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**1.1 WHAT IS THE MODULATION?
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Modulation is the process of encoding information from a message source in a manner suitable for transmission. It is generally involves translating a baseband message signal (called the source) to a bandpass signal at frequencies that are very high when compared to the base band frequency. The bandpass signal is called the modulated signal, and the baseband message signal is called the modulating signal. Modulation may be done by varying the amplitude, phase or frequency of a high frequency carrier in accordance with the amplitude of the message signal. Demodulation is the process of extracting the baseband message from the carrier so that it may be processed by the intended receiver. 1.1.1 Why we modulate signals? In order to ease propagation process and use an antenna of a suitable length. Since the effective radiation of EM waves requires antenna dimensions comparable with the wavelength: e.g. -Antenna for 3 kHz would be ~100 km long. -Antenna for 3 GHz carrier is 10 cm long. Sharing the access to the telecommunication channel resources: This is done by using FDM (Frequency division multiplexing) technique. In order to transmit larger power for wide area: If we amplify the data power using power amplifiers, it will be distorted, so we perform modulation and amplify the carrier power. In order to reduce noise effects in case of non-white Gaussian noise.

**1.1.2 Why Digital? (Analog versus Digital):
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Modern mobile communication systems use digital modulation techniques. Advancements in very large-scale integration (VLSI) and digital signal processing (DSP) technology have made digital modulation more cost effective than analog transmission systems. Digital modulation offers many advantages over analog modulation. Some advantages include greater noise immunity and robustness to channel impairments, easier multiplexing of various forms of information (e.g., voice, data, and video), and greater security. Furthermore, digital transmissions accommodate digital error-control codes which detect and/or correct transmission errors, and support complex signal conditioning and processing techniques such as source coding, encryption, and equalization to improve the performance of the overall communication link. New multipurpose programmable digital signal processors have made it possible to implement digital modulators and demodulators completely in software. Instead of having a particular modem design permanently frozen as hardware, embedded

software implementations now allow alterations and improvements without having to redesign or replace the modem. We introduce here in table(1.1) a comparison between analog and digital modulation schemes to conclude the assessment of both modulation schemes usage in Wireless communication systems

Analog

Less bandwidth(Advantage) More accurate (Advantage)

Digital

Large bandwidth(Disadvantage) Less accurate due to the Quantization error that can not be avoided or corrected. (Disadvantage)

Low noise immunity (Disadvantage).

High noise immunity as the amplitude of the digital has two levels only and channel coding(error correcting codes) can be used. (Advantage) High level of security as you can use Encryption (Ciphering) and Authentication. (Advantage)

Low level of security. (Disadvantage)

No signal conditioning and processing are used (Disadvantage)

Support complex signal conditioning and processing techniques such as source coding, encryption, and equalization((Advantage)

Low QOS. (Disadvantage) You can use FDM only(Disadvantage)

High QOS. (Advantage) You can use FDM, TDM, CDM, OFDM multiplexing techniques. (Advantage) In mobile communications, digital supports voice, SMS, data (you can access the internet), images and video call. (Advantage) Easily designed using software (Advantage).

In mobile communications, analog supports voice service only. (Disadvantage) More difficult to design than Digital. (Disadvantage)

Table (1.1) comparisons between analog and digital modulation schemes

**1.1.3 Factors that influence the choice of digital modulation:
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A desirable modulation scheme should provide: Low bit error rates at low received signal to noise ratio. Performs well in multi-path and fading conditions, and in interference environment. Occupies a minimum bandwidth. Easy and cost-effective to implement. Cost and complexity of the receiver subscribers must be minimized. Modulation which is simple to detect is most attractive. Note That: There is no modulation scheme that satisfies all these requirements, so trade-offs are made when selecting a modulation scheme.

**1.1.4 The performance of a modulation scheme :
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We assess the performance of the modulation scheme by measuring the Power efficiency (ηP). Bandwidth efficiency(ηB). Power spectral density. System complexity.

1.1.4.1 Power efficiency ηP:

The power efficiency is defined as the required Eb/No (Ratio of the signal energy per bit to noise power spectral density) at the input of the receiver for a certain bit error probability Pb over an AWGN channel. Power efficiency describes the ability of a modulation technique to preserve the bit error probability of digital message at low power levels. In digital modulation systems, in order to increase the noise immunity, it is necessary to increase the signal power, so there is a trade-off between the signal power and the bit error probability. The power efficiency is a measure of how favorably this tradeoff is made.

**1.1.4.2 Bandwidth efficiency (Spectral efficiency) ηB:
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Bandwidth efficiency describes the ability of a modulation scheme to accommodate data within a limited bandwidth. As the data rate increases, pulse width of the digital symbols decreases and hence the bandwidth increases.
𝑏

𝜂𝐵 = 𝐵𝑊 𝑏𝑝𝑠/𝐻𝑧
𝑅

eqn (1.1)

The system capacity of a digital mobile communication system is directly related to the bandwidth efficiency for a modulation scheme. So a modulation scheme with greater value of ηB will transmit more data in a given spectrum allocation. Note that the maximum possible bandwidth efficiency is limited by the noise in the channel according to Shannon's Theorem as: 𝜂𝐵 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝐵𝑊 = 𝑙𝑜𝑔2 1 + 𝑁 Where C is the channel capacity in bps , and S/N is the signal to noise ratio .
𝐶

𝑆

eqn (1.2)

**1.1.4.3 Bandwidth efficiency, Power efficiency Trade-off:
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Adding error control coding to message increases the required bandwidth, then 𝜂𝐵 decreases, but the required received power for a particular bit error rate decreases and hence 𝜂𝑃 increases. On the other hand using high levels M'ary modulation schemes (except in M’ary FSK modulation which isn’t bandwidth limited modulation scheme), decreases the bandwidth occupancy, 𝜂𝐵 increases, but the required received power for a particular bit error rate increases and hence 𝜂𝑃 decreases.

1.1.4.4 System Complexity

System complexity refers to the amount of circuits involved and the technical difficulty of the system. Associated with the system complexity is the cost of manufacturing, which is of course a major concern in choosing a modulation technique. Usually the demodulator is more complex than the modulator. Coherent demodulator is much more complex than no coherent demodulator since carrier recovery is required. For some demodulation methods, sophisticated algorithms like the Viterbi algorithm are required. Also note that, for all personal communication systems which serve a large user community, the cost and complexity of the subscriber receiver must be minimized, and a modulation which is simple to detection is most attractive All these are basis for complexity comparison. Since power efficiency, bandwidth efficiency, and system complexity are the main criteria of choosing a modulation technique, we will always pay attention to them in the analysis of modulation techniques.

1.1.4.5 Other considerations

While power and bandwidth efficiency considerations are very important, other factors also affect the choice of a digital modulation scheme. For example The performance of the modulation scheme under various types of channel impairments such as Rayleigh and Rician fading and multipath time dispersion, given a particular demodulator implementation, is another key factor in selecting a modulation. In cellular systems where interference is a major issue, the performance of a modulation scheme in an interference environment is extremely important. Sensitivity to detection of timing jitter, caused by time-varying channels, is also an important consideration in choosing a particular modulation scheme. In general, the modulation, interference, and implementation of the time varying effects of the channel as well as the performance of the specific demodulator are analyzed as a complete system using simulation to determine relative performance and ultimate selection.

-circular QAM Fig.(1.2) Digital modulation hierarchy .(1.2) and the tree are classified into two large categories: constant envelope and nonconstant envelope.1) Digital modulation according to demodulation type The modulation schemes listed in the fig. Under nonconstant envelope class. Under constant envelope class.5 Hierarchy of Digital modulation schemes Digital modulation techniques may be classified into coherent and noncoherent techniques depending on whether the receiver is equipped with a phase-recovery circuit or not. Digital modulation schemes (according to receiver) coherent demodulation (All types of modulation ) noncoherent demodulation (All types of modulation except PSK) Fig.1. Digital Modulation schemes constant Envelope nonconstant envelope FSK PSK ASK M'ary QAM -BFSK -M'ary FSK -MSK -GMSK -BPSK -DPSK -M'ary PSK.1.(1. -QPSK. -OQPSK. there are three subclasses: ASK and QAM. The phase recovery circuit ensures that the oscillator supplying the locally generated carrier wave in the receiver is synchronized (in both frequency and phase) to the transmitter oscillator. π / 4–QPSK -On-Off keying. there are three subclasses: FSK and PSK. -M'ary ASK -Rectangular QAM.

.8 Mbit/s .5G.16QAM . QPSK .QPSK . The idea is any realizable waveforms in a vector space can be expressed as a linear combination of “N” orthonormal waveforms (called a basis signal). 64 QAM Wi Fi (Wireless Fidelity) WiMAX (the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) . To proceed with the analysis of the digital modulation schemes we introduce the constellation diagram as we can see the Digital modulation means choosing particular signals from a finite set of a possible signal waveforms (symbols) based on the information bits applied to modulator.1.Once the basis signal is determined we can express any signal as a linear combination of them.5G Used modulation scheme GMSK 8PSK -QPSK in the forward channel (From BTS to MS). If there are total of M possible signals S= 𝑠1 . … … . 16 QAM .1. M=83 bits/symbol) Vector space analysis provides valuable insight into the performance of particular modulation scheme. data rate: 1. EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution) 2. .75G.6 Types of modulation schemes in different advanced digital communication systems: In the table (1. CDMA 2000 (Code Division Multiple Access) UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) 3G HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access). 64 QAM Adaptive Modulation: QPSK.(ex.1.7 Geometric representation of Modulated signal(Constellation diagram). BPSK . 𝑠𝑀 For binary information bit S will contain two signals and For signal size of MIt is possible to transmit log2M bits to represent a symbol. data rate: 3.2) we give examples of the used modulation schemes in different wireless modern communication systems Communication system GSM(Global System for Mobile communications) 2G. 𝑠2 . Fixed and mobile Table (1. 16 QAM. GPRS(General Packet Radio Service) 2. -OQPSK in the reverse channel QPSK -Adaptive modulation: depending on signal quality and cell usage.2) Modulation schemes used in advanced communication systems 1. .6 Mbit/s in good radio conditions. 3.

basis signals forms a coordinate system for the vector space Note that: no. if modulation scheme has a densely packed constellation it would be more bandwidth efficient.3) 𝑗 that means that any signal can be represented by linear combination of basis functions (2) Basis signals are orthogonal to each other in time ∞ 𝜙 𝑡 𝜙𝑗 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = 0 i≠ 𝑗 eqn(1.7.1 The Basis signal conditions (1) 𝑆𝑖 𝑡 = 𝑁=1 𝑠𝑖𝑗 𝜙𝑗 (𝑡) eqn (1. Pe is proportional to the distance between the closest points in constellation densely packed modulation scheme is less energy efficient than the modulation scheme that has sparse constellation High Power efficiency low Power efficiency Low Bw efficiency high Bw efficiency ____________________________________________________________ Fig.5) −∞ 𝑖 i.7.1.1. The X-axis of the diagram is called in-phase component and the y-axis represents the quadrature component The distance between signals on constellation diagram relates to how different the modulation waveforms are and how well the receiver can differentiate between all possible symbols when random noise is present.(1.e. .1.e. of basis signals is less than or equal the signal set No of basis signals is called dimension 1.4) −∞ 𝑖 (3) Basis signals are normalized to unit energy ∞ 𝜙 2 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = 1 eqn (1. of points increases i. Some of properties of the modulation scheme can be inferred from the constellation diagram: BW occupied by the modulation signals decreases as no.2Constellation diagram interpretation The constellation diagram provides graphical representation of the complex envelope of each possible symbol state.3) comparison between constellation diagram interpretation on power and BW efficiencies.

the average power is normalized to unity.1. such as good bandwidth and power efficiency.2.7. 1.5) displays their individual power spectra (for positive frequencies) for randomly generated binary data. Disadvantages of on-off signaling are the waste of power due to transmitted DC level and the fact that the power spectrum of the transmitted signal does not approach zero at zero frequency.3 Probability of error and constellation diagram The constellation diagram can also be employed to find the upper bound for symbol error rate in AWGN channel with PSD=No Is 𝑃 (𝜀|𝑠𝑖 ) ≤ 𝑠 Where the Q-function is 𝑄 𝑥 = ∞ 1 𝑥 2𝜋 𝑗 =1. and adequate timing information. . The five line codes illustrated in Figure (1.1. and The frequency f is normalized with respect to the bit rate 1/Tb. symbol 1 is represented by transmitting a pulse A for the duration of the symbol. as in Figure (1. Figure (1.7) And dij is Euclidean distance between ith and the jth points.6) exp 2 2) 𝑑𝑥 (−𝑥 eqn (1.4) displays the waveforms of five important line codes for the example data stream 01101001.This line code is also referred to as on-off signaling. Any of several line codes can be used for the electrical representation of a binary data stream. or codes). These baseband modulation waveforms are variably called line codes. Figure (1. Assuming that symbols 0 and 1 are equiprobable. PCM waveforms (or formats.4) (a). A variety of waveforms have been proposed in an effort to find ones with some desirable properties.1 Unipolar nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) signaling In this line code.4) are described here: 1. and symbol 0 is represented by switching off the pulse. baseband formats (or waveforms).𝑗 ≠𝑖 𝑄 𝑑 𝑖𝑗 2𝑁𝑜 eqn (1. It is the technology of representing digital sequences by pulse waveforms suitable for baseband transmission.2 LINE CODES Line codes (Baseband modulation) is defined as a direct transmission without Frequency transform.

2. as illustrated in Figure (1. respectively. An attractive feature of this line code is the presence of delta functions at f = 1/Tb in the power spectrum of the transmitted signal. and symbol 0 is represented by transmitting no pulse. ____________________________________________________________________ Figure (1. (e) Split-phase or Manchester code.4) (b). (d) Bipolar RZ signaling. symbol 1 is represented by a rectangular pulse of amplitude A and half-symbol 0 width. (c) Unipolar RZ signaling. (b) Polar NRZ signaling. which can be used for bit-timing recovery at the receiver. However.2. symbol 1 and 0 are represented by transmitting pulse of amplitudes +A and –A.1. .4) Line codes for the electrical representation of binary data: (a) Unipolar NRZ signaling. This line code is relatively easy to generate but disadvantage is that the power spectrum of the signal is large near zero frequency.2 Polar nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) signaling In this second line code. its disadvantage is that it requires 3db more power than polar return-to-zero signaling for the same probability of symbol error. 1.3 Unipolar return-to-zero (RZ) signaling In this other line code.4) (c). as illustrated in Figure (1.

