

we can rewrite this expression ˙ ˙ ˙ in the following form.Chapter Nine. (144) 111. together with the other transformation equations (141). We thus see that we must always have the general equality W dt = W dt. 142 Substituting now these equations. . in our expression we obtain (Fx δx + Fy δy + Fz δz ) dt = + + = κ −1 Fx − Fy Fz yV ˙ zV ˙ − 2 2 ˙ ˙ c 1 − xV c 1 − xV 2 2 c c κ−1 1− xV ˙ c2 δx 1− 1− F δy + xV y ˙ c2 yV /c ˙ 1− 1− 2 xV ˙ c2 δx κ 1− xV ˙ c2 (143) κ−1 F δz + xV z ˙ c2 zV /c2 ˙ c2 δx xV ˙ (Fx δx + Fy δy + Fz δz) dt . where by HD and HA we denote the values of the kinetic potential respectively on the displaced and actual paths δH dt = HD dt − − HA dt = HA κ 1 − HD κ 1 − xV ˙ c2 dt = (x + δ x)V ˙ ˙ 2 c HD dt − dt HA dt. Introducing this equation into our earlier expression (140) we obtain as a general relation between H and H δH dt = δH dt. (145) Restricting ourselves to systems of such a nature that we can assign them a deﬁnite velocity u = xi + yj + zk. Relation between H and H.

Thus it is well known. this can be rewritten H 1− u2 1 − 2 and c = H 1− u2 c2 u c2 2 and this is the expression which we shall ﬁnd most useful for our future development of the consequences of the theory of relativity. and larger systems in a steady state. 112. 113. for a single particle acted on by external forces the kinetic potential may be taken as the kinetic energy 1 m0 u2 . Systems satisfying this condition would include particles.Relativity and the Principle of Least Action. for example. we may take for the kinetic . that. inﬁnitesimal portions of continuous systems. and hence obtain for such systems the simple expression H = H κ 1− xV ˙ c2 143 . Expressing the requirement of the equation in words we may say that the theory H of relativity requires an invariance of in the Lorentz transfor1− u2 c2 mation. see if this expression can be made to agree with the requirements of equation (146) without changing its value for low velocities. As indicated above. as will be seen 2 from the developments of Chapter VII. (146) Noting the relation between tion (17). Our general method of procedure in diﬀerent ﬁelds of investigation will now be to examine the expression for kinetic potential which is known to hold for the ﬁeld in question. For relativity mechanics. provided the velocities involved are low and by making slight alterations when necessary. the use of this equation is obviously restricted to systems moving with some perfectly deﬁnite velocity u. u2 1 − 2 given in equac . in the case of low velocities.

and which at all velocities agrees with equation (146). an expression which.Chapter Nine. becomes identical with 2 m0 u2 at low velocities. −m0 c2 1− . except for an additive c2 1 constant. 144 u2 . potential.

our newer ideas as to the velocity of light as a limiting value will no longer permit us to conceive of a continuous body as having only a ﬁnite number of degrees of freedom. however. and as these disturbances cannot spread with inﬁnite velocity it will be necessary to give the values of an inﬁnite number of variables in order completely to specify the succeeding states of the system. As pointed out by Laue. Since. 145 . In the older treatises on mechanics. These rigid bodies were endowed with deﬁnite and unchangeable size and shape and hence were assigned ﬁve degrees of freedom. This is evident since it is obvious that we could start disturbances simultaneously at an indeﬁnite number of points in a continuous body. For our newer mechanics the nearest approach to an absolutely rigid body would of course be one in which disturbances are transmitted with the velocity of light. the theory of relativity does not permit rigid bodies we may proceed at once to the general theory of deformable bodies. and to apply our considerations to a number of other important problems. 114. THE DYNAMICS OF ELASTIC BODIES. We shall also be able to show that the dynamics of a particle may be regarded as a special case of the dynamics of a continuous elastic medium. after considering the dynamics of a particle it was customary to proceed to a discussion of the dynamics of rigid bodies. We shall now treat with the help of the principle of least action the rather complicated problem of the dynamics of continuous elastic media. then.CHAPTER X. On the Impossibility of Absolutely Rigid Bodies. since it was necessary to state the values of ﬁve variables completely to specify their position in space. Our considerations will extend the appreciation of the intimate relation between mass and energy which we found in our treatment of the dynamics of a particle.

the strain at any point in a body is completely determined by six component strains which can be deﬁned by the following equations. Unfortunately for our purposes. and this introduces considerable simpliﬁcation into a science which under any circumstances is necessarily one of great complication. 146 115. wherein (u. A theory of strains of any magnitude was ﬁrst attempted by SaintVenant and has been ampliﬁed and excellently presented by Love in his Treatise on the Theory of Elasticity. In the more familiar developments of the theory of elasticity it is customary to limit the considerations to the case of strains small enough so that higher powers of the displacements can be neglected. w) is the displacement of a point having the unstrained position (x. Deﬁnition of Strain. part i. since in consequence of the Lorentz shortening a body which appears unstrained to one observer may appear tremendously compressed or elongated to an observer moving with a diﬀerent velocity. . The best that we can do will be arbitrarily to choose our state of zero deformation such that the strains will be small when measured in the particular system of coördinates S in which we are specially interested. we cannot in general introduce such a simpliﬁcation if we wish to apply the theory of relativity.Chapter Ten. v. 2 (148) zz 1 2 + + . Appendix to Chapter I. z): xx = = = ∂u + ∂x ∂y + ∂v ∂w + ∂z 1 2 ∂u ∂x ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂z 2 + 2 ∂v ∂x ∂v ∂y ∂v ∂z 2 + 2 ∂w ∂x ∂w ∂y ∂w ∂z 2 . stress and strain. y. In accordance with this theory. 2 yy 1 2 + 2 + 2 .

ey = 1 + 2 yy − 1. or ∂x ∂y ∂z 116. ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂w ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w = + + + + . . (151) . the elongations √ ex = 1 + 2 xx − 1. (150) cos θxz = √ 1+2 cos θxy = √ 1+2 xz xx xy xx √ zz yy Geometrical considerations are also suﬃcient to show that in case the strain is a simple elongation of amount e the following equation will be true: xx l2 = yy m2 = zz n2 = yz 2mn = xz 2ln = xy 2lm 1 = e + 2 e2 . when strained. A physical signiﬁcance for these strain components will be obtained if we note that it can be shown from geometrical considerations that lines which are originally parallel to the axes have. ∂w ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w + + + + . (149) and that the angles between lines originally parallel to the axes are given in the strained condition by the expressions cos θyz = yz 1+2 yy √ 1+2 1+2 1+2 zz . . ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y = 147 yz xz xy (148) It will be seen that these expressions for strain reduce to those familiar in the theory of small strains if such second-order quantities as 2 ∂u ∂u ∂u can be neglected. √ ez = 1 + 2 zz − 1.Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w = + + + + .

Transformation Equations for Strain. 117. Since the state of zero deformation from which to measure strains can be chosen perfectly arbitrarily. etc. δW = −δE = txx δ xx + tyy δ yy + tzz δ + tyz δ zz yz + txz δ xz + txy δ xy . we may now deﬁne stress in terms of the work done in changing from one state of strain to another. n are the cosines which determine the direction of the elongation. by determining the way the strain at a given point P appears to observers moving with diﬀerent velocities. m. (152) and this equation serves to deﬁne the stresses txx . In case the strains are small it will be noticed that the stresses thus deﬁned are identical with those used in the familiar theories of elasticity. Let the point P in question be moving with the velocity u = xi + yj + zk as measured in system S. 148 where l. tyy .Chapter Ten. let us for convenience take the strain as zero as measured in system S. We have just considered the expressions for the strain at a given point in an elastic medium. It is evident now from our considerations as to the shape of moving systems presented in Chapter V that in system S ◦ the material in the neighborhood of the point in question will appear to have been elongated in the direction of motion in the ratio . We must now prepare for the introduction of the theory of relativity into our considerations. giving us xx = yy = zz = yz = xz = xy = 0. In case the strain varies from point to point we must consider of course the work done per unit volume of the unstrained material. 118. Considering the material contained in unit volume when the body is unstrained. Deﬁnition of Stress. (153) What now will be the strains as measured by an observer moving along with the point P in question? Let us call the system of coördinates used by this observer S ◦ . for the work done by this material on its surroundings when a change in strain takes place. we may write.

Variation in the Strain. For the sake of simplicity let us choose our coördinates in such a way that the X axis is parallel to the original velocity. u m= y ˙ . so that our change in velocity will be from u = xi to ˙ u + δu = (x + δ x) i + δ y j + δ z k. ◦ zz = z2 ˙ 2c2 1 1− 1 1− u2 c2 u2 c2 . (156) . 149 of 1 : 1− u2 . We shall be particularly interested in the variation in the strain as measured in S ◦ when the velocity experiences a small variation δu. and . ◦ xy xy ˙˙ = 2 c and these are the desired equations for the strains at the point P . 119. ◦ yz yz ˙˙ = 2 c . u (155) We may now calculate from this elongation the components of strain by using equation (151).Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Taking δu small enough so that higher orders can be neglected. u n= z ˙ . the strains remaining zero as measured in S. the accent ◦ indicating that they are measured with reference to a system of coördinates S ◦ moving along with the point itself. ◦ yy = y2 ˙ 2c2 1 1− 1 u2 1− 2 c u c2 2 . Hence in system S ◦ the strain will be an elongation c2 e= 1 1− u2 c2 −1 (154) in the line determined by the direction cosines l= x ˙ . ◦ xz xz ˙˙ = 2 c . We obtain ◦ xx = x2 ˙ 2c2 1 1− 1 u2 1− 2 c u c2 2 .

(160) . (158) c2 Carrying out now our variation δ xx . etc. etc. yy . and these quantities will be connected in accordance with the Lorentz shortening by the equation u2 √ 1 + 2 ◦ xx .. the line remains sensibly parallel to the X axis. δ yy .Chapter Ten.. which is also the direction of motion. by changing the values of xx . neglecting xx in comparison with larger quantities and noting that except for second order quantities. ˙ c2 We shall also be interested in the variation in the strain as measured in S ◦ produced by a variation in the strain as measured in S. ˙ ˙ δ δ δ ◦ xx 150 = 1 1− u c2 2 2 x ˙ δ x. = (157) 1 u2 2 c2 ◦ ◦ zz xz = 0. Since the strain in system S is small. ◦ yy . we shall then have. The variation δ xx will produce a variation in ◦ xx whose amount can be calculated as follows: By equations (149) a line which has unit length and is parallel to the X axis in the unstrained condition will √ have√ when strained the length 1 + 2 xx when measured in system S and 1 + 2 ◦ xx when measured in system S ◦ . from zero to δ xx . from equations (156). Considering again for simplicity that the X axis is parallel to the motion of the point. ˙ c2 δ δ δ ◦ yy = 0. noting that y = z = 0. = ◦ ◦ 1 u c2 2 yz xy 1− 2 1− x ˙ δ y. we must calculate the variation produced in ◦ xx . = 0. √ 1 1 + 2 ◦ xx = (159) 1+2 xx √ = 1− 1− we obtain δ ◦ xx u2 c2 = δ xx 1− u2 c2 . ˙ c2 x ˙ δ z. etc.

we shall have cos θxz = 1− u2 cos θ◦ xz . (161) xz we may note that in accordance with equations (150) cos θxz = √ cos θ◦ xz = √ xz 1+2 1+2 xx ◦ √ ◦ 1+2 zz ◦ . we obtain δ ◦ xz = ◦ zz = 0. however. c2 xx Introducing this relation. δ zz . δ ◦ zz =δ zz . (161). (162) and (163) with those for the variation in strain with velocity and obtain the ﬁnal . and noting = δ xz 1− u2 x2 . zz xz xx √ 1+2 . we may evidently write δ To calculate δ we must have ◦ yy ◦ =δ yy . remembering that equation (159). δ ◦ yz =δ yz . (162) and similarly δ ◦ xy = δ xy 1− u2 x2 .Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. δ yz aﬀect only lines which are at right angles to the direction of motion. (163) We may now combine these equations (160). 151 Since the variations δ yy . In accordance with the Lorentz shortening. where θxz is the angle between lines which in the unstrained condition are parallel to the X and Z axes respectively.

part ii. ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ u2 c2 2 1 x ˙ δx + ˙ u2 c2 1− 2 c δ xx . The Kinetic Potential for an Elastic Body. In Newtonian mechanics. yy zz yz xz 1 1 u2 2 c2 u c2 2 1− 1− 1 x ˙ δz + ˙ 2 u2 c 1− 2 c (164) δ δ xz . provided the strains are negligibly small as measured in S. 120. (146) . and it is obvious that our choice for kinetic potential must reduce to that value at low velocities. Our choice of an expression for kinetic potential is furthermore limited by the fundamental transformation equation for kinetic potential which we found in the last chapter H 1− u2 c2 = H 1− u c2 2 . introduction of the principle of least action.Chapter Ten. ◦ xy 2 1 x ˙ δy + ˙ 2 u2 c 1− 2 c xy . set which we desire: δ δ δ δ δ δ ◦ xx 152 = =δ =δ =δ = = 1 1− yy . yz . zz . We are now in a position to develop the mechanics of an elastic body with the help of the principle of least action. the kinetic potential for unit volume of material at a given point P in an elastic body may be put equal to the density of kinetic energy minus the density of potential energy. These equations give the variation in the strain measured in system S ◦ at a point P moving in the X direction with velocity u. as is well known.

y and z. z which give the position of the point with the corresponding forces Fx . 153 Taking these requirements into consideration. and the three coördinates x. and if we consider cases in which E ◦ is independent of position.. we may write for the kinetic potential per unit volume of the material at a point P moving with the velocity u the expression H = −E ◦ 1− u2 .Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. −tyy . we may now obtain the equations of motion and stress for an elastic body by substituting into Lagrange’s equations (139) Chapter IX. the kinetic potential will also be independent of the absolute magnitudes of the coördinates x. Lagrange’s Equations. as measured in system S) is contained in unit volume. Fy and Fz .e. c 121. Substituting . yy .. provided we introduce the substitution made familiar by our previous E◦ work. Considering the material at the point P contained in unit volume in the unstrained condition. we may choose as our generalized coördinates the six component strains xx . Making use of this expression for the kinetic potential in an elastic body. c2 where E ◦ is the energy as measured in system S ◦ of the amount of material which in the unstrained condition (i.. etc. as generalized forces. etc. with the corresponding stresses −txx . The above expression obviously satisﬁes our fundamental transformation equation (146) and at low velocities reduces in accordance with the requirements of Newtonian mechanics to 1 H = 2 m◦ u2 − E ◦ . It is evident that the kinetic potential will be independent of the time derivatives of the strains. y. m◦ = 2 .

= Fy . = −tzz . by performing the indicated diﬀerentiations and making suitable substitutions. we then obtain − − − − − − ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ xx 154 −E ◦ −E ◦ −E ◦ −E ◦ −E ◦ −E ◦ u2 1− 2 c 1− 1− u2 c2 u2 c2 ∂ yy ∂ zz = −txx . ∂ xx ∂ ◦ xx ∂ xx . = −tyy . = Fz . however. = −txz . = −tyz . ∂ yz u2 1− 2 c 1− 1− u2 c2 u2 c2 (165) ∂ xz ∂ xy d ∂ dt ∂ x ˙ d ∂ dt ∂ y ˙ d ∂ dt ∂ z ˙ −E ◦ u2 1− 2 c 1− 1− u2 c2 u2 c2 −E ◦ −E ◦ (166) We may simplify these equations.Chapter Ten. in Lagrange’s equations (139). = −txy . we have ∂E ◦ xx ∂E ◦ xx ∂ ◦ xx = . = Fx .

c2 (167) u2 c2 u2 ◦ t yx . Value of E ◦ . of material which in the unstrained condition is contained in unit volume. c2 txz = u2 c2 . txy = . Since the strain is not . tyy = 1− t◦ xz 1− u2 ◦ t yy . Give it now the velocity u = x. and we obtain as our set of transformation equations txx = t◦ xx 1− tyx = 1− u2 c2 . Transformation Equations for Stress. keep˙ ing its state of strain unchanged in system S. c2 tzz = 1− t◦ xy 1− u2 ◦ t zz . But in accordance with equation (152) we may write ∂E ◦ xx = −t◦ xx ◦ ∂ xx and from equations (164) we may put 1 ∂ ◦ xx = . u2 ∂ xx 1− 2 c 155 Making the substitutions in the ﬁrst of the Lagrangian equations we obtain txx = − ∂ ∂ xx E◦ 1− u2 c2 = t◦ xx 1 1− u c2 2 1− u2 = c2 t◦ xx 1− u2 c2 . Consider unit volume of the material in the unstrained condition and call its energy content w◦◦ . With the help of these transformation equations for stress we may calculate the value of E ◦ . as measured in system S ◦ . Similar substitutions can be made in all the equations of stress.Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. the energy content. 123. 122.

etc. Carrying out the indicated diﬀerentiation we have Fx = d ∂ dt ∂ x ˙ −E ◦ 1− u2 c2 = d dt E◦ 1− x ˙ − 2 u2 c c2 1− u2 ∂E ◦ . however. c2 ∂ x ˙ . We are now in a position to simplify the three Lagrangian equations (166) for Fx . u2 t◦ xx = txx 1 − 2 . c txx being. a constant. ˙ E ◦ = w◦◦ + txx − txx 1− u2 c2 (168) as the desired expression for the energy as measured in system S ◦ contained in the material which in system S is unstrained and has unit volume. as we have just seen. the component strain will change in accordance with equations (156) from zero to ◦ xx = x2 ˙ 2c2 1 1− u2 c2 . and the corresponding stress will be given at any instant by the expression just derived.. the stresses txx .Chapter Ten. 2c2 Noting that u = x we obtain on integration. In system S ◦ . will also be constant in system S. The Equations of Motion in the Lagrangian Form. 124. Fy and Fz . 156 changing in system S. We may then write for E ◦ the expression E ◦ = w◦◦ − txx w 0 1− u2 d c2 1 1− u c2 2 x ˙ .

Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. we have y = 0. Since the volume of . (170) In these equations the quantities Fx . 2 u2 c c2 We thus obtain as our three equations of motion Fx = d w◦◦ + txx x ˙ . Fy and Fz are the components of force acting on a particular system. namely that quantity of material which at the instant in question has unit volume. and introducing the value of E ◦ given by equation (168) we obtain Fx = d w◦◦ + txx x ˙ . We have from (166) d ∂ Fy = dt ∂ y ˙ −E ◦ u2 1− 2 c d = dt E◦ 1− y ˙ − 2 c2 u c2 u2 ∂E ◦ . . (157) and (167). furthermore we ˙ may substitute. in accordance with equations (152). ∂E ◦ ∂E ◦ ∂ ◦ xy 1 = ◦ = −t◦ xy u2 ∂y ˙ ∂ xy ∂ y ˙ 1− 2 c x ˙ = c2 −txy 1− x ˙ . 1− 2 c ∂y ˙ But since we have adapted our considerations to cases in which the direction of motion is along the X axis. 2 dt u2 c 1− 2 c Fy = d dt d Fz = dt txy txz x ˙ c2 x ˙ c2 . 2 dt u2 c 1− 2 c 157 (169) Simple calculations will also give us values for Fy and Fz .

. Fy and Fz do not give us the force per unit volume as usually deﬁned. however. Let us start out with unit volume of our material at rest. Density of Energy. 2 u2 c 1− 2 c gy = txy x ˙ . we may rewrite these equations in the form Fx δV = d w◦◦ + txx x ˙ δV . Since we customarily deﬁne force as equal to the time rate of change of momentum. by fx . We shall later see the important signiﬁcance of this discovery. we may now write for the density of momentum g at a point in an elastic body which is moving in the X direction with the velocity u = x ˙ gx = w◦◦ + txx x ˙ . 125. and hence we are now in a position to calculate the energy density of our material. It will be remembered that the forces whose equations we have just obtained are those acting on unit volume of the material as measured in system S. 2 dt u2 c 1− 2 c Fy δV = d dt d Fz δV = dt txy txz x ˙ δV c2 x ˙ δV c2 . c2 gy = txy x ˙ . with the energy content w◦◦ and determine the work necessary to give it the velocity u = x without ˙ . c2 (172) It is interesting to point out that there are components of momentum in the Y and Z directions in spite of the fact that the material at the point in question is moving in the X direction. fy and fz the components of force per unit volume. Fx . 158 this material will in general be changing. Density of Momentum. (171) where by δV we mean a small element of volume at the point in question. 126. If we represent.Chapter Ten.

127. (173) . tzz = c2 .Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. We may now tabulate for future reference the results obtained from the principle of least action. tyy = 1− t◦ xz 1− u2 ◦ t yy . we have w=w ◦◦ + u 0 d w◦◦ + txx x ˙ x dt. txy = 1− t◦ xz 1− u2 ◦ t zz . ˙ 2 dt u2 c 1− 2 c u 0 = w◦◦ + (w◦◦ + txx ) w◦◦ + txx 1− u2 c2 xd ˙ 1 1− x ˙ . Since the only component of force which suﬀers displacement is Fx . 159 change in stress or strain. we have for the components of stress ˙ txx = t◦ xx 1− tyz = u2 c2 . At a given point in an elastic medium which is moving in the X direction with the velocity u = x. For the density of energy at the point in question we have w= w◦◦ + txx 1− u2 c2 − txx . txz = c u2 c2 . c2 (167) u2 c2 u2 1 − 2 t◦ yz . Summary of Results Obtained from the Principle of Least Action. 2 u2 c c2 (173) = − txx as an expression for the energy density of the elastic material.

c2 gz = txz x ˙ . etc.Chapter Ten. may be taken as the forces acting on the faces of a unit cube of material at the point in question. Since for convenience we have taken as our state of zero strain the condition of the body as measured in system S.. we may now add three further components and obtain a complete tensor t xx txy txz t = tyx tyy tyz (174) t zx tzy tzz . the ﬁrst letter of the subscript indicating the direction of the force and the second subscript the direction of the normal to the face in question. For the density of momentum we have gx = w◦◦ + txx x ˙ . 128. The Unsymmetrical Stress Tensor t. where δW is the work which accompanies a change in strain and is performed on the surroundings by the amount of material which was contained in unit volume in the unstrained state. Interpreting the components of stress in this fashion. c2 (172) part iii. it is evident that the components txx . Before proceeding to the applications of these results which we have obtained from the principle of least action. 2 u2 c 1− 2 c 160 gy = txy x ˙ . We have deﬁned the components of stress acting at a point by equation (152) δW = txx δ xx + tyy δ yy + tzz δ zz + tyz δ yz + txz δ xz + txy δ xy . tyy . some mathematical relations. we shall ﬁnd it desirable to present a number of mathematical relations which will later prove useful.

In accordance with the elementary theory of elasticity. Similarly we shall have the relation t◦ xy = txy . since it was possible to obtain an expression for the work accompanying a change in strain without their introduction. we can obtain the desired relations tyx = u2 1− 2 c txy . Combining these three equations. for the measurement of this force. 161 The three new components tyx . (175) . however.Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. tyz is the force acting in the Y direction tangentially to a face of the cube perpendicular to the X axis. t◦ xy being larger than t◦ yx in the ratio of the areas of face upon which they act. Using a system of coördinates S ◦ which is stationary with respect to the point in question. tzx . We shall ﬁnd them quite important for our later considerations. tzy = tyz . we should obtain. A knowledge of their value was not necessary for our developments of the consequences of the principle of least action. the forces t◦ yx and t◦ xy which are measured by an observer moving with the body will be connected by the relation t◦ xy = t◦ yx 1− u2 c2 . tzy are forces acting on the unit cube. and measured with a system of coördinates S. tzx = u2 1− 2 c txz . Chapter VI. in the directions and on the faces indicated by the subscripts. however. and using similar methods for the other quantities. tyx t◦ yx = 1− u2 c2 in accordance with our transformation equation for force (62). and may proceed to determine their value.

since we may show. .Chapter Ten. pzx = pxz . (177) g u g u g u . 129. Besides this unsymmetrical tensor t we shall ﬁnd it desirable to deﬁne a further tensor p by the equation p = t + gu. The Symmetrical Tensor p. c2 and hence by substitution obtain pyx = txy . p will be a symmetrical tensor. (178) Consider for example the value of pyx . We also have. x x x y x z gu = gy ux gy uy gy uz . however. gu is itself a tensor with components as indicated below: g u g u g u . z x z y z z Unlike t. we have from our deﬁnition pyx = tyx + gy ux . gy = txy ux . that pyx = pxy . by substitution of the values for g and u already obtained. by deﬁnition pxy = txy + gx uy . pzy = pyz . (176) We shall call gu the tensor product of g and u and may indicate tensor products in general by a simple juxtaposition of vectors. 162 We see that t is an unsymmetrical tensor. and by equations (175) and (172) we have txy = u2 1− 2 c txy .

cos β and cos γ are the direction cosines of the inwardpointing normal to the element of surface dS. j and k are unit vectors parallel to the axes. we arrive at the equality pxy = pyx . 130. we shall deﬁne a further vector tn by the equation tn = (txx cos α + txy cos β + txz cos γ) i + (tyx cos α + tyy cos β + tyz cos γ) j + (tzx cos α + tzy cos β + tzz cos γ) k. + ∂x ∂y ∂z where i. (181) where the symbol 0 indicates that the integration is to be taken over the whole surface which encloses the volume V .Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. 163 and since for the case we are considering uy = 0. div t thus being an ordinary vector. Relation between div t and tn . At a given point P in our elastic body we shall deﬁne the divergence of the tensor t by the equation ∂txx ∂txy ∂txz + + i div t = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂tyx ∂tyy ∂tyz + + + (179) j ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂tzx ∂tzy ∂tzz + + k. This equation is of . It will be seen that div t is the elastic force acting per unit volume of material at the point P . Considering now a deﬁnite volume V enclosed by the surface S it is evident that div t and tn will be connected by the relation − div t dV = 0 tn dS. Considering an element of surface dS. (180) where cos α. The other equalities may be shown in a similar way.

Chapter Ten. y and z. and let r be the radius vector to any point P in the elastic body. The Equations of Motion in the Eulerian Form. We shall also ﬁnd use for a further relation between div t and tn . 164 course merely a direct application of Gauss’s formula. (183) 0 131. Consider a given point of reference O. We saw in Sections 124 and 125 that the equations of motion in the Lagrangian form might be written f δV = d (g δV ). Taking account of equations (172) and (175) this can be rewritten − (r × div t) dV = (r × tn ) dS − (u × g) dV. dt where f is the density of force acting at any point and g is the density of momentum. our deﬁnition of the divergence of a tensor will now permit us to put f = − div t. where × signiﬁes as usual the outer product. which states in general the equality − ∂P ∂Q ∂R + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dV = 0 (P cos α + Q cos β + R cos γ) dS. . Q and R may be any functions of x. Provided that there are no external forces acting and f is produced solely by the elastic forces. (182) where P . we can then show with the help of Gauss’s Formula (182) that − (r × div t) dV = − (r × tn ) dS 0 (tyz − tzy )jk + (txz − tzx )ik + (txy − tyx )ij dV.

Our symmetrical tensor p. (184) − div p = ∂t We shall ﬁnd this simple form for the equations of motion very interesting in connection with our considerations in the last chapter. Relation between Energy and Momentum. We may now use the results which we have obtained from the principle of least action to elucidate various problems concerning the behavior of elastic bodies. dt dt dt 165 dg in terms of partial diﬀerentials.Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. was deﬁned by the equation (176) p = t + gu. and hence have come to expect in general a necessary relation between the . applications of the results. 132. In our work on the dynamics of a particle we found that the mass of a particle was equal to its energy divided by the square of the velocity of light. and putting dt d(δV ) = δV div u dt we obtain − div t = ∂g ∂g ∂g ∂g + ux + uy + uz ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z + g div u. and hence we may now write our equations of motion in the very beautiful Eulerian form ∂g . however. and write for our equation of motion (− div t) δV = Expressing d dg d(δV ) (g δV ) = δV +g . part iv.

Since the cube is moving with the velocity x. As a matter of fact. the forces holding it in its state of longitudinal compression will be doing work at the rear end of the rod and delivering an equal quantity of energy at the front end. this stress txx can be thought of as resulting from forces which act on the front and rear faces of a centimeter cube of our material. in the case of elastically stressed bodies a somewhat more complicated state of aﬀairs than in the case of particles. the force on the rear face will do the work txx x per second and ˙ ˙ this will be given up at the forward face. As we have already seen in Section 128. c Similar considerations explain the interesting occurrence of compo- . however. but also must take into ˙ account the additional ﬂow of energy which arises from the stress txx . We ﬁnd. in the case of a longitudinally compressed rod moving parallel to its length.Chapter Ten. and this additional transfer of energy must be included in the calculation of the momentum of the bar. We thus have an additional density of energy-ﬂow in the X direction of the magnitude txx x and ˙ txx x ˙ hence a corresponding density of momentum 2 . since besides the energy which is transported bodily by the motion of the medium an additional quantity of energy may be transferred through the medium by the action of the forces which hold it in its state of strain. an examination of the expressions for momentum which we obtained from the principle of least action will show the justice of these considerations. Thus. 166 existence of momentum in any particular direction and the transfer of energy in that same direction. c2 and we see that in order to calculate the momentum in the X direction we must consider not merely the energy w which is being bodily carried along in that direction with the velocity x. For the density of momentum in the X direction we obtained the expression gx = (w + txx ) x ˙ . for example.

Since the cube is moving in the X direction with the velocity x.Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. expressions (172) which permit the calculation of g in terms of the energy density. The Conservation of Momentum. stress and velocity at the point in question. c 133. The stress txy . which arises from the elastic interaction of the parts of the strained body itself. We have already obtained. dt where g is the density of momentum at any given point and f is the force acting per unit volume of material. which are produced by agencies outside of the elastic body and the internal force f int. ˙ and the resulting ﬂow of energy in the X direction is accompanied by txy x ˙ the corresponding momentum 2 . gy = txy x ˙ . = − div t. we shall have the ˙ work txy x. It is evident from our previous discussions that we may write the equation of motion for an elastic medium in the form f δV = d(g δV ) . (185) . and our present problem is to discuss somewhat further the nature of the force f . nents of momentum in the Y and Z directions. c2 gz = txz x ˙ . like gravity. for example. from the principle of least action. can be thought of as resulting from forces which act tangentially in the X direction on the pair of faces of our unit cube which are perpendicular to the Y axis. It is evident from the way in which we have deﬁned the divergence of a tensor (179) that for this latter we may write f int. We shall ﬁnd it convenient to analyze the total force per unit volume of material f into those external forces f ext. done at one surface per second and transferred to the other. c2 167 in spite of the fact that the material involved is moving in the X direction.

In the case of an isolated system both f ext. With the help of the purely analytical relation (181) we may transform the above equation into dG . Consider the radius vector r from a point of reference O to any point P in an elastic body. integrating over the total volume of the elastic body. The Conservation of Angular Momentum.Chapter Ten. f ext. dt 168 (186) or. . 134. dV − div t dV = d dt g dV = (187) where G is the total momentum of the body. this may be written (r × f ext. ) dV − (r × div t) dV + (u × g) dV. Substituting equation (186). dV + tn dS = dt where tn is deﬁned in accordance with (180) so that the integral 0 tn dS becomes the force exerted by the surroundings on the surface of the elastic body. − div t) δV = d(g δV ) . and tn would evidently be equal to zero and we have the principle of the conservation of momentum. then the angular momentum of the body about O will be M= and its rate of change will be dM = dt dM = dt r× dg dt dV + dr × g dV. Our equation of motion then becomes (f ext. dt dG . dt (189) (r × g) dV. (188) f ext.

In the case of an isolated system this reduces to the important principle of the conservation of angular momentum. dM = dt (r × f ext. This is evident from equation (189). introducing the purely mathematical relation (183) we have. ) dV + (r × tn ) dS.Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. (191) In the older mechanics velocity u and momentum g were always in the same direction so that the last term of this equation became zero. which may be written dM = dt r× dg dt dV + (u × g) dV. in the preceding section. Relation between Angular Momentum and the Unsymmetrical Stress Tensor. In our newer mechanics. or. 135. leads to the interesting conclusion that even in a state of steady motion the angular momentum of a strained body will in general be changing. 169 (190) 0 We see from this equation that the rate of change of the angular momentum of an elastic body is equal to the moment of the external forces acting on the body plus the moment of the surface forces. The fact that at a point in a strained elastic medium there may be components of momentum at right angles to the motion of the point itself. we have found (172) components of momentum at right angles to the velocity and hence even for a body moving in a straight line with unchanging stresses and velocity we ﬁnd that the angular momentum is increasing at the rate dM = dt (u × g) dV. however. (192) and in order to maintain the body in its state of uniform motion we must apply external forces with a turning moment of this same amount. the . The presence of this increasing angular momentum in a strained body arises from the unsymmetrical nature of the stress tensor.

if we have a body moving in the X direction with the velocity u = xi we can easily see ˙ from equations (172) and (175) the truth of the equality (u × g) = (tyz − tzy ) jk + (txz − tzx ) ik + (txy − tyx ) ij . in accordance with the Lorentz shortening. 170 integral (u × g) dV being as a matter of fact exactly equal to the integral over the same volume of the turning moments of the unsymmetrical components of the stress. An interesting example of the principle that in general a turning mol2 ment is needed for the uniform translaC tory motion of a strained body is seen in the apparently paradoxical case of F2 the right-angled lever. and the lever is in equilibrium under the action of the equal forces Let us now consider the equilibrium as it appears. Thus. giving us l1 = l1 ◦ . 14.Chapter Ten. for example. using a system of coördinates S with reference to which the lever is moving in X direction with the velocity V . F1 ◦ = F2 ◦ . The Right-Angled Lever. c2 . B l1 A l1 ◦ = l2 ◦ . 136. But for the other arm which lies in the direction of motion we shall have. Referred to S ◦ the two lever arms are equal in length: F1 Fig. This lever is stationary with respect to a system of coördinates S ◦ . 14. l2 = l2 ◦ 1− V2 . Referred to this new system of coördinates the length l1 of the arm which lies in the Y direction will be the same as in system S ◦ . Consider the right-angled lever shown in Fig.

