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Role of Bureaucracy in Pakistan
Assignment no 1
Submitted to: Sir Ahmad Jamal Submitted by: Nouman Arshad 07-0247 M
a bureaucracy theoretically provides a service. they fail even to provide their original service. This occurs partially because of the misallocation of resources. it was a period of turmoil and turbulence. formulating the policies and political as well as ideological framework of Pakistan. internal security etc. the cabinet which ostensibly guides over any policy and the legislature which ostensibly make policy. the democratic governments were in the name but the shots were called by the bureaucrats while the military was supporting them as a junior partner. they waste resources (tax revenue). . action according to the adherence to fixed rules. non-economic. They monopolize discursive space (limiting public debate on their areas of 'expertise'). and a hierarchy of authority and delegated power. but the profit motive is removed from this process. then unsustainable. In the formative years. It can be argued that bureaucracies do fail on many fronts. It is this group of bureaucracy who has been. And being permanently in office. along with the military generals. unlike the politicians. based on rationales that are random. According to Weber a German sociologist: "Highly trained bureaucratic experts will prevail against the less expert ministers who ostensibly run the administrative units. from 1947 to 1951. fiscal arrangements. Other major disadvantages include: o Multiplication of administrative functions o Vertical structure o Red-tapism Roots of bureaucracy in Pakistan The bureaucracy in Pakistan is not an exception to such predictions. who come and go at their behest. but major decisions regarding foreign policy.• Defining Bureaucracy: A system of administration wherein there is a specialization of functions. they eventually subvert the society's values in which they operate. were being taken by the bureaucrats. and often entirely unrelated to the task at hand. they embrace revolutionary ideologies. objective qualifications for office. often ideological. they often act as though they are above the law. at first chronic. This inevitably results in inefficiency within the bureaucratic organization." Bureaucracy and its flaws First. it is they who have the power to actually govern the state as an administrative group. During the 1951-1958. then ruinous. economic development. they distrust the democratic impulse.
From 1958 to 1971. Feudal politicians supporting the system from the outside. but also serving their personal whims and covering up their misdeeds. powers of arbitrary dismissal of senior officers were given to the chief executive. but loyalty to the master which was the basis for all recruitment. The populist autocracy of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (1971-77). loot and plunder were let loose. Under Section 13 of the Civil Servant Act of 1973. modified the constitutional safeguards of public servants against dismissal etc. opportunistic professional groups. and the dismissal of 18 senior officer in 1973 to facilitate the "speedy implementation of the government's socio-economic reforms. while the military was a senior partner and bureaucracy as a junior partner. during the regimes of General Ayub Khan and General Yahya Khan. General Zia's first eight years (1977-1985) rule may be described as a bureaucratic rule once again in which the military was a senior partner while bureaucracy as usual a junior partner. the democratic government was in name only and the military and civilian bureaucracy continued their role as senior and junior partners. A large number of officers were again sacked like the Ayub Khan era. Only in Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's time was it eclipsed for a while. Finally the autocratic democratic rule from 1988 to 1999 was marked by a strong army and weak bureacuracy. hard work or efficiency. the competent authority could dismiss public servants of the rank of additional secretary (grade 21) and above in public interest. the bureaucrat. At the same time. A system of lateral entry was introduced. but it must be admitted to its credit that it rebounded back into the driving seat in his last year. have played into its hands. The feudal lord had reached his destination along with a modern munshi. In the last three years of Zia's rule when he lifted the martial law on 31st December 1995 after Junejo's government approved his changes in the constitution. so grandiose disorder. Absolute power corrupts absolutely. supported the system from the periphery. In the new dispensation it was not merit. He introduced administrative reforms in 1973 that. as the CSP was made the prime target of these changes. discredited feudal politicians. The ground for the reform was prepared by the purge of 1303 officers under Martial Law Order No. The stark reality is that most regimes in Pakistan. Constitutional guarantees of civil servants were withdrawn. the bureaucracy was finally politicized. even martial law. A crowd of religious leaders. During Zia's period. inter alia. promotions and postings. which not only meant pursuing the policies of the ruling party. Bhutto inducted 514 lateral recruits into the bureaucracy in three years and diluted the authority of the Federal Public Service Commission. 14 in 1972. because of the debacle in East Pakistan. witnessed the military and bureaucracy playing a second fiddle. The caretaker Prime Ministe Moeen Qureshi amended the Civil Servants Act of 1973 to provide security of service for the bureaucracy and to help it function without political . The administrative reforms of 1973 were a major setback to the well-entrenched Civil Service of Pakistan.