_____________________________________________________________________ Figure(1. (e) Manchester-encoded signal. (d) Bipolar RZ signal. (b) Polar NRZ signal. The frequency is normalized with respect to the bit rate 1/Tb and the average power is normalized to unity. (c) Unipolar RZ signal.5) Power spectra of line codes: (a) Unipolar NRZ signal. .

6) it is apparent that a differentially encoded signal may be inverted without affecting its interpretation. A useful property of the BRZ signaling is that the power spectrum of the transmitted signal has no DC component and relatively insignificant low-frequency components for the case when symbols 1 and 0 occur with equal probability. For symbol 0. 1. (b) Differentially encoded data. assuming the use of unipolar nonreturn-to-zero signaling. illustrated in Figure (1.we show the differentially encoded data stream for the example data specified in Figure (1.6)(a) . Specifically.5 Split-phase (Manchester code) In this method of signaling.6).2. The original binary information is recovered simply by comparing the polarity of adjacent binary symbols to establish whether or not a transition has occurred. a transition is used to designate symbol 0 in the incoming binary data stream. no pulse is always used for symbol 0.6)(c). positive and negative pulses of equal amplitude (i. In Figure (1. as illustrated in Figure (1. (c) Waveform of differentially encoded data using unipolar NRZ signaling. symbol 1 is used as the reference bit. From Figure (1. symbol 1 is represented by a positive pulse of amplitude A followed by a negative pulse of amplitude –A.4). regardless of the signal statistics.6)(a) Original binary data. _____________________________________________________________________ Figure (1.The original binary data stream used here is the same that used in Figure (1.2..1.6). while no transition is used to designate symbol l.6 Differential encoding This method is used to encode information in terms of signal transitions. In Figure (1. the polarities of these two pulses are reversed. Note that differential encoding requires the use of a reference bit before initiating the encoding process. The Manchester code suppresses the DC component and has relatively insignificant low-frequency components. with each pulse having a half-symbol width. with both pulses being half-symbol wide.4) (d).e. In particular.2. assuming reference bit 1. 1.6)(b). This line code is also called alternate mark inversion (AMI) signaling . +A and –A) are used alternately for symbol 1.4 Bipolar return-to-zero (BRZ) signaling This line code uses three amplitude level as indicated in Figure (1. This property is essential in some applications..4) (e). The waveform of the differentially encoded data is shown in Figure (1. .

and techniques that reduce the modulation bandwidth and suppress out-ofband radiation. Out-ofband radiation in the adjacent channel in a mobile radio system should generally be 40 dB to 80 dB below that in the desired passband. while reducing intersymbol interference. This causes intersymbol interference (ISI) and leads to an increased probability of the receiver making an error in detecting a symbol. mobile communication systems operate with minimal bandwidth. 1. the pulses will spread in time. Consider this baseband binary transmission system as shown in figure ____________________________________________________________________ Figure (1. and the pulse for each symbol will smear into the time intervals of succeeding symbols.8) Baseband binary data transmission system . One obvious way to minimize intersymbol interference is to increase the channel bandwidth.3 PULSE SHAPING TECHNIQUES When rectangular pulses are passed through a bandlimited channel.1 Intersymbol Interference (ISI) Intersymbol interference (ISI) is a source of bit errors in a baseband-pulse transmission system. 1. Since it is difficult to directly manipulate the transmitter spectrum at RF frequencies. It arises when the channel is dispersive.Distorted PCM wave Amplifierequalizer Decisionmaking device Regenerated PCM wave Timing circuit _____________________________________________________________________ Figure (1. Block diagram of regenerative repeater. There are a number of well known pulse shaping techniques which are used to simultaneously reduce the intersymbol effects and the spectral width of a modulated digital signal.3. spectral shaping is done through baseband or IF processing.7). However. are highly desirable.

9) eqn(1.11) eqn (1. 𝑦 𝑡𝑖 = 𝜇 = 𝜇 ∞ 𝑘 =−∞ 𝑎𝑘 𝑝 𝑖 − 𝑘 𝑎𝑖 + 𝜇 ∞ 𝑘=−∞ 𝑎𝑘 𝑘 ≠𝑖 eqn (1.13) ai is the contribution of the ith transmitted bit BUT Second term represents the ISI [Residual effect due to the occurrence of pulse before and after the sampling time instant ti is called ISI] Note that: Under normal (ideal) conditions the ith transmitted bit is decoded correctly. ak = s t = +1 −1 k if symbol bk is 1 if symbol bk is 0 ak g t − kTb ak p t − kTb + n(t) eqn (1.8) Input binary data bk consists of symbols 1 and 0 each of duration T b.e p(0) = 1 P(t) = g(t) * h(t) * c(t) * denotes convolution Convolution in time domain multiplication in (f) domain P(f) = G(f) H(f) C(f) ) Receive filter output y(t) is sampled at time t i = iTb. The decoding requires that the weighted pulse contribution a kP(iTb – kTb) for k=i be free from ISI due to overlapping tails of all other weighted pulse contributions represented by ki We control pulse p(t) such that 𝑝 𝑖𝑇𝑏 − 𝑘𝑇𝑏 = 1 𝑖 = 𝑘 0 𝑖 ≠ 𝑘 If p(t) satisfies this ISI will vanish. the problem is to determine the frequency responses of the transmit and receive filters to reconstruct the original binary data sequence (b k).3.10) y t = μ where is a scaling factor and p(t) is to be defined and normalized i. .The output of the receiver would be 𝑦 𝑡 = 𝜇 𝑘 𝑎𝑘 𝑝 𝑡 − 𝑘𝑇𝑏 + 𝑛(𝑡) eqn (1. Extraction involves sampling the o/p y(t) at time t=iTb.2 Nyquist’s criterion for Distortion less Base Band Binary Transmission Typically The frequency response of the channel and the transmission pulse shape are specified. We want to minimize these effects to reach good decoding. We will neglect noise now to concentrate on ISI only. PAM modifies this binary sequences into a new sequence of short pulses.12) 𝑇𝑏 + 𝑛 𝑡𝑖 𝑖 − 𝑘 𝑇𝑏 + 𝑛 𝑡𝑖 eqn(1. ISI and noise in system introduce errors in decision device at the receiver. 1.

T of infinite periodic sequence of delta function of period T b whose individual areas are weighted by the respective sample value of p(t) that is given P (f) is given by 𝑃𝛿 𝑓 = 𝑅𝑏 = ∞ −∞ ∞ 𝑛 =−∞ 𝑃(𝑓 ∞ 𝑚 =−∞ − 𝑛𝑅𝑏 ) eqn(1.16) 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑓 2𝑤 Nyquist criterion for distortion less baseband transmission in the absence of noise Ideal Nyquist channel 𝑃 𝑓 = 𝑤 = 𝑅𝑏 1 = 2 2𝑇𝑏 eqn(1.14) 𝑝 𝑚𝑇𝑏 𝛿 𝑡 − 𝑚𝑇𝑏 𝑒 −𝑗2𝜋𝑓𝑡 𝑑𝑡 Let m = i – k i = k corresponds to m = 0 i k corresponds to m 0 𝑝𝛿 𝑓 = ∞ 𝑛 =−∞ 𝑃 ∞ 𝑝 −∞ 0 𝛿(𝑡) 𝑒 −𝑗2𝜋𝑓𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = 𝑝 0 = 1 eqn(1.15) Condition of zero ISI is 𝑓 − 𝑛𝑅𝑏 = 𝑇𝑏 1 2𝑤 eqn(1.17) 𝑝 𝑡 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐(2𝑤𝑡) Note: Rb = 2w is called Nyquist rate. (b) Ideal basic pulse shape . W is called Nyquist bandwidth _____________________________________________________________________ Figure (1.How to design this? Converting to frequency domain considering sampling process in time and frequency domain and periodicity in (f) domain. F.9) Nyquist criterion for ISI cancellation (ideal Nyquist channel) (a) Ideal magnitude.

10.20) Notice that the impulse response decays much faster at the zero-crossings (approximately as 1/t3 for t>> when compared to the 'brick-wall" filter (=0). and is zero only at exact multiples of 7's. 1. This becomes difficult if nonlinear RF . but increases the occupied bandwidth. and is given by p t = sinc 2wt cos 2πα wt 1−16α 2 w 2 t 2 eqn (1. As seen from Figure 1. thus any error in the sampling time of zerocrossings will cause significant ISI due to overlapping from adjacent symbols (A slope of 1/t2 or 1/t3 is more desirable to minimize the ISI due to timing jitter in adjacent samples).This transfer function corresponds to a rectangular "brick-wall" filter with absolute bandwidth=Rb/2 where Rb is the bit rate. Also. The spectral efficiency offered by a raised cosine filter only occurs if the exact pulse shape is preserved at the carrier.10 for various values of a. The rapid time rolloff allows it to be truncated in time with little deviation in performance from theory. since it corresponds to a noncausal system (h(t) exists for t< 0) and is thus difficult to approximate.W BT = 2w – f1 = (1+) W.3 Raised Cosine Filter To overcome the practical difficulties encountered with ideal Nyquist channel by extending the B. the bandwidth of the filter also increases. as the rolloff factor a increases. This implies that increasing a decreases the sensitivity to timing jitter.18) 𝑝 𝑓 = 1 4𝑤 1 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛 0 𝜋( 𝑓 −𝑤 ) 2𝑤 −2𝑓1 𝑓1 ≤ 𝑓 ≤ 2𝑤 − 𝑓1 𝑓 ≥ 2𝑤 − 𝑓1 eqn(1. Transmission B. While this transfer function satisfies the zero ISI criterion with a minimum of bandwidth.W from the minimum value w = Rb/2 to an adjustable value between w and 2w we use the overall frequency response p(f) to satisfy a condition more elaborate than that for the ideal Nyquist channel 𝑝 𝑓 + 𝑝 𝑓 − 2𝑤 + 𝑝 𝑓 + 2𝑤 = 1 2𝑤 1 2𝑤 − 𝑤 ≤ 𝑓 ≤ 𝑤 0 ≤ 𝑓 ≤ 𝑓1 eqn(1. The corresponding impulse response of the filter can be obtained by taking the inverse Fourier transform of the transfer function. there are practical difficulties in implementing it. the (sin t) /t pulse has a waveform slope that is 1/t at each zero crossing. the raised cosine rolloff filter corresponds to a rectangular filter of minimum bandwidth. This transfer function is plotted in Figure 1. When = 0.19) Where = 1 − 𝑓1 𝑤 is called roll off factor which indicates the excess bandwidth over the ideal solution w.3. and the time side lobe levels decrease in adjacent symbol slots.

10) Responses for different rolloff factors of raised cosine filter. _______________________________________________________________ Figure (1. . communication designers is that the reduced bandwidth offered by Nyquist pulse shaping requires linear amplifiers which are not power efficient. (b) Time response. An obvious solution to this problem would be to develop linear amplifiers which use real time feedback to offer more power efficiency. and this is currently an active research thrust for mobile communications. (a) Frequency response. this can cause serious adjacent channel interference in mobile communication systems.amplifiers are used. Small distortions in the baseband pulse shape can dramatically change the spectral occupancy of the transmitted signal. If not properly controlled. A dilemma for mobile.

Figure (1. reducing the spectral occupancy creates degradation in performance due to increased ISI.11) impulse response of Gaussian shaping filter .1. The Gaussian filter has a narrow absolute bandwidth (although not as narrow as a raised cosine rolloff filter). It should be noted that since the Gaussian pulse-shaping filter does not satisfy the Nyquist criterion for ISI cancellation. low overshoot. Prominent among such techniques is the use of a Gaussian pulse-shaping filter which is particularly effective when used in conjunction with Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) modulation.11 shows the impulse response of the baseband Gaussian filter for various values of 3-dB bandwidth-symbol time product (BTS). Unlike Nyquist filters which have zero-crossings at adjacent symbol peaks and a truncated transfer function. Gaussian pulses are used when cost is a major factor and the bit error rates due to ISI are deemed to be lower than what is nominally required. The Gaussian Iowpass filter has a transfer function given By 𝐻𝐺 𝑓 = exp 2 𝑓 2 ) (−𝛼 eqn(1. The impulse response of the Gaussian filter gives rise to a transfer function that is highly dependent upon the 3-dB bandwidth. the 3-dB bandwidth of the baseband Gaussian shaping filter is given by. The impulse response of the Gaussian filter is given by 𝐺 𝑡 = 𝜋 𝛼 exp − 𝛼 2 𝑡 2 𝜋 2 eqn(1.3.22) As a increases. the spectral occupancy of the Gaussian filter decreases and time dispersion of the applied signal increases. Thus. and pulse area preservation properties which make it very attractive for use in modulation techniques that use nonlinear RF amplifiers and do not accurately preserve the transmitted pulse shape .4 Gaussian Filter It is also possible to use non-Nyquist techniques for pulse shaping. or other modulations which are well suited for power efficient nonlinear amplifiers. the Gaussian filter has a smooth transfer function with no zero-crossings. and has sharp cut-off. a trade-off is made between the desired RF bandwidth and the irreducible error due to ISI of adjacent symbols when Gaussian pulse shaping is used.23) Figure 1.5887 𝐵 eqn(1. 𝛼 = 0.21) The parameter α is related to bandwidth .

4.12) (a) Binary modulating signal and (b) BASK signal . m(t) = 1 or 0. 𝑐 2 T where E = P T is the energy contained in a bit duration.1 Introduction Amplitude shift keying (ASK) is nonconstant modulation scheme where the amplitude of the carrier frequency is changed with respect to the message signal. It has a power P = 2 . This is sometimes called on-off keying (OOK).11). 1.1. _____________________________________________________________________ Figure (1. Thus equation (1) can be written as 𝑠 𝑡 = = = 2𝑃 cos 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 . Figure (1. the applicable signal space or constellation diagram of the BASK signals is shown in Figure (1. Figure (1.4 AMPLITUDE-SHIFT KEYING (ASK) MODULATION 1.23) where A is a constant. The ASK can be coherently or noncoherently demodulated. so that A = 2P . fc is the carrier frequency. and T is the bit duration. The amplitude of a carrier is switched or keyed by the binary signal m(t).2 Binary Amplitude-Shift Keying (BASK) A binary amplitude-shift keying (BASK) signal can be defined by 𝑠 𝑡 = 𝐴𝑚 𝑡 cos 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 𝑐 A2 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇 eqn (1.12) shows the BASK signal sequence generated by the binary sequence 0 1 0 1 0 0 1.Also the ASK modulation can ne extended to M’ary modulation scheme with Multi-level signal.4. 𝑐 𝑃𝑇 𝐸 2 𝑇 2 𝑇 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇 eqn (1. If we take ∅1 t = cos2πfc t as the orthonormal basis function. 𝑐 cos 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 . When the amplitude is altered between “A” and zero volt the modulation is considered on-off keying .24) cos 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 .11) BASK signal constellation diagram.

