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Simple example of possible vegan lunch or dinner option: pumpkin seedcrusted lentil patties with roasted garlic mashed potatoes and salad. Veganism is a philosophy and lifestyle whose adherents seek to exclude the use of animals for food, clothing, or any other purpose. Vegans endeavor not to use or consume animal products of any kind. The most common reasons for becoming a vegan are human health, ethical commitment or moral conviction concerning animal rights or welfare, the environment, and spiritual or religious concerns. Of particular concern to many vegans are the practices involved in factory farming and animal testing, and the intensive use of land and other resources for animal farming. Properly planned vegan diets are healthful and have been found to satisfy nutritional needs, and offer protection against heart disease, cancer, and other diseases. Various polls have reported vegans to be between 0.2% and 1.3% of the U.S. population, and ranging from 0.25% 0.4% to 2% of the UK population. Contents [hide]
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History Definition Animal products Demographics Ethics o 5.1 Philosophical foundations o 5.2 Advocacy organizations o 5.3 Criticisms o 5.4 Debate over animals killed in crop harvesting 6 Health o 6.1 Dietetic association positions o 6.2 Nutritional benefits 6.2.1 Mental health benefits o 6.3 Nutritional concerns 6.3.1 Specific nutrients 18.104.22.168 Vitamin B12 22.214.171.124 Iron 126.96.36.199 Calcium, vitamin D
and founder of the Vegan Society. Catherine Nimmo and Rubin Abramowitz and was subsequently incorporated into the American Vegan Society after its founding in 1960 by Jay Dinshah. there are many vegan societies worldwide.1. Some people pronounce "vegan" as /ˈvɛdʒən/.5 Choline 6.3. who combined the first three and last two letters of vegetarian to form "vegan." "Vegan" is pronounced /ˈviːɡən/.• • • • • • • 6.1. creator of the term vegan. was founded by former Vegan Society secretary Kathleen Jannaway to promote sustainable living and self-sufficiency in addition to veganism. India. the advocacy organization which would become Vegan Outreach was founded by Matt Ball and Jack Norris. New Zealand. the annual World Vegan Day was established on November 1 by the then President and Chair of the Vegan Society.3. founder of the Vegan Society." which he saw as "the beginning and end of vegetarian. but Watson and the North American Vegetarian Society consider the latter pronunciation to be incorrect. including national societies in Australia. In 1994.2 Pregnancies and children 6.4 Iodine 6. the Movement for Compassionate Living.[nb 1] In 1993. and South Africa.  Definition Donald Watson. a "breakaway" group from the Vegan Society. In 1984.3. Louise Wallis. . Today. The first vegan society in the United States was founded in California in 1948 by Dr. The word "vegan" was coined in 1944 by Donald Watson.3 Eating disorders 7 Resources and the environment 8 Similar diets and lifestyles 9 Cuisine 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links  History The Vegan Society was founded in 1944 by Donald Watson and Elsie Shrigley in order to organize vegetarians who did not consume dairy or other animal products.3.
casein.” The Vegan Society has also used other definitions. the Vegan Society will not certify a product as vegan unless its production does not involve. without any connection to ethical or social motivations. On the other hand. Although the organization Vegan Outreach has the opinion that "it can be prohibitively expensive and time-consuming to shun every minor or hidden animal-derived ingredient". by-product or derivative. beeswax. leather. eggs. United States . animals and the environment.  Animal products Main article: Animal product An animal product is any material derived from animals. In addition. carmine. wool. the Vegan Society formally defined veganism as "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals. Different groups disagree about some of the items to be excluded. Activists commonly argue for different interpretations of the terms. may also have non-animal sources. and by extension. promotes the development and use of animalfree alternatives for the benefit of humans. clothing or any other purpose. fur. and may not even be identified. Other vegan societies use similar definitions. and silk. and cruelty to. dairy products. Many of these ingredients are obscure. veganism is not itself a set of actions or practices but instead “a principle. poultry. isinglass. and an agreedupon definition is hard to come by. In dietary terms it denotes the practice of dispensing with all products derived wholly or partly from animals. animals for food. which put more emphasis on veganism as a practice or lifestyle: [T]he word "veganism" denotes a philosophy and way of living which seeks to exclude — as far as is possible and practical — all forms of exploitation of. Neither the Vegan Society nor the American Vegan Society consider the use of honey or other insect products to be suitable for vegans. from which certain practices logically flow. or have involved."  Demographics Data regarding the number of vegans is available in some countries. whey. Common animal products also include gelatin. and shellac. Animal products such as ground bone and powdered fish organs may be used in the production of a product although they may not appear as an ingredient in the final product.In 1951. Notable animal products include meat. the words “vegan” and “veganism” are often used to refer to a plant-based diet alone. both Vegan Action and Vegan Outreach question the ethical basis of such a position[nb 2] and regard the consumption of honey as a matter of "personal choice. seafood. rennet. lanolin. the use of any animal product.” According to this understanding. honey.