F1 = F1 ◦ . Since the force F1 is doing the work F1 V per second at the point A.Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. c2 c We thus obtain for the moment of the forces around the pivot B F1 l1 − F2 l2 = F1 ◦ l1 ◦ − F2 ◦ l2 ◦ 1 − V2 c2 = F1 ◦ l1 ◦ and are led to the remarkable conclusion that such a moving lever will be in equilibrium only if the external forces have a deﬁnite turning moment of the magnitude given above. In spite of the fact that the lever is in uniform motion in a straight line. a stream of energy of this amount is continually ﬂowing through the lever from A to the pivot B. 171 For the forces F1 and F2 we shall have. and hence each second the angular momentum of the c system around the point B is increased by the amount F1 V V2 V l1 = F1 l1 2 . In accordance with our ideas as to the relation between energy and mass. its angular momentum is continually increasing owing to the fact that it is elastically strained. The explanation of this apparent paradox is obvious. in accordance with our equations for the transformation of force (61) and (62). F2 = F2 ◦ 1− V2 . and it can be shown by carrying out the integration indicated in equation (192) that the rate of change of angular momentum is as a matter of fact just V2 equal to the turning moment F1 l1 2 . c V2 This necessity for a turning moment F1 l1 2 can also be shown c directly from a consideration of the energy ﬂow in the lever. in the light of our previous discussion. this new energy which enters at A each second has F1 V the mass 2 . = F1 l1 2 . c2 c . however. c2 V2 V2 .

and is either isolated or merely subjected to an external pressure with no components of force tangential to the bounding surface. Thus for an isolated system in a steady internal state we may write. 172 We have already found. 137. We thus see that the dynamics of a particle may be regarded as a special case of the more general dynamics which we have developed in this chapter. thus solving completely our apparent paradox. the equation of motion for a particle being d F= dt E◦ c2 1− d u = dt u2 c2 m◦ 1− u2 c2 u . Our considerations have shown that the density of momentum is equal to the density of energy ﬂow divided by the square of the velocity of light. and hence for these systems momentum and velocity will be in the same direction without the complications introduced by a transverse energy ﬂow.Chapter Ten. it is evident that the resultant ﬂow of energy for the whole body must be in the direction of motion. It is important to note that particles are interesting examples of systems in which there will obviously be no transverse component of energy ﬂow since their inﬁnitesimal size precludes the action of tangential surface forces. E G= 2u= c E◦ c2 u. Isolated Systems in a Steady State. in agreement with the work of Chapter VI. If we have a system which is in a steady internal state. u2 c2 (193) 1− 138. exactly this same expression for the moment of the forces around the pivot B and hence see that they are of just the magnitude necessary to keep the lever from turning. The Dynamics of a Particle. however. .

Using the Lagrangian equations. In fairness. It is also important to show that a theory of elasticity can be developed which agrees with the requirements of the theory of relativity. however. The most important consequence of these considerations is an extension in our ideas as to the relation between momentum and energy. We ﬁnd that the density of momentum in any direction must be placed equal to the total density of energy ﬂow in that same direction divided by the square of the velocity of light. choosing a form of function for kinetic potential which agrees at low velocities with the choice made in the older theories of elasticity and at all velocities agrees with the requirements of the principle of relativity. we then introduced the principle of least action. At present we have no experiments of suﬃcient accuracy so that we can investigate the diﬀerences between this new theory of elasticity and the older ones. Using the components of strain and velocity as generalized coördinates. . With the help of Einstein’s equations for spatial and temporal considerations. be pointed out in conclusion that since our expression for kinetic potential was not absolutely uniquely determined there may also be other theories of elasticity which will agree with the principle of relativity and with all the facts as now known. Conclusion. We may now point out in conclusion the chief results of this chapter. This involves in general a ﬂow of energy and hence momentum at right angles to the motion of the body itself. we have developed a set of transformation equations for the strain in an elastic body. we were then able to develop all that is necessary for a complete theory of elasticity.Dynamics of Elastic Bodies. however. and we ﬁnd that we must include in our density of energy ﬂow that transferred through the elastic body by the forces which hold it in its state of strain and suﬀer displacement as the body moves. and hence of course have found no experimental contradiction to the new theory. 173 139. It will be seen. it must. from the expressions for momentum that even at low velocities the consequences of this new theory will become important as soon as we run across elastic systems in which very large stresses are involved.

−p. By diﬀerentiation we may obtain expressions which we shall ﬁnd useful. and the components of force. temperature. ∂v ◦ = ∂v 1 1− u2 c2 . Let us consider a thermodynamic system whose state is deﬁned by the generalized coördinates volume v. we may write the following expression for the volume v of the system in terms of v ◦ as measured with a set of axes S ◦ with respect to which the system is stationary: v = v◦ 1− u2 = v◦ c2 1− x2 + y 2 + z 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ . THE DYNAMICS OF A THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM. Before we can apply the principle of least action we shall need to have transformation equations for the generalized coördinates. entropy S and the values of x. volume and entropy. We may now use our conclusions as to the relation between the principle of least action and the theory of relativity to obtain information as to the behavior of thermodynamic systems in motion. c2 where u is the velocity of the system. in accordance with the equation δE = −δW = −p δv + T δS + Fx δx + Fy δy + Fz δz. The Generalized Coördinates and Forces. Fx . (194) 141. y and z which determine its position. These generalized coördinates and forces are related to the energy change δE accompanying a small displacement δ. In accordance with the Lorentz shortening. T . Fy and Fz . (195) 174 . the negative of the pressure. Transformation Equation for Volume.CHAPTER XI. 140. Corresponding to these coördinates we shall have the generalized external forces.

k is a universal constant. We are now in a position to introduce the principle of least action into our considerations by choosing a form of function for the kinetic potential which will agree at low velocities with the familiar principles of thermodynamics and will agree at all velocities with the requirements of the theory of relativity.Dynamics of a Thermodynamic System. As for the entropy of a thermodynamic system. If we use volume and entropy as our generalized coördinates. where S is the entropy of the system in the state in question. c2 (196) 142. in accordance with the Boltzmann-Planck ideas as to the interdependence of these quantities. Introduction of the Principle of Least Action. The Kinetic Potential. S = k log W. Let us write. Transformation Equation for Entropy. Since this probability is evidently independent of the relative motion of the observer and the system we see that the entropy of a system S must be an invariant and may write S = S ◦. (197) 143. these conditions are met by taking for kinetic potential the expression H = −E ◦ 1− u2 . This invariance of entropy is a direct consequence of the close relation between the entropy of a system in a given state and the probability of that state. this is a quantity which must appear the same to all observers regardless of their motion. ∂v ◦ = ∂x ˙ v 1− u2 c2 3 2 175 x ˙ v◦ = u2 c2 1− 2 c x ˙ . c2 (198) . and W the probability of having a microscopic arrangement of molecules or other elementary constituent parts which corresponds to the desired thermodynamic state.

It should be noted that this expression for the kinetic potential of a thermodynamic system applies of course only provided we pick out volume v and entropy S as generalized coördinates. Having chosen a form for the kinetic potential we may now substitute into the Lagrangian equations (139) and obtain the desired information with regard to the behavior of thermodynamic systems. with the corresponding coördinates we should obtain results exactly the same as those which we are now going to work out with the help of the other set of coördinates. as the other coördinate. the kinetic potential will be independent of the coördinates x. however. If. 176 This expression agrees with the requirements of the theory of relaH tivity that shall be an invariant (see Section 111) and at low 1− velocities reduces to H = −E. Noting also that the kinetic potential is independent of the time derivatives of volume and entropy. c Using this value of kinetic potential. we should obtain of course a diﬀerent expression for the kinetic potential. we shall obtain the Lagrangian u2 c2 . 144. The Lagrangian Equations. in fact should have under those circumstances u2 H = (E ◦ − T ◦ S ◦ ) 1 − 2 . following Helmholtz. ˙ θ = T .Chapter Eleven. y and z. we should think it more rational to take v as one coördinate and a quantity θ whose time derivative is equal to temperature. Since we shall consider cases in which the energy of the system is independent of the position in space. depending only on their time derivatives. which with our choice of coördinates is the familiar form for the kinetic potential of a thermodynamic system.

= Fx . We may use the ﬁrst of these equations to show that the pressure is a quantity which appears the same to all observers regardless of their relative motion. (200) . = Fy . = T. and in accordance ∂v ◦ . equations in the simple form − − ∂ ∂v −E ◦ −E ◦ −E ◦ −E ◦ −E ◦ 1− 1− 1− 1− 1− u2 c2 u2 c2 u2 c2 u2 c2 u2 c2 = −p. We have p= ∂ ∂v −E ◦ 1− u2 c2 =− 1− u2 ∂E ◦ =− c2 ∂v 1− u2 ∂E ◦ ∂v ◦ .Dynamics of a Thermodynamic System. which gives us the desired relation p = p◦ . = Fz . 177 ∂ ∂S d ∂ dt ∂ x ˙ d ∂ dt ∂ y ˙ d ∂ dt ∂ z ˙ (199) 145. ∂v ◦ = ∂v 1 1− u2 c2 ∂E ◦ . p◦ = − with equation (195). Transformation Equation for Pressure. c2 ∂v ◦ ∂v But. in accordance with equation (194).

this result will be seen to be identical with that which is obtained from the transformation equations for force and area which result from our earliest considerations. 146. = T ◦ and in accordance ∂S ◦ ∂S ◦ with (197) = 1. Let us now turn our attention to the last three of the Lagrangian equations. We have T = ∂ ∂S E◦ 1− u2 c2 = 1− u2 ∂E ◦ ∂S ◦ . The Equations of Motion for Quasistationary Adiabatic Acceleration. 178 Deﬁning pressure as force per unit area. in accordance with equation (194). since our development of the principle of least action gave us an equation for kinetic potential which was true only for systems of inﬁnitesimal extent or large systems in a steady internal state.Chapter Eleven. We obtain as our transformation equation. that these equations will necessarily apply only to cases of quasistationary acceleration. c2 ∂S ◦ ∂S ∂E ◦ But. however. These are the equations for the motion of a thermodynamic system under the action of external force. c2 (201) is an invariant for the Lorentz transformation. The second of the Lagrangian equations (199) will provide us information as to measurements of temperature made by observers moving with diﬀerent velocities. ∂S T = T◦ and see that the quantity T 1− u2 c2 1− u2 . since otherwise the value of E ◦ which occurs in the expression for kinetic potential might be varying in a perfectly unknown manner. . It is evident. It is also evident that we must conﬁne our considerations to cases of adiabatic acceleration. 147. Transformation Equation for Temperature.

2 u2 c 1− 2 c (203) This is the fundamental equation of motion for the dynamics of a thermodynamic system. ∂v ◦ We obtain Fx = d dt ∂v ◦ v◦ = u2 ∂x ˙ 1− 2 c x ˙ .Dynamics of a Thermodynamic System. its energy will increase . = x ˙ − 2 u2 c c2 1− u2 c2 ∂E ◦ ∂v ◦ ∂E ◦ ∂S ◦ + ∂v ◦ ∂ x ˙ ∂S ◦ ∂ x ˙ But by equations (194). We have Fx = d ∂ dt ∂ x ˙ d dt −E ◦ E◦ 1− 1− u2 c2 = d dt E◦ 1− x ˙ − 2 u2 c c2 1− u2 ∂E ◦ c2 ∂ x ˙ . If we adiabatically accelerate a thermodynamic system in the direction of its motion. c2 and ∂S ◦ = 0. (196) and (197) we have ∂E ◦ = −p◦ . The Energy of a Moving Thermodynamic System. 2 u2 c 1− 2 c (202) Similar equations may be obtained for the components of force in the Y and Z directions and these combined to give the vector equation F= d dt E ◦ + p◦ v ◦ u . 179 The Lagrangian equations for force may be advantageously transformed. 148. We may use this equation to obtain an expression for the energy of a moving thermodynamic system. ∂x ˙ ˙ E ◦ + p◦ v ◦ x .

in accordance with the expression u2 v = v ◦ 1 − 2 . We may compare this expression for the energy of a thermodynamic system with the following expression for momentum which is evident from the equation (203) for force: G= E ◦ + p◦ v ◦ u . Hence we may write for the total energy c E = E◦ + ◦ u 0 d dt E ◦ + p◦ v ◦ u u dt + p◦ v ◦ 1 − 2 c2 u 1− 2 c 1− u2 c2 . we have G= E pv u + 2 u. The Momentum of a Moving Thermodynamic System. Thus. as in our treatment of elastic bodies presented in the last chapter. both because of the work done by the force F= d dt E ◦ + p◦ v ◦ u 2 u2 c 1− 2 c 180 which produces the acceleration and because of the work done by the pressure p = p◦ which acts on a volume which is continually diminishing as the velocity u increases. that the momentum of a moving system may be calculated by taking the total ﬂow of energy in the desired direction and dividing by c2 . c2 u2 1− 2 c (204) 149. c2 c (206) . 2 u2 c 1− 2 c (205) We ﬁnd again. comparing equations (204) and (205). E= E +p v 1− ◦ ◦ u2 c2 − p◦ v ◦ 1− E ◦ + p◦ v ◦ u2 = − pv.Chapter Eleven.

As an application of our considerations we may consider the dynamics of a hohlraum. 150. In view of this equation we may write for the momentum . the energy content E ◦ and pressure p◦ of a hohlraum at rest and in thermodynamic equilibrium are completely determined by the temperature T ◦ and volume v ◦ in accordance with the equations E ◦ = av ◦ T ◦4 . since a hohlraum in thermodynamic equilibrium is of course merely a special example of the general dynamics which we have just developed. The Dynamics of a Hohlraum.Dynamics of a Thermodynamic System. where the term 181 E u takes care of the energy transported bodily along c2 pv by the system and the term 2 u takes care of the energy transferred c in the u direction by the action of the external pressure on the rear and front end of the moving system. As is well known from the work of Stefan and Boltzmann. 3 where a is the so-called Stefan’s constant. The simplicity of the hohlraum and its importance from a theoretical point of view make it interesting to obtain by the present method the same expression for momentum that can be obtained directly but with less ease of calculation from electromagnetic considerations. a p◦ = T ◦4 . Substituting these values of E ◦ and p◦ in the equation for the motion of a thermodynamic system (203). we obtain F= d 4 av ◦ T ◦ 4 u 2 dt 3 u2 c 1− 2 c = d 4 dt 3 avT 4 1− u c2 2 3 u c2 (207) as the equation for the quasistationary adiabatic acceleration of a hohlraum.

2 3 u2 c 1− 2 c 182 (208) It is a fact of signiﬁcance that our dynamics leads to a result for the momentum of a hohlraum which had been adopted on the ground of electromagnetic considerations even without the express introduction of relativity theory. of a hohlraum the expression G= 4 av ◦ T ◦ 4 u .Chapter Eleven. .

we shall not ﬁnd it necessary to introduce any modiﬁcation in the form of the kinetic potential. The Einstein theory of relativity proves to be of the greatest significance for electromagnetics. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Furthermore. and on the other hand also accounts just as simply for the phenomena of moving dielectrics as did the older theory of a stationary ether. The Form of the Kinetic Potential. 151. and gives us in general a clariﬁed insight into the nature of electromagnetic action. all of them in forms which agree with the theory of relativity by merely introducing slight modiﬁcations into the older expressions for kinetic potential in such a way as to obtain H . We saw that the development of any branch of dynamics would agree with the requirements of relativity provided only that the kinetic potential H has such a form that H is an invariant for the Lorentz transformation. the quantity 1− u2 c2 Making use of this discovery we have seen the possibility of developing the dynamics of a particle.CHAPTER XII. the new electromagnetic theory based on the ﬁrst postulate of relativity obviously accounts in a direct and straightforward manner for the results of the MichelsonMorley experiment and other unsuccessful attempts to detect an ether drift. the theory of relativity provides considerably simpliﬁed methods for deriving a great many theorems which were already known on the basis of the ether theory. and the dynamics of a thermodynamic system. the dynamics of an elastic body. In Chapter IX we investigated the general relation between the principle of least action and the theory of the relativity of motion. the necessary invariance for 1− u2 c2 however. on account of the closely interwoven historical development of the theories of electricity and relativity. but 183 . In the case of electrodynamics. On the one hand.

