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A Dissertation Submitted in fulfillment of Industrial Training Program On
Submitted Guided By: Mr. Sanjay Gupta By: Sushil Verma 0133CS041050 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is a feeling of immense pleasure & contentment to have successfully completed the industrial training work during different phases of the training the invaluable suggestion given by our training guide Mr. Sanjay Gupta can’t be spanned in words. We extend our deep sense of gratitude for their persistent, encouragement, motivation & inspiration, which led to us the pinnacle, of success. Anything done would have been very difficult without their vast experience, innovative ideas, and through knowledge. Whatever has been done was impossible without their help & given by them is beyond our expressing capabilities. We are thankful to LINUX SOLUTION institute for providing us necessary help & congenial environment for our training work. Last but not the least, we express our deep appreciation towards our teachers who provided the much needed support & encouragement to keep us in the race.
July, 2007 Bhopal (M.P.)
Welcome to documentation report of Linux Networking. It provides exciting feature of building Networks. This report is being submitted under taking by “Sagar Institute of Research & Technology” Bhopal (M.P.) In this introduction part the reader can get the brief information about Linux networking. This part is useful to make a mind to read and make use of training report. It covers all training scenario in brief. The case involved in it provide the actual problem definition & expressing modules and complete logic which is required to implement design phase of Networking project. This case study is useful for making design, entity relationship & for networking project. It supports networking project to milestone for testing and
implementation. Overall, we provide a complete reference to understand the Networking and could be enhanced in near future. We are very happy to provide a complete manual of networking with enthusiasm and dedication.
It has provided training to many corporate as well as industrial institutes.Established in early 2000. CONTENTS Acknowledgement . Its goal is to have Network Experts as the core of their computing environment. efficient network utilization is key to the deployment. a name to reckon within the computing world. Linux Solution is having a very huge industrial and corporate relationship. The institute teaches how to recover from a disaster in less than an hour.therefore. Linux Solution is today. Linux Solution is an upcoming institute with huge industrial and corporate contacts which resembles a RHCE course pattern with some modifications which increase the performance of an individual and has been used in many designs of computing environments. Institute also envisions distribution of services to different servers to minimize the magnitude of a possible disaster and to better utilize the network... In last five years the departmental computing needs have quadrupled and the trend still continues. Linux Solution is a service provider and trainer.
Preface Certificate Company Profile Introduction History & Features Linux Installation The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard Linux Commands To Mount(activate) any disk RedHat Package Manager (rpm) Protocols Topologies Network cabling IP Addressing Servers o o o o o Samba Server DNS Apache Web Server Sendmail INTRODUCTION .
. Cost: Network able version of many popular software programs are available at considerable savings when compared to buying individually licensed copies. 4. 3. exchange files. The two basic types of networks include:• LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) • WIDE AREA NETWORK(WAN) LOCAL AREA NETWORK A local area network (LAN) is a network that is confined to a relatively small area. school or building . Speeds: Network provide a very rapid method for sharing and transferring files. or the world. such as Florida.Rarely are LAN computers more than a mile apart. United States. Centralized software management: One of the greatest benefits of installing a network at a school is the fact that all of the software can be loaded on one computer (the file server). Need for a Network : 1.What is a Network? A network consists of two or more computers that are linked in order to share resources (such as printers and CD-ROMs). Security: Files and programs on a network can be designated as “copy inhibit”. It is generally limited to a geographic area such as writing lab. password can be established for specific directories to restrict access to authorized users. or allow electronic communication. so that you do not have to worry about illegal coping of programs. Also. 2.This eliminates that need to spend time and energy installing updates and tracking files on independent computers throughout the building. WIDE AREA NETWORK Wide area network (WANs) connects larger geographic areas.
6. File server may fail: Although a file server is no more susceptible to failure than any other computer. the initial costs of installation can be prohibitive. one broken cable can stop the entire network. 3.5. Requires administrative time: Proper maintenance of a network requires considerable time and expertise. Resources Sharing: Sharing resources is another area in which a network exceeds stand-alone computers. 7. 2. Expensive to install: Although a network will generally save money over time. the entire network may come to a halt. with other configurations. Flexible access: Networking allows users to access their files from throughout the network. when the files server “goes down”. Electronic mail: The presence of a network provides the hardware necessary to install an e-mail system. History . 4. Cables may break: Some of the configurations are designed to minimize the inconvenience of a broken cable. Disadvantages of a Network : 1.