5% of Americans identify as vegan. including 0. the UK Food Standards Agency carried out a National Diet and Nutrition Survey. is seeking vegan options on campus. The Times estimated there were 250. Though 29% of that 5% said they avoided "all animal products".S.United States Representative Dennis Kucinich and his wife Elizabeth.7% of the population. fish.4% of the UK population is vegan.[nb 3] In 2008. and 5% of vegetarians identify as vegans. 1. Food and Rural Affairs of UK attitudes and behaviour towards the environment found that 2. which suggests around 0. The DEFRA study indicated that slightly more men than women are vegan. only 5% reported avoiding dairy products. In 2006.4% of respondents reported never eating meat. poultry. that more vegans live in towns or cities than the country. In 2009. 1. According to an Aramark survey.4% of men and 1. or eggs and were thus essentially vegan in their eating habits. approximately 0.25% of the UK population follow a vegan diet. Harris Interactive also conducted surveys for the Vegetarian Resource Group in both 2006 and 2009. A 2002 Time/CNN poll found that 4% of American adults identify as vegetarians.3% of respondents reported never eating these products. seafood. Harris Interactive conducted a survey for Vegetarian Times. The Kuciniches like other notable persons.[nb 4] In 2005. Based on these figures.2% of American adults are vegans. which implies that 0.[nb 5] A 2007 survey for the Department for Environment. In the same study. United Kingdom In 2002. The survey listed specific foods and asked respondents to indicate which items they never eat. rather than asking respondents to self-identify as vegetarian or vegan. which indicated that approximately 0.24% of the population identified as vegan. and that people aged 16– 29 were vegan more often than any other age group. The 2006 survey found that about 1. are known in part for their veganism and support of animal welfare. one of every four college students in the U.000 vegans in Britain.8% of respondents who also avoided honey. vegetarians who did not eat chicken or fish made up 2. dairy products. The Netherlands .3% of women have vegan diets. which reported that 5% of respondents self-identified as vegetarian or vegan.
and Factory farming The central ethical question related to veganism is whether it is right for humans to use and kill animals. This question is essentially the same as the fundamental question of animal rights.000 Swedish students between the ages of 16 and 20 found 0. Ethics of eating meat. so it has been animal rights ethicists who have articulated the philosophical foundations for veganism. A 1996 study of over 67.  Ethics See also: Animal rights. promoted by Peter Singer.1% of female and 0. but found no male participants to be vegan. Vegan advocacy organizations generally adhere to some form of an animal rights viewpoint and oppose practices which violate these rights.1% of the Dutch population. but found no children to be vegans. Sweden Various polls and research conducted during the 1990s put the overall percentage of Swedish residents being vegan at between 0.05% of male participants to be vegan. The philosophical discussion also therefore reflects the division of viewpoints within animal rights theory between a rights-based approach. 8 and 11 by the Swedish National Food Administration found that about 1% of the children were vegetarian. Still others understand veganism as a principle of non-exploitation and rejection of speciesism.The Netherlands Association for Veganism estimates there to be approximately 16. taken by both Tom Regan and Gary Francione. and their theory is often adapted from anti-oppression movements such as feminism and antiracism.000 vegans in the Netherlands. and a utilitarian one.1% to be vegan.538 Swedish children of ages 4. Norway A 1996 study of 952 15-year old students in Bergen found 0.2% of females to be vegan.  A study of the eating patterns of 2. or around 0. Germany The German Federal Study on Food-Consumption reported 0.27% and 1.6%.3% of the students were vegan. less than 1% were lacto-vegetarians.  Philosophical foundations . and found a particularly high concentration of vegans in Umeå where 3.
