A PROJECT REPORT ON STUDY OF COMMON PLANTS

PLANT KINGDOM

A PROJECT REPORT ON THE STUDY OF COMMON PLANTS

RIZVI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Rizvi complex, off. Carter road, Bandra, Mumbai-400050

A PROJECT REPORT ON THE STUDY
OF COMMON PLANTS

T.E.(ELECTRONICS)

PREPARED BY: DINESH AUTI

REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF REQUIREMENT OF TERM WORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

---------------Ms. Rupali Thorat EVS In charge

-------------------Prof. Nargis Shaikh Head of Department Electronics

----------------Dr. Varsha Shah Principal

PREFACE Nature has blessed us with almost an infinite variety of plant species, all with some or the other aesthetic value. Rarely does one get time these days to think and study about the plant life that surrounds us. It is now high time that we realise how intense it is to cut a tree and how devastating it can be, if trees cease to exist. Plants have been classified into three main categories: the TREES, the SHRUBS and the HERBS. Together these account for the plant kingdom. In the project report to follow, it has been attempted to describe certain important members of this vast family, which would certainly be an encouragement for the readers to continue with their endeavour.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Before I begin enlightening our readers, you that is, I express a sincere vote of thanks to our E.V.S teacher, whose insight into the matter helped me a lot while I was working on this project. It was her timely help and wise suggestions, without which this document would not have been possible. Her teachings and overall knowledge about the environment and related issues are the foundation pillars for this project.

PLANT KINGDOM
Trees in India known for their grandeur and majesty are like the green pearl in the Indian crown. Trees occupy the important place in the history of India. Trees have always been associated with wisdom and immorality in India. Hindu literature describes a celestial tree as having its roots in the heaven and its branches in the underworld that unites and connects beings of every kind. Banyan is the National Tree of India. India's medicinal are no less diverse. Peepal, banyan (Bodhi tree), banana, and Tulsi are some of the plants that holds special cultural and religious significance in India. Indian Rosewood, Kikar, Aleo Vera, Ashwagandha, Cork, Brahmi, Sal, Khair and Garden Asparagus are some of the popular trees grown in India. Since ancient age, India is known for its efficient ayurvedic treatments, and the abundance of the plant life that it boasts of. India is known to be the land of various medicinal herbs, and the juices secreted from the certain herbs obtained in forests are known to cure even dreaded diseases like cancer and even AIDS.

Banyan Tree

Classification Kingdom : Division Class: Order : Family : Genus : Zoological name : Found In :

Plantae Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Urticales Moraceae Ficus Ficus Benghalensis Ranthambore National Park and Corbett National Park

Other Species : F. aurea, F. benghalensis, F. citrifolia, F. macrophylla, F. microcarpa, F.pertusa, F. rubiginosa are the other related species of the Banyan tree. Location : Found in almost all the parts of India, Banyan tree is the National tree of India. It is grown throughout the sub- Himalayan region and in the deciduous forests. One can Banyan Tree in the Botanical Garden of Calcutta. They are widely grown in the Ranthambore National Park and Corbett National Park in India. Cultivation methods :Banyan tree is easily propagated by root tip cuttings or the eye cuttings. Cut apiece of the stem about half a inch below and above the leaf. Insert the stem piece and a little of the leaf stalk into the rooting medium. To reduce evaporation from the leaf surface, you can roll the leaf and secure with a rubber band. In a couple weeks roots and a new shoot will start developing. It can grow in any type of soil.

Medicinal uses : The Banyan tree also has several medicinal properties. Its leaf, bark, seeds and fig are used for the variety of disorders like diarrhea, polyuria, dental, diabetes and urine disorders. The wood of the Banyan tree is used in making door panels, boxes and the other items. Its bark is used for making paper and ropes. The milky latex that comes from its leaves and stems is used in many Ayurvedic medicines. Cultural importance : Banyan tree is respected and is considered as sacred by the people in India. In the sacred Hindu Book 'Bhagwad Gita' Lord Krishna has sung praises on the Banyan tree. People in India grow Banyan tree closer to the Peepal tree. As Banyan tree is considered as the male plant closely related to the Peepal tree. It symbolize Trimurti with Vishnu as the barl, Shiva as the branches and Brahma as the roots.

Garden Asparagus

Classification Kingdom : Division Class: Order : Family : Genus : Zoological name : Found In :

Plantae Magnoliophyta Liliopsida Asparagales Asparagaceae Asparagus Asparagus officinalis Kouchibouguas National Park, Narnala Wildlife Sanctuary and Sariska Tiger Reserve

Other names : Shatwar, sootmooli, halyan, Satavari, Asparagus root, Wild Aspargus are the other names used for the Garden Asparagus. Satavari means who posses hundred husbands. Description : Garden Asparagus grows to a height of 3 feet. It is an herbaceous perennial and is well known for its edible young shoots. It has fleshy roots and fern-like feathery foliage. Its roots grows 3 feet down in the soil. Young shoots are green succulent and tender. It has smooth and green stems which are 4-6 feet tall. It has green slender branches which appear more like the leaves than the branches. It produces male and female flowers on the separate plants. Flowers are greenish, bell shaped, which grows in the group of 1 to 3. Round bright red berries are produced on the female plants and each berries contains several black seeds.