the Indian Civil Service -. with the needs of time. Under these rules. The rise of three bureaucrats. Governor General. were also promulgated. Iskandar Mirza could also manipulate to form the Republican Party. diametrically opposed to those of the people and those of the post-colonial independent societies. in a highly developed "power complex". Ghulam Mohammad Malik. Britain itself did not have a "power complex" to regulate its life as the one it created for India and other colonies. a seniority list was to be issued on a regular basis. The discretionary powers of the President and the Prime Minister to relax the upper age limit of public servants was proposed to be eliminated. The bureaucracy -. regulations. therefore. While in the eastern wing the parties had a mass appeal and they could win elections on the basis of their popularity. The Civil Servants Act was amended but did not include all the recommendations of Moeen Qureshi's government. It is this opportunity which pushed the position of bureaucracy to greater heights and they could rise above the politicians in the western wing. It has grown up. subject to acceptance by the successor government. Confirmation and seniority rules. If transferred." Its interests and orientations were. Its rule was responsible to none but to the government in London through the governorgeneral. later President. It exists on the basis of rules. Under the amended Act. In the late forties and early fifties the political parties played different roles in the two wings of Pakistan. civil servants were to be place in equivalent posts. In our society. The comparatively better position of the bureaucracy and the politicians in the western wing of the country played a decisive role in making the politicians weaker and weaker pushing up the bureaucrats to higher position of not only executive control but also policy making. Such a dual role of a government can be played better by the army . This led to disenchantment between the two wings of Pakistan. It would be correct to say that bureaucratic "power complex" was invented by British to rule their colonies. tenure and conditions of service could not be changed to the disadvantage of the civil servants. With the passage of time the failure to produce a constitution in time further lowered the position of the politicians. like a machine or a system of self-sustaining living organism. Choudhuri Mohammad Ali and Iskandar Mirza gave moral support to the strength of the bureaucrats and they could manipulate the Central government in a manner that suited them. which they did with extreme "efficiency. Thus for all practical purposes the politicians in the western wing came to play in the hands of the bureaucrats. in the western wing such popular appeal was lacking and hence elections could be managed at the bureaucratic level. laws and constitutional provisions. Pakistan has inherited the bureaucratic structure and procedures from the British colonial master.was essentially a mercenary force in which the sons of the local collaborating elite were inducted to do the dirty work for the colonizers.pressure. The bureaucracy thus was the biggest hurdle in the way of decolonization of our society and the creation of a truly democratic state in the postindependence era. bureaucracy is not a set of individuals who act according to their whims and fancies or merely to promote their selfish interest.
