MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1) A friend has discovered a new plant and brings it to you to classify. The plant has the following characteristics: a fibrous root system; no petioles; parallel leaf veins; thick, lignified cell walls; and a vascular cambium. Which of the following best describes the new plant? A) woody monocot B) herbaceous monocot C) herbaceous dicot D) woody annual E) woody dicot 2) by A) B) C) D) E) Most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil by a plant are absorbed sections of the root that have secondary xylem. storage roots. taproots. the thick parts of the roots near the base of the stem. root hairs.

3) An evolutionary adaptation that increases exposure of a plant to light in a dense forest is A) absence of petioles. B) lateral buds. C) apical dominance. D) intercalary meristems. E) closing of the stomates. 4) A person working with plants may remove apical dominance by doing which of the following? A) pruning B) feeding the plants nutrients C) deep watering of the roots D) fertilizing E) transplanting The following question is based on parts of a growing primary root. I. root cap II. zone of elongation III. zone of cell division IV. zone of cell maturation V. apical meristem 5) Which of the following is the correct sequence from the growing tips of the root upward? A) I, II, V, III, IV B) IV, II, III, I, V C) III, V, I, II, IV D) I, V, III, II, IV E) II, IV, I, V, III 6) A) B) C) D) What effect does "pinching back" a houseplant have on the plant? inhibits the growth of lateral buds increases apical dominance increases the flow of auxin down the shoot produces a plant that will grow taller

E) produces a plant that will grow fuller 7) A) B) C) D) E) 8) A) B) C) D) E) 9) A) B) C) D) E) Land plants are composed of all the following tissue types except vascular. Which functional plant cells lack a nucleus? xylem only sieve-tube cell only companion cells only both companion and parenchyma cells both xylem and sieve-tube cells SHORT ANSWER. tracheids. ground tissue. thin. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 15) What is the largest organelle in most mature living plant cells? A) central vacuole B) dictyosome (Golgi apparatus) C) nucleus . they transport sucrose and other organic nutrients 12) the least specialized plant cells. more than once. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. meristematic. tracheids E. collenchyma C. and storage functions 13) cells with unevenly thickened primary walls that support young parts of the plant 14) mature cells without protoplasts but with thick. sieve cells. sclerenchyma D. or not at all. parenchyma B. Plant vascular tissue includes all of the following cell types except vessel elements. cambium cells. A. lignified secondary walls that may form fibers MULTIPLE CHOICE. synthetic. The questions below use the following answers. companion cells. epidermal. tapered cells with lignified cell walls that function in support and permit water flow through pits 11) living cells that lack nuclei and ribosomes. Each answer may be used once. which serve general metabolic. sieve-tube cells 10) long. mesoderm.

20) What is one result of an organism having meristems? A) a rapid change from juvenile to adult state B) a rapid change from a vegetative state to a reproductive state C) a seasonal change in leaf morphology D) production of a fixed number of segments during growth E) indeterminate. B) protoderm only. C) sclerenchyma. B. loosely packed. .D) mitochondrion E) chloroplast 16) Which of the following is not a characteristic of parenchyma cells? A) lack of specialization B) little metabolism and synthesis C) lack of secondary walls D) thin primary walls E) flexible primary walls 17) Which of the following tissues is incorrectly matched with its characteristics? A) parenchymahorizontalthin-walled. D) procambium only. E) A. D) xylem cell. and C are primary meristems. E) perennial. unspecialized cells B) sclerenchymahorizontalheavily lignified secondary walls C) epidermishorizontalprotective outer covering of plant body D) collenchymahorizontaluniformly thick-walled supportive tissue E) meristematic tissuehorizontalundifferentiated tissue capable of cell division 18) The fiber cells of plants are a type of A) parenchyma. B) weedy. D) indeterminate. 22) All of the following are primary meristems of a plant except A) epidermis only. B) collenchyma. 19) The best word to describe the growth of plants in general is A) derivative. C) ground meristem only. life-long growth 21) Which of the following are primary meristems? A) procambium B) ground meristem C) protoderm D) Only A and C are primary meristems. E) meristematic cell. C) primary.