Some ethicists consider the slaughter of animals to be an infringement upon the animals' rights. or that "farm animals are legal property. Francione argues that "all sentient beings should have at least one right—the right not to be treated as property" and that there is "no moral justification for using nonhumans for our purposes. professor of bioethics at Princeton." and that the principal moral right they possess is "the right to respectful treatment. Singer argues that an animal's interests warrant equal consideration with the interests of humans. Based upon his evaluation of these interests." Regan additionally argues that animals have a "basic moral right not to be harmed. argues that there is "no moral justification" for refusing to take sentient animal suffering into consideration in ethical decisions. argues that animals are sentient. and that this is sufficient to grant them moral consideration. Singer argues that "our use of animals for food becomes questionable—especially when animal flesh is a luxury rather than a ." Francione further argues that adopting veganism should be regarded as the "baseline" action taken by people concerned with animal rights." Regan argues against various justifications for eating meat including that "animal flesh is tasty. Francione. and that not doing so is "speciesist"." that it is "habit" for "individuals and as a culture"." that "meat is nutritious. professor of Law at Rutgers School of Law-Newark. is unjust" even when animals are raised "humanely." From this "rights view." Gary L." Regan argues that "animal agriculture.A cow restrained for slaughter. Tom Regan. professor emeritus of philosophy at North Carolina State University." and finds that all fail to treat animals with the respect due to them by their basic rights. as we know it. that it is "convenient. Regan therefore argues that "those who support current animal agriculture by purchasing meat have a moral obligation to stop doing so" and that "the individual has a duty to lead a vegetarian way of life. Peter Singer." that there is an obligation to the economic interests of farmers or to the economic interests of a country." which can be overridden only when the individual's right not to be harmed is "morally outweighed" by "other valid moral principles. argues that animals are entities which possess "inherent value" and therefore have "basic moral rights.
writing for the Nutrition & Health Forum newsletter." Singer does not contend that killing animals is always wrong. experiment on. maintains that "animals have the right not to be farmed. consumption and commodification of farm animals. a professor of animal science at Oregon State University. or vipers to run loose on one's premises. wear. saying that: "[S]ince I had come to know that the cow and the buffalo were subjected to the process of phooka.  Debate over animals killed in crop harvesting Steven Davis. Vegans and vegetarians also typically do not deny the moral right of self-defence. attacks "ideologic vegetarians. but that from a practical standpoint it is "better to reject altogether the killing of animals for food." However.necessity. "[m]any vegans." Advocacy organizations regard practices such as factory farming. however. for example." A similar view is expressed by Gary Varner." saying that these beliefs "can lead to absurdities such as allowing mosquitoes to spread malaria. and believes that the words 'humane' and 'slaughter' are inconsistent and that slaughter is inherently violent. The Vegan Society. has presented an argument against veganism. and zoos as cruel to animals. are not opposed to using insect products. or use for entertainment. and displaying animals for entertainment in circuses. for example."  Advocacy organizations Vegan advocacy organizations generally regard animals to have some form of rights. because they do not believe insects are conscious of pain. a philosophy professor at Texas A&M University. I had conceived a strong disgust for milk." Farm Sanctuary opposes the slaughter. the ideas that all life is sacred or that all forms of life have equal value are not universal among vegans. "The case for thinking that all vertebrates can feel pain is thus very strong." PETA states that "animals are not ours to eat.  Criticisms William Jarvis." Varner and vegans who share his view do not feel obliged to respect the rights of mosquitoes. Gandhi abjured cow milk. Vegan Action asserts that "animals are not ours to use. and therefore consider it unethical to use animals in ways that infringe those rights." and Mercy for Animals writes that "non-human animals are irreplaceable individuals with morally significant interests and hence rights. unless one must do so to survive. while the case for thinking that invertebrates can feel pain is extremely weak by comparison (with the possible exception of cephalopods like octopus and squid)." whom he claims believe that "all life is sacred" and that "all forms of life have equal value. As the advocacy organization Vegan Action notes. rodeos. many of whom do not grant moral standing to insects. as they do not believe mosquitoes can suffer." Singer therefore advocates both veganism and improved conditions for farm animals as practical means to reduce animal suffering. animal testing. one that has been .