The bewildered transient is in the evolutionary process of forced conversion from the old to the new. appearing as a mole. He is unable to withstand the social compulsions around and the career ambitions within. still hanging on to his professional ethics. which started well in Pakistan. which in turn facilitated the emergence of military bureaucracy and a group of people composed of both rural feudals and urban corporate interest. His dismissal of prime minister Khawaja Nazimuddin's cabinet impugned the role of the legislature as the maker and sustainer of government. . The self-disciplined old type. Ghulam Mohammad. dingy. According to a retired bureaucrat. desolate and unfrequented corners of the administrative world. Playing persistently over the wicket of "external security threat" from India. however. cyst or pimple on the muscular mass. and the accomplished ones. paved the way to the emergence of new political actors along with bureaucratic lineal decedents of ICS.personnel than the civil bureaucracy since army commanders are more disciplined and hard working. was throttle by the civil as well as military bureaucrats. from the very inception of Pakistan on the one hand and. The rulers are happy to keep him in cold storage because he can say "no" to them. Thus the establishment of a system of central executive rule. Thus the door was opened for military rule. The standards and quality of life being apparently enjoyed by the majority of our bureaucrats today leave no room for doubt that it has over the years become an extremely lucrative and comfortable business to be a bureaucrat. He is today an insignificant residue. not because the politicians failed but because the bureaucrats would not give any chance to the politicians to play a genuine role by going to the people for support. rather than of cabinet government based on a representative legislature encouraged the concentration of power in a group of officials divorced from mass politics. Commissioner houses and so on. The show. The bureaucracy and the police play an important role in the running of the system. This showed how ineffective was the link between the prime minister and the institutions of party and parliament. the bewildered transient. alone are sufficient to support and corroborate this allegation. the present bureaucrats could be divided into three categories: the obstinate uncompromising old type. The sizes of the Deputy Commissioner houses. he goes along with the rulers unwillingly. Superintendent of Police houses. In 1958 the army did not only overtly jumped in our politics but in fact it proved as a foundation stone for the subsequent martial laws of 1969 and 1977. behind the facade of nominal parliamentary institution. stable and genuine political institutions and forces in the first decade of our independence on the other. that could be rightly called "capitalist and elite" force. is treated by our society as a fossil. came with governor general's dismissal of the Prime Minister in April 1953. The comforts and glamorous lifestyles reserved for the bureaucracy in this country are with very few parallels in the contemporary world. The first public exposure that who was really in control of Pakistan political system. Democracy. negation to evolve strong. Internal conflicts notwithstanding. a bureaucrat by profession had taken over power as governor-general after the assassination of Liaquat Ali Khan. His normal abodes are the dark.
Going by the working of the bureaucratic set ups. not service. One cannot understand bureaucracies until understanding that for bureaucrats. and that most of them were as corrupt as the politicians whom they blamed for the ills of the country • Role of Bureaucracy in Pakistan over the past years Although. discipline and dedication to its functions. in Pakistan. Its loyalty rests with the politicians in power who are out there to patronize their favorites in promotion. One of the many . he has been elevated from "government servant" to "government partner. the bureaucracy has almost completely lost its integrity. It is unusual for top politicians like prime ministers to say what they truly feel about the bureaucracy. drives them. That is why bureaucracy is a great hurdle in the way of reform and improvement. His Midas touch converts don'ts into do's. not bothering if they let down the government they were supposed to serve. the function of bureaucracy is to implement the policies. As of today. Everything is to be done in an unimaginative and imitative manner. procedures or systems. however. For his career prospects even the sky is not the limit. His creative genius pours lyrical praise in royal ears. but he nods only to those who matter. A very serious accusation was that they leaked out confidential information to the secret agencies (and the World Bank) in order to curry favour with them. because his dexterous dynamism is not deterred by rules. All the antennae of his personality are attuned to the corridors of power. the political class has abandoned its role of policy formulation and bureaucrats have taken over this role by filling in the vacuum. merely to try and implement them as ordered. To sum up. it becomes clear to identify the fact that the pattern of their functioning is often rigid and inflexible. military or civilian. transfers and postings. In her charge-sheet Ms Bhutto also said something that had been left unsaid before. This rigidity cripples initiatives. whether elected or self-appointed and whether benevolent or autocratic. mischievous and sycophantic and interested only in their own progress and promotion. require bureaucracies to govern countries. At the top sat the president or the prime minister with bureaucracy in one hand and the parliament in the other. It is not in the nature of bureaucracies to offer corrections to governments on policies or even to inform priorities." eligible for a holy alliance with the politicians. procedure is king and that performance is for governments Bureaucracy has a major role in the history of Pakistan. for decades now. For bureaucracies anywhere process. The bureaucracy has been subjected to unnatural demands of the rulers. regulations. He has perfected the art of extracting the full price for selling his soul. that senior officers only wanted posts in which there was clout and money. She called senior officers arrogant.is stolen by the new bureaucrat who nods. All types of governments. In a speech in mid-1996 PM Benazir Bhutto did the unprecedented.