φ is the value of the vector potential. however. we could multiply the ﬁrst term by the dielectric inductivity of free space . In order to simplify this equation.Chapter Twelve. e is the intensity of the electric ﬁeld at the point in question. The Partial Integrations. (209) where the integration is to extend over the whole volume of the system V . ρ the density of charge and u its velocity. Since. If now we denote by f the force per unit volume of material exerted by the electromagnetic action it is evident that we may write in accordance with the principle of least action (135) dt dV δ e2 (curl φ)2 + −φ· 2 2 ˙ e u +ρ c c + f · δr = 0. Strictly speaking this expression for kinetic potential is not quite correct. and µ have the numerical value unity with the usual choice of units. since kinetic potential must have the dimensions of energy. ∗ . and the last two terms by the magnetic permeability µ. 153. 152. which is known to lead to the familiar equations of the Lorentz electron theory H= dV e2 curl φ)2 + −φ· 2 2 ˙ e u +ρ c c .∗ Let us now show that the expression which we have chosen for kinetic potential does lead to the familiar equations of the electron theory. we shall not be led into error in our particular considerations if we omit these factors. and where the integration is to be taken over the whole volume occupied by the system and between two instants of time t1 and t2 at which the actual and displaced conﬁgurations of the system coincide. (210) where δr is the variation in the radius vector to the particle under consideration. 184 may take for H the following expression. The Principle of Least Action. we shall need to make use of two results which can be obtained by partial integrations with respect to time and space respectively. To complete the equation and give all the terms their correct dimensions.

we can also obtain dV a div b = − dV a · curl b = dV b · grad a. noting that . ˙ dt (a δb) = − We may also write dV a db dx = dy dz (a db) = dy dz [ab]x=+∞ − x=−∞ dV b da dx . dV b · curl a. Thus we may write t2 t1 185 ˙ dt (a δb) = t2 t1 a d(δb) = [a δb]t2 − t1 t2 t1 dt da δb . (213) (214) 154. Making use of these purely mathematical relationships we are now in a position to develop our fundamental equation (210). dt or. dt (211) or. Carrying out the indicated variation.Electromagnetic Theory. Derivation of the Fundamental Equations of Electromagnetic Theory. since the displaced and actual motions coincide at t1 and t2 . we shall take our functions as zero at the limits of integration and may write dV a db dx =− dV b da dx . dt da δb . (212) Since similar considerations apply to derivatives with respect to the other variables y and z. since we are to carry out our integrations over the whole volume occupied by the system.

thus. δu = d(δr) and making use of (211) and (214) we easily obtain dt e+ 1 ∂φ c ∂t · δe + curl curl φ − ˙ e u +ρ c c · δφ 186 dt dV (215) φ − · δ(ρu) + f · δr = 0. c In developing the consequences of this equation. c ∂t ˙ e ρu curl curl φ = + . We then obtain with the help of (213) dt dV e+ 1 ∂φ + grad ψ c ∂t ˙ e u +ρ c c · δe (217) + curl curl φ − φ · δφ − · δ(ρu) + ψ δρ + f · δr = 0. however. (216) it is evident that it will be necessary to preserve the truth of this equation in any variation that we carry out. it should be noted. This can evidently be done if we add to our equation (215) the expression dt dV ψ[δρ − div δe] = 0. where ψ is an undetermined scalar multiplier. since we shall deﬁne the density of charge by the equation ρ = div e. we must then have the following equations true e=− 1 ∂φ − grad ψ.Chapter Twelve. c and may now treat the variations δe and δφ as entirely independent of the others. that the variations are not all of them independent. c c (218) (219) .

and noting equation (220) may write the mathematical identity div h = 0. As a matter of fact. We then obtain from (219) curl h = 1 ∂e u +ρ . and reduce to Maxwell’s set in free space. c ∂t c (225) . We have not yet made use of the last three terms in the fundamental equation (217) which results from the principle of least action. c ∂t (222) We have furthermore by deﬁnition (216) div e = ρ. (224) (223) These four equations (221)–(224) are the familiar expressions which have been made the foundation of modern electron theory.Electromagnetic Theory. They diﬀer from Maxwell’s original four ﬁeld equations only by the introduction in (221) and (223) of terms which arise from the density of charge ρ of the electrons. we obtain from (218) curl e = − 1 ∂h . 187 and have thus derived from the principle of least action the fundamental equations of modern electron theory. c ∂t c (221) (220) and. 155. noting the mathematical identity curl grad ψ = 0. We may put these in their familiar form by deﬁning the magnetic ﬁeld strength h by the equation h = curl φ. it can be shown that these terms can be transformed into the expression dt dV ρ ∂φ ρ − [u × curl φ]∗ + ρ grad ψ + f · δr.

while the diﬀerentiation occurring in in∂t ∂t dicates that we intend the rate of change at some particular stationary point. however. We now wish to introduce the theory of relativity into our discussions by presenting a set of equations for transforming measurements of e. h and ρ from one set of space-time coördinates S to another set S moving past S in the X direction with the velocity V . c V hy = κ hy + ez . ∗ ∂φ u − grad ψ + × curl Φ . hx = hx .Chapter Twelve. c∂t c ∗ u f =ρ e+ ×h . h and ρ. 188 and hence lead to the familiar ﬁfth fundamental equation of modern electron theory. where tricity we must have δρ = − div ρ δr and notes that δu = dt d the diﬀerentiation indicates that we are following some particular dt ∂φ ∂ particle in its motion. (227) c V hz = κ hz − ey . (228) c ez = κ ez + . if he makes use of the partial integrations which we have already obtained. This set of equations is as follows: f =ρ − ex = ex . V hz . We have thus shown the possibility of deriving the fundamental equations of modern electron theory from the principle of least action. notes that in accordance with the principle of the conservation of elecd(δr) . The Transformation Equations for e. The reader may carry out the transformation himself. (226) c The transformation of the last three terms of (217) into the form given above (225) is a complicated one and it has not seemed necessary to present it here since in a later paragraph we shall show the possibility of deriving the ﬁfth fundamental equation of the electron theory (226) by combining the four ﬁeld equations (221)–(224) with the transformation equations for force already obtained from the principle of relativity. c ey = κ ey − V hy . 156.

(230) . that these equations are themselves perfectly symmetrical with respect to the primed and unprimed quantities except for the necessary change from +V to −V .Electromagnetic Theory. in the ﬁrst place. our original expression for kinetic potential H= dV e2 (curl φ)2 + −φ· 2 2 ˙ e u +ρ c c can easily be shown equal to dV e2 h2 − 2 2 . this set of transformation equations fulﬁlls all the requirements imposed by the theory of relativity. (223). Thus. (226) will successfully transform them into an entirely similar set with primed quantities replacing the unprimed ones. (229) where κ has its customary signiﬁcance As a matter of fact. . it will be found that the substitution of these equations into our ﬁve fundamental equations for electromagnetic theory (221). And ﬁnally it can be shown that these equations agree with the general H shall be requirement derived in Chapter IX that the quantity 1− an invariant for the Lorentz transformation. (224). In the second place. it will be seen. on development. ρ = ρκ 1 − uz V c2 1 1− V2 c2 189 . (222). (221) and (214). To demonstrate this important invariance of H 1− u2 c2 u2 c2 we may point out that by introducing equations (220).

which shows at once that the two measurements of density of charge made by O and O are in exactly the same ratio as the corresponding measurements for the Lorentz shortening of the charged body. 190 and. We thus know that our development of the fundamental equations for electromagnetic theory from the principle of least action is indeed in complete accordance with the theory of relativity. that a given electric charge will appear the same to all observers no matter what their relative motion. we may ﬁrst show. so that the total charge will evidently measure the same for the two observers. we can easily show that our transformation equations for e and h do lead to the equality H 1− u2 c2 = H 1− u c2 2 . we may write our transformation equation for ρ (229) in the form ρ = ρ 1− 1− u2 c2 u c2 2 . As to the signiﬁcance of the transformation equations which we have presented for e. since it conforms with the general requirement which was found in Chapter IX to be imposed by the theory of relativity on all dynamical considerations. by introducing equation (17). h and ρ. . in accordance with the last of these equations.Chapter Twelve. noting that our fundamental equations for space and time provide us with the relation dV 1− u2 c2 = dV 1− u c2 2 . To demonstrate this we merely have to point out that. The Invariance of Electric Charge. 157.

since the description of an electromagnetic ﬁeld is determined by the particular choice of coördinates with reference to which the ﬁeld is measured.. Nature of Electromotive Force. Thus if O ﬁnds in an unvarying electromagnetic ﬁeld that Qe is the force on a small test charge Q which is stationary with respect to his system. The Relativity of Magnetic and Electric Fields. See for example Phys. We also see that the “electromotive” force which acts on a charge moving through a magnetic A similar invariance of electric charge has been made fundamental in the author’s development of the theory of similitude (i. Rev. O will ﬁnd experimentally for a similar test charge that moves along with him a value for the force Qe .. (231) It should be noted in passing that this result is in entire accord with the whole modern development of electrical theory. 3. 244 (1914). Similar remarks would apply to the forces which would act on magnetic poles. On this basis the most direct method of determining the charge on an electriﬁed body would be to count the number of electrons present and this number must obviously appear the same both to observer O and observer O . As to the signiﬁcance of equations (227) and (228) for transforming the values of the electric and magnetic ﬁeld strengths from one system to another. p. 159. where e can be calculated from with the help of these equations (227). we see that at a given point in space we may distinguish between the electric vector e = ex i + ey j + ez k as measured by our original observer O and the vector e = ex i + ey j + ez k as measured in units of his own system by an observer O who is moving past O with the velocity V in the X direction.e. ∗ .∗ 158. the theory of the relativity of size). vol. 191 We might express this invariance of electric charge by writing the equation Q = Q.Electromagnetic Theory. which lays increasing stress on the fundamentality and indivisibility of the electron as the natural unit quantity of electricity. These considerations show us that we should now use caution in speaking of a pure electrostatic or pure magnetic ﬁeld.

What will be the value of the electromagnetic force f acting per unit volume on a charge of density ρ which is passing through the point in question with the velocity u? To solve the problem take a system of coördinates S which itself moves with the same velocity as the charge. ez . while in our earlier dynamical considerations in Chapter VI we obtained transformation equations . to derive the ﬁfth fundamental equation of electromagnetic theory. by using a set of coördinates which are themselves moving along with the charge. For the components of the electrical ﬁeld ex . so that we may write F=Qe. ey . 192 ﬁeld ﬁnds its interpretation as an “electric” force provided we make use of a system of coördinates which are themselves stationary with respect to the charge. Since the charge of electricity is stationary with respect to this system. We may now make use of this fact that the forces acting on a moving charge of electricity may be treated as purely electrostatic.Chapter Twelve. or Fx = Q ex . 160. for convenience letting the X axis coincide with the direction of the motion of the charge. the force acting on it as measured in units of this system will be by deﬁnition equal to the product of the charge by the strength of the electric ﬁeld as it appears to an observer in this system. Such considerations throw light on such questions. Derivation of the Fifth Fundamental Equation. Fy = Q ey . as to the seat of the “electromotive” forces in “homopolar” electric dynamos where there is relative motion of a conductor and a magnetic ﬁeld. we have just obtained the transformation equations (227). Consider an electromagnetic ﬁeld having the values e and h for the electric and magnetic ﬁeld strengths at some particular point. for example. Fz = Q ez .

This derivation. ux hz . and that Q = Q. Substituting above and bearing in mind that ux = V .Electromagnetic Theory. provided by the theory of relativity. c (226) This is the well-known ﬁfth fundamental equation of the MaxwellLorentz theory of electromagnetism. Diﬀerence between the Ether and the Relativity Theories of Electromagnetism. 161. (62). it must not be supposed that the relativity and ether theories of electromagnetism are identical. uy = uz = 0. We have already indicated the method by which it could be derived from the principle of least action. and (63) for the components of force. 193 (61). c ux Fz = Q ez − hy . however. Although the older equations have exactly the same form as the ones which we shall . is particularly simple and attractive. c 1 [u × h]∗ c Fy = Q ey − which in vectorial form gives us the equation F=Q e− or for the force per unit volume f =ρ e+ 1 [u × h]∗ . from the transformation equations. In spite of the fact that we have now found ﬁve equations which can be used as a basis for electromagnetic theory which agree with the requirements of relativity and also have exactly the same form as the ﬁve fundamental equations used by Lorentz in building up the stationary ether theory. we obtain on simpliﬁcation Fx = Qex .

A word about the development from the theory of a stationary ether to our present theory will not be out of place. we desire to calculate with the help of equation (226). we must note that for the stationary ether theory. provided e and h are measured with reference to the same set of coördinates. u must be the velocity of the charged body through the ether. When it was found that the theory of a stationary ether led to incorrect conclusions in the case of the Michelson-Morley experiment. since our equations are true for measurements made with the help of any non-accelerated set of coördinates.” their measurements of electromagnetic phenomena could be described by a set of equations which have nearly the same form as the original four ﬁeld equations which would be used by a stationary observer. while for us u may be taken as the velocity past any set of unaccelerated coördinates. supposed to be true only for measurements which were referred to a set of coördinates which were stationary with respect to the assumed luminiferous ether. It will be readily seen that such an extension in the meaning of the fundamental equations is an important simpliﬁcation. 194 henceforth use. in the ﬁrst instance. for example. Lorentz then showed that if all systems should be thus c contracted in the line of their motion through the ether.Chapter Twelve. and observers moving with such system make use of suitably contracted meter sticks and clocks adjusted to give what Lorentz called the “local time. while the equations of Lorentz were. Suppose. t=ρ e+ 1 [u × h]∗ . the hypothesis was advanced by Lorentz and Fitzgerald that the failure of that experiment to show any motion through the ether was due to a contraction of the apparatus in the direction of its motion through the ether in the ratio u2 1 : 1 − 2 . 162. It will be seen that Lorentz was thus making important progress towards our . c the force acting on a charged body which is moving with the velocity u. they have a diﬀerent interpretation.

The ﬁnal step could not be taken. pointed out that the failure of the Michelson-Morley experiment. the attempts of science to increase the substantiality of this medium have met with little success. in particular since the phenomena of the interference and polar- . With regard to the present status of the ether in scientiﬁc theory. and this has been brought about by a gradual process which has only found its culmination in the work of Einstein.Electromagnetic Theory. Thus we have had solid elastic ethers of most extreme tenuity. Since the earliest days of the luminiferous ether. with clearness and boldness of vision. it must be deﬁnitely stated that this concept has certainly lost both its fundamentality and the greater part of its usefulness. we have had quasi-material tubes of force and lines of force. science has recognized anew that a correct mathematical description of the actual phenomena of light propagation is superior to any of these sublimated material media. which has shown that any unaccelerated system of reference is just as good as any other. Already for Lorentz the ether had been reduced to the bare function of providing a stationary system of reference for the measurement of positions and velocities. however. we have had vibratory gyrostatic ethers and perfect gases of zero atomic weight. It was Einstein who. 163. and now even this function has been taken from it by the work of Einstein. and all other attempts to detect motion through the ether. but after every debauch of model-making. and the new transformation equations for kinematics to which he was led have not only provided the basis for an exact transformation of the ﬁeld equations but have so completely revolutionized our ideas of space and time that hardly a branch of science remains unaﬀected. without abandoning our older ideas of space and time and giving up the Galilean transformation equations as the basis of kinematics. and ethers with a density of a thousand tons per cubic millimeter. To give up the notion of an ether will be very hard for many physicists. is not due to a fortuitous compensation of eﬀects but is the expression of an important general principle. 195 present idea of the complete relativity of motion.