a moral concept endorsed by Tom Regan. and dairy products). and likely allows a greater number of animals with lives worth living to exist. and that vegetarianism "involves better treatment of animals. rather than Regan. Based on a study finding that wood mouse populations dropped from 25 per hectare to 5 per hectare after harvest (attributed to migration and mortality) Davis estimates that 10 animals per hectare are killed from crop farming every year. In this way."   Health See also: Vegetarian nutrition  Dietetic association positions The American Dietetic Association annually publishes its position on vegan and vegetarian diets: ." Lamey characterizes Davis's argument as "thought-provoking. by Gaverick Matheny. Davis argues that the least harm principle. or to harvest. which Lamey argues has "little relevance" to the deaths associated with typical crop production. and the other examines production of a nonstandard crop. apply fertilizer or pesticide. Lamey also argues.000 animals would die each year (assuming people switched from the 8 billion poultry killed each year to beef.D. candidate in agricultural economics at the University of Maryland.D. student at the University of Western Australia." Matheny argues that per-consumer. Matheny argues that Davis miscalculates the number of animal deaths based on land area rather than per consumer. and incorrectly equates "the harm done to animals … to the number of animals killed.000 acres (490.000. one includes deaths from predation. with the less plausible argument. a diet containing some meat would kill fewer animals than an all plant diet." but asserts that Davis's calculation of harvesting-related deaths is flawed because it is based upon two studies. by contrast. which Lamey argues leaves "Davis. Davis notes that cultivating the crops and plants that make up a meat-free diet also kills animals: When a tractor traverses a field to plow. College Park. If all 120. does not require giving up all meat. because a plant-based diet would not kill fewer animals than one containing beef from grass-fed ruminants. cultivate. then Davis estimates that only 900. lamb. a vegan diet would kill fewer wild animals than a diet adhering to Davis's model. a Ph. which is "morally unobjectionable" for Regan. and by Andy Lamey. But if half of the cropland were converted to ruminant pastureland. The New York Times Magazine and elsewhere. that accidental deaths are ethically distinct from intentional ones. disc. some field animals are accidentally destroyed. a Ph. like Matheny. and that if Davis includes accidental animal deaths in the moral cost of veganism he must also evaluate the increased human deaths associated with his proposed diet. Davis's analysis has itself been criticized.000 km2) of cropland in the continental United States were used for a vegan diet then approximately 500 million animals would die each year.discussed in cover stories in Time magazine. Davis concludes.
but 34% lower among ovolactovegetarians and among those who ate fish but no other meat. which is caused by insufficient vitamin B12. diets that avoid meat tend to have lower levels of saturated fat. lower blood cholesterol levels. the Dietitians of Canada joined with the ADA to release a position paper to the same effect. infancy.82 for fish eaters. and phytochemicals. Doctors Dean Ornish. T. both the Swiss Federal Nutrition Commission and the German Society for Nutrition recommend against a vegan diet.[verification needed] 0. type 2 diabetes. the British Nutrition Foundation considers "well balanced" vegetarian diets to be nutritionally adequate. particularly for children. folate. and animal protein. such as coronary artery disease. such as the standard American diet. lactation. and it is believed that vegans who get sufficient B12 should show even lower risk of ischemic heart disease than lacto-ovo vegetarians. magnesium. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle. A 2003 . The mortality rates over all were 0. such as vitamins C and E. the pregnant and the elderly. A 1999 meta-study of five studies comparing vegetarian and nonvegetarian mortality rates in western countries found the mortality rate due to ischemic heart disease 26% lower among vegans compared to regular meat eaters. and prostate and colon cancer.Appropriately planned vegetarian diets. and the Irish Nutrition and Dietetic Institute considers "well planned" vegetarian diets to be "nutritionally balanced for both adults and children". Click to enlarge. In 2003. childhood. The lower rate of protection for vegans compared to lacto-ovo vegetarians is believed to be linked to higher levels of homocysteine. McDougall and Caldwell Esselstyn claim that high animal fat and protein diets. John A. from this follows lower death rates from ischemic heart disease. and higher levels of carbohydrates. are detrimental to health. and antioxidants. fiber. and for athletes. Colin Campbell.  In contrast. are healthful. and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. People who avoid meat are reported to have lower body mass index than those following the average Canadian diet. and lower rates of hypertension. potassium.84 for some omnivores and vegetarians. cholesterol. Similarly. but reverse them. nutritionally adequate.00 for vegans and omnivores. and 1. including total vegetarian or vegan diets. including pregnancy.  Nutritional benefits A vegan version of the nutritional food pyramid which normally includes meat and animal products. They also state that a lifestyle change incorporating a low fat vegetarian or vegan diet could not only prevent various degenerative diseases. No significant difference in mortality was found from other causes. lower blood pressure. and adolescence. According to the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada.
