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Lab 3 Mitosis and Meiosis

Michelle Seywald

AP Biology

Period 1

January 1, 2010

Introduction:

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which is division of the cytoplasm into two daughter cells. just like in mitosis. Each process involves the division of the cell’s nucleus and of the cytoplasm. These organisms produce a fruiting body 2 . DNA is replicated during this period. At the end of telophase II. since these cells have a high percentage of cells undergoing mitosis. Meiosis and the process of crossing over are explored in exercise 3B with the fungus Sordaria fimicola. This process increases genetic variation in the offspring. during which the chromatin condense into chromosomes. the homologous chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate. At metaphase I. is characterized by formation of the nuclear envelope and nucleoli. and uncoiling of the chromosomes. while meiosis functions in the production of gametes or spores. the nuclear envelope disintegrates. Following mitosis is cytokinesis. Cells in their non dividing stage are in interphase and remain in this stage the majority of the time. Mitosis is studied in exercise 3A in cells of whitefish blastula and onion root tip. the last stage of division. Next is metaphase. Beginning with prophase I. Meiosis II is much like mitosis. In anaphase. with chromosomes lining up at the metaphase plate and sister chromatids separating to opposite poles. Mitosis is generally used for the growth and repair of an organism. In telophase I. Cell division begins with prophase. the region that contains the highest percentage of cells undergoing mitosis is called the apical meristem. Cytokinesis usually occurs during this time. The overall process of mitosis and cytokinesis results in two daughter cells identical to each other and the parent cell. Telophase. Meiosis is a process similar to mitosis in which the nucleus undergoes two divisions and results in 4 haploid gametes. On roots. there are four haploid daughter cells. during which the chromosomes line up at the metaphase plat in the middle of the cell. a haploid set of chromosomes reaches each pole. Cells divide by two different methods: meiosis and mitosis. the mitotic spindle pulls the sister chromatids to opposite poles. Meiosis I depends on the replication of DNA in interphase. At this stage. the nucleus may have one or more dark stained nucleoli and is filled with chromatin. distributing a diploid amount of chromosomes to each pole. homologous chromosomes come together to form a tetrad and crossing over takes place between the nonsister chromatids. and the mitotic spindle begins to form. During anaphase I. These two rounds of cell division are called meiosis I and meiosis II. the homologous chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles by the spindle fibers.

Materials: 3A. By calculating the frequency of crossover asci within a certain region. The color and orientation of the ascospores within the ascus can signify whether crossing over has taken place.1 3 . crossing over has not taken place. if the ascospores are arranged in either a 2:4:2 or a 2:2:2:2 pattern. If the ascospores are arranged in a 4:4 pattern.called a perithecium containing many asci. These asci each contain 8 ascospores which are either tan or black. crossing over has taken place. However. the map units between the gene for spore color and the centromere can be determined.

2 This exercise requires a prepared slide of onion root tip and a light microscope.1 4 . This exercise requires prepared slides of whitefish blastula and onion root tip. and a light microscope. 3A. 3B. Procedures: 3A.2 This exercise requires 1or more slides/images of hybrid asci of the fungus Sordaria fimicola.

