The Black Woman Is God

The black woman is god!

To merely respect the great black woman is a trivial thing; indeed she is to be worshiped as a living goddess! we are to wait on the black queen as a servant, to kiss her feet, to bow in her presence. we are to love and adore her more than life. for she is life! she is creation, and she is love, History Most African cultures, including that of ancient kemet are matrilineal. this means that ones identity is through his or her mother. the mother, the black queen, is the creator, the life force, the sustainer and the producer of life and ones identity. "you know that in our country there were even matriarchal societies where women were the most important element. On the bijagos islands they had queens. they were not queens because they were

the daughters of kings. they had queens succeeding queens. The religious leaders were women too, " ---amilcar cabral, return to the source, 1973 in kemet, rulers were often pictured with their mothers and ruled equally with their queens. "It is said to be the custom among the Nubians, when a king dies and leaves a son, and also a nephew, the son of his sister, that the latter reigns after his uncle, instead of the son, " -- the black queen in ancient kemet shared civic duties with her male counterpart. from the Afrikan perspective the feminine energy is glorious and vital! In both the bible (exodus) and the quran (sura), it is spoken that shortly after being led out of egypt, the israelites constructed and began worshiping a 'golden calf'. upon further inspection, it is obvious that this 'golden-calf' is in fact the kemetan cow (see below). after spending so many years in kemet and observing the complex practices, culture and spiritual system of the egyptians (a system thousands of years in the making, with roots from the nubian people of kush -- the egyptians were children and a colony of the kushites), it would be thought that moses would understand that the kemetans were not 'idol worshipers'. that the image of the cow goddess only symbolically represents the nourishing and life-giving energy; the same energy in the black woman, the same energy that is an aspect of the all-encompassing transcendental god (neberdjer). so the israelites were in fact emulating a kemetian practice; the practice of devotional veneration to both the black woman, and to god!

it has now been undisputably proven that the human race originated in africa. we now know that all humans can trace their roots to a family in africa. we know that the first mother is an african woman. the beautiful black queen is the original woman, the mother and creator of us all. goddesses Aset: She is the feminine energy of the divine (fathermother-son) trinity (asar-aset-heru). she embodies powerful aspects of the feminine energy: love, wisdom, healing and nurturing. after being dismembered by set who represents uncontrolled passions and worldly desires, the many pieces of asar's body were scattered across the globe. aset now embarked a long quest of devotional love in which she successfully found and collected the pieces of asars body. with this energy of love and healing she healed his body. after this resurrection, aset becomes impregnated by the spirit of asar. she gives virgin-birth to the prototype hero heru: the conqueror of the lower (wordly) self. heru attains divine-consciousness (identification with the higher self) and defeats set (ignorance) by doing battle with maat(truth, justice, righteousness). aset was said to have been a darkskinned child and was called khnemet-ankhetí (the living lady of love). ttere are statues throughout europe, especially greece, depicting aset as the prototype madonna. in these statues, she can be seen holding and suckling the baby heru. the mary-jesus relationship and personalities are based on this black madonna prototype.

nebethet: the sister of asar and aset. she represents nature and death. she represents the illusion of the physical world. nebethet represents the lower nature, and the mortal life: that which lives and dies. her sister aset is the complimentary aspect of existence: enlightenment, the transcendental and immortal reality of the divine and the spirit; the true essence, that which is eternal and abiding. the path of the aspirant is to become heru (as mortals, to become aware of our eternal essence, to identify with the divine, the immortal sustaining spirit that lives in and supports all of nature and creation). to become one with heru is to eventually become one with with asar (pure consciousness, pure spirit). while asar's union with aset (cosmic consciousness and wisdom) produced heru, his drunken union with nebethet (nature) produced anpu (inipu). so to become asar is to attain a transcendental consciousness that knows both the spirit (aset) and nature (nebethet). tefnut: the consort of the wind/air god shu, the goddess tefnut represents the life force within air, which is itself a lifeforce. she also represents water and liquid substances and the power of water. nut: the mother goddess. she is the mother of asar and aset (father and mother of the divine trinity asaraset-heru). she is the daughter of shu and tefnut (wind god and goddess). nut represents the heavens and the sky. she represents these aspects of the

physical universe that we live in. nut lifts up all righteous aspirants into heaven to take their place as a shining spirit (star) on her body.(ashby) mut: the goddess mut is nature itself. she represents nature's ability to regenerate or recycle herself. just as vultures sustain their lives by eating the dead carcasses of animals, she creates life out of death. her symbol is the vulture. mut takes in death and brings forth new life for the spiritual aspirant. hapi: androgynous god of the nile with protruding bosom and belly that represent fertility. the same fertility that as the nile river, nourished the lands with annual floods. the goddess hapi nourishes the spirit as the nile nourishes the lands. net: the androgynous god/goddess of creation, action and battle. the aspirant must become net and take action for righteousness(maat) and justice. hetheru: the great cow goddess of life, creation and nurturing. the inexhaustible source of energy and vitality that sustains the universe. amentet: the female aspect of the cosmic reality (asar). she represents all aspects of both asar and aset. amentet represents the source of creation.

sekhmet: this powerful lioness-headed goddess destroys, evil, darkness and ignorance. in this capacity she aids the aspirant towards truth and the light. Maat: the goddess Maat wears a feathered headdress. She sustains the universe and creation! maat is peace, love, harmony, balance, order and justice. she is the force and balance that hangs stars in galaxies and pushes galaxies through universes, she causes the rain to fall and flowers to blossom. She is the purity and clarity within the heart, mind and consciousness of the aspirant that leads to identification with the higher self and conquering of the lower self. she is balance. she is righteousness. maat is the foundation of life and culture of the ancient kemetians, and of any spirant on the spiritual path. maat is the source of life (ankhu maat). Conclusion The black woman is the mother of all men. She is the creator. She has historically been the central point of the Afrikan and Afrikan-Diasporas family. “ I was born of a lioness, child of an Israelite. It is fitting that i should emulate her. She is my mother; she strapped me on her back. I was nursed by lions that wore skirts."

The black woman is a composite and divine expression of all of the energies and qualities represented by the goddesses. her vibration of love, nurturing, healing and life is essential. just as her energy has created us, only she can save us. Western media images that distort this truth and her beauty shall not be tolerated!!! to merely respect the great black woman is a trivial thing; indeed she is to be worshiped as a living goddess! we are to wait on the black queen as a servant, to kiss her feet, to bow in her presence. we are to love and adore her more than life. For she is life! She is creation, and she is love.

The Black woman was there first. Scientists today have discovered that the Y chromosome in spermatozoa has 2.8 percent less genetic material than the X chromosome in the same spermatozoa specimen. Researchers were able to sift spermatozoa to produce samples in which 85 percent of the cells had an X chromosome. In fact, the X chromosome is five times larger than the Y chromosome, which means that females existed for generations without males. To get the Y chromosome out of an X chromosome, you lose one of your points, thus the chromosome is defected, which is why a man has the same components on his body, that the woman does. For example, the bosom and unmentionables, however men don’t breastfeed. Men are a genetic defect of women. A woman not only breastfeeds her children, but she nurtures the whole world with her wisdom. The Y chromosome comes from female scientists, as Ninti, known as Mother Ninti or Nunet, who experimented with the side of an X chromosome maiming it by removing 2.8 percent of X chromosomes. This resulted in a maimed lower right stem (see 'xy' photo), giving the appearance of a Y, which produces less genetic materials, resulting in a Y chromosome, called chromosomal manipulation, a well known experiment today.

the X and Y chromosome

The Black Woman (Mother God) has a plan for bringing Africans to salvation in Her Kingdom. Since Her creation of Adam and Eve, the Black Woman (Mother God) has worked with Africans in various ways but always with the same goal in mind. Before Our Love for One Another came, the Black Woman (Mother God) called only a few Africans out of their societies to serve Her and further Her work. Many of them are mentioned by name in Hebrews 11, a chapter in the Bible we could call the Black/Afrikan faith hall of fame. Even as She called and worked through individual Black Leaders and Prophets to do a spiritual work, the Black Woman (Mother God) established a physical nation to help fulfill Her plan. This nation, the descendants of Abraham through his grandson Jacob/Israel/Blacks in the Diaspora, was also known as the Black Woman (Mother God)'s congregation (Acts 7:38) or "church," as it is translated in the King James Version. Understanding how the Black Woman (Mother God) worked through Blacks/Africans in the Old Testament is an important background for understanding why and how the Black Woman (Mother God) established the Africans/Blacks in the New Testament. The Black Woman (Mother God) worked with Africans in different ways?

"The Black Woman (Mother God), who at various times and in various ways spoke in time past to the fathers by the prophets, has in these last days spoken to us by Her Son, whom She has appointed heir of all things, through whom also She made the worlds" (Hebrews 1:1-2). The Black Woman (Mother God) spoke to Adam and Eve directly, as she later communicated with Moses. However, she often conveyed her message in other ways—through dreams and visions, through prophets and priests, and through her inspired written Word, the Holy Scriptures. But the message always fit into the same overall mission. Why did the Black Woman (Mother God) call Abraham? "Now the LORD had said to Abram: 'Get out of your country, from your family and from your father's house, to a land that I will show you. I will make you a great nation; I will bless you and make your name great; and you shall be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you, and I will curse him who curses you; and in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed'" (Genesis 12:1-3). The Black Woman (Mother God) had a plan for Abraham. In Her mission to extend Her love to all humanity, the Black Woman (Mother God) chose a man who was faithful and obedient to serve as a physical and spiritual role model. Abraham set an example of obedience in leaving his home country at the Black Woman (His Mother’s) command, not even knowing the final destination (Hebrews 11:8). She believed the Black Woman (Mother God) would fulfill Her promises, in spite of the seeming impossibilities involved. She was even willing to give up his own son (Genesis 22), prefiguring the sacrifice of Our Love for One Another came. Why was Abraham willing to do this? In faith he knew that the Black Woman (Mother God) could raise Isaac from the dead (Hebrews 11:17-19).