This rigidity cripples initiatives. the purpose of policy formulation in larger interests of people of Pakistan will be served if we bring about reforms in our civil services to make them compete with the demand of the changing times. They do help political leadership in policy making but never make policies themselves. The institutions play the basic role in the policy formulations. In our view. Therefore such a group can not be given a role of policy maker as their interests and those of their targeted class may come in to clash with each other. all moral and professional principles are set aside aimed at protection of vested interests. they are very likely to fail as they are not programmed and trained for it. bureaucracies are often politicized to the detriment of the operationalisation of the institution. Political executive in the form of politicians could come and go but the bureaucrats stayed on to look after the working of the governments. They collect data and information through various sources. The basic idea behind the formation of bureaucratic structures was to provide 'permanent' government in the sense that the bureaucrats kept running the system of the government for the larger benefit of people as they were and are civil servants. It has often been observed that when the status quo is challenged. Since bureaucrats are not elected representatives. Therefore such a group cannot be given a role of a policy-maker. Thus if they happen to perform the policymaking function. They are assigned different tasks. analyse it scientifically . It is a pity that the political class has abandoned its role of policy formulation and bureaucrats have taken over this role by filling in the vacuum. In third-world developing countries like Pakistan. That is why bureaucracies are a great hurdle in the way of reform and improvement. So such a biased and prejudiced institution can not be expected to play an impartial role of policy-making.characteristics of bureaucracy is at the cost of public interest. It has often been observed that when the status quo is challenged. Going by the working of the bureaucratic set-ups. as their interests and those of their targeted class may come into clash with each other. it becomes clear to identify the fact that the pattern of their functioning is often rigid and inflexible. It is the within the sole domain of the politicians to formulate policies as their mandate stems from their being elected representative of people. One of many characteristics of bureaucracy as noted by famous German sociologist Max Weber is the spirit de corps even at the cost of public interest. Every thing is to be done in an unimaginative and imitative manner. therefore. The response of the state structures should be proportional to the enormity of the tasks facing the state systems. they can not be expected to know the public aspirations and sentiments. all moral and professional principles are set aside aimed only at the protection of vested interests. So their job has never been formulation of policy.
which is necessary for . Therefore we need to move fast to more organized and institutionalised policy-making. this is the norm. substance not form Is important.e. b. We also need to identify the relevant institutions for that purpose. Our constitution amply provides us the solutions to our national problems. submission to the constitutional requirements is a must. It is by taking recourse to the ideas of decentralization and delegation that we can succeed against heavy odds.and professionally and then reach conclusions through this process in a rational manner. whimsical and highly individualistic. c. It is a misfortune that our policy making on key issues of state and society has been unstructured. d. therefore every organ or institution is geared to achieve results in time and will observation of transparency. they then revise their results. The process of institutionalisation is instrumental in achieving efficiency in organizations and processes. Institutionalisation of policies can only be done if we clearly draw a clear-cut line between arrangements for policy formulation and policy implementation. In perfect democracies. This has cost our country very dearly in almost all walks of national life. political executive and Implementing executive. Thus they come up with the best formulated policy evolved through consensus. Judiciary is tasked with interpretation of laws and the role of Executive branch of government is to make policies and implement them. The job of political executive is to make policies and the job of government machinery as bureaucracies are also referred to is to implement those polices. Therefore if any effort to reform governance and bring about change in how the country is to be run is to succeed. After getting feedback. The function of parliament is law-making. Thus continuity of policies is ensured and it is helpful in delivery of services to the society. The inclusion of diverse viewpoints into the whole of policy formulation in institutionalised mechanisms gives it a bipartisan touch. Here question arises as to why institutions are so important in achieving the abovementioned aims? The following reasons could be cited in this regard: a. Now executive is further divided into two distinct branches with different mandates i. Since institutionalisation emphasizes on separation of powers. Failure in this respect is sure to cripple our efforts at reform and improvements. So people may come and leave but the process continues. what is required is the willingness and commitment to respect the constitution. In institutionalised decision-making. There are three major pillars of a state mentioned in the constitution namely Parliament. whereas the case of the third-world countries is different where roles of various branches are overlapping causing confusion and bad governance. Judiciary and Executive.