3. The length of the cell cycle is approximately 24 hours for the cells in actively dividing onion root tips. Instead.2 View the slide and locate a group of hybrid asci (those containing both tan and black ascospores). 5 . divide the percentage of crossover asci by 2. examine the meristematic region of a prepared slide of the onion root tip. then count a third field of view. 24 hours (or 1. Record the data. 3B. the numbers of cells in each phase will be determined. with the 10x objective and then use the 40x objective to study individual cells. Calculate the percentage of crossovers by dividing the number of crossover asci (2:2:2:2 or 2:4:2) by the total number of asci x100. If less than 200 cells have been counted. Observe every cell in one high-power field of view and determine which phase of the cell cycle it is in. Consider that it takes. information about how long it takes a cell to divide can not be obtained. the percentage of time each cell spends in each phase can be inferred. Identify one cell that clearly represents each phase. Count at least two full fields of view. Locate the meristematic region of the onion. This is best done in pairs. Calculate the percentage of cells in each phase and record. 3A. The percentage of crossover asci is divided by 2 because only half of the spores in each ascus are the result of a crossover event.440 minutes) for onion root tip cells to complete the cell cycle. Then switch so the recorder becomes the observer and vice versa. Using the data in Table 3. Examine prepared slides of either onion root tips or whitefish blastula. Sketch and label the cell in the boxes provided. Count at least 50 hybrid asci and enter the data in Table 3. The partner observing the slide calls out the phase of each cell while the other partner records. To calculate the map distance. or locate the blastula. From this.3. The amount of time spent in each phase of the cell cycle can be calculated from the percentage of cells in that stage. It is hard to imagine that one can estimate how much time a cell spends in each phase of cell division from a slide of dead cells. yet this is precisely what will be done in this part of the lab. on average. determine the distance between the gene for spore color and the centromere. Since work will be done with a prepared slide.2 To estimate the relative length of time that a cell spends in the various stages of cell division. Record the results in Table 3.3.

Analysis Questions: 6 .1 Sketches attached.Results: 3A.

and the sister chromatids would not separate. plant cells lack these structures. crossing over does not take place during mitosis. mitosis would not be possible without the presence of the centrosome. In short. each with genetic material identical to each other and to the parent cell. the microtubules would not assemble. In addition. each of which is diploid and genetically identical to the original cell. the replicated chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate. What activities are going on in the cell during interphase? First. What is the role of the centrosome (the area surrounding the centrioles)? Is it necessary for mitosis? Defend your answer.1. but rather remain together as a diploid set. which are identical to each other. The daughter cells remain diploid because homologous chromosomes do not separate as they do in meiosis. The genetic material is identical in the parent and the daughter cells because anaphase separates replicated chromosomes and distributes identical copies of chromatids to each daughter cell. If this structure were absent from the cell. At metaphase. does not seem to significantly affect the function of the microtubules of the spindle in plant cells. How does mitosis differ in plant and animal cells? How does plant mitosis accommodate a rigid inflexible cell wall? While animal cells use centrioles to direct the spindle fibers. 3. This. Another difference is the formation of a cell plate during cytokinesis in plant cells that is not present in animal cells. however. 7 . mitosis replicates the chromosomes in a cell. 2. The centrosome contains a pair of centrioles and functions as the microtubule organizing center. are pulled apart to opposite poles by the spindle fibers. the spindle would not form. At anaphase. The elongated cell then separates into two diploid cells. Rather than pinching off along a cleavage furrow to form two new daughter cells. Explain how mitosis leads to two daughter cells. ensuring that there are two identical copies of DNA. a new cell wall is simply laid down between the daughter cells in plant cells. preventing sister chromatids from differing from each other. the sister chromatids.

followed by prophase. Based on the data in Table 3. and telophase. 2. then equal amounts in metaphase and telophase.1. there would be virtually no cells in prophase.6% e minutes 72 Anaphase 4 4 7 15 5% minutes Telophas 86.3A. and finally the least amount in anaphase. most cells would be in interphase. how would your results have been different? If the observations had not been confined to the actively dividing portion of the onion root tip.1.7% minutes Metaphas 95.08 70 64 63 197 65.04 5 8 7 20 6. metaphase. what can you infer about the relative length of time and onion root tip cell spends in each stage of cell division? Based on the data in Table 3. anaphase. 8 .4 6 6 6 18 6% e minutes Total Cells Counted 300 Questions: 1. If your observations had not been restricted to the area of the root tip that is actively dividing. it can be inferred that an onion root tip cell spends the majority of its time in interphase. Instead.1 Number of Cells Percent Time in of Total Each Field 1 Field 2 Field 3 Total Cells Stage Counted Interphas 946.2 Table 3.7% e minutes 240.48 Prophase 15 18 17 50 16.