Why is Abraham so important? "For what does the Scripture say?’ Abraham believed the Black Woman (Mother God) and it was accounted to him for righteousness'... that he might be the father of all those who believe ... [and] that righteousness might be imputed to them also" (Romans 4:3, 11, emphasis added throughout). "And I will make your descendants multiply as the stars of heaven; ... and in your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed; because Abraham obeyed My voice and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My laws" (Genesis 26:4-5). "Now to Abraham and his Seed were the promises made. She does not say, 'And to seeds,' as of many, but as of one, 'And to your Seed,' which is Our Love for One Another" (Galatians 3:16). Not only did Abraham become the father of many nations, including those that descended from Israel, but his example of faithfulness to the Black Woman (Mother God) led the Black Woman (Mother God) to call him the father of the spiritually faithful. Over the years the Black Woman (Mother God) extended the promises She made to Abraham not only to his physical descendants (Genesis 13:16; 15:5; 17:3-6) but to the whole world through the promised Seed, the Blackman who has the love of their Black Mothers for our people Our Love for One Another". The faithful—all those called and chosen for a relationship with the Black Woman (Mother God)/Love in the past, present and future—are Abraham's spiritual descendants. But the Black Woman (Mother God)/Love also worked through Abraham's physical descendants. What was the nation of Israel called to do? "Surely I have taught you statutes and judgments, just as the LORD my Black Woman (Mother God) commanded me that you

should act according to them in the land which you go to possess. Therefore be careful to observe them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the peoples who will hear all these statutes, and say, 'Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding Nation of Africans/Blacks.' For what great nation is there that has the Black Woman (Mother God)/Love so near to it, as the LORD our Black Woman (Mother God)/Love is to us, for whatever reason we may call upon Her? And what great nation is there that has such statutes and righteous judgments as are in all this law which I set before you this day?" (Deuteronomy 4:5-8). One of the responsibilities the Black Woman (Mother God) gave to the physical nation of Israel was to represent Her, to show by example that the Black Woman (Mother God)'s way works. The nations around should have seen the beauty of the Black Woman (Mother God)'s laws at work in the lives of the Afrikaans/Blacks here in the Diaspora. Did the Afrikaans fulfill the mission the Black Woman (Mother God) called them to do? "But I had concern for My holy name, which the house of Israel/Blacks here in the Diaspora had profaned among the nations wherever they went". "Nevertheless they were disobedient and rebelled against You, cast Your law behind their backs and killed Your prophets, who testified against them to turn them to Yourself; and they worked great provocations" (Nehemiah 9:26). "Behold, the days are coming, says the LORD, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel/Blacks here in the Diaspora and with the house of Judah/Afrikaans in Afrika—not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the

day that I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke ..." (Jeremiah 31:31-32). Israel not only failed to set a good example for its neighboring nations, but the Afrikaans also broke their agreement with the Black Woman (Mother God) by breaking their covenant of love towards one another and even caused the Black Woman (Mother God)'s name to be blasphemed (Romans 2:24). Why did Israel fail? "... They did not obey or incline their ear, but everyone followed the dictates of his evil heart ..." (Jeremiah 11:8). "You stiff-necked and uncircumcised in heart and ears! You always resist the Holy Spirit of your Mother; as your fathers did, so do you". "But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel/Blacks here in the Diaspora after those days, says the LORD: I will put My law (law of love for one another) in their minds, and write it on their hearts; and I will be their (Mother God), and they shall be My Children (gods in the flesh)." The Afrikaans didn't have the heart needed to fully accomplish the Black Woman (Mother God)'s will (Deuteronomy 5:29). They resisted the Holy Spirit (Holy Character of Love), as does all Africans without the special calling of the Black Woman (Mother God). But the Black Woman (Mother God) has a plan to make a new heart available to us all and to write Her laws in our minds. All comments welcome...just go to http://www.africanpeopleoflove.tk

The Het-Heru (Hathor) goddesses

This picture of Hathor was made by Susan in Luxor. Het-Heru (Hathor), goddesses of love, beauty, happiness and fertility, also the Goddesses of the sky and the heaven. She was everything that is true and good. All that is best in wife, mother and daughter. Goddess of singers, dancers, artists, of the vine, of beer, joy, happiness. She was identified with the star Sept, which is the star Sirius. The goddess Het-Heru is black-skinned. Because of the help and protection of Hathor the dead are able to attain everlasting life. Het-Heru and Het-Hert are both the names of the goddesses. Het-Heru means House of Horus. Since Horus the elder (Heru-Ur) was also seen as the Sun-God, the House of Horus is the part of the sky where the Sun passes by. Het-Hert means the House Above, so the sky or heaven. The religion of Hathor is of immense antiquity. Hathor was the "Mother of the Light", thus connected to the first act of creation, the creation of light (in the Egyptian view upon creation). Before there was an Egyptian civilization as we know it, her religion was already in existence. The goddess religion was in existence in South Eastern Europe since directly after the melting of the Ice Caps of the last Ice Age (somewhere between 9000 or 7000BC). The priestesses in this old civilization wore cowhorns with the moon symbol in between the horns. See the special page on this very ancient religion. This old civilization knew the art of writing, which recently has been identified

as hieroglyphs far before the ancient Egypt hieroglyphs. See the special page on the first translations. There is a direct relationship between this ancient Goddess civilization and the ancient Egyptian religion, certainly through Hathor. As the cow-goddess she is the "Lady of the Holy Land", which means the country where the people risen from the dead are staying. The worship of Hathor was universal in the whole of Egypt, during all milleniums of the Egyptian civilization. Hathor is a multiple goddess, appearing in multiple personalities at the same moment. Sometimes she is seen in 18 personalities, also in 12 Hathors, sometimes in 8 personalities. But the appearance in Seven Hathors was generally accepted. The seven goddesses have tambourines in their hands and tight fitting dresses and have the cow-horns with the disk on their heads. The seven Het-Heru multiple Goddesses are prophetic faeries. In this way she is connected with the goddess Pele who is also manifold in her sisters. The multiple Goddess are related with the scale of music, the octave. Sometimes Het-Heru is depicted with the head of a lion. This connects her to the Tarot card of Strength. Her music instrument is the sistrum, a very special melodic rattle. Even now the sistrum is being played in the Coptic christian church and the Ethiopian christian church.

Her temple service was done by priestesses. The priestesses had the big Het Heru (Hathor) crown on their heads. This crown had two cow horns with the moon disc in between. In the hot climate of ancient Egypt they were naked holy women. Somehow this is also proof that Isis and Hathor are NOT explicitly related.

Isis had almost exclusively male priests. The Hathor religion is related with the Baalat religion, and much later with the Mary religion of Christianity. Most probable there is a relationship between the Mut religion and Hathor. See also the Amen-triade. For example Thebes was named by the Coptic people after the Goddess Apt, who is a form of Het-Heru. Thebes was the centre of the Amen and Mut religions. The Hathor religion is very much related with the original woman based religions, before the take-over of the man based religions. Music and sound will have been a very important element of the Hathor religion. The Hathor religion is almost certain in line with the original goddess religion. Her main temple is at Dendera in Southern Egypt. In this temple are wondrous things ingraved in the walls. One wall of her temple at Dendera gives the map of star systems around the earth, orientated from Taurus. Taurus was the spring constellation from around 4600 to 2200 BC. It could be that the orientation of the Hathor temple has to be taken one cycle earlier (27000 years), which is around 30.600 to 28.200 BC. This does not mean that the Egyptian temple structure is as old as this, but it does mean that the Hathor religion is very old. It is sure that the ancients were aware of this long cycle.

Also the Encyclopeadia Brittanica hints to the 4th millennium BC, which matches the 4600 BC. The Roman emperor Tiberius has completed this temple of Hathor about 30 AD. But the first foundations of the existing temple go back to 2600 BC at least. As being said here above, Hathor is a multiple goddess. In the temple in Dendera there are 18 Hathor statues in her hall. Elsewhere there are often seven Hathor's

together, see also the book of the Dead, plate 35, where seven Hathor cows are accompanied by one husband Hathor bull. That both bull and cows represent Hathor is because the original gods and goddesses were seen as hermaphrodite. Also Mut the mother-goddess is often depicted as such. The symbol of Hathor is also written on the shield of king Narmer, the first written historical document in human history. Here she appears in her image of a cow, associated with motherhood. In the temple at Dendera are images engraved that resemble modern machines, like helicopter, submarine and more. Even the use of electricity for light is very probable in these wondrous engravings upon her walls. She is identified with the Greek goddess Afrodithe. Turqois is her holy stone. She is the queen of the four corners of the universe. In the ancient Goddess religion the cross is used often to point to the four corners of the universe. This is also an known symbolism in the New Testament. Her holy tree is the maple tree. In the turqois mines in the Sinai also a Hathor temple was present. Certainly the Hebrew/Hapiru tribes must have known this temple. The Mozes-Aaron-Mirjam religion had the calf as a holy animal, which is also holy to Hathor. She is depicted with the head of a lion and an uraeus. Sometimes she was depicted with horns and the moon upon her head. Her holy animal was the cow. In many places she is depicted in four images: the lioness, protector of life; the cow, goddess of love and rebirth; the cat, protector of the families and the royal foster mother; the cobra, goddess of beauty and youth. The snake was also a holy animal of the ancient Goddess of the ancient Goddess civilization far before ancient Egypt.