Since we define the bandwidth as the range occupied by the baseband signal m(t) from 0 Hz to the first zero-crossing point. Figure (1.25) The effect of multiplication by the carrier signal Acos 2πfct is simply to shift the spectrum of the modulating signal m (t) to fc. _____________________________________________________________________ Figure (1.13) (a) Modulating signal. . (b) spectrum of (a).13 shows the amplitude spectrum of the BASK signals when m(t) is a periodic pulse train. Figure 1. _____________________________________________________________________ Figure (1.14) (a) BASK modulator and (b) coherent demodulator. we have B Hz of bandwidth for the baseband signal and 2B Hz for the BASK signal.14) shows the modulator and a possible implementation of the coherent demodulator for BASK signals.The Fourier transform of the BASK signal s(t) is 𝑆 𝑓 = 𝐴 2 𝐴 2 ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ 𝑚 𝑡 𝑒 𝑗 2𝜋 𝑓𝑐 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗 2𝜋𝑓𝑡 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑚 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗 2𝜋𝑓𝑐 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑗2𝜋𝑓𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝐴 2 𝑆 𝑓 = 𝐴 2 𝑀 𝑓 − 𝑓 + 𝑐 𝑀 𝑓 + 𝑓 𝑐 eqn (1. and (c) spectrum of BASK signals.

. Here.. M . 1.27) for i = 0. ____________________________________________________________________ Figure (1. 𝑐 𝑃𝑖 𝑇 𝐸𝑖 2 𝑇 2 𝑇 𝐴2 𝐴𝑖 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 𝑐 0.28) cos 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 . 𝑐 cos 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 . Figure (1... (b) 4-ary signal.(M .15) shows the signal constellation diagrams of M-ASK and 4-ASK signals. 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇 𝑒𝑙𝑠𝑒𝑤𝑒𝑟𝑒 eqn (1. . .1. A is a constant. and (b) 4-ASK signal... Figure (1.16) 4-ASK modulation: (a) binary sequence. and T 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇 eqn(1.16) shows the 4-ASK signal sequence generated by the binary sequence 00 01 10 11. so that Ai = 2𝑃𝑖 .15) (a) M-ASK and (b) 4-ASK signal constellation diagrams.4. _____________________________________________________________________ Figure (1.1)] is the symbol duration.3 M-ary Amplitude-Shift Keying (M-ASK) An M-ary amplitude-shift keying (M-ASK) signal can be defined by 𝑠 𝑡 = eqn (1. The signal has a power Pi = 2 .1 and M > 4. fc is the carrier frequency.. 1. Thus equation (4) can be written as 𝑠 𝑡 = = = 2𝑃𝑖 cos 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 .26) where Ai = A[2i . 𝑐 where Ei = PiT is the energy of s(t) contained in a symbol duration for i = 0. M -1. .

29) And For M-ary ASK (MAM) the probability of error would be 𝑃 = 𝑠 2(𝑀−1) 𝑀 𝑄 6(𝑙𝑜𝑔 2 𝑀)𝐸𝑏 𝑎𝑣𝑔 𝑀 2 −1 𝑁𝑜 eqn(1.5 PHASE SHIFT KEYING MODULATION TECHNIQUES Phase shift keying is constant envelope modulation technique where the phase of the carrier is switched according to the message signal and normally cannot be noncoherently demodulated . 1. _____________________________________________________________________ Figure 1. We begin this section with binary PSK(BPSK) followed by the differential PSK (DPSK) as a brilliant solution of noncoherent demodulation of the PSK.30) 1. Then we introduce the M’ary PSK followed by a common and robust special case modulation scheme the later which is quadrature PSK (QPSK) and its modified versions offset QPSK(OQPSK) and (π/4 QPSK) .4 Probability of error: For binary ASK (or as special case OOK signal) the probability of error would be 𝑃 = 𝑄 𝑒 𝐸𝑏 2𝑁0 eqn(1.17) shows the modulator and a possible implementation of the coherent demodulator for M-ASK signals.Figure (1.4.17 (a) M-ASK modulator and (b) coherent demodulator.

32) These signals are referred to as antipodal signals and is normalized to unit energy The reason that they are chosen is that they have a correlation coefficient of -1. m2 which corresponds to 1.1.1. and the 𝑐 data signal in m(t) is applied as the modulating waveform.1. 0. Normally m1. where cos (2𝜋𝑓 𝑡) is applied as the carrier. Hence a BPSK signal can be generated using a balanced modulator.-1) as general case 𝑆𝐵𝑃𝑆𝐾 = 𝑚(𝑡) 2𝐸𝑏 𝑇 𝑏 cos 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 + 𝜃𝑐 𝑐 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇𝑏 eqn(1. m2 phases are separated by 180 phase shift and amplitude of Ac and energy per bit (Eb= 2 𝐴2 Tb) 𝑐 1 1. which leads to the minimum error probability for the same Eb/No.5.5. 1.31) OR: The signal is shifted by 𝜋 when transmitting binary zero which means 𝑆𝐵𝑃𝑆𝐾 = − 2𝐸𝑏 𝑇 𝑏 cos 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 + 𝜃𝑐 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇𝑏 (for binary 0) 𝑐 eqn(1. as we will see shortly.2 Time domain For the binary data {10110} the modulated carrier would be Figure 1. If m(t) represents binary data which takes on one of two possible pulse shapes(1.1 BPSK Signal equation: 𝑆𝐵𝑃𝑆𝐾 = 2𝐸𝑏 𝑇 𝑏 cos 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 + 𝜃𝑐 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇𝑏 (for binary 1) 𝑐 eqn(1.33) Therefore The BPSK signal is equivalent to a double sideband suppressed carrier amplitude modulated waveform.18 BPSK signal in time domain .5.1 Binary phase shift keying (BPSK):Here the phase of constant amplitude carrier signal is switched between two values according to the possible signals m1.

e.1. with a signal constellation consisting of two message points .1.36) From figure (1. 𝜙1 = 2 𝑇 𝑏 cos 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 + 𝜃𝑐 𝑐 is the basis signal then we will have two constellation points separated by 180 degree phase shift Therefore A coherent binary PSK system is characterized by having a signal space that is one dimensional (i.4 Constellation diagram Let.35) Which result in Null to null BW=twice bit rate 𝑁𝑢𝑙𝑙 𝑡𝑜 𝑛𝑢𝑙𝑙 𝐵𝑊 = 2𝑅𝑏 eqn(1.5 all energy are contained within 1.5 1.34) Where Eb is bit energy and Tb is bit duration That is equivalent to PSD at RF 𝑃𝑃𝑆𝐾 = 𝐸𝑏 2 sin (𝜋(𝑓−𝑓𝑐 )𝑇𝑏 2 𝜋(𝑓−𝑓𝑐 )𝑇𝑏 + sin (𝜋(−𝑓−𝑓𝑐 )𝑇𝑏 2 𝜋(−𝑓−𝑓𝑐 )𝑇𝑏 eqn(1.5.19) we conclude that 90% of BPSK energy is contained within an approximately equal to 1. N=1).1.5.19) BPSK spectrum with rectangular and raised cosine filter with roll of factor=0.6 Rb and we can also find that with using a raised cosine filter of 𝑟𝑜𝑙𝑙 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝛼 = 0.3 Spectrum & Bandwidth The power spectral density (PSD) of the complex envelope can be shown to be: 𝑆𝐵 𝑓 = 2𝐸𝑏 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐 2 𝑇𝑏 𝑓 eqn(1.5 Rb Figure (1.

Figure (1.20) BPSK constellation diagram

1.5.1.5 Modulator

Using a balanced modulator after putting the binary data on the form of polar NRZ (non return to zero) (-1,+1) we can generate the BPSK signal note that the carrier frequency 𝑓 must satisfy that 𝑓 = 𝑚𝑅𝑏 for satisfying synchronization i.e ensure that 𝑐 𝑐 each transmitted bit contains an integral number of cycles of the carrier wave.

Figure (1.21) BPSK modulator

1.5.1.6 Demodulator:As we pointed out before the PSK modulation must be coherently demodulated so a carrier recovery circuit (Costas loop-phase locked loop) must be employed to obtain the carrier. To detect the original binary sequence of 1’s and zero’s we apply the noisy PSK signal to a correlator which is supplied with the locally generated carrier the correlator output is compared with a threshold of zero volts if the output exceeds zero the receiver decides in favor of symbol 1 otherwise the receiver decides in favor of zero.

**Figure (1.22) BPSK demodulator
𝑥**

0 𝑡 = 𝑚 𝑡

2𝐸𝑏 𝑇𝑏
𝑐𝑜𝑠

2 2𝜋𝑓𝑐 𝑡 + 𝜃 = 𝑚 𝑡

2𝐸𝑏 1 𝑇𝑏 2

+ 2 cos (2(2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 + 𝜃) 𝑐

1

eqn(1.37)

When no pilot signal is transmitted a Costas loop or squaring loop may be used to synthesize the carrier phase and frequency from the received BPSK signal. Figure (1.23) shows the block diagram of a BPSK receiver along with the carrier recovery circuits.

Figure (1.23) shows the block diagram of a BPSK receiver along with the carrier recovery circuits. The received signal is squared to generate a dc signal and an amplitude varying sinusoid at twice the carrier frequency. The de signal is filtered out using a bandpass filter with center frequency tuned to A frequency divider is then used to recreate the waveform.

1.5.1.7 Power sufficiency & bandwidth efficiency:Since we have only two constellation points hence we have High power efficiency Low bandwidth efficiency: the symbol is represented by 1 bit
𝑏

𝜂 = 𝐵𝑊 = 0.5
𝑅

eqn(1.38)

1.5.1.8 Probability of error:Since that Distance between constellation points =2 𝐸𝑏 . Then the probability of error is derived from the general probability of error equation of the matched filter (correlator) receiver 𝑃 = 𝑄 𝑒
𝐸

1 +𝐸2 −2𝜌 12 𝐸1 𝐸2 2𝑁𝑜

eqn(1.39)

**With 𝜌 = −1 and E1=E2=Eb in the BPSK modulation therefore 𝑃 = 𝑄 𝑒
**

2𝐸𝑏 𝑁𝑜

= 2 𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑐

1 𝐸𝑏

𝑁𝑜

eqn(1.40)

1.5.2 Differential phase shift keying (DPSK):As we have seen in BPSK modulation that the demodulator must be coherent i.e. it needs a reference signal to be demodulated which will increase the complexity of the demodulator by the synchronization circuits and the reason of this that the demodulator must preserve the phase of the carrier which includes the message. From here a noncoherent version of BPSK is needed. the idea here is to equip the receiver with storage capability so as it can measure the relative phase difference between the waveforms received during two successive bit intervals provided that the unknown phase varies slowly (slow enough to be considered constant over the two bit intervals) That is we consider the differential PSK (DPSK) as Noncoherent form of PSK. which will result in many advantages such as: no need for coherent reference signal and the receivers are cheap to build. This would be done by differential encoding i.e. The input binary sequence is first differentially encoded & then modulated using BPSK modulator.

**1.5.2.1 Differential encoding procedure:
**

Here we encode the baseband data before modulating it onto carrier.The encoded output bit is determined from the input bit and the previous output bit. Let ak: original binary data. And dk: encoded binary data sequence. Encoding: 𝑑𝑘 = 𝑎𝑘 ⨁𝑑𝑘−1 eqn(1.41) Decoding: 𝑎𝑘 = 𝑑𝑘 ⨁𝑑𝑘−1 eqn(1.42)

The effect:to leave symbol dk unchanged from the previous symbol if ak=1 & toggle if else. Example of differential encoding: mk dk-1 dk 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 Table (1.3) Example of differential encoding 1 0 0 0 0 1

1

1.5.2.2 Modulator:

Figure (1.24) DPSK modulator It consists of a one bit delay element and a logic circuit interconnected so as to generate the differentially encoded sequence from the input binary sequence. The output is passed through a product modulator to obtain the DPSK signal i.e. output bit is delayed by 1 bit duration and XNORed with newer i/p bit,Then the o/p sequence is transformed to polar NRZ and then it will be like BPSK.

1.5.2.3 Demodulator:(1) Suboptimum receiver: At the receiver, the original sequence is recovered from the demodulated differentially encoded signal through a complementary process,

Figure (1.25) Suboptimum receiver of DPSK modulation

5.2.5 Advantages & disadvantages:Advantage. Disadvantage. and indeed it is the usual-sense DBPSK receiver. frequency tracking is needed to maintain the same frequency Therefore the suboptimum receiver is more practical.4) Modulation Message ak Encoding 𝑑𝑘 = 𝑎𝑘 ⨁𝑑𝑘−1 Signal phase 𝜃 Demodulation Output of correlator Demodulator output ref 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 𝜋 -1 1 0 𝜋 1 1 0 𝜋 1 0 1 0 -1 0 0 0 𝜋 -1 0 0 1 0 -1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 Table(1. But it does require the reference frequency be the same as the received signal this can be maintained by using stable oscillators. in the case where Doppler shift exists in the carrier frequency. such as in mobile communications.26) Optimum receiver of DPSK modulation 1. However.2. Its error performance is slightly inferior to that of the optimum Figure (1. such as crystal oscillators.: energy efficiency is less than coherent PSK by 3 dB . in both transmitter and receiver.4 Example: A complete example of differential PSK (DPSK) is shown in Table (1.4) DPSK example 1.: reduce the receiver complexity.5.(2) Optimum receiver: The demodulator does not require phase synchronization between the reference signals and the received signal.

Among all MPSK schemes. In MPSK.3. a data bit is represented by a symbol. which always produces an asymptotically equally likely data sequence the PSD ofthe differentially encoded BPSK is the same as BPSK which we assume is equally likely 1.44) .5. Here carrier phase takes on one of M possible values namely 𝜃𝑖 = Where i=1.1.5. thus the bandwidth efficiency is increased to n times.coherent DPSK .6 Power spectral density: The same as BPSK Since the difference of differentially encoded BPSK from BPSK is differential encoding.7 Probability of error:𝑃 = 𝑒 −𝐸𝑏 /𝑁𝑜 𝑒 2 1 eqn (1.2.2.5.27) Performance comparison between coherent BPSK.optimum and suboptimum DPSK 1.….M 2(𝑖−1)𝜋 𝑀 eqn(1.6. In BPSK.3 M-ary phase shift keying(M’ary PSK/MPSK) The motivation behind MPSK is to increase the bandwidth efficiency of the PSK modulation schemes. QPSK is the most-often-used scheme since it does not suffer from BER degradation while the bandwidth efficiency is increased. We will see this in Section 4. Other MPSK schemes increase bandwidth efficiency at the expenses of BER performance. n = log2 M data bits are represented by a symbol.2.43) Which provides a gain of 3 dB over noncoherent FSK for same E b/No Figure (1.