The Electric and Magnetic Fields around a Moving Charge. It is. entirely beyond our present scope to make any presentation of electromagnetic theory as a whole. When a plane polarized beam of light is passing through a given point in space we merely ﬁnd that the electric and magnetic ﬁelds at that point lie on perpendiculars to the direction of propagation and undergo regular periodic changes in magnitude. t = 0. 165. For convenience consider a system of reference S such that Q is moving along the X axis and at the instant in question.Chapter Twelve. Our transformation equations for the electromagnetic ﬁeld make it very easy to derive expressions for the ﬁeld around a point charge in uniform motion. It is just as simple. Consider a point charge Q moving with the velocity V . 196 ization of light are so easily correlated with familiar experience with wave motions in material elastic media. There is no need of going beyond these actual experimental facts and introducing any hypothetical medium. Consideration will show us. let the charge coincide with the origin of coördinates O. Applications to Electromagnetic Theory. that by giving up the ether we have done nothing to destroy the periodic or polarizable nature of a light disturbance. however. care being taken to give his mathematical equations an interpretation in accordance with the fundamental ideas of the theory of relativity. indeed simpler. to say that the electric or magnetic ﬁeld has a certain intensity at a given point in space as to speak of a complicated sort of strain at a given point in an assumed ether. however. 164. The signiﬁcant fact that the fundamental equations of the new electromagnetic theory have the same form as those of Lorentz makes it of course possible to retain in the structure of modern electrical theory nearly all the results of his important researches. and in the following paragraphs we shall conﬁne ourselves to the proof of a few theorems which can be handled with special ease and directness by the methods introduced by the theory of relativity. We desire now to .

Electromagnetic Theory. which moves along with the same velocity as the charge Q. (x + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 Qy . giving us hx = 0. (y 2 . 197 calculate the values of electric ﬁeld e and the magnetic ﬁeld h at any point in space x. z in this system given by the equations ex = Qx . we obtain for the values of e and h in system S at the instant when the charge passes through the point O. Since the charge is stationary with respect to their new system of reference. hy = 0. the origin of coördinates O and the charge always coinciding in position. y . ey = 2 (x + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 Qz ez = . Introducing our transformation equations (9). ey = Q 1− x2 + 1− V2 c2 . (10) and (11) for x . we shall have the electric ﬁeld at any point x . z. Consider another system of reference. hz = 0. ex = Qκx = 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 (κ Qκy = 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 (κ Q 1− x2 + 1− V2 c2 V2 c2 x + y + z2) 3/2 (y 2 V2 c2 z2) 3/2 . S . 2 (x + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 2 while the magnetic ﬁeld will obviously be zero for measurements made in system S . y. y and z and our transformation equations (227) and (228) for the electric and magnetic ﬁelds and substituting t = 0.

(232) (233) 166. putting s for the important quantity V2 (y 2 + z 2 ) c2 and writing the equations in the vectorial form where we put x2 + 1 − r = (x i + y j + z k). (y 2 hx = 0. . and its energy content thus be changed. Our transformation equations will permit us to obtain a very important expression for the energy of an isolated electromagnetic system in terms of the velocity of the system and the energy of the same system as it appears to an observer who is moving along with it. This system is to be thought of as consisting of the various mechanical parts. c or. hy = − hz = V ey . The Energy of a Moving Electromagnetic System. Consider a physical system surrounded by a shell which is impermeable to electromagnetic radiation. c Q 1− x2 + 1− V2 c2 V2 c2 198 z + z2) 3/2 ez = . except that it may be acted on by external electromagnetic ﬁelds. The system is free in space. electric charges and electromagnetic ﬁelds which are inside of the impermeable shell.Chapter Twelve. Qκz = 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 (κ V ez . we obtain the familiar equations for the ﬁeld around a point charge in uniform motion with the velocity u = V in the X direction e=Q h= 1− u2 c2 r 1 [u × e]∗ . c s3 .

(234) where the integration is to be taken over the total volume of the system and over any time interval in which we may be interested. Let us now transform this expression with the help of our transformation equations for the electric ﬁeld (227) for electric charge (229). Noting that our fundamental equations for kinematic quantities give us dx dy dz dt = dx dy dz dt . (16). (15). we may then rewrite the above equation for this special case in the form ∆E = κ∆E + κV Fx dt . Consider now a system which both at the beginning and end of our time interval is free from the action of external forces. The restriction that the system shall be unacted on by external forces both at the beginning and end of our time interval is necessary . we obtain ∆E = κ + κV ρ (ex ux + ey uy + ez uz ) dx dy dz dt ρ ex + uy uz hz − hy c c dx dy dz dt . in accordance with our earlier equation (234). where. 199 Let us now equate the increase in the energy of the system to the work done by the action of the external ﬁeld on the electric charges in the system.Electromagnetic Theory. Since the force which a magnetic ﬁeld exerts on a charge is at right angles to the motion of the charge it does no work and we need to consider only the work done by the external electric ﬁeld and may write for the increase in the energy of the system ∆E = ρ(ex ux + ey uy + ez uz ) dx dy dz dt. and for velocities (14). ∆E is the increase in the energy of the system as it appears to observer O and Fx is the total force acting on the system in X direction as measured by O .

The energy of a system which is unacted on by external forces is thus a function of two variables. its energy E0 as measured by an observer moving along with the system and its velocity u. where u is the velocity of the system.. Under these circumstances we may evidently put Fx dt = 0 and may write the above equation in the form ∆E = ∆E0 1− or ∂∆E = ∂E0 1 1− u2 c2 u2 c2 . We may now apply this equation to a specially interesting case. and E ◦ is its energy as measured by an observer moving along with it. meaning thereby that all the mechanical parts have low velocities with respect to S and that their center of gravity moves permanently along with S .Chapter Twelve. Let the system be of such a nature that we can speak of it as being at rest with respect to S . 200 because it is only under those circumstances that an integration between two values of t can be considered as an integration between two deﬁnite values of t . simultaneity in diﬀerent parts of the system not being the same for observers O and O . We may now write E= 1 1− u2 c2 E0 + φ(u) + const. where φ(u) represents the energy of the system which depends solely on the velocity of the system and not on the changes in its E0 values. . .

We can then equate the work done per second by the force to the rate of increase of the energy of the system. Relation between Mass and Energy. dt But from equation (235) we can obtain a value for the rate of increase . (235) 1− u2 c2 which is the desired expression for the energy of an isolated system which may contain both electrical and mechanical parts. 167. assuming as before that the constant is equal to m0 c2 . which will be equivalent to making a system which has zero energy also have zero mass. 201 φ(u) will thus evidently be the kinetic energy of the mechanical masses in the system which we have already found (82) to have the value m 0 c2 − m0 c2 where m0 is to be taken as the total mass of the 1− u2 c2 mechanical part of our system when at rest. Let us apply a force F to the system in such a way as to change the velocity of the system without changing its E0 value. We have dE F·u= . Or. This expression for the energy of a system that contains electrical parts permits us to show that the same relation which we found between mass and energy for mechanical systems also holds in the case of electromagnetic energy.Electromagnetic Theory. Consider a system containing electromagnetic energy and enclosed by a shell which is impermeable to radiation. we obtain 1 E= (m0 c2 + E0 ). We may now write E= 1 1− u c2 2 (m0 c2 + E0 ) − m0 c2 + const.

The principle of relativity proves to be very useful for the development of the theory of moving dielectrics. (237) Examination of these expressions shows that our system which contains electromagnetic energy behaves like an ordinary mechanical sysE0 m0 + 2 E0 c at any tem with the mass m0 + 2 at low velocities or c u2 1− 2 desired velocity u. 168. dE . 1021 ergs of energy having the mass 1 gram. We realize again that matter and energy are but diﬀerent names for the same fundamental entity. To the energy of the system E0 . we must ascribe the mass 2 just as we found in the c case of mechanical energy. giving us dt E0 m0 + 2 c u 1− du dt u c2 2 202 of energy F · u = Fx ux + Fy uy + Fz uz = 3 2 . The Theory of Moving Dielectrics.Chapter Twelve. and solving this equation for F we obtain F= E0 c2 c (236) d m0 + u . dt u2 1− 2 which for low velocities assumes the form F= d dt m0 + E0 c2 u . c . part of which is E0 electromagnetic.

two new ﬁeld vectors. B = µH. It must not be supposed that the four ﬁeld equations (238)–(241) for electromagnetic phenomena in material media are in any sense contradictory to the four equations (221)–(224) for free space which we took as the fundamental basis for our development of electromagnetic theory. and also the density of electric current in the medium i. div B = 0. These quantities are found to be connected by the four following equations similar in form to the four ﬁeld equations for free space: curl H = ∂D +i . 1 c (238) (239) (240) (241) For stationary homogeneous media. 169. 203 It was ﬁrst shown by Maxwell that a theory of electromagnetic phenomena in material media can be based on a set of ﬁeld equations similar in form to those for free space. E and F. (242) (243) (244) where is the dielectric constant. ∂t 1 ∂B . Relation between Field Equations for Material Media and Electron Theory. the dielectric displacement. provided we introduce besides the electric and magnetic ﬁeld strengths.Electromagnetic Theory. the dielectric displacement D and the magnetic induction B. curl E = − c ∂t div D = ρ. i = σE. one of the main achievements of modern electron theory has been to show that the electromagnetic behavior of material media can be explained in terms of . µ the magnetic permeability and σ the electrical conductivity of the medium in question. magnetic induction and electric current are connected with the electric and magnetic ﬁeld strengths by the following equations: D = E. As a matter of fact.

the macroscopic observer using in fact diﬀerentials for time.Chapter Twelve. These average values. Thus our new equations for material media merely express from a macroscopic point of view the statistical result of the behavior of the individual electrons in the material in question. it is evident that the equa- . and magnetic induction. however. will thus pay no attention to the rapid ﬂuctuations of e and h which arise from the action and motion of the individual electrons. whose time rate of change will determine the curl of E and H respectively. and space. and this relation has been one of the problems solved by modern electron theory. E and H. which would be large from a microscopic or molecular viewpoint. dx. E and H in these new equations are to be looked upon as the average values of e and h which arise from the action of the individual electrons in the material. Since equations (238) to (241) are assumed to give a correct description of electromagnetic phenomena in media whether stationary or moving with respect to our reference system S. For the purposes of the rest of our discussion we shall merely take these equations as expressing the experimental facts in stationary or in moving media. it has been found necessary to introduce two new vectors. B. D. and the ﬁeld equations (238)–(241) for material media have thus been shown to stand in complete agreement with the most modern views as to the structure of matter and electricity. dt. the process of averaging being so carried out that the results give the values which a macroscopic observer would actually ﬁnd for the electric and magnetic forces acting respectively on a unit charge and a unit pole at the point in question. 170. electric displacement. Transformation Equations for Moving Media. 204 the behavior of the individual electrons and ions which they contain. to relate D and B to the actual electric and magnetic ﬁelds e and h produced by the individual electrons. It will evidently be possible. Since from a microscopic point of view E and H are not really the instantaneous values of the ﬁeld strength at an actual point in space. these electrons and ions acting in accordance with the four fundamental ﬁeld equations for free space.

Dx V V Bz . . z and t the values of x .Electromagnetic Theory. c c ix = κ(ix − Vρ ). Dz = κ Dz + Hy . y. curl E = − c ∂t div D = ρ . 1 c . with the velocity V in the X direction. 205 tions must be unchanged in form if we refer our measurements to a new system of coördinates S moving past S. Hy = κ Hy + Bx = Bx . c c Ey = κ Ey − V V Dz . As a matter of fact. div B = 0. c2 It will be noted that for free space these equations will reduce to the same form as our earlier transformation equations (227) to (229) since we shall have the simpliﬁcations D = E. z and t given by the fundamental transformation equations for space and time (9) to (12). Hz = κ Hz − Dy . (247) Hx = Hx . Dy = κ Dy − Hz . provided we substitute for x. Ez = κ Ez + By . equations (238) to (241) can be transformed into an entirely similar set curl H = ∂D +i ∂t 1 ∂B . c c (245) V V = Dx . y . say. Bz = κ Bz − Ey . B = H and i = ρu. c c (246) V V By = κ By + Ez . iy = iy . ρ =κ ρ− V ix . and substitute for the other quantities in question the relations Ex = Ex . iz = iz .

which would be found by an experimenter with respect to whom the medium is stationary. consider a new system of coördinates S also moving past our original system with the velocity V . Consider a homogeneous medium moving past a system of coördinates S in the X direction with the velocity V . B = µH . . Making use of our transformation equations (245) to (247) we can obtain by obvious substitutions the following set of relations for mea- . making use of an expression for kinetic potential which could be shown E·D H·B − equal to H = dV . as we have already pointed out. 171. 206 We may also call attention at this point to the fact that our fundamental equations for electromagnetic phenomena (238)–(241) in dielectric media might have been derived from the principle of least action. µ and σ are evidently the values of dielectric constant. i = σE . permeability and conductivity of the material in question.Chapter Twelve. and it will be noticed that our 2 2 transformation equations for these quantities are such as to preserve H which we found in Chapter IX that necessary invariance for 1− u2 c2 to be the general requirement for any dynamical development which agrees with the theory of relativity. We are now in a position to handle the theory of moving media. To do this. which. homogeneous media. our problem is to discover relations between the various electric and magnetic vectors in this medium. are known experimentally to be true in the case of stationary. Since the medium is stationary with respect to this new system S we may write for measurements referred to S in accordance with equations (242) to (244) the relations D = E.

Wilson’s experiment consisted in the rotation of a hollow cylinder of dielectric. c c By + κ(ix − Vρ ) = σEx . c V iz = σκ Ez + By . A. as a matter of fact. and arrangements made with the help of wire brushes so that electrical contact could be made from these coatings to the pairs of quadrants of an electrometer. 207 surements made with respect to the original system of coördinates S: Dx = Ex . c V Ez + By . c (250) (249) 172. iy = σκ Ey − V Bz . Wilson on moving dielectrics and indeed all other experiments that have been performed on moving media. The equations which we have just developed for moving media are. c Ey − (248) Bx = µHx . V V Ez = µ Hy + Dz .Electromagnetic Theory. Theory of the Wilson Experiment. The inner and outer surfaces of the cylinder were covered with a thin metal coating. Dy − V Hz = c V Dz + Hy = c V Bz . in complete accord with the celebrated experiment of H. By reversing the magnetic ﬁeld while the apparatus was in rotation it was possible to measure with . c c V V Bz − Ey = µ Hz − Dy . in a magnetic ﬁeld which was parallel to the axis of the cylinder.

By + we obtain 1− µ V2 c2 Dz = 1− V2 c2 Ez + V ( µ − 1) Hy . 208 the electrometer the charge produced by the electrical displacement in the dielectric.Chapter Twelve. neglecting terms of orders higher than Dz = Ez + V . substituting the value of By given by equations (249). 15 represent a cross-section of the rotating cylinder. Referring to equations (248) we have Dz + V Hy = c Ez + V By . c and. We may make use of our equations to compute the quantitative size of the eﬀect. Let the magnetic ﬁeld be in the Y direction parallel to the axis of rotation. The problem is to calculate dielectric displacement Dz in the Z direction. we have c (251) V ( µ − 1) Hy . Consider a section of the dielectric AA which is moving perpendicularly to the plane of the paper in the X direction with the velocity V . A Let Fig. Z A Y X Fig. c . c V V Ez = µ Hy + Dz c c or. 15.

Electromagnetic Theory. It would be a matter of great interest to repeat the Wilson experiment with a dielectric of high permeability so that we could test the complete equation (251). since measurements with the electrometer show the surface charge actually to have the magnitude Dz per square centimeter in accordance with our equation div D = ρ. This is of some importance since the original Lorentz theory led to a diﬀerent equation. c . c and this was found to ﬁt the experimental facts. 209 For a substance whose permeability is practically unity such as Wilson actually used the equation reduces to Dz = Ez + V ( − 1) Hy . Dz = Ez + V ( − 1) µHy .

CHAPTER XIII. but also because the analogies between ordinary geometry and the geometry of this imaginary space often suggest valuable modes of attack. In order to grasp the method let us consider a particle constrained to move along a single axis. 210 . and its motion as time progresses by a line in the plane. and in the form which we shall use. Then the position of the particle at any instant of time can be represented by a point in the XT plane. and let us consider a time axis OT perpendicular to OX. Idea of a Time Axis. The method often has very great advantages not only because it sometimes leads to considerable simpliﬁcation of the mathematical form in which the results of the theory of relativity are expressed. 173. On the other hand. FOUR-DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS. in order to carry out actual numerical calculations and often in order to appreciate the physical signiﬁcance of the conclusions arrived at. a method which was ﬁrst introduced by Minkowski. say OX. that many important results of the theory of relativity can be more easily obtained if we do not try to employ this four-dimensional geometry. principally developed by Wilson and Lewis. moreover. In the present chapter we shall present a four-dimensional method of expressing the results of the Einstein theory of relativity. The point of view adopted consists essentially in considering the properties of an assumed four-dimensional space in which intervals of time are thought of as plotted along an axis perpendicular to the three Cartesian axes of ordinary space. 174. The reader should also be on his guard against the fallacy of thinking that extension in time is of the same nature as extension in space merely because intervals of space and time can both be represented by plotting along axes drawn on the same piece of paper. the science of kinematics thus becoming the geometry of this new four-dimensional space. it is necessary to retranslate the results obtained by this four-dimensional method into the language of ordinary kinematics. It must further be noted.

