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# TERM PAPER

Strength of material Mec 201
ON

“write a report on ultimate testing machine “

B tech (ME)
Submitted by:Anshu B tech(mechanical) Section : RG4901 Roll No. RG4901B60 Reg No.: 10905792 Submitted to:Mr. Nagvender Faculty & Guide, Strength of material

LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY, JALANDHAR (2010-2012)

Acknowledgement
I am thankful to Mr. Nagvender for providing me the task of preparing the Term Paper on“write a

report on ultimate testing machine ”.
At Lovely Professional University, We believe in taking challenges and the term paper which provided me the opportunity to tackle a practical challenge in the subject of kinematics of machine. This term paper tested my patience at every step of preparation but the courage provided by my teachers helped me to swim against the tide and move against the wind.

Contents:- . books and goggle search. I have got an idea from various encyclopedias.I am also thankful to my friends and parents for providing me help at every step of preparation of the Term Paper. Abstract of Work undertaken:I have done my with the help of internet with reference cites mentioned at the end.

True stress σ = F/Ai and true strain. Note. The symbols for these values are the Greek letters (in bold here) σ and ε : d li . The strain has the natural logarithm or ln dependence because it is determined from the instantaneous gauge length. The true stress and strain are also related by the modulus E. True stress and true strain differ from engineering stress and strain by referring to the instantaneous areas and gauge lengths respectively. For the instantaneous true strain increment dε . Consequently. σ= E ε since the modulus is established at a small strain level where Ai is approximately equal to A0 and li is approximately equal to lo.1 x 2 + 1 x 3 . the instantaneous area Ai can be calculated from the true strain. it is assumed σ * = 0 when e = 0 so that σ * = E e represents the first part of the load displacement curve. Because of this. For large strains when there is mainly plastic deformation. we have and by integration dε = dl l ε li dε = O lO dl l we have ε = In li lO Note that so that when In a + x = In a + x . the "error" is of order of ε2 or 10-4. a straight line that represents the elastic region with E as the slope. d ε = li  where l i Ai = instantaneous length of gauge section = instantaneous area. Volume = Aolo = Aili . It is implicit here that only axial stresses and strains are of interest. the volume of specimens are approximately conserved.1 x 4 + a 2 a 3a 4 a ε =In lo + ∆l = In 1 + e ≅ e lO For strains of about 1%. there is no significant difference in the engineering and true strains when all measurements are of small strains.σ *=Ee where E is Young's modulus.

If the hardening rate is too low. there is an upper yield point and a lower yield point.2% yield. Most data you will be exposed to are engineering stress and strain unless otherwise specified. The elongation to failure is the permanent engineering strain at fracture determined at zero load. In ductile materials. the true stress at fracture can be several times the engineering fracture stress. an unstable situation called necking develops. The elongation to failure is usually stated as percent strain over a given gauge length. In this region the stress is nonuniform because the A changes along the tensile bars length. the hardening rate must be faster than the decrease in cross sectional area: dσ ≥ . namely. Try to estimate the proportional limit when you analyze your data. If there is a yield point. a sharp transition between elastic and plastic deformation. The proportional limit is the stress where the flow curve first deviates from linearity. This is intrinsically difficult to measure because it is related to the sensitivity of your instruments. The . yield stress is defined as the stress at the yield point. The result is uniform elongation. To avoid neck formation.dA l A dσ ≥ σ dε In this case dF<0 and the sample is unstable. we have V=A l or dV= 0 = A + ldA dl dε = dl = .dA σ A Now if the volume remains constant so Substituting.2% permanent strain is used to define the yield stress. This occurs at the peak load. This value has little or no meaning as it represents the test not a material property. It does not include elastic strain but does include both uniform strain and the localized. This can be shown as follows: σ= F A or F = σA dF = Ad σ + σdA When the load is maximum. As a result the specimen may neck down and begin local deformation. Then the yield stress is so identified as 0. the material is yielding at a stress defined at a specific amount of plastic strain. strain. dF = 0 Adσ + σdA = 0 or dσ = σ dε So the work hardening rate has reached the critical value. The true strain at this point has some meaning. If there is a yield drop. Usually 0. If the load vs displacement curve is smooth. necking. The ultimate tensile strength is the largest engineering stress achieved during the test to failure.stability is achieved when the specimen hardens during deformation. To determine the true stress strain behavior beyond the peak load requires knowledge of the non-uniform geometry of the neck in both the calculation of strain and the stress distribution.