2 Constellation diagram:(1) Since we have two basis signals two dimensional diagram (2) From equation the envelope is constant (when no pulse shaping is employed) while the phase is varyingthat can be represented by equally spaced message points on a circle of radius 𝐸𝑠 (3) Gray coding is usually used in signal assignment in MPSK to make only one bit difference to two adjacent signals1 bit error An example of 8-ary PSK with gray coding is as shown:- Figure (1..5.47) 1. And Es=symbol energy=(log2M)Eb Using trigonometric identities:𝑆𝑖 𝑡 = 2𝐸𝑠 𝑇𝑠 [cos((𝑖 − 1) 𝑀 )cos 𝑐 𝑡) − sin((𝑖 − 1) 𝑀 )sin 𝑐 𝑡)] (2𝜋𝑓 (2𝜋𝑓 2 𝑇𝑠 2𝜋 2𝜋 eqn(1.45) i=1. 𝜙2 (𝑡) = 2𝜋 2 𝑇𝑠 sin 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 𝑐 are the basis signals 2𝜋 𝑆𝑖 𝑡 = 𝐸𝑠 [cos((𝑖 − 1) 𝑀 )𝜙1 (𝑡) − sin((𝑖 − 1) 𝑀 )𝜙2 (𝑡)] eqn(1.2.46) Let 𝜙1 (𝑡) = cos 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 𝑐 .3.5.….1.M & Ts: is symbol time=(log2M)Tb .28) 8PSK modulation with gray coding assignment .1 Signal Equation:𝑆𝑖 𝑡 = 2𝐸𝑠 𝑇𝑠 cos 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 + 𝑐 2𝜋 𝑀 𝑖 − 1 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇𝑠 eqn (1..3.

48) 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜋 2𝑀 eqn(1.49) 1.5.3.50) .3.3 Probability of error: From the geometry of the constellation we will find that the distance between adjacent symbols is equal to 2 𝐸𝑠 sin 𝜋 𝑀 Figure (1.1.29) Formulation of probability of error expression for MPSK signal And hence using eqn(1.4 Power spectra of M-ary PSK:The first null BW decrease as M increases while bit rate is held constant 𝑆𝐵 𝑓 = 2𝐸 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐2 𝑇𝑓 = 2𝐸𝑏 𝑙𝑜𝑔2 𝑀 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐 2 (𝑇𝑏 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑔2 𝑀 ) eqn (1.5.39) we will find that average symbol error probability equal 𝑃 ≤ 2𝑄 𝑒 & For M≥ 4:𝑃𝑒 ≈ 2𝑄 4𝐸𝑠 𝑁𝑜 2𝐸𝑏 𝑙𝑜𝑔 2 𝑀 𝑁𝑜 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜋 𝑀 eqn(1.

51) 𝜂 𝐵𝑊 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 = log 2 𝑀 2 And To ensure that there is no degradation in error performance (BER) the ratio Eb/No must increase.Figure (1. increasing M implies that the constellation is more densely packed.4 28. 𝜂 increases and Bandwidth decreases as M is increased.5 Power & BW efficiency:As the value of M increases.5.5) bandwidth and power efficiencies of M-ary PSK signals . and hence the power efficiency (noise tolerance) is decreased so As M increases (a) Bandwidth efficiency increases (b) Power efficiency decreases.5 3 𝜼𝑩 = 𝑹𝒃 /𝑩 -6 10.5 14 18.5) gives a values of both the bandwidth and power efficiencies of M-ary PSK signals 2 4 8 16 32 64 M 0. Where 2 𝑇𝑠 2𝑅𝑏 log 2 𝑀 𝐵𝑊𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛 Therefore.5 23.30) Spectrum and the bandwidth of MPSK signal 1.5 1 1. 𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑜𝑏𝑒 = = eqn(1. for fixed Rb.3. At the same time. Table (1.5 Eb/No for BER =10 Table (1. the bandwidth efficiency increases. That is.5 2 2.5 10.

5. Note that the M-ary can be directly modulated or differentially encoded to provide noncoherent detection .6 Modulator: For M≥ 4we can use a quadrature modulator.3.The relation between symbol error & Eb/No is as following: Figure(1.31) symbol error rate versus signal to noise ratio for various modulation PSK schemes 1. The only difference for different values of M is the level generator The level generator gives two signals corresponding to each n bits of the input sequence(symbol) by changing the levels of these signals we can vary the phase.

For example: Message Phase 00 0 01 π/2 11 π 10 3π/2 Table (1. The phase of the carrier takes on 1 of 4 equally spaced value such as 0.33) MPSK demodulator 1.3.32) MPSK modulator 1.5.7 Demodulator:- Figure (1. π. π/2.Figure (1. where each value of phase corresponds to a unique pair of message bits.5.6) QPSK output phases . since 2 bits are transmitted in a single modulation symbol.4 Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) QPSK has the twice bandwidth efficiency of BPSK. 3π/2.

34) (a) QPSK constellation where the carrier phases are 0.54) 1.Note that : it is better to arrange the states with Gray Coding . 3π/4 . 𝜋 2 𝜙2 𝑡 = 𝜙1 𝑡 – 2 𝑇𝑠 sin(2𝜋𝑓 𝑡) 𝑐 𝜋 2 Then the 4 signals in the set can be expressed in the terms of the basis functions as: 𝑆𝑄𝑃𝑆𝐾 𝑡 = 𝑖 = 1. π.1 Signal Equation The QPSK signal for this set of symbol states may be defined as: 𝑆𝑄𝑃𝑆𝐾 𝑡 = 2𝐸𝑠 𝑇𝑠 cos[2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 + 𝑖 − 1 𝑐 𝜋 2 ] 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇𝑠 𝑖 = 1.5π/4.4.5.2 Constellation Diagram and probability of error Based on this representation the QPSK signal can be depicted using a two dimensional constellation diagram with four points as shown: Figure (1.3. this makes each adjacent symbol only differs by one bit to minimize the bit error rate (BER).3π/2 (b) QPSK constellation where the carrier phases are π/4.4 𝐸𝑠 cos 𝑖 − 1 𝐸𝑠 sin 𝑖 − 1 𝜙2 𝑡 eqn (1. π/2 . Using trigonometric identities: 𝑆𝑄𝑃𝑆𝐾 𝑡 = 2𝐸𝑠 𝑇𝑠 cos(x+y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y ] cos(2𝜋𝑓 𝑡) − 𝑐 2𝐸𝑠 𝑇𝑠 cos[ 𝑖 − 1 𝜋 2 sin[ 𝑖 − 1 𝜋 2 ] sin(2𝜋𝑓 𝑡) 𝑐 eqn (1.2.53) If the basis functions are: 𝜙1 𝑡 = 2 𝑇𝑠 cos(2𝜋𝑓 𝑡) 𝑐 .4.5.7π/4 . 1.52) Where TS is the symbol duration and is equal to twice the bit period T b. eqn (1.3.4.2.

1. then the distance between two adjacent points in the constellation is 2 𝐸𝑏 . then ES=2Eb. Similar to BPSK. QPSK can also be differentially encoded to allow noncoherent detection.4. it can be seen that the distance between two adjacent points in the constellation is 2𝐸𝑆 .55) Note that QPSK has the same probability of bit error as BPSK. Then the average probability of bit error in AWGN channel: 𝑃 = 𝑄 𝑒 2𝐸𝑏 𝑁𝑜 = 2 𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑐 1 𝐸𝑏 𝑁𝑜 eqn (1. Since each symbol corresponds to two bits.35) QPSK spectrum and bandwidth . BW of QPSK= Rb =Half BW of BPSK Figure (1. QPSK provides twice the spectral efficiency with exactly the same power efficiency.3 Spectrum and bandwidth of QPSK signal: The Null to null RF bandwidth is equal to the bit rate.From the constellation diagram.5. Thus compared to BPSK. but twice as much data can be sent in the same bandwidth.

5.4 QPSK Transmitter: Figure (1.4.36) QPSK modulator The unipolar binary message stream has bit rate Rb and is first converted into a bipolar non return to zero (NRZ) sequence using a unipolar to bipolar converter.1. Finally a summer adds these two waveforms together to produce the final QPSK signal.37) QPSK demodulator .5 QPSK Receiver: Figure (1. this prevents spill-over of signal energy into adjacent channels.5. The BPF at the output of the modulator confines the power spectrum of the QPSK signal within the allocated band. 1. The data sequence is separated by the serial-to-parallel converter (S/P) to form the odd numbered bit sequence for I-channel (cosine) and the even numbered bit sequence for Q-channel (sine). It is clear that the I-channel and Q-channel signals are BPSK signals with symbol duration of 2Tb.4. Next the odd-numbered-bit pulse train is multiplied to cos 2π fct and the evennumbered-bit pulse train is multiplied to sin 2π fct.

they lose the constant envelope property. However. A modified form of QPSK. The frontend bandpass filter removes out -of -band noise and adjacent channel interference. Taking four values of the phase (two bits) at a time to construct a QPSK symbol can allow the phase of the signal to jump by as much as 180° at a time. The two components are then multiplexed to reproduce the original binary sequence. called offset QPSK (OQPSK) or staggered QPSK is less susceptible to these deleterious effects and supports more efficient amplification. The filtered output is split into two parts . which are less efficient. the in-phase and quadrature components will never change at the same time. each part is coherently demodulated using the in-phase and quadrature carriers which are recovered from the received signal using carrier recovery circuit. The prevent the regeneration of side lobes and spectral widening. 1. By offsetting the timing of the odd and even bits by one bit-period.5 Offset Quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK) Offset Quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) is a variant of phase-shift keying modulation using 4 different values of the phase to transmit as QPSK. Figure (1. it is imperative that QPSK signals be amplified only using linear amplifiers. this yields much lower amplitude fluctuations than non-offset QPSK and is sometimes preferred in practice. Any kind of hard limiting or nonlinear amplification of the zerocrossings brings back the filtered side lobes since the fidelity of the signal at small voltage levels is lost in transmission. This will limit the phase-shift to no more than 90° at a time. The amplitude of a QPSK signal is ideally constant.5. when QPSK signals are pulse shaped. or half a symbol-period.38) QPSK and OQPSK phase transitions . The occasional phase shift of π radians can cause the signal envelope to pass through zero for just an instant. The outputs of the demodulators are passed through decision circuits which generate the in-phase and quadrature binary streams.

e. This implies that the maximum phase shift of the transmitted signal at any given time is limited to ±90°..The above figure shows the difference in the behavior of the phase between ordinary QPSK and OQPSK. bit transitions (and hence phase transitions) occur every Tb s. spectral occupancy is significantly reduced. . Since the transitions instants of mI (t) and mQ (t) are offset. Thus.e. while permitting more efficient RF amplification. while in OQPSK the changes are never greater than 90°. pulse shaping) OQPSK signals does not cause the signal envelope to go to zero. and will be a maximum of 180 degree if there is a change in the value of both mI (t) and mQ (t) However. phase transitions occur only once every Ts = 2Tb s.. especially at the 90 degree phase transition points.39) OQPSK generation Due to the time alignment of mI (t) and mQ (t) in standard QPSK. there will be some amount of ISI caused by the bandlimiting process. It can be seen that in the first plot (ordinary QPSK) the phase can change by 180° at once. Hence by switching phases more frequently (i. bandlimiting of (i. every Tb s instead of 2Tbs) OQPSK signaling eliminates 180° phase transitions. The following figure shows the even and odd bit streams. in OQPSK signaling. at any given time only one of the two bit streams can change values. Since 180° phase transitions have been eliminated. But the envelope variations are considerably less. and hence hard limiting or nonlinear amplification of OQPSK signals does not regenerate the high frequency side lobes as much as in QPSK. mI (t) and mQ(t) and the offset in their relative alignment by one bit period (half-symbol period): Figure (1. Obviously.

It may be demodulated in a coherent or noncoherent fashion. When differentially encoded π/4 QPSK is called π/4 DQPSK. hence both signals occupy the same bandwidth.6 π / 4–QPSK The π/4 shifted QPSK modulation is a quadrature phase shift keying technique which offers a compromise between OQPSK and QPSK in terms of the allowed maximum phase transitions. it has been found that in the presence of in multipath spread and fading. but is more susceptible to envelope variations than OQPSK. the bandlimited π/4 QPSK signal preserves the constant envelope property better than bandlimited QPSK. The spectrum of an OQPSK signal is identical to that of a QPSK signal. An extremely attractive feature of π/4 QPSK is that it can be noncoherently detected. Further. In π/4 QPSK. π/4 QPSK signals are differentially encoded to facilitate easier implementation of differential detection or coherent demodulation with phase ambiguity in the recovered carrier. Hence. . which greatly simplifies receiver design. and therefore is very attractive for mobile communication systems where bandwidth efficiency and efficient nonlinear amplifiers are critical for low power drain. OQPSK retains its band limited nature even after nonlinear amplification. OQPSK signals also appear to perform better than QPSK in the presence of phase jitter due to noisy reference signals at the receiver 1.The modulated signal is shown in the figure below for a short segment of a random binary data-stream: Figure (1. Further.40) OQPSK modulated signal Note that half symbol-period offset between the two component waves. the maximum phase change is limited to ± 135° as compared to 180° for QPSK and 90o for OQPSK. The staggered alignment of the even and odd bit streams does not change the nature of the spectrum. π/4 QPSK performs better than OQPSK . Very often.5.

which enables a receiver to perform timing recovery and synchronization. either the even or odd data bits are used to select points from one of the constellations or the other bits select points from the other constellation. Information bits mI. π/4 QPSK modulator.mQ Phase 11 π/4 01 3π/4 00 -3π/4 10 -π/4 Table (1. _____________________________________________________________________ Figure (1. every successive bit ensures that there is at least a phase shift which is an integer multiple of π/4 radians between successive symbols. the signal does not pass through the origin. Switching between two constellations.One property this modulation scheme possesses is that if the modulated signal is represented in the complex domain. but only to a maximum of 135° and so the amplitude fluctuations of π / 4–QPSK are between OQPSK and non-offset QPSK. signaling points of the modulated signal are selected from two QPSK constellations which are shifted by π/4 with respect to each other. This lowers the dynamical range of fluctuations in the signal which is desirable in communications. This also reduces the phase-shifts from a maximum of 180°.π / 4–QPSK uses two identical constellations which are rotated by 45° ( π / 4 radians. The figure shows the two constellations along with the combined constellation where the links between two signal points indicate the possible phase transitions. In other words. hence the name) with respect to one another. Usually. it does not have any paths through the origin.41) Constellation diagram of π/4 QPSK signal (a) possible states of 𝜃𝑘 wken 𝜃𝑘 −1 = 𝑛𝜋/4 (b) possible states when 𝜃𝑘 −1 = 𝑛𝜋/2 (c) all possible states .7): Carrier phase shifts corresponding to various input bit pairs. This ensures that there is a phase transition for every symbol.

