ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering

Lecture 02: Pipeline Systems Engineering and Routing Considerations

Shawn Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. Assistant Professor Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Memorial University of Newfoundland spkenny@engr.mun.ca

Lecture 02 Objective
To provide an overview of subsea pipeline systems engineering and key factors in pipeline routing

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02

Pipeline Systems Primary Function
Product Transport
Liquid hydrocarbons Natural gas Natural gas liquids Water Chemicals

Key Elements
Product type Delivery rate Operating pressure Distance from field development to market Current and future demand/capacity
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02

Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 . Kenny. P.D.Pipeline Transportation Systems Flowlines Field development to a subsea manifold or production facility Gathering Lines Connecting multiple flowlines to a production facility Export Pipeline Transport from a production facility to domestic or international market 4 © 2008 S.. Ph.

.Project Phases 5 © 2008 S.D.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 . Kenny. P. Ph.

Systematic Approach Management Project execution plan Technical Development plan Design basis Safety plan Auxiliary Project summary Economic benefits plan Environmental impact assessment Socio-economic impact assessment 6 © 2008 S. Kenny. Ph. P.D.. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 .Eng.

procurement.D. Ph.Project Execution Plan Overview Early stage. roles and responsibilities Execution strategies for engineering. P.Eng. project wide Client objectives. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 . commissioning and safety Project schedule Integrated communication protocols and decision making processes 7 © 2008 S. Kenny.. drivers and risk tolerance Primary Components Project scope and deliverables Organizational hierarchy. quality. live document. construction.

P.D. complete and authoritative reference Primary Components Pipeline system overview Operational parameters Environmental and physical data Materials engineering Design issues and constraints Design methodology and philosophy 8 © 2008 S. live document..Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 . project wide Clear. Ph.Design Basis Overview Early stage. Kenny.

Kenny. Inspection and Repair Decommissioning and Abandonment 9 © 2008 S. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 . P..Major Design Issues Product Characterization Route Selection Materials Selection Hydraulic Analysis Mechanical Design Coatings Components and Assemblies Constructability and Intervention Operation. Ph.D.Eng.

2mm WT ≈ US$10M differential 10 © 2008 S. Ph.1mm⇒22. 17.Eng. P..D.Major Cost Factors Linepipe Tonnage Material Transportation Length • Alignment & heading changes Ref: SEIC (2005) Example ≈ US$25k / WT(mm)-D(m)-L(km) 762mm OD. 100km. Kenny. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 .

Eng.. restricted lay operations 11 © 2008 S. heading angle Stinger change-out Platform. landfall approach Crossings. interactions Monitored.) Vessel Selection Performance Water depth range Tension limits Castoro Sei Construction Vessel Time Alignment. Ref: Saipem (2006) ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 . Ph. Kenny.D.Major Cost Factors (cont. P.

Ph.D. Kenny.Major Cost Factors (cont. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 .) Route Intervention Activities Dredging Trenching Pre-sweeping Rock dumping Span correction Ref: Saipem (2006) 12 © 2008 S.Eng. P..

Eng.D.. Ph. P. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 . kilometer post and intermediate stations Changes in alignment and elevation profile System Environment Characterization Political and social factors Physical and environmental factors Engineered systems 13 © 2008 S.Route Selection – Overview Pipeline Route Characterization Landfall and platform approaches Length. Kenny.

data acquisition & historical archives Uncertainty • Prioritize and plan for engineering surveys 14 © 2008 S.. Ph. Kenny.D. P.Route Selection – Critical Activity Upfront Planning and Assessment Desk study • “Ounce of prevention >> pound of cure” Utilize available resources • Regulator and operator experience & lessons learned • Government departments & agencies • New technologies.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 .

Route Selection – Politics Landfall and Platform Approaches Ref: Lanan (2007) Ref: Saipem (2006) Ref: BHP (2005) 15 © 2008 S. Kenny. P.Eng.. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 .D. Ph.

Kenny. P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 . civil or military instability Jurisdictions & regulations Archaeological.D. Ph.Route Selection – Politics Regional and International Scope Political.. historical significance Examples Ref: Saipem (2006) • • • • • Black Sea Europipe Oman–India Medgaz Vancouver Island & Georgia Strait 16 © 2008 S.

P.D.Route Selection – Remote Sensing Ref: Hansen (2005) Ref: Google (2005) 17 © 2008 S. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 .Eng. Kenny. Ph..

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 .Eng.D. P. Ph. Kenny.Route Selection – Existing Data Ref: EnCana (2002) 18 © 2008 S..