02 and worked steadily until 1994 when version 1. Runs on various machine architectures. Windows95. at the heart of all Linux systems. office suite project OpenOffice. 2. Windows NT. Linus Torvalds. is developed and released under the GNU General Public License and its source code is freely available to everyone. Linux Installation .A graphical user interface similar to windows. allowing the system to use disk room the same as RAM memory. Shared libraries True multitasking X . It will run in hard drives as small as 500MB or less. there are now a wide range of applications that run on Linux and it can be used by anyone regardless of his/her knowledge of computers.org and the Mozilla web browser project. Works well on machines that are not "modern". a small UNIX system. 1. 5.98 (FAT32). dismissed it as a computer hobbyist project. Support of file systems that other operating systems use such as DOS (FAT). unsuitable for the general public's computing needs. tech mostly computer users are unaware of Linux's potential. Features Virtual memory. but supports remote sessions over a network. 2000 (NTFS). 3. and others. Throughout most of the 1990's. it won't bring the OS down. Linux is stable and even if a program crashes.Linux is an operating system that was initially created as a hobby by a young student. Source code is openly available. 7. at the University of Helsinki in Finland. 4. Recommended 8MB RAM. He began his work in 1991 when he released version 0. Apple. Protected mode so programs or user's can't access unauthorized areas. The kernel. and decided to develop a system that exceeded the Minix standards. Multiple user capability. It is this kernel that forms the base around which a Linux operating system is developed.0 of the Linux Kernel was released. Free – No License fee. Advanced server functionality o DHCP server o Samba server o DNS server o Mail services 8. with 16MB swap drive space. Reasons to use Linux: Safe & Virus free. minix. Linus had an interest in Minix. 6. Networking with TCP/IP and other protocols. Through the efforts of developers of desktop management systems such as KDE and GNOME. to name only a few.
) 2.) 4. Once you select the appropriate language. This is called ‘Root File System’. select the language you would prefer to use for the installation and as the system default. In Linux all install file are installed in ‘/’ partition.) 3.) / /boot swap /xyz Root Partition Boot or Debug partition Virtual Memory Addition partition (Optional) Minimum Required partitions. Keyboard Configuration : . The installation program will try to define the appropriate time zone based on what you specify on this screen.Minimum required partitions: 1. click Next to continue. Language Selection : Using your mouse. Selecting the appropriate language will also help target your time zone configuration later in the installation. Steps to Install Linux Operating System: Insert RHE4 Disk-1 : To install Red Hat Linux from a CD-ROM. it has 14 file directories. choose the CDROM option from the boot loader screen and select OK.
To determine your mouse's interface. you have a PS/2 mouse. choose the correct layout type for your keyboard (for example. If you cannot find an exact match. use the blank text field at the bottom of the screen to enter text. If you do not wish to use them. U. and its interface. Creating special characters with multiple keystrokes is done using "dead keys" (also known as compose key sequences). in most cases the pointing device will be PS/2 compatible. select Disable dead keys. If you are installing Red Hat Linux on a laptop computer. click Next to continue. Once you have made the appropriate selections. If you cannot find a mouse that you are sure is compatible with your system. Choosing to Upgrade or Install : . To test your keyboard configuration. select one of the Generic entries. If you cannot find an exact match. Next. based on your mouse's number of buttons. Mouse Configuration : Choose the correct mouse type for your system. if the connector is round. Generic 101-key PC). follow the mouse cable back to where it plugs into your system. If the connector at the end of the mouse cable plugs into a rectangular connector. choose a mouse type that you are sure is compatible with your system. you have a serial mouse. choose the best Generic match for your keyboard type (for example. English).S.Choose the keyboard model that best fits your system. Dead keys are enabled by default.
Disk Partitioning to Setup : Partitioning allows you to divide your hard drive into isolated sections. If you would like to perform an upgrade. Be sure to select Customize packages to be upgraded if you would to have more control over which packages are upgraded on your system. where each section behaves as its own hard drive. Install Options : Choose whether you would like to perform a full installation or an upgrade. . Your options are Workstation.The Upgrade Examine screen appears automatically if the installation program detects a prior version of Red Hat Linux on your system. Server. To perform a new installation of Red Hat Linux on your system. If you are not sure how you want your system to be partitioned. and Upgrade. Red Hat Linux allows you choose the installation type that best fits your needs. select perform a new Red Hat Linux installation and click Next. Custom. Laptop. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run more than one operating system. select Perform an upgrade of an existing installation.
A boot loader is the first software program . Your options are: • Remove all Linux partitions on this system — Select this option to remove only Linux partitions (partitions created from a previous Linux installation). assuming you have enough free space available on your hard drive(s). Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed. choose either the Disk Druid or fdisk (recommended for experts only) partitioning tool. Keep all partitions and use existing free space — Select this option to retain your current data and partitions. Using your mouse. This will not remove other partitions you may have on your hard drive(s) (such as VFAT or FAT32 partitions).To partition manually. Boot Loader Installation : In order to boot the system without a boot diskette. choose the hard drive(s) on which you want Red Hat Linux to be installed. • Remove all partitions on this system — Select this option to remove all partitions on your hard drive(s) (this includes partitions created by other operating systems such as Windows 9x/NT/2000/ME/XP or NTFS partitions). Automatic Partitioning : Automatic partitioning allows you to have some control concerning what data is removed (if any) from your system. you usually need to install a boot loader.