42) constellation diagram of π/4 QPSK The modulated signal is shown below for a short segment of a random binary datastream: Figure (1.43) modulated signal when 11000110 is transmitted Note that: Successive symbols are taken from the two constellations shown in the diagram. Figure (1. the first symbol (1 1) is taken from the 'blue' constellation and the second symbol (0 0) is taken from the 'green' constellation.5.6.5.2 π/4 QPSK Transmission Techniques A block diagram of a generic π/4 QPSK transmitter is shown in Figure.1 Example Sketch the modulated symbols for the input bit stream: 11000110 _____________________________________________________________________ Figure (1.44) π/4 QPSK transmitter . Thus.6. 1.1.

Ik -1 and Qk -1 as well as θk which itself is a function of ϕk which is a function of the current input symbols mIk and mQk. in order to reduce the bandwidth occupancy.59) eqn(1. -1. the in-phase and quadrature bit streams Ik and Qk are then separately modulated by two carriers which are in quadrature with one another. The Kth in-phase and quadrature pulses. it is possible to use noncoherent differential detection even in the absence of differential encoding. -1/ 2 . From the above discussion it is clear that the information in a π/4 QPSK signal is completely contained in the phase difference φk of the carrier between two adjacent symbols.60) 𝑁−1 𝑘 =0 𝑄𝑘 𝑃 𝑡 − 𝐾𝑇𝑠 − 𝑃 𝑡 − 𝐾𝑇𝑠 − Both Ik and Qk are usually passed through raised cosine roll off pulse shaping filters before modulation.58) Just as in a QPSK modulator. It should be noted that the values of Ik and Qk and the peak amplitude of the waveforms I(t) and Q(t) can take one of the five possible values 0.59). The function P(t) in equations (1. Since the information is completely contained in the phase difference.57) eqn(1.(1. Ik and Qk are produced at the output of the signal mapping circuit over time kT ≤ t ≤ (k + 1)T and are determined by their previous values.60) corresponds to the pulse shape. and Ts is the symbol period. +1.56) eqn (1. +1/ 2 .The input bit stream is partitioned by a serial-to-parallel (S/P) converter into two parallel data streams mIk and mQk each with a symbol rate equal to half that of the incoming bit rate. Ik and Qk represent rectangular pulses over one symbol duration having amplitudes given by: 𝐼𝑘 = cos 𝜃𝑘 = 𝐼𝑘 −1 cos 𝜙𝑘 − 𝑄𝑘 −1 sin 𝜙𝑘 𝑄𝑘 = sin 𝜃𝑘 = 𝐼𝑘−1 sin 𝜙𝑘 + 𝑄𝑘−1 cos 𝜙𝑘 Where 𝜃𝑘 = 𝜃𝑘 −1 + 𝜙𝑘 eqn (1. nonlinear amplified systems. Pulse shaping also reduces the spectral restoration problem which may be significant in fully saturated. to produce the π/4 QPSK waveform given by: 𝑆𝜋 −𝑄𝑃𝑆𝐾 𝑡 = 𝐼 𝑡 cos 𝜔𝑐 𝑡 − 𝑄(𝑡) sin 𝜔𝑐 𝑡 4 Where 𝐼 𝑡 = 𝑄 𝑡 = 𝑁−1 𝑘 =0 𝐼𝑘 𝑃 𝑡 − 𝐾𝑇𝑠 − 𝑇𝑠 2 𝑇𝑠 2 = = 𝑁−1 𝑘 =0 cos 𝜃𝑘 𝑁−1 𝑘 =0 sin 𝜃𝑘 𝑃 𝑡 − 𝐾𝑇𝑠 − 𝑇𝑠 2 𝑇𝑠 2 eqn(1. .

1 Baseband Differential Detection Figure (1.45) shows a block diagram of a baseband differential detector. and FM discriminator detection.5. fast Rayleigh fading channels. although there are implementation issues which are specific to each technique. The Incoming π/4 QPSK signal is quadrature demodulated using two local oscillator signals that have the same frequency as the unmodulated carrier at the transmitter. while coherently detected π/4 QPSK has the same error performance as QPSK.1. There are various types of detection techniques that are used for the detection of π/4QPSK signals. 1. but not necessarily the same phase ϕk = tan−1 Qk Ik is the phase of the carrier due to the kth data bit.3 π/4 QPSK Detection Techniques Due to ease of hardware implementation. the BER performance of a differentially detected π/4 QPSK is about 3 dB inferior to QPSK. IF differential detection. In an AWGN channel.5. Interestingly.62) Figure (1. differential detection offers a lower error floor since it does not rely on phase synchronization.3.6. They include baseband differential detection.6. the FM discriminator detects the phase difference directly in a noncoherent manner. and then decides on the phase difference accordingly. the output wk and zk from the two low pass filters in the in-phase and quadrature arms of the demodulator can be expressed as: 𝑊𝑘 = cos 𝜙𝑘 − 𝛾 eqn (1. simulations have shown that all 3 receiver structures offer very similar bit error rate performances.45) Block diagram of a baseband differential detector.61) 𝑧𝑘 = sin 𝜙𝑘 − 𝛾 eqn(1. While both the baseband and IF differential detector determines the cosine and sine functions of the phase difference. differential detection is often employed to demodulate π/4 QPSK signals. In low bit rate. .

64) The output of the differential decoder can be expressed as 𝑥𝑘 = cos 𝜙𝑘 − 𝛾 cos 𝜙𝑘−1 − 𝛾 + sin 𝜙𝑘 − 𝛾 sin 𝜙𝑘 −1 − 𝛾 =cos 𝜙𝑘 − 𝜙𝑘 −1 𝑦𝑘 = sin 𝜙𝑘 − 𝛾 cos 𝜙𝑘 −1 − 𝛾 + cos 𝜙𝑘 − 𝛾 sin 𝜙𝑘 −1 − 𝛾 =sin 𝜙𝑘 − 𝜙𝑘−1 eqn (1. 𝑖𝑓 𝑦𝑘 < 0 Where SI and SQ are the detected bits in the in-phase and quadrature arms.7) to determine: 𝑆𝐼 = 1. Figure (1.6.3.5. 𝑖𝑓 𝑦𝑘 > 0 𝑜𝑟 𝑆𝑄 = 0. which uses Table (1. the bandwidth of the filters are chosen to be 0.63) 𝑦𝑘 = 𝑧𝑘 𝑊𝑘 −1 + 𝑤𝑘 𝑧𝑘−1 eqn(1. so that the carrier phase is preserved and noise power is minimized. 1.2 IF Differential Detector The IF differential detector shown in Figure (1. respectively.57/ Ts . The bandwidth of the signal at the output of the differential detector is twice that of the baseband signal at the transmitter end. To minimize the effect of ISI and noise. 𝑖𝑓 𝑥𝑘 < 0 𝑆𝑄 = 1. The received signal is converted to IF and is bandpass filtered. The two sequences wk and zk are passed through a differential decoder which operates on the following rule: 𝑥𝑘 = 𝑊𝑘 𝑊𝑘 −1 + 𝑧𝑘 𝑧𝑘−1 eqn(1.65) The output of the differential decoder is applied to the decision circuit.46) avoids the need for a local oscillator by using a delay line and two phase detectors. .where γ is a phase shift due to noise.46) Block diagram of an IF differential detector for π/4 QPSK.The received IF signal is differentially decoded using a delay line and two mixers. propagation. The phase γ is assumed to change much slower than φk so it is essentially a constant. The bandpass filter is designed to match the transmitted pulse shape. 𝑖𝑓 𝑥𝑘 > 0 𝑜𝑟 𝑆𝐼 = 0. and interference.

6 FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING FSK FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) is also known as frequency shift modulation and frequency shift signaling. the principle of FSK has laid the path to the development of other similar techniques such as the Audio Frequency Shift Keying (AFSK) and Multiple Frequency Shift Keying (MFSK) just to name a few.3. Hard limiting preserves the phase changes in the input signal and hence no information is lost. The phase difference is then detected by a four level threshold comparator to obtain the original signal. For example. when integrated over each symbol period gives the phase difference between two sampling instants. The history of FSK dates back to the early 1900s. The input signal is first filtered using a bandpass filter that is matched to the transmitted signal. But FSK.5. the contributions of FSK are much more far reaching. The filtered signal is then hard limited to remove any envelope fluctuations. cable. The phase difference can also be detected using a modulo-2π phase detector.1.3 FM Discriminator Figure (1.6. In Frequency Shift Keying.47) shows a block diagram of an FM discriminator detector for π/4QPSK. when this technique was discovered and then used to work alongside teleprinters to transmit messages by radio (RTTY). .47) FM discriminator detector for π/4 DQPSK demodulation. 1. The modulo-2π phase detector improves the BER performance and reduces the effect of click noise. the modulating signals shift the output frequency between predetermined levels. Figure(1. The FM discriminator extracts the instantaneous frequency deviation of the received signal which. with some modifications. Frequency Shift Keying is a data signal converted into a specific frequency or tone in order to transmit it over wire. is still effective in many instances including the digital world where it is commonly used in conjunction with computers and low speed modems. optical fiber or wireless media to a destination point. In fact.

respectively.6. An FSK signal described as mentioned may be represented as: 𝑠0 𝑡 = 𝑠1 𝑡 = 2𝐸𝑏 𝑇𝑏 𝑇𝑏 cos ωc + 𝛥ω 2 𝛥ω 2 𝑡 )𝑡 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇𝑏 (𝑏𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑟𝑦 0) 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇𝑏 (𝑏𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑟𝑦 1) eqn(1. On the other hand.66) eqn(1. which converts the binary data to FSK signals for transmission. The most important factor to keep in mind when designing FSK is to keep the frequency of the different symbols orthogonal to minimize the correlation between the two symbols to the zero assuming perfect synchronization of receiver oscillators. and in turn receives the incoming FSK signals and converts it to corresponding digital low and high. In this digital era. FSK has successfully maintained its use during more modern times and has adapted well to the digital domain. the non-coherent and coherent FSK. there is no phase discontinuity in the output signal. in coherent Frequency Shift Keying or binary FSK. The basic principle of Frequency Shift Keying is at least a century old. cable. 1. and 1 is transmitted by a pulse of frequency 𝜔𝑐 − 𝛥𝜔/2 such a waveform may be considered to be two interleaved ASK waves. corresponding to a binary 1 or 0. the language the computer understands best. Despite its age. the frequency of a constant amplitude carrier signal is switched between two values according to the two possible message states (High and Low). or wire.1Binary phase shift keying (BFSK) In binary frequency shift keying (BFSK). and continues to serve those that need to transfer data via computer. There is no doubt that FSK will be around as long as there is a need to transmit information in a highly effective and affordable manner. In non-coherent FSK.68) .67) 2𝐸𝑏 cosωc − ( Where Δω is a constant offset from the nominal carrier frequency. To achieve this we must do the correlation function between to transmitted symbols and get the conditions to achieve the orthogonality 𝐸 = = 𝑇 𝑏 0 𝑠0 𝑡 𝑠1 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 2𝐸𝑏 𝑇𝑏 𝛥ω 𝛥ω cos ωc + 𝑡 cos ωc − 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑇𝑏 0 2 2 𝑇𝑏 𝐸𝑏 𝑇𝑏 = cos 𝛥ωt 𝑑𝑡 + cos 2ωc t 𝑑𝑡 𝑇𝑏 0 0 = 𝐸𝑏 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝛥𝜔 𝑇𝑏 𝛥𝜔 𝑇𝑏 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 2𝜔𝑐 𝑇𝑏 2𝜔𝑐 𝑇𝑏 eqn (1.Technically FSK has two classifications. the modulation of signals are carried out by a computer. the instantaneous frequency is shifted between two discrete values named mark and space frequency. A 0 is transmitted by a pulse of frequency 𝜔𝑐 + 𝛥𝜔/2 .

By using an inverter in the lower channel in fig 1.the input binary sequence is represented in its on-off form. In binary FSK we only have two dimensions.48 signal space diagram for binary FSK system 1. The M-ary FSK is built on this idea Region 𝑧1 𝐸𝑏 𝐸𝑏 Region 𝛷1 𝑧2 Figure 1. when we have symbol 0 at the input. so that their outputs satisfy the requirements of the two orthogonal basis functions𝑠1 𝑡 & 𝑠0 𝑡 . including the inter-bit switching time.49.48) 𝛷2 Decision boundary Forward hint We can think in the different orthogonal carriers of the FSK signal as a multidimensional system with each carrier represents an axis in this system. phase continuity is always maintained. eqn(1. The two frequencies 𝑓1 and 𝑓2 are chosen integer multiple of the bit rate 1/𝑇𝑏 which we previously proved to be orthogonal. Thus binary FSK system is characterized by having a signal space that is two dimensional with two message point as shown in figure (1.1. In either case.6.1 Binary FSK Modulator To generate a binary FSK signal we may use the scheme shown in fig 1. We refer to this digital modulation as continues-phase frequency-shift keying (CPFSK). with the result that frequency 𝑓1 is transmitted. with symbol 1 represented by constant amplitude of 𝐸𝑏 volts and symbol 0 represented by zero volts.49. the oscillator in the upper channel is switched off. and the oscillator in the lower channel is switched on. the frequency of the modulated wave is shifted with a continues phase. .69) eqn(1. in accordance with the input binary wave that is to say.70) Larger Δf means wider separation between signaling frequencies. with the result that frequency 𝑓2 is transmitted. We may use a single keyed (voltage controlled) oscillator. Conversely.In practice 𝜔𝑐 𝑇𝑏 ≪ 1. the oscillator with frequency 𝑓1 in the upper channel is switched on while the oscillator with frequency 𝑓2 in the lower channel is switched off. In this transmitter we assume that the two oscillators are synchronized. we in fact make sure that when we have symbol 1 at the input. and the second term on the right hand side can be ignored therefore 𝐸 = 𝐸𝑏 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐 𝛥𝜔 𝑇𝑏 in order for E = 0 from the previous equation: Δf = n/2Tb where n is any integer.

