Plant and Equipment Tangible assets  Used in the normal business operations a.Property. production or supply of goods and services b. for administrative purposes  Expected to be used for more than one period  . for rental to others c.

RECOGNITION .

the cost of the item can be measured reliably Spare parts and servicing equipment are considered as inventory and are recognized as profit or loss when consumed. They are recognized as PPE if: 1. Plant and Equipment shall be recognized as an asset if & only if: a.As stated in PAS 16 paragraph 7  The cost of an item of Property. they are expected to be used for more than one period 2. it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the entity b. they are used only in connection with PPE item  .

Plant and Equipment may require replacement at regular interval. They are recognized as PPE if they met the recognition criteria stated in paragraph 7. Subsequent Costs    . such inspection is recognized in the carrying amount if the recognition criteria is met. If major inspection is a condition of continuing to operate an i\tem of PPE.Initial Costs  Some PPE item are acquired for safety and environmental reasons Day to day servicing of PPE are not recognized in its carrying amount Parts of some items of Property.

MEASUREMENT .

 The cost of PPE includes not only the purchase price but also other expenditures incurred in acquiring and preparing the PPE for its intended use.  .I. At Recognition PPE shall be measured at cost Cost is the amount of cash or cash equivalents paid or the fair value of the other consideration given to acquire an asset at the time of its acquisition or construction.

These incidental operations should be recognized as profit or loss or included in their classification as income or expenses. Recognition of the carrying amount of the asset ceases when the asset has been brought to location and condition necessary for it to operate as intended by the management. are some incidental operations that may occur before or during an item is being constructed.  There .

Cash .net of discount 3. On Account/ with credit terms .cash price equivalent 2.The cost of PPE item may vary due to the mode of acquisition: 1.the difference between the total payment and cash price equivalent is the interest . Deferred Payment (Installment) .

4. the cash flow of the asset received differs from the cash flows of the asset transferred 2. the entity-specific value of the portion of the entity¶s operations affected by the transaction changes as a result of the exchange 3. Exchange of Non-Monetary Assets .the cost of the asset is measured at its fair vale unless: (a) the transaction lacks commercial substance (b) the fair value of neither the asset received nor the asset given up is reliably measurable An exchange transaction has commercial substance if: 1. the difference between the first two is significantly relative to the fair value of the assets exchanged .

its cost is measured at the carrying amount of the asset given up . If the acquired item is not measured at fair value.

the cost of abnormal amounts of wasted material. Construction .5. labor or other resources incurred in self-constructing an asset is not included in the cost of the asset . .any internal profits are eliminated in arriving at such costs .measured at cost including all expenses incurred to build the asset and prepare it for its intended use.

Revaluation Model Fair Value Less Subsequent Accumulated Depreciation & Impairment Loss Fair Value (Market Value) is determined by appraisal .II. Cost Model Cost less Accumulated Depreciation & Accumulated Impairment Loss B. After Recognition A.

 If there is no market-based evidence of fair value. it should be estimated using an income or a depreciated replacement cost Changes in fair value determines the frequency of revaluation. If the carrying amount does not differ significantly from the fair value. it may be necessary to revalue the item only every three to five years  . further revaluation is required. If the fair value of the revalued amount differs significantly from its fair value. Revaluation of PPE must be done annually.

eliminated against the gross carrying amount of the asset and the net amount restated to the revalued amount of the asset an item of PPE is revalued. all the member of its class should be revalued  If . restated proportionately with the change in the gross carrying amount 2. The accumulated depreciation of a PPE item that is revalued should be treated any of these ways: 1.

the increase must be credited directly in equity under the heading Revaluation Surplus the carrying amount of the asset decreases due to revaluation: a. decrease shall be debited directly to Revaluation Surplus if there is an existing credit balance in respect of that asset b. if there is no existing credit balance. decrease shall be recognized as loss  If . If the carrying amount increases due to revaluation.

or when the asset is being used by the entity. Revaluation surplus may be transferred to retained earnings when: 1. asset is disposed 2. the amount of revaluation surplus transferred would be the difference between depreciation based on revalued carrying amount and depreciation based on original cost .

Depreciation  Parts of an item of PPE is to be depreciated if they have significant cost that are related to the total cost of PPE Significant parts of the same item with the same useful life and depreciation method may be grouped together when determining the depreciation charge The remaining parts should be depreciated using approximation techniques in a manner that faithfully represents the consumption pattern and/or useful life of its part. But an entity may depreciate the remaining part separately.   .

 Depreciation charge shall be recognized in profit or loss unless it is a part of the cost of other asset Ex. changes are accounted for as a Change in Accounting Estimate (IAS 8)   . Depreciation of manufacturing plant & equipment is included in the cost of conversion of inventories Depreciable amount is allocated on a systematic basis over the useful life Residual value and useful life should be reviewed at least each financial year-end. if estimates differs from expectation.

 Residual value of an asset may increase to an amount equal to or greater than the asset¶s carrying amount starts when PPE is already available for use. it ceases when PPE is classified as held for sale PPE are still depreciated  Depreciation  Idle .

expected usage of the asset b. the following factors must be considered a. legal or similar limits in the use of the asset  Estimation of the useful life of PPE may be based from the company¶s experience with similar asset . In determining the useful life. expected physical wear and tear c. technical or commercial obsolescence d.

 Land and Building are separable assets  Depreciation method reflects the pattern in which the assets¶ future economic benefits are expected to be consumed by the entity  Any changes in the pattern of consumption of the future economic benefit may be accounted for as a Change in Accounting Estimate (IAS 8) .

 Depreciation Methods: 1.depreciation change is constant over the useful life of the asset if there is no significant change in the residual value and useful life of the asset 2. Unit of Production Method ± based on expected use or output .decreasing charge over the useful life of the asset 3. Diminishing Balance Method . Straight Line Method .

by entering into finance lease or by donation) 2. Derecognition ± assets are removed in the accounts 1. Gains are not recognized as revenue but as other income  . On disposal (sale. when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal  Gain or Loss on disposal shall be recognized in profit or loss.

 Replaced part of an item PPE shall be derecognized regardless whether they are depreciated separately or not or loss on disposal is the difference between net disposal proceeds and carrying value  Gain .

PRESENTATION .

The items with their corresponding PPE are to be found in the Notes to the Financial Statement . Only the net carrying amount is reflected in the face of the Balance Sheet. PPE are long-term assets and therefore they are included in the Non-Current Assets section of the Balance Sheet as a separate line item.

DISCLOSURE .

. The measurement basis used for determining the gross carrying amount The depreciation method used The useful lives or the depreciation rate used The gross carrying amount and the accumulated depreciation (aggregated with accumulated impairment losses) at the beginning and at the end of the period A reconciliation of the carrying amount at the beginning and end of the period 2.1. 5. 4. 3.

..END«. God Bless Us All!!!..

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