This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Authority is the right to act or command others to act« authority goes with the job. Power .. An individual¶s capacity to influence decisions ± Politics is the efforts of organisational members to mobilise support for or against policies, rules, goals, or other decisions « politics, therefore is the essentially the exercise of power.
and use power and other resources to obtain one¶s preferred outcome in a situation where there is uncertainty or a lack of consensus about choices. This is often a source of conflict.Pfeffer (1981) says: 3 Politics involves those activities undertaken within organisations to acquire. develop. Change Mgt .
Change Mgt .for others it will upset their power base. y Change offers the opportunity for some to change the status quo to their benefit . y A political arena for self-interests. y Change managers must therefore first identify these stakeholders and their perceptions.Text book Chapter 8: 4 y Organisations can be thought of as a collection of constituencies each pursuing their own interests. and then manage these perceptions towards the change goal and outcome.
Gives people a chance to test their capacities. Can produce better ideas. Brings long-standing problems to the surface.Remember: y Conflict isn¶t always bad! y It is intended to obstruct another's goals but ± y Can be constructive As an agent for change. Can force new approaches. Clarifies individual views. Stimulates interest and creativity. As an agent for evolution. Change Mgt 5 .
But: 6 y Conflict can also: Mean some people feel defeated and demoralised. Increase the distance between people. Individuals and groups concentrate on their own (narrow) interests. Resistance can be enhanced. Employee turnover can increase. Change Mgt . Develop a climate of mistrust and suspicion.
y Limited resources: Eg lack of budget. the more limited the more conflict and exercise of power.The sources of conflict: 7 y Differences in perception: Different views of the µreal¶ world. y Violation of territory: Attachment to own areas of work or rooms or parking space or« y Environmental change: External influences can mean a shift in the requirements for resources and thus conflict. y Inequitable treatment: Eg in personnel activities such as rewards and promotions. y Departmentalism and specialism: Lack of co-operation and thus walls are built (see cultural pathologies) y The nature of work activities: Dependence on others for your work to be completed satisfactorily. Change Mgt . y Role conflict: Inappropriate role definition can lead to inappropriate behaviour.
wrangling. legitimate Vs personal power (organisational role Vs how other people view the holder). massaged.e. Change Mgt . information withheld.g.Power and politics 8 y Organisations have many different interest groups: collections of people with different goals and ambitions. covert . y Coalitions form to align interests of groups with and against each other: y Competition exists between rival groups: overt . conflict.
.9 y Control of valued resources means control of particular power ««. Change Mgt ..
BUT y Charisma gives leaders power over subordinates. y Capacity to enforce discipline through psychological or material punishment. y Expert power is exercised by those with specialised knowledge or technical skill. Change Mgt .Management can offer: 10 y Rewards. y Management have legitimate power through their formal authority.
a dominant interest group 11 y Considerable power to shape direction and decisions y but«« interest groups can withhold information. goods or services by threat or in reality ³the part of my job I enjoyed the most was matching doctor with (secretary).Management .. I was in charge of the girls and the doctors frequently gave me gifts. he was assigned a girl less competent. If a doctor failed to reward me. If a girl defied me I assigned her to a doctor that she didn¶t like´ (Lerner 1994) Change Mgt .
but it will be provisional Change Mgt 12 .Types of Power: (see Flood and Jackson 1991) Unitary Summary We all agree what to do Control This is what we do Pluralist We do our best to agree what to do and stick with it Open We need to get some agreement so that we can take action.
compromise not possible Require some to accept Not agree but compromise possible All participate Decisionmaking All participate Objectives Act in accordance No agreement possible Change Mgt Act in accordance 13 .Types of relationship Unitary Communality of interest Values and beliefs Share Control Do not share Pluralist Basic compatibility Open May well be partial Divergence may be significant with conflict Provisional compromise subject to change All participate but some have more influence May not be agreed but action agreed by negotiation Highly compatible Likely to conflict Diverge to some extent Ends and Means Largely agreed Not agreed.
y Coalition: Joining forces to increase own influence.Political ploys: 14 y Reason: Information used selectively to mount apparently logical arguments. y Higher Authority: Gaining support of superiors. y Bargaining: Exchanging benefits and favours. y Assertiveness: Being forceful and demanding compliance. y Sanctions: Promise of rewards or threats of sanctions. y Friendliness: Creating goodwill prior to making request. Change Mgt .