50 FSK signal .m (t) Binary wave (on-off signaling form) 𝑚 (𝑡) 2 cos 𝜋 𝑓1 𝑡) (2 𝑇𝑏 + + Binary FSK wave Inverter 2 cos 𝜋 𝑓1 𝑡) (2 𝑇𝑏 _____________________________________________________________________ Fig 1. _______________________________________________________ Figure 1. there are four signals first the binary one second the 1 signal with lower frequency third the 0 signal with the higher frequency and last the final FSK signal.49 Block diagram for binary FSK transmitter Figure (1.50) shows generating a FSK signal.

1. The in phase and quadrature components are independent of each other.1. 𝑄 𝑓 = 1 𝜋𝑡 ℱ 𝐴 𝑠𝑖𝑛( ) 2 𝑇 2 𝜋 1− 2𝑇𝑓 2 2 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇 = 1 2𝐴𝑇 cos 𝜋𝑇𝑓 𝑇 eqn (1.2 Power Spectral Density Now we proceed to find the power spectrum of the FSK signal. We expand the FSK signal as following: 1 𝑠 𝑡 = 𝐴 cos 2𝜋 𝑓 + 𝑎𝑘 𝑡 𝑐 2𝑇 𝜋𝑡 𝜋𝑡 = 𝐴 cos 𝑎𝑘 cos 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 − 𝐴 sin 𝑎𝑘 sin 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 𝑐 𝑐 𝑇 𝑇 = 𝐴 cos( 𝑇 ) cos 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 − 𝐴 𝑎𝑘 sin( 𝑇 ) sin 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 𝑐 𝑐 eqn(1.71) Where the last expression is derived using the fact that ak = ±1.74) The complete baseband PSD of the binary FSK signal is the sum of I(f) & Q(f) : 𝑆(𝑓) = 𝐴2 𝛿 𝑓 − 1 2 𝑇 + 𝛿(𝑓 + 1 2 𝑇 ) + 1 2𝐴𝑇 cos 𝜋𝑇𝑓 𝑇 𝜋 1− 2𝑇𝑓 2 2 eqn(1. S f can be found easily since the in phase component is independent of data.6. 𝑆 𝑓 = 𝐼 𝑓 + 𝑄(𝑓) eqn(1.72) 𝜋𝑡 𝜋𝑡 Where I f is the in phase component and Q f is the quadrature phase component. Thus: 𝐼 𝑓 = ℱ 𝐴 𝑐𝑜𝑠( ) 𝑇 𝜋𝑡 2 = 𝐴2 𝛿 𝑓 − 1 2 𝑇 + 𝛿(𝑓 + 1 2 𝑇 ) eqn(1.73) Where stands for Fourier transform. The quadrature component A ak sin ( ) is T T directly related to data. It is defined on the entire time axis. It is seen that the spectrum of the in phase part of the FSK signal are two delta functions. The in phase component πt πt A cos( ) is independent of the data.75) .

1.3 Coherent demodulation and error performance In order to detect the original binary sequence given the noisy received wave x(t).6. If l > 0.5. and if 𝑙1 < 𝑙2 .52 the filter in the upper path of the receiver is matched to the first symbol signal with frequency 𝑓1 and the filter in the upper path of the receiver is matched to the first symbol signal with frequency𝑓2 .5.6. The resulting envelope detector outputs are sampled at 𝑡 = 𝑇𝑏 and their values are compared. 𝑇𝑏 0 𝑑𝑡 + − 𝑇𝑏 0 Decision device 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑠𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑠𝑒 𝑑𝑡 Fig 1. the receiver consists of a pair of matched filters followed by envelope detectors.51 Block diagram for coherent binary FSK receiver To study the coherent demodulator error performance of the transmitted FSK signal we need to look at fig 1. the receiver decides in favor of symbol 1. . The correlator outputs are then subtracted.77) 1. and the resulting difference. the receiver decides in favor of 1. as in Fig 1.76) Averaging Pe 0 & Pe (1). l. it decides in favor of 0. The envelope sample of the upper and lower paths are shown as 𝑙1 & 𝑙2 respectively. we find that the average probability of symbol error for coherent binary FSK is: 𝑃𝑒 = 𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑐 2 1 𝐸𝑏 2 𝑁0 eqn (1. is compared with a threshold of zero volts. On the other hand. if 𝑙1 > 𝑙2 .1. then. which are supplies with local generated coherent reference signal Φ1 t & Φ2 t . it consist of two correlators with common input. one from the other. if l < 0. the receiver decides in favor of symbol 0.51 where the distance between the two message points is equal to 2Eb and the error probelity is driven from the relation 𝑃𝑒 = 𝑃 𝑙 > 0 𝑠𝑦𝑚𝑏𝑜𝑙 0 𝑤𝑎𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡) + 𝑃 𝑙 < 0 𝑠𝑦𝑚𝑏𝑜𝑙 1 𝑤𝑎𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡) We can drive that Pe 0 & Pe (1) have the same value and it is equal to : 𝑃𝑒 (0 1 = 𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑐( 2 1 𝐸𝑏 2 𝑁0 ) eqn(1. we may use the receiver shown in Fig 1.4 Noncoherent demodulation and error performance For the noncoherant detection.1.

Since the individual signal frequencies are separated by 1/2T hertz.80) 0 𝑖 For coherent M-ary FSK. the transmitted signals are defined by 𝑠𝑖 𝑡 = 2𝐸 𝑇 cos 𝜋 𝑇 𝑛𝑐 + 𝑖 𝑡 𝑜 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇 eqn(1. with the wanted signals providing the pertinent references. the receiver makes decisions based on the largest matched filter output.78) 1.Filter matched to 2 Envelope cos(2𝜋𝑓1 𝑡) 𝑇𝑏 detector 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇𝑏 Comparison device Filter matched to if 𝑙1 if 𝑙1 Envelope 2 cos(2𝜋𝑓2 𝑡) 𝑇𝑏 detector 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇𝑏 Fig 1. 𝑀and the carrier frequency 𝑓 = 𝑛𝑐 /2𝑇 for some fixed integer 𝑛𝑐 .52 Noncoherant receiver for detection of binary FDK signals The noncoherant binary FSK described is a special case of noncoherant orthogonal modulation with: 𝑇 = 𝑇𝑏 And 𝐸 = 𝐸𝑏 Where 𝑇𝑏 is the bit duration and 𝐸𝑏 is the signal energy per bit.2 M-ARY FSK In an M-ary FSK scheme. … . the 𝑃 can be 𝑒 proven to be 𝑃 = 𝑒 1 2 exp 2𝑁 ) (− 𝑏 0 𝐸 eqn(1. .2. 𝑐 The transmitted signals are equal duration T and have equal energy E. the signals describes above are as proved orthogonal.6.79) Where 𝑖 = 1. the optimum receiver consists of band of M correlators or matched filters. that is: 𝑇 𝑠 𝑡 𝑠𝑗 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = 0 𝑖 ≠ 𝑗 eqn(1. Hence. At the sampling times t=kT.

82) Asymptotic power efficiency: eqn(1. Giving the probability of error parameters of the M-ary FSK as following: Average symbol error probability: eqn(1.53 .84) Bandwidth efficiency: eqn(1.86) Fig 1.83) Shannon bandwidth: eqn(1.The M-ary FSK can be considered multidimensional system with M orthogonal axis.81) Average bit error probability: eqn(1.

3 Minimum shift keying MSK In the coherent detection of binary FSK signal described before. respectively. which is defined for interval 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇𝑏 . the individual matched filters are followed by envelope detectors that destroy the phase information. as follows: 2𝐸𝑏 𝑇 𝑏 cos 2𝜋𝑓1 𝑡 + 𝜃 0 cos 2𝜋𝑓2 𝑡 + 𝜃 0 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑦𝑚𝑜𝑙 1 eqn(1. achieved at the expense of increasing receiver complexity. depends on the past history of the modulation process. This improvement is. however. We may avoid the need for such a provision by using noncoherant detection. The frequency 𝑓1 & 𝑓2 are sent in response to binary symbol 1 and 0 appearing at the modulation input.6. In a noncoherant receiver.53.90) .87) 𝑠 𝑡 = 2𝐸𝑏 𝑇 𝑏 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑦𝑚𝑜𝑙 0 Where 𝐸𝑏 is the transmitted signal energy per bit. as shown by: 𝜃 𝑡 = 𝜃 0 ± 𝜋 𝑇 𝑏 1 𝑡 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇𝑏 eqn(1.86) 1. and 𝑇𝑏 is the bit duration.The bit error rate of different M’s for the M-ary FSK is shown in Fig 1. this leads to the modulated wave s(t) itself to be continues all the time including the inter-bit switching times. We now show that by proper utilization of the phase when performing detection. denoting the value of phase at time𝑡 = 0. The phase𝜃(0). Consider a continues-phase frequency-shift keying (CPFSK) signal. other than to provide for synchronization of the receiver to the transmitter. which result in a slightly inferior performance. 𝑓 = 2 (𝑓1 + 𝑓2 ) eqn(1.89) 𝑐 The phase 𝜃 𝑡 of CPFSK signal increases or decreases linearly with time during each bit period of 𝑇𝑏 seconds. the provision for which at the receiver can be costly and difficult to maintain. the phase information contained in the receiver signal was not fully exploited. The probability of symbol error of the noncoherant detection of M-ary FSK: 𝑃𝑒 = 𝑀−1 2 exp 2𝑁 ) (− 0 𝐸 eqn(1.88) The phase 𝜃 𝑡 is a continues function of time. it is possible to improve the noise performance of the receiver significantly. it can be shown from the Fig that the more M the lower level of probability of error for the same SNR Coherent detection of M-ary FSK requires the use of exact phase references. Another useful way of representing the CPFSK signal s(t) is to express it in the conventional form of an angle-modulation waves follows 𝑠 𝑡 = 2𝐸𝑏 𝑇 𝑏 cos 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 + 𝜃 𝑡 𝑐 eqn(1.

depending on the values 𝜃 0 and 𝜃 𝑇𝑏 . the sending of symbol 1 increases the phase of CPFSK s(t) by πh . measured with respect to the bit rate 1/𝑇𝑏 . corresponding to transmission of symbol 0.91) We refer to h as the deviation ratio. 3 π /2.92) That is to say. The phase 𝜃 0 = 0 and 𝜃 𝑇𝑏 = -π/2 (or. This in turn means that the MSK signal itself can take one of four possible forms. 3. modulo 2 π). and mines sign corresponds to sending symbol 0.Where the plus sign corresponds to sending symbol 1.93) So we have the following four cases: 1. The phase 𝜃 0 = 0 and 𝜃 𝑇𝑏 = π/2. corresponding to transmission of symbol 1. At time t = 𝑇𝑏 𝜃 𝑇𝑏 − 𝜃 0 = 𝜋 −𝜋 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑦𝑚𝑏𝑜𝑙 1 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑦𝑚𝑏𝑜𝑙 0 eqn(1. equivalently. 4. modulo 2 π). whereas the sending of symbol 0 reduces it by an equal amount This can be cleared using the phase trellis method Fig 1. equivalently.54 Using some mathematical operations we can express the CPFSK s(t) in terms of its inphase and quadrature components as follows: eqn(1. 5. 2. The phase 𝜃 0 = 0 and 𝜃 𝑇𝑏 = π/2. The parameter h is defined by: = 𝑇𝑏 (𝑓1 − 𝑓2 ) eqn(1. The phase 𝜃 0 = 0 and 𝜃 𝑇𝑏 = -π/2 (or. 3 π /2. corresponding to transmission of symbol 1. corresponding to transmission of symbol 0.

that the coordinates of the message points for the QPSK signal are expressed in terms of signal energy per symbol. . depending on the value of 𝜃 0 & 𝜃 𝑇𝑏 The appropriate form for the orthogonal basis function ∅1 (𝑡) and ∅2 (𝑡): ∅1 𝑡 = ∅2 𝑡 = 2 𝜋 cos 𝑡 cos 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 𝑐 Tb 2𝑇𝑏 2 𝜋 sin 𝑡 sin 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 𝑐 𝑇𝑏 2𝑇𝑏 − 𝑇𝑏 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇𝑏 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 2𝑇𝑏 Correspondingly. in turn. means that the MSK signal itself may assume any one of four possible forms. Note. whereas for the MSK signal they are expressed in terms of the signal energy per bit. we may express the MSK signal in the form 𝑠 𝑡 = 𝑠1 ∅1 𝑡 + 𝑠2 ∅2 𝑡 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇𝑏 Accordingly.This.55) Constellation diagram for MSK signalIf we made a comparison between the constellation of MSK and the QPSK signals we would notice that they have identical format.9 Figure (1. the signal constellation for an MSK signal is two-dimensional. as shown in Fig 1.5. E. however. with four message points.

.58 shows the block diagram of typical MSK receiver. whereas for an MSK signal. Fig 1. they are represented by a pair of sinusoidally modulated quadrature carriers.The basic difference between QPSK & MSK signals is in the choice of orthogonal signals ∅1 (𝑡) and ∅2 (𝑡).56 Sequence and waveforms for MSK signal To generate the signal described before of MSK we can use the following MSK transmitter shown in Fig 1. Fig 1. For QPSK ∅1 (𝑡) and ∅2 (𝑡) are represented by a pair of quadrature carriers. the advantage of this modulator is that the signal coherence and deviation ratio are largely unaffected by variation in the input data rate.57 MSK modulator Fig 1.57.

. therefore.6.58 MSK Demodulator Earlier we remarked that the MSK and QPSK signals have similar signal space diagram. CPFSK with h = 1/2).94) 1. A filter used to reduce the bandwidth of a baseband pulse train prior to modulation is called a pre-modulation filter.Fig 1. In the applications where GMSK is used. adjacent pulses interfere with each other generating what is commonly called inter-symbol interference or ISI. one is frequency shift keyed modulation. This bandwidth reduction does not come for free since the pre-modulation filter smears the individual pulses in pulse train. the tradeoff between power efficiency and bandwidth efficiency is well worth the cost. It follows.4 Gaussian minimum shift keying GMSK Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) is a modification of MSK (i. the other is quadrature phase shift keyed modulation. There are two methods to generate GMSK. that for the case of AWGN channel. they have the same forela for their average probability of error: 𝑃 = 𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑐( 𝑒 This is much better than the ordinary FSK. The Gaussian pre-modulation filter smoothes the phase trajectory of the MSK signal thus limiting the instantaneous frequency variations. The result is an FM modulated signal with a much narrower bandwidth. As a consequence of this smearing in time.e. 𝐸𝑏 𝑁0 ) eqn(1.