notwithstanding the fact that it is the politicians who are solely responsible for corrupting the bureaucracy in every way possible. The judiciary and the legislature are still recovering from the encumbering if invisible influence of the army. intelligence agencies. law and order and electricity. So such a biased and prejudiced institution cannot be expected to play an impartial role of policymaking. The politicians in and out of government are often critical of the way the civil servants work and their failure to meet the people's expectations. The military has become organizationally and institutionally stronger in the last decade. The military controls all key state institutions through either direct control or through invisible influence. Today arguably it is the state. During the last one year of the present government. gas and water issues are yet to be tackled effectively. the elected civilian government and 18th constitutional amendment notwithstanding. It has ensured it gets much better governance and administrative training than the civilian bureaucracy even as the latter suffers from institutional decay and heads into the other direction. major public issues have remained unsolved or the progress has been too slow or too insignificant. strength and survival.fair play and meeting the ends of justice. In developing countries like Pakistan. Other sectors such as education including the vocational and occupational training. it is easier to fix problems and conduct accountability. In my view. e. guidance and counseling of the civil bureaucracy to enact and enforce their show of power. foreign policy. . The response of the state structures should be proportional to the enormity of the tasks facing the state systems Military rulers are usually less critical of the civil services for they depend heavily on the advice. the administration of state institutions is still transparently marked by the invisible hand of the military and continues to depend on its capacity rather than civilian. the purpose of policy formulation in larger interests of the people will be served if we bring about reforms in our civil services to make them compete with the demand of the changing times. the civil service. health-care. home policy. economic policy. prisons. By virtue of decentralized activity and its responsibility in institutional policymaking. The hyperinflation. police. unemployment and poverty affecting a great number of people remain far off the mark. The worry is that due to the emaciated civilian bureaucracy. bureaucracies are often politicized to the detriment of the operationalisation of the institution.
facing our bureaucracy in our home land . Offices cannot be appropriated by their incumbents (inherited. the duty of each official to do certain types of work is delimited in terms of impersonal criteria b. bureaucrats in our country use the allotted funds for their personal use. In Pakistan we are also facing the hardships in this institution like. Every official's responsibilities and authority are part of a vertical hierarchy of authority. Definitely some stern actions would needed for grooming of this pillar . etc. corruption. Bureaucracy can be a very strong element of change in our country. Official business is conducted continuously 2. Officials do not own the resources necessary for the performance of their assigned functions but are accountable for their use of these resources 5. Official business is conducted on the basis of written documents In Pakistan. a common sin in the bureaucracy world when the officials are not held accountable for their results and in a system where the appointments of the officials rests merely on the references and friendships of renowned people and heads of the organizations. Police.They are responsible for the administrative affairs of the government. Customs. The bureaucrats in our part of the world use these resources like cars.) 7. the means of coercion at his disposal are strictly limited and conditions of their use strictly defined 3. travelling allowances etc for their personal objectives also which is contradictory to one of the principles laid down by Max Weber. one can easily point out the lack of professionalism that needs to carry out the bureaucratic job. Similarly.Now let’s compare the following principles of bureaucracy given by Max Weber to govern an organization with the prevailing bureaucratic setup of Pakistan:A bureaucratic organization is governed by the following seven principles: 1. audit etc). Official business is conducted with strict accordance to the following rules: a. miss management . if we analyze the current bureaucratic setup. sold. Official and private business and income are strictly separated 6. political use of institutions inter Alia are the prominent problems. With the officials in Pakistan contradicting with the principle laid down by Weber that the resources given to them must be used for the functions that are assigned to them and they should be held accountable for its use. the official is given the authority necessary to carry out his assigned functions c. The bureaucrats are appointed in important ministries like (DMG. But they are used by the . with respective rights of supervision and appeal 4.
