Denim Jeans

Nauman Ayubi

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Scope of research What is textile What I choose Denim brands Denim products History of denim Costing of denim jean Production effect on environment Ergonomics Production of Denim (i) Production of denim jeans Aesthetics Analysis Suggestions References


Scope of the research
The essay is written to analyse all the procedure of the denim, including the making, costing and pricing of denim. The way to reduce bad production effect on environment. More ways to make denim, and the way to reduce washing of denim.

What is Textile
You can say textile is cloth or fabric which may be knitted, woven or manufactured. Textiles are of two types it is natural or artificial fabric, which is also known as thread or a yarn. Textile basically consists of natural & artificial fibres. http://www.dolceta.eu/ireland/Mod3/spip.php?article283

What I choose
I choose denim jeans for my essay. Denim is basically rugged cotton twill textile. In denim weft thread passes under two or more warp thread. It¶s very easy to recognise denim because of its traditional colour blue, usually warp is dyed in blue with a white filling. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denim http://www.imprintedoriginals.com/pages/etc/apparel_glossary.htm

Denim Brands
Some of the famous denim brands are as follows              Wrangler Levis G Star Armani Brand Lee Diesel Gap Tommy Hilfiger True religion Joe¶s Jeans Guess Pepe jeans Calvin Kelvin



Lucky Rock and republic Seven for all Mankind APC

Swedish Denim brand 
Nudie jeans  Acne  Cheap Monday

Pakistani Denim brand 
   Stone Age Cross Road Leisure Club Club X


Denim products
Denim fabric is used in many things. First denim is used to make denim jeans but gradually many things can be made from denim. Here is the list of products which are made with denim now days.           Bags Capri pants Dresses Hats Socks Shoes Jackets Shirts Shorts Skirts

History of denim jeans;
Jeans origin began at 16th century. ³Jean´ cloth material is used in Italy for clothing. Almost at the same time a material was produced in England that would later be called ³denim´. The name comes from France, from the fabric which they produced called, serge de Nimes (material from Nimes). It was then sold to the Genoese navy. In 1849- The origin of jeans started in America.


1853- Levi started a small wholesale business and supplying workers and miners with work cloths that were very strong and long lasting. 1872- He became partner with Jacob Davis. 1873- All men and specially workers started to buy jeans because of the durability and comfort and the long lasting quality. 1886- Lathers label is sewed on the back of the jeans. On that picture it shows the jean is pulled between the two horses but it doesn¶t tear and remain s strong. That advertisement is just to show how strong denim jeans are. 1890s- The denim jeans were assigned the number. 1920s- Levis jeans became so popular and the leading products in men¶s work. 1930s- In movies cow boys used blue denim jeans very much from then it became so popular. 1940s- Less jeans were made because of the World War II. Soldiers used jeans for their rest time. 1950s- Denim became popular in the young generations. Some schools in USA banned students on wearing of denim jeans. 1960s- Jeans became out of fashion because of other dresses. 1970s- Denim jeans took a new forma and shape and it becomes a complete denim jump suit. 1970s-Jeans became uniform of concerts and the Rock n¶ roll events. 1970- Two more brands namely Wrangler and Lee came into play and make jeans. 1970- Jean denim also came into a new form like Bermuda shorts or miniskirts. 1980- Denim jeans entered to the mass market 1990s- Fall of denim jeans due to many others fabric 1990s- Denim was mixed with the others fabric like Lycra. 2000s- Jeans all over the world. http://www.designboom.com/eng/education/denim2.html http://kids.aol.com/KOL/2/Style/Photogallery/history -of-denim-blue-jeans http://www.jeans-and-accessories.com/history-of-blue-jeans.html


ECONOMY: Costing of Denim jeans
I have mentioned the hypothetical costing price of making a single pie ce of denim in Pakistani rupees Denim Jeans Costing Sheet

Width: 180cm Weight: 12 Oz Color: Blue
Pkr 24 24 9 30 11 29 29 42 11 18 7 7

Spinning cost Warping Cost Ring spun Dyeing cost Sizing cost Weaving cost Air jet Finishing cost Coating Mercerizing Sanforizing Singeing Overheads Profit Margin Total Price/meter

25 30

Garment Costing


Cutting Stitching Washing/Dry process Finishing/ Packing Overheads Profit Margin
Total Price Mark-up (3 times) Total price(1 piece)