P.D.Eng. northern environments Resident habitat Breeding grounds Migration patterns Cumulative effects Military Zones Ref: EnCana (2002) 19 © 2008 S. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 . estuaries. Kenny. Ph.Route Selection – Sensitive Areas Environmental Significant or sensitive ecosystem • Wetlands..

. Ph. Kenny. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 .Eng.Route Selection – Seabed Characteristics Bathymetry & Slope Soil Properties Type Index & strength Spatial distribution Ref: BCOG (2001) F Ref: NOAA (2005) W 20 © 2008 S.D. P.

Ph. Kenny. P.D..Route Selection – Seabed Characteristics Significant Features Ref: Hydro (2005) Ref: Hansen (2005) 21 © 2008 S. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 .Eng.

Route Selection – Seabed Characteristics Seabed Mobility Sediment transport Sandwave migration Scour Ref: Heap (2004) 22 © 2008 S.. P. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 . Ph.Eng.D. Kenny.

Ph. (2002) Subsea vents 23 © 2008 S..Eng.Route Selection – Seabed Hazards Seismic Faulting Liquefaction Mass Slides Spreads Falls Flows Ref: BCOG (2001) Subsurface Shallow gas • • • Pockmarks Subsidence Pinnacles Ref: Trifunac et al.D. Kenny. P. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 .

D. tidal. Ph. salinity) ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 24 © 2008 S.Eng. loop Surface Ref: NASA (2005) Waves Wind induced • Shallow water. breaking • Bathymetry. Kenny. Internal • Pycnocline [density] wave crest orthogonality ø (water temp. delta. refraction.. .. P.Route Selection – Physical Environment Currents Systems.

developments Shipwrecks 25 © 2008 S.D. dredging zones Expected or anticipated future operations..Eng. Kenny. Ph.Route Selection – Physical Environment Seabed Use and Obstacles Oil and gas industry developments Communications Mobile and fixed gear fishing zones Shipping traffic lanes Military exercise zones Military/civilian dumping grounds Mining. P. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 .

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 .Route Selection – Physical Environment Unique Features – Ice Gouging 26 © 2008 S. Kenny. Ph..D. P.Eng.

.Eng. Ph. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 .Route Selection – Physical Environment Unique Features – Ice Gouging 27 © 2008 S. P.D. Kenny.

P..Route Selection – Physical Environment Unique Features – Strudel Scour Ref: MMS (2005) 28 © 2008 S. Kenny. Ph. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 .Eng.D.

P. Kenny.. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 .D. Ph.Eng.Route Selection – Physical Environment Unique Features – Permafrost Ref: NRCan (2005) 29 © 2008 S.

Reading List 1. June. Medgaz: the ultra-deep pipeline.Eng. I. Kenny.. (2005). [2005_Pipeline_World_06_Medgaz_Pipe line. Chaudhuri. 10p. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 . Ph.D. Pipeline World.pdf] 30 © 2008 S. J and Nash. P.

noaa. London.mms. How Hydro’s Ormen Lange Project Can Contribute to the Development of the Russian Arctic.it/index. “Shifting sands the clue to the vanishing seagrasses.saipem. (2004).bhpbilliton. Ph.eni.oar.gov/ NRCan (2005).nasa. Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research. Proc. P.hydro. http://www.32-34. http://www. Google (2005).gov NASA (2005). Todorovska (2002) “Was Grand Banks event of 1929 a slump spreading in two directions?” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering. pp. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 02 .com/ormenlange/en Lanan. http://www. Hayir and M. A. IBC Arctic Oil and Gas Development Conference.sakhalinenergy.com/ Trifunac. http://www. (2007).jsc.. Hydro (2005). BC Offshore Oil & Gas Technology Update.com EnCana (2002).D. 2001 BHP (2005).” AusGEO. MMS (2005).gov/ NOAA (2005).Eng. G.gc. BCV50229. Stavanger. IBC Offshore Oil and Gas in Arctic and Cold Waters Conference. Development Plan – Revised Volume 2. Proc..349-360. www.html 31 © 2008 S.ca/inter/index_e. 142p.D. 75 September. JWEL Project No. 22. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. p.References BCOG (2001). A. earth.asp SEIC (2005). October 19. http://eol.. B. (2005). M. US Department of Commerce. Heap.google. UK. Challenges and Opportunities – The Technology Solution. Offshore Arctic Pipeline Operations.nrcan.com Hansen. Kenny. Norway Saipem (2006). http://www. Deep Panuke Offshore Gas Development Project.. http://www.I.

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