 In a 2002 laboratory study. Although clinical B12 deficiency is rare in vegans. and osteomalacia and hypothyroidism in adults. calcium. a bacterial product that cannot be reliably found in plant foods. iodine and omega-3 fatty acids. including anemia. These deficiencies have potentially serious consequences. spirulina. vitamin D. and LDL cholesterol and did so to a greater extent than the diet prescribed by the American Diabetes Association. the two subgroups having relatively consistent lifestyle characteristics in other areas. organic produce. some basic ingredients of a vegan diet. iron. but noted that the findings were compatible with the significant reduction found in the 1999 review. soil on unwashed vegetables. among others. in which vegetarians scored lower on depression tests and had better mood profiles. seaweed. more of the strict vegan participants' B12 and iron levels were compromised than those of lacto.  Nutritional concerns Various fruits.  Vitamin B12 Deficiencies in Vitamin B12. and grains. total cholesterol. recommend that vegans either consistently eat foods fortified with B12 or take a B12 supplement. The Vegan Society and Vegan Outreach. can have serious health consequences.  Specific nutrients The American Dietetic Association considers "appropriately planned" vegan diets "nutritionally adequate". and intestinal bacteria have not been shown to be reliable sources of B12 for the dietary needs of vegans. Tempeh. A 2006 study found that in people with type 2 diabetes a low-fat vegan diet reduced weight. vegetables.  Mental health benefits A 2010 study compared a group of vegetarian and meat-eating Seventh Day Adventists. if a person has not eaten more than the daily needed amount of B12 over a long period before becoming a vegan then they may not have built up any significant store of the vitamin. nuts.review of three studies comparing mortality rates among British vegetarians and non-vegetarians found only a nonsignificant reduction in mortality from ischemic heart disease. rickets and cretinism in children.or lacto-ovo-vegetarian participants. including megaloblastic anemia and neurodegenerative disease (including subacute combined degeneration of the cord). but poorly planned vegan diets can be deficient in nutrients such as vitamin B12. .
animal products are used for iodine delivery. increases the acidity of blood and tissues which is then neutralized by calcium pulled from the bones. For light-skinned people. The EPIC-Oxford study showed that vegans have an increased risk of bone fractures over both meat eaters and vegetarians.S. almonds. The authors add that "in our rural China Study. A study of bone density found that the density of bones of vegans is 94% that of omnivores. and body absorption processes may adjust to low intakes over time by enhancing absorption efficiency. is higher. unlike plant protein. Iron Iron deficiency may lead to iron deficiency anaemia. vegetarians who exclude all animal products may need almost twice as much dietary iron each day than non-vegetarians. or where. but that vegans consuming more than the UK's estimated average requirements for calcium of 525 mg/day had risk of bone fractures similar to other groups. in these cases supplementation is recommended. versus approximately 18 percent absorption from an omnivorous diet). where the animal to plant ratio [for protein] was about 10%." where consumption of animal products including dairy. but that this difference was "clinically insignificant".  Choline . Another study by the same researchers examined over 100 vegan post-menopausal women and found that “…although vegans have much lower intakes of dietary calcium and protein than omnivores. adequate amounts of vitamin D may also be obtained by spending 15 to 30 minutes in the sunlight every few days. where it is iodized at low levels. the fracture rate is only one-fifth that of the U.  Iodine Iodine supplementation may be necessary for vegans in countries where salt is not typically iodized.. the iron status of omnivores and vegans appears to be similar. and take a calcium supplement as necessary. Dark-skinned people need significantly more sunlight to obtain the same amount of vitamin D. such as kelp. hazelnuts. likely due to lower dietary calcium intake. and sunlight exposure may be difficult for vegans in areas with low levels of sunlight during winter. as in Britain or Ireland. Iron is less well absorbed from vegetarian diets (approximately ten percent absorption from vegetarian diets.  Calcium. Iodine can be obtained from most vegan multivitamins or from regular consumption of seaweeds. vitamin D It is recommended that vegans eat three servings per day of a high calcium food. veganism does not have (an) adverse effect on bone mineral density (BMD) and does not alter body composition.” The authors of The China Study argue that osteoporosis is linked to the consumption of animal protein because animal protein. such as fortified soy milk. On the other hand. Molasses is a high-iron food source and many vegans take it in spoonfuls as an iron supplement.