E) phloem.1 27) Endodermis is present in A) I only. B) periderm. 28) A woody dicot is represented by A) I only.E) both procambium and protoderm. E) both I and III. B) II only. E) both I and III. D) stele. 29) A monocot stem is represented by A) I only. C) III only. . C) endodermis. C) III only. B) II only.<GRAPHIC>Figure 35. D) IV only. D) IV only. 25) A) B) C) D) E) Which of the following is incorrectly paired with its structure and function? sclerenchymahorizontalsupporting cells with thick secondary walls mesophyllhorizontalparenchyma cells functioning in photosynthesis in leaves pericyclehorizontalwaterproof ring of cells surrounding central stele in roots ground meristemhorizontalprimary meristem that produces ground tissue system peridermhorizontalprotective coat of woody stems and roots 26) All of the following are derived from ground meristem except A) sclereids. 23) From which tissue does primary phloem in the root develop? A) protoderm B) procambium C) vascular cambium D) ground tissue E) endoderm 24) The vascular bundle in the shape of a single central cylinder in a root is called the A) pith. E) cortex. B) II only. The following questions are based on the drawing of root or stem cross sections shown in Figure 35.1. C) sclerenchyma. B) parenchyma. D) collenchyma.

E) the cells of roots have cell walls that are lacking in leaf cells. while dicots have __________. A) fibrous roots. B) cork cambium only. 30) A plant that is at least three years old is represented by A) I only. B) II only. two cotyledons D) vascular bundles in a ring. net veins C) one cotyledon. D) vascular tissue is found in roots but is absent from leaves. 34) You are studying a plant from the arid southwestern United States. E) both I and III. 31) In a root. vascular bundles scattered throughout the stem 36) The photosynthetic cells in the interior of a leaf are what kind of cells? . E) both I and III. C) epidermis only.C) III only. Which of the following adaptations is least likely to have evolved in response to water shortages? A) development of large leaf surfaces to absorb water B) a thick waxy cuticle on the epidermis C) mycorrhizae associated with the root system D) closing the stomata during the hottest time of the day E) formation of a fibrous root system spread over a large area 35) Which of the following is not a fundamental difference between monocot and dicot morphology and anatomy? Monocots have __________. C) a waxy cuticle covers leaves but is absent in roots. C) III only. 32) Which of the following root tissues gives rise to secondary roots? A) cortex B) phloem C) epidermis D) pericycle E) endodermis 33) One important difference between the anatomy of roots and the anatomy of leaves is that A) only leaves have phloem and only roots have xylem. E) cortex only. B) leaves have epidermal tissue but roots do not. D) IV only. the ground meristem differentiates and forms the A) procambium only. D) IV only. taproots B) parallel veins. D) epidermis and procambium.

E) Only primary growth is localized at meristems.5 D) 28.0 B) 0.5 C) 1. B) stomata. The nail is about 1. .5 meters from the ground.A) B) C) D) E) collenchyma parenchyma endodermis sclerenchyma phloem 37) A student examining leaf cross sections under a microscope finds many loosely packed cells with relatively thin cell walls.0 42) Which of the following is true about secondary growth in plants? A) Flowers may have secondary growth. What cells are these? A) collenchyma B) xylem C) endodermis D) parenchyma E) sclerenchyma 38) Pores on the leaf surface that function in gas exchange are called A) sclereids.5 E) 3. C) Plants with secondary growth are typically the smallest ones in an ecosystem. E) guard cellhorizontalregulation of transpiration. D) vessel elementhorizontalwater transport. E) Secondary growth is produced by both the vascular cambium and the cork cambium. D) Some plants lack secondary growth. The nail is now __________ meters above the ground. D) Secondary growth is a common feature of eudicot leaves. A) 15. you return and discover the tree has grown to a height of 30 meters. B) Primary growth and secondary growth alternate in the life cycle of a plant. B) Only stems have secondary growth. C) Only secondary growth produces reproductive structures. C) mesophyllhorizontalphotosynthesis. E) xylem cells. 40) All of the following cell types are correctly matched with their functions except A) sieve-tube cellhorizontaltranslocation. C) phloem cells. The cells have numerous chloroplasts. you drive a nail in the trunk of a young tree that is 3 meters tall. B) companion cellhorizontalformation of secondary xylem and phloem. Fifteen years later. 41) As a youngster. D) hairs. 39) Which of the following is a true statement about growth in plants? A) Monocots have only primary growth and dicots have only secondary growth.