This method is also cheaper to implement.Fig 1. The implementation in the second employs a quadrature baseband process followed by a quadrature modulator. We are going to be looking at the second of these two methods that is we shall be looking at a quadrature baseband processor followed by a quadrature modulator as shown in the second. This method requires that the frequency deviation factor of the VCO exactly equals 0.59 GMSK implemented by Frequency Shift keying modulation with FM-VCO. but the modulation index of conventional VCO based transmitters drifts over time and temperature. suitable for coherent demodulation due to component tolerance problems. The GMSK VCOmodulator architecture as shown in the first is simple but is not however. Both methods lead to the same GMSK modulated signal.modulation with FM-VCO. the modulation index can be maintained at exactly 0.5.5.95) .60 GMSK implemented by a quadrature baseband method. With this implementation. The Gaussian low-pass filter has an impulse response given by the following equation t− T 2 g t = 2T Q 2πBb 1 ln 2 − Q 2πBb t+ T 2 ln 2 eqn(1. Fig 1. The shaded areas in the two above figures have the same function.

61 The truncated and scaled impulse response of the Gaussian low-pass filter.modulation with FM-VCO.96) By comparing we can conclude that Pe GMSK > Pe FSK this arises from the trade off between power and bandwidth efficient: GMSK achieves better bandwidth efficiency than MSK at the expense of power efficiency. .For 0 ≤ Bb 𝑇 ≤ ∞ Fig 1. Recall the probability of error for plain MSK is given by 𝑃 = 𝑄( 𝑒 2𝐸𝑏 𝑁0 ) eqn(1.method.

1 Types of QAM: 1.7. 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb eqn(1. 𝒆j(2𝜋𝑓𝑐 𝑡+𝜃 𝑗 ).62)-b is a constellation diagram showing 16-Ary QAM. it can be represented as two quadrature carriers each is modulated with 4-level ASK. but of course it’ll also increase the power used.1.7. 𝜃𝑗 is the symbol’s phase.97) Where 𝑎𝑖 is the normalized level.62) showing 16-Ary PSK (a) crowded on the constellation circle and equivalent average power 16-Ary QAM (b) with constellation points distributed to make use of the same space This technique is called quadrature amplitude modulation as it combines with or make use of both ASK and PSK. A simple solution is to increase the radius of the constellation points. the constellation points will get closer to each other increasing the bit error rate. As in Fig(1. (b) (a) Figure (1.1. _____________________________________________________________________ Figure (1. In a try to increase such system capacity. with phase off-set to maximize the minimum Euclidian distance to obtain minimum average energy per symbol.63) circular QAM . 1.1 Circular QAM: Simply this type of QAM is considered as multi-level PSK. 𝑠𝑖 𝑡 = 2𝐸0 𝑇 𝑎𝑖 .7 QUADRATURE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (QAM) M-Ary PSK systems are consisted of fixed step phase shifts with constant envelope. A new technique was developed to overcome that problem by making use of available space inside the constellation circle.

𝐿 − 1) (𝐿 − 1.7. −3 +3.100) eqn(1. the error-rate performance of 8-QAM is close to that of 16-QAM (only about 0. where 𝐿 = 𝑀 (−𝐿 + 1. .101) The coordinates of the ith message point are 𝑎𝑖 𝐸0 and 𝑏𝑖 𝐸0 . and more. i є [-L+1 L-1]. Also.1. −1 −3. Also the symmetry of rectangular QAM sometimes doesn’t suit the channel characteristics or the detection process.99) ⋮ ⋱ ⋮ (−𝐿 + 1. APK is preferable as it is space efficient rather than QAM.3 Circular or Rectangular 8-QAM? When dealing with 8-Ary constellation. In 16-Ary constellation. from here came the APK. for example. but its data rate is only threequarters that of 16-QAM. the constellation diagram for which is shown here. +1 −1. ai and bi are a pair of independent integers chosen to specify a certain constellation point. −𝐿 + 1) The rectangular QAM signal could be represented in terms of 2 independent basis functions: 𝜑1 𝑡 = . 𝑏𝑖 = −3. The reason that 16-QAM is usually the first is that a brief consideration reveals that 2-QAM and 4-QAM are in fact binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) and quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK). 𝑏𝑖 = eqn (1.1. the designer wishes to put the constellation points anywhere. −1 +1. −3 eqn (1. −1 +3. respectively. 𝐿 − 3) (−𝐿 + 3.2 Rectangular QAM: The general form of M-Ary QAM is defined by the transmitted signal: 𝑠𝑖 𝑡 = 2𝐸0 𝑇 𝑎𝑖 cos 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 + 𝑐 2𝐸0 𝑇 𝑏𝑖 sin 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 . +3 +1. −1 −1. −𝐿 + 1) ⋯ (𝐿 − 1. +3 +3. it’s more advisable to go to QAM constellation as its more energy efficient. −3 +1.98) E0 is the energy of the signal with the lowest amplitude. −𝐿 + 1) (−𝐿 + 3. −3 −1. 𝐿 − 3) (𝐿 − 1. 𝐿 − 3) 𝑎𝑖 . A Gray coded bit-assignment is also given. for the 16-QAM with L = 4: −3. 1.1.102) The first rectangular QAM constellation usually encountered is 16-QAM. 𝜑2 𝑡 = 2 𝑇 2 𝑇 cos 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 𝑐 sin 2𝜋𝑓 𝑡 𝑐 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝑇 eqn(1. +3 −1. +1 +3. 𝐿 − 1) ⋯ (−𝐿 + 1.7. even some standards actually uses 16 APK like V29. +1 𝑎𝑖 .5dB better). 𝑐 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb eqn(1. +3 −3. 𝐿 − 1) (−𝐿 + 3.bis telephone standard to maximize the phase difference between points having the same energy in the expense of increasing the amplitude levels. +1 +1.

65) formulation of probability of symbol error in circular QAM . 𝑒 Referring to PAM symbol error eqn.104) The probability of symbol error for QAM is: 𝑃 = 1 − 𝑃 = 1 − (1 − 𝑃′ )2 ≅ 2𝑃′ 𝑒 𝑐 𝑒 𝑒 . where 𝑃 is the probability of symbol error for one of the components._____________________________________________________________________ Figure (1.105) APK (amplitude-phase keying): its constellation is simply multi level of amplitudes.103) 𝑐 𝑒 ′ .106) The separation between each point having the same magnitude is 45 degrees. 𝑃𝑠 < 𝑀 − 1 𝑄( 2 𝑑 𝑚𝑖𝑛 2𝑁0 ) eqn(1. Figure (1. probability of correct detection is: 𝑃 = (1 − 𝑃′ )2 eqn(1. so 𝑃 = 2 1 − 𝑒 So finally 𝑃 = 2 1 − 𝑒 1 𝑀 1 𝑀 𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑐 𝐸0 𝑁0 . 8-QAM is considered the optimal constellation as it requires least mean energy.2 Probability of symbol error calculations: As both in-phase and quadrature components are independent.7.64) rectangular QAM versus APK 1. 𝑃′ could be written as: 𝑒 𝑃′ = 1 − 𝐿 𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑐( 𝑒 1 𝐸0 𝑁0 ) eqn(1. but 𝐸𝑎𝑣 = 2(𝑀−1)𝐸0 3 𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑐 3𝐸𝑎𝑣 2(𝑀−1)𝑁0 eqn(1.

1. Then the paths are combined again to form the M-Ary QAM signal. in each path a number of bits 𝐿 = 𝑀 is amplitude shift keyed to L levels then phase shift keyed using the 2 independent carriers.3 QAM modulation ___________________________________________________________ Figure (1.7.4 QAM demodulation: In QAM modulation. 1. Figure (1.67) M-Ary QAM Demodulator . coherent and differentially coherent detection could be used as for PSK systems. we shall concern with coherent detection.7.66) M-Ary QAM Modulator Binary data are split into 2 parallel paths.

We say that two sequences of events (representing a transmitter and a receiver) are synchronous relative to each other when the events in one sequence and the corresponding in the other occur simultaneously. Example for 16-Ary QAM symbols amp=4.4142. and maintaining in this situation is called synchronization.1623. ph=-71. ph=-108.4349 5 5 0 0 0 0 -5 0 50 100 -5 0 50 100 -5 0 50 100 -5 0 50 100 _____________________________________________________________________ Figure (1.1623. The process of making situation synchronous. The decision circuit translates those levels to bits which are then combined using the S/P converter to get the modulated binary data. ph=135 0 0 0 0 -5 0 50 100 -5 0 50 amp=1. ph=-135 5 5 amp=3.107) 1. irrespective of its form. ph=45 100 amp=3. ph=18.4349 5 5 amp=3. ph=-45 100 -5 0 50 amp=1. ph=45 100 -5 0 50 100 amp=3. The estimation of the carrier phase and frequency is called carrier recovery or carrier synchronization.4142.1623.5651 5 amp=3. ph=-135 100 -5 0 50 amp=1. knowledge of both the frequency and the phase of the carrier is necessary. we recognize the need for two basic modes of synchronization: When coherent detection is used .5651 5 5 0 0 0 0 -5 0 50 amp=4.4349 5 5 0 0 0 0 -5 0 50 100 -5 0 50 amp=1.1623.2426.5 BW efficiency: It’s identical to M-Ary PSK where 𝑏 𝜌 = 𝐵𝑊 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑜𝑔 2 𝑀 2 eqn (1.4142. ph=-161.8 SYNCHRONIZATION The coherent detection of a digitally modulated signal . ph=71.1623. . ph=-45 100 -5 0 50 100 -5 0 50 100 -5 0 50 amp=4. ph=135 100 -5 0 50 100 amp=3.5651 5 amp=4.1623. ph=-18.2426.1623.68) All possible QAM signals 1.4349 5 5 amp=3.4142.5651 5 5 amp=3. requires that the receiver be synchronous to the transmitter.2426. ph=108. From the discussion presented on the operation of digital modulation techniques.7.2426.1623. ph=161.As in PSK. the i/p signal is multiplicated by both in-phase and quadrature carriers then integrated over the symbol period to get a multi-level baseband symbol set.

. 1. Carrier recovery is required if the signal is detected coherently. The detector is now a phase detector. it has to know the starting and finishing times of individual symbols . We have observed that in a digital communication system. in order to recover the transmitted information. symbol timing must be derived from the received signal in order to synchronously sample the output of the demodulator. Figure (1. The propagation delay in the transmitted signal also results in a carrier offset. The estimation of these times is called clock recovery or symbol synchronization. In this case. two correlators (or matched filters) are required to correlate the received signal with the two quadrature carrier signals g t cos 2πfc t + ϕ and g t sin 2πfc t + ϕ . Since the propagation delay from the transmitter to the receiver is generally unknown at the receiver.To perform demodulation . which compares the received signal phases with the possible transmitted signal phases. If the signal pulse is rectangular then the signal generator can be eliminated. the carrier phase estimate ϕ is used in generating the reference signal g t cos 2πfc t + ϕ for the correlator. The symbol synchronizer controls the sampler and the output of the signal pulse generator. once per symbol interval. That is. Figure (1.70). which must be estimated at the receiver if the detector is phase coherent.69) illustrates the block diagram of a binary PSK (or binary PAM) signal demodulator and detector.69) Block digram of binary PSK receiver The block diagram of an M-ary PSK demodulator is shown in Fig(1. As shown. the output of the demodulator must be sampled periodically. the receiver has to know the instants of time at which the modulation can change its state. where ϕ is the carrier phase estimate.1 Carrier Recovery and Symbol Synchronization in Signal Demodulation Symbol synchronization is required in every digital communication system which transmits information synchronously. so that it may determine when to sample and when to quench the product-integrators.8.

In the case of QAM the detector computes the euclidean distance between the received noise corrupted signal point and the M possible transmitted points. and selects the signal closest to the received point. An AGC is required to maintain a constant average power signal at the input to the demodulator. We observe that the demodulator is similar to a PSK demodulator.71) Block diagram of QAM receiver.70) Block diagram of M-ary PSK receiver Finally.Figure(1. Figure(1. we illustrate the block diagram of a QAM demodulator in Fig( ). . Y) for the detector. in that both generate in-phase and quadrature signal samples (X.

It is the Mth power device that produces the spectral line at Mfc. there is a phase difference in the received signal relative to the VCO output signal. Initially the VCO generates a sinusoid with a frequency close to the carrier frequency fc and some initial phase. especially at high frequencies. There are two main types of carrier synchronizers. thus the control signal to the VCO is proportional to . Figure (1. Therefore a device is needed in the carrier recovery circuit to generate such a line spectrum. A difficulty in circuit implementation of the Mth power loop is the Mth power device. Costas loop design avoids this device. and so on. The multipliers in the I and Q-channels produce 2 fc terms and zero frequency terms. M = 2. The divide-by-M device divides the frequency of this component to produce the desired carrier at frequency fc and with almost the same phase of the received signal. M = 4. For QPSK (or OQPSK.71) Mth power synchronizer for carrier recovery. The phase lock loop consisting of the phase detector.2 Carrier Recovery: The PSK signals have no spectral line at carrier frequency. For BPSK (or DBPSK). Figure (1.8.71 ) is the Mth power loop for carrier recovery for M-ary PSK. Before locking. Then these two terms multiply again to give the term 2 a2 t sin 2 θ − θ which is low-pass filtered one more time to get rid of any 1 amplitude fluctuation in a2 t .1.DQPSK). it is a quadrupling loop. The LPFs attenuate the 2fc terms and their outputs are proportional to a t cos θ − θ or a t sin θ − θ . tracks and locks onto the frequency and phase of the M fc component. thus it is a squaring loop. Figure(1. and the Costas loop. We denote the phase of the received signal as θ and the phase of the VCO output as Mθ. the Mth power loop. and the VCO.72) is the Costas loop for carrier recovery for BPSK. The frequency difference and the initial phase are accounted for by the phase θ. the LPF.