or diamond are commonly used materials for indenters. or cone. Thus a relationship between hardness and strength for a particular metal can be determined empirically. For most standard hardness tests a known load is applied slowly by pressing the indenter at 90 degrees into the metal surface being tested. SER # 2160.. Locate the scale pointer at the C zone as shown in Figure I for a steel material. An empirical hardness number is then calculated or read off a dial (or digital display) which is based on the cross-sectional area of depth of the impression. (a) Calibration 1. pyramid. Theory: Hardness is a measure of the resistance of a metal to permanent (plastic) deformation. For example. 10 A-R 10 (RAMS) machine (Rockwell Hardness Tester). The hardness of the metal is measured by forcing an indenter into its surface.HARDNESS TEST Objective: To determine the tensile strength of a material using the Rockwell hardness test. 2. Experimental Procedure: First. Follow figures II. The hardness test is much simpler than the tensile test and can be nondestructive (i. Apparatus: Steel.ME 272 LAB #2 -. Place C type test block (for steel material) on anvil and turn handwheel clockwise until test block comes in contact with penetrator. Insert penetrator into penetrator holder with the flat face holding the screw and tighten screw (see Figure II). the hardness test is used extensively in industry for quality control.e. The indenter material which is usually a ball. the small indentation of the indenter may not be detrimental to the use of an object). is made of a material much harder than the material being tested. IV. the indenter is withdrawn from the surface as shown in the figure. tungsten carbide. and V to install a diamond penetrator into the machine. aluminum and brass material specimens. we need to calibrate the test machine and then do the hardness test for a particular material. Continue turning handwheel until pointer makes two revolutions of the dial and comes to rest at the 12 O' clock position (see Figure . hardened steel. Cam handle should be in the start or forward position and the flat anvil should be placed on the anvil screw. After the indentation has been made. The hardness of a metal depends on the ease with which it plastically deforms. For these reasons. III.

Aluminum and Brass Specimens: For the aluminum and brass materials. . Choose 1/8 inch diameter steel sphere penetrator. Using the conversion graph to determine the tensile strength of a materia as shown in Figure VIII. locate the scale pointer at the B zone. Follow steps 1-5 as indicated for the steel specimen. The red dial number indicated by the pointer is the Rockwell number for aluminum and brass materials.

brass and aluminum specimens to observe the relationship between applied torque and twist (or torsional strains). and G = shear modulus of the  = material. Measure at least ten points for the T veruscurve. record the angle of twist in radians ( and the applied torque (T) and tabulate your results. Torsion test machine Theory: Torsional stresses occur in a machine member. Measure the gage length L and the diameter d. For a circular shaft of radius r and length L. and the graph should be within  the linear region. and angle of twist (  is given by ) ) T J = Gφ = τ L r where J is the polar moment of inertia for the shaft. Mount the specimen firmly in the torsion apparatus and make sure it is in a horizontal position by using a spirit level. Plot a graph of T verus . In the process. Hooke's law gives the torsional stress-strain relationship as τ = Gγ where  = shear stress (applied torque/area). when such a member is loaded by twisting couples acting in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the shaft. and the polar moment of inertia J. 1 degree of twist). torsional strains are induced. Apparatus: Standard material specimens. Experimental Procedure: For each specimen. Make sure that the specimen is not loaded beyond the elastic region (donot overload the specimen). g. 1. .TORSION OF CIRCULAR BARS Objective: To obtain the torque-twist relationship for various circular bars and to determine the material constants (E and G) for each specimen. 2. the relationship between applied torque (T). Begin applying twisting load gradually by turning the handle at suitably selected intervals (e. Tests will be carried out on steel. such as a power transmission shaft. Calculate the area of cross-section A. calipers.ME 272 LAB #3 -. shear stress (  .  shear strain.