It does not depend on a specific file system. GRUB can load a variety of free operating systems. by loading another boot loader). and can even boot other operating systems. such as DOS or Windows. LILO (LInux LOader) is a versatile boot loader for Linux. Firewall Configuration : Red Hat Linux offers firewall protection for enhanced system security. you now have the opportunity to do so. Skip ahead to Configuration. GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader). is a very powerful boot loader. Network Configuration : If you do not have a network card. firewall exists between your computer and the network. and determines which resources on your computer remote users on the network can access. If you have a network card and you have not already configured your networking. A Language support Selection : Red Hat Linux can install and support multiple languages for use on your system. you will not see this screen. as well as proprietary operating systems with chain-loading (the mechanism for loading unsupported operating systems.that runs when a computer starts. The default language will be used on your Red Hat Linux system once . can boot Linux kernel images from floppy diskettes and hard disks. A properly configured firewall can greatly increase the security of your system. which is installed by default. You must select a language to use as the default language. It is responsible for loading and transferring control to the operating system kernel software.
upgrade RPMs.installation is complete. you can also click on a specific city. Package Group Selection : After your partitions have been selected and configured for formatting. Time Zone Configuration : You can set your time zone by selecting your computer's physical location or by specifying your time zone's offset from Universal Time. which is marked by a yellow dot. Coordinated (UTC). Setting the root password : Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your installation. On the interactive map. you can change your default language after the installation. Your root account is similar to the administrator account used on Windows NT machines. Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system. If you choose to install other languages. and perform most system maintenance. You must choose one of these to have a default graphical setup. The root account is used to install packages. you are ready to select packages for installation. . but you can also install both to determine for yourself which you prefer. GNOME and KDE are both graphical desktop environments that handle the overall look and feel of your system. You can also scroll through a list and choose a time zone. a red X will appear indicating your selection.
individual packages. Networked Workstation. you should now insert a blank. a boot disk would enable you to properly boot your Red Hat Linux system. If you did not choose to install the X Window System packages. which group packages together according to function (for example.You can select components. click on the checkbox beside it. skip ahead to Preparing to Install. C Development. Video Card If to or Configuration : The installation program will now present a list of video cards for you to choose from. . It is highly recommended that you create a boot disk. your system were not able boot properly using GRUB LILO. If you decided to install the X Window System packages. To select a component. or Web Server). formatted diskette into your diskette drive. or a combination of the two. or a third-party boot loader. How quickly this happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your computer's speed Boot Disk Creation : If you chose to create a boot disk. you now have the opportunity to configure an X server for your system. Installing Packages : At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed (see Figure).
(Press [?] at the text mode boot loader prompt for a list of valid boot labels. at which you can do any of the following things: • Press [Enter] — causes the default boot entry to be booted. Do not forget to remove any diskette in the diskette drive or CD in the CD-ROM drive. you should see a login: prompt or a GUI login screen (if you installed the X Window System and chose to start X automatically). or choose another monitor. Configuring Your Monitor : The installation program will present you with a list of monitors to select from. followed by [Enter] — causes the boot loader to boot the operating system corresponding to the boot label. If your monitor does not appear on the list. you will need to use your boot disk now. select the most appropriate Generic model available. XConfiguration — Monitor and Customization Dfgdf : In order to complete X configuration. . five seconds) the boot loader will automatically boot the default boot entry.2 installation is now complete! The installation program will prompt you to prepare your system for reboot. you can either use the monitor that is automatically detected for you. or from your monitor's vendor or manufacturer. From this list. If you select a Generic monitor. (by default.) • Do nothing — after the boot loader's timeout period. After your computer's normal power-up sequence has completed. If you did not install a boot loader. You should see one or more screens of messages scroll by. please check your documentation to make sure these values are set correctly. the installation program will suggest horizontal and vertical sync ranges. These values are generally available in the documentation which accompanies your monitor. • Select a boot label. Do whatever is appropriate to boot Red Hat Linux. Eventually. you must configure your monitor and customize your X settings. you should see the graphical boot loader prompt. Installation Complete : Congratulations! Your Red Hat Linux 7.
The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard • Standard set of directories for Linux and UNIX systems. – File and subdirectory contents – Gives Linux software developers ability to locate files on any Linux system • Create non-distribution–specific software / /bin /boot /lib /dev /mnt /etc /opt /home /proc /var /root /tmp /usr/local /usr .
such as floppy disks and CD_ROMs Stores additional software programs Stores additional software programs Is the root user’s home directory Contains system binary commands (used for administration) Holds temporary files created by programs Contains most system commands and utilities – contains the following directories: /usr/bin – user binary commands /usr/games – Educational programs and games /usr/include – C program hearer files /usr/local – Local Programs /usr/sbin – System Binary Commands /usr/share – Files that are architecture independent /usr/src – Source code /usr/X11R6 – The X Windows system Is the location for most additional programs Contains log files and spools .Directory /bin /boot /dev /etc /home /lib /mnt /opt /proc /root /sbin /tmp /usr /usr/local /var Description Contains binary commands for use by all users Contains the Linux kernel and files used by the boot loader Contains device files Contains system-specific configuration files Is the default location for user home directories Contains shared program library (used by the commands in /bin and /sbin) as well as kernel modules Is the empty directory used for accessing (mounting) disks.