The picture above shows the goddess Hathor as she is seen most of the time: the laughing friendly face with the big ears. In Dendera her face is depicted 18 times this way. This is because this goddess is a multiple personality, she is not one, but many. In ancient inscriptions it is told that she appeared sevenfold at the same time. (Confirmed by the great egyptologist E.A. Wallis Budge). The 18 statues in the temple of Dendera indicated an even more multiplied personality.

It is almost certain that the old stories about fearies go back upon the goddesses Hathor.

Great Queens Of Afrika

great queens of afrika rulers all aroun they were mighty brave and strong europeans couldn't get them down afrika had great kings and queens u should know search your history it will show if u know not from whence you came u are doomed to live in shame in a afrika talkin bout makeda queen of sheba ruled from arabia to ethiopia fell in love with solomon brought forth haile selassie forefather menelik I In a afirka amina rode at the head of her troops in war conquered enemies near and far great queen of hausa land a woman as capable as any man in a afrika nzinga of angola fought the portuguese as a guerilla soldier at age 70 she was still on top portuguese, dutch, nzinga they could not stop si queen nanny of jamaica she rule de area when de english dem lick shot all she do is spit it back

in a afrika now when i was a child i thought cleopatra looked exactly like elizabeth taylor now i am wiser i understand cleopatra was really an egyptian in a afrika yes afrika had great kings and queens u should know search your history it will show if u know not from whence you came u are doomed to live in shame

Sekhmet [aka. queen of queens of Afrika]
Queen Sekhmet, Dread Lioness of Khem (Egypt), She who must be obeyed, the All Conquering Queen of Ethiopia

In indigenous afrikan cosmology, Sekhmet (also spelt Sachmet, Sakhet, and Sakhmet; Greek name: Sacmis), was the primodial war goddess. Her name suited her function, and means “the Conquering Lady” or (one who is) powerful, and she was also given titles such as (One) Before Whom Evil Trembles, and Lady of Slaughter. Sekhmet was also known as the Scarlet Lady, (a reference to blood) and the Avenger of Wrongs. As the one who destroyed the evil relentlessly whilst protecting goodness she was hailed as Nyabinghi, in the

upper sections of the Nile, near the borders of Southern Sudan and Uganda, ancient Ethiopia Kush the land of the first Pharaohs. Sekhmet was She who protected the nation and the Pharaoh in peace and in war. In wars the protection and strength of the Conquering Queen Mother of Ethiopia were the hopes of the Pharaohs, and in peace She was believed to stalk the land, destroying the enemies of the Pharaoh with arrows of fire. Indeed it was said that death and destruction of the wicked and the oppressors were balsam for her heart, and hot desert winds were believed to be her breath. The protection of the Pharaohs was such a crucial function in those time as the instutition was the source of all the tradition and stability of Kush and Khem. The Pharaoh – the Great Black House – was the government of Egypt, the very soul and center of all the Black-Brown people of Africa. It comprised of the King of Kush and Egypt and the college of priestly scientists, administrators, legislators and justices that guided and directed Black Africa. This establishment governed Egypt for more than 3,000 years of its recorded existence and it was the key to its stability and longevity. The Pharaoh was the source of justice, morality and righteousness. The office of the King and Queen in the Pharaoh (the great Black House) was seen as the embodiment of the energy of the Sun…Ras.

The king of Egypt was verily the living son of the great God amongst men. As such it was crucial that the crucible of order and meaning be protected at all times. And this was the key function of Sekhmet the Conquering Queen Mother of Ethiopia. She was the mother and the protector of God! The devotion of motherhood was also an aspect attributed to the Conquering Mother of Ethiopia, Sekhmet. She was viewed as a form of Hathor the primeval mother of humanity and the gods. As Hathor, she was seen as Atum’s mother. Since Atum was but another name or aspect of the Kushitic/Khemitic God Amen, Sekhmet was also conceptualized as the mother of God. In particular, she was seen as the mother of Nefertum, the youthful form of Atum, and so was said to have been Ptah’s lover. Ptah was the archetypal God and Nefertum’s father. Sekhmet, Ptah and Nefertum were thus the original triad of Gods, worshipped especially in the ancient Egyptian city of Memphis. Sekhmet was the incarnation of the fearless lioness. She was the essence of the majesty, royalty, and power of the fierce lioness. In art, she was depicted as such, or as a shoulder length dread locks African woman with the head of a lioness, dressed in red, the colour of blood. Given that lions were her totemic animals, tame lions were kept in temples dedicated to Sekhmet like the ones in the ancient Egyptian city of Leontopolis.

The cult of Sekhmet the Powerful Dread Lady of the south was and remains widespread in Africa and in the diaspora. Sekhmet was known by different names at different time in different areas in Africa. But her core role, function and attributes remained resiliently unaltered inspite of several local embellishments. Sometimes, her identity was composited in the identity of a great ancestral female matriarch, and it was rationalized that Sekhmet had incarnated amongst humanity as that female matriarch. In the animal kingdom Sekhmet ruled as the all powerful dread lock lioness and in the human kingdom she ruled as the Queen of Queens of Kush and Khem. She was said to manifest in the physical world cyclically either as the lioness, her favourite totem or as the incarnation of an all powerful African Empress. It is usually in the human form as an African Queen that Sekhmet prefers to leave her marks on humanity. In parts of Africa where there one finds strong strains of ancient Ethiopian-Egyptian culture one finds Sekhmet composited with various localized strong women such as the Queen of Sheba and Queen Judith in ancient Ethiopia, Queen Amina in Zaira, Nigeria, Queen Kahina, the Black African Jewish Queen of the Berbers, Queen Moremi in the ancient Oyo Empire in Nigeria, Queen Idia in the ancient Benin Empire in Nigeria, Queen Ojedi among the Onitsha Igbos of Nigeria, Queen Nzinga in Angola, and Queen Nyabinghi Muhumusa of Uganda. Origin Of Sekhmet

The Egyptian mythology teaches that in the golden age of the world that Ra (also Ras) himself the king and the father of the gods ruled Egypt himself. This was the greatest age that Egypt had ever known and until the very end it was described as the age of perfection. Ra ruled for so long in that time that men forgot the number of years he had been on the throne. Eventually, even Ra got old, “for it was decreed that no man should rule forever and he had made himself man to live on earth and rule over Ethiopian and Egypt. In his oldage, “his bones were like silver, his flesh like gold and his hair like lapis lazuli.” Due to the onset of senility Ras was no more an effective fighter against Apophis the Dragon of Evil, who had subsequently grown bolder in his malfeasance and “sought ever to devour all that was good and bright and kissed by the sun.” Presently the evil of Apophis entered into the soul of the ancient Africans and many of them rebelled against Ras and did evil in his sight and disrespected his works. So Ras gathered the high Gods in high council, and he sent for the four living creatures that stand before his throne, Shu and Tefnut, Geb and Nut, and finally he sent for Nun the essence of the waters. Before this high and mighty council Ras made his interdiction against men, and he sought to pronounce a malediction against them for their evil, dirty, unrighteous and disrespectful ways.

But Nun, speaking on behalf of the other Gods urged restraint. Because the unconstrained wrath of Rastafari could burn up the earth in totality, consuming the deserving with the undeserving. So Nun speaking for the Gods called forth and surely, for the appointment of one enthusiastic and steadfast, one burning with sincere love and devotion for the majesty of the dynasty of Ras, one commited to the regency and hegemony of the righteous Empire, to arise and defend the integrity, and the solemnity, and the sanctity and the honour of the law and the works of Ra. For as Nun argued, “if you send forth the burning glance of your eye to slay mankind, it will turn the land of Ithiopia and the entire world with it into a desert. Therefore make a power that will smite men and women only; send out that which will burn the evil but not harm the good. Send out Nyabinghi!” Then Ras consented with the urging of the Gods. “I will not send my burning glance upon the Africa, instead I will send my mother, my protector, the love of my heart to protect my holy works. I will send Nyabinghi.” Even as he spoke, Sekhmet the dread lioness, the mighty lady of Africa, “She” who must be obeyed, sprang into being. Nyabinghi, away she sped into Africa, tearing through Egypt, Ethiopia, Punt, Asmara, Mocambique, even unto Azania in the South. She slaughtered and devoured mankind until the Nile and the Niger ran red with blood and the earth besides it became desolate.