Torsion test machine. Measure the linear slope of the T verus  graph. three bars with different cross-sections will be tested. calipers.TORSION OF PRISMATIC BARS Objective: To determine the approximate values of the torsional rigidity. In this experiment. Repeat the same procedure (steps 1-3) for the other materials. Thus. K and maximum shear stress. for each material. This experiment is a continuation of the previous experiment on the torsion of circular bars. Comment and discuss the accuracy of the results obtained in the experiment. For all cases. then the expression for the maximum shear stress is given by τm a x The angle of twist is given by R = T J φ = T L G J . Apparatus: Prismatic bar specimens of different materials. estimate the value of E for the material according to the formula G = E 2(1 + υ ) 4. and use this value to determine the modulus of rigidity.3. the angle of twist will be graphed as a function of torque in the linear range." Examples of prismatic bars include circular. for prismatic bars of various cross-sections. If the radius of the bar is R and the torques acting at the two ends have a magnitude T. circular cross-section. we test circular bars as well as bars with square and hexagonal cross-sections. Theory: A prismatic bar is a uniform bar whose cross-section is in the shape of a "prism. triangular. ME 272 LAB #4 -. You are already familiar with the torsional stress-strain relationship for a bar having a solid. square and hexagonal sections.3. G. By assuming a Poission ratio  of 0.

Fix the selected bar in the torsion machine. By knowing the value of G and maximum shear stress.7013 whereas for a hexagonal cross-section of width w (measured as the distance between two opposite flat faces of the hexagonal section). the value of C = 2. For each material selected.5 0 of twist. For a square cross-section. 1. 3. C is a constant depends on the type of cross-section for the prismatic bar. Graph angle of twist (in radians) versus applied torque. Derivation of the expressions for the maximum shear stress for prismatic bars with non-circular sections is beyond the scope of ME 272. we can simply list the applicable results. The angle of twist is found from φ = 2L T Gπa 4 K Experimental Procedure: Select one of the following materials: aluminum. where R is the radius of the prismatic bar. T is the applied torque. Tabulate your results. Make sure it is securely fastened. Note: Tables and graphs must be given for each bar tested. the value of C = 2.4526. finally the hexagonal bar. Measure the applied torques and the corresponding angle of twist. and J is the polar moment of inertia of bar. Convert angle from degrees to radians. Make sure not to exceed 4o of twist in any specimens. first for the circular bar followed by the square bar and. G is the shear modulus. They are given as follows: For a prismatic bar of width w and subjected to torques T.In the above equations. carry out the following procedures. calculate the shear modulus G. For the circular bar only. the maximum shear stress is given by τ m a x = C T 3 K πa where a = w/2. for each 0. However. brass or steel. we can determine the angle of twist in a circular bar of known length L and radius R. L is the length of the bar. . 2.

Discussion: Comment on the accuracy of your results. Repeat the same for the bar with the hexagonal section. Find the maximum shear stress for the circular bar. and for the hexagonal bar. find the torsional rigidity K from the slope of the twist-torque graph. and equations given above. For the square bar. . square cross-section bar. 5.4.