It can take filenames for its arguments. Press the SPACEBAR to continue to the next screen and q to quit. Lists the print queue for printing jobs. DISPLAYING & PRINTING FILES: Command /Option ls cat filenames Execution This command lists file and directory names. Removes a printing job from the print queu more filenames less filenames lpr filenames lpq lprm DIRECTORY COMMANDS Command mkdir directory rmdir directory ls -F Execution Creates a directory. which. Lists directory name with a preceding slash. [root@sushil root] # Administrator sign LISTING. is directed to the screen. It outputs the contents of those files directly to the standard output. Sends a file to the line printer to be printed. Use the -P option to specify a printer. a list of files may be used as arguments. Erases a directory. This utility displays a file screen by screen.Linux Commands There are two types of Linux Command. This utility also displays a file screen by screen. This filter can be used to display a file. by default. . First is Administrator Commands & second type is Local user Commands. Press the SPACEBAR to continue to the next screen and q to quit.
. Searches for files with the pattern in the name. It is useful when you need to use an absolute pathname for a file or directory: $ cp monday ~/today pwd directory name/filename . including their full pathnames. Searches for files modified after the one matched by pattern. This command has several options that specify the type of criteria and actions to be taken. a slash separates the preceding directory names from the filename. Outputs the result of the search to the standard output. The tilde is a special character that represents the pathname for the home directory. References the parent directory. the size in bytes (characters) is searched for. The result is usually a list of filenames. .. $ mv . making it the working directory. In the case of pathnames for files. cd without a directory name changes back to the home directory: $ cd reports Displays the pathname of the working directory. Changes to the specified directory. If c is added after num. You can use it as an argument or as part of a pathname: $ ls . File type can be -name pattern -group name -size numc -mtime num -newer pattern -print -type filetype . Searches for files last modified num days ago. A slash is used in pathnames to separate each directory name. Searches for files with the size num in blocks. Searches for files with the specified file type.Command ls -R cd directory name Execution Lists working directory as well as all subdirectories./larisa oldletters References the working directory. ~/pathname find COMMAND Command/Option find Execution Searches directories for files according to search criteria. Searches for files belonging to this group name.. You can use it as an argument or as part of a pathname: $ cd .
The device is a special device file that connects your system to the hardware device. Literally removes links to a file. changing the file's pathname: $ mv today /home/chris/reports Moves directories. In this case. The syntax for the mount command is as follows: .Command/Option Execution b for block device. you need to remove all of them to erase a file: $rm today weather weekend cp -r dirname dirname mv filename filename mv dirname dirname ln filename filename rm filenames MOUNTING The mount Command The mount command takes two arguments: the storage device through which Linux accesses the file system. c for character device. The copied directory includes all its own subdirectories: $ cp -r letters/thankyou oldletters Moves (renames) a file. A link can be created in one directory that references a file in another directory: $ ln today reports/monday Removes (erases) a file. If it is the name of a directory. The second argument can be the new filename or the pathname of a directory. then the file is literally moved to that directory. or l for symbolic link. cp takes two arguments: the original file and the name of the new copy. Can take any number of filenames as its arguments. You can use pathnames for the files to copy across directories: $ cp today reports/monday Copies a subdirectory from one directory to another. the first and last arguments are directories: $ mv letters/thankyou oldletters Creates added names for files referred to as links. mv takes two arguments: the first is the file to be moved. If a file has more than one link. and the directory in the file structure to which the new file system is attached. The mountpoint is the directory on your main directory tree where you want the files on the storage device attached. FILE OPERATIONS Command cp filename filename Execution Copies a file. d for directory. f for file.
Given the auto file system type. mount attempts to detect the type of file system on the floppy disk automatically. you must first explicitly unmount the one already mounted. -fv. You must unmount that floppy disk before you can put in and mount the new one. and now you want to take it out and put in a new one. Mounts all file systems listed in /etc/fstab. This is a commaseparated list of options following -o. You unmount a file system with the umount command. # mount -t auto /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy The umount Command If you want to replace one mounted file system with another. mount displays descriptions of the actions it is taking. Use it to check if a file system can be mounted. Mounts the file system with read-only permission. Specifies the type of file system to be mounted. Mounts the file system with read/write permission. Verbose mode. you can mount it specifying the auto file system type with the -t option. Mounts the file system using a list of options. Here is the syntax: # umount device-or-mountpoint The following example unmounts the floppy disk wherever it is mounted: # umount /dev/fd0 . Mounts the file system without placing an entry for it in the mstab file.# mount device mountpoint Mount Options -f -v Table: The mount Command Description Fakes the mounting of a file system. Use with -f to check for any problems mounting a file system. The umount command can take as its argument either a device name or the directory where it was mounted. -w -r -n -t type -a -o option-list # mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy # mount /mnt/windows If you are unsure as to the type of file system that the floppy disk holds. Say you have mounted a floppy disk.