Before long the most wicked among men had been slain by the Sekhmet, the dread lioness mother of Ras, Queen of Queens of Africa, and the rest prayed to Ras for mercy. And Ra spared them. Ra spared them because he wished to spare this ungrateful humanity and grant them any indulgences for which he finds an excuse. Also it is said some in places, that “Ras wished to spare them (humanity) for he hath no desire to slay all of mankind, and leave himself the ruler of a desolate and barren earth, with no human to sing and play with him. Since then until this moment, even unto tomorrow, the name and the essence of the lion goddess has lived with us, and will live with us, without any depletion of her sheer leonine potency. Sekhmet, the Majestic Lady of power, She who must be obeyed, the dread lioness goddess of ancient and modern Africa, still lives dishing out judgement and fire, through word, sound and powerful action, to those who hate righteousness, to those who hate Jah, regardless of the colour of their skin.

by Jide Uwechia January 28, 2007

Queen calafia QUEEN CALAFIA THE BLACK AMAZON QUEEN AFTER WHOM CALIFORNIA IS NAMED: BLACK CALIFORNIAN OF THE BLACK MOJAVE NATION WHO LIVED IN CALIFORNIA BEFORE THE SPANISH INVASION The original peoples of California included two races. They were the descendants of prehistoric Negroid peoples like the picture on the right of a Black Mojave warrior. The other group were members of Mongoloid "Indian" peoples who also existed in the region along with people who migrated from the Canada/Alaska region. HISTORY OF THE ORIGINAL BLACK CALIFORNIANS The history of the original Black peoples of California is not mentioned in most Amrican history books. The term "Indian" is used to classify all the peoples found in the Americas when Columbus arrived. Yet, Columbus and his men as well as people like Balboa and Peter Matyr do mention "Ethiopians" in the Caribbean, Darien region of Panama, the cost of South America, California and other areas. These Blacks were the "Descendants of Ham" specifically those with black skins and kinky/curly hair that the Spaniards and other Europeans were instructed to capture and enslave, then Christianize based on the edict of the mid 1400's, (see "A History of the AfricanOlmecs," published by 1stBooks Library, 1663 Liberty Drive Suite 200, Bloomington, Indiana 47404 USA www.1stbooks.com 1(800) 839-8640. The Black Californians were not American Indians but people identical to Africans in race and features. In fact they looked like Africans and somewhat like Melanesians. The history of the Black Californians may

appear to be shrowded in mystry, however that is merely due to the attempt to keep their history obscure by not mentioning that the original people of California included Blacks as well as American Indians who existed there for thousands of years before Columbus. Yet, the Black Californians are not unknown to the Spanish invaders and colonialists whose descendants are part of the populations of Mexico, California and the South Western US and who are no different from the settlers and colonialists from England, France, Portugl and elsewhere. In fact, the Spaniard who mentions the legend of Queen Califia as being a Black Amazon Queen who ruled a land at the edge of the world, where the women were warriors and decked in gold, was Ordonez de Montalvo. Montalvo is said to have gotten a book that mentions Queen Calafia and her Black Amazon warriors. Some historians have speculated that Queen Calafia was probably one of the female African Amazon Queens similar to those who ruled in Dahomey and parts of West Africa for some time, or perhaps the Nubian Queens of Nubia during the period of 100 BC to 200 AD or sometime during that period. The Spanish explorers along the California Coast were among the first to see and enquire about the Black Californians. One source maintains that the Spaniards upon arriving along the California shores saw a number of Black people with ships. They asked the Indians who were they and the Indians replied that these "black, curlyhaired people," were of the land (California) and traded with people across the sea (the Pacific Ocean) by sailing back and forth. Where were these Black Californians going to in the

Pacific? It is most likely they were trading with people in Hawaii or as far as the South Pacific where the Black population has always been very large and very widespread. In fact when Magellan arrived in the Filipines, there were large numbers of Negritos who were well organized and according to some sources a strong population (African Presence in Early Asia, edt. By Ivan Van Sertima, Runoko Rashidi). Black traders and Black Africoid peoples who had been in the Americas for thousands of years were also spread in the Mississippi Valley, the Eastern US, Mexico and the Caribbean. Among these groups were the Washitaw, the Yamassee, Guale, Califunami, Chuarras of Brazil, Afro-Dariente of Panama, Choco of Colombia, Olmec (Mende-Shi) of Mexico, Guanini of South America and others. I. Rafinesque mentions a number of Black groups in his work, "The Primitive Black Nations of America," (Fiends Society, Philadelphia, 1833). One things is certain, the Europeans, Americans, Spaniards never mistook American Indians for Negro Africans. They always referred the Blacks of the Negro African type as "Moors" "Blacks" or "Ethiopians." The Indians were sometimes mistaken for Asians or Indians from India. WHAT HAPPENED TO THE BLACK CALIFORNIANS AND ORIGINAL BLACKS OF CALIFORNIA AND THE SOUTH WEST The Blacks of California became victims of Spanish colonialism. Many were enslaved and worked on the ranches of the Californios. Others became part of the Black population of California, while some continued fighting untill the mid to late 1800's. Like the California Indians of the Mongoloid Indian race who were hunted down in California at fifty

dollars a head (the same genocidal practice was carried against Black Aboriginals in Australia) and who were made to reject their Indian culture to become 'Mexicans and accept European ways, the Black Californians suffered a similar fate. One book shows a picture of Black Californians being marched into slavery by Spanish Californios on horsehack. There is no doubt that since California was basically like the rest of the United States and partially segregated up to 1965, the Black Californians who were found in the state when the Spanish arrived and who continued to survive did not disappear. As the picture above shows, these Blacks were similar in features to Blacks from Africa, therefore it would have been easy for them to have become part of the Black population of California at a time when the Black population was as high as forty percent in some areas. Hence, the Black Aboriginal population of California continued to exist and Blacks of California today are their descendants, including the descendants of Africans from Mexico and freed slaves and free Blacks from the Eastern and Southern US. In retrospect, it is proper that Blacks in California understand their true history and realize that California was named after the Black Amazon Queen Calafia and that the original inhabitants of California, the people who have any claim and rights to any land are the American Indians and Black Californians who are in fact part of the Black populations of California today. The problem with the conditions of Blacks in California today is the lack of knowledge of ownership and the lack of knowledge of history. Blacks in California see their economic, politial and numerical power and

insluence as a shrinking minority in California, a state that had a significant Black population for hundreds and perhaps thousands of years. PROPOSITIONS THAT SEEK TO HIDE THE RACIAL AND ETHNIC ORIGINS OF PEOPLE CONTINUES THE SAME GENOCIDAL POLICY CARRIED OUT AGAINST THE AMERICAN INDIANS AND BLACK CALIFORNIANS The shrinking numbers of Blacks in California (from 40 percent before the 1800's to 7 percent today) has to do with the deliberate policies of genocide being implemented against Blacks by political trickery and policies. In fact, propositions that aim to not classify race or ethnicity in California are just as evil as the "hygene" program taken in Europe during World War II to determine who is "Aryan" and who was not. This time the aim is to "Anglicize" the population yet maintain a strata of caste where Blacks after loosing their identity and culture will be nothing but inferior copies of Anglo-Saxons. The Anglo-Saxons will continue to dominate and maintain their culture, but Blacks will simply be copying them and being kept down without a culture, without an identity and in many ways without the essence and the soul of what makes a people unique. Hence, in order to boost the Black population, the means of doing so will have to be implemented immediately. It must be kept in mind that numbers do count and populations are increased when people get married, stay married and have lots of children, while rejecting all ideas, schemes and tricks being pushed on them by others. Yet, the fact remains that there was indeed a Black warrior nation in California and they were at war with

the Spanish, Mexican Spaniards and the US settlers until about the mid 1800's. According to the Black Book (Random House, 1974), the settlers and their armies were "relieved" when the Black Californians were pacified. In retrospect, the time has come for today's Black Californians to know their history and understand who was always in this state and who came during the period of colonialism. The idea that a person from another land whose ancestors committed genocide against American Indians and Black Californians has more right to any part of California is utterly absurd. There is no difference between a Spanish invader and settler and French or Dutch one. They are still settlers and they cannot claim what is not theirs. Perhaps that is why the history of the Black Californians has been obscured and perhaps that is why the genocidal policies against Blacks in California has led to the decrease in the population. It is up to The People to do all that is necessary to reverse this trend. California should never be left for others to enjoy. The Black Californians must increase their population in order to make sure they are not reduced to slavery, again. Nubers matter and its time to get organized and take steps to enlarge the population. Read more on the Black Californians http://community.webtv.net/nubianem "A History of the African-Olmces" published by 1stbooks Library, 1663 Liberty Drive, Suite 200, BloomIndiana 47404 USA www.1stbooks.com __________________ "A people losing sight of their origins are dead, a people deaf to purposes are lost. Under fertile rain, in scorching sunshine there is no difference: their bodies are mere corpses, awaiting final burial." ~ Two Thousand Seasons by

Ayi Kwei Armah " white people are nothing special to my african eyes" kola boof Kwa Jina La Mwenyezi Mungu Mwingi wa Rahema Mwenye Kurahemu - Swahili
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Ancient Nubia: Egypt's Rival in Africa. NUBIA Once the ancient kingdom of Kush, Nubia is the stretch of land next to the Nile from Aswan down to Khartoum in the south. Nubians are depicted in many tomb paintings and reliefs- usually as mercenaries or traders. Nubians still have distinct traditions, architecture and languages, even though many migrated either to Aswan and Kom Ombo or south to Sudan after Lake Nasser swamped much of their traditional homeland. Nubia contains dozens of sites of archaeological interest. 24 temples, as well as fortresses and tombs, were menaced by the waters of the High Dam, including Dendour, Ellessiya, Amada and Wadi al- Sebowa. Some have been moved, most notably Philae, Kalabsha and Abu Simbel, and other salvage and restoration operations are in train ; The Nubian Museum is being built near Aswan to house rescued artefacts. From Late Antiquity and into the early Middle Ages, Upper and Lower Nubia formed three independent kingdoms, Nubadia (called Nubia in Arabic) between the First and Third Cataracts, Makuria between the Third and Fifth Cataracts, and Alodia (called Alwa in Arabic) above the Fifth Cataract. These kingdoms converted to Christianity around the sixth century AD, long after Egypt had become Christian. However, they maintained that faith centuries after Egypt had succumbed to the forces of Islam. These three

nations were not always on peaceful terms with each other. However, it was probably as early as the seventh century AD that Nubadia and Makuria united to form a single federated kingdom which was to last some six hundred years under the King of Makuria. Despite the union, each of the two kingdoms always kept their separate identities. This united kingdom was weakened in the late thirteenth century by a series of attacks on Nubia by Mamelukes from Egypt, who ultimately claimed--apparently in name only-- suzerainty over Lower Nubia. In the fourteenth century, Makuria was overrun by nomadic Arab invaders from the southeast who established a short-lived Muslim kingdom there. This state ultimately degenerated into a series of warring principalities without any royal authority and the population reduced to the level of bedouin. Nubadia and its client- state, the Kingdom of Dotawo survived for more than a century thereafter, until disappearing in the unrecorded dwindling of cultural identity. In AD 1550 the Ottoman Turks annexed a disunited Lower Nubia to their great Near Eastern empire. Nubian independence, national identity, and Christianity disappeared without leaving any record.