Other Species : Asparagus aethiopicus, Asparagus africanus, Asparagus declinatus, Asparagus falcatus, Asparagus flagellaris, Asparagus scandens, Asparagus umbellatus, Asparagus plumosus, Asparagus macowanni, Asparagus asparagoides. Garden Asparagus is known to have more than 250 species all over the world. Location : Garden Asparagus found throughout India especially in the Northern India. It is widely grown in the jungles at an altitude of 8,000 feet. It is mainly grown in the gardens. It can also be found in the Kouchibouguas National Park, Narnala Wildlife Sanctuary and Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary in India. Cultivation methods :It is mostly propagated through seed, which are allowed to grow for a year. It is mostly planted in the spring season. The plant prefers acid, neutral, and alkaline soil. It grows in semi shade or no shade. Medicinal uses : The roots of the plants are prescribed for the diarrhea and dysentery. They are useful in the nervous disorders. dyspepsia, and tumors, scalding of urine, throat infections, tuberculosis, cough, bronchitis and general debility. It is used in the treatment of the rheumatism and edema due to heart failure. The fresh juice taken in small dose acts medicinally as the diuretic and laxative. It an excellent form of folic acid, which is used in blood cell formation and prevention of liver diseases. It is also a good source of potassium, which helps in muscle recovery and prevents cramping. It is rich in Vitamin C, Thiamin, B6 and fiber. It contains rutin, which strengthens capillary walls, and GSH, which is the cancer fighter.

Tulsi Plant

Classification Kingdom : Division Class: Order : Family : Genus : Species : Scientific Name : Found In :

Plantae Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Lamiales Lamiaceae Ocimum O. tenuiflorum Ocimum Sanctum Gir National Park and Sasangir National Park

Other names : It is known as Holy Basil in English and Tulasi in Sanskrit. Other names used for the Tulsi are Manjari, Krishna Tulsi, Trittavu, Tulshi and Thulsi. Description : Tulsi is a heavy branched having hair all over. It attains the height of about 75 – 90 cm. It has round oval shaped leaves which are up to 5 cm long. The leaves are 2- 4 cm in length. Its seeds are flat. Its flowers are purple – creamish in colour. The Tulsi with the green leaves is called the Shri Tulsi and one with the reddish leaves is called the Krishna Tulsi. Its seeds are yellow to reddish in colour. Cultivation methods : Tulsi seeds germinate easily. The seeds are mainly sown in the spring season. They are watered from time to time and germinated in one to two weeks. Tulsi prefers rich soil for its growth. It requires full sunlight. It is mainly grown in the temperate climate.

Medicinal uses : Tulsi has got the great medicinal value. Tulsi is taken as the herbal tea. The oil extracted from the Karpoora Tulsi is mostly used in the herbal toiletry. Its oil is also used against the insects and bacteria. The Rama Tulsi is the effective remedy for the Severe acute Respiratory Syndrome. Juice of its leaves gives relief in cold, fever, bronchitis and cough. Tulsi oil is also used as the ear drop. Tulsi helps in curing malaria. It si very effective against indigestion, headache, hysteria, insomnia and cholera. The fresh leaves of Tulsi are taken by the million of people everyday. Other uses : Many people wears the Tulsi beads, which is said to have certain physical and medicinal properties. Its wood is considered as more powerful than any other gem that helps in protecting one from the negative influences. One can also buy several handicraft jewellery items made of Tulsi wood.

Rose Plant

Classification Kingdom : Division Class: Order : Family : Subfamily : Genus : Found In :

Plantae Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Rosales Rosaceae Rosoideae Rosa l Valley of Flowers and Mahim National Park

Other names : Dublin Bay, Impatient, Quing, Gul, Gulbahar, Hravart, Roosevelt, Vartan, Arrosa, Aygul, Oklahoma Hulthemosa, Hesperrhodos, Platyrhodon, Banksianae, Carolinae, Pimpinellifoliae , Rosa, Laevigatae, Gymnocarpae are some of the other names of the Rose plant.. Description : There are several varieties of the Indian Roses which includes white rose, pink rose, maroon rose, red rose, yellow rose and orange rose. It has thorn on its stems. The cane has leaves and budeyes. A leaf consists of stipule, petiole, and leaflets. The leaves are -15 cm long. The leaflets usually have the segrrated margins and few small prickles on the underside of the stem. Most of the roses are deciduous. The flower has five petals. Other Species : Rosa acicularis, Rosa x alba, Rosa pendulina, Rosa anemoniflora, Rosa arkansana, Rosa arvensis, Rosa nutkana, Rosa gigantea,

Rosa omeiensis, Rosa oxyacantha, Rosa palutris, Rosa nutkana, Rosa gigantea, Rosa sharardii, Rosa oxyacantha, Rosa palustris Re some of the related species of Rose. There are more than 120 species of Roses pant. Location : Roses are found inn almost all the parts of India. They are widely grown in the Valley of Flowers and Mahim Nature Park Cultivation methods : Rose plants are propagated by the seeds, cuttings, layers and by budding. Roses require loamy, well drained soil. Budding is considered as the best method for propagating rose plants. They are planted in the circular pits about 60- 90 cm across and 60 -75 cm deep. Remove all the broken and bruised leaves while planting the plant. Roses require atleast six hours of direct sunlight for the growth. The best time to plant the Rose plants rests between September to October. The rose plant needs cutting from time to time. It requires manures and fertilizers at the time of planting. Medicinal uses : Gulkand made by the mixture of Rose petals and white sugar in equal proportion acts as the tonic and laxative. Hips, the fruit of roses are the good source of Vitamin C. Rose petals are used to make skin healthy and glowing. It cures dry and patchy skin. The rose scent has been used in pill making for centuries. Its herbal tea is used in the treatment of cold and cough. Other uses : Dried Rose petals called Pankhuri are used during the hot weather for preparing cool drinks. Roses are also used in the preparation of rose water and rose vinegar. Rose hips are sometime eaten. They are used for making herbal tea, jam and jellies. Rose plantss are generally used for beautifying the gardens and walkways. Rose petals are used in cooking, which increases its flavour and make it even more delicious. Relaxing therapies with rose smells are used in candles, lotion, bath oils and perfumes.

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