you are continually mounting and unmounting them. The device name for your floppy drive is fd0. you cannot then simply remove it to put another one in the drive. the CD-ROM drive remains locked until you unmount it. the additional drives are represented by fd1. The particular device name for the CD-ROM in this example is . # umount /mnt/floppy You can now remove the floppy disk. You can mount to any directory you want. to access a file on a floppy disk. you can use the eject command with the device name or mount point. and so on. instead of using the umount command. You first have to unmount it. In fact. /mnt/floppy. Entering /dev/fd0 references your floppy drive. Notice the number 0 after fd. and then mount it: # mount /mnt/floppy Mounting CD-ROMs Remember. put in the new one. you can then take it out and put in another one. If you have more than one floppy drive. For a CD-ROM. the disk first has to be mounted on your Linux system. detaching the file system from the overall directory tree. when you mount a CD-ROM or floppy disk.Using the example where the device was mounted on the /mydir directory. which will unmount and then eject the CD-ROM from the drive. you can specify either the directory it is mounted on or the /dev/fd0 device. you have to include the device name in the mount command. Red Hat creates a convenient directory to use for floppy disks. Once you unmount a CD-ROM. The following example mounts the floppy disk in your floppy drive to the /mnt/floppy directory: # mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy # umount /dev/fd0 For the umount or mount operations. # mount /mnt/cdrom # umount /mnt/cdrom If you want to mount a CD-ROM to another directory. The following example mounts the disc in your CD-ROM drive to the /mydir directory. fd2. and it is located in the directory /dev. which you then must mount before you can access it. When changing several CD-ROMs or floppy disks. you could use that directory to unmount the file system: # umount /mydir # mount /dev/hdc /mnt/cdrom # cd /mnt/cdrom # umount /mnt/cdrom umount: /dev/hdd: device is busy # cd /root # umount /mnt/cdrom Mounting Floppy Disks As noted previously.
rpm. Installing Packages with the rpm Command If you do not have access to the desktop or you prefer to work from the command line interface. Alternatively. it is much more practical to have them mounted automatically using the /etc/fstab file as described previously. Each software package is actually an RPM package. and verification of software packages. you can use the rpm command to manage and install software packages. # mount /dev/hdc /mydir Mounting Hard Drive Partitions: Linux and Windows You can mount either Linux or Windows hard drive partitions with the mount command. The Linux hard disk partitions you created during installation are already automatically mounted for you. you can install software by downloading and compiling its source code. However. Each archive resides as a single file with a name that ends with . The next example mounts the Linux hard disk partition on /dev/hda4 to the directory /mnt/mydata: # mount -t ext3 /dev/hda4 /mnt/mydata # mount -t vfat /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows PACKAGE INSTALLATION On Red Hat. and SCSI hard drives use the prefix sd. consisting of an archive of software files and information about how to install those files. to mount a Linux hard disk partition. indicating it is a software package that can be installed by the Red Hat Package Manager. removal. IDE hard drives use the prefix hd./dev/hdc. you can easily install or remove software from your system with either the redhat-config-packages tool or the rpm command. This is the command that performs installation. A set of commonly used options is shown here: Option -U -i -e -qi -ql -qpi Action Updates package Installs package Removes package Displays information for an installed package Displays file list for installed package Displays information from an RPM package file (used for uninstalled packages) . enter the mount command with the device name of the partition and the directory to which you want to mount it. As noted previously.
1 chris weather 207 Feb 20 11:55 mydata -rw-rw-r-. the file size in bytes.1 chris weather 568 Feb 14 10:30 today -rw-rw-r-. All end with .1 chris weather 207 Feb20 11:55 mydata File type = Permission = rw-r-rNumber of lines = 1 Owner name = chris Group name = weather Size of file in bytes = 207 Date and Time last modified = Feb 20 . simply use the ls -l command without an argument. indicating the file has no other names and no other links. $ ls -l -rw-r--r-. the name of the group the user belongs to. the owner of the file. PERMISSIONS OF FILE /DIRECTORY First the permissions are displayed. followed by the number of links.1 chris weather 308 Feb 17 12:40 monday ………owner………group…………other………. r w x :r w x:r w x ……………………………………………………………… File modes Read permission = r Write permission = w Execute permission = x -rw–r–r. Only one link exists.rpm.Option Action -qpl Displays file list from an RPM package file (used for uninstalled packages) -K Authenticates and performs integrity check on a package The software package name is usually quite lengthy. The group name indicates the group permitted to access the file object. Permissions indicate who can access the file: the user. the file type for mydata is that of an ordinary file. or all other users. and the name of the file. members of a group. including information about the version and release date in its name. the date and time the file was last modified. 11:55 File name = mydata . In fig. If you want to display this detailed information for all the files in a directory.