Nubia is an area of scholarship that was largely overlooked in favor of its splendid neighbor, Egypt. Past finds in the area were attributed to Egypt; current excavation of the area is impossible because of Egypt's construction of the High Aswan Dam. However, renewed interest in Africa - brought on largely by Afrocentric scholars such as Cheikn Anta Diop - has resulted in a proliferation of scholarly work on ancient Nubia. Much of the scholarly work up to this point is dealing with the massive archeological digs that occurred just prior to the building

of the High Aswan Dam. As a result of this work, the amount of available information on Nubia has increased immeasurably. Evidence has emerged that shows a people who, after decades of colonization by the Egyptians, rose above and established themselves as a force to be dealt with in Africa. Nubians developed a culture and people distinctly different from the Egyptians. After preliminary investigation into the area of ancient Nubia, a striking contrast emerged. The Nubians has an unusually high number of ruling queens, especially during the golden age of the Meroitic Kingdom (1). Although ruling queens, in themselves, may not be unusual, the portrayal of Nubian queen is exceptional. A panel on display at the exhibit "Nubia: Egypt's Rival in Africa" showed the queen smiting her enemies. This type of representation has no equivalent in either Egyptian or Western Art (2). This unusual find has led to research in the role of the women in Nubian society, both past and present. The result has been a surprising contrast between the docile Nubian woman of today and the warrior queen of ancient times. Nubia would be a five-hundred mile long stretch of land along the Nile river that is one-third in modern day Egypt and two-thirds in the modern day Sudan (3). The kingdom of Ancient Nubia began a bit before the first cataract and extended past the sixth cataract to Khartoum (4). As with the Egyptians, the fertile Nile valley gave rise to the civilization of Nubia. The first Nubian age spanned from 3100 to 1000 B.C. This Bronze Age contained three cultures: A-Group, C-Group, and the Kerma culture (5). The latter of the three, Kerma, existed in the Upper Nile. These people developed a strong trading culture that traded to both Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean (6). During this period, the Egyptians called this area "Kush." Kush was the general term for Upper Nubia and was considered to be a province of Nubia (7). The A-Group and C-Group cultures are those that existed in the

Lower Nile. For most of the early part of their history, these cultures were dominated by Egypt. The period of 1550 B.C. to 1100 B.C. marked the colonization of Nubia by Egypt. By the Eighteenth Dynasty, Egypt had control over Lower and Upper Nubia, while Southern Nubia remained independent (8). The Egyptians began to call "Lower Nubia the land of Wawat and Upper Nubia refers to the entire regionbetween the first and fifth cataracts. Therefore, any reference to Kush,considered to be a Nubian province, would be considered part of Nubia in general. Nubia the land of Kush" (9). This colonization resulted in the disappearance of a particular Nubian C-Group; these peoples began to adopt Egyptian culture in favor of their own (10). This colonization was especially bitter as it occurred during the reign of Tutankhamen who was the son of a Nubian woman (11).

Soon after the Twentieth Dynasty in Egypt, the Egyptians lost control over Nubia and the land was plunged into a dark age. Around 900 B.C., evidence of a Nubian monarchy begins to emerge. Since this monarchy begins in Upper Nubia, it was often known as the Kingdom of Kush (12). These early rulers were buried in tumulus - a distinctly Nubian tradition. This ceremony has led many to believe that the Kushite Kings were of Nubian ancestry (13). By 770 B.C., these kings were extending their rule to the North. In Nubian history, the period is commonly called the Napatan Period (named for the royal capital of the time). Soon, Nubians "paid back the insult by subjugating the 'all powerful' nation" of Egypt to Nubian control. (14). The Kings now wore the crown of the double cobra - signifying the unity of both Egypt and Nubia (15).

After 295 B.C., a shift in royal capitals from Napatan to Meroe is made for unknown reasons. Some scholars hypothesize that the Kingdom of Kush wished to gain control over Egyptian trade. The problem of determining the reason for the move is made all the more difficult by the beginning of the use of a distinctly Nubian language. This language is based upon the heiroglyphs of the Egyptians, but since no version of it is spoken today and there has not been an effective translation of the language, much of what is written in this Meroitic language remains a mystery. During this time (around 23 B.C.) Egypt fell into Roman control. The Romans

attempted to make Nubia pay tribute to them. This led to the first confrontation between Nubia and the Romans. The Meroitic Period proved to be one of tremendous resistance to the forces acting on Africa at the time. Much of this resistance came at the hands of the number of ruling queens during the period. However, by the middle of the fourth century A.D., the Meroitic Period collapsed (16). Two reasons are generally attributed to this: First, that Nomads of the desert made travel overland difficult, and Second, that the rise of the Axumite Kingdom of Abyssinia cause a collapse of the Kushite economy. In any case, the Meroitic empire was no longer in existence by A.D. 320 (17). Soon after, the X-Group Period began in Nubia. This period was brusquely ended in 540 A.D. with the onslaught of Christianity. Missionary activities continued in the area until approximately A.D. 1550. After this time, the Nubian empire was completely dismantled. The Nubian people were left scattered throughout the fertile Nile valley; two-thirds within Egypt, one-third within the Sudan. With the construction of the High Dam at Aswan in the early 1960's, these peoples were displaced and moved elsewhere in Egypt (18). Although a systematic archeological investigation of the area was conducted, some of the questions that swirl around the kingdom of Nubia are forever lost as Nubia again becomes subject to Egyptian control. Although Sudan had remained the main homeland of Nubians through their long history, their descendents today live in Sudan and Egypt as well. However the majority of Nubians of today are Sudanese. With only a population of slightly above 300,000 they are a minority in both countries. Nevertheless being African descendents they resemble other Sudanese people rather than Egyptians. Respectively and with such resemblance and an inherited background of a great civilisation and culture the Sudanese Nubian

minority show a great deal of presence among other Sudanese. Their remarkable and positive contribution to well-being of Sudan is unequal and mismatches the reality of being a very small minority. In Egypt they are a minority of the overall minority Nubians of Africa and show less distinctive presence there.This is mainly due to the fact that Egyptians overwhelmingly promote their old Egyptian civilisation which has got a lot of international recognition as well as been a arrival to the Nubian civilisation. Nubian in both Sudan and Egypt had suffered a lot from intentional overlooking to their history and culture as well as displacement, relocation due to flooding and inundation of their homeland by dams constructed south of Egypt. During this century the Nubian homeland had been inundated three times, however the 1960 Nubian Exodus remains as the most painful to all Nubians. Following the construction of Aswan High dam in 1960 the land of Nubia between Aswan in Egypt and the 4th cataract in Sudan (main area of Nubians) was the subject of flooding and inundation. Nubians were displaced and relocated in other areas in both Sudan and Egypt. Great Nubian monuments and historical sites were drowned and lost for good. Nubians were dispersed. However the Nubians with their inherited values and traditions had shown a great deal of tolerance and willingness to overcome such difficulties and remain very loyal to their common land (Sudan and Egypt). The influx of Arabs to Egypt and Sudan had contributed to the suppression of the Nubian identity following the collapse of the last Nubian kingdom in 1900. A major part of Nubian were totally arabized or claimed to be arabs (Jaa'leen-the majority of Northern Sudanese- and some Donglawes in Sudan, Kenuz and Koreskos in Egypt). However all Nubian were converted to Islam and Arabic language became their main media of communication in addition to their indigenous old Nubian language.The unique characteristic

of Nubian is shown in their culture (dress,dances,traditions and music) as well as their indigenous language which is the common feature of all Nubian. The distinguished and soft rhythms of the Nubian music and songs are borrowed by other ethnical groups in Sudan. In Egypt these rhythms are commonly used by some Egyptian-Nubian who sing in arabic. With its very distinctive chantings and intonation the Nubian songs and music has a noticeable acclaimation and acceptence among non-Nubian Sudanese and Egyptians..