” 175. A particle moving with T b c ∆t ∆x O a Fig. the particle were stationary. By conceiving of a four -dimensional space we can extend this method which we have just outlined to include motion parallel to all three space axes.Four-Dimensional Analysis. 16. and the kinematical behavior of an accelerated particle could be represented by a curved line.” and speak of the points and lines which represent the instantaneous positions and the motions of particles as “world-points” and “world-lines. for example. X dx could be represented by a straight line ac the uniform velocity u = dt making an angle with the time axes. Non-Euclidean Character of the Space. 16. It will be at once . and in accordance with the nomenclature of Minkowski might call such a geometrical representation of the spacetime manifold “the world. its behavior in time and space could be represented by a line parallel to the time axis OT as shown for example by the line ab in Fig. 211 If.

This method of treatment has been especially developed by Minkowski. up to perpendicularity. for example. since we could draw a line making any desired angle with the time axis. inclined to the ﬁrst and thus giving quite a diﬀerent ∆x . 212 evident that the graphical method of representing kinematical events which is shown by Fig. 16 still leaves something to be desired. represents the trajectory of a beam of light with the velocity ∆t there is then nothing so far introduced into our method of plotting to indicate the fact that we could not equally well make use of another set of axes OX T . to the velocity of the beam of light. and thus represent particles moving with any velocity up to inﬁnity. One of the most important conclusions drawn from the theory of relativity was the fact that it is impossible for a particle to move with a velocity greater than that of light. Another method of attack. value. Suppose. One of these is to conceive of a four-dimensional Euclidean space with an imaginary time axis. and it is evident that there is nothing in our plot to indicate that fact. in Fig. since it may be regarded as the square of the magnitude of an imaginary four-dimensional radius vector. the line OC. and Sommerfeld. which has been developed by Wilson and Lewis and is the one which we shall adopt in this chapter. In this way we should obtain invariance for the quantity x2 + y 2 + z 2 + l2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t2 . is to use a real time axis. such that instead of plotting real instants in time along this axis we should plot the quantity l = ict where √ i = −1. 17. for plotting the real . ∆x = c. ∆t There are a number of methods of meeting this diﬃculty and obtaining the invariance for the four-dimensional expression x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t2 (see Chapter IV) which must characterize our system of kinematics. ∆t It is also evident that there is nothing in our plot to correspond to that invariance in the velocity of light which is a cornerstone of the theory of relativity. Laue. u= ∆x = ∞.Chapter Thirteen.

but to make use of a non-Euclidean four-dimensional space in which the quantity (x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t2 ) is itself taken as the square of the magnitude of a radius vector. X′ quantity ct. . This latter method has of course the disadvantages that come from using a non-Euclidean space. if we wish to visualize the methods of attack and to represent them graphically.Four-Dimensional Analysis. however. 17. that these reduce largely to the introduction of certain rules as to signs. The method has the considerable advantage of retaining a real time axis which is of some importance. we shall ﬁnd. c 213 T T′ ∆t ′ ∆x ′ ∆t ∆x O X Fig.

214 We may now proceed to develop an analysis for this non-Euclidean space. and the geometrical analogies may be regarded merely as furnishing convenient names for useful analytical expressions. Considering . Consider a four-dimensional manifold in which the position of a point is determined by a radius vector r = (x1 k1 + x2 k2 + x3 k3 + x4 k4 ). and x4 throughout our development. Our method of treatment will be almost wholly analytical. x2 = y. where k1 . and x4 as the magnitudes of the four components of r along these four axes.Chapter Thirteen. space. x3 . k2 . and x3 with the three spatial coördinates of a point x. part i. 176. We shall retain the symbols x1 . 177. for the sake of symmetry. We may identify x1 . We have x1 = x. x2 . A more geometrical method of attack will be found in the original work of Wilson and Lewis. however. Our space will diﬀer in an important way from Euclidean space since we shall consider three classes of one-vector. y and z with reference to an ordinary set of space axes and consider x4 as a coördinate which speciﬁes the time (multiplied by the velocity of light) when the occurrence in question takes place at the point xyz. x2 . Space. x2 . x3 = z. k3 and k4 may be regarded as unit vectors along four mutually perpendicular axes and x1 . vector analysis of the non-euclidean four-dimensional manifold. We shall ﬁnd this to be quite a lengthy process but at its completion we shall have a very valuable instrument for expressing in condensed language the results of the theory of relativity. Time and Singular Vectors. x3 . time and singular vectors. (252) and from time to time we shall make these substitutions when we wish to interpret our results in the language of ordinary kinematics. x4 = ct.

and have thus evidently set up an imaginary space which will be suitable for plotting kinematical events in accordance with the requirements of the theory of the relativity of motion. Space or γ-vectors will have components such that (x1 2 + x2 2 + x3 2 ) > x4 2 . Invariance of x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t2 . and x4 which determine the end of a radius vector. Since we shall naturally consider the magnitude of a vector to be independent of any particular choice of axes we have obtained at once by our deﬁnition of magnitude for any rotation of axes that invariance for the expression (x1 2 + x2 2 + x3 2 − x4 2 ) = (x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t2 ). and we shall put for their magnitude s= x4 2 − x1 2 − x2 2 − x3 2 . (254) Singular or α-vectors will have components such that (x1 2 + x2 2 + x3 2 ) = x4 2 . x3 . which is characteristic of the Lorentz transformation. 178.Four-Dimensional Analysis. and we shall put for their magnitude s= x1 2 + x2 2 + x3 2 − x4 2 . 215 the coördinates x1 . . (253) Time or δ-vectors will have components such that x4 2 > (x1 2 + x2 2 + x3 2 ). x2 . and their magnitude will be zero.

a · (b + c) = a · b + a · c. namely (na) · b = n(a · b) = (a · b)(n). (259) √ ds = −dr · dr for δ-curves. r · r = (x1 k1 + x2 k2 + x3 k3 + x4 k4 ) · (x1 k1 + x2 k2 + x3 k3 + x4 k4 ) = (x2 + x2 + x2 − x2 ) (257) 1 2 3 4 and hence may use the following expressions for the magnitudes of vectors in terms of inner product √ √ s = −r · r for δ-vectors. (258) s = r · r for γ-vectors. 216 179.Chapter Thirteen. (255) It should be noted. k2 · k2 and k3 · k3 should be negative and k4 · k4 positive. . The above rules for unit vectors are suﬃcient to deﬁne completely the inner product provided we include the further requirements that this product shall obey the associative law for a scalar factor and the distributive and commutative laws. kn · km = 0. a · b = b · a. of course. k4 · k4 = −1. Inner Product of One-Vectors. We shall deﬁne the inner product of two one-vectors with the help of the following rules for the multiplication of unit vectors along the axes k1 · k1 = k2 · k2 = k3 · k3 = 1. it would be equally possible to develop a system in which the products k1 · k1 . in accordance with these rules. For curved lines we shall deﬁne interval along the curve by the equations √ ds = dr · dr for γ-curves. (256) For the inner product of a one-vector by itself we shall have. that there is no particular signiﬁcance in picking out the product k4 · k4 as the one which is negative.

180. Thus r · k1 r · k2 r · k3 r · k4 = (x1 k1 + x2 k2 + x3 k3 + x4 k4 ) · k1 = (x1 k1 + x2 k2 + x3 k3 + x4 k4 ) · k2 = (x1 k1 + x2 k2 + x3 k3 + x4 k4 ) · k3 = (x1 k1 + x2 k2 + x3 k3 + x4 k4 ) · k4 = x1 . We shall deﬁne the non-Euclidean angle θ between two vectors r1 and r2 in terms of their magnitudes s1 and s2 by the expressions ±r1 · r2 = (s1 × projection s2 ) = s1 s2 cosh θ. the sign depending on the nature of the vectors involved.Four-Dimensional Analysis. 181. Kinematical Interpretation of Angle in Terms of Velocity. (260) We see ﬁnally moreover in general that the inner product of any pair of vectors will be numerically equal to the product of the magnitude of either by the projection of the other upon it. For the angle between unit vectors k and k we shall have cosh θ = ±k · k . We note the analogy between this equation and those familiar in Euclidean vector-analysis. (261) the sign depending on the nature of the vectors in the way indicated in the preceding section. 217 Our rules further show us that we may obtain the space components of any one vector by taking its inner product with a unit vector along the desired axis and may obtain the time component by taking the negative of the corresponding product. = x2 . the plus sign holding if both are γ-vectors and the minus sign if both are δvectors. = −x4 . the hyperbolic trigonometric functions taking the place of the circular functions used in the more familiar analysis. At this point we may temporarily interrupt the development of . Non-Euclidean Angle. = x3 . (262) where the sign must be chosen so as to make cosh θ positive.

in terms of x. however. It will be evident from our introduction that the behavior of a moving particle can be represented in our four-dimensional space by a δ-curve. x2 . c2 (264) (265) u2 c2 It is to be noted that the actual trajectories of particles are all of them represented by δ-curves since as we shall see γ-curves would correspond to velocities greater than that of light. Let r be the radius vector to a given point on the curve and consider the derivative of r with respect to the interval s along the curve. x3 . ds = which gives us cosh φ = dx2 − dx2 − dx2 − dx2 = 4 1 2 3 1 1− ∗ 1− u2 c dt. ds making the substitutions for x1 . z and t we may write. and x4 .Chapter Thirteen. 218 our four-dimensional analysis to consider a kinematical interpretation of non-Euclidean angles in terms of velocity. (263) w= ds ds ds ds ds and this may be regarded as a unit vector tangent to the curve at the point in question.∗ each point on this curve denoting the position of the particle at a given instant of time. If φ is the angle between the k4 axis and the tangent to the curve at the point in question. y. we have dx1 dx2 dx3 dx4 dr = k1 + k2 + k3 + k4 . and it is evident that the velocity of the particle will be determined by the angle which this curve makes with the axes. we have by equation (262) cosh φ = −w · k4 = dx4 . .

Four-Dimensional Analysis.

219

and by the principles of hyperbolic trigonometry we may write the further relations sinh φ = tanh φ = Vectors of Higher Dimensions 182. Outer Products. We shall deﬁne the outer product of two one-vectors so that it obeys the associative law for a scalar factor, the distributive law and the anti-commutative law, namely, (na) × b = n(a × b) = a × (nb), a × (b + c) = a × b + a × c, (a + b) × c = a × c + b × c, (268) a × b = −b × a. From a geometrical point of view, we shall consider the outer product of two one-vectors to be itself a two-vector, namely the parallelogram, or more generally, the area which they determine. The sign of the two-vector may be taken to indicate the direction of progression clockwise or anti-clockwise around the periphery. In order to accord with the requirement that the area of a parallelogram determined by two lines becomes zero when they are rotated into the same direction, we may complete our deﬁnition of outer product by adding the requirement that the outer product of a vector by itself shall be zero. a × a = 0. (269) We may represent the outer products of unit vectors along the chosen axes as follows: k1 × k1 = k2 × k2 = k3 × k3 = k4 × k4 = 0, k1 × k2 = −k2 × k1 = k12 = −k21 , (270) k1 × k3 = −k3 × k1 = k13 = −k31 , etc.,

u c u2 c2

,

(266)

1− u . c

(267)

Chapter Thirteen.

220

where we may regard k12 , for example, as a unit parallelogram in the plane X1 OX2 . We shall continue to use small letters in Clarendon type for onevectors and shall use capital letters in Clarendon type for two-vectors. The components of a two-vector along the six mutually perpendicular planes X1 OX2 , X1 OX3 , etc., may be obtained by expressing the one-vectors involved in terms of their components along the axes and carrying out the indicated multiplication, thus: A = a × b = (a1 k1 + a2 k2 + a3 k3 + a4 k4 ) × (b1 k1 + b2 k2 + b3 k3 + b4 k4 ) (271) = (a1 b2 − a2 b1 )k12 + (a1 b3 − a3 b1 )k13 + (a1 b4 − a4 b1 )k14 + (a2 b3 − a3 b2 )k23 + (a2 b4 − a4 b2 )k24 + (a3 b4 − a4 b3 )k34 , or, calling the quantities (a1 b2 − a2 b1 ), etc., the component magnitudes of A, A12 , etc., we may write A = A12 k12 + A13 k13 + A14 k14 + A23 k23 + A24 k24 + A34 k34 . (272)

The concept of outer product may be extended to include the idea of vectors of higher number of dimensions than two. Thus the outer product of three one-vectors, or of a one-vector and a two-vector will be a three-vector which may be regarded as a directed parallelopiped in our four-dimensional space. The outer product of four one-vectors will lead to a four-dimensional solid which would have direction only in a space of more than four dimensions and hence in our case will be called a pseudo-scalar. The outer product of vectors the sum of whose dimensions is greater than that of the space considered will vanish. The results which may be obtained from diﬀerent types of outer multiplication are tabulated below, where one-vectors are denoted by small Clarendon type, two-vectors by capital Clarendon type, threevectors by Tudor black capitals, and pseudo-scalars by bold face Greek

**Four-Dimensional Analysis. letters.
**

A = a × b = −b × a = (a1 b2 − a2 b1 )k12 + (a1 b4 − a3 b1 )k13 + (a1 b4 − a4 b1 )k14 + (a2 b3 − a3 b2 )k23 + (a2 b4 − a4 b2 )k21 + (a3 b4 − a4 b3 )k34 , A=c×A = (c1 A23 − c2 A13 + c3 A12 )k123 + (c1 A24 − c2 A14 + c4 A12 )k124 + (c1 A34 − c2 A14 + c4 A15 )k134 + (c2 A34 − c3 A24 + c4 A23 )k234 α = d × A = −A × d = (d1 A234 − d2 A134 + d3 A124 − d4 A123 )k1234 , α=A×B

221

(273)

= (A12 B34 − A13 B24 + A14 B23 + A23 B14 − A24 B13 + A34 B12 )k1234 .

The signs in these expressions are determined by the general rule ¯ that the sign of any unit vector knmo will be reversed by each transposition of the order of a pair of adjacent subscripts, thus: kabcd = −kbacd = kbcad , etc., · · · . (274)

183. Inner Product of Vectors in General. We have previously deﬁned the inner product for the special case of a pair of one-vectors, in order to bring out some of the important characteristics of our nonEuclidean space. We may now give a general rule for the inner product of vectors of any number of dimensions. The inner product of any pair of vectors follows the associative law for scalar factors, and follows the distributive and commutative laws. Since we can express any vector in terms of its components, the above rules will completely determine the inner product of any pair of vectors provided that we also have a rule for obtaining the inner products of the unit vectors determined by the mutually perpendicular axes. This rule is as follows: Transpose the subscripts of the unit vectors involved so that the common subscripts occur at the end and

Chapter Thirteen.

222

in the same order and cancel these common subscripts. If both the unit vectors still have subscripts the product is zero; if neither vector has subscripts the product is unity, and if one of the vectors still has subscripts that itself will be the product. The sign is to be taken as that resulting from the transposition of the subscripts (see equation (274)), unless the subscript 4 has been cancelled, when the sign will be changed. For example: k124 · k34 = k12 · k3 = 0, k132 · k123 = −k123 · k123 = −1, k124 · k42 = −k124 · k24 = k1 .

(275)

It is evident from these rules that we may obtain the magnitude of any desired component of a vector by taking the inner product of the vector by the corresponding unit vector, it being noticed, of course, that when the unit vector involved contains the subscript 4 we obtain the negative of the desired component. For example, we may obtain the k12 component of a two-vector as follows: A12 = A · k12 = (A12 k12 + A13 k13 + A14 k14 + A23 k23 + A24 k24 + A34 k34 ) · k12 . (276)

184. The Complement of a Vector. In an n-dimensional space any m-dimensional vector will uniquely determine a new vector of dimensions (n − m) which may be called the complement of the original vector. The complement of a vector may be exactly deﬁned as the inner product of the original vector with the unit pseudo-scalar k123···n . In general, we may denote the complement of a vector by placing an asterisk ∗ after the symbol. As an example we may write as the complement of a two-vector A in our non-Euclidean four-dimensional space: A∗ = A · k1234 = (A12 k12 + A13 k13 + A14 k14 + A23 k23 + A24 k24 + A34 k34 ) · k1234 = (A12 k34 − A13 k24 − A14 k23 + A23 k14 + A24 k13 − A34 k12 ).

(277)

Four-Dimensional Analysis.