military or civilian. According to a high level bureaucrat “Bureaucrats owns much power that not a single penny can be spend without the signature of the secretary” But the ministers use un-due influence on them and threat them of transfer. transfers and postings. The existence of bureaucracy is a necessary condition to run the affairs of the state. The failure of a state becomes inevitable if implementations are not done appropriately. the bureaucracy has almost completely lost its integrity. Its loyalty rests with the politicians in power who are out there to patronize their favorites in promotion. discipline and dedication to its functions. In Pakistan the implementation of policies has remained a critical issue due to lack of good governance and exploited bureaucracy. In my point of view if the bureaucrats are not influenced by the politicians than yes the change can come.politicians and the ministers in there own interest. . At the top sat the president or the prime minister with bureaucracy in one hand and the parliament in the other. Therefore if the bureaucrats take steps to improve the implementation of policies. As of today. so they have to do the wrong. the country can socially and economically stabilize. Problems with bureaucracy of Pakistan: The bureaucracy of Pakistan has been historically part of the pyramid of power in the country. These ministers take advantage of their intellect and manipulate laws in their own benefits to make them selves clean. Now it depends on the structure of the government as to what type of role it wants to assign to bureaucracy. o Enhance civil service performance and revive a spirit of public service by revising the salaries and providing incentives. Undoubtedly the bureaucracy of Pakistan can bring in a positive changed if the following steps are taken. Bureaucracy is a structure with which the policies made by authorities are to be implemented. There is no protection for the Bureaucrats. Some time they also threat the concern officers that if they would not do their work than the consequences would be severe. The bureaucracy has been subjected to unnatural demands of the rulers. for decades now.
however it cannot solely bring in the change. o Modernize civil service systems and processes and enhance inter-agency coordination through e-governance technology. Further. the above analysis highlights the fact that the prevailing bureaucratic is not an agent of change rather it resists change. the governments should also reduce their intervention in issues that are to be handled by bureaucratic officials. procedures or protocols laid down in the way of work of any system. In summary it resists change and creativity. The policies need to be well defined before their implementation. Conclusion: Bureaucracy can be the agent of change. which is the task of law makers. revising and simplifying existing rules and procedures to ensure that civil servants are informed of their rights and responsibilities. . its makes the system rigid and this causes unnecessary delay in implementation of policies. o Institute effective accountability over the civil bureaucracy o Promote fairness and eliminate opportunities for political manipulation at all levels of the civil administration. The bureaucrats need to concentrate more on the implementation of laws and less on the politics within and outside the bureaucracy. Bureaucracy if less politicized will undoubtedly bring in positive changes.o Enhance the functioning of federal and provincial secretariats by reducing excessive centralization of functions and devolving administrative and financial authority to lower tiers. One good thing about Bureaucracy is that it allows order. As bureaucracy talks about rules. But. project. Serious measures need to be taken and the authoritarians need to show by example that they follow the principles of bureaucracy and are accountable in the eve of law and come up as motivating and influencing forces for the downstream officials. it does not allow for individual development as workers are expected to follow the established routine. Also. etc. if care is not taken. On the other hand. with effective oversight. As everyone is require to follow the laid down laws and procedures. This somehow affects decision making in organizations especially in the absence of one or more decision makers in the system.
html .References: http://ghazali.net/book3/ch5/body_ch5.
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