72) Costas loop for carrier recovery for BPSK. Figure(1. Figure(1. The limiters are bipolar. their performance can be shown to be the same. When the phase difference ϕ = θ − θ is sufficiently small. the I-channel output is the demodulated signal.sin 2 θ − θ which drives the VCO such that the difference θ − θ becomes smaller and smaller. the I.73) Costas loop for carrier recovery for QPSK.73). For sufficiently small θ − θ.and Q-channel outputs are the demodulated signals. The Costas loop for QPSK is shown in Figure (1. Although the appearance of the Mth power loop and the Costas loop are quite different. The figure is selfexplanatory and its working principle is similar to that of BPSK. . which are used to control the amplitude of the two channels' signal to maintain balance. A difficulty in Costas loop implementation is to maintain the balance between the I.and Q-channel. The two multipliers and low-pass filters in these two channels must be perfectly matched in order to achieve the theoretical performance.

d . The differentiator is very sensitive to wideband noise. the early-gate integrator and the late-gate integrator will accumulate the same amount of signal energy so that the error signal e = 0. Two examples of the open-loop synchronizer are shown in Figure (1. One group is the open loop synchronizer which uses nonlinear devices. The data stream that we use in the phase shift keying modulation is NRZ waveform. The error . An early/late-gate circuit shown in Figure (1. the first thing that one needs to do is to create spectral energy at the clock frequency. This frequency component is then extracted by the BPF that follows and shaped into square wave by the final stage. Thus the integration time in the early-gate integrator will be T .75).75) is an example of the class of closed-loop synchronizers. Figure(1.Δ. Thus in the open-loop synchronizers in Figure (1. The time zero point is set by the square wave clock locally generated by the VCO. We know that this waveform has no spectral energy at the clock Frequency. These circuits recover the clock signal directly from the data stream by nonlinear operations on the received data stream.then m(t) is late by Δ < d. The working principle is easily understood by referencing Figure (1. relative to the VCO clock.74 ) Two types of open-loop symbol synchronizers. In the first example.8. therefore a low-pass filter is placed in the front end of the synchronizer. The second example generates the clock frequency component by using the differentiator-rectifier combination. a Fourier component at the data clock frequency is generated by the delay-and-multiply operation on the demodulated signal m(t).d.74). If the VCO square wave clock is in perfect synchronism with the demodulated signal m(t). Another group is the closed-loop synchronizers which attempt to lock a local clock signal onto the received data stream by use of comparative measurements on the local and received signals.1.3 Clock Recovery The clock or symbol timing recovery can be classified into two basic groups. while the integration time in the late-gate integrator is still the entire T . If the VCO frequency is higher than that of m(t).74).

Δ. Figure(1.76) Early-late-gate timing illustration. This error signal will reduce the VCO frequency and retard the VCO timing to bring it back toward the timing of m(t). and the reverse process would happen. Figure(1. the error signal would be proportional to +Δ. If the VCO frequency had been lower and the timing had been late. .75) Early/late-gate clock synchronizer.signal will be proportional to . that is. the VCO frequency would be increased and its timing would be advanced toward that of the incoming signal.

8) Error probabilities for various modulation schemes .8 COMPARISON BETWEEN DIGITAL MODULATION SCHEMES As we introduce the main digital modulation schemes in the previous section we here introduce a comparison between them as a conclusion Table (1.1.8) presents a comparison between the previously introduced modulation schemes from the probability of error point of view Modulation Probability of error scheme ASK 𝑃𝑒 = M ary ASK 𝑃𝑠 = 2(𝑀 − 1) 𝑄 𝑀 BFSK 1 𝑃𝑒 = 𝑒 2 M-ary FSK BPSK 𝑃𝑒 = 1 𝑃𝑒 = 𝑒 −𝐸𝑏 /𝑁𝑜 2 𝑃𝑒 ≤ 2𝑄 QPSK 2𝐸𝑏 𝑙𝑜𝑔2 𝑀 𝜋 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑁𝑜 𝑀 DPSK M-ary PSK 𝑃𝑒 = 𝑄 MSK 𝑃𝑒 = 𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑐( GMSK 𝑃𝑒 = 𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑐( QAM 𝑃𝑒 = 2 1 − 1 𝑀 𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑐 𝐸𝑏 ) 𝑁0 2𝛾𝐸𝑏 ) 𝑁0 3𝐸𝑎𝑣 2(𝑀 − 1)𝑁0 Table (1.

An example is the TWTA (traveling wave tube amplifier) in satellite communications. Table(1.Table (1. The above table shows that bandwidth efficiency is traded off against power efficiency. therefore PSK is more suited. and reduce the envelope variations of the signal. Mobile radio systems are bandwidth limited. however that would increase the transmission bandwidth). modulation is very robust. The π/4-QPSK is worth special attention due to its ability to avoid 180o abrupt phase shift and to enable differential demodulation.8) introduces a comparison between relevant modulation schemes from the Bandwidth efficiency and power efficiency and the error free E b/No. It has been . but not bandwidth efficient (because the probability of error decreases by increasing M. but requires some form of linear amplification. The constant envelope class is generally suitable for communication systems whose power amplifiers must operate in the nonlinear region of the inputoutput characteristic in order to achieve maximum amplifier efficiency.8) Error free Eb/No for relevant modulation schemes 1. QPSK. MPSK and QAM are bandwidth efficient but not power efficient. Phase Shift Keying is often used. OQPSK and π/4-QPSK can be implemented.9 DISCUSSION OF THE ABOVE MODULATION SCHEMES: Coherent reception provides better performance than differential. but requires a more complex receiver. MFSK is power efficient. as it provides a highly bandwidth efficient modulation scheme.

such as ASK and QAM. such as computer modems. However QAM. QAM has been widely used in modems used in telephone networks. QAM can even be considered for satellite systems. such as the United States digital cellular (USDC) system. Collecting the results of bit error rate & importing to workspace. but more susceptible to noise and require linear amplification. Its modulator and demodulator are also not too complex. . The CPM class includes. The generic nonconstant envelope schemes. GMSK has a Gaussian frequency pulse. but also continuous phase transitions.1 BER tool of communication blockset: Using the Bit error rate tool located in the communication toolbox . Thus it can achieve even better bandwidth efficiency than MSK. GMSK is used in the US cellular digital packet data (CDPD) system and European GSM (global system for mobile communication) system. The PSK schemes have constant envelope but discontinuous phase transitions from symbol to symbol. but it also can be derived from OQPSK with extra sinusoidal pulse-shaping. are generally not suitable for systems with nonlinear power amplifiers. In this case. MSK has excellent power and bandwidth efficiency. back-off in TWWs input and output power must be provided to ensure the linearity of the power amplifier. High level M-ary schemes (such as 64-QAM) are very bandwidth efficient. Constant envelope schemes (such as GMSK) can be employed since an efficient. with a large signal constellation. 1.10 SIMULATION RESULTS USING MATLAB: We now proceed to simulate and assess the above introduced modulation schemes we used in simulation four methods which are: BER tool of communication blockset. SIMULINK models. GMSK. Thus they have less side lobe energy in their spectra in comparison with the PSK schemes. The tool gives the capability of: Managing a series of simulations with different values of Eb/N0. 1. M-file commands. and MSK. MSK is a special case of CPFSK. The CPM schemes have not only constant envelope. can achieve extremely high bandwidth efficiency. MSK has been used in NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS).10. used in digital mobile cellular systems. however. non-linear amplifier can be used. And GUI(graphical user interface) of our own.

Creating a plot & Produce a comparison curves between different types of modulation.77) BER tool . The tool supports: Channel coded sequence(convolution & block) Coherent and noncoherent detection Differential encoded sequence. Figure (1. The simulation can be theoretical. semi-analytic or Monte carlo analysis. The simulation can be achieved in AWGN & Rayleigh fading channel. Synchronization errors addition.

5dB 18.1.2dB 28. As M increases the probability of error increases which represents a power /bandwidth efficiency trade off.5dB 10.5dB 23.9) PSK power and spectral efficiencies simulation results .5 2 3 Spectral efficiency (log2 M/2) -6 Power efficiency (for BER=10 ) 10. From the figure we deduct that the QPSK is robust modulation scheme that we can employ in noisy channels in WiMAX From the figure we conclude the power efficiency and spectral efficiency BPSK QPSK 8PSK 16PSK 64PSK 0.5 1 1.5dB Table (1.1 Phase shift keying (PSK) modulation scheme simulation Figure (1.78) Simulation of PSK modulation schemes By simulating PSK modulation schemes from BPSK to 64 PSK in the signal to noise ratio range of 0-20 dB(for 32PSK and 64PSK we extend the range to 30 dB) we will find that: BPSK and QPSK have the same probability of error but QPSK has higher spectral efficiency.By using the above tool in the theoretical mode we obtain the next results: 1.10.

OQPSK and DQPSK simulation from 0:20 dB We found that OQPSK and QPSK has the same BER but with less phase abrupt changes DQPSK is inferior to both by 3dB.80) shows a simulation for BPSK versus DPSK simulation in the range of 015 dB We found that DPSK is slightly inferior to BPSK but in the expense on increasing the complexity of the coherent demodulator employed to demodulate PSK signal .79) QPSK.79) shows a simulation for QPSK. OQPSK.Figure (1. DQPSK simulation Figure (1. Figure (1.

2 Frequency shift keying simulation (FSK) simulation Figure (1.Figure (1.10.81) M-ary FSK simulation . Figure (1.81) shows the effect of increasing the order of FSK modulation from the BFSK into 32FSK.1.80) BPSK and DPSK simulation 1.

That increase in power efficiency is traded off by the required transmission bandwidth Table (1. .82) BFSK.10) M-ary FSK power efficiency Figure (1. MSK simulation Figure (1.2 dB 32PSK 7.2 dB 16FSK 8.From the figure we conclude that: As the order of modulation increases (M increases) the BER decreases.5 dB Table(1.7dB 8FSK 9.82) shows a simulation of BFSK and MSK and we can here assess that the MSK has a better BER performance than BFSK and hence better more power efficient.5 dB 4FSK 10.10) shows the power efficiencies of M-ary FSK -6 Power efficiency (for BER=10 ) BFSK 13.

83) shows that noncoherent FSK is inferior to coherent FSK 1.10.3 QAM simulation Figure (1.Figure (1.84) QAM simulation .1.83) coherent and noncoherent FSK Figure (1.

256.512.5 Power efficiency (for BER=10-6) in dB Table (1.1.32.5 2 2. 16QAM and 64QAM are suitable modulation scheme to be employed in good channel conditions in WiMAX Table (1.11) shows the power efficiencies /bandwidth efficiency of QAM modulation QAM order 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1024 1.84) shows QAM simulation for various modulation order (16.5 4 4.5 27 28.Figure (1.10.7 22 23. 2QAM and 4QAM are BPSK and QPSK which are previously simulated As M increases the spectral efficiency increases.5 3 3.5 18. 64.5 5 Spectral efficiency (log2 M/2) 13.128.9) QAM power and spectral efficiencies simulation results 1.1024) in the signal to noise ratio of 0-30 dB and we found that: As M increases the BER increases.5 14.5 17.85) modulation schemes used in WiMAX simulation .4 Comparative simulation of various modulation schemes Figure (1.

16 QAM is better than 16PSK (since the symbols in 16QAM cover all the spaces in the constellation diagram and not confined to a densely packed circle).86) shows a comparative simulation between different modulation schemes each having same modulation order 16 so we found that: 16 FSK is the best modulation scheme which is pointed out before (since it trades the better performance by the excessive transmission bandwidth).86) comparative simulation for 16FSK. However PSK is used when the linear amplification is considered.85) shows the three modulation schemes used in WiMAX system. Figure (1. the results instruct an adaptive modulation to be employed in WiMAX system according to channel conditions (signal to noise ratio) Figure (1. 16QAM Figure (1. Hence when it is required to achieve same spectral efficiency square QAM is used instead PSK. 16PSK.Figure (1.87) shows a comparative simulation between all introduced modulation schemes .

.87) Comparative simulation between all modulation schemes As we found from figure we can arrange the modulation schemes descendingly from the most power efficient scheme to the least as following: 32FSK16FSK8FSKBPSK/QPSK4FSKBFSK8PSK16QAM 32 QAM16PSK64QAM256QAM.Figure (1.

Dynamic error rate calculation. Figure (1.1 The SIMULINK model used in evaluating BER Figure (1.88) shows the SIMULINK model used for simulation and evaluating BER The model includes: Bernoulli generator for generating bits. 1. Error rate calculator to calculate BER.1. Scatter plot scope and eye diagram scope. Block of desired modulation & demodulation technique. Various modulation schemes.2 SIMULINK simulation & constellation diagram The simulink library has several of uesful blocks that can be in the performance analysis of modulation schemes such that: Binary generators for creating a random sequence of bits. Channels (AWGN-Rayleigh fading). NOTE: by changing the blocks of modulation and demodulation we can study different schemes. Scatter plot for plotting the constellation diagram.89) BER calculation using SIMULINK .2.10.10. Channel (ex:AWGN).

1.2 Sample runs with different Signal to noise ratios (a) With SNR=5dB. Figure (1.004 bit error rate. _____________________________________________________________________ Figure (1. The receiver cannot differentiate between symbols correctly and hence that will lead to 0.10.91) Simulation results with 10 dB .90) shows a simulation results when the signal to noise ratio is very low (5 dB) we can see that: The constellation points moves away from its designated points due to large noise power.90) Simulation results with SNR=5dB. (b) with SNR=10dB Figure(1.3.

92) Simulation results when SNR=100dB In figure (1.0.'.91) that although the constellation points moves away around its transmitted places but the movement is confined to the decision region and hence no error occurs (c) With SNR=100dB(no noise approximately) _____________________________________________________________________ Figure (1.1).As shown in figure (1.k.length(x)/k).'g. xsym = bi2de(reshape(x.10.z) Converting to symbols: Channels: Constellation: Bit error rate: .snr) h = scatterplot(yrx(1:nsamp*5e3).'). [number_of_errors.92) we can see that when no noise is added (approximately) the constellation points will lay in its correct places.bit_error_rate] = biterr(x. 1.'left-msb').nsamp.4 M-files commands The communication toolbox presents a rich library of commands that cover all modulation schemes and will lead to similar results that we obtained before and here we present them without displaying the output which was introduced before • • • • • For generating the random bits: • • • • • randint(n. y = awgn(x.

94) MODEM objects in MATLAB .And the modulation commands: Figure (1.93) Modulation commands in MATLAB And also MODEM objects: Figure (1.

10.BPSK. Sample Run: QPSK of {1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0} .BFSK.QPSK} and the program will draw tha modulated signal in time and frequency domain.3 Our GUI for modulation: Last we introduce a GUI for modulation. The program was designed to illustrate different modulation schemes in time and frequency domain The program asks the user for the message bits and the frequency of the carrier and the user can choose the appropriate modulation scheme from the set {ASK.1.

And in the frequency domain: .

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