ME 272 LAB #5 -. calipers. 1). In the process. For the specimen (use the modulus of elasticity for Aluminum as E = 70 G Pa).BENDING OF BEAMS Objective: To obtain the radius of curvature for a given set of loads and compare to the theoretical values. Make sure that the two overhangs (d) on the left and right sides have equal lengths (see Fig. For a  = rectangular bar of width b and thickness h. and the moment of inertia I. Fig. Beam bending test machine Theory: Bending stresses occur when a member (is horizontal) is loaded by transverse loads. bending strains are induced. and radius of curvature (  is given by ) ) M I = E = ρ σ y where I is the moment of inertia for the beam about the neutral axis. Calculate the area of crosssection A.  bending strain. 1. Hooke's law gives the bending stress-strain relationship as σ = Eε where  = bending stress. the relationship between moment due to applied load (M). Beam set-up Experimental Procedure: Measure the width b and the thickness h. bending stress (  . Use the Aluminum beam and set the two supports 1. and E = Young's modulus of the material. Apparatus: Standard aluminum specimen. Part 1: 1. Tests will be carried out on aluminum specimen to observe the relationship between applied load and bending curvature. .0 m apart.

5. where RTh. Place the hangers at the distance d= 0.2m and measure the deflection (gamma) at the middle of the beam caused by the applied force (F=mg). 4. g = acceleration due to gravity. m = applied mass at one end of the beam. M = bending moment.12m from the supports. Remember to zero the dial gage before taking the measurement. 4. Tabulate and compare these values with those obtained in step 5. m = 1kg and m = 1. Place respectively m = 0. 5. Explain and give reasons for the differences in the conclusion section of your report. Repeat the measurement in step 3 for hangers at d = 0. Place the dial gage at the middle of the beam and zero it. and d = distance from support to mass hanger. Calculate the radius of curvature from the theoretical formula: RTh. Use the mass of m = 1.5kg on each side. = theoretical radius of curvature.4kg equally on both sides and measure the respective displacements (gamma).) versus the three forces (F=mg) that were placed at the end of the beam. Zero the dial gage each time you change masses.2. Place one hanger on the outside of each support such that each hanger is d = 0. Tabulate and graph experimental radius of curvature (Rexp. E = modulus of elasticity. Calculate bending moments (M=mgd) for the three loads. Part 2: 1. 3.16m from the supports. Remember to zero the dial gage before taking the measurement. 2. 6. Use the same support positions as in part (1) and zero the dial gage. 1). . = EI/M. 3.5kg. Repeat the measurement in step 3 for hangers at d = 0. I = mass moment of inertia = (1/12) (b) (h**3).2m away from the support (see Fig.

. Calculate the experimental radius of curvature (Rexp. Tabulate the values and graph the curve: radius of curvature (Rexp.6. 7. = EI/M) for each case and compare the results. Calculate the theoretical radius of curvature (RTh. Explain and give reasons for the differences in the conclusion section of your report.).) versus distance (d) of the hanger from the support.

discussion. discussion and conclusions.after you have finished plotting all the graphs. TITLE PAGE: This page should contain the following information: a. it is best to write it last. Do not blame everything on "human error. etc. A type-written copy of the report should be submitted with each experiment. Your discussion should explain the scientific basis for any differences between the actual experimental results and those predicted from theory. The name of your lab instructor 2. conclusions. The names of your lab partners d. abstract.Report Format for ME 340 Dynamic Systems & Measurements The report should contain the following sections: title page.g. a concise statement of the objectives of the test. The date of the experiment e. it is necessary to make some assumptions. including appropriate units for the variables. The title of the experiment b. Although the abstract is the first section in the report. DISCUSSION: This is the most important part of your report. The more the actual physical system differs from a mathematical model. 3. analyzed the data. It is therefore. In engineering experimentation. Each section is described in detail below. . 1. Table 2A. Use computer generated graphs and tables for describing results. you should strive to find ways by which such errors may exist and may be eliminated in future tests. or any other aspect of the experiment should be included in this section. The experimental procedure should not be included in the abstract. Further. Identify each table or figure with a number e. Label all graphs completely with: main title. ABSTRACT: The abstract is a summary of the contents of the report. and highlights of the experimental results. and written the discussion and conclusions. in order to make a solvable mathematical model. appendices and references. axes labels. recommendations for the improvement of the experimental procedure or results. the measured data will not be in exact agreement with the expected theoretical results. more often than not. This is because theoretical results are based on mathematical modeling." Moreover. the greater the experimental error. This is one of the keys to being a good experimentalist. The author's name (Your name) c. results. Graphs or Charts. etc. RESULTS: The results are best presented in Tables. Therefore. 4. Figure 1.