47) Which of the following are components of bark? A) cork cambium B) secondary phloem C) cork D) A and B only are components of bark. oldest phloem. C) It is composed of phloem plus periderm. 45) If you were able to walk into an opening cut into the center of a large redwood tree. rings of xylem and 1 of phloem. in order. oldest xylem. phloem. E) the summer wood. The tissue(s) that George left functional was (were) the A) cork cambium. rings of xylem and 1 of phloem. and vascular cambium. and bark. 48) George Washington completely removed the bark from around the base of a cherry tree but was stopped by his father before cutting the tree down. C) the annual rings. D) It has no identifiable function in trees. B) companion and sieve cells. C) cortex. E) It is associated with annuals but not perennials. but that the tree eventually died. and phloem. 46) Which of the following is true of bark? A) It is formed by the apical meristems. D) the newest xylem. B) the secondary xylem. and periderm. A) the vascular cambium. B) It forms annual rings in deciduous trees. bark. E) phloem. E) A. you would cross. when you exit from the middle of the trunk (stem) outward. 49) Additional vascular tissue produced as secondary growth in a root originates from which cells? A) xylem B) apical meristem . and C are components of bark. It was noticed that the leaves retained their normal appearance for several weeks.43) What tissue makes up most of the wood of a tree? A) vascular cambium B) secondary xylem C) mesophyll cells D) primary xylem E) secondary phloem 44) A) 2 B) 2 C) 3 D) 3 E) 2 The vascular system of a three-year-old dicot stem consists of rings of xylem and 2 of phloem. secondary phloem. rings of xylem and 3 of phloem. rings of xylem and 3 of phloem. and newest xylem. D) xylem. B.

C) enzymatically digest their primary cell walls.3 above occurred as a sector during clonal analysis of several corn plants. C) The RNA probe is transported only to certain tissues. a botanist finds that an RNA probe produces colored spots in the sepals of the plant. Roots will form at which position(s)?<GRAPHIC>Figure 35. B. C) a leaf. B) a leaf. <GRAPHIC>Figure 35. From this information. D) formation of stomata in the epidermal layer of the shoot apical meristem. B. . D) establish a new polarity in their cytoplasm. The earliest physical evidence of the site of a newly forming leaf primordium would be A) elongation of epidermal cells perpendicular to the surface of the shoot apical meristem.C) endodermis D) phloem E) vascular cambium 50) A leaf primordium is initiatied as a small mound of tissue on the flank of a dome-shaped shoot apical meristem. 51) A short branch was cut into three segments as shown in Figure 35.2 to root some cuttings. the internode below. D) a leaf and its associated node. parenchyma cells from the source tissue must A) differentiate into procambium. and C D) A. Based on this data.3Sectors of corn plants 54) Each of the patterns indicated in Figure 35. its associated node. and E E) A. and the internode below. C) cell division in the shoot apical meristem with the newly forming walls perpendicular to the surface of the meristem. E) increase the number of chromosomes in their nuclei. E) The differently colored plants will attract different pollinating insects. and E 52) While studying the plant Arabidopsis. which information can be inferred? A) The RNA probe is specific to a gene active in sepals. B) pre-prophase bands parallel to the surface of the meristem in subsurface cells of the shoot apical meristem. its associated node. B) More research needs to be done on the sepals of Arabidopsis. D) The colored regions were caused by mutations that took place in the sepals. C. B) undergo dedifferentiation. E) development of chloroplasts in a surface cell of the shoot apical meristem. and the bud below the leaf. C. D.2 A) A only B) A and B C) A. and the internode below the leaf. 53) Before differentiation can begin during the processes of plant cell and tissue culture. a growth module in corn must consist of A) a leaf only. E) a leaf and its associated node and axillary bud.

all of the branches will be mature. D) Stamens formed subsequent to the insect attack will be sterile. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: A E C A D E B E E D E . A plant propagator wants to produce more plants of the juvenile form." or "C" floral organ identifying genes will "turn on" as floral development proceeds.55) Silver-dollar eucalyptus has rounded juvenile leaves but lance-shaped mature leaves. C) None of the "A. but has only a single older plant." "B. As soon as a plant becomes mature. Where should the cuttings come from? A) the youngest. E) Only the "A" floral organ identifying gene will be affected. most recently formed lateral branches because they are the most immature branches B) only the terminal stem containing the main shoot apical meristem because this is the most recently formed tissue of the shoot C) older. 56) A feeding insect destroys only the very central portion of a developing flower bud. Which of the following statements is most likely to be true? A) Carpels will not form in the developing flower. B) Petals formed subsequent to the insect attack will be disfigured. more basal branches because they were formed during the juvenile growth phase D) either A or B E) none of the above.

12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: A B C A B D C D E E A B D C E A D B D .

31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: E D C A D B D B D B C E B D C C E D E .

50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: Answer: B D A B C C A .

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