223

185. The Vector Operator, ♦ or Quad. Analogous to the familiar three-dimensional vector-operator del, = k1 ∂ ∂ ∂ + k2 + k3 , ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 (278)

we may deﬁne the four-dimensional vector-operator quad, ♦ = k1 ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ + k2 + k3 − k4 . ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x4 (279)

If we have a scalar or a vector ﬁeld we may apply these operators by regarding them formally as one-vectors and applying the rules for inner and outer multiplication which we have already given. Thus if we have a scalar function F which varies continuously from point to point we can obtain a one-vector which we may call the fourdimensional gradient of F at the point in question by simple multiplication; we have grad F = ♦F = k1 ∂F ∂F ∂F ∂F + k2 + k3 − k4 . ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x4 (280)

If we have a one-vector ﬁeld, with a vector f whose value varies from point to point we may obtain by inner multiplication a scalar quantity which we may call the four-dimensional divergence of f . We have div f = ♦ · f = ∂f2 ∂f3 ∂f4 ∂f1 + + + . ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x4 (280)

Taking the outer product with quad we may obtain a two-vector, the four-dimensional curl of f , curl f = ♦ × f = + + ∂f1 ∂f2 − k12 + ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂f4 ∂f1 + k14 + ∂x1 ∂x4 ∂f4 ∂f2 + k24 + ∂x2 ∂x4 ∂f3 ∂f1 − k13 ∂x1 ∂x3 ∂f3 ∂f2 − k23 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂f4 ∂f3 + k34 . ∂x3 ∂x4

(282)

(286) (287) ♦ · (♦ × f ) = ♦(♦ · f ) − (♦ · ♦)f .Chapter Thirteen. T T T T . T = (293) T 31 T32 T33 T34 . ♦ × (♦ × F) = 0. we have: ♦ × (♦F ) = 0. (283) (284) (285) ♦ × (♦ × f ) = 0. 41 42 43 44 . ♦ · (♦ × F) = ♦ × (♦ · F) − (♦ · ♦)F. ♦ · (♦ · F) = 0. Tensors. ♦ · (♦ · F) = 0. ∂x1 2 ∂x2 2 ∂x3 2 ∂x4 2 c ∂t (291) From the deﬁnition of the complement of a vector given in the previous section it may be shown by carrying out the proper expansions that (♦ × φ)∗ = ♦ · φ∗ . T 21 T22 T23 T24 . (292) where φ is a vector of any number of dimensions. In analogy to three-dimensional tensors we may deﬁne a four-dimensional tensor as a quantity with sixteen components as given in the following table: T11 T12 T13 T14 . ♦2 = ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + + − = ∆2 − 2 2 . 187. 224 By similar methods we could apply quad to a two-vector function F and obtain the one-vector function ♦ · F and the three-vector function ♦ × F. ♦ · (♦ × F) = ♦ × (♦ · F) + (♦ · ♦)F. Still regarding ♦ as a one-vector we may obtain a number of important expressions containing ♦ more than once. (288) (289) (290) The operator ♦ · ♦ or ♦2 has long been known under the name of the D’Alembertian. 186.

Before proceeding to the application of our four-dimensional analysis to the actual problems of relativity theory we may ﬁnally consider the changes in the components of a vector which would be produced by a rotation of the axes. shall itself be a one-vector. in which the new set of spatial axes has a velocity component relative to the original set.Four-Dimensional Analysis. 225 with the additional requirement that the divergence of the tensor. in the X direction alone. and have noted that in this way we have obtained for the quantity (x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 t2 ) the desired invariance which is characteristic of the Lorentz transformation. We have already pointed out that the quantity (x1 2 + x2 2 + x3 2 − x4 2 ) is an invariant in our space for any set of rectangular coördinates having the same origin since it is the square of the magnitude of a radius vector. familiar in preceding chapters. Let us consider a one-vector a = (a1 k1 + a2 k2 + a3 k3 + a4 k4 ) = (a1 k1 + a2 k2 + a3 k3 + a4 k4 ). div T = + + + ∂T11 ∂T12 ∂T13 ∂T14 + + + ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x4 ∂T21 + ··· ∂x1 ∂T31 + ··· ∂x1 ∂T41 + ··· ∂x1 k1 k2 (294) k3 k4 188. In fact we may look upon the Lorentz transformation as a rotation from a given set of axes to a new set. with a corresponding re-expression of quantities in terms of the new components. the X2 and X3 axes remaining unchanged in direction. deﬁned as follows. The Rotation of Axes. The particular form of Lorentz transformation. . will be found to correspond to a rotation of the axes in which only the directions of the X1 and X4 axes are changed.

is to ﬁnd relations between the magnitudes a1 . reversing the sign if the subscript 4 is involved. which are analogous to the familiar conditions of . a3 and a4 and a1 . a3 and a4 are the component magnitudes. now. k2 . etc. We have already seen. a2 . a3 and a4 . (a1 2 +a2 2 +a3 2 −a4 2 ).Chapter Thirteen. a2 . These relations. (295) By similar multiplications with k2 . k3 and k4 as unit vectors and a1 . 226 where a1 . Our problem. using a set of axes which have k1 . we shall have certain relations holding between the quantities k1 · k1 . k3 and k4 . a2 . The results can be tabulated in the convenient form a1 a2 a3 a4 a1 a2 a3 k1 · k1 k1 · k2 k1 · k3 k2 · k1 k2 · k2 k2 · k3 k3 · k1 k3 · k2 k3 · k3 k4 · k1 k4 · k2 k4 · k3 (296) a4 −k1 · k4 −k2 · k4 −k3 · k4 −k4 · k4 Since the square of the magnitude of the vector. is a quantity which is to be independent of the choice of axes. k1 · k2 . a3 and −a4 . a3 and a4 . a2 . a3 and a4 the corresponding magnitudes using another set of mutually perpendicular axes with the unit vectors k1 . Sections 179 and 183. that we may obtain any desired component magnitude of a vector by taking its inner product with a unit vector in the desired direction. a2 . k3 and k4 we may obtain expressions for a2 . k2 . We may obtain in this way an expression for a1 in terms of a1 . We have a1 = a · k1 = (a1 k1 + a2 k2 + a3 k3 + a4 k4 ) · k1 = a1 k1 · k1 + a2 k2 · k1 + a3 k3 · k1 + a4 k4 · k1 .

k3 = k3 . in accordance with equation (262). . = 1. for each of the six pairs of vertical columns in table (296). we may write. we shall obtain a1 a1 a2 a3 k1 · k1 0 0 a2 0 1 0 0 a3 0 0 1 0 a4 k4 · k1 0 0 −k4 · k4 (298) a4 −k1 · k4 If now we call φ the angle of rotation between the two time axes OX4 and OX4 . 227 (297) etc. orthogonality in Euclidean space..Four-Dimensional Analysis. = −1. can easily be shown to be (k1 (k2 (k3 (k4 and (k1 · k1 )(k2 · k1 ) + (k1 · k2 )(k2 · k2 ) + (k1 · k3 )(k2 · k3 ) − (k1 · k4 )(k2 · k4 ) = 0. · k1 )2 + (k1 · k1 )2 + (k2 · k1 )2 + (k3 · k1 )2 + (k4 · k2 )2 + (k1 · k2 )2 + (k2 · k2 )2 + (k3 · k2 )2 + (k4 · k3 )2 − (k1 · k3 )2 − (k2 · k3 )2 − (k3 · k3 )2 − (k4 · k4 ) 2 · k4 ) 2 · k4 ) 2 · k4 ) 2 = 1. Since we shall often be interested in a simple rotation in which the directions of the X2 and X3 axes are not changed. −k4 · k4 = cosh φ. we shall be able to simplify this table for that particular case by writing k2 = k2 . = 1. and noting the simpliﬁcations thus introduced in the products of the unit vectors.

as before. etc. k13 . we may obtain transformation equations which can be expressed by the tabulation (300) shown on the following page. etc. We shall have. k13 · k12 = (k1 × k3 ) · (k1 × k2 ) = (k1 × k3 ) · (k1 × k2 ) = 0. we may now rewrite our transformation table in the form a1 a1 cosh φ a2 a3 0 0 a2 0 1 0 0 a3 0 0 1 0 a4 sinh φ 0 0 cosh φ (299) a4 sinh φ By a similar process we may obtain transformation tables for the components of a two-vector A. for example. 228 Since we must preserve the orthogonal relations (297) and may also make use of the well-known expression of hyperbolic trigonometry cosh2 φ − sinh2 φ = 1. and taking successive inner products with the unit vectors k12 . k12 · k12 = (k1 × k2 ) · (k1 × k2 ) = (k1 × k2 ) · (k1 × k2 ) = k1 · k1 . k3 = k3 . and very considerable simpliﬁcation will be introduced. Expressing A in terms of the unit vectors k12 . etc. k14 .. k14 .Chapter Thirteen. the relation −k4 · k4 = cosh φ where φ is the non-Euclidean angle between . Making these and similar substitutions and introducing.. k13 . For the particular case of a rotation in which the direction of the X2 and X3 axes are not changed we shall have k2 = k 2 .

A23 k12 · k23 k13 · k23 A24 −k12 · k24 −k13 · k24 −k14 · k24 −k23 · k24 −k24 · k24 −k34 · k24 A34 −k12 · k34 −k13 · k34 −k14 · k34 −k23 · k34 −k24 · k34 −k34 · k34 229 .A12 k14 · k12 k14 · k13 k23 · k13 k24 · k13 k23 · k12 k24 · k12 k34 · k12 k34 · k13 A13 A14 A23 A24 A34 A12 k12 · k12 k13 · k12 A13 k12 · k13 k13 · k13 A14 −k12 · k14 −k13 · k14 −k14 · k14 −k23 · k14 −k24 · k14 −k34 · k14 k14 · k23 k23 · k23 k24 · k23 k34 · k23 (300) Four-Dimensional Analysis.

where V is the velocity between the two sets of space axes which correspond to the original and the rotated set of four-dimensional axes. we may write our transformation table in the form A12 A12 A13 A14 A23 A34 cosh φ 0 0 0 0 A13 0 cosh φ 0 0 0 − sinh φ A14 0 0 1 0 0 0 A23 0 0 0 1 0 0 A24 sinh φ 0 0 0 cosh φ 0 A34 0 sinh φ 0 0 0 cosh φ (301) A24 − sinh φ 189. Since the angle φ which occurs in our transformation tables is that between the k4 axis and the new k4 axis. This will permit us to rewrite our transformation table for the components . sinh φ = V c 1− V2 c2 . we may write. cosh φ = 1 1− V2 c2 . Interpretation of the Lorentz Transformation as a Rotation of Axes. We may now show that the Lorentz transformation may be looked upon as a change from a given set of axes to a rotated set. in accordance with equations (265) and (266). 230 the two time axes.Chapter Thirteen.

The radius vector from the origin to this point will be r = (x1 k1 + x2 k2 + x3 k3 + x4 k4 ). x3 . making use of the relations between x1 . x4 ). x4 and x. x2 . or.Four-Dimensional Analysis. x3 . y. t given . x2 . of a one-vector in the forms a1 a1 1 1− a2 a3 a4 0 0 V /c 1− V2 c2 V2 c2 231 a2 0 a3 0 a4 V /c 1− V2 c2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1− V2 c2 (302) a1 a1 1 1− a2 a3 a4 0 0 −V /c 1− V2 c2 V2 c2 a2 a3 0 0 a4 −V /c 1− V2 c2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1− V2 c2 Consider now any point P (x1 . z.

say OX1 and OX4 . and these diﬃculties can often be solved by considering only one pair of axes at a time. the importance of a graphical representation of our four-dimensional manifold should not be neglected. Graphical Representation. but this diﬃculty also can be met if we make certain conventions as to the signiﬁcance of the lines we draw. by equations (252). c2 We thus see that the Lorentz transformation is to be interpreted in our four-dimensional analysis as a rotation of axes. conventions which are fundamentally not so very unlike the . 232 Applying our transformation table to the components of this one-vector. we obtain the familiar equations for the Lorentz transformation x = x−Vt 1− y = y.Chapter Thirteen. z = z. The diﬃculty of representing all four axes on a single piece of two-dimensional paper is not essentially diﬀerent from that encountered in the graphical representation of the facts of ordinary three-dimensional solid geometry. and plotting the occurrences in the X1 OX4 plane. t = 1 1− V2 c2 V2 c2 . The fact that the geometry of this plane is a non-Euclidean one presents a more serious complication since the ﬁgures that we draw on our sheet of paper will obviously be Euclidean in nature. 190. Although we have purposely restricted ourselves in the foregoing treatment to methods of attack which are almost purely analytical rather than geometrical in nature. t− V x . we may write r = (xk1 + yk2 + zk3 + ctk4 ).

where we have drawn a pair of perpendicular axes. γ-radiusvectors will lie in the quadrant BOC and will have the magnitude √ s = x1 2 − x4 2 . Hence we may consider the hyperbolæ as representing unit pseudo-circles in our non-Euclidean plane and consider the rays as representing the radii of these pseudo-circles. as a matter of fact. Radius vectors lying in the quadrant AOB will have a greater component along the X4 than √ along the X1 axis and hence will be δ-vectors with the magnitude s = x4 2 − x1 2 . x1 2 − x4 2 = −1. a ﬁgure drawn in ordinary perspective. a fairly satisfactory representation of the non-Euclidean properties of the manifold with which we have been dealing. (303) together with their asymptotes. . Radius vectors lying along the asymptotes OA and OB √ will have zero magnitudes (s = x1 2 − x4 2 = 0) and hence will be singular vectors. and OX4 and the two unit hyperbolæ given by the equations x1 2 − x4 2 = 1. etc. Since the two hyperbolæ have the equations x1 2 − x4 2 = 1 and x1 2 − x4 2 = −1. OX1 . 18. Oa . Ob. starting from the origin and terminating on the hyperbolæ. OA and OB. given by the equation x1 2 − x4 2 = 0. A non-Euclidean rotation of axes will then be represented by changing from the axes OX1 and OX4 to OX1 and OX4 . OX1 and OX4 may be considered as perpendicular axes in the nonEuclidean X1 OX4 plane. Consider for example the diagram shown in Fig. rays such as Oa. 233 conventions by which we interpret as solid. will all have unit magnitude. where x1 and x4 are the coördinates of the terminal of the vector. and taking Oa and Ob as unit distances along the axes instead of Oa and Ob.. (304) This purely Euclidean ﬁgure permits.Four-Dimensional Analysis.

we shall have x1 = x1 cos θ + x4 sin θ. It is easy to show. X4 θ A ′ b b ′ X4 234 dx4 dx1 B ′ X1 O a′ a θ X1 D C Fig. x4 = x1 sin θ + x4 cos θ. and x1 and x4 the coördinates of the same point referred to the oblique axes OX1 and OX4 . Let x1 and x4 be the coördinates of any point with respect to the original axes OX1 and OX4 . 18. no change having yet been made in the actual lengths of the units of measurement. (305) .Chapter Thirteen. as a matter of fact. Then. by familiar equations of analytical geometry. that such a change of axes and units does correspond to the Lorentz transformation.

Oa Ob = = Oa Ob 1 cos2 θ − sin2 θ . from the properties of the hyperbola. cos θ dx4 c where V may be regarded as the relative velocity of our two sets of space axes. V x c2 t + . We have. where θ is the angle X1 OX1 . 235 and hence if we represent by x1 and x4 the coördinates of the point with respect to the oblique axes and use Oa and Ob as unit distances instead of Oa and Ob. Introducing this into the above equations and also writing x1 = x. It is evident. x4 = ct . . we shall obtain x1 = x1 x4 = x1 cos θ cos2 θ − sin θ sin θ cos2 θ − sin2 θ 2 + x4 + x4 sin θ cos2 θ − sin2 θ cos θ cos2 θ − sin2 θ . . that we may write dx1 V sin θ = tan θ = = . x1 = x . x4 = ct. moreover. however. We thus see that our diagrammatic representation of non-Euclidean rotation in the X1 OX4 plane does as a matter of fact correspond to the Lorentz transformation. we may obtain the familiar equations x= 1 1− t= 1 1− V2 c2 V2 c2 (x + V t ).Four-Dimensional Analysis.