$ chmod u+x India.sh Here India. The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables. CLASSIFICATION OF TOPOLOGY Topology can be classified as : • BUS • STAR • RING • TREE BUS Bus topology consists of a one long cable which act as a backbone to link all the devices in the network.CHANGING FILE PERMISSIONS To change file access permission chmod command is used. computers and other peripherals. Fig: STAR TOPOLOGY RING TOPOLOGY In ring topology each computer is connected directly to other computers in the network. .Data on a star network passes through the hub or concentrator before continuing to its destination. Fig: BUS TOPOLOGY STAR TOPOLOGY In Star Topology each device(file server.sh is granted execute permission.All nodes (file server. Ethernet and Local Talk network use a linear bus Topology. TOPOLOGY A Topology is basically a map of network.Data moves down a one way path from one computer to another.workstations and peripherals) are reconnected to the linear cable.The hub or concentrator manages and controls all functions of the network.workstation and peripherals ) are connected directly to a central network hub or concentrator. Token Ring protocol uses ring topology.
Unshielded Twisted Pair Connector: The standard connector for unshielded twisted pair cabling is an RJ-45 connector.Fig: RING TOPOLOGY PROTOCOLS A uniform set of rules that enable two devices to connect and transmit data to one another. The protocol determines the following: Type of error checking to be used.The following sections discuss the types of cables used in networks and other related topics: • Unshielded twisted pair(UTP) cable • Shielded twisted pair(STP) cable • Coaxial cable • Fiber optic cable • Wireless LANs • Cable installation guides Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable: Twisted pair cabling comes in two varieties: shielded and unshielded. There are several types of cable which are commonly used with LANs. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is the most popular and is generally the best option for networks. This is a plastic connector that looks like a large telephonestyle connector. . Protocols determine how data are transmitted between computing devices and over networks. They define issues such as error control and data compression methods. how the sending device will indicate that it has finished a message and how the receiving device will indicate that it has received the message. Internet protocols include: • TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) NETWORK CABLING Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to another. data compression method (if any).
Class B addresses begin with 10xx.NNNNNNNN.DISADVANTAGE OF A TREE TOPOLOGY • • • Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used.0. Class E addresses begin with 1111. • • • Class A -.11001000 Every IP address consists of two parts.nnnnnnnn. 4.1. in red).nnnnnnnn Class C -.nnnnnnnn Class B -. or 192 to 223 decimal. This is known as "dotted decimal" notation.NNNNNNNN. each representing 8 bits.0. are reserved for loopback and for internal testing on a local machine. which part of the IP address belongs to the network (N. Now we can see how the Class determines. 3. 2. the entire segment goes down.200 It is sometimes useful to view the values in their binary form. They should not be used for host addresses. [You can test this: you should always be able to ping 127. Example: 140. or 240 to 254 decimal. You can determine which class any IP address is in by examining the first 4 bits of the IP address. in blue) and which part belongs to the node (n. or 127 decimal. If the backbone line breaks. or 128 to 191 decimal. 1.11011100. by default. IP Addressing An IP (Internet Protocol) address is a unique identifier for a node or host connection on an IP network. in the range 0 to 255 (known as octets) separated by decimal points.220. An IP address is a 32 bit binary number usually represented as 4 decimal values. one identifying the network and one identifying the node.nnnnnnnn. 5.179 . Class E addresses are reserved for future use.200 10001100. or 224 to 239 decimal.NNNNNNNN. Addresses beginning with 01111111. Address Classes There are 5 different address classes.NNNNNNNN. Class D addresses begin with 1110.NNNNNNNN. which points to yourself] Class D addresses are reserved for multicasting. More difficult to configure wire than other topologies.nnnnnnnn. Class C addresses begin with 110x.220 . 140 . or 1 to 126 decimal. The Class of the address and the subnet mask determine which part belongs to the network address and which part belongs to the node address.179.nnnnnnnn .NNNNNNNN.10110011. Class A addresses begin with 0xxx.
use NFS. Any changes to these files not made using the application are preserved. Graphical Configuration : To configure Samba using a graphical interface. Samba is useful if you have a network of both Windows and Linux machines. Operating systems that support this protocol include Microsoft Windows (through its Network Neighborhood). in an XTerm or a GNOME terminal). users. In other words.conf) allows users to view their Red Hat Linux home directories as a Samba share. It modifies the configuration files in the /etc/samba/ directory. OS/2. and have the redhat-config-samba RPM package installed. It also shares any printers configured for the Red Hat Linux system as Samba shared printers. you must be running the X Window System. . and Linux. have root privileges. use the Samba Server Configuration Tool. To start the Samba Server Configuration Tool from the desktop.Samba Server Samba uses the SMB protocol to share files and printers across a network connection.Samba Server Configuration Tool is a graphical interface for managing Samba shares. To use this application. Samba allows files and printers to be shared by all the systems in your network. If you want to share files between Red Hat Linux machines only. you can attach a printer to your Red Hat Linux system and print to it from the Windows machines on your network. go to the Main Menu Button (on the Panel) => System Settings => Server Settings => Samba Server or type the command redhat-config-samba at a shell prompt (for example. Configuring a Samba Server : The default configuration file (/etc/samba/smb. and basic server settings.