have been shown as a contributing factor in the rise in greenhouse gas emissions. and choline deficiency may cause a number of health concerns. The Institute of Medicine has set the Adequate Intake of choline at 425 mg (milligrams) per day for women and 550 mg/day for men.Vegans may be at risk of choline deficiency and may benefit from choline supplements. especially in areas where growth hormone is fed to dairy cattle.  Pregnancies and children The American Dietetic Association considers well-planned vegan diets "appropriate for all stages of the life cycle. above). rather that "vegetarian diets may be selected to camouflage an existing eating disorder." but recommends that vegan mothers supplement for iron.especially when kept on enormous feedlots such as this one . often insufficient in calories. Some research suggests that the essential omega-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and its derivatives should also be supplemented in pregnant and lactating vegan mothers. and the metabolically related docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is essential to the developing visual system. These incidents have provoked some to criticize vegan diets for children. Amy Lanou. since they are very low in most vegan diets. and a five times lower likelihood of having twins than those who eat animal products. Several cases of severe infant or child malnutrition and some infant fatalities have been associated with poorly planned. Dr. and vitamin B12. asserted that the child in that particular case "was not killed by a vegan diet" but that "the real problem was that he was not given enough food of any sort. though the article cited concludes that the consumption of dairy products by non-vegans increases the likelihood of conceiving twins.  Resources and the environment Cattle . vitamin D." Other studies and statements by dietitians and counselors support this conclusion. A maternal vegan diet has also been associated with low birth weight."  Eating disorders The American Dietetic Association indicates that vegetarian diets may be more common among adolescents with eating disorders. including pregnancy and lactation. Parents involved in these cases were convicted on charges ranging from assault to murder. Vitamin B12 deficiency in lactating vegetarian mothers has been linked to deficiencies and neurological disorders in their children.  Pregnant vegans may need to supplement choline (see section on choline. an expert witness for the prosecution in one of the cases. though dietary intake requirements for choline are not yet fully understood. but that the evidence suggests that the adoption of a vegetarian diet does not lead to eating disorders. Main article: Environmental vegetarianism . Choline has many functions in the body. restrictive vegan diets.