40 100 21 10 7 14
488 488x3 1464 Almost 1500 PKR

*This Costing Sheet is taking by me from one of the fashion company of Pakistan


ECOLOGY: Production effect on environment:
Denim effects environment very much as it is made up of cotton, which causes great destruction to the environment as it consumes water very much as almost 1600 gallons of water is required to grow cotton for just one pair of denim jeans, also the use of poisonous medicines and insecticides effects environment very much. Cotton yarn is processed using starch. Starch can be very harmful when it is discarded in the water supply. Yarn is than dyed through synthetic indigo which is also produced from oil, and this is also harmful for environment. In some places where denim is produced the dyes which are used in denim may also be dumped into the water supply and these dyes are too dangerous. The chemical used in production of denim is also very harmful for the environment; especially the washing of denim jeans effects the environment very much. Sandblasting a technique of washing is very dangerous to the workers and for the environment, it should be ban. Levis and h & m didn¶t use this technique and ensured their manufactures not to use this technique. These processes and facts show that production of denim is very dangerous to the environment, but if we try we can reduce the effects . http://www.ecollo.com/post/2009/05/The -environmental-impact-of-your-jeans.aspx http://www.contextclothing.com/eco_denim/

Ergonomics (how is the product adapted to the user)
Ergonomics are very important if you see in clothing because you have to provide the comfort to the persons during their physical activities. As denim jeans of men¶s and women¶s both are made up of same pattern many women experienced discomfort as their waist was opened at the back. The persons who preferred high waist jeans reported discomforts of tightness. In the past rivet were also placed at the back of the jeans but because of many complaints it was removed from the back.

Ethics (e.g. how is the product produced?) Production of denim
In the denim production following steps are include,



Production of Denim Jeans: 
Make a pattern of jeans according to the jeans designer.  Computer programme or a person than calculate the optimal fabric consumption by making drawing on the paper.  Fabric of a denim is than ready to cut  Than cutting of denim will be done.  Than each separated marks are marked with its sizes, with the help of chalk so that it will not appear after washing.  Than all the pieces are separated according to the sizes.  These pieces are than going on sewing  Different machines for different handling  After sewn together, denim jeans are to be washed with different chemicals.  It almost take 20 minutes to make a one pair of denim jean


A stone wash for a pair takes almost 1 kg of pumice stone and almost 5 litre of water  After the washing process the denim is been checked for the faults and loose threads are to be cut.  After this rivets and buttons are placed on denim by using of a special type of press.  Than denim jeans go on to the garment inspection room where the quality inspection is done.  Paper tags and papers are attached after this .  After all tags, papers and stickers it will p lace inside the care label with product of origin and then denim jean will be placed with proper warning text in a poly bag.  After all this process it will than be dispatched to its destination.

Aesthetics (is the product designed to any specific target group or user)
Basically this product is designed for young generation like from 14 -30, but now a day¶s it is used by almost every age persons. Firstly denim jeans was considered as a poor people dress as denim was firstly used by the workers because of the strength and durability of denim but now day¶s denim is used by poor people as well as by the rich people. Denim jeans are now used in daily life by almost all kind of people. Rich people as well as poor people.

After all this research and report I ca me to the point that the production of denim is very dangerous for the environment so we must use the material which is not dangerous for environment. We should not wash denim jeans because it¶s very dangerous for environment. We do like G star as they cha llenged to every one that they don¶t wash their denim and they are environmental friendly. They just put denim into the cold water and didn¶t apply any chemical by dipping in water gives almost the same effect as with washing with the chemicals but this way is very environmental friendly.

As denim production is very harmful for the environment so we should use denim in the way through which we can save environment. We can use smart textile material in denim as PCM (phase change material). We can use the organic materials for production of denim so it is not harmful for the environment. I have heard about PCM


in presentation of one of the student of university of boras. His thesis is on denim , he told this way and showing this by experiment. Another thing washing of denim also cause s serious harm to the environment so we don¶t have to wash the denim as G- star do in his denim production they just put their denim in water for couple of hour and it almost give the same effect a fter washing but this way doesn¶t cause any harm to the environment. We also ban the sandblasting technique of washing. We have to make the consumer aware and give them the message not to wash denim too much, because this causes great damage to environment. Reference: from presentation of a student in University of Boras

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) http://www.dolceta.eu/ireland/Mod3/spip.php?article283 http://www.imprintedoriginals.com/pages/etc/apparel_glossary.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denim http://www.denimsandjeans.com/denim-brands/ http://www.designboom.com/eng/education/denim2.html http://www.jeans-and-accessories.com/history-of-blue-jeans.html http://kids.aol.com/KOL/2/Style/Photogallery/history -of-denim-blue-jeans http://www.ecollo.com/post/2009/05/The -environmental-impact-of-yourjeans.aspx 9) http://www.contextclothing.com/eco_denim/ 10) From presentation of a student of University of Boras


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