Chapter Thirteen. and electrical discussions. part ii. We may now apply our four-dimensional methods to a number of problems in the ﬁelds of kinematics. Our general plan will be to express the laws of the particular ﬁeld in question in four-dimensional language. 236 Diagrams of this kind can now be used to study various kinematical events. 191. Singular vectors along the asymptote OB can be used to represent the trajectory of a ray of light and it can be shown that our rotation of axes is so devised as to leave unaltered. that our four-dimensional language introduces an extraordinary brevity into the statement of a number of important laws of physics. . there will always be an easy transition from our four-dimensional language to that ordinarily used in such discussions. the angle between such singular vectors and the OX4 axis. or electromagnetic nature. δ-curves can be drawn in the quadrant AOB to represent the space-time trajectories of particles. and the equations for the transformation of velocities and accelerations thus studied. γ-lines perpendicular to the particular time axis used can be drawn to correspond to the instantaneous positions of actual lines in ordinary space and studies made of the Lorentz shortening. however. corresponding to the fact that the velocity of light must appear the same to all observers. We shall ﬁnd. Since the components of these vectors along the three spatial axes and the temporal axis will be closely related to the ordinary quantities familiar in kinematical. applications of the four-dimensional analysis. Further development of the possibilities of graphical representation of the properties of our non-Euclidean space may be left to the reader. their form can be investigated using diﬀerent sets of rotated axes. and necessarily used when actual numerical computations are to be made. mechanical. mechanics and electromagnetics. making use of four-dimensional vector quantities of a kinematical. mechanical.

Since w is a four-dimensional vector in our imaginary space. ds ds ds ds (307) where ds indicates interval along the δ-curve. its changing position in space and time will be represented by a δ-curve. we may use our tables for transforming the components of w from one set . Remembering that for a δ-curve ds = dx4 2 − dx1 2 − dx2 2 − dx3 2 = c dt 1 − u2 . Extended Velocity. c2 (308) we may rewrite our expression for extended velocity in the form w= 1 1− u2 c2 u + k4 . We can call this the extended position of the particle and determine it by stating the value of a four-dimensional radius vector r = (x1 k1 + x2 k2 + x3 k3 + x4 k4 ). and this important vector w may be called the extended velocity of the particle.Four-Dimensional Analysis. (306) 193. The equation for a unit vector tangent to this δ-curve will be w= dr = ds dx1 dx2 dx3 dx4 k1 + k2 + k3 + k4 . 237 192. Since the velocity of a real particle can never exceed that of light. Kinematics. c (309) where u is evidently the ordinary three-dimensional velocity of the particle. Extended Position. The position of a particle and the particular instant at which it occupies that position can both be indicated by a point in our four-dimensional space.

uy c 1− u2 c2 k2 . Extended Acceleration. We have d2 r dw d c + k4 . 238 of axes to another. We may deﬁne the extended acceleration of a particle as the rate of curvature of the δ-line which determines its four-dimensional position. This is a good example of the ease with which we can derive our familiar transformation equations with the help of the four-dimensional method. k4 1− u2 c2 . ux V c2 1− 1− V2 c2 . The four components of w are ux c 1− u2 c2 k1 . by making simple algebraic substitutions. and with the help of table (302) we may easily obtain. the following familiar transformation equations: ux − V 1− ux V c2 ux = . c= 2 = = 2 ds ds ds u 1− 2 c u (310) . uz c 1− u2 c2 k3 . We shall ﬁnd that we may thus obtain transformation equations for velocity identical with those already familiar in Chapter IV. uy = 1 1− u c2 2 uy 1− 1− = V2 c2 . ux V c2 u V 1 − x2 c u2 c2 uz = uz 1− 1− V2 c2 .Chapter Thirteen. 194.

and we might now use our transformation table to determine the transformation equations for acceleration which we originally obtained in Chapter IV. 239 u2 . and dt the three-dimensional acceleration. we may write c2 Or. or.Four-Dimensional Analysis. dt 2 2 2 2 . introducing as before the relation ds = c dt 1 − c= 1 c2 1 1− u c2 2 du + dt 1 1− u2 c2 2 u du u c2 dt + 1 1− u2 c2 2 u du k4 . we may point out that the trajectory of a ray of light will be represented by a singular line. (311) c dt du where u is evidently the ordinary three-dimensional velocity. we may also write dx1 + dx2 + dx3 = dx4 . we have for any singular line dx1 2 + dx2 2 + dx3 2 = dx4 2 . Since the magnitude of all singular vectors is zero by deﬁnition. Transforming the ﬁrst of these equations we may write dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2 dx1 2 + dx2 2 + dx3 2 = =1 c2 dt2 dx4 2 or dl = c. since the magnitude will be independent of any particular choice of axes. The Velocity of Light. As an interesting illustration of the application to kinematics of our four-dimensional methods. 195.

and by applying our transformation table (302) we can derive very simply the m0 w = m . for the extended momentum. The Dynamics of a Particle.Chapter Thirteen. c (312) Or. measured when at rest. and its extended velocity w. In accordance with equation (309) for extended velocity. m0 w = m0 1− u2 c2 u + k4 . Extended Momentum. u + mk4 . if in accordance with our considerations of Chapter VI we put for the mass of the particle at the velocity u m= m0 1− we may write u2 c2 . we may write then. We may deﬁne the extended momentum of a material particle as equal to the product m0 w of its mass m0 . and that our four-dimensional analysis corresponds to the requirements of the second postulate of relativity that a ray of light shall have the same velocity for all reference systems. Similarly we could obtain from the second equation dl = c. dt 240 We thus see that a singular line does as a matter of fact correspond to the four-dimensional trajectory of a ray of light having the velocity c. 196. (313) c We note that the space component of this vector is ordinary momentum and the time component has the magnitude of mass.

sx sy sz w. pyx pyy pyz cgy . and as will be seen from the above equation this necessitates the constancy of the mom . mentum mu. The Tensor of Extended Stress. we have then m0 w = mu + mk4 = a constant. We may now express the laws for the dynamics of a system of particles in a very simple form by stating the principle that the extended momentum of a system of particles is a quantity which remains constant in all interactions of the particles. and energy. The Conservation Laws. 241 transformation equations for mass and momentum already obtained in Chapter VI. For this purpose we may take the symmetrical tensor Tm deﬁned by the following table: pxx pxy pxz cgx . c c c . 198. 197. Tm = (315) pzx pzy pzz cgz . It is evident that this one principle really includes the three principles of the conservation of momentum. Our four-dimensional methods may also be used to present the results of our theory of elasticity in a very compact form. c (314) where the summation extends over all the particles of the system.Four-Dimensional Analysis. This is true because in order for the vector m0 w to be a constant quantity. mass. its components along each of the four axes must be constant. of the total mass m. In order to do this we shall ﬁrst need to deﬁne an expression which may be called the fourdimensional stress in the elastic medium. and of the total energy c2 The Dynamics of an Elastic Body.

c2 (316) with which we have already become familiar in Section 132. which we found to be the equation for the motion of an elastic medium in the absence of external forces. express the equation of motion for an elastic medium unacted on by external forces in the very simple form div Tm = 0. Section 187.Chapter Thirteen. The elegance and simplicity of this four-dimensional method of expressing the results of our laborious calculations in Chapter X cannot fail to be appreciated. 199. (317) It will be seen from our deﬁnition of the divergence of a fourdimensional tensor. moreover. . From the symmetry of this tensor we may infer at once the simple relation between density of momentum and density of energy ﬂow: g= s . 242 where the spatial components of Tm are equal to the components of the symmetrical tensor p which we have already deﬁned in Chapter X and the time components are related to the density of momentum g. as shown in the tabulation. and the second of these equations expresses the principle of the conservation of energy. ∂t ∂g =0 ∂t (318) The ﬁrst of these equations is identical with (184) of Chapter X. The Equation of Motion. density of energy ﬂow s and energy density w. We may. that this one equation is in reality equivalent to the two equations div p + and div s + ∂w = 0.

h2 . h3 are the components of e and h. Electromagnetics. The Electromagnetic Vector M. The Field Equations. We may ﬁrst deﬁne the extended current. We may now state the laws of the electromagnetic ﬁeld in the extremely simple form ♦ · M = q. a simple but important one-vector. where e1 . 200.Four-Dimensional Analysis. 202. Extended Current. e3 . ♦ × M = 0. c ρ0 1− u2 c2 (319) is the density of charge at the point in question. and h1 . e2 . We shall take as the equation of deﬁnition q = ρ0 w = ρ where ρ= u + k4 . 201. We may further deﬁne a two-vector M which will be directly related to the familiar vectors strength of electric ﬁeld e and strength of magnetic ﬁeld h by the equation of deﬁnition M = (h1 k23 + h2 k31 + h3 k12 − e1 k14 − e2 k24 − e3 k34 ) or M∗ = (e1 k23 + e2 k31 + e3 k12 + h1 k14 + h2 k24 + h3 k34 ). (321) (322) (320) . 243 We also ﬁnd it possible to express the laws of the electromagnetic ﬁeld very simply in our four-dimensional language. whose value at any point will depend on the density and velocity of charge at that point.

203. In accordance with equation (284) we may write as a necessary mathematical identity ♦ · (♦ · M) = 0. 244 These two simple equations are. c ∂t c div e = ρ. The Conservation of Electricity. completely equivalent to the four ﬁeld equations which we made fundamental for our treatment of electromagnetic theory in Chapter XII. and from (322) div h = 0. (324) ∂t . Indeed if we treat ♦ formally as a one-vector k1 ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ + k2 + k3 − k4 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x4 and apply it to the electromagnetic vector M expressed in the extended form given in the equation of deﬁnition (320) we shall obtain from (321) the two equations curl h − u 1 ∂e =ρ . We may also obtain very easily an equation for the conservation of electric charge. as a matter of fact. (323) Noting that ♦ · M = q. c ∂t where we have made the substitution x4 = ct. These are of course the familiar ﬁeld equations for the Maxwell-Lorentz theory of electromagnetism. this may be expanded to give us the equation of continuity.Chapter Thirteen. ∂ρ div ρu + = 0. 1 ∂h curl e + = 0.

Let us now consider with the help of our four-dimensional methods what can be said about the forces which determine the motion of electricity under the action of the electromagnetic ﬁeld. (325) c We see that the space component of this vector is equal to the expression which we have already found in Chapter XII as the force acting on the charge contained in unit volume. This will be valuable since we shall then be able to express the equation of motion for a combined mechanical and electrical system in a very simple and beautiful form.Four-Dimensional Analysis. . Consider the inner product of the electromagnetic vector and the extended current: M · q = (h1 k23 + h2 k31 + h3 k12 − e1 k14 − e2 k24 − e3 k34 ) · ρ =ρ e+ [u × h]∗ c +ρ u + k4 c e·h k4 . and the time component is proportional to the work done by this force on the moving charge. hence we may write the equation M·q= f+ f ·u k4 . The Extended Tensor of Electromagnetic Stress. 245 204. We have thus shown the form taken by the four ﬁeld equations when they are expressed in four dimensional language. such that the important quantity M · q shall be equal to − div Te . c (326) an expression which contains the same information as that given by the so-called ﬁfth fundamental equation of electromagnetic theory. The Product M · q. f being the force exerted by the electromagnetic ﬁeld per unit volume of charged material. We may now show the possibility of deﬁning a four-dimensional tensor Te . 205.

T12 .. (330) This one equation is equivalent. T23 T24 . c (329) (328) Since in free space the value of the force f is zero. we may write for free space the equation div Te = 0. 2. k = 1. etc. where j. (292) and (322). But. of our tensor in accordance with equations .Chapter Thirteen. as a matter of fact. in accordance with equations (321). (326). T43 T44 . 4. Consider the symmetrical tensor T11 T12 T 21 T22 Te = T 31 T32 T T 41 42 246 T13 T14 . If we develop the components T11 . to two important and well-known equations of electromagnetic theory. 3. (327) deﬁned by the expression Tjk = 1 {Mj1 Mk1 + Mj2 Mk2 + Mj3 Mk3 − Mj4 Mk4 2 + Mj1 ∗ Mk1 ∗ + Mj2 ∗ Mk2 ∗ + Mj3 ∗ Mk3 ∗ − Mj4 ∗ Mk4 ∗ }. It can then readily be shown by expansion that − div Te = M · (♦ · M) + M∗ · (♦ · M∗ ). T33 T34 . this is equivalent to − div Te = M · q = f+ (f · u) k4 .

etc. Poynting’s equation for the ﬂow of electromagnetic energy.. and the second. We thus see that equation (330) is equivalent s to the two equations div ψ + 1 ∂s = 0. sy . 2 ψxy = −(ex hy + hx hy ). c Sy .Four-Dimensional Analysis. etc. being the components of the Poynting vector c [e × h]∗ . sx . and w being the familiar expression for density of electroe2 + h2 magnetic energy . c2 ∂t ∂w div s + = 0. (328) and (320) we ﬁnd that we ψ xx ψyx Te = ψ zx s x c where we shall have ψxx = − 1 (ex 2 − ey 2 − ez 2 + hx 2 − hy 2 − hz 2 ). sx = c(ey hz − ez hy ). 247 (331) ψzxy ψzz sx c sx c (332) ψ thus being equivalent to the well-known Maxwell three-dimensional stress tensor. etc. can write ψxy ψyy ψxz ψyz Sx . 1 w = 2 (e2 + h2 ). ∂t The ﬁrst of these is the so-called equation of electromagnetic momentum. c Sz . c w. .

we may now write the equation of motion for a combined electrical and mechanical system in the very simple form div Tm + div Te = 0.Chapter Thirteen. For a point not in free space where mechanical and electrical systems are both involved. taking into account our previous considerations. . 248 206. And we may point out in closing that we may reasonably expect all forces to be of such a nature that our most general equation of motion for any continuous system can be written in the form div T1 + div T2 + · · · = 0. Combined Electrical and Mechanical Systems.

energy density. l. energy. entropy. 249 . n direction cosines. T U v V w W temperature. kinetic potential.APPENDIX I. m. relative speed of coördinate systems. (Indicated by Italic type. function potential energy.) c speed of light. kinetic energy.—Symbols for Quantities. u2 c2 t time. e E H K L p S electric charge. Lagrangian function. pressure. dielectric constant. work. volume. Q quantity of electricity. Scalar Quantities. m0 c2 1− 1− . volume.

) B c magnetic induction. (Indicated by Clarendon type. generalized coördinates. κ 1 1− V2 c2 250 . electrical conductivity. scalar potential. D dielectric displacement. φ non-Euclidean angle between time axes. e E f F g electric ﬁeld strength in free space. µ index of refraction. . ν ρ σ φ1 φ2 φ3 · · · ψ ψ1 ψ2 ψ3 · · · frequency. h magnetic ﬁeld strength in free space. force acting on a particle. magnetic permeability.Appendix I. H magnetic ﬁeld strength in a medium. electric ﬁeld strength in a medium. Vector Quantities. force per unit volume. density of momentum. density of charge. generalized momenta. extended acceleration.

φ vector potential. density of energy ﬂow. i density of electric current. . unsymmetrical elastic stress tensor. 251 p symmetrical elastic stress tensor.Appendix I. radius vector. w extended velocity. q r s t extended current. electromagnetic vector. u velocity. M angular momentum.

r = xi + yj + zk Velocity.APPENDIX II. Unit Vectors. i j k Radius Vector. u= dr = xi + yj + zk ˙ ˙ ˙ dt = ux i + uy j + uz k Acceleration. ∂ ∂ ∂ +j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z 252 .—Vector Notation. [a × b]∗ = (ay bz − az by )i + (az bx − ax bz )j + (ax by − ay bx )k The Vector Operator Del or =i . Three Dimensional Space. a × b = (ax by − ay bx )ij + (ay bz − az by )jk + (az bx − ax bz )ki Complement of Outer Product. ˙ u= d2 r = xi + y j + z k ¨ ¨ ¨ dt2 = ux i + uy j + uz k ˙ ˙ ˙ Inner Product. a · b = ax bx + ay by + az bz Outer Product.

Unit Vectors. r = x1 k 1 + x2 k 2 + x3 k 3 + x4 k 4 = xi + yj + zk + ctk4 One Vector. a = a1 k 1 + a2 k 2 + a3 k 3 + a4 k 4 Two Vector. k1 k2 k3 k4 Radius Vector. kabc··· = −kbac··· = kbca··· . A = A123 k123 + A124 k124 + A134 k134 + A234 k234 Pseudo Scalar. grad A = ∂A ∂A ∂A +j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂ax ∂ay ∂az + + div a = · a = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∗ curl a = [ × a] ∂az ∂ay ∂ax ∂az = − i+ − ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x A=i 253 j+ ∂ay ∂ax − ∂x ∂y k Non-Euclidean Four Dimensional Space.Appendix II. A = A12 k12 + A13 k13 + A14 k14 + A23 k23 + A24 k24 + A34 k34 Three Vector. α = αk1234 Transposition of Subscripts.

Appendix II. Inner Product of One Vectors. ♦ = k1 ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ + k2 + k3 + k4 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x4 254 . Outer Product of One Vectors. kab··· × knm··· = kab···nm··· Complement of a Vector. (See Section 183). φ∗ = φ · k1234 The Vector Operator Quad or ♦.

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