Livestock's Long Shadow  concludes that the livestock sector emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to our most serious environmental problems. The Livestock. water pollution. Additionally. Further. The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis argues that while most meat production in industrialized countries uses inefficient grain feeding methods through intensive farming. assistant professors of geophysics at the University of Chicago. meat production is not invariably a poor use of land.responsible for 18% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO2 equivalents. Environment And Development Initiative. The data presented in this study is the subject of an organised educational initiative. It produces 65% of humanrelated nitrous oxide (which has 296 times the global warming potential of CO2) and 37% of all human-induced methane (which is 23 times as warming as CO2). However. Source: FAO.People who adopt veganism for environmental reasons do so on the basis that a strictly vegetarian diet consumes fewer resources and causes less environmental damage than an animal-based diet.485 kg per year. . especially in countries like China and Brazil. and a decline in biodiversity. which was presented at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP 15). The European Union. thus improving efficiency. found that a person switching from the average American diet to a vegan diet would reduce CO2 emissions by 1.6 billion tons of carbon dioxide per year. but also to several plant based sources such as rice cultivation. released a report in November 2006 linking animal agriculture to environmental damage. The predictable increase in animal product proportions on the plates of people living in developing countries will bring new challenges to global agriculture. land degradation. they can be fed to animals to turn into meat. or 51 percent of annual worldwide GHG emissions. water. It is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases . called 51percent. which concludes that reducing consumption of animal products should be a top priority. and energy than a strictly vegetarian diet. Animal agriculture is linked to climate change. The US Agency for International Development. Those numbers are confirmed in a 2007 article in the British medical journal The Lancet. a joint effort of the World Bank. especially in developed countries where such a measure would also entail substantial health benefits. greenhouse gas emissions are not limited to animal husbandry. A 2006 study by Gidon Eshel and Pamela Martin. an animal-based diet uses more land. the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and others. recent analysis by Goodland and Anhang. Since a proportion of all grain crops produced are not suitable for human consumption. at every scale from local to global. co-authors of “Livestock and Climate Change” in the November/December 2009 issue of World Watch magazine found that livestock and their byproducts actually account for at least 32. The report.
Animals are also often herded to the place of slaughter (with the exception of poultry) resulting in a very low use of fossil fuels. A substantial reduction of impacts would only be possible with a substantial worldwide diet change.  Cuisine A vegan raspberry and pear tart. A 2010 report from United Nations Environment Program's (UNEP) international panel of sustainable resource management global shift towards a vegan diet is critical for mitigating global issues of hunger. since animal food crops can be grown on lower quality land than crops for human consumption. Few of the meat processing techniques that occur in developed countries takes place in the majority of developing countries.In the developing world. including adherents to some Buddhist traditions. there is a growing tradition of vegans who understand their work as rooted in nonviolence in general. . feminism. fossil fuels are seldom used to transport feed for farm animals. since they graze on farmlands. and Seventh-day Adventists. See also: Vegetarianism and religion Diets such as raw veganism and fruitarianism are related to veganism. There are also numerous religious groups that regularly or occasionally practice a similar diet. a low fat diet which included some meat and dairy (less than 2 oz of meat/eggs per day—significantly less than consumed by the average American) could support slightly more people on the same available land than could be fed on some high fat vegetarian diets. People who adhere to veganism for ethical reasons are often involved in other social change efforts like anti-racism. Hindus. The panel stated It says: "Impacts from agriculture are expected to increase substantially due to population growth increasing consumption of animal products. require no fuel. for example. As well. while bales of hay for bovines are still transported mainly using bullock carts or similar devices. to transportation while also serving as meat once it reaches the end of its economic life. but have significant differences from standard veganism. Unlike fossil fuels. Some small Sikh sects have lacto-vegetarian lifestyles. In fact farm animals in developing world are used for multiple purposes from providing draught power. Eastern Orthodox Christians."  Similar diets and lifestyles Sample of vegan Buddhist cuisine from a Zen temple in Japan. notably Asia and Africa. fuel poverty and the worst impacts of climate change. Sheep or goats. A 2007 study which simulated various diets' land use for the geography of New York State concluded that although vegetarian diets used the smallest amount of land per capita. Rastafari. Brahmins. away from animal products. it is difficult to look for alternatives: people have to eat. or LGBT work. Jains.
artificial "meat" products ("analogs" or "mock meats") made from non-animal derived ingredients such as soy or gluten including imitation sausages. including ingredients such as tofu. .See also: Vegetarian cuisine Also see the Wikibooks Cookbook articles on vegan cuisine and vegan substitutions and its listing of vegan recipes. depending upon the recipe. ground beef. The cuisines of most nations contain dishes suitable for a vegan diet. burgers. grain milk. almond milk. and chicken nuggets are widely available. Many recipes that traditionally contain animal products can be adapted by substituting plantbased ingredients. tempeh and the wheat gluten-based product seitan in East Asian diets. soy milk or other plant milk can be used to replace cow's milk and eggs can be replaced by applesauce or commercial starch-based substitute products. Additionally. For example.
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