2. the nucleus undergoes two divisions in meiosis. List three major differences between the events of mitosis and meiosis. but only one division in mitosis. 3. One major difference between mitosis and meiosis is that crossing over takes place during meiosis but not during mitosis.2: Mitosis Meiosis Chromosome Number Diploid (2n) Diploid (2n) of Parent Cells Number of DNA 1 1 Replications Number of Divisions 1 2 Number of Daughter 2 4 Cells Produced Chromosome Number Diploid (2n) Haploid (n) of Daughter Cells Production of Purpose/Function Growth and repair gametes 9 . Finally. Compare mitosis and meiosis with respect to each of the following in Table 3. Draw and label a pie chart of the onion root tip cell cycle using the data from Table 3.1 1. while meiosis produces 4 potentially unique daughter cells.1 3B. Also. mitosis produces 2 identical daughter cells.

the diploid number of chromosomes is preserved. which increases the genetic variation of the offspring. How are meiosis I and meiosis II different? Meiosis I undergoes replication of DNA and separates homologous chromosomes into daughter cells. while spermatogenesis results in 4 functioning sperm cells. 3.4% 31.4 Analysis of Results: 2.3 Number of % Asci Gene Number of 4:4 Showing Centromere Asci Showing Total Asci Crossover distance Crossover Divided by 2 (map units) 30 51 81 31. 5. 3B. Meiosis also involves crossing over.2 Table 3. How do oogenesis and spermatogenesis differ? Oogenesis results in only one viable egg cell. while meiosis II does not replicate DNA before division and separates sister chromatids into daughter cells. Meiosis 1 Meiosis 2 10 . Why is meiosis important for sexual reproduction? Meiosis halves the chromosome number of a cell so that when two gametes fuse together and each contributes their set of chromosomes. 4.

such as prophase and interphase.Data Analysis: 3A. 3A. These possibilities may have contributed to the inaccurate calculation for the duration of telophase.2: This experiment concentrates on determining the percentage of time spent in each stage of the cell cycle by observing a large number of cells and recording their particular stage. Had the microscope light been faulty or weak. the data may have been miscalculated. it was found to the second to last shortest in this lab. the student would not be able to differentiate between the different stages of cell division or the specific structures in each stage. the percentage of cells found in each stage may vary from slide to slide. those slides more heavily dyed produced a clearer image of certain structures that groups with lighter dyed slides were unable to see. Also.2: 11 . or from region to region observed under the microscope. In addition. This experiment requires the student to count a large number of cells in the meristematic region of the onion root tip in order to determine the percentage of time spent in each stage of cell division. 3B.1: This experiment focuses on observing the cells of whitefish blastula and onion root tip under a light microscope. If the student was unable to differentiate between certain similar stages. Although it is the shortest stage of mitosis.

the frequency of crossover asci (2:4:2 or 2:2:2:2 formation) from the organism Sordaria fimicola is calculated and used to determine the approximate distance from the gene for spore color to the centromere. although similar. or certain asci were counted more than once. The frequency of each stage in a region of cells was then calculated and used to determine the amount of time a cell spent in each stage of cell division. the results may have been skewed. if there was difficulty differentiating between crossovers and non crossovers. In Lab 3B.4 map units from the centromere. it can be concluded that prophase is the longest stage of mitosis. since the images of the hybrid asci were already prepared and the student needed only to tally the number of 4:4 and crossover asci. it can be concluded that the gene is approximately 31. the cell nucleus undergoes two divisions in meiosis. From this data. It can be seen from observation of mitosis and meiosis that. meiosis was simulated and examined the link between crossing over and map units. This exercise focuses on calculating the map units between a specific gene and the centromere by observing the frequency of crossover asci from the fungus Sordaria fimicola. From the results. the two processes have many differences. For one. In exercise 3B. Secondly. Conclusion: Mitosis and meiosis were observed throughout this lab under microscope and through simulation which helped clarify their many similarities and differences. mitosis produces 2 identical daughter cells. the different stages of cell division of whitefish blastula and onion root tip were observed and recorded. but only one division in mitosis. 12 . In exercise 3A. In addition. However. increasing the genetic variation of offspring.2. and telophase is the shortest. There was limited room for error. crossing over takes place during meiosis but not during mitosis. while meiosis produces 4 potentially unique daughter cells.