Using group pressure to ensure cooperation. Controlling the agenda at key meetings and ensuring the discussion doesn¶t go outside the parameters you set.Common Tactics: 15 y Controlling information flow to ensure right y y y y message gets through. Using outside experts to prove credibility or to deflect opposition. Change Mgt . Selecting the success criteria against which the change will be measured to favour the particular point of view.
Consultation Vs Negotiation for decision-making 16 y Negotiation It always costs you: be prepared for give and take No-one has complete control over process ± everyone has equal status The outcome is uncertain You want the people opposite to be strong and in a position to deliver y Consultation It need not cost you: the decision is in your hands so you can go back to square one You can control the process The outcome is uncertain but on your terms The strength of others is not central ± you look for wisdom not ability to deliver Change Mgt .
y Distortion of information due to µChinese Whispers¶ effect or vested interests. y Political competition between groups which may lead to the suppression of relevant information. information management and irrationality 17 y Constraints on time/money which reduce the search for alternatives. Change Mgt .Decision making.
Change Mgt . y May be biased or selective use of that information.Knowledge Power: 18 y When an individual in a group or organisation controls unique information and when that information is needed to make a decision. the individual has knowledge-based power. y Often related to expert power.
y High individual value and low corporate value = knowledge hoarding. learn from others but not share. y Low individual value and low corporate value = random sharing ± when requested but not volunteering. Change Mgt .Value of tacit knowledge 19 y High individual value and high corporate value = selective sharing ± that which brings reward but not that which might assist others. y Low individual value and high corporate value = information sharing for the benefit of others.
y Scapegoating: Blame someone else. 1999) 20 y Image building: To enhance standing. play one group off against other. y Compromise: Give up unimportant points to win on the important. Change Mgt . y Formal alliances: Join the strong. get others to take the µrap¶ and start the conflagration. y Rule manipulation: Interpret rules selectively in your favour. y Others: Dirty tricks. y Selective information: Withhold unfavourable. y Networking: Make friends with those in power. undermine others¶ expertise.Power tactics (Buchanan and Badham.
2. 7. Evaluate the most appropriate strategy and tactics for the situation to gain control. 5. 3. Choose a course of action. Discover the power bases. 6. who is influential. Develop your power bases. 4. Decide what you want to accomplish. Change Mgt .Pfeffer¶s 7 step programme to manage with power: 21 1. Diagnose patterns of dependence and interdependence ± who is reliant on whom. Find out their points of view.
y Develop inter-personal skills: Encourages communication and joint problem solving. nature of authority structure. y Leadership and management: Participative and supportive.Dealing with conflict:requires cultural change 22 y Clarify objectives and goals: Reinforce role definitions and performance standards. flexible working hours etc. delegation. y Organisational processes: Patterns of communication. Change Mgt . y Non-monetary rewards: Job design. democratic organisational functioning etc. grievance procedures. y HRM policies: Just and equitable. recognition of interest groups such as unions. empowerment. y Sociotechnical approach: Psychological factors developed alongside structural and technical requirements. y Resource distribution: Flexibility. y Group activities: Group cohesiveness may prevent conflicts.
y Design a personnel management action programme to review selection. y y y y y People are the key factor! Change Mgt . y Change the work organisation to balance the sociotechnical system ± new working arrangements should satisfy needs and expectations.To summarise: 23 Create an environment of trust and shared commitment. y Introduce suitable incentives ± tangible or not as required. development of new skills etc. Staff should participate at the earliest stage.. recruitment. Team management ± create and develop the co=-operative spirit and through shared involvement ± participative management style. Involve staff in decisions that affect them. training.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.