7. giving valuable practical experience of some workshop technology. Science Some of the most important mechanical properties of a material can be determined by means of a simple tensile test. but which is nevertheless important for a thorough understanding of the experiment. Practical skills The first part of the practical involves the preparation of metal tensile specimens by machining. Anything that could interrupt the flow of thought in the main report. Overview of practical After instruction from the Students' Workshop technician. This practical introduces tensile testing of metals and plastics and demonstrates the meaning of often-used mechanical property specifications.5. are not required in the reports submitted for this Course. students will each fabricate some metal tensile specimens (choosing from steel.1 1 The tensile testing experiments use two steel and one each of the copper and brass specimens. but it is not necessary to make all of these yourselves. Give a list of equipments used and their model type & make in the appendix. it would take far too long). table of contents. APPENDICES: Include a separate appendix for every major item that is too distracting to include in the main report. etc. or did you discover something else? 6. .. CONCLUSIONS: Consider questions such as these in discussing your conclusions: What did you learn as a result of spending several hours in the lab? Were your original objectives met. NOTE: Details of the experimental procedure. should be placed in an Appendix. description of apparatus. This part of the practical is so you can gain some experience of how simple metal components and specimens can be made. copper and 70/30 brass). REFERENCES: Citations of relevant theoretical background material and other related work should be included in the reference list. as the teaching lab has stocks of test specimens (besides. giving a comparison of actual values for a variety of real materials.

and others'. is used to tensile test strip specimens of various plastics which are supplied ready for testing. The results obtained from the tensometer are put out in the form of a load-extension plot on the laser printer at the end of the test. also on the second day. On the second day the specimens are tested to failure in a Hounsfield Tensometer. 14 chucks. an Instron. Before starting the testing set the Hounsfield Reduction in Area and Elongation gauges for each sample. use the following relationships: . the specimens should be handed to the Practical Class Technician (PCT). To convert this into an engineering stress-strain plot. safety in the workshop. At the end of the day.Safety note: You must not use any equipment in the students' workshop without first attending the safety talk there. You must not use any equipment in the students' workshop without supervision from the workshop Technician or a Junior demonstrator. Use Tensometer No. with the 20 kN load cell and maximum strain magnification. A slightly more sophisticated testing machine. Test one sample of each material to failure. Experimental Details 1) Testing of metals Mechanical testing of metals is carried out on a Hounsfield Tensometer. so that (s)he can heat treat them for 2 hours at 500°C in a sand bath to relieve residual stresses on the morning of the second day. You must be especially careful of your own. This will occupy the first day of the practical.

lengthoriginalextension. Unload the sample. Remove the sample and place it in boiling water for 15 minutes. . then reload to produce further plastic deformation.areationalseccrossoriginaltheisAwhereAloadapplied. then reload the specimen and test to failure. (Engineering) Ultimate tensile strength.e. Aload maximumUTS= Also measure and compare the % reduction in area and % elongation values for each sample. i. end of linear region of plot. Take second sample of mild steel. but stop when a small amount of plastic deformation has taken place.straingEngineerin. How do these results differ from the previous steel sample? Caution: use tongs for handling the sample in boiling water and avoid scalding yourself. Start the test as before.st ressgEngineerin=ε−=σ There are two important mechanical properties that can be calculated from the plot obtained: Yield point = point at which plastic deformation begins.

Material Young's Modulus (Nm-2) Yield Stress (Nm-2) U.T.S. (Nm-2) % elongation % reduction in area 70/30 brass Copper Mild steel Mild steel (water treated) .

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