Goddesses, Queens, and Commoners Upon close examination of the history and culture of Nubia, it becomes apparent that women played an important role. Unlike the rest of the world at the time, women in Nubia exercised significant control. In the Nubian valley, worship of the queen of all goddesses, Isis, was paramount. >From the capital of Meroe, warrior queens fought for the interests of the Nubian/Kushite empire. Throughout history, women were portrayed in Nubian art as the bearers of the offspring of the gods. Today, Nubian women have a much different experience. Nevertheless, Nubian women fulfill a demanding and unique series of roles. Throughout Egypt and Nubia, the cult of Isis had a tremendous and devoted following. Isis was not only the Egyptian goddess of magical powers; she was the representation of the queen mother. In

the most famous fable of the period, Isis roams the world in search of the corpse of her husband Osiris. She returns Osiris to his rightful resting place, only to have Osiris' evil brother Set cut him to pieces and scatter him throughout the land. Isis then takes her son Horus and sets out to find every piece of the corpse so she may tenderly bury it in the hopes that she can resurrect him again. She is successful, and Osiris becomes the god of the underworld. Although Isis, Osiris, and Horus are then established as a trinity, Isis immediately became the most popular of the three (19). This can be partially attributed to her role as the devoted, untiring, nurturer of the land and culture of Egypt and Nubia. The Cult of Isis was the strongest religion in Nubia (20). In contrast, the Egyptians worshipped Ra (Re) in larger numbers. Ra was the god of the sun, and distinctly male at that. The worship of Isis began with the Meroitic period and extended into X-Group. Many Nubian rulers of the time were pictured with Isis on their crowns. This was considered a homage to her role as the "Queen of All Gods, Goddesses and Women" (21). Since the ruler was considered to be born of the gods, it was only natural that the mother should be paid such a tribute. Another example of this type of tribute is the amulet of Isis suckling a Queen. With the exception of the Nubian/Kushite Empire, Isis was never shown with a queen (22). This tribute was always given to a male ruler, never a female. However, since both Isis and the Queens played such important roles in Nubia, the exception was made. Another example of the reverence of Isis was the "co-sponsorship" by Egypt and Nubia of her temple at Philae (23). Here her cult continued, populated largely by Nubians, until the sixth century A.D. (24). Perhaps as a result of the strong influence of women figures in religion, Nubia and its Kushite rulers gave way to a number of strong queens during its history. Ten sovereign ruling queens are

recognized from the period. Additionally, six other queens who ruled with their husbands were considered significant to the history of Nubia (25). Many of these rulers were immortalized in statuary; it was unheard of for non-ruling queens or princesses to be immortalized in art (26). These queens were often portrayed as being very rounded; this portrayal was all part of the queen-mother model (27). These queens were called both gore, meaning ruler, and kandake, meaning queen mother (28). This last term has been corrupted to the English form Candace. Subsequently, there has been much confusion; some Western scholars muddle the actions of queens together under the general name. The emergence of the queen as a viable player in the politics of the day has its roots in the earliest Kushite tradition. Kushite rulers married and then passed more royal power into the hands of the queen (29). The perfect example of the expanded powers of the queen is Kushite Queen Amanirenas. In 24 B.C., she was threatened by the Roman Empire. Egypt was under the subjugation of Rome and the frontier of the Kushite/Nubian empire was seventy miles south of Syene (Assuan) (30). The Nubians were constantly raiding their Egyptian neighbors. On one of these journeys, the Kandace Amanirenas went along. When confronted, she led her armies into battle and defeated three Roman cohorts. In addition, the Kandace defaced a statue of Emperor Augustus Ceasar; bringing the head back to Nubia as a prize. This head was buried in the doorway of an important building as a final act of disrespect (31). During battle, the Kandace lost an eye; but this only made her more courageous (32). "One Eyed Candace," as then Roman governor Gaius Petronius referred to her, was chased by the Romans far into her own territory to Pselkis (Dakka) (33). After a three day truce, the Romans struck back. The Kandace and her armies made another stand at Primis (Kasr/Brim), but there were soundly defeated. Although Rome destroyed the religious capital

of Napata, there was still the danger of retaliation by the Kandace's armies. At this point, the leaders negotiated a treaty that she was to break in a few years (34). A historian of the period remarked "This Queen had courage above her sex" (35). On a broader level, this is a telling example of a European civilization unprepared for the "fierce, unyielding resistance of a queen whose determined struggle symbolized the national pride of a people who, until then, had commanded others" (36). Furthermore, these queens of the Nubian/Kushite Empire were given the special distinction of assuming a priestly role in the divine succession of kings (37). In other societies of the period, the divine right of the king passed from god to ruler, there was no room for a maternal figure. However, Nubian queens are often portrayed at the event of the divine birth. A fine example of this is the representation of Queen Amanishakheto appearing before Amun. The Queen is pictured with a goddess (possibly Hathor - a goddess of fertility) and is wearing a panther skin. This signifies her priestly role in the birth of the successor to the throne (38). This piece is one of a series. In the first, the Queen is elected by god - this establishes her position as rightful ruler. Soon after, the divine child is conceived out of a meeting between the god and the Queen. Finally, the child, and heir to the empire, is delivered to the Queen by the god (39). This complex and important role does not seem to have an equivalent in other cultures (40). Additionally, by the beginning of the twenty-fifth dynasty - the Egyptian dynasty governed by Nubian rulers - the Queen was given the additional role of being a priestess of Nut (Nuit) (41). This would place the Queen in the role of trusted servant to the goddess known as the eternal mother (42). Nut is also the mother of Isis, Osiris, Nephthys, and Set (43). The close association of the Queen with this figure is significant. Nut is, in the Nubian and Egyptian religions, the mother from which all the current gods and

goddesses came. She plays the role of female initiator; the Queen is her trusted confidant on earth. Also at this time, the Queen is beginning to be represented in royal art with the cowrie shell (44). This shell was often used for currency and trade. In art, the shell was thought to symbolize the vulva and, by extension, verbal communication (45). The use of the cowrie shell, either real or representative, was reserved only for women and their ornaments (46). A possible explanation for this could be that women were allowed to speak freely (and often). In any case, it shows that the artisans of the period connected the art of verbal communication with the ruling Queens and other influential women of the period.

Nubian Women of Today Much has changed since the warrior queens of the Meroitic period struck fear into the cold hearts of the Romans. The Nubian civilization has become less defined and separate. The Nubians of today have been dispersed throughout Egypt and the Sudan because of the flooding of their homeland. Outside influences have made the impact of their past seem a bit more distant. It is difficult to determine what to make of the Nubian woman of today.

Nubians have a largely agricultural society. This fact, coupled with the largely disproportionate number of women to men, has led to the continuation of the matrilineal society. Relations are strongest on the side of the mother; some families go so far as to have the son take on the name of his mother (47). Since the sex ratio is so great, women tend to dominate the culture of present day Nubian life due to sheer numbers alone (48). The importance of women in culture is just as great; but the roles have changed. Today's Nubian woman has no great Queen to look to; nor do they have a religion based on the worship of the allknowing mother figure. But, what Nubian women do have is a chance that there ancestors never had. With the last period of resettlement, some Nubian women have decided to move to the cities of Egypt and the Sudan (49). Of course, their standard of living may not increase, but this shows an independence unheard of among the common women of the ancient period. Expecting all Nubian women to live up to the strong Queens of their past is a bit much. Nevertheless, there must be an impact on the lives of the descendants of these Queens. Perhaps the small steps toward independence by the Nubian woman of today shows a courage beyond their sex. In any case, the unique roles of the women of ancient Nubia revel a unique and startling strength in both the women and the culture. Email Comments and Questions to Darrell By Clicking on the Planet Below

Orang Berber Afrika Utara. How the Jihadis mercilessly vandalized the gentle pre-Islamic Berbers of North Africa - Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco and transformed them eventually into bloodthirsty aggressors who vandalized Spain (640-711) According to al-Bukhari [d. 869] an early Muslim jurist; Some of the more salient features of dhimmitude include: the prohibition of arms for the vanquished non-Muslims (dhimmis), and ringing of church bells; restrictions concerning the building and restoration of churches, synagogues, and temples; inequality between Muslims and non-Muslims with regard to taxes and penal law; the refusal of dhimmi testimony by Muslim courts; a requirement that Jews, Christians, and other non-Muslims, including Zoroastrians and Hindus, wear special clothes; and the overall humiliation and abasement of non-Muslims. It is important to note that these regulations and attitudes were institutionalized as permanent features of the sacred Islamic law, or Shari’a. Jihad against North Africa - The Arab Muslim aggression against the Berbers of Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco

The Berbers were the ancient indigenous people of North -Africa west of Egypt. They were made up of many tribes, but they managed to maintain their culture, their Hamitic languages, and considerable military power during successive invasions of their land. In ancient times, North Africa had been colonized by the Phoenicians (who became the Carthaginians), they were followed by the Romans, the Vandals (one of the Germanic tribes that destroyed the Roman Empire), the Byzantines, and finally the Arabs. Other foreigners, notably Greeks and Jews, also ruled parts of ancient North Africa at different times. Kahina - the brave Berber Princess held off the Arab hordes for twenty years At the time of the Arab aggression, the Berbers were ruled by a Queen of Jewish descent. Her name was Kahina (also spelt Cahina). Kahina’s name is also given variously as Dahiyah, Dahia, or Dhabba (Women in World History, v.8, p. 414.) The title Kahina meant Prophetess. The Encyclopedia Judaica (v. 10, p. 686) says that the term is derived from the old Hebrew “Kahin” (”soothsayer”) while some other sources say that “Kahina” was derived from the Hebrew root of the modern Jewish term “Cohen”. In the 7th century, the Berbers lived in uneasy peace with the Byzantines, who ruled the coastal cities of North Africa, after defeating the Vandals a century before. The ancient city of Carthage was the Byzantine capital in Africa. Some Berbers were Christians (with a notable tendency towards heresy), some were Jewish, and some adhered to their ancient polytheist religion. Before the end of the century the region faced a new calamity, the traditional rivals of the Berbers, the Byzantines were defeated and driven from Africa by the Muslim Arab hordes who poured out of the Arabian Peninsula and flattened everything in their wake. The Arab invasion of Egypt that had started in 639 had crossed