conf. They correspond to workgroup and server string options in smb. specify which workgroup the computer should be in as well as a brief description of the computer. The Basic tab is displayed as shown in Fig:-Configuring Basic Server Settings On the Basic tab. If the user has a different username on a Windows machine and will be logging into the Samba server from the Windows machine.Samba Server Configuration Tool Configuring Server Settings : The first step in configuring a Samba server is to configure the basic settings for the server and a few security options. The Authentication Mode on the Security tab of the Server Fig:-Managing Samba Users .Fig: .Configuring Security Server Settings Managing Samba Users : The Samba Server Configuration Tool requires that an existing user account be active on the Red Hat Linux system acting as the Samba server before a Samba user can be added. select Preferences => Server Settings from the pulldown menu. After starting the application. The Samba user is associated with the existing Red Hat Linux user account. select Preferences => Samba Users from the pulldown menu. and click the Add User button. On the Create New Samba User window select a Unix Username from the list of existing users on the local system. the Fig: . specify that Windows username in the Windows Username field. To add a Samba user.
That sounds like a simple task. the machine that humans refer to as "www. • DNS stands for Domain Name System. but they don't do machines any good.in this case the site for Domain Bank. and they are fascinating! The DNS system forms one of the largest and most active distributed databases on the planet.com" are easy for people to remember. All of the machines use names called IP addresses to refer to one another. The data is then made available to all computers and users on the Internet. the URL "http://www." Human-readable names like "gmail. are an incredibly important but completely hidden part of the Internet. you might access the domain name servers hundreds of times! Domain name servers translate domain names to IP addresses. The network of computers that constitute the Internet map domain names to their corresponding IP numbers.Settings preferences must be set to User for this option to work.com" contains the domain name gmail.except for five things: . The Basics : When you use the Web or send an e-mail message.232. For example. you use a domain name to do it.gmail. For example.com.203. How Domain Name Servers Work : If you spend any time on the Internet sending e-mail or browsing the Web. Without DNS. During a day of browsing and e-mailing. Domain name servers. or DNS. Every time you use a domain name.com.42) to find the correct web site . A "DNS Server" is a server that performs this kind of translation.Also configure a Samba Password for the Samba User and confirm the Samba Password by typing it again. then you use domain name servers without even realizing it. • (Domain Name System) The Domain Name System is the system that translates Internet domain names into IP numbers.com into the Internet Protocol (IP) numbers (209. and it would be -.14.com" has the IP address 64. So does the e-mail address "sushil@gmail. DNS (Domain Name Server/Domain Name Service/Specification) Definitions of DNS : • Domain Name Server (or system) – An Internet service that translates domain names into IP addresses. you use the Internet's domain name servers (DNS) to translate the human-readable domain name into the machine-readable IP address. This System translates a domain name such as rshweb.119.gmail. the Internet would shut down very quickly.234.
2. Within every top-level domain there is a huge list of second-level domains.org are completely different machines. Domain names and IP addresses change daily. Domain: Provides hierarchy property Domain + name = Domain Name . GOV. such as www or encarta. A single person can easily make a hundred or more DNS requests a day.yahoo.mit. 3. A given domain can potentially contain millions of host names as long as they are all unique within that domain.a typical name .com www.bbc. For example: • • • • • • www.com www. The left-most word. and that is where domain names come in. Up to 127 levels are possible. it is a third-level domain. We are good at remembering words. It specifies the name of a specific machine (with a specific IP address) in a domain. Human beings just are not that good at remembering strings of numbers. is the host name. For example.com.gmail. For example. There are billions of IP addresses currently in use.microsoft. EDU and UK portions of these domain names are called the top-level domain or first-level domain.1. In the case of bbc. although more than four is rare. gmail.an FTP server rather than a Web server The COM.com www. ORG and INT.the world's best-known name .uk ftp.co. and most machines have a humanreadable name as well. NET. and there are hundreds of millions of people and machines using the Internet daily. Millions of people do the work to change and add domain names and IP addresses every day.co.com and gmail.edu encarta. in the COM first-level domain. you've got: • gmail • yahoo • msn • microsoft Every name in the COM top-level domain must be unique.a name using four parts rather than three . EDU.uk. 4.msn. There are many billions of DNS requests made every day. MIL. as well as unique two-letter combinations for every country. but there can be duplication across domains. You probably have hundreds of domain names stored in your head.com . we would all go nuts. including COM.a Web server that does not start with www . however.a popular EDU name . Domain Names: If we had to remember the IP addresses of all of the Web sites we visit every day. There are several hundred top-level domain names. 5. New domain names get created daily.