Libya by 642 and by 643, the Arabs hordes started ravaging Berber lands. In the Arab Muslim invaders, the Berbers who had crossed swords with the Vandals Visigoths, Romans, Greeks faced a foe with a ruthlessness, that the Berbers had never encountered before. Surrender to this invader called for the surrender of not just sovereignty, but also of the ancient Berber religion, language and identity. A typical Berber lady. The Berbers do not traditionally keep their women in the Hijab (the tent-like cloak worn by Arab Muslim women). When the Arabs invaded North-West Africa, the Berbers were ruled by a resourceful Queen of Jewish descent named Kahina. After the Arab general Hassan ibn al Numan took Carthage from the Byzantines, Kahina’s forces defeated him. Then, as during World War II, a single defeat in North Africa might lead to a retreat of hundreds of miles. Hassan retreated, probably all the way back to Egypt. Following his retreat, Kahina took Carthage and ruled most of Berber North Africa. In the 680s the Arabs swept across North Africa from Egypt to the Atlantic. For some time the Byzantines clung to their coastal cities, as the Arab Jihadis in their tearing hurry to cover as much land as possible raced towards the Atlantic. When the Jihadi general Oqba ibn Nafi reached the Atlantic in Morocco and, according to legend, rode into the sea and slashed at the water with his sword in frustration that there were no more lands to conquer. On his return march in 683, the haughty and cruel Oqba was defeated and slain by the Berbers. After this defeat, the Arab aggression paused for a decade but in 698 the Muslims finally took Carthage, evicting the Byzantine Christians completely from Africa. Now the Muslim aggressors faced their last and most stubborn enemy - the Berbers.

The Encyclopedia Judaica notes that Arabic authors, notably the major 14th century historian Ibn-Khaldun, say that Kahina and her tribe, the Jerawa of the Aures Mountains in eastern Algeria and Tunisia, were Jewish. Charles-André Julien, in his History of North Africa, notes that another writer gave Kahina “the picturesque appellation of the ‘Berber Deborah’” (after Deborah, the judge of ancient Israel). Julien believes that Kahina ’s resistance to the Arabs was “nurtured, as it seems, by Berber patriotism and Jewish faith.” On the other hand, the Encyclopedia Judaica concludes “her opposition to the Muslim Arabs was not religiously inspired; some authorities deny she was Jewish. The history of Kahina remains controversial.” What is known is that soon after the Arab general Hassan ibn al Numan took Carthage from the Byzantines, Kahina’s forces defeated him. Then, as during World War II, a single defeat in North Africa might lead to a retreat of hundreds of miles. Hassan retreated, probably all the way back to Egypt. Following his retreat, Kahina took Carthage and ruled most of Berber North Africa. A Berber warrior. The Berbers differ from the Arabs in their ethnicity. This is reflected in the differences in language customs, dress habits. The schism between the native Berbers and the invading Arabs continues to this day. The Algerian civil war was in part between the Berbers and the Arabs. According to Ibn-Khaldun, as she waited for the inevitable renewed Arab assault, Kahina carried out a brutal and disastrous policy. She declared that the Arabs wished to conquer North Africa only because of its wealth. She ordered Berbers who were still nomadic to destroy the cities, orchards, and herds of sedentary Berbers, to make North Africa a desert.

If Kahina actually made this amazing decision, she was tragically mistaken. The Arabs were determined to take North Africa regardless of its wealth or poverty, because their sole aim was to convert the people to Islam, and because North Africa was a gateway to Spain and Europe. Unsurprisingly, according to IbnKhaldun, this savage policy of city burning cost Kahina the support of city-dwelling Berbers. In 702, Hassan again invaded the Berber lands and quickly defeated Kahina. after she lost the final battle, Kahina ordered her sons to go over to the enemy.” Her sons had to convert to Islam to seal their defection to the Arabs. Julien believes that for Kahina, the survival of her family and its supremacy over her tribe were ultimately more important than any questions of nationalism or religion. Accounts differ as to whether Kahina died in battle or was captured and executed. The advantage which the nomadic invaders like the Arabs had over settled city dwellers like the Persians and Romans did not hold for nomadic Berbers Over the ages, the conflict between nomadic and settled peoples, and between rural and urban peoples, has been the most important factor in history. This theory seemed to account for many events in the ancient history of the Middle East, as well as the fall of the Roman Empire to the Germanic Goth and Vandals and also for the swift Arab conquest of the Byzantines and Persians. It is still a good theoretical model for some modern conflicts. Many of the wars of modern world have been primarily conflicts between mobile nomadic terrorists and city people. A case in point are the wars of the Taliban in Afghanistan against the settled Govt. of Kabul in the late 1990s.

Obviously the tale of Kahina ’s destruction of the North African cities and her subsequent loss of the support of city-dwellers fits well into this worldview. This also explains the stubborn resistance that the Berbers put up against the Arabs, while pushing back the Arabs over and over again in the next few centuries. Even till today the conflict in Algeria is an expression of this hoary ArabBerber conflict. The Berbers who once occupied the entire stretch of land along the coast of Libya, Tunisia through Algeria up to Morocco, have today been pushed into the fastness of the Sahara desert, indicated here by the blue blob in Southern Algeria, North-eastern Mali and North-Western Niger. The Berbers still continue to cling on in small clusters along the fertile coast, which has been largely occupied by the Arab Muslim invaders. Today most of the Berbers have been converted to Islam. But some continue to practice their pre-Islamic nature worshipping religious practices in the remote fastness of the Sahara desert. There are several references to the nature of Berber resistance in the translation by Franz Rosenthal. Ibn-Khaldun notes that the Berbers were given to rebellion and heresy under the Muslims, just as they had been under the Christian Byzantines, before the Muslim conquest. The Berbers continued to rebel and apostatized time after time. The Muslims massacred many of them. Centuries after Islam had been established among the Berber tribes, they continued reverting to their animistic practices and continued revolting and seceding. To merge Islam with their native animism, they adopted dissident [Kharajite] opinions many times. Ibn Abi Zayd said that the Berbers in the Maghrib [North Africa] revolted twelve times and that Islam become firmly established among them only during the governorship of Musa ben Nusayr and thereafter. That is what is meant by the statement reported on the authority of ‘Umar, that “Ifriqiyah [Africa] divides the hearts of its

inhabitants.” The statement refers to the great number of tribes and groups there, which causes them to be disobedient and unmanageable. The Berber tribes in the West are innumerable. All of them are nomads and members of different tribal groups and families. Whenever one tribe is destroyed, another takes its place and is as refractory and rebellious as the former one had been. Therefore, it has taken the Arabs a long time to establish their dynasty in the land of Ifriqiyah. (Rosenthal translation, p. 333) Berber resistance to Islam The story of the Berber resistance to Islam begins after the Arab defeat of the Byzantines and conquest of Carthage. With the defeat of the Byzantines, they were expelled, but the Arabs were not yet the masters of the country. In the interior provinces the Berbers maintained a disorderly resistance to the religion and power of the Arabs. The colorful liberated existence of the Berber women reflects the pre-Islamic culture of the Berbers that has more in common with that of African womanhood, rather than the cloistered hijabenclosed one of the Arab Muslim women. In the face of repeated Berber counterattacks, the cruel gangsters of the Muslim marauder Hassan were inadequate to hold North Africa peacefully. During some Berber counterattacks, the Arab conquests of many years were lost in a single day; and the Arab chieftains, overwhelmed by the Berber torrent, repeatedly retired to the confines of Egypt, and appealed for succor from the caliph. The same rebellious Berber spirit was revived under the tyranny of Musa, the successor of Hassan; it was finally quelled by the repeated waves of bloodletting by Musa and his two sons; but the

number of the rebels may be presumed from that of three hundred thousand Berber captives; sixty thousand of whom, the caliph’s fifth, were sold for the profit of the public treasury. Thirty thousand of the Berber youth were forcibly conscripted in to the Muslim army to be used for the invasion of Spain. In their climate and government, their diet and habitation, the wandering Berbers resembled the Arabs of the desert. And gradually the Berbers, accepted Islam and with the religion they also accepted the Arabic as a second language, Arabic names, and also the history of Arabs. This way the blood of the Arab strangers and Berber natives was insensibly mingled; and the impression was created that from the Euphrates to the Atlantic the same nation was diffused over the sandy plains of Asia and Africa. Yet in spite of this dissolution of Berber identity in that of the Arabs, some of the Berber tribes still retain their original language, with the appellation and character of White Africans. (Gibbon, v. 2, p. 279-280) A Berber male. In spite of being Arabized the Berbers, have retained their original African ethnicity. The tradition of painting their faces is one such element. This is not prevalent among the Arabs. After the defeat of the Berbers, the ancient polytheistic religions of North Africa disappeared. Most Berbers became Muslims (with a persistent taste for heresy). Many Berbers became Arabicspeakers; while some retained their own languages to be spoken in the privacy of their homes. Berbers were prominent among the Muslim conquerors of Spain. Christianity almost disappeared in North Africa west of Egypt. The Jews were more stubborn and persisted in a few areas, especially in the Atlas Mountains. The Jewish presence in North Africa was revived by a tragedy in

the late 15th and early 16th Centuries. After the completion of the Christian Reconquest of Spain in 1492, the Inquisition gave the Muslims and Jews of Spain the alternatives of conversion to Catholicism or expulsion. Large numbers of Spanish Jews, as well as most Spanish Muslims, immigrated to Africa. A tombstone from Carthage with the symbol of the pre-Islamic Berber goddess Tanit. The goddess Tanit was brought to Africa by the Phoenicians, in about 800 BC. Tanit was a moon goddess, maybe the same as Ishtar or Astarte. She also seems to have absorbed an older Berber goddess. People thought of Tanit as being married to another Phoenician god, Baal. Tanit’s symbol appears on gravestones and temples all over North Africa, not just during the Carthaginian period but all through the Roman Empire too, until most people converted to Islam about 700 AD. Then Tanit faded away. Another dramatic foreign event ended the long Jewish presence in North Africa. The establishment of Israel in 1948 caused a rise in active anti-Semitism in North Africa. This, combined with the retreat of European colonialism and the independence of Libya, Tunisia, Morocco, and finally Algeria in the 1950s and 1960s, led to a mass emigration of Jews. For the first time in about 2000 years, North Africa had almost no Jews. Today even ruins associated with Jews can be a magnet for violence in North Africa. On April 11, 2002 a truck bomb loaded with fuel exploded outside an ancient, abandoned synagogue on the tourist island of Djerba off the coast of Tunisia. Besides the suicide bomber, twenty people were killed, most of them German tourists. German investigators said the attack was the work of alQaida. The Algerian civil war was in a way a Berber-Arab war

The Berbers are still a major presence in North Africa and are still often at odds with their rulers. An Associated Press article published June 1, 2002 (”Algerian prime minister’s party wins election majority”) reported that Berbers are about one-third of Algeria’s population and that about sixty people had been killed in riots between Berbers and police in the Kabyle region in 2001 and early 2002. Most North African Jews went to Israel, where they are a significant part of the population and the armed forces. Memories are long in the Middle East. Perhaps some Israelis from North Africa consider Israel’s victories a long-delayed revenge for the Arab conquest of the Berbers and the death of Kahina .

The answers below refer to Phoenician, Greek and Roman sources on the subject. From earliest Egyptian sources, officially dated at circa 2500 BC, Kh-afre, fourth king of the 4th dynasty reveals that an early Egyptian king had the name "Africa". That is because modern Egyptologists and others often mix the order of the hieroglyphs that the ancients wrote. Thus Kh-Afre is Afre-Kh or Africa. The ancient Jewish records are supposedly silent on "Africa" but that is because the Hebrew name for the continent, "Auphirah" is usually written "Ophir". In I Kings 9:28, we read that the sailors of Solomon of Israel and Hiram of Tyre went to "Ophir-Auphirah". Then in the next verse, I Kings 10:1, we read that the Queen who "ruled" or "administered" Ophirah-Africa, came to visit Solomon and

probably put in a courtesy call to Hiram of Tyre as well (circa 950 BC). Only one queen ruled Egypt, Nubia, Sudan and Ethiopia of those days and her name is Hat-Sheba-Sut or Hatshepsut. Her temple at Deir el-Bahari evokes the words of Song of Solomon "Oh my dove, you are in the clefts of the rock in the secret places of the stairs". She was the great African Queen after whom even river boats and Hollywood films are named. However, this analysis depends on accepting that Egyptian chronology is wrong by 600 years and that all the dynasties of ancient Egypt are misaligned with other countries' histories by error factors of 600 years on average. That's why there are so many mysteries over what really is quite a simple answer. To see how complex answers otherwise become, read those below. The complexity in what surely should be a simple question-answer is revealed by the excellent research shown below. But the real situation assuming the chronological problems-solutions noted above are in fact so - is surely much simpler and more obvious. Finally, the name Afre-Kh or Kh-Afre, noted above, probably simply means the "Kh of Ophir" or perhaps "Spirit of Africa".

Answer

The name Africa came into Western use through the Romans, who used the name Africa terra � "land of the Afri" (plural, or "Afer" singular) � for the northern part of the continent, as the province of Africa with its capital Carthage, corresponding to modern-day Tunisia. The origin of Afer may either come from:
• •

the Phoenician `afar, dust; the Afri, a tribe � possibly Berber � who dwelt in North Africa in the Carthage area; the Greek word aphrike, meaning without cold (see also List of traditional Greek place names); or the Latin word aprica, meaning sunny.

The historian Leo Africanus (1495-1554) attributed the origin to the Greek word phrike (?????, meaning 'cold and horror'), combined with the negating prefix a-, so meaning a land free of cold and horror. However, the change of sound from ph to f in Greek is datable to about the first century, so this cannot really be the origin of the name. Egypt was considered part of Asia by the ancients, and first assigned to Africa by the geographer Ptolemy (85 - 165 AD), who accepted Alexandria as Prime Meridian and made the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa. As Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of Africa expanded with their knowledge. -DJ Craig

(THE ABOVE ANSWER FROM DJ CRAIG IS INACCURATE. THAT IS WHY IT SO SO IMPORTANT TO REALLY STUDY HISTORY)

The Name Africa is of African Origins from the Egyptian Word "Afru-ika" or 'Motherland." Africanus.The name signifies that the person named himself After Africa. One thing is certain, Greek and Latin have Egyptian linguistic influences although both are IndoEuropean languages. The term "Indo" comes from "India," the word "India" came from the Arabs, who pointed out that Kush, a son of Ham had two sons, "Hind," and "Sind." Hind of Kush established a culture in India, Sind of Kush established a culture in the Arabian region. Nimrod established in parts of Mesopotamia. Wandering barbarians from north-Central Russia began to invade what was a Black Kuchitic India about 1700 B.C. (see Sudrology, http://dalitstan.org the Hindu Kush Mountains is not named so by mistake). These barbarians were Caucasoids however there were other elements in them as well. The movie, "Conan the Barbarian," gives a hint to the type of people who were included in the wandering nomads called the "Aryans." THE ORIGINS OF THE INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES

These Aryans spoke a northern European language that in its pure form would resemble Finnish, Islandic or those not influenced by Greek or Latin. After hundreds of years of trying to invade and conquer Black India, they were able to use the destruction of the dams to flood the region. After that happened, they began to infiltrate into the land using war and extermination to conquer much of the northern part of India, where they used the sacred scriptures to establish a caste system. While the Aryans were in India, they became absorbed into the Black population of Dravidians and Negritoes. Anyone who looks at the population of Northern India today will see a Persian/Mediterranean appearance among the people there, and a more Negroid African appearance among the people in the Southern parts, especially the South-East of India. In fact, scientists from India have already established that in every genetic aspect these Indians are identical to Blacks in Africa. These Africoids are among those responsible for the creation of India's Indus Valley Civilization. The Aryans who were not literate people learned from the Blacks of India. The Aryans leaned the Black Kushitic languages, the customs, (they established the taboo against eating beef to weaken the Black population, according to some present-day Black Untouchable writers). They learned the various arts and crafts from the aboriginal Blacks of India according to Drusilla Dunjee Houston (see "Harappa and Mohenjo-daro: The Black Civilizations of Ancient India," Susu Economics: A History of Pan-African Trade, Commerce, Money and Wealth, published by 1stbooks Library,

Bloomington, Indiana U.S.A www.1stbooks.com ). So, the languages of the Greeks, Latins, Germans and even English comes from the Indo-European language family. That language family has Black Kushitic African roots as well as a north-central European base. Hence the term "Africanus" is Lanin but the term "Afrikanu- Africanus" "Kepru - Cyprus" "Keftiu - Crete" all are African words and the "u" usually denotes a place name in some African languages. In the Latin, the "us" takes the alce of the "U' That is where the African and Kushitic influence is clear. Both Keftiu and Kepru are ancient Egyptian workds. The word 'Nagau" is the Egyptian term for East Africa or 'Punt." "Nomu' is Semite "Tamahu" is European Thus "Africanus" is Latin, but 'Afru-ika" is Egyptian and the name "Afru-ika" was in existence long before the name "Africanus," which probably means "from Africa," or "of Africa." During the 400's B.C. to 400's A.D., the Romans were in northern Africa and the Greeks were in Egypt from about 300's b.c. to about 200 a.d. So, the Indo-European languages have African Kushitic roots as well. The term 'Afru-ika" means "Motherland," according to one of Ivan Van Sertima's books. Afru-ika means "motherland" in the ancient Egyptian language

which was part of the "Afro-Asiatic" language family. Hebrew, Arabic, Geez (the litergical language of the Ethiopian Coptic Church), Aramaic are all Afro-Asiatic languages. The oldest and the mother of these languages still survives today in East Africa, it is called "Iraqwu" and is a Black African language. Some linguists point out that both Hebrew and Arabic are dialects of Ancient Egyptian. According to some Africans of the Galla People of Ethiopia, "Apraka" means "sunny," hence the term "Africa," may in fact have African roots. Now, as far as the Roman is concerned, his name "Africanus" or a name such as "Scicipio Africanus," probably means "Sicipio of Africa." That would mean the general was named for being from Africa. I would go with Dr. Van Sertima. The name Africa came from 'Afri-uka" which means "Motherland," in the ancient Egyptian language and that term "Motherland" is one still used in reference to Africa even today. Also, check out raceandhistory.com -MsD
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