edu .int .com . Forward Master Zone – It resolve name into IP.yahoo.uk .co.yahoo.co. DNS Server is also known as Named or BIND (Barkeley Internet Named Domain) Server.us ----- These servers can be blocked for Security purpose DNS Functions: It resolve name into IP.us .in .com. Reverse Master Zone – It resolve IP into Name.au . if we simply give ‘yahoo’ it opens the site.co.com .net .gov .mil For Commercial site Network Soulution Educational site Organisation Government International Military Geographical Domain: .co.ca . For fully qualified sites. or we write ‘yahoo.There are 7 top level domains : .co. & IP into name & fully qualified domain name. There are three types of zone in DNS: 1.co.co. like awww.com’ .au commercial site for India commercial site UK commercial site for USA commercial site for Canada commercial site for Australia Yahoo. 3.co.ca . Slave Zone – For creating subdomains. We do not need to give the full name ‘www.co.co.com’ it opens the site. .org . Fully Qualified Zone: www.uk .in . 2. Sites are fully qualified.(Made for load balancing) .
in an XTerm or GNOME Terminal). If you want to serve more than one URL or virtual host. 7. configure the Default Virtual Host. Under the Virtual Hosts tab. 4. 2.DNS with BIND = DNS Server APACHE WEB SERVER The httpd and redhat-config-httpd RPM packages need to be installed to use the HTTP Configuration Tool. Exit the application and select to save your settings. The general steps for configuring the Apache HTTP Server using the HTTP Configuration Tool are as following: 1. Copy all necessary files to the DocumentRoot and cgi-bin directories. 6. Configure the basic settings under the Main tab. 8. . add the additional virtual hosts. 3. To start the application. go to the Main Menu Button => System Settings => Server Settings => HTTP Server or type the command redhat-config-httpd at a shell prompt (for example. Configure the server settings under the Server tab. Configure the connections settings under the Performance Tuning tab. SENDMAIL SERVER In our configuration and installation we'll provide you two different configurations that you can set up for Sendmail. 5. Click on the Virtual Hosts tab and configure the default settings. It also requires the X Window System and root access.
and forwards it to the Central Mail Hub Server. The Gateway server outside the firewall or part of it acts as a proxy and accepts external mail via its Firewall rules file that is destined for internal delivery from the outside. You can configure the neighbor Sendmail so that it accepts only mail that is generated locally. Also note that the Gateway server is configured like a neighbor Sendmail server to never accept incoming mail from the outside the Internet.Central Mail Hub Relay.tar.gz # define CMDDIR "/usr/adm/sm. Local or neighbor client and servers on different servers.gz /var/tmp [root@deep] /# cd /var/tmp [root@deep ]/tmp# tar xzpf sendmail. this architecture will limit the task managements on the server and client machines. Red Hat Linux can be both an NFS server . Local or neighbor clients and servers. all mail from the Internet for those computers is kept on the Mail Hub server. instead. Here is a graphical representation of the Sendmail configuration used in this book.tar. with different settings: 1. A local or neighbor client and server refer to all other local server or client machines on your network that run Sendmail and send all outgoing mail to the Central Mail Hub for future delivery. This kind of internal client never receives mail directly via the Internet. Central Mail Hub Relay. The Central Mail Hub Relay Server configuration will be used for your server where the assigned task is to send. These installation instructions assume Commands are Unix-compatible. It is a good idea to run one Central Mail Hub Server for all computers on your network. [root@deep] /# cp sendmail. receive and relay all mail for all local or neighbor client and server mail machines you may have on your network. thus insulating neighbor machines for easier security. and improve the security of your site.bin" NETWORK FILE SYSTEM Network File System (NFS) is a way to share files between machines on a network as if the files were located on the client's local hard drive. 2.version.version.
com is the hostname of the NFS fileserver. To use the NFS Server Configuration Tool. /misc/export is the directory that shadowman is exporting.example.example. For example.example. and have the redhat-config-nfs RPM package installed. After the mount command runs (and if the client has proper permissions from the shadowman. To access the shared files. Users work as if the directory is on their local machines. Why Use NFS? NFS is useful for sharing directories of files between multiple users on the same network. you must be running the X Window System. or type the command redhat-config-nfs. Use the mount command to mount a shared NFS directory from another machine: mount shadowman. The NFS Server Fig1:-NFS Server Configuration Tool Configuration Tool can be used to configure a system as an NFS server. a group of users working on the same project can have access to the files for that project using a shared directory of the NFS file system (commonly known as an NFS share) mounted in the directory /myproject. Exporting NFS File Systems : Sharing files from an NFS server is known as exporting the directories.com.com:/misc/export /misc/local In this command. To start the application.example.and an NFS client. the user goes into the /myproject directory on his machine. . There are no passwords to enter or special commands to remember. have root privileges. which means that it can export file systems to other systems and mount file systems exported from other machines. shadowman.com NFS server) the client user can execute the command ls /misc/local to display a listing of the files in /misc/export on shadowman. and /misc/local is the location to mount the file system on the local machine. select Main Menu Button (on the Panel) => System Settings => Server Settings => NFS Server.
The dialog box shown in Figure 2will appears. Fig 2:Add Share . click the Add button.To add an NFS share.
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